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Sample records for compositae plant extracts

  1. Colophonium and Compositae mix as markers of fragrance allergy: cross-reactivity between fragrance terpenes, colophonium and compositae plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, K E

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the strength of any association between sensitization to 'new' fragrance compounds and sensitization to Compositae, fragrance mix, Myroxylon pereirae resin and colophonium, respectively. Consecutive eczema patients were tested with a series of essential oils and selected fragrance compounds and another series of oxidized terpenes in connection with European multicentre fragrance projects. Contact allergy to either series was frequently detected, in 5% of 318 and 4.6% of 262 persons tested, and both had a statistically significant association with Compositae, colophonium and fragrance mix sensitization. The individual results indicated that simultaneously occurring positive reactions to essential oils, colophonium and Compositae were based on cross-reactivity rather than concomitant sensitization. Thus, all patients with positive reaction to the rare fragrance sensitizer beta-caryophyllene had positive colophonium reactions, and cross-reactivity between essential oils and Compositae was related to the Compositae plant extracts of the Compositae mix and not the pure sesquiterpene lactones of the standard series. The implication is that Compositae mix and colophonium may be markers of fragrance allergy, which is important to know when assessing the relevance of positive reactions to Compositae plant extracts and colophonium.

  2. Contact allergy to Compositae plants in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Marina; Poljacki, Mirjana; Duran, Verica; Vujanović, Ljuba; Sente, Ruza; Stojanović, Slobodan

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of Compositae sensitivity is one of the most important goals of current dermatology and allergology. We have patch tested 30 adult patients suffering from "extrinsic" atopic dermatitis with sesquiterpene lactone mix and Compositae mix including Compositae mix individual ingredients, extracts of arnica (Arnica montana), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), fever few (Tanacetum parthenium) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium) as well as with specific series for patients with atopic dermatitis. All allergens were purchased from Hermal-Trolab (Reinbek, Germany). There were 6 (20%) patients positive to Compositae mix only, and 3 (10%) patients positive to both Compositae mix and sesquiterpene lactone mix. Among 9 Compositae mix-sensitive patients 8 (88.8%) were positive to at least 1 of its individual ingredients: 5 (55.5%) to chamomile, 4 (44.4%) to arnica, 2 (22.2%) to tansy, and 2 (22.2%) to fever few. Among Compositae-sensitive patients 78.8% had other contact allergies, most often to nickel (33.3%). Since our study represents the first report on contact allergy to Compositae among patients with "extrinsic" type of atopic dermatitis, it substantiates the statement that atopy represents a risk factor for Compositae allergy. In conclusion, the overall prevalence of 30% Compositae-sensitive among patients with "extrinsic" atopic dermatitis detected in our study represents a basal sesquiterpene lactone mix detection rate of 10%, reinforced and safely supplemented by 20% by testing with the Compositae mix.

  3. Identification and characterization of major flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids in three Compositae plants by LC/DAD-APCI/MS.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jia-Ping; Lim, Yew Heng; Su, Jin; Shen, Han-Ming; Ong, Choon Nam

    2007-04-01

    In this study, a liquid chromatography/diode array detector-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry (LC/DAD-APCI/MS) was successfully developed to identify and characterize the main flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) of three common Compositae plants (Chrysanthemum morifolium Raman, Artemisia annua, and Chrysanthemum coronarium) which have been used as herbal medicine. Identifications were performed by comparing the retention time, UV and mass spectra of samples with standards or/and earlier publications. The crude methanolic extracts of these plants were assayed directly using LC/MS without any further pretreatment. The proposed method is rapid and reproducible and is useful for characterization and evaluation of different plant flavonoids and CQAs. A total of 41 different flavonoids and 6 CQAs were identified and confirmed by APCI-MS. The main components of three Compositae plants were also compared. Although there exist some similarities in the flavonoidic content of the leaf and flower of C. morifolium, significant variations in their varieties and concentrations were observed. Artemisia annua processes substantial amount of alkylated derivatives of flavones and Chrysanthemum coronarium contains only CQAs. These findings suggest that although all the plants studied are from the same Compositae family, their flavonoids and phenolic compositions are markedly different. The proposed method is useful for further chromatographic fingerprinting of plant flavonoids.

  4. Terpenoids and related compounds from plants of the family Compositae (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao; Machida, Koichi

    2012-04-01

    This review will summarize the authors' studies on the structures of terpenoids and related compounds from plants of the family Compositae (Asteraceae). Eighty three new compounds have been obtained and characterized from seven species of the plants, namely, Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers., Erigeron philadelphicus L., Erigeron sumatrensis Retz, Ligularia dentata Hara, Ligularia stenocephala Matsum. et Koidz., Petasites japonicus Maxim. and Tussilago farfara L.

  5. Alcohol Dehydrogenase in the Diploid Plant STEPHANOMERIA EXIGUA (Compositae): Gene Duplication, Mode of Inheritance and Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Roose, M. L.; Gottlieb, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Study of the biochemical genetics of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in the annual plant Stephanomeria exigua (Compositae) revealed that the isozymes are specified by a small family of tightly linked structural genes. One set of ADH isozymes (ADH-1) was induced in roots by flooding, and was also expressed in thickened unflooded tap roots, stems, ovaries and seeds. As in other plants, the enzymes are dimeric and form homo- and heterodimers. An electrophoretic survey of ADH-1 phenotypes in two natural populations revealed seven different ADH-1 homodimers in various phenotypes having one to eight enzyme bands. Genetic analysis of segregations from crosses involving 59 plants showed that the ADH-1 isozymes are inherited as a single Mendelian unit, Adh1. Adh1 is polymorphic for forms that specify one, two, or three different ADH-1 subunits (which combine to form homo- and heterodimers), and are expressed co-dominantly in all genotypic combinations. Staining intensity of enzymes extracted from various homozygous and heterozygous plants indicated that the different subunit types specified by Adh1 are produced in approximately equal amounts. These observations suggest that Adh1 is a compound locus consisting of one to several tightly linked (0 recombinants among 579 testcross progeny), coordinately expressed structural genes. The genes in the two triplications also occur in various duplicate complexes and thus could have originated via unequal crossing over. The ADH-2 isozyme found in pollen and seeds is apparently specified by a different gene, Adh2. Adh1 and Adh2 are tightly linked (0 recombinants among 81 testcross progeny). PMID:17249032

  6. Generic and functional diversity in endophytic actinomycetes from wild Compositae plant species at South Sinai - Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shatoury, Sahar A; El-Kraly, Omnia A; Trujillo, Martha E; El-Kazzaz, Waleed M; El-Din, El-Sayeda Gamal; Dewedar, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    The diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with wild Compositae plants is scantily explored. In this study, one hundred and thirty one endophytic actinobacteria were isolated from ten Compositae plant species collected from South Sinai in Egypt. Microscopic and chemotaxonomic investigation of the isolates indicated fourteen genera. Rare genera, such as Microtetraspora, and Intrasporangium, which have never been previously reported to be endophytic, were identified. Each plant species accommodated between three to eight genera of actinobacteria and unidentified strains were recovered from seven plant species. The generic diversity analysis of endophytic assemblages grouped the plant species into three main clusters, representing high, moderate and low endophytic diversity. The endophytes showed high functional diversity, based on forty four catabolic and plant growth promotion traits; providing some evidence that such traits could represent key criteria for successful residence of endophytes in the endosphere. Stress-tolerance traits were more predictive measure of functional diversity differences between the endophyte assemblages (Shannon's index, p = 0.01). The results indicate a potential prominent role of endophytes for their hosts and emphasize the potency of plant endosphere as a habitat for actinobacteria with promising future applications.

  7. Airborne Compositae dermatitis: monoterpenes and no parthenolide are released from flowering Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew) plants.

    PubMed

    Christensen, L P; Jakobsen, H B; Paulsen, E; Hodal, L; Andersen, K E

    1999-01-01

    The air around intact feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) plants was examined for the presence of airborne parthenolide and other potential allergens using a high-volume air sampler and a dynamic headspace technique. No particle-bound parthenolide was detected in the former. Among volatiles emitted from the aerial parts of feverfew plants and collected by the dynamic headspace technique a total of 41 compounds, mainly monoterpenes, were identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS. Alpha-Pinene, camphene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool, p-cymene, (E)-chrysanthenol, camphor and (E)-chrysanthenyl acetate were the predominant monoterpenes accounting for nearly 88% of the total volatiles emitted. The average total yield of volatiles emitted over 24 h was 18,160 ng/g fresh weight of leaves and flowers, corresponding to the emission of approximately 8 mg volatiles per day from one full-grown feverfew plant. No parthenolide or other sesquiterpene lactones were detected. The present investigation does not support the theory of airborne sesquiterpene lactone-containing plant parts or of direct release of sesquiterpene lactones from living plants as the only explanations for airborne Compositae dermatitis. Potential allergens were found among the emitted monoterpenes and their importance in airborne Compositae dermatitis is discussed.

  8. Compositae Plants Differed in Leaf Cuticular Waxes between High and Low Altitudes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Na; Gao, Jianhua; He, Yuji; Guo, Yanjun

    2016-06-01

    We sampled eight Compositae species at high altitude (3482 m) and seven species at low altitude (220 m), analyzed the chemical compositions and contents of leaf cuticular wax, and calculated the values of average chain length (ACL), carbon preference index (CPI), dispersion (d), dispersion/weighted mean chain length (d/N), and C31 /(C31  + C29 ) (Norm31). The amounts of total wax and compositions were significantly higher at high altitude than at low altitude, except for primary alcohol, secondary alcohol, and ketone. The main n-alkanes in most samples were C31 , C29 , and C33 . Low altitude had more C31 and C33 , whereas more C29 occurred at high altitude. The ACL, CPI, d, d/N, and Norma 31 were higher at low altitude than at high altitude. The fatty acid and primary alcohol at low altitude contained more C26 homologous than at high altitude. More short-chain primary alcohols were observed at high altitude. At low altitude, the primary alcohol gave on average the largest amount, while it was n-alkane at high altitude. These results indicated that the variations of leaf cuticular waxes benefited Compositae plants to adapt to various environmental stresses and enlarge their distribution.

  9. T-lymphocyte cytokine profiles in compositae airborne dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stingeni, L; Agea, E; Lisi, P; Spinozzi, F

    1999-10-01

    Compositae airborne dermatitis is a well-recognized disorder characterized by erythematosquamous lesions and papules on light-exposed areas. The presence of positive patch test reactions and the absence of specific serum IgE suggest delayed-type hypersensitivity, the murine model of which is characterized by a Th1 cytokine production profile [high amounts of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2; little or no IL-4 and IL-5]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytokine profile of T-cell lines and T-cell clones from peripheral blood in a 38-year-old non-atopic male woodcutter affected by seasonal airborne contact dermatitis. The patient showed positive patch test reactions to several Compositae extracts (Achillea millefolium, Chamomilla recutita, Tanacetum parthenium, T. vulgare) and sesquiterpene lactone mix. On prick testing with Compositae and other plants, serum-specific IgE levels and phototesting were negative or normal. Allergen-specific T-cell lines produced with Compositae extracts showed a good in vitro cell proliferation only to C. recutita extract. Serial cloning performed using the C. recutita-specific T-cell lines revealed an alphabeta+CD4+ phenotype with high amounts of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in T-cell clones. Thus, these cells expressed a preferential Th0 phenotype. These data suggest that in addition to IFN-gamma, other T-cell derived cytokines, such as IL-4, may play a part in the immunopathogenesis of contact dermatitis.

  10. [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. II].

    PubMed

    Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A

    1979-01-01

    The study of the cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts from 18 parts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Araceae, Borraginacease, Burseraceae, Cesalpinaceae, Meliaceae, Compositae, Rebiaceae, Cruciferaceae and Verbenaceae using the microbiologic method of described by Kubas in 1972 is pursued. The best results were obtained from Hamelia patens. Lippia alba, Lepidium virginicum, Cassia ligustrina, Bursera simaruba and Heliotropium campechianum extracts.

  11. [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. I].

    PubMed

    Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A

    1979-01-01

    The cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Fitolacaceae, Compositae, Moraceae, Zingiberaceae, Martiniaceae, Mirtaceae, Verbenaceae and Annonaceae was assessed. The Kubas microbiologic method and the fungus Ascomiceto Neurospora crassa were used in the assessment. The fungus growth was measured in millimeters. Inhibition percentages for every case regarding control are reported. The best results were obtained from Annona muricata, Costus spiralis, Cecropia peltata, Xanthium chinense and Pluchea adorata extracts.

  12. Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Asteraceae Plant Extracts: Evaluation of their Allergenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential. PMID:24106675

  13. Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Asteraceae Plant Extracts: Evaluation of their Allergenic Potential.

    PubMed

    Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential.

  14. Analgesic activity of affinin, an alkamide from Heliopsis longipes (Compositae).

    PubMed

    Rios, María Yolanda; Aguilar-Guadarrama, A Berenice; Gutiérrez, María Del Carmen

    2007-03-21

    Heliopsis longipes (Compositae) is a Mexican plant used as analgesic in pain toothache. A solution of 10mug/ml of dichloromethane extract from this plant showed analgesic activity determined by means of GABA release in mice brain slices. Through a bioassay-directed separation, fractions G-1, G-2, G-4 and G-6 at the same concentration were active. Affinin was the unique and common active compound, and evoke the GABA release 0.5min after administration at 1x10(-4)M concentration. Inactive compound were undeca-2E-en-8,10-dyinoic acid isobutylamide, hinokinin, 2'-hydroxyhinokinin, 3beta-sn-glyceroyl-(1''-palmitoxy)urs-12-ene, 13(18)-ursen-3beta-ol, 13(18)-ursen-3beta-acetate, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The analgesic activity of Heliopsis longipes could be associated to affinin.

  15. Plant extracts in BPH.

    PubMed

    Di Silverio, F; Flammia, G P; Sciarra, A; Caponera, M; Mauro, M; Buscarini, M; Tavani, M; D'Eramo, G

    1993-12-01

    In Italy plant extracts represent 8.6% of all pharmacological prescriptions for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (data from 1991). This review evaluates all the suggested mechanisms of action for plant extracts. Recently we demonstrated an antiestrogenic effect of Serenoa Repens in BPH patients. Clinical trials with plant extracts have yielded conflicting results. In a recent review by Dreikorn and Richter, only five placebo controlled studies were found. Moreover, as opposed to chemically defined drugs, it is possible that for these extracts the active ingredients are not known; consequently pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data are often missing. The International Consultation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (Paris, June 1991) concluded that, to date, phytotherapeutic agents must be considered as a symptomatic treatment. Now more adequate pharmacological and clinical studies, placebo controlled, should determine the exact role of these drugs in the treatment of BPH.

  16. De novo transcriptome assembly and the putative biosynthetic pathway of steroidal sapogenins of Dioscorea composita.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Chen, Dijia; Wang, Yuqi; Xie, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The plant Dioscorea composita has important applications in the medical and energy industries, and can be used for the extraction of steroidal sapogenins (important raw materials for the synthesis of steroidal drugs) and bioethanol production. However, little is known at the genetic level about how sapogenins are biosynthesized in this plant. Using Illumina deep sequencing, 62,341 unigenes were obtained by assembling its transcriptome, and 27,720 unigenes were annotated. Of these, 8,022 unigenes were mapped to 243 specific pathways, and 531 unigenes were identified to be involved in 24 secondary metabolic pathways. 35 enzymes, which were encoded by 79 unigenes, were related to the biosynthesis of steroidal sapogenins in this transcriptome database, covering almost all the nodes in the steroidal pathway. The results of real-time PCR experiments on ten related transcripts (HMGR, MK, SQLE, FPPS, DXS, CAS, HMED, CYP51, DHCR7, and DHCR24) indicated that sapogenins were mainly biosynthesized by the mevalonate pathway. The expression of these ten transcripts in the tuber and leaves was found to be much higher than in the stem. Also, expression in the shoots was low. The nucleotide and protein sequences and conserved domains of four related genes (HMGR, CAS, SQS, and SMT1) were highly conserved between D. composita and D. zingiberensis; but expression of these four genes is greater in D. composita. However, there is no expression of these key enzymes in potato and no steroidal sapogenins are synthesized.

  17. The genus Gnaphalium L. (Compositae): phytochemical and pharmacological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xing; Wang, Wei; Piao, Huishan; Xu, Weiqiang; Shi, Haibo; Zhao, Chengai

    2013-07-15

    The genus Gnaphalium, a herb distributed worldwide, comprises approximately 200 species of the Compositae (Asteraceae) family that belongs to the tribe Gnaphalieae. Some species are traditionally used as wild vegetables and in folk medicine. This review focuses on the phytochemical investigations and biological studies of plants from the genus Gnaphalium over the past few decades. More than 125 chemical constituents have been isolated from the genus Gnaphalium, including flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, phytosterols, anthraquinones, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, and other compounds. The extracts of this genus, as well as compounds isolated from it, have been demonstrated to possess multiple pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal, anti-complement, antitussive and expectorant, insect antifeedant, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antihypouricemic properties. The present review compiles the information available on this genus because of its relevance to food and ethnopharmacology and the potential therapeutic uses of these species.

  18. [Amebicidal plants extracts].

    PubMed

    Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Thiem, Barbara; Sułek, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The free-living amoebae from genus Acanthamoeba are the causative agents of granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system; amebic keratitis (AK), a chronic eye infection; amebic pneumitis (AP), a chronic lung infection, and skin infection. Chemotherapy of Acanthamoeba infection is problematic. The majority of infections have been fatal. Only a few cases are reported to have been treated successfully with very highly toxic drugs. The therapy might be succeed, if the diagnosis and therapy is made at very early stage of infection. In our experiments we used the following plant extracts: Solidago virgaurea, Solidago graminifolia, Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, and natural plants products as ellagic acid and puerarin. Those therapeutic agents and plants extracts have been tested in vitro for amebicidal or amebostatic activity against pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. Our results showed that methanol extracts obtained from plants are active against axenic pathogenic Acanthamoeba sp. trophozoites in vitro at concentration below 0.1 mg/ml. Further studies are needed to investigate whether these extracts are also effective in vivo in animal model of infection with Acanthamoeba sp.

  19. Is the extremely rare Iberian endemic plant species Castrilanthemum debeauxii (Compositae, Anthemideae) a 'living fossil'? Evidence from a multi-locus species tree reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, Salvatore; Álvarez, Inés; Vargas, Pablo; Oberprieler, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides results of multi-species coalescent species tree analyses of DNA sequences sampled from multiple nuclear and plastid regions to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the subtribe Leucanthemopsidinae (Compositae, Anthemideae), to which besides the annual Castrilanthemum debeauxii (Degen, Hervier & É.Rev.) Vogt & Oberp., one of the rarest flowering plant species of the Iberian Peninsula, two other unispecific genera (Hymenostemma, Prolongoa), and the polyploidy complex of the genus Leucanthemopsis belong. Based on sequence information from two single- to low-copy nuclear regions (C16, D35, characterised by Chapman et al. (2007)), the multi-copy region of the nrDNA internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, and two intergenic spacer regions of the cpDNA gene trees were reconstructed using Bayesian inference methods. For the reconstruction of a multi-locus species tree we applied three different methods: (a) analysis of concatenated sequences using Bayesian inference (MrBayes), (b) a tree reconciliation approach by minimizing the number of deep coalescences (PhyloNet), and (c) a coalescent-based species-tree method in a Bayesian framework ((∗)BEAST). All three species tree reconstruction methods unequivocally support the close relationship of the subtribe with the hitherto unclassified genus Phalacrocarpum, the sister-group relationship of Castrilanthemum with the three remaining genera of the subtribe, and the further sister-group relationship of the clade of Hymenostemma+Prolongoa with a monophyletic genus Leucanthemopsis. Dating of the (∗)BEAST phylogeny supports the long-lasting (Early Miocene, 15-22Ma) taxonomical independence and the switch from the plesiomorphic perennial to the apomorphic annual life-form assumed for the Castrilanthemum lineage that may have occurred not earlier than in the Pliocene (3Ma) when the establishment of a Mediterranean climate with summer droughts triggered evolution towards

  20. Ethnopharmacology of Mexican asteraceae (Compositae).

    PubMed

    Heinrich, M; Robles, M; West, J E; Ortiz de Montellano, B R; Rodriguez, E

    1998-01-01

    Traditional herbal remedies have increased in popularity in Europe and the United States in recent years but have always been important to people living in rural Mexico and to their Mexican American/Chicano descendants in the United States. Mexican American patients will often be ingesting herbal teas at the same time that they are being treated for their ailments with antibiotics or antiinflammatory agents. The plant family Asteraceae (Compositae) has contributed the largest number of plants to this pharmacopoeia; the reasons for the importance of this family include its large number of species in Mexico and its wide array of natural products that are useful in the treatment of the maladies that have afflicted the inhabitants of rural Mexico. These natural products include sesquiterpene lactones, polyacetylenes, alkaloids, monoterpenes, and various phenolics such as flavonoids. In this review, we emphasize the sesquiterpene lactones, a large group of compounds with antiinflammatory properties and the ability to relax smooth muscles and thereby relieve gastrointestinal distress. These compounds also readily form adducts with glutathione or free thiols and can thereby affect the metabolism, activity, and toxicology of a wide array of pharmacological agents.

  1. Multicentre patch testing with compositae mix by the Swedish Contact Dermatitis Research Group.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Hansson, Christer; Inerot, Annica; Lidén, Carola; Matura, Mihaly; Stenberg, Berndt; Möller, Halvor; Bruze, Magnus

    2011-05-01

    Sesquiterpene lactone mix detects contact allergy to these compounds present in the plant family Asteraceae. This marker is present in many baseline series. An additional marker is Compositae mix, which is not present in many baseline series. To investigate whether this allergen should be inserted into the Swedish baseline series, six dermatology centres representing the Swedish Contact Dermatitis Research Group included Compositae mix into their baseline series for 1.5 years. Of 2818 patients tested, 31 (1.1%) reacted to Compositae mix and 26 (0.9%) to Sesquiterpene lactone mix. Active sensitization to Compositae mix was noted in two cases. Only 0.4% of Asteraceae contact allergy cases would have been missed if Compositae mix had not been tested, a frequency too low to merit its inclusion in the baseline series. Due to obvious geographical differences in frequency in frequency of simultaneous allergic reactions to Compositae mix and Sesquiterpene lactone mix, the question as to whether specific baseline series (including Compositae mix or not as a "tail" substance) should be used in the different centres must be addressed. Another option could be to remove Sesquiterpene lactone mix from the baseline series and substitute it with Compositae mix.

  2. Contact sensitization to Compositae mix in children.

    PubMed

    Belloni Fortina, Anna; Romano, Ilaria; Peserico, Andrea

    2005-11-01

    The prevalence of contact sensitization to Compositae mix was investigated in 641 consecutive children. Seventeen children (12 with atopic dermatitis) tested positive for Compositae mix. We suggest adding Compositae mix to a pediatric screening series when investigating airborne dermatitis in children with atopic dermatitis.

  3. [Quality control of plant extract].

    PubMed

    Shao, Yun-dong; Gao, Wen-yuan; Liu, Dan; Jia, Wei; Duan, Hong-Quan; Zhang, Tie-jun

    2003-10-01

    The current situation of plant extract in domestic and international market was analyzed in the paper. The quality control of 20 plant extracts which have reasonably good sales in USA market was compared and analyzed. The analysis of the quality control of six plant extracts indicated that there were two main reasons leading to the varied quality specifications among different suppliers. One reason was that the plant species utilized by different companies were different. The other reason was that the extraction processes were different among different production plants. Comparing with the significant international suppliers of plant extracts, the product quality of Chinese companies were not satisfactory. It was suggested that chromatography and chromatographic fingerprint techniques should be applied to improve the quality control standard of plant extract in our country.

  4. Ancient DNA extraction from plants.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Logan

    2012-01-01

    A variety of protocols for DNA extraction from archaeological and paleobotanical plant specimens have been proposed. This is not surprising given the range of taxa and tissue types that may be preserved and the variety of conditions in which that preservation may take place. Commercially available DNA extraction kits can be used to recover ancient plant DNA, but modifications to standard approaches are often necessary to improve yield. In this chapter, I describe two protocols for extracting DNA from small amounts of ancient plant tissue. The CTAB protocol, which I recommend for use with single seeds, utilizes an incubation period in extraction buffer and subsequent chloroform extraction followed by DNA purification and suspension. The PTB protocol, which I recommend for use with gourd rind and similar tissues, utilizes an overnight incubation of pulverized tissue in extraction buffer, removal of the tissue by centrifugation, and DNA extraction from the buffer using commercial plant DNA extraction kits.

  5. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) associated with Compositae in Iran.

    PubMed

    Lotfollahi, Parisa; Irani-Nejad, Karim Haddad; Khanjani, Mohamad; Moghadam, Mohamad; De Lillo, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Five species of eriophyoid mites were identified during surveys of mite fauna associated with plant species of the family Compositae from Southwest of East Azerbaijan province during 2010 and 2011. Two of them, Aceria virgatae n. sp. from Centaurea virgata Lam. and Aceria xeranthenzis n. sp. from Xeranthemumn squarrosum Boiss., were found to be new to science. No damage symptoms were observed on their host plants. Aceria xeranthemis n. sp. is the first eriophyoid collected from the plant genus Xeranthenun. Aculops centaureae (Farkas, 1960) from Centaurea albonitens Turrill and Aceria cichorii Petanović et al. 2000 from Cichorium intybus L. are new records for Iranian mite fauna. The deutogyne female of Aceria anthocoptes (Nalepa) was recorded for the first time in Iran, too. A key to the species collected on Compositae in Iran is given.

  6. Two cases of compositae dermatitis exacerbated by moisturizer containing feverfew.

    PubMed

    Killoran, Christina E; Crawford, Glen H; Pedvis-Leftick, Anita

    2007-12-01

    A 45-year-old woman presented in October 2005 with a history of an eruption involving her scalp and face, including her eyelids and behind her ears. The eruption began at the end of August. It flared after she used a calming moisturizer containing feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium). A second patient, a 25-year-old woman, presented complaining of a 1-month history of an eruption around the eyes that started after she began using a moisturizer containing feverfew. Both patients were patch-tested with the North American Contact Dermatitis Group series, cosmetic and plant series, and their own skin care products. Patient 1 had a + reaction to sesquiterpene lactone mix, a + reaction to Compositae mix, a + reaction to parthenolide, a + reaction to Tanacetum vulgare, and a + reaction to the calming moisturizer. Patient 2 had + reactions to sesquiterpene lactone, Compositae mix, and the same calming moisturizer. It is thought that both of these eruptions are a result of contact dermatitis from the Compositae plant family.

  7. Studies on effects of indigenous plant extracts on filarial vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles.

    PubMed

    Elango, G; Rahuman, A Abdul; Kamaraj, C; Zahir, A Abduz; Bagavan, A

    2010-06-01

    Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of leaf ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb (Rutaceae), Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees. (Acanthaceae), Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees. (Acanthaceae), Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels (Menispermaceae), Eclipta prostrata L. (Asteraceae) and Tagetes erecta L. (Compositae) on ovicidal and oviposition-deterrent activities against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of egg hatching in methanol extracts of Andrographis lineata, Cocculus hirsutus and T. erecta were 16, 12 and 16 exerted at 500 ppm, respectively. The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was 97.77 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency was 42.06 at 31.25 ppm in methanol and acetone extracts of Andrographis lineata and Andrographis paniculata, respectively. The oviposition activity index values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the Culex tritaeniorhynchus.

  8. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

    2001-06-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants

  9. Hydroalcoholic Extract from Inflorescences of Achyrocline satureioides (Compositae) Ameliorates Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice by Attenuation in the Production of Inflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Mediators.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Farias, Jaime Antonio Machado; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Beber, Ana Paula; Cury, Benhur Judah; Santin, José Roberto; Faloni de Andrade, Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    Achyrocline satureioides is a South American herb used to treat inflammatory and gastrointestinal diseases. This study evaluated intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of inflorescences of satureioides (HEAS) in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in mice. Mice were orally treated with vehicle, 5-aminosalicylic acid (100 mg/kg), or HEAS (1-100 mg/kg). Clinical signs of colitis and colonic histopathological parameters were evaluated, along with the determination of levels of reduced glutathione and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), the superoxide dismutase (SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in colon. The colonic content of cytokines (TNF, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10) was measured. Additionally, the effects of the extract on nitric oxide (NO) release by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophages and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl levels were determined. Mucin levels and SOD activity, as well as the LOOH, MPO, TNF, and IL-6 accumulation in colon tissues, were normalized by the HEAS administration. In addition, the extract elicited an increase in IL-4 and IL-10 levels in colon. NO release by macrophages was inhibited by HEAS and its scavenger activity was confirmed. Together these results suggest that preparations obtained from inflorescences from A. satureioides could be used in treatment for IBD. Besides, this work corroborates the popular use of A. satureioides in inflammatory disorders.

  10. Hydroalcoholic Extract from Inflorescences of Achyrocline satureioides (Compositae) Ameliorates Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice by Attenuation in the Production of Inflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Mediators

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Farias, Jaime Antonio Machado; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Beber, Ana Paula; Cury, Benhur Judah

    2016-01-01

    Achyrocline satureioides is a South American herb used to treat inflammatory and gastrointestinal diseases. This study evaluated intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of inflorescences of satureioides (HEAS) in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in mice. Mice were orally treated with vehicle, 5-aminosalicylic acid (100 mg/kg), or HEAS (1–100 mg/kg). Clinical signs of colitis and colonic histopathological parameters were evaluated, along with the determination of levels of reduced glutathione and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), the superoxide dismutase (SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in colon. The colonic content of cytokines (TNF, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10) was measured. Additionally, the effects of the extract on nitric oxide (NO) release by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophages and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl levels were determined. Mucin levels and SOD activity, as well as the LOOH, MPO, TNF, and IL-6 accumulation in colon tissues, were normalized by the HEAS administration. In addition, the extract elicited an increase in IL-4 and IL-10 levels in colon. NO release by macrophages was inhibited by HEAS and its scavenger activity was confirmed. Together these results suggest that preparations obtained from inflorescences from A. satureioides could be used in treatment for IBD. Besides, this work corroborates the popular use of A. satureioides in inflammatory disorders. PMID:27847525

  11. Genomics of compositae weeds: EST libraries, microarrays, and evidence of introgression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    • Premise of Study: Weeds cause considerable environmental and economic damage. However, genomic characterization of weeds has lagged behind that of model plants and crop species. Here we report on the development of genomic tools and resources for 11 weeds from the Compositae family that can serve ...

  12. Potentials of leaves of Aspilia africana (Compositae) in wound care: an experimental evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Okoli, CO; Akah, PA; Okoli, AS

    2007-01-01

    Background The potentials of the leaves of the haemorrhage plant, Aspilia africana C. D Adams (Compositae) in wound care was evaluated using experimental models. A. africana, which is widespread in Africa, is used in traditional medicine to stop bleeding from wounds, clean the surfaces of sores, in the treatment of rheumatic pains, bee and scorpion stings and for removal of opacities and foreign bodies from the eyes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potentials for use of leaves of this plant in wound care. Methods The effect of the methanol extract (ME) and the hexane (HF) and methanol (MF) fractions (obtained by cold maceration and graded solvent extraction respectively) on bleeding/clotting time of fresh experimentally-induced wounds in rats, coagulation time of whole rat blood, growth of microbial wound contaminants and rate of healing of experimentally-induced wounds in rats were studied as well as the acute toxicity and lethality (LD50) of the methanol extract and phytochemical analysis of the extract and fractions. Results The extract and fractions significantly (P < 0.05) reduced bleeding/clotting time in rats and decreased coagulation time of whole rat blood in order of magnitude of effect: MF>ME>HF. Also, the extract and fractions caused varying degrees of inhibition of the growth of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as typed strains of Ps. aeruginosa (ATCC 10145) and Staph. aureus (ATCC 12600), and reduced epithelialisation period of wounds experimentally-induced in rats. Acute toxicity and lethality (LD50) test in mice established an i.p LD50 of 894 mg/kg for the methanol extract (ME). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, resins, sterols, terpenoids and carbohydrates. Conclusion The leaves of A. africana possess constituents capable of arresting wound bleeding, inhibiting the growth of microbial wound contaminants and accelerating wound

  13. Multiple paleopolyploidizations during the evolution of the Compositae reveal parallel patterns of duplicate gene retention after millions of years.

    PubMed

    Barker, Michael S; Kane, Nolan C; Matvienko, Marta; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W; Knapp, Steven J; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2008-11-01

    Of the approximately 250,000 species of flowering plants, nearly one in ten are members of the Compositae (Asteraceae), a diverse family found in almost every habitat on all continents except Antarctica. With an origin in the mid Eocene, the Compositae is also a relatively young family with remarkable diversifications during the last 40 My. Previous cytologic and systematic investigations suggested that paleopolyploidy may have occurred in at least one Compositae lineage, but a recent analysis of genomic data was equivocal. We tested for evidence of paleopolyploidy in the evolutionary history of the family using recently available expressed sequence tag (EST) data from the Compositae Genome Project. Combined with data available on GenBank, we analyzed nearly 1 million ESTs from 18 species representing seven genera and four tribes. Our analyses revealed at least three ancient whole-genome duplications in the Compositae-a paleopolyploidization shared by all analyzed taxa and placed near the origin of the family just prior to the rapid radiation of its tribes and independent genome duplications near the base of the tribes Mutisieae and Heliantheae. These results are consistent with previous research implicating paleopolyploidy in the evolution and diversification of the Heliantheae. Further, we observed parallel retention of duplicate genes from the basal Compositae genome duplication across all tribes, despite divergence times of 33-38 My among these lineages. This pattern of retention was also repeated for the paleologs from the Heliantheae duplication. Intriguingly, the categories of genes retained in duplicate were substantially different from those in Arabidopsis. In particular, we found that genes annotated to structural components or cellular organization Gene Ontology categories were significantly enriched among paleologs, whereas genes associated with transcription and other regulatory functions were significantly underrepresented. Our results suggest that

  14. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). 201.56-2...-2 Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). Kinds of seed: Artichoke, cardoon, chicory, dandelion... primary infection. (C) Albino. (b) Other kinds in the sunflower family: Artichoke, cardoon,...

  15. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). 201.56-2 Section 201.56-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...-2 Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). Kinds of seed: Artichoke, cardoon, chicory,...

  16. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6 mg mL−1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5 mg mL−1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3 mg mL−1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08 mg mL−1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  17. Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from plants' extracts.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, S; Chen, Y; Saravanan, D; Sundram, K M; Yoga Latha, L

    2011-01-01

    Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Due to an increasing demand for chemical diversity in screening programs, seeking therapeutic drugs from natural products, interest particularly in edible plants has grown throughout the world. Botanicals and herbal preparations for medicinal usage contain various types of bioactive compounds. The focus of this paper is on the analytical methodologies, which include the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations. The common problems and key challenges in the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations are discussed. As extraction is the most important step in the analysis of constituents present in botanicals and herbal preparations, the strengths and weaknesses of different extraction techniques are discussed. The analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts involving the applications of common phytochemical screening assays, chromatographic techniques such as HPLC and, TLC as well as non-chromatographic techniques such as immunoassay and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) are discussed.

  18. Bioactive plants from Argentina and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Bardón, Alicia; Borkosky, Susana; Ybarra, María I; Montanaro, Susana; Cartagena, Elena

    2007-04-01

    Antibacterial and molluscicidal activities of methanol and chloroform extracts of 16 plant species belonging to the families Compositae and Melastomataceae were evaluated. The chloroform extract of Vernonanthura tweediana and the methanol extract of Senecio santelisis resulted to be very toxic to brine shrimp nauplii (LC(50)=1 microg/ml). Chloroform extracts of S. santelisis and Senecio leucostachys as well as the methanol extract of Wedelia subvaginata displayed molluscicidal effects on Biomphalaria peregrina showing LC(100)<100 microg/ml. Moderate antibacterial action was produced by the chloroform extracts of Flaveria bidentis, Grindelia scorzonerifolia and Vernonia incana against two strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

  19. Genomics of Compositae crops: reference transcriptome assemblies and evidence of hybridization with wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Lai, Zhao; Oliveira, Luiz O; Still, David W; Scascitelli, Moira; Barker, Michael S; Kane, Nolan C; Dempewolf, Hannes; Kozik, Alex; Kesseli, Richard V; Burke, John M; Michelmore, Richard W; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2014-01-01

    Although the Compositae harbours only two major food crops, sunflower and lettuce, many other species in this family are utilized by humans and have experienced various levels of domestication. Here, we have used next-generation sequencing technology to develop 15 reference transcriptome assemblies for Compositae crops or their wild relatives. These data allow us to gain insight into the evolutionary and genomic consequences of plant domestication. Specifically, we performed Illumina sequencing of Cichorium endivia, Cichorium intybus, Echinacea angustifolia, Iva annua, Helianthus tuberosus, Dahlia hybrida, Leontodon taraxacoides and Glebionis segetum, as well 454 sequencing of Guizotia scabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Parthenium argentatum and Smallanthus sonchifolius. Illumina reads were assembled using Trinity, and 454 reads were assembled using MIRA and CAP3. We evaluated the coverage of the transcriptomes using BLASTX analysis of a set of ultra-conserved orthologs (UCOs) and recovered most of these genes (88-98%). We found a correlation between contig length and read length for the 454 assemblies, and greater contig lengths for the 454 compared with the Illumina assemblies. This suggests that longer reads can aid in the assembly of more complete transcripts. Finally, we compared the divergence of orthologs at synonymous sites (Ks) between Compositae crops and their wild relatives and found greater divergence when the progenitors were self-incompatible. We also found greater divergence between pairs of taxa that had some evidence of postzygotic isolation. For several more distantly related congeners, such as chicory and endive, we identified a signature of introgression in the distribution of Ks values.

  20. Gastroprotective effects of flavonoids in plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Zayachkivska, O S; Konturek, S J; Drozdowicz, D; Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T; Ghegotsky, M R

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to overview the relations between plant-originated substances and their bioactivity measured in terms of antioxidant, cytoprotective and antiulcer activities. In addition, we assessed whether these compounds are capable of affecting the gastric mucosal lesions induced by absolute ethanol applied intragastrically (i.g.). The following plant-originated flavonoid substances were considered; Solon (Sophoradin extract), Amaranth seed extract, grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) and capsaicin (extract of chilly pepper). The area of gastric mucosa lesions and gastric blood flow were measured in rats with ethanol-induced lesions without (control) and with one of the tested substances without and with capsaicin denervation of afferent nerves or administration of L-nitro-arginine (L-NNA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g fasted for 24 h before the study where used 100% ethanol was applied i.g. to induce gastric lesions, whose area was determined by planimetry. Gastric blood flow was assessed using electrolytic regional blood flowmeter. All tested plant-originated substances afforded gastroprotection against ethanol-induced damage and this was accompanied by increase in gastric microcirculation, both changes being reversed by pretreatment with neurotoxic dose of capsaicin or by pretreatment with L-NNA. We conclude that plant-originated flavonoid substances are highly gastroprotective probably due to enhancement of the expression of constitutive NOS and release of NO and neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) released from sensory afferent nerves increasing gastric microcirculation.

  1. Gymnanthemum koekemoerae (Compositae, Vernonieae), a new species from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Harold; Funk, Vicki A

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Gymnanthemum (Compositae, Vernonieae) from South Africa is described. It can be distinguished from other species in the genus by the five-flowered capitula and widely obtuse leaf blades.

  2. Gymnanthemum koekemoerae (Compositae, Vernonieae), a new species from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold; Funk, Vicki A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Gymnanthemum (Compositae, Vernonieae) from South Africa is described. It can be distinguished from other species in the genus by the five-flowered capitula and widely obtuse leaf blades. PMID:24843294

  3. A target enrichment method for gathering phylogenetic information from hundreds of loci: An example from the Compositae1

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Jennifer R.; Dikow, Rebecca B.; Funk, Vicki A.; Masalia, Rishi R.; Staton, S. Evan; Kozik, Alex; Michelmore, Richard W.; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Burke, John M.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: The Compositae (Asteraceae) are a large and diverse family of plants, and the most comprehensive phylogeny to date is a meta-tree based on 10 chloroplast loci that has several major unresolved nodes. We describe the development of an approach that enables the rapid sequencing of large numbers of orthologous nuclear loci to facilitate efficient phylogenomic analyses. • Methods and Results: We designed a set of sequence capture probes that target conserved orthologous sequences in the Compositae. We also developed a bioinformatic and phylogenetic workflow for processing and analyzing the resulting data. Application of our approach to 15 species from across the Compositae resulted in the production of phylogenetically informative sequence data from 763 loci and the successful reconstruction of known phylogenetic relationships across the family. • Conclusions: These methods should be of great use to members of the broader Compositae community, and the general approach should also be of use to researchers studying other families. PMID:25202605

  4. Multiple Paleopolyploidizations during the Evolution of the Compositae Reveal Parallel Patterns of Duplicate Gene Retention after Millions of Years

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Michael S.; Kane, Nolan C.; Matvienko, Marta; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W.; Knapp, Steven J.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2008-01-01

    Of the approximately 250,000 species of flowering plants, nearly one in ten are members of the Compositae (Asteraceae), a diverse family found in almost every habitat on all continents except Antarctica. With an origin in the mid Eocene, the Compositae is also a relatively young family with remarkable diversifications during the last 40 My. Previous cytologic and systematic investigations suggested that paleopolyploidy may have occurred in at least one Compositae lineage, but a recent analysis of genomic data was equivocal. We tested for evidence of paleopolyploidy in the evolutionary history of the family using recently available expressed sequence tag (EST) data from the Compositae Genome Project. Combined with data available on GenBank, we analyzed nearly 1 million ESTs from 18 species representing seven genera and four tribes. Our analyses revealed at least three ancient whole-genome duplications in the Compositae—a paleopolyploidization shared by all analyzed taxa and placed near the origin of the family just prior to the rapid radiation of its tribes and independent genome duplications near the base of the tribes Mutisieae and Heliantheae. These results are consistent with previous research implicating paleopolyploidy in the evolution and diversification of the Heliantheae. Further, we observed parallel retention of duplicate genes from the basal Compositae genome duplication across all tribes, despite divergence times of 33–38 My among these lineages. This pattern of retention was also repeated for the paleologs from the Heliantheae duplication. Intriguingly, the categories of genes retained in duplicate were substantially different from those in Arabidopsis. In particular, we found that genes annotated to structural components or cellular organization Gene Ontology categories were significantly enriched among paleologs, whereas genes associated with transcription and other regulatory functions were significantly underrepresented. Our results suggest

  5. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants.

    PubMed

    Lamminpää, A; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L

    1996-05-01

    12 cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants were diagnosed in a 14-year period. The patients were middle-aged, and their average exposure time was 13 years. The plant families and plants causing occupational contact dermatitis were Compositae (5 patients; chrysanthemum, elecampane, gerbera, feverfew), Alstroemeriaceae (5 patients, Alstroemeria), Liliaceae (4 patients; tulip, hyacinth), Amaryllidaceae (2 patients; narcissus) and Caryophyllaceae (2 patients; carnation, cauzeflower). The known chemical allergens causing dermatitis were tuliposide-A and sesquiterpene lactones, such as alantolactones and parthenolide, in the Liliaceae and Compositae families. 7 of the 12 patients were able to continue their work; 5 were not because of severe relapses of skin symptoms. The plant allergen and extract series currently available are of great help in the diagnosis.

  6. Morphological discrimination of Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations feeding on Compositae.

    PubMed

    Margaritopoulos, J T; Tzortzi, M; Zarpas, K D; Tsitsipis, J A; Blackman, R L

    2006-04-01

    Aphis gossypii Glover is a polyphagous aphid pest with a worldwide distribution. However, there is evidence that on a global scale the name A. gossypii is being applied to a number of forms with different life cycles and/or host-plant associations. Morphometric variation of A. gossypii samples from crops and non-cultivated plants in many parts of the world was examined, to determine whether this variation is correlated with the hosts from which the aphids originated. Samples of A. gossypii were collected from Cucurbitaceae and Malvaceae in Europe, and from Compositae in various parts of the world. Morphometric data for 13 parameters measured from 97 clonal lineages (728 specimens) and 27 field-collected samples (313 specimens) were analysed by a series of canonical variates analyses, using the field sample/clonal lineage as grouping factor. Clonal lineages were reared on a common host in controlled conditions to standardize the effect of host and environment on morphology. The analyses provided a clear morphometric separation of the aphids originating from Compositae and those collected on Cucurbitaceae and Malvaceae, regardless of the geographical origin of the aphids and the host plant on which they were reared. This indicates that within A. gossypii there are two widely distributed host races or subspecies with different plant family associations. The taxonomic implications are discussed.

  7. Electrospun Nanofibres Containing Antimicrobial Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wanwei; Ronca, Sara; Mele, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10 years great research interest has been directed toward nanofibrous architectures produced by electrospinning bioactive plant extracts. The resulting structures possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activity, which are attractive for biomedical applications and food industry. This review describes the diverse approaches that have been developed to produce electrospun nanofibres that are able to deliver naturally-derived chemical compounds in a controlled way and to prevent their degradation. The efficacy of those composite nanofibres as wound dressings, scaffolds for tissue engineering, and active food packaging systems will be discussed. PMID:28336874

  8. Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anupam; Chowdhury, Nandita; Chandra, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In this article, the current state of knowledge on phytochemical sources and mosquitocidal activity, their mechanism of action on target population, variation of their larvicidal activity according to mosquito species, instar specificity, polarity of solvents used during extraction, nature of active ingredient and promising advances made in biological control of mosquitoes by plant derived secondary metabolites have been reviewed. PMID:22771587

  9. A new mechanism associated with compositae graft success.

    PubMed

    Son, Daegu; Jeong, Hoijoon; Choi, Taehyun; Kim, Junhyung; Han, Kihwan

    2010-11-01

    It is believed that the subcutaneous fat of the skin compositae grafts acts as a mechanical barrier limiting vascularisation. This study aims to determine a new mechanism associated with compositae graft take. Ten 3×3 cm rectangular full-thickness skin compositae grafts on the back of a pig were taken and then randomly changed to another place. Silicone sheets were then inserted between the graft and the recipient to block the direct contact of the dermis at the lateral surface of the graft and control the number of surface contacts. The take rate was measured using the digital VISITRAK(®). The microcirculation of the graft was evaluated by microangiograms using a latex-lead oxide solution. There was a 20.5% graft take in all four surface-blocked groups. The microangiograms showed vessel connections not only between the vessels of the dermis, but also between the subcutaneous fat of the graft and perforators from the basal surface of the wound. The subcutaneous layer does not produce a barrier but works as a significant source of vessel communication. Direct vessel-to-vessel anastomosis between the vessels of the subcutaneous fat at the graft and the basal surface of the recipient wound are another important mechanism for the success of compositae grafts.

  10. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract protects plants against important phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Schuster, C; Konstantinidou-Doltsinis, S; Schmitt, A

    2010-01-01

    In previous investigations an ethanolic plant extract from Glycyrrhiza glabra (2.5% w/v) showed 100% efficacy against late blight (Phytophthora infestans) on detached tomato leaves. Based on these findings, the objective of this work was to investigate the effect of this extract against different important plant pathogenic fungi. Tests were carried out on potted plants. Against P. infestans, efficacies of 75% and 58% were achieved on tomato and potato plants with 5% extract concentration, respectively. Against another Oomycete, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, on cucumber, application of a 2.5% extract led to an efficacy of above 90%. The EC50-value was calculated to be 0.5% In a trial on beans against bean rust (Uromyces appendiculatus), G. glabra extract (5% concentration) showed 92% efficacy. In contrast, against powdery mildew on cucumber (Podosphaera xanthii), no disease reduction was found. Overall, the results indicate a high potential for the extract of G. glabra to control a number of important plant pathogens.

  11. Chloroplast SSR polymorphisms in the Compositae and the mode of organellar inheritance in Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Wills, David M; Hester, Melissa L; Liu, Aizhong; Burke, John M

    2005-03-01

    Because organellar genomes are often uniparentally inherited, chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA polymorphisms have become the markers of choice for investigating evolutionary issues such as sex-biased dispersal and the directionality of introgression. To the extent that organellar inheritance is strictly maternal, it has also been suggested that the insertion of transgenes into either the chloroplast or mitochondrial genomes would reduce the likelihood of gene escape via pollen flow from crop fields into wild plant populations. In this paper we describe the adaptation of chloroplast simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) for use in the Compositae. This work resulted in the identification of 12 loci that are variable across the family, seven of which were further shown to be highly polymorphic within sunflower (Helianthus annuus). We then used these markers, along with a novel mtDNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), to investigate the mode of organellar inheritance in a series of experimental crosses designed to mimic the initial stages of crop-wild hybridization in sunflower. Although we cannot rule out the possibility of extremely rare paternal transmission, our results provide the best evidence to date of strict maternal organellar inheritance in sunflower, suggesting that organellar gene containment may be a viable strategy in sunflower. Moreover, the portability of these markers suggests that they will provide a ready source of cpDNA polymorphisms for use in evolutionary studies across the Compositae.

  12. Diuretic Potential of Whole Plant Extracts of Pergularia daemia (Forsk.)

    PubMed Central

    Bhavin, Vyas; Ruchi, Vyas; DD, Santani

    2011-01-01

    The whole plant, Pergularia daemia (Family: Asclepediaceae), was extracted with 50% alcohol and a fresh batch of the plant material was successively extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol to determine its diuretic activity. The diuretic activity of the different extracts at a dose of 400 mg/Kg was assessed orally in rats with furosemide as a standard drug using Lipschitzs test. All extracts except the petroleum ether extract showed significant increase (p < 0.001) in urine output. Urinary electrolyte excretion was also affected by the extracts: the alcoholic, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extract caused an increase in the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium ions. These findings suggest that among the mentioned extracts, ethanolic has the maximum diuretic activity followed by n-butanol extract. PMID:24250415

  13. Effect of plant extracts on book deteriorated fungal species.

    PubMed

    Kalbende, Swapna P; Dalal, Lalchand P

    2016-05-06

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of leaf extracts of four plants against some isolated fungal species from deteriorated books. Aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts of selected plant species were screened in vitro for their antifungal activity against some book deteriorating fungal species. Fifteen species belonging to 09 genera were isolated and identified from infested books in library. Aqueous and solvent extracts of leaves of Azadiracta indica, Callistemon citrinus, Eucalyptus lanceolatus and Pongamia pinnata were tested against some dominant fungal species viz. Chaetomium spiralis, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus stolonifer. Solvent extracts exhibited potent inhibitory activity than aqueous extracts. However, these plant extracts exhibited moderate activity against A. flavus, C. spiralis, R. stolonifer and A. alternata.

  14. Selectivity of plant extracts for Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Rampelotti-Ferreira, Fátima Terezinha; Coelho, Aloisio; Parra, José Roberto Postali; Vendramim, José Djair

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the selectivity of three plant extracts with potential insecticidal effects for the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, which is commonly used in biological pest control. The plant extracts assayed were an acetone extract of Toona ciliata M. Roem., commercial neem oil, and a nanoencapsulated formulation of neem oil (NC40). The toxicity of the plant extracts to T. pretiosum was evaluated according to the recommendations of the International Organization for Biological Control- IOBC Working Group. We assessed the susceptibility of adults of the maternal and F1 generations and immature stages of T. pretiosum to the extracts. Females exposed to egg cards treated with commercial neem oil parasitized almost 70% fewer eggs than control eggs treated with water; and this extract was therefore classified as slightly harmful. When the eggs were offered to females 24h after treatment with neem oil and aqueous NC40, the parasitism rate also decreased, and the two extracts were classified as slightly harmful. Adult emergence was lower for parasitoids that fed on host eggs offered 24h after the treatment with the T. ciliata extract, which was considered slightly harmful. The emergence of T. pretiosum from eggs, larvae and pupae treated with the different plant extracts, did not decrease compared to development stages treated with the water control. The use of T. pretiosum, combined with the application of an ethanol extract of T. ciliata and a nanoencapsulated formulation of neem, appears to be feasible in view of these low toxicity indices.

  15. Plant crude extracts could be the solution: extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity.

    PubMed

    Amara, A A; El-Masry, M H; Bogdady, H H

    2008-04-01

    Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of: Ficus carica and rhizomes of: Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were tested in vivo using three subsequent bioassays: the BST (Brine Shrimp Toxicity bioassay), AWD (Agar well diffusion antimicrobial bioassay) and AtPDT (Agrobacterium tumefaciens Potato Disc Tumor bioassay). AWD technique omitted any extracts have antimicrobial activities while BST omitted any extract did not has physiological activity and determined the various LC(50) of each plant extract. For the first time, using a range of concentrations in the AtPDT modified protocol allowed the detection of tumor promotion caused by extract represented by A. nummularia. Using cluster analysis leads to classifying the different plant extracts activities to six groups regarding to their toxicity, antitumor activities and both of them. The extracts from edible plants represent 50% of the first and the second group which have the highest antitumor activities represented in F. caraica (group 1) and C. longa (group 2) as well as the non-edible plant extracts of Gossypium barbadense and Ricinus communis. A comparison study between the edible and herbaceous plants different extracts for their antitumor activities was performed. We recommended using the modified protocols used in this study for investigating more plants and using crude plant extracts which have antitumor activities in cancer treatment. Edible plants, which show in vivo antitumor activities, are recommended as save sources for antitumor compounds.

  16. LC-PDA-ESI/MS Identification of the Phenolic Components of Three Compositae Spices: Chamomile, Tarragon, and Mexican Arnica

    PubMed Central

    Harnly, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) and Mexican arnica (Heterotheca inuoides) are common compositae spices and herbs found in the US market. They contain flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates that are potentially beneficial to human health. A standardized LC-PDA-ESI/MS profiling method was used to identify 51 flavonoids and 17 hydroxycinnamates. Many of the identifications were confirmed with authentic standards or through references in the literature or the laboratory’s database. More than half of the phenol compounds for each spice had not been previously reported. The phenolic profile can be used for plant authentication and to correlate with biological activities. PMID:22816299

  17. LC-PDA-ESI/MS identification of the phenolic components of three compositae spices: chamomile, tarragon, and Mexican arnica.

    PubMed

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M

    2012-06-01

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) and Mexican arnica (Heterotheca inuoides) are common compositae spices and herbs found in the US market. They contain flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates that are potentially beneficial to human health. A standardized LC-PDA-ESI/MS profiling method was used to identify 51 flavonoids and 17 hydroxycinnamates. Many of the identifications were confirmed with authentic standards or through references in the literature or the laboratory's database. More than half of the phenol compounds for each spice had not been previously reported. The phenolic profile can be used for plant authentication and to correlate with biological activities.

  18. Efficacy of plant extracts against stored-products fungi.

    PubMed

    Magro, Ana; Carolino, Manuela; Bastos, Margarida; Mexia, António

    2006-09-01

    The fungistatic activity of six aqueous extracts of plants were tested against Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Fusarium culmorum. The plants were, chamomile (Anthemis nobilis L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl.), French lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), malva (Malva sylvestris L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). The more concentrated extracts of chamomile and malva inhibited totally the growth of the tested fungi with malva the most effective one.

  19. Screening of Crude Plant Extracts with Anti-Obesity Activity

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Changhyun; Jung, Uhee

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we screened crude extracts from 400 plants to test their anti-obesity activity using porcine pancreatic lipase assay (PPL; triacylglycerol lipase, EC 3.1.1.3) in vitro activity. Among the 400 plants species examined, 44 extracts from plants, showed high anti-lipase activity using 2,4-dinitrophenylbutyrate as a substrate in porcine pancreatic lipase assay. Furthermore, 44 plant extracts were investigated for their inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Among these 44 extracts examined, crude extracts from 4 natural plant species were active. Salicis Radicis Cortex had the highest fat inhibitory activity, whereas Rubi Fructus, Corni Fructus, and Geranium nepalense exhibited fat inhibitory capacity higher than 30% at 100 μg/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting anti-obesity activity. These results suggest that four potent plant extracts might be of therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity. PMID:22408418

  20. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Nutan; Kulkarni, Sangeeta; Mane, Arati; Kulkarni, Roshan; Palshetker, Aparna; Singh, Kamalinder; Joshi, Swati; Risbud, Arun; Kulkarni, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using vaginal or rectal microbicide-based intervention is one of the strategies for prevention of HIV infection. Herbal products have been used for treating STIs traditionally. Herein, we present in vitro activity of 10 plant extracts and their 34 fractions against three sexually transmitted/reproductive tract pathogens - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus ducreyi and Candida albicans. The plant parts were selected; the extracts/fractions were prepared and screened by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory and minimum cidal concentrations were determined. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of selected extracts/fractions showing activity was performed. Of the extracts/fractions tested, three inhibited C. albicans, ten inhibited N. gonorrhoeae and five inhibited H. ducreyi growth. Our study demonstrated that Terminalia paniculata Roth. extracts/fractions inhibited growth of all three organisms. The ethyl acetate fraction of Syzygium cumini Linn. and Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. extracts was found to inhibit N. gonorrhoeae at lowest concentrations.

  1. Evaluation of some Moroccan medicinal plant extracts for larvicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Markouk, M; Bekkouche, K; Larhsini, M; Bousaid, M; Lazrek, H B; Jana, M

    2000-11-01

    The larvicidal properties of 16 extracts of four Moroccan medicinal plants: Calotropis procera (Wild.), Cotula cinerea (L.), Solanum sodomaeum (L.) and Solanum elaeagnifolium (CAV.) were tested against Anopheles labranchiae mosquito larvae. Among the extracts tested, nine exhibited high larvicidal activity with LC(50) (24 h) ranging from 28 to 325 ppm.

  2. Automated DNA extraction for large numbers of plant samples.

    PubMed

    Mehle, Nataša; Nikolić, Petra; Rupar, Matevž; Boben, Jana; Ravnikar, Maja; Dermastia, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The method described here is a rapid, total DNA extraction procedure applicable to a large number of plant samples requiring pathogen detection. The procedure combines a simple and quick homogenization step of crude extracts with DNA extraction based upon the binding of DNA to magnetic beads. DNA is purified in an automated process in which the magnetic beads are transferred through a series of washing buffers. The eluted DNA is suitable for efficient amplification in PCR reactions.

  3. [St. Johns wort extract as plant antidepressant].

    PubMed

    Kasper, S; Schulz, V

    2000-12-21

    In 1998 a standardized hypericum extract has been approved in Austria and Germany for treatment of mild and moderate depression. The efficacy has been already recognized since 1984 from the German Health Authorities based on traditional knowledge. However, this has been substantiated in the subsequent years in controlled clinical trials. Twenty of these studies including a total of 1787 patients have been filed, among them ten older studies in which hypericum was extracted with ethanol compared to newer studies in which the extract was methanol (LI 160). In the past ten years several controlled clinical trials have been conducted compared with placebo as well as synthetic antidepressants. These studies have shown that the effective dosage is within a range of 600-900 mg extract. The side effects are substantially fewer than with synthetic antidepressants and range within 3%. The most important risk is photosensitization, which is however without clinical relevance in the recommended dosages. Recent pharmacological studies revealed that hypericum extracts have a similar mechanism of action like the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), however, very likely to a smaller extent.

  4. The influence of Brazilian plant extracts on Streptococcus mutans biofilm

    PubMed Central

    BARNABÉ, Michele; SARACENI, Cíntia Helena Coury; DUTRA-CORREA, Maristela; SUFFREDINI, Ivana Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen plant extracts obtained from plants from the Brazilian Amazon showed activity against planktonic Streptococcus mutans, an important bacterium involved in the first steps of biofilm formation and the subsequent initiation of several oral diseases. Objective Our goal was to verify whether plant extracts that showed activity against planktonic S. mutans could prevent the organization of or even disrupt a single-species biofilm made by the same bacteria. Material and Methods Plant extracts were tested on a single-bacteria biofilm prepared using the Zürich method. Each plant extract was tested at a concentration 5 times higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Discs of hydroxyapatite were submersed overnight in brain-heart infusion broth enriched with saccharose 5%, which provided sufficient time for biofilm formation. The discs were then submersed in extract solutions for one minute, three times per day, for two subsequent days. The discs were then washed with saline three times, at ten seconds each, after each treatment. Supports were allowed to remain in the enriched medium for one additional night. At the end of the process, the bacteria were removed from the discs by vortexing and were counted. Results Only two of 19 plant extracts showed activity in the present assay: EB1779, obtained from Dioscorea altissima, and EB1673, obtained from Annona hypoglauca. Although the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was first observed against planktonic S. mutans, influence over biofilm formation was not necessarily observed in the biofilm model. The present results motivate us to find new natural products to be used in dentistry. PMID:25466471

  5. Global distribution of plant-extractable water capacity of soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, K.A.; Willmott, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Plant-extractable water capacity of soil is the amount of water that can be extracted from the soil to fulfill evapotranspiration demands. It is often assumed to be spatially invariant in large-scale computations of the soil-water balance. Empirical evidence, however, suggests that this assumption is incorrect. In this paper, we estimate the global distribution of the plant-extractable water capacity of soil. A representative soil profile, characterized by horizon (layer) particle size data and thickness, was created for each soil unit mapped by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)/Unesco. Soil organic matter was estimated empirically from climate data. Plant rooting depths and ground coverages were obtained from a vegetation characteristic data set. At each 0.5?? ?? 0.5?? grid cell where vegetation is present, unit available water capacity (cm water per cm soil) was estimated from the sand, clay, and organic content of each profile horizon, and integrated over horizon thickness. Summation of the integrated values over the lesser of profile depth and root depth produced an estimate of the plant-extractable water capacity of soil. The global average of the estimated plant-extractable water capacities of soil is 8??6 cm (Greenland, Antarctica and bare soil areas excluded). Estimates are less than 5, 10 and 15 cm - over approximately 30, 60, and 89 per cent of the area, respectively. Estimates reflect the combined effects of soil texture, soil organic content, and plant root depth or profile depth. The most influential and uncertain parameter is the depth over which the plant-extractable water capacity of soil is computed, which is usually limited by root depth. Soil texture exerts a lesser, but still substantial, influence. Organic content, except where concentrations are very high, has relatively little effect.

  6. Whatever happened to Bishopanthus (Compositae, Liabeae)?

    PubMed

    Funk, Vicki A; Robinson, Harold; Tangerini, Alice R

    2013-01-01

    The enigmatic monospecific Bishopanthus of the tribe Liabeae (Compostiae/Asteraceae) has never been fully understood. It has not been possible to examine it in detail since it was described, because most of the type material was destroyed shortly after it arrived at the US National Herbarium, the morphology is insufficient to assign it to a subtribe, and the small amount of leaf material that remains is unsuitable for DNA extraction. A detailed description in English, image of the type specimen, photograph, and original illustration are included along with an estimation of where it was collected in the hopes that this information will encourage other field botanists who collect in northern Peru to search for it.

  7. Whatever happened to Bishopanthus (Compositae, Liabeae)?

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Vicki A.; Robinson, Harold; Tangerini, Alice R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The enigmatic monospecific Bishopanthus of the tribe Liabeae (Compostiae/Asteraceae) has never been fully understood. It has not been possible to examine it in detail since it was described, because most of the type material was destroyed shortly after it arrived at the US National Herbarium, the morphology is insufficient to assign it to a subtribe, and the small amount of leaf material that remains is unsuitable for DNA extraction. A detailed description in English, image of the type specimen, photograph, and original illustration are included along with an estimation of where it was collected in the hopes that this information will encourage other field botanists who collect in northern Peru to search for it. PMID:24399900

  8. Requirements for Extraction of Polyribosomes from Plant Callus Cultures 1

    PubMed Central

    White, James L.; Murakishi, Harry H.

    1977-01-01

    A procedure was developed to isolate polyribosomes from plant cell cultures. Tobacco callus extracted in 10 mm MgCl2, 80 mm KCl, 250 mm sucrose, and 140 mm tris-HCl (pH 8.2) yielded larger amounts of polysomes than cells extracted in higher or lower ionic strength or pH buffers. Optimal conditions for extraction of polysomes from soybean callus were identical except the most suitable pH for recovery was 8.5. Addition of the divalent cation chelator, ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethyl ether)-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) to the extraction medium improved polysomal yield from tobacco and soybean cultures. Polysomes were successfully extracted from potato, tomato, corn, and barley cell cultures in extraction medium supplemented with EGTA. PMID:16659946

  9. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat.

  10. Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean food plant extracts: geographical differences.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, S; Schmitt-Schillig, S; Müller, W E; Eckert, G P

    2005-03-01

    Locally grown, wild food plants seasonally contribute a considerable portion of the daily diet in certain Mediterranean areas and it has been suggested that the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on human health partly originate from the antioxidant effect of flavonoid-rich food plants. The nutrient content of most wild plants is higher than that of cultivated ones and may vary depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. Accordingly, three local Mediterranean plant foods (i.e. Cichorium intybus, Sonchus oleraceus, Papaver rhoeas) were collected in Greece (Crete), southern Italy, and southern Spain in order to assess possible differences in their in vitro antioxidant potential. The biological assays revealed diverse intra-plant specific antioxidant effects for the tested extracts ranging from no activity to almost complete protection. Furthermore, substantial differences in the polyphenol content were found for the nutritionally used part of the same plant originating from different locations. However, no clear correlations between the polyphenol content and the extracts' antioxidant activities were found. Taken together, the data suggest that certain local Mediterranean plant foods possess promising antioxidant activity and that the observed biological effects are possibly influenced by the geographically-dependent environmental conditions prevailing during plant growth.

  11. In vitro activity of Amazon plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    de Castilho, Adriana Lígia; da Silva, Juliana Paola Correa; Saraceni, Cintia Helena Coury; Díaz, Ingrit Elida Collantes; Paciencia, Mateus Luís Barradas; Varella, Antonio Drauzio; Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies analyzing 2,200 plant extracts indicated anti-enterococcal activity in 25 extracts obtained from Brazilian forests’ plants. In the present study, these extracts were subjected to microdilution broth assay (MDBA) and disk diffusion assay (DDA) using planktonic Enterococcus faecalis ATCC® 29212™ and were submitted to phytochemical analysis in TLC and HPLC. Three extracts obtained from Ipomoea alba (MIC < 40 μg/mL), Diclinanona calycina (MIC ≤ 40 μg/mL) and Moronobea coccinea (40 < MIC < 80 μg/mL; MBC = 80 μg/mL) showed significant bactericidal activity in the MDBA and four extracts obtained from I. alba (14.04 ± 0.55 mm diameter) S. globulifera (14.43 ± 0.33 mm and 12.18 ± 0.28 mm diameter) and Connarus ruber var. ruber (13.13 ± 0.18 mm diameter) were active in DDA. Residues H2O obtained from Psidium densicomum (mean of 16.78 mm diameter) and from Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum (mean of 15.97 mm diameter) have shown an improved antibacterial activity after fractionation if compared to that obtained from the respective crude extracts. Antioxidant activity was observed in some residues of the active extracts. TLC analysis showed that phenolic compounds are likely to be found in active extracts. Three molecules were isolated from S. globulifera and were identified by 13C NMR lupeol, α-amyrin and 3β-hydroxyglutin-5-ene. The present chemical and biological findings suggest that these extracts are a potential source of new anti-Enterococcus compounds to be introduced in endodontic therapy. PMID:25477906

  12. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of environmental plants: activity of the leaf extracts from seashore plants.

    PubMed

    Masuda, T; Yonemori, S; Oyama, Y; Takeda, Y; Tanaka, T; Andoh, T; Shinohara, A; Nakata, M

    1999-04-01

    The antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of the leaves of 39 plant species was examined. These leaves were collected from the plants growing on subtropical seashores. The activity was evaluated by three kinds of assay methods, which included the DPPH radical scavenging assay, linoleic acid oxidation assay, and oxidative cell death assay. Two extracts from Excoecaria agallocha and Terminalia catappa showed remarkably potent activity in all assay systems. The HPLC analysis of the extracts indicated the presence of the same antioxidant and isolation work for the compound identified ellagic acid. The isolated ellagic acid showed strong antioxidant activity in the assay systems used.

  13. Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development.

  14. Plant extracts affect in vitro rumen microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Busquet, M; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Kamel, C

    2006-02-01

    Different doses of 12 plant extracts and 6 secondary plant metabolites were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 forage:concentrate diet. Treatments were: control (no additive), plant extracts (anise oil, cade oil, capsicum oil, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, dill oil, fenugreek, garlic oil, ginger oil, oregano oil, tea tree oil, and yucca), and secondary plant metabolites (anethol, benzyl salicylate, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol). Each treatment was supplied at 3, 30, 300, and 3,000 mg/L of culture fluid. At 3,000 mg/L, most treatments decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration, but cade oil, capsicum oil, dill oil, fenugreek, ginger oil, and yucca had no effect. Different doses of anethol, anise oil, carvone, and tea tree oil decreased the proportion of acetate and propionate, which suggests that these compounds may not be nutritionally beneficial to dairy cattle. Garlic oil (300 and 3,000 mg/L) and benzyl salicylate (300 and 3,000 mg/L) reduced acetate and increased propionate and butyrate proportions, suggesting that methane production was inhibited. At 3,000 mg/L, capsicum oil, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, eugenol, fenugreek, and oregano oil resulted in a 30 to 50% reduction in ammonia N concentration. Careful selection and combination of these extracts may allow the manipulation of rumen microbial fermentation.

  15. Biological reduction of graphene oxide using plant leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geummi; Kim, Beom Soo

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional graphene has attracted significant attention due to its unique mechanical, electrical, thermal, and optical properties. Most commonly employed methods to chemically reduce graphene oxide to graphene use hydrazine or its derivatives as the reducing agent. However, they are highly hazardous and explosive. Various phytochemicals obtained from different natural sources such as leaves and peels of a plant are used as reducing agents in the preparation of different gold, silver, copper, and platinum nanoparticles. In this study, seven plant leaf extracts (Cherry, Magnolia, Platanus, Persimmon, Pine, Maple, and Ginkgo) were compared for their abilities to reduce graphene oxide. The optimized reaction conditions for the reduction of graphene oxide were determined as follows. Type of plant: Cherry (Prunus serrulata), reaction time: 12 h, composition of the reaction mixture: 16.7% v/v of plant leaf extract in total suspension, and temperature: 95°C. The degree of reduction caused by Cherry leaf extract was analyzed by elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The reduction of graphene oxide was also confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles capped with medicinal plant extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekulapally, Sujith R.

    In this study, synthesis, characterization and biological application of series nanometal (silver, Ag) and nanometal oxide (titania, TiO2) were carried out. These nanomaterials were prepared using wet-chemistry method and then coated using natural plant extract. Three medicinal plants, namely Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Allium sativum (Garlic) and Capsicum annuum (Chili) were chosen as grafting agent to decrease the side-effects and increase the efficiency of NPs towards living organism. Extraction conditions were controlled under 60-100 °C for 8 hrs. Ag and TiO2 NPs were fabricated using colloidal chemistry and variables were controlled at ambient condition. The band gap of TiO2 NPs used as disinfectant was also modified through coating the medicinal plant extracts. The medicinal plant extracts and coated NPs were measured using spectroscopic methods. Ultraviolet-visible spectra indicated the Ag NPs were formed. The peak at 410 nm resulted from the electrons transferred from their ground to the excited state. The broadened full width at half maximum (FWHM) suggested the ultrafine particles were obtained. The lipid soluble compounds, phenols, tri-terpenoids, flavanoids, capsaicinoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids steroidal glycosides, and vitamins were determined from the high performance liquid chromatographical analyses. X-ray powder diffraction indicated that the face-centered cubic Ag (PDF: 00-004-0783, a = 4.0862A, a = 90°) and anatase TiO2 (PDF: 01-08-1285, a = 3.7845, c = 9.5143A, a = 90°) were obtained using colloidal chemistry. Bactericidal activity indicated that these core-shelled TiO 2 were effective (MBC=0.6 ppm, within 30 mins) at inactivating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is proposed that the medicinal extracts enhanced the potency of NPs against bacteria. From our previous study, the Ag NPs were highly effective at inactivating both bacteria.

  17. Tissue engineered plant extracts as nanofibrous wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guorui; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Kai, Dan; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Arunachalam, Kantha D; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2013-01-01

    Use of plant extracts for treatment of burns and wound is a common practice followed over the decades and it is an important aspect of health management. Many medicinal plants have a long history of curative properties in wound healing. Electrospun nanofibers provide high porosity with large surface area-to-volume ratio and are more appropriate for cell accommodation, nutrition infiltration, gas exchange and waste excretion. Electrospinning makes it possible to combine the advantages of utilizing these plant extracts in the form of nanofibrous mats to serve as skin graft substitutes. In this study, we investigated the potential of electrospinning four different plant extracts, namely Indigofera aspalathoides, Azadirachta indica, Memecylon edule (ME) and Myristica andamanica along with a biodegradable polymer, polycaprolactone (PCL) for skin tissue engineering. The ability of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) to proliferate on the electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds was evaluated via cell proliferation assay. HDF proliferation on PCL/ME nanofibers was found the highest among all the other electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds and it was 31% higher than the proliferation on PCL nanofibers after 9 days of cell culture. The interaction of HDF with the electrospun scaffold was studied by F-actin and collagen staining studies. The results confirmed that PCL/ME had the least cytotoxicity among the different plant extract containing scaffolds studied here. Therefore we performed the epidermal differentiation of adipose derived stem cells on PCL/ME scaffolds and obtained early and intermediate stages of epidermal differentiation. Our studies demonstrate the potential of electrospun PCL/ME nanofibers as substrates for skin tissue engineering.

  18. Ultrahigh pressure extraction of bioactive compounds from plants-A review.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jun

    2017-04-13

    Extraction of bioactive compounds from plants is one of the most important research areas for pharmaceutical and food industries. Conventional extraction techniques are usually associated with longer extraction times, lower yields, more organic solvent consumption, and poor extraction efficiency. A novel extraction technique, ultrahigh pressure extraction, has been developed for the extraction of bioactive compounds from plants, in order to shorten the extraction time, decrease the solvent consumption, increase the extraction yields, and enhance the quality of extracts. The mild processing temperature of ultrahigh pressure extraction may lead to an enhanced extraction of thermolabile bioactive ingredients. A critical review is conducted to introduce the different aspects of ultrahigh pressure extraction of plants bioactive compounds, including principles and mechanisms, the important parameters influencing its performance, comparison of ultrahigh pressure extraction with other extraction techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The future opportunities of ultrahigh pressure extraction are also discussed.

  19. Activity of Cuban Plants Extracts against Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    García, Marley; Monzote, Lianet; Scull, Ramón; Herrera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products have long been providing important drug leads for infectious diseases. Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide that affects millions of people especially in the developing nations. There is no immunoprophylaxis (vaccination) available for Leishmania infections, and conventional treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, antileishmanial drugs are urgently needed. In this work, 48 alcoholic extracts from 46 Cuban plants were evaluated by an in vitro bioassay against Leishmania amazonensis. Furthermore, their toxicity was assayed against murine macrophage. The three most potent extracts against the amastigote stage of Leishmania amazonensis were from Hura crepitans, Bambusa vulgaris, and Simarouba glauca. PMID:22530133

  20. Photodynamic activity of plant extracts from Sarawak, Borneo.

    PubMed

    Jong, Wan Wui; Tan, Pei Jean; Kamarulzaman, Fadzly Adzhar; Mejin, Michele; Lim, Diana; Ang, Ida; Naming, Margarita; Yeo, Tiong Chia; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

    2013-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical treatment that involves the irradiation of an administered photosensitizing drug with light of a particular wavelength to activate the photosensitizer to kill abnormal cells. To date, only a small number of photosensitizers have been clinically approved for PDT, and researchers continue to look for new molecules that have more desirable properties for clinical applications. Natural products have long been important sources of pharmaceuticals, and there is a great potential for discovery of novel chemotypes from under-explored biodiversities in the world. The objective of this study is to mine the terrestrial plants in Sarawak, Borneo Island, for new photosensitizers for PDT. In a screening program from 2004 to 2008, we prepared and studied 2,400 extracts from 888 plants for their photosensitizing activities. This report details the bioprospecting process, preparation and testing of extracts, analysis of the active samples, fractionation of four samples, and isolation and characterization of photosensitizers.

  1. Characterization of some plant extracts by GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordache, A.; Culea, M.; Gherman, C.; Cozar, O.

    2009-01-01

    Different types of herbs often used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry were extracted and then analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method validation parameters showed good linearity, precision and recovery for a standard mixture. Herbs from different zones of Romania were studied: melissa (Melissa officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica, Lamium album), camomile (Matricaria chamomilla). The study was applied for fingerprint chromatograms to characterize the flavors extracted from herb plants of different sources. The identity and quantity of the measured active compounds was correlated with the expected therapeutic effects. The active principles content was determined for the same herb, and different amounts of the active principles were determined for plants of different origin.

  2. Plant metabolomics: from experimental design to knowledge extraction.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amit; Umashankar, Shivshankar; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomics is one of the most recent additions to the functional genomics approaches. It involves the use of analytical chemistry techniques to provide high-density data of metabolic profiles. Data is then analyzed using advanced statistics and databases to extract biological information, thus providing the metabolic phenotype of an organism. Large variety of metabolites produced by plants through the complex metabolic networks and their dynamic changes in response to various perturbations can be studied using metabolomics. Here, we describe the basic features of plant metabolic diversity and analytical methods to describe this diversity, which includes experimental workflows starting from experimental design, sample preparation, hardware and software choices, combined with knowledge extraction methods. Finally, we describe a scenario for using these workflows to identify differential metabolites and their pathways from complex biological samples.

  3. Evaluation of two methods for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Bin; Jiang, Yue; Wong, Chi-Chun; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Chen, Feng

    2007-05-01

    The efficiencies of two traditional extraction methods used in Chinese medicine (the decoction method and the maceration method) were evaluated for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants. A group of medicinal plants possessing nutritious and tonic functions were chosen as model plants. A commonly used extraction method was used as a reference method. The antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of the extracts were measured by ferric-reducing antioxidant power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays as well as the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The results obtained indicated that the two traditional extraction methods could effectively extract antioxidants from medicinal plants. These extraction methods can be applied to the analysis and purification of antioxidants in plants, respectively. At home, people can use these methods to extract antioxidants from plants for consumption. In the food industry, these methods could be utilized to prepare crude extracts from plants containing antioxidants for use as food additives.

  4. Cytotoxic Properties of Some Medicinal Plant Extracts from Mazandaran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nemati, Farkhondeh; Dehpouri, Abbas Ali; Eslami, Bahman; Mahdavi, Vahid; Mirzanejad, Sepideh

    2013-01-01

    Background It was shown that plants derived agents are being used for treatment of cancer. In this study, crude ethanolic extract of Consolida orientalis L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Coronilla varia L., Orobanche orientalis G. Beck were screened in vitro for cytotoxic activity on Hela (Human cervical carcinoma) cell line. Objectives We performed the present study to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of four plant extracts that we gathered from north of Iran, Mazandaran Materials and Methods Hela cells were treated with various concentrations of individual samples (0.0312, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/ml) for 72 hours. Cell proliferation measured by MTT assay. Results Result from the performed assay showed that ethanolic extract of Consolida orientalis L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Coronilla varia L. has more significant cytotoxicity effect on Hela cell line than Orobanche orientalis G. Beck. Conclusions Extracts of the Consolida orientalis L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Coronilla varia L. could be considered as potential sources of anticancer compounds but further studies are necessary for isolation and identification of biologically active substances. PMID:24719689

  5. Plant extracts from Cameroonian medicinal plants strongly inhibit hepatitis C virus infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Galani, Borris R. T.; Sahuc, Marie-Emmanuelle; Njayou, Frederic N.; Deloison, Gaspard; Mkounga, Pierre; Feudjou, William F.; Brodin, Priscille; Rouillé, Yves; Nkengfack, Augustin E.; Moundipa, Paul Fewou; Séron, Karin

    2015-01-01

    According to some recent studies, Cameroon is one of the sub-Saharan African countries most affected by hepatitis C, with low access to the standard therapy based on the combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. A first ethnobotanical survey, conducted in the Western region of Cameroon, reported the use of several medicinal plants in traditional medicine for the healing of liver-related disorders. Crude organic extracts of five plants surveyed were prepared and their effect against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection investigated. The HCV JFH1 strain cell culture system HCVcc was used. The antiviral activity was quantified by immunofluorescent labeling of HCV E1 envelope protein at 30 h post-infection in the presence of the plant extracts. Active compounds were then tested in time course infection experiments. Dose-response and cellular toxicity assays were also determined. Three extracts, methanol extracts from roots of Trichilia dregeana, stems of Detarium microcarpum and leaves of Phragmanthera capitata, showed anti-HCV activity, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 16.16, 1.42, and 13.17 μg/mL, respectively. Huh-7 cells were incubated with the extracts for 72 h and it appears that T. dregeana extract is not toxic up to 200 μg/mL, D. microcarpum up to 100 μg/mL and P. capitata up to 800 μg/mL. All the three extracts showed a strong inhibition of HCV entry and no effect on replication or secretion. Taken together, these results showed that extracts from Cameroonian medicinal plants are promising sources of anti-HCV agents. PMID:26029203

  6. Effects of Thai piperaceae plant extracts on Neospora caninum infection.

    PubMed

    Leesombun, Arpron; Boonmasawai, Sookruetai; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2017-06-01

    Neosporosis has a worldwide distribution and causes economic losses in farming, particularly by increasing the risk of abortion in cattle. This study investigated the effects of Thai piperaceae (Piper betle, P. nigrum, and P. sarmentosum) extracts on Neospora caninum infections in vitro and in vivo. In an in vitro parasite growth assay based on the green fluorescent protein (GFP) signal, P. betle was the most effective extract at inhibiting parasite growth in human foreskin fibroblast cells (IC50 of GFP-expressing N. caninum parasites, 22.1μg/ml). The P. betle extract, at 25μg per ml, inhibited parasite invasion into host cells. Furthermore, in two independent experiments, treating N. caninum-infected mice with the P. betle extract for 7days post-infection increased their survival. In trial one, the anti-N. caninum effects of the P. betle extract reduced the mouse clinical scores for 30days post-infection (dpi). The survival rate of the mice treated with 400mg/kg was 100% compared with 66.6% for those treated with 100mg/kg and the non-treated controls. In trial two, treating the infected mice with the P. betle extract increased their survival at 50dpi. All mice in the non-treatment group died; however, the survival rates of the 400mg/kg-treated and 100mg/kg-treated mice were 83.3% and 33.3%, respectively. Also, a trend towards a reduced parasite burden was noted in the brains of the P. betle extract-treated mice, compared with the control mice. Therefore P. betle extract has potential as a medicinal plant for treating neosporosis.

  7. Plant extracts: search for new alternatives to treat microbial diseases.

    PubMed

    Alviano, D S; Alviano, C S

    2009-01-01

    Medicinal plants constitute the base of health care systems in many societies. The recovery of the knowledge and practices associated with these plant resources are part of an important strategy linked to the conservation of biodiversity, discovery of new medicines, and the bettering of the quality of life of poor rural communities. Research in phytosciences, an emerging multidisciplinary science, is almost unlimited, with several aspects to be discussed. Therefore, the focus of the present review is mainly on the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of bioactive phytocompounds resultant of our research with crude plant extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants belonging to different families, used in various infectious disorders. The results obtained in the last years warrant the present review, discussing not only the use of several medicinal plants against bacteria, yeast, filamentous fungi and protozoa, but also their mechanisms of action, interactions with macromolecules and potential for toxicity in mammalian cells. Problems related to the efficacy of the isolation techniques and stability of bioactive compounds are also commented on. In addition, this review aims to emphasize the greatest importance to investigate plant species that have not been the subject of pharmacological studies, although their popular uses have been reported.

  8. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, M.W.; Thompson, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities.

  9. Age and rate of diversification of the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Compositae)

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Bruce G.; Sanderson, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Comparisons between insular and continental radiations have been hindered by a lack of reliable estimates of absolute diversification rates in island lineages. We took advantage of rate-constant rDNA sequence evolution and an “external” calibration using paleoclimatic and fossil data to determine the maximum age and minimum diversification rate of the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Compositae), a textbook example of insular adaptive radiation in plants. Our maximum-age estimate of 5.2 ± 0.8 million years ago for the most recent common ancestor of the silversword alliance is much younger than ages calculated by other means for the Hawaiian drosophilids, lobelioids, and honeycreepers and falls approximately within the history of the modern high islands (≤5.1 ± 0.2 million years ago). By using a statistically efficient estimator that reduces error variance by incorporating clock-based estimates of divergence times, a minimum diversification rate for the silversword alliance was estimated to be 0.56 ± 0.17 species per million years. This exceeds average rates of more ancient continental radiations and is comparable to peak rates in taxa with sufficiently rich fossil records that changes in diversification rate can be reconstructed. PMID:9689092

  10. Exploring the Potential for Using Inexpensive Natural Reagents Extracted from Plants to Teach Chemical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap

    2012-01-01

    A number of scientific articles report on the use of natural extracts from plants as chemical reagents, where the main objective is to present the scientific applications of those natural plant extracts. The author suggests that natural reagents extracted from plants can be used as alternative low cost tools in teaching chemical analysis,…

  11. Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf = 16,000×g), two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf = 5,000 and 3,000 ×g), and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf = 120×g). Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt this method for genomic

  12. Plant and metagenomic DNA extraction of mucilaginous seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Simone N.M.; Salazar, Marcela M.; Pereira, Gonçalo A.G.; Efraim, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The pulp surrounding the seeds of some fruits is rich in mucilage, carbohydrates, etc. Some seeds are rich in proteins and polyphenols. Fruit seeds, like cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), are subjected to fermentation to develop flavor. During fermentation, ethanol is produced [2–6]. All of these compounds are considered as interfering substances that hinder the DNA extraction [4–8]. Protocols commonly used in the DNA extraction in samples of plant origin were used, but without success. Thus, a protocol for DNA samples under different conditions that can be used for similar samples was developed and applied with success. The protocol initially described for RNA samples by Zeng et al. [9] and with changes proposed by Provost et al. [5] was adapted for extracting DNA samples from those described. However, several modifications have been proposed:•Samples were initially washed with petroleum ether for fat phase removal.•RNAse was added to the extraction buffer, while spermidin was removed.•Additional steps of extraction with 5 M NaCl, saturated NaCl and CTAB (10%) were included and precipitation was carried out with isopropanol, followed by washing with ethanol. PMID:26150956

  13. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nguta, Joseph M.; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G.A.; Otchere, Isaac; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally to treat tuberculosis in Ghana. The current study was designed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts from five selected medicinal plants. Material and methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) was used for antimycobacterial studies while the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate) PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies. Correlation coefficients were used to compare the activity of crude extracts against nonpathogenic strains and the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis. Results Results of the MIC determinations indicated that all the crude extracts were active on all the three tested mycobacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 156.3 µg/mL against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra (ATCC® 25,177™) were recorded from the leaves of Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae). Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and the leaves from S. torvum had the most promising selectivity index. Activity against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis (correlation coefficient=0.8). Conclusion The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some medicinal plants for tuberculosis treatment. The leaves of Solanum torvum are a potential source of anti-TB natural products and deserve further investigations to develop novel anti-TB agents against sensitive and drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. PMID:26875647

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of four Bolivian Baccharis species (Compositae).

    PubMed

    Abad, M J; Bessa, A L; Ballarin, B; Aragón, O; Gonzales, E; Bermejo, P

    2006-02-20

    Hexanic, dichloromethanic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts from Baccharis obtusifolia HBK, Baccharis latifolia (R. et P.) Pers., Baccharis pentlandii D.C. and Baccharis subulata Wedd., plants used in the traditional medicine of South America have been studied for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity in cellular systems. Calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages were validated as a source of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) (prostaglandin E2, PGE2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) (leukotriene C4, LTC4), and mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used for testing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) activity. Most of the extracts tested were active in all assays.

  15. Anthelmintic properties of extracts from Artemisia plants against nematodes.

    PubMed

    Khan, S; Afshan, K; Mirza, B; Miller, J E; Manan, A; Irum, S; Rizvi, S S R; Qayyum, M

    2015-06-01

    Artemisia plant genus, natural inhabitant of northern Punjab Pakistan, is well known for its anthelmintic properties; many Artemisia species have not been so far scientifically proved. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro anthelmintic activity of Artemisia indica and Artemisia roxburghiana against mixed infection of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. This study is first scientifically proven study on anthelmintic activity of A. indica and A. roxburghiana. Five different concentrations (50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.75 mg/mL) accompanied by negative control (PBS) and positive control (albendazole, 10%) were used to carry out the egg hatch inhibition assay, larval mortality assay and adult worm mortality assay. The Baermann technique was used first time in larval mortality assay and proved to be effective. The results revealed that methanolic extracts of both A. indica and A. roxburghiana, showed maximum anthelmintic activity at concentration of 50 mg/ml by egg hatch inhibition (85±21.2; 80±28.3), larvae mortality (18±2.8; 17±4.2) and adult worm mortality (8.5±2.1; 8±2.8) assays. However, at concentration of 50 mg/ml both plant extracts in comparison to albendazole showed statistically insignificant (p≤0.05) results. The A. indica showed higher anthelmintic activity at all concentrations as compared to A. roburghiana. It has been concluded both plants exhibit anthelmintic activity and further evaluation of these plants should be carried out to purify the active ingredients for anthelmintic activity. Moreover, the decoctions of these plants could be used to GINs after confirming anthelmintic properties through in vivo.

  16. Roles of plant extracts and constituents in cervical cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kma, Lakhan

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health problem worldwide and is the most frequent cause of cancer in women in India. Early detection and affordable drugs with clinical efficacy have to go hand-in-hand in order to comprehensibly address this serious health challenge. Plant-based drugs with potent anticancer effects should add to the efforts to find a cheap drug with limited clinical side effects. Keeping this very purpose in mind, an attempt has been made in this review to explore the potential of plant extracts or constituents known to exhibit antitumorigenic activity or exert cytotoxic effect in human cervical carcinoma cells. Alkaloids such as those isolated from C. vincetoxicum and T. Tanakae, naucleaorals A and B, isolated from the roots of N. orientalis, (6aR)-normecambroline, isolated from the bark of N. dealbata appear promising in different human cervical carcinoma cells with the IC50 of 4.0-8 μg/mL. However, other compounds such as rhinacanthone and neolignans isolated from different plants are not far behind and kill cervical cancer cells at a very low concentrations. Among plant extracts or its constituents that enhance the effect of known anticancer drugs, noni, derived from the plant M. citrifolia perhaps is the best candidate. The cytotoxic potency and apoptotic index of cisplatin was found to significantly enhanced in combination with noni in different human cervical carcinoma cells and it therefore holds significance as promising herbal-based anticancer agent. However, efficacy needs to be further investigated in various cervical cell lines and more importantly, in in vivo cervical cancer models for possible use as an alternative and safe anticancer drug.

  17. Efficacy of two plant extracts against vaginal trichomoniasis.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Gehad T M; El Gozamy, Bothina R; Abdel-Hady, Nevein M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2009-04-01

    Trichomoniasis vaginalis is now an important worldwide health problem. Metronidazole has so far been used in treatment, but the metronidazole-resistant strains and unpleasant adverse effects have been developed. Treatment of patients with metronidazole refractory vaginal trichomoniasis constitutes a major therapeutic challenge and treatment options are extremely limited. In the present study, 33 metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis females were treated with a combined course of metronidazole and tinidazole. Those still resistant to the combined treatment were given Commiphora molmol (Myrrh) as two capsules for six to eight successive days on an empty stomach two hours before breakfast. Also, natural plant extract purified from (Roman) was in-vitro investigated for its efficacy against T. vaginalis on fresh Diamond media. The anti-trichomoniasis vaginalis activity of both P. granatum (in-vitro) and C. molmol (in-vivo) extracts gave promising results.

  18. Antidiarrhoeal activity of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

    2004-06-01

    The antidiarrhoeal activity of six Egyptian medicinal plant extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) and their effect on motility of isolated rabbit's duodenum was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts for their active constituents was also carried out by TLC. Oral administration of methanol extract from Conyza dioscoridis (CD) or Alhagi maurorum (AM) in a 200 mg kg(-1) dose exhibits a significant antidiarrhoeal effect against castor oil-induced diarrhoea, while Mentha microphylla (MM), Convolvulus arvensis (CA), Conyza linifolia (CL) produced no significant effect. In a dose of 400 mg kg(-1), Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Alhagi maurorum, Zygophyllum album (ZA), and Conyza linifolia produced a significant (P<0.01) effect, while Convolvulus arvensis produced no antidiarrhoeal effect in rats. Methanol extract of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Zygophyllum album, and Convolvulus arvensis induced a dose-dependent (0.4-2.8 mg ml(-1)) relaxation of rabbit's duodenal smooth muscle. Alhagi maurorum and Conyza linifolia increased the contractile force in concentrations between 0.4 and 1.6 mg ml(-1). Higher concentrations (>3.2 mg ml(-1)) caused a rapid depressant effect. The depressant effect induced by Alhagi maurorum (in a higher dose) and Zygophyllum album appeared to be due to calcium channel blocking effect, since CaCl(2) could not restore the contractile response of the tissue impregnated in calcium free-medium. However, a ganglionic blocking effect appeared to be a possible mechanism of action of Mentha microphylla and Conyza dioscoridis since a stimulant dose of nicotine could not restore the contractile response of the tissue. The effect of Convolvulus arvensis and Conyza linifolia was not through any of the common mediators. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids as major constituents.

  19. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β.

    PubMed

    Okada, Mizue; Okada, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ) inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts' aqueous extracts (PSAE). In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts' extracts on Aβ (1-42) structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE) with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR) and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r = 0.882) which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE.

  20. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Mizue; Okada, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ) inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts' aqueous extracts (PSAE). In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts' extracts on Aβ (1–42) structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE) with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR) and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r = 0.882) which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE. PMID:27429807

  1. Rapid biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae Yong; Kim, Beom Soo

    2009-01-01

    Five plant leaf extracts (Pine, Persimmon, Ginkgo, Magnolia and Platanus) were used and compared for their extracellular synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles were formed by treating aqueous solution of AgNO(3) with the plant leaf extracts as reducing agent of Ag(+) to Ag(0). UV-visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the quantitative formation of silver nanoparticles. Magnolia leaf broth was the best reducing agent in terms of synthesis rate and conversion to silver nanoparticles. Only 11 min was required for more than 90% conversion at the reaction temperature of 95 degrees C using Magnolia leaf broth. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized with inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and particle analyzer. The average particle size ranged from 15 to 500 nm. The particle size could be controlled by changing the reaction temperature, leaf broth concentration and AgNO(3) concentration. This environmentally friendly method of biological silver nanoparticles production provides rates of synthesis faster or comparable to those of chemical methods and can potentially be used in various human contacting areas such as cosmetics, foods and medical applications.

  2. Chemical interactions between plants in Mediterranean vegetation: the influence of selected plant extracts on Aegilops geniculata metabolome.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, Monica; Fiumano, Vittorio; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Esposito, Assunta; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Allelopathy is the chemical mediated communication among plants. While on one hand there is growing interest in the field, on the other hand it is still debated as doubts exist at different levels. A number of compounds have been reported for their ability to influence plant growth, but the existence of this phenomenon in the field has rarely been demonstrated. Furthermore, only few studies have reported the uptake and the effects at molecular level of the allelochemicals. Allelopathy has been reported on some plants of Mediterranean vegetation and could contribute to structuring this ecosystem. Sixteen plants of Mediterranean vegetation have been selected and studied by an NMR-based metabolomics approach. The extracts of these donor plants have been characterized in terms of chemical composition and the effects on a selected receiving plant, Aegilops geniculata, have been studied both at the morphological and at the metabolic level. Most of the plant extracts employed in this study were found to have an activity, which could be correlated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamate derivatives. These plant extracts affected the receiving plant in different ways, with different rates of growth inhibition at morphological level. The results of metabolomic analysis of treated plants suggested the induction of oxidative stress in all the receiving plants treated with active donor plant extracts, although differences were observed among the responses. Finally, the uptake and transport into receiving plant leaves of different metabolites present in the extracts added to the culture medium were observed.

  3. HPLC determination of extractable and unextractable proanthocyanidins in plant materials.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Jarkko K; Mattila, Pirjo H

    2008-09-10

    This study developed a method for the determination of extractable and unextractable proanthocyanidins. Extractable proanthocyanidins were separated according to their degree of polymerization using normal phase HPLC. Unextractable proanthocyanidins were measured after acid-catalyzed depolymerization as flavan-3-ols (terminal units) and benzylthioethers (external units). Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used for the identification of proanthocyanidins in the samples. Hubaux-Vos detection limits were 0.01-0.15 ng/injection for extractable proanthocyanidins, with recovery rates from 69 to 91%. Detection limits for unextractable proanthocyanidin derivatives were 0.002-0.035 ng/injection with 80% recovery. The developed method was applied to the analysis of several fruit and berry samples. Results showed great variation in the proportion of unextractable proanthocyanidins in total proanthocyanidin content between samples, being highest in the green variety of table grape (63%) and lowest in the apple cultivar 'Valkeakuulas' (4.1%). The method reported herein is reliable and gives valuable information on the nature of proanthocyanidins in plant-derived foods.

  4. Use of plant extracts for tea pest management in India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Handique, Gautam; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Dashora, Kavya; Roy, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda; Babu, Azariah

    2016-06-01

    India is the second largest producer of black tea in the world. The biggest challenge for tea growers of India nowadays is to combat pests and diseases. Tea crop in India is infested by not less than 720 insect and mite species. At least four sucking pests and six chewing pests have well established themselves as regular pests causing substantial damage to this foliage crop. Various synthetic pesticides are widely used for the management of tea pests in India. Applications of such large quantity of pesticides could cause various problems such as development of resistance, deleterious effects on non-target organisms such as insect predators and parasitoids, upsetting the ecological balance, and accumulation of pesticide residues on tea leaves. There is a growing demand for organic tea or at least pesticide residue free tea in the international market which affects the export price. There is also a higher emphasis of implementation of new regulations on internationally traded foods and implementation of Plant Protection Code (PPC) for tea by the Government of India. This necessitates a relook into the usage pattern of synthetic pesticides on this crop. There are various non-chemical interventions which are being worked out for their sustainability, compatibility, and eco-friendly properties which can gradually replace the use of toxic chemicals. The application of plant extracts with insecticidal properties provides an alternative to the synthetic pesticides. Botanical products, especially neem-based products, have made a relatively moderate impact in tea pest control. Research has also demonstrated the potential of 67 plant species as botanical insecticides against tea pests. The majority of plant products used in pest management of tea in India are in the form of crude extracts prepared locally in tea garden itself, and commercial standardized formulations are not available for most of the plants due to lack of scientific research in the area. Apart from systematic

  5. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt.

  6. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  7. Pentacyclic triterpene distribution in various plants - rich sources for a new group of multi-potent plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Sebastian; Trojan, Holger; Kopp, Thomas; Laszczyk, Melanie N; Scheffler, Armin

    2009-06-04

    Pentacyclic triterpenes are secondary plant metabolites widespread in fruit peel, leaves and stem bark. In particular the lupane-, oleanane-, and ursane triterpenes display various pharmacological effects while being devoid of prominent toxicity. Therefore, these triterpenes are promising leading compounds for the development of new multi-targeting bioactive agents. Screening of 39 plant materials identified triterpene rich (> 0.1% dry matter) plant parts. Plant materials with high triterpene concentrations were then used to obtain dry extracts by accelerated solvent extraction resulting in a triterpene content of 50 - 90%. Depending on the plant material, betulin (birch bark), betulinic acid (plane bark), oleanolic acid (olive leaves, olive pomace, mistletoe sprouts, clove flowers), ursolic acid (apple pomace) or an equal mixture of the three triterpene acids (rosemary leaves) are the main components of these dry extracts. They are quantitatively characterised plant extracts supplying a high concentration of actives and therefore can be used for development of phytopharmaceutical formulations.

  8. Narrow endemics on coastal plains: Miocene divergence of the critically endangered genus Avellara (Compositae).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Mazuecos, M; Jiménez-Mejías, P; Martín-Bravo, S; Buide, M L; Álvarez, I; Vargas, P

    2016-07-01

    Critically endangered species representing ancient, evolutionarily isolated lineages must be given priority when allocating resources for conservation projects. Sound phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimations are required to detect them, and studies on their population genetics, ecological requirements and breeding system are needed to understand their evolutionary history and to design efficient conservation strategies. Here we present the paradigmatic case of Avellara, a critically endangered monotypic genus of Compositae inhabiting a few swamps in the west-southwest Iberian coastal plains. Our phylogenetic and dating analyses based on nuclear (ITS) and plastid (matK) DNA sequences support a Miocene (>8.6 Ma) divergence between Avellara and closely related genera, resulting in marked morphological and ecological differentiation. We found alarmingly low levels of genetic diversity, based on AFLPs and plastid DNA sequences, and confirmed the prevalence of clonal reproduction. Species distribution modelling suggested a large macroclimatically suitable area for Avellara in the western Iberian Peninsula, but its apparently narrow microecological requirements restrict its distribution to peatlands with low-mineralised waters. Although five populations have been recorded from Spain and Portugal in the past, its current distribution may be reduced to only one population, recurrently found in the last decade but threatened by herbivory and habitat degradation. All this confirms the consideration of Avellara as a threatened species with high phylogenetic singularity, and makes it a flagship species for plant conservation in both Spain and Portugal that should be given priority in the design of in situ and ex situ conservation programmes.

  9. Antimicrobial activities of skincare preparations from plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kareru, P G; Keriko, J M; Kenji, G M; Thiong'o, G T; Gachanja, A N; Mukiira, H N

    2010-04-03

    In this study, Tithonia diversifolia Helms. (A Gray), Aloe secundiflora (Miller) and Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) plant extracts were used to make herbal soaps while Thevetia peruviana (Schum) seed oil was used to make a herbal lotion for skincare. The soaps were tested for the growth inhibition of Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. The lotion was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and E.coli. Although Tithonia diversifolia soap exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on the test bacterial strains, it had the least inhibition against C. albicans. Results from this study indicated that the 'Tithonia diversifolia' soap would have superior skin protection against the tested bacteria but would offer the least skin protection against C. albicans. The herbal lotion inhibited S. aureus and E. coli in a concentration dependent manner, however, the inhibitory effect was more pronounced on S. aureus.

  10. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  11. Silver nanoparticles synthesised using plant extracts show strong antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Avnesh; Guliani, Anika; Singla, Rubbel; Yadav, Ramdhan; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-06-01

    In this study, three plants Populus alba, Hibiscus arboreus and Lantana camara were explored for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs). The effect of reaction temperature and leaf extract (LE) concentration of P. alba, H. arboreus and L. camara was evaluated on the synthesis and size of SNPs. The SNPs were characterised by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The synthesis rate of SNPs was highest with LE of L. camara followed by H. arboreus and P. alba under similar conditions. L. camara LE showed maximum potential of smaller size SNPs synthesis, whereas bigger particles were formed by H. arboreous LE. The size and shape of L. camara LE synthesised SNPs were analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). TEM analysis revealed the formation of SNPs of average size 17±9.5 nm with 5% LE of L. camara. The SNPs synthesised by LE of L. camara showed strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The results document that desired size SNPs can be synthesised using these plant LEs at a particular temperature for applications in the biomedical field.

  12. Anti-carcinogenic activity of Taraxacum plant. I.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, M; Konoshima, T; Tokuda, H; Masuda, K; Arai, Y; Shiojima, K; Ageta, H

    1999-06-01

    An extract of the roots of Taraxacum japonicum (Compositae) exhibited strong anti-tumor-promoting activities on the two-stage carcinogenesis of mouse skin tumor induced by dimethylbenz[a] anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as a promoter, as well as on that induced by DMBA and fumonisin B1. Further, the extract exhibited anti-tumor-initiating activity on the two-stage carcinogenesis of mouse skin tumor induced by (+/-)-(E)-methyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-6-methoxy-3-hexen amide (NOR-1) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. These results suggested that an extract of the roots of the Taraxacum plant could be a valuable chemopreventive agent against chemical carcinogenesis.

  13. Leishmanicidal evaluation of extracts from native plants of the Yucatan peninsula.

    PubMed

    Peraza-Sánchez, S R; Cen-Pacheco, F; Noh-Chimal, A; May-Pat, F; Simá-Polanco, P; Dumonteil, E; García-Miss, M R; Mut-Martín, M

    2007-06-01

    Methanol extracts were prepared from different parts of 18 plants collected in the Yucatan peninsula and evaluated in an in vitro bioassay for leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania mexicana promastigotes. The ten most potent plant extracts (IC(50)<50 microg/ml) were Aphelandra scabra leaves, Byrsonima bucidaefolia bark, Byrsonima crassifolia bark, Clusia flava leaves, Cupania dentata bark, Diphysa carthagenensis leaves, Dorstenia contrajerva whole plant, Milleria quinqueflora roots, Tridax procumbens whole plant, and Vitex gaumeri bark.

  14. SImbol Materials Lithium Extraction Operating Data From Elmore and Featherstone Geothermal Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Harrison

    2015-07-08

    The data provided in this upload is summary data from its Demonstration Plant operation at the geothermal power production plants in the Imperial Valley. The data provided is averaged data for the Elmore Plant and the Featherstone Plant. Included is both temperature and analytical data (ICP_OES). Provide is the feed to the Simbol Process, post brine treatment and post lithium extraction.

  15. Improved RNA extraction and one-tube RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of control plant RNA plus several viruses in plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Nassuth, A; Pollari, E; Helmeczy, K; Stewart, S; Kofalvi, S A

    2000-10-01

    A procedure was developed for simultaneous detection of plant RNA viruses and of plant RNA, as a control. RT-PCR amplification with primers designed for the detection of the plant mRNAs encoding malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RubiscoL) was used for the development of a plant extraction procedure that consistently yields extracts that can be amplified. The control amplification was used successfully on extracts from cane, leaf and/or bud tissues from grapevine, apple, raspberry, strawberry, peach, apricot, plum and wheat. Multiplex RT-PCR conditions were established for the simultaneous detection in grapevine extracts of either arabis mosaic virus, rupestris stem pitting associated virus and malate dehydrogenase mRNA, or grapevine virus A, grapevine virus B, grapevine leafroll associated virus-3, and RubiscoL mRNA.

  16. Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; MǎruÅ£oiu, C.

    2013-11-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

  17. Six plant extracts delay yeast chronological aging through different signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lutchman, Vicky; Dakik, Pamela; McAuley, Mélissa; Cortes, Berly; Ferraye, George; Gontmacher, Leonid; Graziano, David; Moukhariq, Fatima-Zohra; Simard, Éric; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    Our recent study has revealed six plant extracts that slow yeast chronological aging more efficiently than any chemical compound yet described. The rate of aging in yeast is controlled by an evolutionarily conserved network of integrated signaling pathways and protein kinases. Here, we assessed how single-gene-deletion mutations eliminating each of these pathways and kinases affect the aging-delaying efficiencies of the six plant extracts. Our findings imply that these extracts slow aging in the following ways: 1) plant extract 4 decreases the efficiency with which the pro-aging TORC1 pathway inhibits the anti-aging SNF1 pathway; 2) plant extract 5 mitigates two different branches of the pro-aging PKA pathway; 3) plant extract 6 coordinates processes that are not assimilated into the network of presently known signaling pathways/protein kinases; 4) plant extract 8 diminishes the inhibitory action of PKA on SNF1; 5) plant extract 12 intensifies the anti-aging protein kinase Rim15; and 6) plant extract 21 inhibits a form of the pro-aging protein kinase Sch9 that is activated by the pro-aging PKH1/2 pathway. PMID:27447556

  18. Whitening efficacy of plant extracts including Hippophae rhamnoides and Cassia fistula extracts on the skin of Asian patients with melasma

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Naveed; Hussain, Irshad; Abbas, Khwaja Asad; Rasul, Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Melasma/hyperpigmentation and solar damage of the skin remains a difficult problem to treat. Various types of whitening agents are used to treat hyperpigmentation. A change has been observed recently to use plant extracts as skin whitening agents. Aim To compare the effectiveness of emulsion formulations containing plant extracts that include catechins/polyphenols and placebo without plant extracts, on patients with melasma. Material and methods Two groups of 25 patients each (aged 21–35 years), who reported to the outpatient department of BV Hospital and Personal clinic of a dermatologist, were included in the study. Volunteers applied the formulations with plant extracts and placebo to one side of the cheek. Prior to the study, signed consent was obtained from each patient. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the extracts and formulations was tested in vitro. The pigment density of patients was evaluated biometrologically using Mexameter® and subjectively using a visual survey before and after treatment of 12 weeks. The approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee of Faculty of Pharmacy, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur was obtained before the study. One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used in the statistical analysis. Results A significant decrease in the level of melanin was determined in all 50 patients who used a plant extract containing catechin (p ≤ 0.05). The difference between pre- and post-treatment levels of melanin was statistically significant (p = 0.05). Formulations prepared with plant extracts containing catechin were found effective on melasma, compared to the placebo. Conclusions Formulations containing plant extracts that are not yet being used widespread commercially on melasma could be an effective alternative treatment of melasma. PMID:24278079

  19. Critical issues with cryogenic water extraction for tracing plant's source water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlowski, Natalie; Winkler, Anna; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Numerous scientists and disciplines around the world are applying stable water isotope techniques-, especially in the ecohydrological context. For more than two decades, cryogenic vacuum extraction has been the most widely used method for obtaining water from soils and plant tissues for isotope analysis. Recent findings suggested that cryogenic extraction conditions (extraction time, temperature, vacuum threshold) and physicochemical soil properties considerably affected the extracted soil water isotope results. The key question therefore is: Which soil water pool/s are we actually extracting cryogenically under certain extraction conditions and is this soil water pool the source of plant water uptake? We conducted a greenhouse trial with two different plant species grown on two physicochemically different soils (sandy soil and clayey loam) to test the effects of varying cryogenic extraction conditions and physicochemical soil properties on extracted soil water isotope results. We further aimed to identify the unique soil water isotopic signature which mirrors plant's water source. We sampled root crowns and an aliquot of the first and second soil layer for cryogenic water extraction. To determine the plant water available soil water pool/s, we varied water extraction parameters (time and temperature). Our dual-isotope study showed that physicochemical soil properties (i.e. clay content, pore size) along with extraction parameters lead to isotope fractionation effects of soil water. Extraction temperature and time significantly impacted isotope results of clayey loam samples but no effect could be observed for the sandy soil. In general, for water extracts of both soil types, longer extraction times and higher temperatures resulted in enriched isotopic signatures, although this influence was more pronounced for the clayey loam. Determining ideal soil water extraction parameters to identify plant available soil water pools revealed that extraction settings of 200

  20. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric characterization of essential oils and extracts from Lippia (Verbenaceae) aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Stashenko, Elena E; Martínez, Jairo R; Cala, Mónica P; Durán, Diego C; Caballero, Deyanira

    2013-01-01

    Analytical methodologies based on GC and HPLC were developed for the separation and quantification of carnosic acid, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin, and pinocembrin. These methods were used to characterize essential oils and extracts obtained by solvent (methanol) and by supercritical fluid (CO(2)) extraction from stems and leaves of Lippia (Verbenaceae family) aromatic plants (Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Lippia micromera, Lippia americana, Lippia graveolens, and Lippia citriodora). Supercritical CO(2) extraction isolated solely pinocembrin and narigenin from three L. origanoides chemotypes. Solvent extracts possessed a more varied composition that additionally included apigenin, quercetin, and luteolin. Solvent extraction afforded higher overall flavonoid yields from all species in comparison with supercritical CO(2) extraction. Pinocembrin was determined in L. origanoides extract at a concentration of 30 mg/g of plant material, which is more than ten times higher than the amount at which polyphenols are regularly found in aromatic plant extracts.

  1. Extractability, plant yield and toxicity thresholds for boron in compost

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, W.F.; Evans, E.; Blewett, C.

    2008-04-01

    Boron (B) is a trace element essential to crop growth in small soil concentrations (0.2-1.5ppm), yet may produce plant toxicity symptoms readily as the amount in the soil solution increases over 2ppm. Our study examined commercial compost made with coal fly-ash used to prepare growing media for cultivars of varying sensitivity (corn, beans, cucumber, peas). We examined total vs. extractable boron content and relate final visual symptoms of B-toxicity to yields and tissue concentrations. Visual toxicity effects included tip burn (corn), leaf mottling and necrosis (beans and peas) and leaf mottling and cupping (cucumbers). Fly ash added to compost increased hot-water soluble (HWS) B in proportion to rate and in dependence on pH, with 30% and 10% of total-B expressed as HWS-B at a media pH of 6 and 7.5, respectively. Biomass for bean and cucumber was significantly reduced by 45 to 55%, respectively, by addition of 33% fly-ash compost to growing media (28ppm total-B) while plant tissue-B increased by 6- to 4-fold, respectively. Economic yield depressions in compost media are evident for all crops and appeared at levels of HWS-B in compost media exceeding 5 ppm. The study underscores the need for careful management of exogenous factors that may be present in composts and suggests detailed understanding of media-pH and cultivar preferences may be required in preparation of growing media in order to reduce potential negative growth effects.

  2. Antifungal activities of Hedychium essential oils and plant extracts against mycotoxigenic fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-derived antifungal compounds are preferred to chemicals to reduce the risk of toxic effects on humans, livestock and the environment. Essential oil extracted from rhizomes and plant extracts of ornamental ginger lily (Hedychium spp.) were evaluated for their antifungal activity against two fu...

  3. DNA extraction protocols from dormant buds of twelve woody plant genera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard plant DNA extraction protocols call for samples of newly expanding leaves and shoots yet analysis is sometimes needed when plants are dormant. We evaluated three DNA extraction protocols using dormant buds from 40 species and four hybrids of 12 genera. Two protocols were from ready-to-use ...

  4. Design of Peumus boldus tablets by direct compression using a novel dry plant extract.

    PubMed

    Palma, Santiago; Luján, Claudia; Llabot, Juan Manuel; Barboza, Gloria; Manzo, Ruben Hilario; Allemandi, Daniel Alberto

    2002-02-21

    A solid pharmaceutical dosage formulation using a novel dry plant extract of Peumus boldus MOL. (Monimiaceae) (Pb) is proposed. The botanical evaluation of plant material, through morphological and anatomical diagnosis, is presented. This evaluation permits to identify the herb to be used correctly. The analysis of the most extractive solvent mixture and the attainment of plant extract (fluid and dry) are reported. Several formulations (tablets) containing a novel dry plant extract of Pb and common excipients for direct compression are evaluated. The following formulation: dry plant extract of Pb (170 mg), Avicel PH101 (112 mg), Lactose CD (112) and magnesium stearate (6 mg), compressed at 1000 mPa, showed the best pharmaceutical performance.

  5. Histamine protection in guinea-pigs produced by plant tumour extracts

    PubMed Central

    Broome, J.; Callow, R. K.; Feldberg, W.; Kovacs, B. A.

    1962-01-01

    Stable extracts were obtained from plant tumours, such as Hungarian oak galls and crown galls of infected tomato plants, which, injected intraperitoneally into guinea-pigs, protected the animals against a subsequent histamine aerosol. The protection produced by the oak gall extracts lasted for a few days and that produced by the crown gall extracts, if injected in sufficient amounts, sometimes for a few weeks. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:13873490

  6. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts from Brazil against fish pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Castro, S.B.R.; Leal, C.A.G.; Freire, F.R.; Carvalho, D.A.; Oliveira, D.F.; Figueiredo, H.C.P.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Brazilian plants extracts against fish pathogenic bacteria. Forty six methanolic extracts were screened to identify their antibacterial properties against Streptococcus agalactiae, Flavobacterium columnare and Aeromonas hydrophila. Thirty one extracts showed antibacterial activity. PMID:24031303

  7. Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to selected noxious plant extracts and insecticides.

    PubMed

    Gӧkçe, A; Stelinski, L L; Nortman, D R; Bryan, W W; Whalon, M E

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were tested for several methanolic plant extracts and organically approved insecticides. Plant extracts were evaluated for their potential as antifeedants or oviposition deterrents. These extract responses were also compared to those elicited by the non-neurotoxic, organic irritant-insecticide kaolin clay. Both sexes of plum curculio exhibited antennal response as measured by electroantennogram, which ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mV, to plant extracts and the organic irritant/insecticide, with the greatest response to the extract of rough cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (1.1 mV). No choice tests were conducted to compare feeding and oviposition by plum curculio on untreated apples or on apples treated with one of the extracts or the insecticide. The insecticide pyrethrum and extracts of X. strumarium and greater burdock, Arctium lappa L., significantly reduced feeding. Also, pyrethrum, A. lappa, Humulus lupulus L. (common hop), X. strumarium, and Verbascum songaricum Schrenk extracts completely inhibited egg deposition. In no-choice assays, the effects of kaolin clay with incorporated plant extracts on plum curculio feeding and oviposition were monitored as complementary tests. A. lappa-kaolin, H. lupulus-kaolin, and X. strumarium-kaolin mixtures significantly reduced the feeding of plum curculio compared to the control or kaolin clay alone. Each of the plant extract-kaolin mixtures evaluated, with the exception of Bifora radians Bieberstein (wild bishop), completely inhibited plum curculio oviposition as compared to controls.

  8. Synthesis in plants and plant extracts of silver nanoparticles with potent antimicrobial properties: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Mashwani, Zia-ur-Rehman; Khan, Tariq; Khan, Mubarak Ali; Nadhman, Akhtar

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by plants and plant extracts (green synthesis) has been developed into an important innovative biotechnology, especially in the application of such particles in the control of pathogenic bacteria. This is a safer technology, biologically and environmentally, than synthesis of silver nanoparticles by chemical or physical methods. Plants are preferable to microbes as agents for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles because plants do not need to be maintained in cell culture. The antibacterial activity of bionanoparticles has been extensively explored during the past decade. This review examines studies published in the last decade that deal with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in plants and their antibacterial activity.

  9. Activity of some Mexican medicinal plant extracts on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema.

    PubMed

    Meckes, M; David-Rivera, A D; Nava-Aguilar, V; Jimenez, A

    2004-07-01

    The extracts obtained from 14 plants of the Mexican medicinal flora were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The i.p. administration of the extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg produced a high reduction of edema with 70% of the plant extracts. Oenothera rosea methanol extract, Sphaeralcea angustifolia chloroform extract, Acaciafarnesiana, Larrea tridentata and Rubus coriifolius methanol extracts as well as the aqueous extract of Chamaedora tepejilote were demonstrated to be particularly active against the induced hind-paw edema. Moderate inhibition of edema formation was also demonstrated with the methanol extracts of Astianthus viminalis, Brickellia paniculata, C. tepejilote and Justicia spicigera.

  10. Evaluation of unbound free heme in plant cells by differential acetone extraction.

    PubMed

    Espinas, Nino A; Kobayashi, Koichi; Takahashi, Shigekazu; Mochizuki, Nobuyoshi; Masuda, Tatsuru

    2012-07-01

    Heme functions not only as a prosthetic group of hemoproteins but also as a regulatory molecule, suggesting the presence of 'free' heme. Classically, total non-covalently bound heme is extracted from plant samples with acidic acetone after removal of pigments with basic and neutral acetone. Earlier work proposed that free heme can be selectively extracted into basic acetone. Using authentic hemoproteins, we confirmed that acidic acetone can quantitatively extract heme, while no heme was extracted into neutral acetone. Meanwhile, a certain amount of heme was extracted into basic acetone from hemoglobin and myoglobin. Moreover, basic acetone extracted loosely bound heme from bovine serum albumin, implying that the nature of hemoproteins largely influences heme extraction into basic acetone. Using a highly sensitive heme assay, we found that basic and neutral acetone can extract low levels of heme from plant samples. In addition, neutral acetone quantitatively extracted free heme when it was externally added to plant homogenates. Furthermore, the level of neutral acetone-extractable heme remained unchanged by precursor (5-aminolevulinic acid) feeding, while increased by norflurazon treatment which abolishes chloroplast biogenesis. However, changes in these heme levels did not correlate to genomes uncoupled phenotypes, suggesting that the level of unbound free heme would not affect retrograde signaling from plastids to the nucleus. The present data demonstrate that the combination of single-step acetone extraction following a sensitive heme assay is the ideal method for determining total and free heme in plants.

  11. Extraction Kinetics of Energetic Compounds from Training Range and Army Ammunition Plant Soils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    sonic bath. The sonic bath extraction procedure was chosen in the 1980s in a study where four extraction methods or devices ( Soxhlet , sonic bath...ER D C/ CR R EL T R -0 6 -6 Extraction Kinetics of Energetic Compounds from Training Range and Army Ammunition Plant Soils Platform...b or at or y Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CRREL TR-06-6 March 2006 Extraction Kinetics of Energetic Compounds

  12. Extracts of edible and medicinal plants damage membranes of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Eduardo; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2010-10-01

    The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pH(in)), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism.

  13. Extracts of Edible and Medicinal Plants Damage Membranes of Vibrio cholerae▿

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Eduardo; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2010-01-01

    The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pHin), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism. PMID:20802077

  14. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from native plants in the Mexican desert.

    PubMed

    Wong Paz, Jorge E; Muñiz Márquez, Diana B; Martínez Ávila, Guillermo C G; Belmares Cerda, Ruth E; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Several plants that are rich in polyphenolic compounds and exhibit biological properties are grown in the desert region of Mexico under extreme climate conditions. These compounds have been recovered by classic methodologies in these plants using organic solvents. However, little information is available regarding the use of alternative extraction technologies, such as ultrasound. In this paper, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) parameters, such as the liquid:solid ratio, solvent concentration and extraction time, were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) for the extraction of polyphenols from desert plants including Jatrophadioica,Flourensiacernua, Turneradiffusa and Eucalyptuscamaldulensis. Key process variables (i.e., liquid:solid ratio and ethanol concentration) exert the greatest influence on the extraction of all of the phenolic compounds (TPC) in the studied plants. The best conditions for the extraction of TPC involved an extraction time of 40min, an ethanol concentration of 35% and a liquid:solid ratio ranging from 8 to 12mlg(-1) depending on the plant. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained in the E. camaldulensis extracts. The results indicated the ability of UAE to obtain polyphenolic antioxidant preparations from desert plants.

  15. SOS-red fluorescent protein (RFP) bioassay system for monitoring of antigenotoxic activity in plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Bartolome, Amelita; Mandap, Katheryn; David, Kevim Jhean; Sevilla, Fortunato; Villanueva, James

    2006-05-15

    An optical antigenotoxicity assay using genetically engineered red fluorescent bacteria is presented. Exposure of Escherichia coli RS4U to genotoxicants [mitomycin C (MMC), nalidixic acid (NA) and hydrogen peroxide (HP)] resulted in phenotypic red fluorescence proportional to the concentration of the inducer. Except for tannic acid (TA), co-treatment of the genotoxicant-activated bacteria with ascorbic acid (AA) and aqueous plant extracts (Mangifera indica, Psidium guajava and Syzygium cumini) afforded protection against all three genotoxicants. TA was effective in suppressing the genotoxic effect of MMC and HP. The antigenotoxic effect is seen as inhibition of the genotoxicant-triggered red fluorescence. The IC50 of the plant extracts and AA varied with the genotoxicant used. Rec assay verified the antigenotoxic activity of the plant extracts. Folin-Ciocalteu test, FeCl3 test and DPPH assay confirmed the presence of polyphenolic compounds and hydrolyzable tannins in the plant extracts and the antioxidant capacity of the plant samples.

  16. Comparison of extractants for plant-available zinc, cadmium, nickel, and copper in contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, A.U.; Bates, T.E.; Soon, Y.K.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to find a suitable extractant(s) for plant-available metals in metal contaminated soils. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. Fordhook Giant) was grown in greenhouse pots on 46 Ontario soils varying in degree of contamination with metals. The soils had been contaminated with metals to varying degrees over a period of years. After 40 days, the plants were harvested and Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cu concentrations were measured. Each soil was extracted with nine different extractants: aqua regia, 0.01M EDTA, 0.005M DTPA, 0.02M NTA, 0.5N CH/sub 3/COOH, 1N CH/sub 3/COONH/sub 4/, 0.6N HCl + 0.05N AlCl/sub 3/, (COOH)/sub 2/ + (COONH/sub 4/)/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/O. Zinc, cadmium, nickel, and copper concentrations in Swiss chard were correlated with the amounts of soil Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cu removed by each extractant. Of the nine soil extractants, CH/sub 3/COONH/sub 4/ was the best predictor of plant-available Zn if only extractable Zn and soil pH were included as independent variables in a regression equation. Acetic acid was the best extractant for prediction of both plant-available Cd and Ni when soil pH was included in the equation. Attempts to find a suitable soil extractant for plant-available Cu were unsuccessful.

  17. Phytosterols and their extraction from various plant matrices using supercritical carbon dioxide: a review.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Salim; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ferdosh, Sahena; Akanda, Md Jahurul Haque; Easmin, Mst Sabina; Bt Shamsudin, Siti Hadijah; Bin Yunus, Kamaruzzaman

    2015-05-01

    Phytosterols provide important health benefits: in particular, the lowering of cholesterol. From environmental and commercial points of view, the most appropriate technique has been searched for extracting phytosterols from plant matrices. As a green technology, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide (CO2) is widely used to extract bioactive compounds from different plant matrices. Several studies have been performed to extract phytosterols using supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and this technology has clearly offered potential advantages over conventional extraction methods. However, the efficiency of SFE technology fully relies on the processing parameters, chemistry of interest compounds, nature of the plant matrices and expertise of handling. This review covers SFE technology with particular reference to phytosterol extraction using SC-CO2. Moreover, the chemistry of phytosterols, properties of supercritical fluids (SFs) and the applied experimental designs have been discussed for better understanding of phytosterol solubility in SC-CO2.

  18. In vitro antiviral activity of plant extracts from Asteraceae medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the high prevalence of viral infections having no specific treatment and the constant appearance of resistant viral strains, the development of novel antiviral agents is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), poliovirus type 2 (PV-2) and vesicular stomatitis virus of organic (OE) and aqueous extracts (AE) from: Baccharis gaudichaudiana, B. spicata, Bidens subalternans, Pluchea sagittalis, Tagetes minuta and Tessaria absinthioides. A characterization of the antiviral activity of B. gaudichaudiana OE and AE and the bioassay-guided fractionation of the former and isolation of one active compound is also reported. Methods The antiviral activity of the OE and AE of the selected plants was evaluated by reduction of the viral cytopathic effect. Active extracts were then assessed by plaque reduction assays. The antiviral activity of the most active extracts was characterized by evaluating their effect on the pretreatment, the virucidal activity and the effect on the adsorption or post-adsorption period of the viral cycle. The bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE was carried out by column chromatography followed by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography fractionation of the most active fraction and isolation of an active compound. The antiviral activity of this compound was also evaluated by plaque assay. Results B. gaudichaudiana and B. spicata OE were active against PV-2 and VSV. T. absinthioides OE was only active against PV-2. The corresponding three AE were active against HSV-1. B. gaudichaudiana extracts (OE and AE) were the most selective ones with selectivity index (SI) values of 10.9 (PV-2) and >117 (HSV-1). For this reason, both extracts of B. gaudichaudiana were selected to characterize their antiviral effects. Further bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE led to an active fraction, FC (EC50

  19. Photoluminescent distinction among plant life forms using phosphate buffered saline extract solutions.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Timothy L; Obeidat, Safwan; Rayson, Gary D; Anderson, Dean M; Fredrickson, Ed L; Estell, Rick E

    2006-07-01

    Photoluminescence of plant extract solutions has been investigated for discrimination of plant life forms (grasses, forbs, and shrubs) using principal component analysis (PCA). Clippings from each of six plant species representing three different plant life forms potentially found in the diets of free-ranging herbivores in the Chihuahuan Desert of North America were investigated for possible discernment. These plants included Sporobolus flexuosus (mesa dropseed, a grass), Pleuraphis mutica (tobosa, a grass), Dimorphocarpa wislizenii (spectacle pod, a forb), Sphaeralcea incana (pale globemallow, a forb), Flourensia cernua leaves (tarbush, a shrub), and Atriplex canescens leaves and stems (fourwing saltbush, a shrub). Emission spectra (370-600 nm) from phosphate buffered saline (PBS) extract solutions (pH 2.2, 7.5 and 12.5) were recorded for each plant with excitation at 365 nm. Use of PBS minimized chlorophyll interference. Discernment among plant life forms within these plant species was achieved.

  20. Bridging the gap between comprehensive extraction protocols in plant metabolomics studies and method validation.

    PubMed

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Van der Auwera, Anastasia; Foubert, Kenn; Voorspoels, Stefan; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2016-09-07

    It is vital to pay much attention to the design of extraction methods developed for plant metabolomics, as any non-extracted or converted metabolites will greatly affect the overall quality of the metabolomics study. Method validation is however often omitted in plant metabolome studies, as the well-established methodologies for classical targeted analyses such as recovery optimization cannot be strictly applied. The aim of the present study is to thoroughly evaluate state-of-the-art comprehensive extraction protocols for plant metabolomics with liquid chromatography-photodiode array-accurate mass mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-amMS) by bridging the gap with method validation. Validation of an extraction protocol in untargeted plant metabolomics should ideally be accomplished by validating the protocol for all possible outcomes, i.e. for all secondary metabolites potentially present in the plant. In an effort to approach this ideal validation scenario, two plant matrices were selected based on their wide versatility of phytochemicals: meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) for its polyphenols content, and spicy paprika powder (from the genus Capsicum) for its apolar phytochemicals content (carotenoids, phytosterols, capsaicinoids). These matrices were extracted with comprehensive extraction protocols adapted from literature and analysed with a generic LC-PDA-amMS characterization platform that was previously validated for broad range phytochemical analysis. The performance of the comprehensive sample preparation protocols was assessed based on extraction efficiency, repeatability and intermediate precision and on ionization suppression/enhancement evaluation. The manuscript elaborates on the finding that none of the extraction methods allowed to exhaustively extract the metabolites. Furthermore, it is shown that depending on the extraction conditions enzymatic degradation mechanisms can occur. Investigation of the fractions obtained with the different extraction methods

  1. The role of fibres and the hypodermis in Compositae melanin secretion.

    PubMed

    De-Paula, Orlando Cavalari; Marzinek, Juliana; Oliveira, Denise Maria Trombert; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Melanins are dark, insoluble pigments that are resistant to concentrated acids and bleaching by oxidising agents. Phytomelanin (or phytomelan) is present in the seed coat of some Asparagales and in the fruits of some Compositae. In Compositae fruits, melanin is deposited in the schizogenous spaces between the hypodermis and underlying fibrous layer. Phytomelanin in Compositae is poorly understood, and there are only speculations regarding the cells that produce the pigment and the cellular processes involved in the secretion and polymerisation of phytomelanin. This report describes the cellular processes involved in the secretion of phytomelanin in the pericarp of Praxelis diffusa, a species with a structure typical of the family. The ovaries and fruits at different stages were fixed and processed according to the standard methods of studies of light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Hypodermal cells have abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and the nuclei have chromatin that is less dense than other cells. These characteristics are typical of cells that synthesise protein/amino acids and suggest no carbohydrate secretion. The fibres, however, have a dense cytoplasm rich in the Golgi bodies that are associated with vesicles and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, common characteristics of carbohydrate secretory cells. Our results indicate that the hypodermal cells are not responsible for the secretion of phytomelanin, as previously described in the literature; in contrast, this function is assigned to the adjacent fibres, which have an organisation typical of cells that secrete carbohydrates.

  2. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  3. Baited traps may be an alternative to conventional pesticides in integrated crop management of chicory (Compositae) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Midgley, J M; Hill, M P; Villet, M H

    2008-02-01

    Chicory, Chicorium intybus L. (Compositae), is a major field crop in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Several pests feed on the leaves of the plant, resulting in reduced yield. The most important of these are the noctuid moths Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), Chrysodeixis acuta (Walker), and Trichoplusia orichalcea (F.). The use of attract-and-kill traps offers an alternative to broad-based insecticides in the control of these species. Three fields were treated with normal insecticides and three fields with yellow-baited traps. Eight additional traps were placed in each field, with half of the traps containing the insecticide 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (dichlorvos) and half without dichlorvos; and half yellow and half green. Total moth numbers and nonphytophage diversity were measured from these eight traps. Although no differences in H. armigera or T. orichalcea catches were observed between insecticide- and trap-treated fields, numbers of C. acuta and the total number of moths were significantly higher in insecticide-treated fields. Yellow traps containing dichlorvos contained more moths than yellow traps without dichlorvos, or green traps with dichlorvos, or green traps without dichlorvos; but they also contained more nonphytophagous insects. Yellow traps also enhanced the catches of thrips on card traps associated with them. These results offer an opportunity for the South African chicory industry to reduce pesticide applications and thus mitigate environmental impacts.

  4. Results of a screening programme to identify plants or plant extracts that inhibit ruminal protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Selje, N; Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Ningrat, R; Wallace, R J; Becker, K

    2007-07-01

    One aim of the EC Framework V project, 'Rumen-up' (QLK5-CT-2001-00 992), was to find plants or plant extracts that would inhibit the nutritionally wasteful degradation of protein in the rumen. A total of 500 samples were screened in vitro using 14C-labelled casein in a 30-min incubation with ruminal digesta. Eight were selected for further investigation using a batch fermentation system and soya protein and bovine serum albumin as proteolysis substrates; proteolysis was monitored over 12 h by the disappearance of soluble protein and the production of branched SCFA and NH3. Freeze-dried, ground foliage of Peltiphyllum peltatum, Helianthemum canum, Arbutus unedo, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Knautia arvensis inhibited proteolysis (P < 0.05), while Daucus carota, Clematis vitalba and Erica arborea had little effect. Inhibition by the first four samples appeared to be caused by the formation of insoluble tannin-protein complexes. The samples were rich in phenolics and inhibition was reversed by polyethyleneglycol. In contrast, K. arvensis contained low concentrations of phenolics and no tannins, had no effect in the 30-min assay, yet inhibited the degradation rate of soluble protein (by 14 %, P < 0.0001) and the production of branched SCFA (by 17 %, P < 0.05) without precipitating protein in the 12-h batch fermentation. The effects showed some resemblance to those obtained in parallel incubations containing 3 mum-monensin, suggesting that K. arvensis may be a plant-derived feed additive that can suppress growth and activity of key proteolytic ruminal micro-organisms in a manner similar to that already well known for monensin.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy of Six Indian Plant Extracts against Streptococcus Mutans

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Pankaj; Bisht, Dakshina; Sharma, Alosha; Srivastava, Binita; Gupta, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To assess the antimicrobial efficacy of six plant extracts of Indian origin often used as traditional medicine against standard strains of Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of six plant extracts was determined by the agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the crude (raw), Organic solvent based, aqueous extracts was determined by the agar well diffusion method. Results: Out of all the six extracts evaluated, organic solvent based and aqueous extracts of all the extracts were found to have variable antimicrobial activities against the oral pathogen. The crude extract of Garlic was the most effective against Streptococcus mutans with the highest zone of inhibition (24.62 mm) followed by the aqueous extract of Amla (19.47mm) and organic solvent based extract of Ginger (18.76 mm). Conclusion: Despite of the fact that the extracts were not pure compounds and antimicrobial results were obtained. This recommends the potency of these extracts. The figment of the derivation of antimicrobial compounds from plants seems lucrative as it will lead to the development of a phytomedicine to act against microbes. PMID:25859526

  6. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude plant extracts from Colombian biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Niño, Jaime; Mosquera, Oscar M; Correa, Yaned M

    2012-12-01

    On a global scale, people have used plants to treat diseases and infections, and this has raised interest on the plant biodiversity potencial in the search of antimicrobial principles. In this work, 75 crude n-hexanes, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 25 plants belonging to four botanical families (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae and Solanaceae), collected at the Natural Regional Park Ucumari (Risaralda, Colombia), were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by the agar well diffusion method. The antibacterial activities were assayed against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and three Gram-negative ones named, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, the same plant extracts were tested against the yeast Candida albicans and the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani. Overall, the plant extracts examined displayed better bactericide rather than fungicide activities. In general, the best antibacterial activity was showed by the plant extracts from the Rubiaceae family, followed in order by the extracts from the Euphorbiaceae and Solanaceae ones. It is important to emphasize the great activity displayed by the methanol extract of Alchornea coelophylla (Euphorbiaceae) that inhibited four out of five bacteria tested (B. Subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli). Furthermore, the best Minimal Inhibitory Concentration for the extracts with antifungal activities were displayed by the dichloromethane extracts from Acalypha diversifolia and Euphorbia sp (Euphorbiaceae). The most susceptible fungus evaluated was F. Solani since 60% and 20% of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts evaluated inhibited the growth of this phytopathogenic fungus. The antimicrobial activity of the different plant extracts examined in this work could be related to the secondary metabolites contents and their interaction and susceptibility of

  7. Phytotoxic effects of sewage sludge extracts on the germination of three plant species.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Wilson A; Domene, Xavier; Andrés, Pilar; Alcañiz, Josep M

    2008-11-01

    In order to evaluate the ability of three types of extracts to explain the ecotoxicological risk of treated municipal sewage sludges, the OECD 208A germination test was applied using three plants (Lolium perenne L., Brassica rapa L., and Trifolium pratense L.). Three equivalent batches of sludge, remained as dewatered sludge, composted with plant remains and thermally dried, from an anaerobic waste water treatment plant were separated. Samples from these three batches were extracted in water, methanol, and dichloromethane. Plant bioassays were performed and the Germination Index (GI) for the three plants was evaluated once after a period of 10 days. Germination in extracts was always lower than the respective controls. The germination in composted sludge (GI 40.9-86.2) was higher than the dewatered (GI 2.9-45.8), or thermally dried sludges (GI 24.6-64.4). A comparison of the germination between types of extracts showed differences for dewatered sludge with the three plants, where the water and methanol extracts had significantly lower germination than the dichloromethane extract. A higher half maximal effective concentration (EC50) in composted extracts was established, mainly in the water extract (EC50 431-490 g kg(-1)). On the contrary, the germination was strongly inhibited in the water extract of the dewatered sludge (EC50 14 g kg(-1)). The germination was positively correlated with the degree of organic matter stability of the parent sludge, and an inverse correlation was detected for total nitrogen, hydrolysable nitrogen and ammonium content. It is concluded that the phytotoxic effect of the water extract is more closely related to hydrophilic substances rather than lipophilic ones, and care must be taken with dewatered sludge application, especially with their aqueous eluates. Results obtained in this work show the suitability of the use of sludge extracts in ecotoxic assays and emphasize the relevance of sewage sludge stabilization by post

  8. Carotenoid extraction from plants using a novel, environmentally friendly solvent.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Betty K; Chapman, Mary H

    2009-02-11

    Few environmentally friendly solvents are available to extract carotenoids for use in foods. The most effective known solvents are products of the petroleum industry and toxic for human consumption. Yet carotenoid extracts are desirable for use in dietary supplements and as additives to enhance the health benefits of processed foods. Ethyl lactate is an excellent solvent to extract both trans- and cis-lycopene isomers from dried tomato powder, the extraction efficiency of which is enhanced by the addition of the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and alpha-lipoic acid, both of which are known to benefit human health. It is also useful to extract lutein and beta-carotene from dried powders prepared from white corn and carrots. Because of its low flammability and its origin as a byproduct of the corn and soybean industries, it is more advantageous than ethyl acetate, which is a petroleum product.

  9. Isolation of essential oil from different plants and herbs by supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Fornari, Tiziana; Vicente, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Erika; García-Risco, Mónica R; Reglero, Guillermo

    2012-08-10

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an innovative, clean and environmental friendly technology with particular interest for the extraction of essential oil from plants and herbs. Supercritical CO(2) is selective, there is no associated waste treatment of a toxic solvent, and extraction times are moderate. Further, supercritical extracts were often recognized of superior quality when compared with those produced by hydro-distillation or liquid-solid extraction. This review provides a comprehensive and updated discussion of the developments and applications of SFE in the isolation of essential oils from plant matrices. SFE is normally performed with pure CO(2) or using a cosolvent; fractionation of the extract is commonly accomplished in order to isolate the volatile oil compounds from other co-extracted substances. In this review the effect of pressure, temperature and cosolvent on the extraction and fractionation procedure is discussed. Additionally, a comparison of the extraction yield and composition of the essential oil of several plants and herbs from Lamiaceae family, namely oregano, sage, thyme, rosemary, basil, marjoram and marigold, which were produced in our supercritical pilot-plant device, is presented and discussed.

  10. Anticancer Activity, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic and Flavonoids Content of Wild Tragopogon porrifolius Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Rishmawi, Suzi; Ariqat, Sharehan H.; Khalid, Mahmoud F.; Warad, Ismail; Salah, Zaidoun

    2016-01-01

    Tragopogon porrifolius, commonly referred to as white salsify, is an edible herb used in folk medicine to treat cancer. Samples of Tragopogon porrifolius plant grown wild in Palestine were extracted with different solvents: water, 80% ethanol, and 100% ethanol. The extracts were analyzed for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity (AA). Four different antioxidant assays were used to evaluate AA of the extracts: two measures the reducing power of the extracts (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant power (CUPRAC)), while two other assays measure the scavenging ability of the extracts (2,2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothialozine-sulphonic acid (ABTS)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)). Anticancer activity of the plant extracts were also tested on HOS and KHOS osteosarcoma cell lines. The results revealed that the polarity of the extraction solvent affects the TPC, TFC, and AA. It was found that both TPC and AA are highest for plant extracted with 80% ethanol, followed by water, and finally with 100% ethanol. TFC however was the highest in the following order: 80% ethanol > 100% ethanol > water. The plant extracts showed anticancer activities against KHOS cancer cell lines; they reduced total cell count and induced cell death in a drastic manner. PMID:27999608

  11. Efficacy of four plant extracts on nematodes associated with papaya in Sindh, Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This investigation examines the effect of ethanol extracts of four plant species--Azadirachta indica (neem), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Tagetes erecta (marigold) and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus)--against nematodes associated with papaya (Carica papaya), and it assesses their influence o...

  12. In vitro antimalarial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Sahal, Dinkar

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a major global public health problem, and the alarming spread of drug resistance and limited number of effective drugs now available underline how important it is to discover new antimalarial compounds. In the present study, ten plants were extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol and tested for their antimalarial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (Dd2 and INDO) strains of Plasmodium falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green assay. Plant extracts showed moderate to good antiparasitic effects. Promising antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts from two plants, Phyllanthus emblica leaf 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) 3D7: 7.25 μg/mL (ethyl acetate extract), 3.125 μg/mL (methanol extract), and Syzygium aromaticum flower bud, IC₅₀ 3D7:13 μg/mL, (ethyl acetate extract) and 6.25 μg/mL (methanol extract). Moderate activity (30-75 μg/mL) was found in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Abrus precatorius (seed) and Gloriosa superba (leaf); leaf ethyl acetate extracts of Annona squamosa and flower of Musa paradisiaca. The above mentioned plant extracts were also found to be active against CQ-resistant strains (Dd2 and INDO). Cytotoxicity study with P. emblica leaf and S. aromaticum flower bud, extracts showed good therapeutic indices. These results demonstrate that leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of P. emblica and flower bud extract of S. aromaticum may serve as antimalarial agents even in their crude form. The isolation of compounds from P. emblica and S. aromaticum seems to be of special interest for further antimalarial studies.

  13. A universal and rapid protocol for protein extraction from recalcitrant plant tissues for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Vignani, Rita; Scali, Monica; Cresti, Mauro

    2006-07-01

    A simple and universally applicable protocol for extracting high-quality proteins from recalcitrant plant tissues is described. We have used the protocol with no modification, for a wide range of leaves and fruits. In all cases, this protocol allows to obtain good electrophoretic separation of proteins. As the protocol is rapid, universal, and compatible with silver staining, it could be used for routine protein extraction from recalcitrant plant tissues for proteomic analysis.

  14. An evaluation of some Trinidadian plant extracts against larvae of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Azad; Chadee, Dave D

    2007-06-01

    In recent times, bioprospecting for plants that show bioactive properties has yielded many chemicals that can be used in controlling mosquitoes. Crude extracts of 4 terrestrial and 3 mangrove plants were assayed against 2-3 larval instars of Aedes aegypti. Among the plants tested, Cordia curassavica showed the highest levels of activity for all the extracts tested. Azadirachta indica showed the least activity, whereas the 2 cultivars of Mangifera indica showed substantial activity for the aqueous extracts. The mangrove species proved to be relatively nontoxic to Ae. aegypti larvae when compared to the terrestrial plants. The results of this study suggest that some common plants in Trinidad may be highly effective in controlling the urban vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, Ae. aegypti.

  15. A brief review on anti diabetic plants: Global distribution, active ingredients, extraction techniques and acting mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chung-Hung; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng; Yusoff, Rozita

    2012-01-01

    A study has been conducted with the aim to provide researchers with general information on anti diabetic extracts based on relevant research articles collected from 34 reliable medical journals. The study showed that Asian and African continents have 56% and 17% share of the worldwide distribution of therapeutic herbal plants, respectively. In Asia, India and China are the leading countries in herbal plants research, and there has been an increase in medicinal research on plants extract for diabetes treatment since 1995 in these regions. The information collected shows that plant leaves are about 20% more favorable for storing active ingredients, as compared to other parts of herbal plants. A brief review on the extraction techniques for the mentioned parts is also included. Furthermore, the acting mechanisms for the anti diabetic activity were described, and the related active ingredients were identified. The findings reveal that most of the anti diabetic research is focused on the alteration of glucose metabolism to prevent diabetes. PMID:22654401

  16. Review of procedures used for the extraction of anti-cancer compounds from tropical plants.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Saurabh; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2015-01-01

    Tropical plants are important sources of anti-cancer lead molecules. According to the US National Cancer Institute, out of the 3000 plants identified as active against cancer using in vitro studies, 70% are of tropical origin. The extraction of bioactive compounds from the plant materials is a fundamental step whose efficiency is critical for the success of drug discovery efforts. There has been no review published of the extraction procedures of anti-cancer compounds from tropical plants and hence the following is a critical evaluation of such procedures undertaken prior to the use of these compounds in cancer cell line studies, during the last five years. It presents a comprehensive analysis of all approaches taken to extract anti-cancer compounds from various tropical plants. (Databases searched were PubMed, SciFinder, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Embase and Google Scholar).

  17. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese.

  18. Photoprotection by plant extracts: a new ecological means to reduce pesticide photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Eyheraguibel, Boris; Richard, Claire; Ledoigt, Gérard; Ter Halle, Alexandra

    2010-09-08

    A pesticide's reactivity toward light at the leaf surface after crop treatment is rarely considered, although such degradation reactions directly affect the pesticide's effectiveness. To overcome these limitations, the use of plant pigments was proposed as a new class of photoprotecting agent. The photoprotecting properties of seven plant pigments were tested under controlled conditions over herbicide sulcotrione. Grape wine extracts were tested over a panel of pesticides from distinct chemical families. The addition of plant extracts almost systematically reduced the pesticide's photoreactivity. The grape wine extracts improve at least by 38% the half-life of photolysis of almost all of the active ingredients tested, except for the herbicide triclopyr. Fustictree extract increases by 82% the photostability of the herbicide sulcotrione. Plant extracts mainly act as sunscreens; that is, the photostabilization of the active ingredient is due to the competitive energy absorption of UV photon. The use of natural plant extracts is a promising strategy to limit pesticide photodegradation. It is a way to develop sustainable and innovative technology for the plant protection industry, being beneficial from both economic and ecological points of view.

  19. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

    PubMed

    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200 mg/kg b.wt.) after 15 min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50 mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2 h of oral glucose loading (4.2 mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended.

  20. Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as a green bioreductant

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mujeeb; Khan, Shams Tabrez; Khan, Merajuddin; Adil, Syed Farooq; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z

    2014-01-01

    The antibacterial properties of nanoparticles (NPs) can be significantly enhanced by increasing the wettability or solubility of NPs in aqueous medium. In this study, we investigated the effects of the stabilizing agent on the solubility of silver NPs and its subsequent effect on their antimicrobial activities. Silver NPs were prepared using an aqueous solution of Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as bioreductant. The solution also acts as a capping ligand. During this study, the antimicrobial activities of silver NPs, as well as the plant extract alone, were tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus. Silver NPs were prepared with various concentrations of the plant extract to study its effect on antimicrobial activity. Interestingly, various concentrations of P. glutinosa extract did not show any effect on the growth of tested bacteria; however, a significant effect on the antimicrobial property of plant extract capped silver NPs (Ag-NPs-PE) was observed. For instance, the half maximal inhibitory concentration values were found to decrease (from 4% to 21%) with the increasing concentrations of plant extract used for the synthesis of Ag-NPs-PE. These results clearly indicate that the addition of P. glutinosa extracts enhances the solubility of Ag-NPs-PE and, hence, increases their toxicity against the tested microorganisms. PMID:25114525

  1. Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as a green bioreductant.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mujeeb; Khan, Shams Tabrez; Khan, Merajuddin; Adil, Syed Farooq; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z

    2014-01-01

    The antibacterial properties of nanoparticles (NPs) can be significantly enhanced by increasing the wettability or solubility of NPs in aqueous medium. In this study, we investigated the effects of the stabilizing agent on the solubility of silver NPs and its subsequent effect on their antimicrobial activities. Silver NPs were prepared using an aqueous solution of Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as bioreductant. The solution also acts as a capping ligand. During this study, the antimicrobial activities of silver NPs, as well as the plant extract alone, were tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus. Silver NPs were prepared with various concentrations of the plant extract to study its effect on antimicrobial activity. Interestingly, various concentrations of P. glutinosa extract did not show any effect on the growth of tested bacteria; however, a significant effect on the antimicrobial property of plant extract capped silver NPs (Ag-NPs-PE) was observed. For instance, the half maximal inhibitory concentration values were found to decrease (from 4% to 21%) with the increasing concentrations of plant extract used for the synthesis of Ag-NPs-PE. These results clearly indicate that the addition of P. glutinosa extracts enhances the solubility of Ag-NPs-PE and, hence, increases their toxicity against the tested microorganisms.

  2. Evaluation of extraction procedures for the ion chromatographic determination of arsenic species in plant materials.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A C; Reisser, W; Mattusch, J; Popp, P; Wennrich, R

    2000-08-11

    The determination of arsenic species in plants grown on contaminated sediments and soils is important in order to understand the uptake, transfer and accumulation processes of arsenic. For the separation and detection of arsenic species, hyphenated techniques can be applied successfully in many cases. A lack of investigations exists in the handling (e.g., sampling, pre-treatment and extraction) of redox- and chemically labile arsenic species prior to analysis. This paper presents an application of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using water as the solvent for the effective extraction of arsenic species from freshly harvested plants. The method was optimized with respect to extraction time, number of extraction steps and temperature. The thermal stability of the inorganic and organic arsenic species under PLE conditions (60-180 degrees C) was tested. The adaptation of the proposed extraction method to freeze-dried, fine-grained material was limited because of the insufficient reproducibility in some cases.

  3. Medicinal plant extracts can variously modify biofilm formation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, Zoya; Muzyka, Nadezda; Lepekhina, Elena; Oktyabrsky, Oleg; Smirnova, Galina

    2014-04-01

    Low concentrations of black tea and water extracts from medicinal plants Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Tilia cordata, Betula pendula and Zea mays stimulated biofilm formation in Escherichia coli BW25113 up to three times. Similar effect was observed for tannic acid and low concentrations of quercetin. In contrast, the extract from Urtica dioica reduced biofilm production. Pretreatment with plant extracts variously modified antibiotic effects on specific biofilm formation (SBF). Extract from V. vitis-idaea increased SBF, while the extracts from Achillea millefolium, Laminaria japonica and U. dioica considerably decreased SBF in the presence of ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and cefotaxime. Stimulatory effect of the extracts and pure polyphenols on biofilm formation was probably related to their prooxidant properties. The rpoS deletion did not affect SBF significantly, but stimulation of biofilm formation by the compounds tested was accompanied by inhibition of rpoS expression, suggesting that a RpoS-independent signal transduction pathway was apparently used.

  4. Effect of neem (Azardirachta indica A. Juss) seeds and leaves extract on some plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Moslem, M A; El-Kholie, E M

    2009-07-15

    In this study plant pathogenic fungi Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were chosen to study the effect of ethanolic, hexane and methanolic extracts of neem seeds and leaves. Antifungal effects of neem leave and seed extracts obtained by ethanol, hexane and ptrolium ether were examined separately in vitro against Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Results indicated that seeds and leaves extracts could cause growth inhibition of tested fungi, although the rate of inhibition of tested fungi varied with different extracts and concentrations. But all these extracts and concentrations of extract inhibited the growth of pathogenic fungi at a significant level. Azadirachtin, nimonol and expoxyazdirodione were detected from neem extract by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We can conclude that neem leave and seed extracts were effective as antifungal against all tested fungi but F. oxysporum and R. solani were the most sensitive fungi.

  5. Anti-fungal activities of medicinal plants extracts of Ivorian pharmacopoeia

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Kra Adou Koffi; Marcel, Ahon Gnamien; Djè, Djo-Bi; Sitapha, Ouattara; Adama, Coulibaly; Joseph, Djaman Allico

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was to evaluate in vitro anti-fungal activity of aqueous and hydroethanolic from medicinal plants extracts collected in Côte d’Ivoire. Materials and Methods: Plants extracts were prepared by homogenization and separately incorporated to Sabouraud agar using the agar slanted double dilution method. Ketoconazole was used as standards for anti-fungal assay. The anti-fungal tests were performed by sowing 1000 cells of Candida albicans on the previously prepared medium culture. Anti-fungal activity was determined by evaluating anti-fungal parameters values (minimal fungicidal concentrations [MFC] and IC50). Results: The results showed that all extracts possessed anti-fungal activities whose levels vary from plant species to another. Eight of them had a satisfactory anti-candidosic activity and extracts from Terminalia species were the most active. Among them the Terminalia superba extracts generated the strongest activities (MFC = 0.0975 mg/mL). Compared with ketoconazole (MFC = 0.390 mg/mL), the T. superba extracts, aqueous (MFC = 0.195 mg/mL) and hydroethanolic (0.0975 mg/mL) were successively twice and four times more active. The worst anti-fungal activity (MFC = 1600 mg/mL) was obtained with the Guarea cedrata aqueous extract. Conclusion: All medicinal plants extracts produced anti-fungal activities, and T. superba was the most active. PMID:26401367

  6. Treatment of natural ovine malignant theileriosis with a chloroform extract of the plant Peganum harmala.

    PubMed

    Mirzaiedehaghi, M

    2006-06-01

    One hundred sheep naturally infected with Theileria lestoquardi were treated with a chloroform extract of the plant Peganum harmala. The treatment was continued for 5 days, the dose of extract being 5 mg/kg per day. Sixty-five of the sheep responded to treatment and recovered but 35 did not and died. The cure rate was 65%.

  7. Sensory characteristics of antioxidant extracts from Uruguayan native plants: influence of deodorization by steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Miraballes, Marcelo; Gámbaro, Adriana; Ares, Gastón

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenolic-rich antioxidant extracts from native plants have potential applications as ingredients in functional foods; however, their intense characteristic flavour is a major limitation to their application. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of steam distillation on the sensory and physicochemical characteristics of extracts of five native Uruguayan plants (Acca sellowiana, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia gratisima, Baccharis trimera and Mikania guaco). Aqueous extracts from the five native plants were obtained. Steam distillation was used to produce two types of deodorized extracts: extracts from deodorized leaves and extracts deodorized after the extraction. The extracts were characterized in terms of their total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity (using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid methods). A trained assessor panel evaluated characteristic odour, characteristic flavour, bitterness and astringency of the extracts. The total polyphenolic content of the extracts ranged from 112.4 to 974.4 mg/100 mL, whereas their antioxidant capacity ranged from 9.6 to 1008.7 mg vitamin C equivalents/100 mL, depending on the type of extract and the method being considered. Steam distillation was effective in reducing the characteristic odour and flavour of the extracts, without causing large changes in their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. In general, in terms of sensory characteristics, steam distillation performed on the extracts gave better results than when performed on the leaves; whereas the opposite trend was found for polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Results suggested that steam distillation could be a promising low-cost procedure for the production of antioxidant extracts for food products.

  8. Extraction and characterization of latex and natural rubber from rubber-bearing plants.

    PubMed

    Buranov, Anvar U; Elmuradov, Burkhon J

    2010-01-27

    Consecutive extraction of latex and natural rubber from the roots of rubber-bearing plants such as Taraxacum kok-saghyz (TKS), Scorzonera tau-saghyz (STS), and Scorzonera Uzbekistanica (SU) were carried out. Latex extraction was carried via two methods: Blender method and Flow method. The results of latex extraction were compared. Cultivated rubber-bearing plants contained slightly higher latex contents compared to those from wild fields. Several creaming agents for latex extraction were compared. About 50% of total natural rubber was extracted as latex. The results of the comparative studies indicated that optimum latex extraction can be achieved with Flow method. The purity of latex extracted by Blender method ( approximately 75%) was significantly lower than that extracted by Flow method (99.5%). When the latex particles were stabilized with casein, the latex was concentrated significantly. Through concentrating latex by flotation, the latex concentration of 35% was obtained. Bagasse contained mostly solid natural rubber. The remaining natural rubber in the bagasse (left after the latex extraction) was extracted using sequential solvent extraction first with acetone and then with several nonpolar solvents. Solid natural rubber was analyzed for gel content and characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) for molecular weight determinations. SEC of solid natural rubber has shown that the molecular weight is about 1.8E6 and they contain less gel compared to TSR20 (Grade 20 Technically Specified Rubber), a commercial natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis.

  9. Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) separations and bioassays of plant extracts to identify antimicrobial compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common screen for plant antimicrobial compounds consists of separating plant extracts by paper or thin-layer chromatography (PC or TLC), exposing the chromatograms to microbial suspensions (e.g. fungal spores in nutrient solution or bacteria in liquefied agar), allowing time for the microbes to gr...

  10. Effects of Extracts from Thai Piperaceae Plants against Infection with Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Leesombun, Arpron; Boonmasawai, Sookruetai; Shimoda, Naomi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines and natural herb extracts are widely used as alternative treatments for various parasitic diseases, and such extracts may also have potential to decrease the side effects of the standard regimen drugs used to treat toxoplasmosis (sulfadiazine-pyrimethamine combination). We evaluated how effective the Thai piperaceae plants Piper betle, P. nigrum and P. sarmentosum are against Toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro and in vivo. Individually, we extracted the piperaceae plants with ethanol, passed them through a rotary evaporator and then lyophilized them to obtain crude extracts for each one. The in vitro study indicated that the P. betle extract was the most effective extract at inhibiting parasite growth in HFF cells (IC50 on RH-GFP: 23.2 μg/mL, IC50 on PLK-GFP: 21.4 μg/mL). Furthermore, treatment of experimental mice with the P. betle extract for 7 days after infection with 1,000 tachyzoites of the T. gondii PLK strain increased their survival (survival rates: 100% in 400 mg/kg-treated, 83.3% in 100 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in 25 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in untreated mice). Furthermore, treatment with 400 mg/kg of the P. betle extract resulted in 100% mouse survival following infection with 100,000 tachyzoites. The present study shows that P. betle extract has the potential to act as a medical plant for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:27213575

  11. Capillary electrophoresis as a screening tool for alpha amylase inhibitors in plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Imad I.; Afifi, Fatima U.

    2010-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for screening plant extract for potential alpha amylase (AA) inhibitory activity. The method was validated against a well established UV method. Overall, the proposed method was shown able to detect plants with significant alpha amylase inhibitory activity but not those with rather clinically insignificant activities. Fifty plant species were screened using both the proposed CE method and the UV method and seven plant species were found to possess significant AA inhibitory activities. Two plant species were proved to have alpha amylase inhibitory activity for the first time. PMID:24115900

  12. Microwave-assisted extraction versus Soxhlet extraction in the analysis of 21 organochlorine pesticides in plants.

    PubMed

    Barriada-Pereira, M; Concha-Graña, E; González-Castro, M J; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D; Fernández-Fernández, E

    2003-08-01

    A method to determine 21 organochlorine pesticides in vegetation samples using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is described and compared with Soxhlet extraction. Samples were extracted with hexane-acetone (1:1, v/v) and the extracts were cleaned using solid-phase extraction with Florisil and alumine as adsorbents. Pesticides were eluted with hexane-ethyl acetate (80:20, v/v) and determined by gas chromatography and electron-capture detection. Recoveries obtained (75.5-132.7% for Soxhlet extraction and 81.5-108.4% for MAE) show that both methods are suitable for the determination of chlorinated pesticides in vegetation samples. The method using microwave energy was applied to grass samples from parks of A Coruña (N.W. Spain) and to vegetation from the contaminated industrial area of Torneiros (Pontevedra, N.W. Spain).

  13. [The antiradical activity of plant extracts and healthful preventive combinations of these exrtacts with the phospholipid complex].

    PubMed

    Baranova, V S; Rusina, I F; Guseva, D A; Prozorovskaia, N N; Ipatova, O M; Kasaikina, O T

    2012-01-01

    Using the chemiluminescence method, the effective concentration of antioxidants (AO) and its reactivity toward peroxyl radicals (ARA, the k7 constant) have been measured for 13 plant extracts. In fact all extracts demonstrated ARA higher than ionol. Larix dahurica, Hypericum perforatum, Potentilla fruticosa, Aronia melanocarpa and Rhaponticum carthamoides extracts showed the highest values of ARA. The combinations Aronia + Raponticum extracts; Larix + Hibiscus extracts; Schizandra +Aronia extracts were synergistic (the synergism effect beta of 38%, 33% and 22%). Apparently this phenomenon is the result of the synergistic interaction between compounds present in plant extracts. The Phospholipid complex--Lipoid S40, lacting any antioxidant effect alone, showed a potent synergistic effect with Aronia extract (beta3 = 60%), Silybum extract (beta3 = 41%). Clinical trials demonstrated, that combinations "Lipoid + Aronia extract", "Lipoid + Larix extract + Hibiscus extract", "Lipoid + Silybum extract", "Lipoid + Q10 + Rosa majalis extract" may be used as an additional component in the medicinal treatment, or as an individual prophylactic agent.

  14. Anthelmintic activity of plant extracts from Brazilian savanna.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia F; Costa Junior, Livio M; Lima, Aldilene S; Silva, Carolina R; Ribeiro, Maria N S; Mesquista, José W C; Rocha, Cláudia Q; Tangerina, Marcelo M P; Vilegas, Wagner

    2017-03-15

    Helminth infections represent a serious problem for the production of small ruminants that is currently aggravated by resistance to anthelmintic products and has induced a search for control alternatives, such as natural products. In this study, extracts of Turnera ulmifolia L. (leaves and roots), Parkia platycephala Benth. (leaves and seeds) and Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul. (leaves and bark), which have been cited in ethnoveterinary studies and selected naturally by goats in the cerrado (Brazilian savanna), were tested in vitro against Haemonchus contortus. Hydroacetonic (ACT) and hydroalcoholic (ETH) extracts were evaluated using an Egg Hatching Assay (EHA), a Larval Exsheathment Inhibition Assay (LEIA) and a Larval Development Assay (LDA). A second set of incubations was performed using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) to determine the influence of polyphenols on the anthelmintic effects of EHA and LEIA. Data from each extract were used to calculate inhibition concentrations (IC50). All tested extracts showed activity against at least one life stage of H. contortus. The use of PVPP revealed that the tannins are not the only extracts of secondary metabolites responsible for the anthelmintic effects. The results showed clear in vitro anthelmintic activities against H. contortus at different stages and indicated the potential use of these species as a promising alternative approach to control helminthic infections of small ruminants.

  15. The toxicity of extracts of plant parts of Moringa stenopetala in HEPG2 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Negussu; Houghton, Peter; Timbrell, John

    2005-10-01

    The cytotoxicity of extracts from a widely used species of plant, Moringa stenopetala, was assessed in HEPG2 cells, by measuring the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell viability. The functional integrity of extract-exposed cells was determined by measuring intracellular levels of ATP and glutathione (GSH). The ethanol extracts of leaves and seeds increased significantly (p < 0.01) LDH leakage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The water extract of leaves and the ethanol extract of the root did not increase LDH leakage. A highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in HEPG2 viability was found after incubating the cells with the highest concentration (500 microg/mL) of the ethanol leaf and seed extracts. At a concentration of 500 microg/mL, the water extract of leaves increased (p < 0.01), while the ethanol extract of the same plant part decreased (p < 0.01), ATP levels. The root and seed extracts had no significant effect on ATP levels. The ethanol leaf extract decreased GSH levels at a concentration of 500 microg/mL (p < 0.01), as did the ethanol extract of the seeds at 250 microg/mL and 500 microg/mL (p < 0.05). The water extract of the leaves did not alter GSH or LDH levels or affect cell viability, suggesting that it may be non-toxic, and is consistent with its use as a vegetable. The data obtained from the studies with the ethanol extract of the leaves and seeds from Moringa stenopetala show that they contain toxic substances that are extractable with organic solvents or are formed during the process of extraction with these solvents. The significant depletion of ATP and GSH only occurred at concentrations of extract that caused leakage of LDH. Further investigation with this plant in order to identify the constituents extracted and their individual toxic effects both in vivo and in vitro is warranted. This study also illustrates the utility of cell culture for screening plant extracts for potential toxicity.

  16. Genomic DNA extraction from medicinal plants available in Malaysia using a TriOmic(TM) improved extraction kit.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Hairul, A R; Sade, A B; Yiap, B C; Raha, A R

    2011-11-08

    DNA extraction was carried out on 32 medicinal plant samples available in Malaysia using the TriOmic(TM) extraction kit. Amounts of 0.1 g flowers or young leaves were ground with liquid nitrogen, lysed at 65°C in RY1(plus) buffer and followed by RNAse treatment. Then, RY2 buffer was added to the samples and mixed completely by vortexing before removal of cell debris by centrifugation. Supernatants were transferred to fresh microcentrifuge tubes and 0.1 volume RY3 buffer was added to each of the transferred supernatant. The mixtures were applied to spin columns followed by a centrifugation step to remove buffers and other residues. Washing step was carried out twice by applying 70% ethanol to the spin columns. Genomic DNA of the samples was recovered by applying 50 μL TE buffer to the membrane of each spin column, followed by a centrifugation step at room temperature. A modification of the TriOmic(TM) extraction procedure was carried out by adding chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24:1) steps in the extraction procedure. The genomic DNA extracted from most of the 32 samples showed an increase of total yield when chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24:1) steps were applied in the TriOmicTM extraction procedure. This preliminary study is very important for molecular studies of medicinal plants available in Malaysia since the DNA extraction can be completed in a shorter period of time (within 1 h) compared to manual extraction, which entails applying phenol, chloroform and ethanol precipitation, and requires 1-2 days to complete.

  17. Treatment of natural tropical theileriosis with the extract of the plant Peganum harmala

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Theileria annulata, a protozoan parasite of cattle and domestic buffaloes, is transmitted by ticks of the genus Hyalomma, and causes a disease named Mediterranean or tropical theileriosis. In this research 50 cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata were treated with the extract of the plant Peganum harmala. The treatment was continued for 5 days, the dose of the extract being 5 mg/kg per day. After the treatment, 39 cattle responded to the treatment and recovered, but 11 did not respond to the treatment and died. The recovery rate of animals treated with the extract of the plant Peganum harmala was 78%. PMID:18165708

  18. A modified acidic approach for DNA extraction from plant species containing high levels of secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, M M; Siqueira, M V B M; Val, T M; Pavanelli, J C; Monteiro, M; Grando, C; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I; Gimenes, M A

    2014-08-25

    Purified genomic DNA can be difficult to obtain from some plant species because of the presence of impurities such as polysaccharides, which are often co-extracted with DNA. In this study, we developed a fast, simple, and low-cost protocol for extracting DNA from plants containing high levels of secondary metabolites. This protocol does not require the use of volatile toxic reagents such as mercaptoethanol, chloroform, or phenol and allows the extraction of high-quality DNA from wild and cultivated tropical species.

  19. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaén, J. A.; García de Saldaña, E.; Hernández, C.

    1999-11-01

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe2+ and Fe3+) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  20. A protocol for protein extraction from lipid-rich plant tissues suitable for electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Rejón, Juan David; de Dios Alché, Juan; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel; Castro, Antonio Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Plant tissues contain high levels of nonprotein contaminants such as lipids, phenolic compounds, and polysaccharides among others, which interfere with protein extraction and electrophoretic separation. Preparation of good-quality protein extracts is a critical issue for successful electrophoretic analysis. Here, we describe a three-step method for protein extraction from lipid-rich plant tissues, which is suitable for both 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis and is compatible with downstream applications. The protocol includes prefractionation, filtration, and TCA/acetone precipitation steps prior to protein resolubilization.

  1. Treatment of natural tropical theileriosis with the extract of the plant Peganum harmala.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mohammad

    2007-12-01

    Theileria annulata, a protozoan parasite of cattle and domestic buffaloes, is transmitted by ticks of the genus Hyalomma, and causes a disease named Mediterranean or tropical theileriosis. In this research 50 cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata were treated with the extract of the plant Peganum harmala. The treatment was continued for 5 days, the dose of the extract being 5 mg/kg per day. After the treatment, 39 cattle responded to the treatment and recovered, but 11 did not respond to the treatment and died. The recovery rate of animals treated with the extract of the plant Peganum harmala was 78%.

  2. Antifungal activity in seed coat extracts of woodland plants.

    PubMed

    Warr, Susan J; Thompson, Ken; Kent, Martin

    1992-11-01

    Aqueous extracts from seeds of four woodland ground flora species (Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Allium ursinum, Digitalis purpurea and Hypericum pulchrum) were tested for antifungal activity using a petriplate technique. Four species of fungi were investigated. The growth of three of these (Trichoderma viride, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp.) was not affected by any of the seed coat extracts. The growth of Botrytis cinerea was inhibited by the seed coat extracts of Digitalis purpurea and Hypericum pulchrum but not by those of Hyacinthoides non-scripta or Allium ursinum. The buried seeds of Digitalis purpurea and Hypericum pulchrum can survive in woodland soils for long periods, whereas those of Hyacinthoides non-scripta and Allium ursinum are short-lived. The presence of antifungal agents in the seed coats of persistent species and their possible role in protecting seeds against fungal pathogens is discussed.

  3. Ovicidal, repellent, adulticidal and field evaluations of plant extract against dengue, malaria and filarial vectors.

    PubMed

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Thiyagarajan, Perumal; John William, Samuel

    2013-03-01

    Mosquitoes are insect vectors responsible for the transmission of parasitic and viral infections to millions of people worldwide, with substantial morbidity and mortality. Infections transmitted by mosquitoes include malaria, yellow fever, chikungunya, filariasis and other arboviruses. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The adulticidal activities of crude hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol leaf extracts of Acalypha alnifolia were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract were observed. The LC(50) values of A. alnifolia leaf extracts against adulticidal activity of (hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol) A. aegypti, A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus were the following: A. aegypti values were 371.87, 342.97, 320.17, 300.86 and 279.75 ppm; A. stephensi values were 358.35, 336.64, 306.10, 293.01 and 274.76 ppm; C. quinquefasciatus values were 383.59, 354.13, 327.74, 314.33 and 291.71 ppm. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of A. alnifolia plant at three different concentrations of 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, this plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100

  4. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additives. The present paper provides comprehensive information on the green extraction technologies of natural antioxidants, assessment of antioxidant activity at chemical and cellular based levels and their main resources from food and medicinal plants. PMID:28067795

  5. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-05

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additives. The present paper provides comprehensive information on the green extraction technologies of natural antioxidants, assessment of antioxidant activity at chemical and cellular based levels and their main resources from food and medicinal plants.

  6. The influence of purge times on the yields of essential oil components extracted from plants by pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Wianowska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    The influence of different purge times on the yield of the main essential oil constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.) was investigated. The pressurized liquid extraction process was performed by applying different extraction temperatures and solvents. The results presented in the paper show that the estimated yield of essential oil components extracted from the plants in the pressurized liquid extraction process is purge time-dependent. The differences in the estimated yields are mainly connected with the evaporation of individual essential oil components and the applied solvent during the purge; the more volatile an essential oil constituent is, the greater is its loss during purge time, and the faster the evaporation of the solvent during the purge process is, the higher the concentration of less volatile essential oil components in the pressurized liquid extraction receptacle. The effect of purge time on the estimated yield of individual essential oil constituents is additionally differentiated by the extraction temperature and the extraction ability of the applied solvent.

  7. Extraction of condensed tannins from Mexican plant sources.

    PubMed

    Garcíaa, Ramiro; Aguilera, Antonio; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Rodríguez, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2008-01-01

    Contents of total polyphenols, condensed tannins and proanthocyanidins, and their stability to various pH values and temperatures were studied in Mexican blueberry, cuautecomate fruit, garambullo fruit, aubergine, coffee pulp and residues of black grapes. Several aqueous extracts, obtained through a one-pass-extraction process, were analyzed using liquid chromatography in order to quantify the condensed tannin (proanthocyanidin) content responsible for their antioxidant activity and colour. All tested samples included high proanthocyanidin contents demonstrating that these Mexican fruits and vegetables are good sources of natural antioxidants, and they all could be considered as excellent functional foods due to their bioactivity measured as the condensed tannin level.

  8. Plant extracts for the control of bacterial growth: efficacy, stability and safety issues for food application.

    PubMed

    Negi, Pradeep Singh

    2012-05-01

    The microbial safety of foods continues to be a major concern to consumers, regulatory agencies and food industries throughout the world. Many food preservation strategies have been used traditionally for the control of microbial spoilage in foods but the contamination of food and spoilage by microorganisms is a problem yet to be controlled adequately. Although synthetic antimicrobials are approved in many countries, the recent trend has been for use of natural preservatives, which necessitates the exploration of alternative sources of safe, effective and acceptable natural preservatives. Plants contain innumerable constituents and are valuable sources of new and biologically active molecules possessing antimicrobial properties. Plants extracts either as standardized extracts or as a source of pure compounds provide unlimited opportunities for control of microbial growth owing to their chemical diversity. Many plant extracts possess antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria, yeast and molds, but the variations in quality and quantity of their bioactive constituents is the major detriments in their food use. Further, phytochemicals added to foods may be lost by various processing techniques. Several plant extracts or purified compounds intended for food use have been consumed by humans for thousands of years, but typical toxicological information is not available for them. Although international guidelines exist for the safety evaluation of food additives, owing to problems in standardization of plant extracts, typical toxicological values have not been assigned to them. Development of cost effective isolation procedures that yield standardized extracts as well as safety and toxicology evaluation of these antimicrobials requires a deeper investigation.

  9. Microbial growth and quorum sensing antagonist activities of herbal plants extracts.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussaini, Reema; Mahasneh, Adel M

    2009-09-03

    Antimicrobial and antiquorum sensing (AQS) activities of fourteen ethanolic extracts of different parts of eight plants were screened against four Gram-positive, five Gram-negative bacteria and four fungi. Depending on the plant part extract used and the test microorganism, variable activities were recorded at 3 mg per disc. Among the Grampositive bacteria tested, for example, activities of Laurus nobilis bark extract ranged between a 9.5 mm inhibition zone against Bacillus subtilis up to a 25 mm one against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most susceptible among bacteria and fungi tested towards other plant parts. Of interest is the tangible antifungal activity of a Tecoma capensis flower extract, which is reported for the first time. However, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC's) for both bacteria and fungi were relatively high (0.5-3.0 mg). As for antiquorum sensing activity against Chromobacterium violaceum, superior activity (>17 mm QS inhibition) was associated with Sonchus oleraceus and Laurus nobilis extracts and weak to good activity (8-17 mm) was recorded for other plants. In conclusion, results indicate the potential of these plant extracts in treating microbial infections through cell growth inhibition or quorum sensing antagonism, which is reported for the first time, thus validating their medicinal use.

  10. Determination of fluorine contents in plant samples by means of facilitated extraction with enzyme.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junseok; An, Jinsung; Yoon, Hye-On

    2015-01-01

    In this study, facilitated extraction with enzyme was employed for the first time to extract fluorine (F) from plants. Feasibility of the proposed method for F analysis was assessed by comparing with the alkali fusion-ion selective electrode (ISE) method. In the extraction procedure, 30 mg of a protease and 0.1 g of a plant sample were added in 10 mL of deionized water. In the absence of sonication, the solution was mechanically shaken for 10 s. A variety of parameters (i.e., the amounts of enzymes used, physical treatment conditions applied, extraction time, temperature, and pH) were optimized to enhance the extraction efficiency of the proposed method. The suitability of the proposed method for various plant samples (i.e., grass, perilla, peanut, hot pepper, and eggplant) was also evaluated. The proposed method involves decreased operation time, simplified extraction procedures, and minimal consumption of hazardous reagents and solvents in comparison with other existing methods. Experimental results demonstrated that facilitated extraction with enzyme is appropriate for the rapid determination of F content in plant samples.

  11. Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

  12. Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed.A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder's physical stability.The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds.

  13. Methods for extraction and determination of phenolic acids in medicinal plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Konieczynski, Pawel

    2013-12-01

    Phenolic acids constitute a group of potentially immunostimulating compounds. They occur in all medicinal plants and are widely used in phytotherapy and foods of plant origin. In recent years, phenolic acids have attracted much interest owing to their biological functions. This paper reviews the extraction and determination methods of phenolic acids in medicinal plants over the last 10 years. Although Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) are commonly used for the extraction of phenolic acids from plant materials, alternative techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) can also be used. After extraction, phenolic acids are determined usually by liquid chromatography (LC) owing to the recent developments in this technique, especially when it is coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Also detection systems are discussed, including UV-Vis, diode array, electrochemical and fluorimetric. Other popular techniques for the analysis of this group of secondary metabolites are gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE).

  14. Microwave assisted extraction-solid phase extraction for high-efficient and rapid analysis of monosaccharides in plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Hai-Fang; Ma, Yuan; Jin, Yan; Kong, Guanghui; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Monosaccharides are the fundamental composition units of saccharides which are a common source of energy for metabolism. An effective and simple method consisting of microwave assisted extraction (MAE), solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detector (HPLC-RID) was developed for rapid detection of monosaccharides in plants. The MAE was applied to break down the structure of the plant cells and release the monosaccharides, while the SPE procedure was adopted to purify the extract before analysis. Finally, the HPLC-RID was employed to separate and analyze the monosaccharides with amino column. As a result, the extraction time was reduced to 17 min, which was nearly 85 times faster than soxhlet extraction. The recoveries of arabinose, xylose, fructose and glucose were 85.01%, 87.79%, 103.17%, and 101.24%, with excellent relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.94%, 1.13%, 0.60% and 1.67%, respectively. The proposed method was demonstrated to be efficient and time-saving, and had been applied to analyze monosaccharides in tobacco and tea successfully.

  15. Intensification of bioactive compounds extraction from medicinal plants using ultrasonic irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Vardanega, Renata; Santos, Diego T.; Meireles, M. Angela A.

    2014-01-01

    Extraction processes are largely used in many chemical, biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries for recovery of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants. To replace the conventional extraction techniques, new techniques as high-pressure extraction processes that use environment friendly solvents have been developed. However, these techniques, sometimes, are associated with low extraction rate. The ultrasound can be effectively used to improve the extraction rate by the increasing the mass transfer and possible rupture of cell wall due the formation of microcavities leading to higher product yields with reduced processing time and solvent consumption. This review presents a brief survey about the mechanism and aspects that affecting the ultrasound assisted extraction focusing on the use of ultrasound irradiation for high-pressure extraction processes intensification. PMID:25125880

  16. Contact and fumigant toxicity of oriental medicinal plant extracts against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Il; Na, Young-Eun; Yi, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-04-30

    The acaricidal activity of methanolic extracts from 40 oriental medicinal plant species and a steam distillate of Cinnamomum camphora towards poultry house-collected adult Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of 15 acaricides currently used. In filter paper contact toxicity bioassays using adult D. gallinae, C. camphora steam distillate (0.0051 mgcm(-2)) was the most toxic material, followed by extracts from Asarum sieboldii var. seoulens whole plant, Eugenia caryophyllata flower bud and Mentha arvensis var. piperascens whole plant (0.0063-0.0072 mgcm(-2)), based upon 24h LD(50) values. The acaricidal activity of these four plant preparations was almost comparable to that of profenofos (LD(50), 0.003 mgcm(-2)) but less effective than dichlorvos (LD(50), 0.0004 mgcm(-2)). The toxicity of Illicium verum fruit and Lysimachia davurica leaf extracts (0.09 mgcm(-2)) was almost comparable to that of benfuracarb, prothiofos, propoxur and fenthion (0.053-0.070mgcm(-2)). In vapour phase toxicity tests, these plant preparations were more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these plant extracts was largely a result of action in the vapour phase. Plants described herein merit further study as potential D. gallinae control agents.

  17. Phytotoxic Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Different Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and timothy (Phleum pratense) at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1 reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP), germination index (GI), germination energy (GE), speed of emergence (SE), seedling vigour index (SVI), and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG) of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T50) and mean germination time (MGT) were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. The I50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds. PMID:25032234

  18. Behavioral and Electroantennogram Responses of Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to Selected Noxious Plant Extracts and Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Gökçe, A.; Stelinski, L. L.; Nortman, D. R.; Bryan, W. W.; Whalon, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were tested for several methanolic plant extracts and organically approved insecticides. Plant extracts were evaluated for their potential as antifeedants or oviposition deterrents. These extract responses were also compared to those elicited by the non-neurotoxic, organic irritant-insecticide kaolin clay. Both sexes of plum curculio exhibited antennal response as measured by electroantennogram, which ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mV, to plant extracts and the organic irritant/insecticide, with the greatest response to the extract of rough cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (1.1 mV). No choice tests were conducted to compare feeding and oviposition by plum curculio on untreated apples or on apples treated with one of the extracts or the insecticide. The insecticide pyrethrum and extracts of X. strumarium and greater burdock, Arctium lappa L., significantly reduced feeding. Also, pyrethrum, A. lappa, Humulus lupulus L. (common hop), X. strumarium, and Verbascum songaricum Schrenk extracts completely inhibited egg deposition. In no-choice assays, the effects of kaolin clay with incorporated plant extracts on plum curculio feeding and oviposition were monitored as complementary tests. A. lappa—kaolin, H. lupulus—kaolin, and X. strumarium—kaolin mixtures significantly reduced the feeding of plum curculio compared to the control or kaolin clay alone. Each of the plant extract—kaolin mixtures evaluated, with the exception of Bifora radians Bieberstein (wild bishop), completely inhibited plum curculio oviposition as compared to controls. PMID:25368046

  19. Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum extracts on germination and seedling growth of different plant species.

    PubMed

    Islam, A K M Mominul; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and timothy (Phleum pratense) at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL(-1) reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP), germination index (GI), germination energy (GE), speed of emergence (SE), seedling vigour index (SVI), and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG) of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T 50) and mean germination time (MGT) were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T 50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL(-1). The I 50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL(-1). Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds.

  20. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Attanayake, Anoja P.; Jayatilaka, Kamani A. P. W.; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. Statistical Analysis: The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for six extracts was found to be 1.00 g/kg in diabetic rats with the exception of C. grandis: 0.75 g/kg and L. galanga: 1.25 g/kg. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. PMID:24991066

  1. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus & Culex tritaeniorhynchus

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraj, C.; Bagavan, A.; Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Rajakumar, G.; Marimuthu, S.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Interpretation & Conclusions: Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:21808141

  2. In vitro antitumor actions of extracts from endemic plant Helichrysum zivojinii

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this research was to determine the intensity and mechanisms of the cytotoxic actions of five extracts isolated from the endemic plant species Helichrysum zivojinii Černjavski & Soška (family Asteraceae) against specific cancer cell lines. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of normal immunocompetent cells implicated in the antitumor immune response, the cytotoxicity of extracts was also tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Methods The aerial parts of the plants were air-dried, powdered, and successively extracted with solvents of increasing polarity to obtain hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl-acetate, n-butanol and methanol extracts. The cytotoxic activities of the extracts against human cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa, human melanoma Fem-x, human myelogenous leukemia K562, human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-361 cells and PBMC were evaluated by the MTT test. The mode of HeLa cell death was investigated by morphological analysis. Changes in the cell cycle of HeLa cells treated with the extracts were analyzed by flow cytometry. The apoptotic mechanisms induced by the tested extracts were determined using specific caspase inhibitors. Results The investigated Helichrysum zivojinii extracts exerted selective dose-dependent cytotoxic actions against selected cancer cell lines and healthy immunocompetent PBMC stimulated to proliferate, while the cytotoxic actions exerted on unstimulated PBMC were less pronounced. The tested extracts exhibited considerably stronger cytotoxic activities towards HeLa, Fem-x and K562 cells in comparison to resting and stimulated PBMC. It is worth noting that the cytotoxicity of the extracts was weaker against unstimulated PBMC in comparison to stimulated PBMC. Furthermore, each of the five extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, through the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways. Conclusion Extracts obtained from the endemic plant Helichrysum zivojinii may represent an

  3. Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Different Methods of Seaweed Extraction with Water

    PubMed Central

    Godlewska, Katarzyna; Tuhy, Łukasz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    We explored two methods for obtaining aqueous extracts: boiling and soaking of Baltic seaweeds (EB and ES, resp.). Algal extracts were characterized in terms of polyphenols, micro- and macroelements, lipids content, and antibacterial properties. The utilitarian properties were examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum for three extract dilutions (0.5, 2.5, and 10%). It was found that the extracts were similar in micro- and macroelement concentrations. Water was proved to be a good solvent to extract phenolic compounds. The algal extract produced by soaking biomass did not show inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Only the boiled extract had an inhibitory activity against E. coli. Germination tests revealed a positive influence of the bioproducts on the cultivated plants. In the group treated with 10% EB, plants were 13% longer than in the control group; the content of elements B, Mo, Zn, and Na in the group treated with 10% ES was higher by 76%, 48%, 31%, and 59% than in the control group, respectively; the content of chlorophyll was 2.5 times higher in 0.5% ES than in the control group. Extracts showed the slight impact on the morphology of plants. PMID:27366749

  4. Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Different Methods of Seaweed Extraction with Water.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Katarzyna; Michalak, Izabela; Tuhy, Łukasz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    We explored two methods for obtaining aqueous extracts: boiling and soaking of Baltic seaweeds (EB and ES, resp.). Algal extracts were characterized in terms of polyphenols, micro- and macroelements, lipids content, and antibacterial properties. The utilitarian properties were examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum for three extract dilutions (0.5, 2.5, and 10%). It was found that the extracts were similar in micro- and macroelement concentrations. Water was proved to be a good solvent to extract phenolic compounds. The algal extract produced by soaking biomass did not show inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Only the boiled extract had an inhibitory activity against E. coli. Germination tests revealed a positive influence of the bioproducts on the cultivated plants. In the group treated with 10% EB, plants were 13% longer than in the control group; the content of elements B, Mo, Zn, and Na in the group treated with 10% ES was higher by 76%, 48%, 31%, and 59% than in the control group, respectively; the content of chlorophyll was 2.5 times higher in 0.5% ES than in the control group. Extracts showed the slight impact on the morphology of plants.

  5. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic plant part extracts of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2014-11-10

    The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3±7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0±1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4%±1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50)=41.4±3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  6. Susceptibility of two-week old Lymnaea natalensis to some plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kela, S L; Ogunsusi, R A; Ogbogu, V C; Nwude, N

    1989-01-01

    The molluscacidal potency of 17 Nigerian plants extracted by the unevaporated crude water (UECW) method was evaluated on two-week old Lymnaea natalensis Krauss. Five extracts were not active but extracts of Balanites aegytiaca, Blighia sapida, Boswellia dalzielii, Cissampelos mucronata, Detarium microcarpum, Kigelia africana, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia clappertoniana, Polygonum limbatum, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Nauclea latifolia and Securidaca longipedunculata were molluscacidal. There is potential for their future use in the integrated control of Lymnaea natalensis, as well as other snails. Mortality data for lethal concentration values for all extracts were analysed by use of probit transformation. The upper and lower fiducial limits of the LC50 (P = 0.05) were also determined.

  7. Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Ming Woei

    2015-12-08

    A method for producing a microbial growth stimulant (MGS) from a plant biomass is described. In one embodiment, an ammonium hydroxide solution is used to extract a solution of proteins and ammonia from the biomass. Some of the proteins and ammonia are separated from the extracted solution to provide the MGS solution. The removed ammonia can be recycled and the proteins are useful as animal feeds. In one embodiment, the method comprises extracting solubles from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass with a cellulase enzyme-producing growth medium (such T. reesei) in the presence of water and an aqueous extract.

  8. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts from Mexican medicinal plants and purified coumarins and xanthones.

    PubMed

    Yasunaka, Kakuko; Abe, Fumiko; Nagayama, Ariaki; Okabe, Hikaru; Lozada-Pérez, Lucio; López-Villafranco, Edith; Muñiz, Elizabeth Estrada; Aguilar, Abigail; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo

    2005-02-28

    Thirty-two extracts from 22 Mexican medicinal plants of 15 different families were assayed to determine their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Seventeen plants showed antibacterial activity, while five plants showed no activity against both bacteria. All of the extracts showed higher activity against Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant) than against Escherichia coli, except one. Among the plants examined, Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. (Burseraceae), Haematoxylum brasiletto H. Karst. (Fabaceae), Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae), and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae) were highly active against Staphylococcus aureus. Coumarins (mammea A/BA and mammea A/AA) and xanthones, namely jacareubin and 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-2-(3,3-dimethylallyl) xanthone, were isolated as the principle compounds from the last two plants.

  9. Cytotoxic effects of Argentinean plant extracts on tumour and normal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mamone, L; Di Venosa, G; Valla, J J; Rodriguez, L; Gándara, L; Batlle, A; Heinrich, M; Juarranz, A; Sanz-Rodriguez, F; Casas, A

    2011-05-30

    In the search for possible new anti-cancer agents, we investigated the effects of 75 aqueous and methanol extracts from 41 Argentinean plant species. The effect in cell growth was evaluated in the LM2 mammary adenocarcinoma cells. In a second stage, the highly active selected extracts were assayed in 3 other tumour cell lines: melanoma B16, bladder MB49 and lung A549; and 3 normal cell lines: mammary Hb4a and keratinocytes PAM212 and HaCat. Eight methanol extracts were found to be highly cytotoxic: Collaea argentina leaf, Iochroma australe leaf, Ipomoea bonariensis flower, Jacaranda mimosifolia flower, Solanum amygdalifolium flower, Solanum chacoense leaf, Solanum sisymbriifolium flower and Solanum verbascifolium flower. However, extract inhibition on cell growth was highly dependent on cell type. In general, except for the highly resistant cell lines, the inhibitory concentrations 50% were in the range of 10-150 μg/ml The eight extracts highly inhibited cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner, and in general the methanol extracts were always more active than the aqueous. Murine cells appear to be more sensitive than human cells to the cytotoxic action of the plant extracts. The human melanoma B16 line was the most resistant to four of the extracts. In terms of selectivity, S. verbascifolium was the species which showed most selectivity for tumour cells. Overall, this is one of the first studies focusing on southern South American native plants and their biological effects. Since some species of 5 genera analyzed have been reported to possess different degrees of alkaloid content, we examined microtubule structures after extract treatments. The eight extracts induced destabilization, condensation and aggregation of microtubules in LM2 cells, although no depolarization, typical of Vinca alkaloids damage was observed. In a near future, antitumour activity of purified fractions of the extracts administered at non-toxic doses will be assayed in transplantable

  10. Protocols for nuclei isolation and nuclear protein extraction from the resurrection plant Xerophyta viscosa for proteomic studies.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Kamal Omer; Thomson, Jennifer Ann; Rafudeen, Muhammad Suhail

    2009-01-15

    The plant nucleus is an important subcellular organelle but the isolation of pure and enriched nuclei from plants and subsequent extraction of nuclear proteins for proteomic studies is challenging. Here, we present protocols for nuclei isolation and nuclear protein extraction from the resurrection plant, Xerophyta viscosa, and show optimization and modification of the most critical steps.

  11. Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, NatarajaPillai

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to improve the immune power of Cyprinus carpio by using Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract as immunostimulants. The haematological, immunological and enzymatic studies were conducted on the medicated fish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila pathogen. The results obtained from the haematological studies show that the RBC count, WBC count and haemoglobin content were increased in the infected fish at higher concentration of leaf extract. The feeds with leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta were able to stimulate the specific immune response by increasing the titre value of antibody. It was able to stimulate the antibody production only up to the 5th day, when fed with higher concentrations of (25 g and 50 g) plant leaf extract. The plant extract showed non-specific immune responses such as lysozyme activity, phagocytic ratio, NBT assay, etc. at higher concentration (50 g) and in the same concentration (50 g), the leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta significantly eliminated the pathogen in blood and kidney. It was observed that fish have survival percentage significantly at higher concentration (50 g) of Euphorbia hirta, when compared with the control. The obtained results are statistically significant at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels. This research work suggests that the plant Euphorbia hirta has immunostimulant activity by stimulating both specific and non-specific immunity at higher concentrations. PMID:25405077

  12. Repellent properties of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. (Family: Sapindaceae) plant leaf extracts against three important vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (C. halicacabum) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm×30 cm×25 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes of three mosquito species and were assayed in the laboratory condition by using the protocol of WHO 2005; The plant leaf crude extracts of C. halicacabum was applied at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed area of the fore arm. Only ethanol served as control. Results In this observation, the plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. The tested plant crude extracts had exerted promising repellent against all the three mosquitoes. Conclusions From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of C. halicacabum was potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi mosquitoes. PMID:23569979

  13. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of methanol extracts from aerial parts of Korean salad plants.

    PubMed

    Heo, Buk-Gu; Park, Yong-Seo; Chon, Sang-Uk; Lee, Sook-Young; Cho, Ja-Yong; Gorinstein, Shela

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the content of total phenolics, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 11 Korean medicinal salad plants. The highest total phenolic content of the methanol extracts was found in Aster scaber (17.1 mg 100 g(-1)), followed by Ixeris dentate (16.4 mg 100 g(-1)), Aster yomena (12.0 mg 100 g(-1)) and Sedum sarmentosum (9.1 mg 100 g(-1)) of FW. Methanol extracts of Ixeris dentate and Aster scaber at 50 microg mL(-1) exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity by 86.4 and 83.3%, respectively. It was registered a dose-dependent increase of DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Total phenolic content of the studied plant extracts was correlated with the DPPH radical scavenging activity. It was found by means of MTT assay, that cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts was the highest against HCT-116. Methanol extracts from Petasites japonicus (IC(50)<25.0 microg mL(-1)) showed the highest activity against HCT-116, following by Angelica gigas (34.75 microg mL(-1)), Erythronium japonicum (44.06 microg mL(-1)), and Aster scaber (54.87 microg mL(-1)). In conclusion, the studied salad plants have high total phenolics content and high antioxidant activity. These plants dose-dependently increased DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The total phenolics level was highly correlated with the free radical scavenging activity. Most of the studied salad plants have potent cytotoxicity activity. The results of this investigation suggest that the extracts of studied salad plants could be an addition to basic medicine for some diseases.

  14. Evaluation of diffusion and dilution methods to determine the antibacterial activity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Klancnik, Anja; Piskernik, Sasa; Jersek, Barbara; Mozina, Sonja Smole

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate diffusion and dilution methods for determining the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and their mixtures. Several methods for measurement of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of a plant extract are available, but there is no standard procedure as there is for antibiotics. We tested different plant extracts, their mixtures and phenolic acids on selected gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Infantis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli) with the disk diffusion, agar dilution, broth microdilution and macrodilution methods. The disk diffusion method was appropriate only as a preliminary screening test prior to quantitative MIC determination with dilution methods. A comparison of the results for MIC obtained by agar dilution and broth microdilution was possible only for gram-positive bacteria, and indicated the latter as the most accurate way of assessing the antimicrobial effect. The microdilution method with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) or INT (2-p-iodophenyl-3-p-nitrophenyl-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride) to indicate the viability of aerobic bacteria was found to be the best alternative approach, while only ATP determination was appropriate for microaerophilic Campylobacter spp. Using survival curves the kinetics of bacterial inactivation on plant extract exposure was followed for 24h and in this way the MIC values determined by the microdilution method were confirmed as the concentrations of extracts that inhibited bacterial growth. We suggest evaluation of the antibacterial activity of plant extracts using the broth microdilution method as a fast screening method for MIC determination and the macrodilution method at selected MIC values to confirm bacterial inactivation. Campylobacter spp. showed a similar sensitivity to plant extracts as the tested gram-positive bacteria, but S

  15. Identification of traditional medicinal plant extracts with novel anti-influenza activity.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Dhivya; Palombo, Enzo A; Chia Yeo, Tiong; Lim Siok Ley, Diana; Lee Tu, Chu; Malherbe, Francois; Grollo, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistant variants of the influenza virus has led to a need to identify novel and effective antiviral agents. As an alternative to synthetic drugs, the consolidation of empirical knowledge with ethnopharmacological evidence of medicinal plants offers a novel platform for the development of antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was to identify plant extracts with proven activity against the influenza virus. Extracts of fifty medicinal plants, originating from the tropical rainforests of Borneo used as herbal medicines by traditional healers to treat flu-like symptoms, were tested against the H1N1 and H3N1 subtypes of the virus. In the initial phase, in vitro micro-inhibition assays along with cytotoxicity screening were performed on MDCK cells. Most plant extracts were found to be minimally cytotoxic, indicating that the compounds linked to an ethnomedical framework were relatively innocuous, and eleven crude extracts exhibited viral inhibition against both the strains. All extracts inhibited the enzymatic activity of viral neuraminidase and four extracts were also shown to act through the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) pathway. Moreover, the samples that acted through both HI and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) evidenced more than 90% reduction in virus adsorption and penetration, thereby indicating potent action in the early stages of viral replication. Concurrent studies involving Receptor Destroying Enzyme treatments of HI extracts indicated the presence of sialic acid-like component(s) that could be responsible for hemagglutination inhibition. The manifestation of both modes of viral inhibition in a single extract suggests that there may be a synergistic effect implicating more than one active component. Overall, our results provide substantive support for the use of Borneo traditional plants as promising sources of novel anti-influenza drug candidates. Furthermore, the pathways involving inhibition of hemagglutination could be a solution

  16. Identification of Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts with Novel Anti-Influenza Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Dhivya; Palombo, Enzo A.; Chia Yeo, Tiong; Lim Siok Ley, Diana; Lee Tu, Chu; Malherbe, Francois; Grollo, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistant variants of the influenza virus has led to a need to identify novel and effective antiviral agents. As an alternative to synthetic drugs, the consolidation of empirical knowledge with ethnopharmacological evidence of medicinal plants offers a novel platform for the development of antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was to identify plant extracts with proven activity against the influenza virus. Extracts of fifty medicinal plants, originating from the tropical rainforests of Borneo used as herbal medicines by traditional healers to treat flu-like symptoms, were tested against the H1N1 and H3N1 subtypes of the virus. In the initial phase, in vitro micro-inhibition assays along with cytotoxicity screening were performed on MDCK cells. Most plant extracts were found to be minimally cytotoxic, indicating that the compounds linked to an ethnomedical framework were relatively innocuous, and eleven crude extracts exhibited viral inhibition against both the strains. All extracts inhibited the enzymatic activity of viral neuraminidase and four extracts were also shown to act through the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) pathway. Moreover, the samples that acted through both HI and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) evidenced more than 90% reduction in virus adsorption and penetration, thereby indicating potent action in the early stages of viral replication. Concurrent studies involving Receptor Destroying Enzyme treatments of HI extracts indicated the presence of sialic acid-like component(s) that could be responsible for hemagglutination inhibition. The manifestation of both modes of viral inhibition in a single extract suggests that there may be a synergistic effect implicating more than one active component. Overall, our results provide substantive support for the use of Borneo traditional plants as promising sources of novel anti-influenza drug candidates. Furthermore, the pathways involving inhibition of hemagglutination could be a solution

  17. Use of plant extracts in summer and winter season butter oxidative stability improvement.

    PubMed

    Gramza-Michalowska, Anna; Korczak, Jozef; Regula, Julita

    2007-01-01

    Edible fats and fat containing products undergo oxidation, both during production and storage, causing a sequence of unfavorable changes. Enrichment of lipids with plant polyphenols can profitably influence their oxidative stability, additional introduction to human body can also decrease the degenerative diseases morbidity. Two seasons butter quality were analysed: winter and summer season. Oxidative stability of butter was conducted on Rancimat and Oxidograph test conditions (110oC). To evaluate antioxidant activity of different plant extracts lipid samples were enriched with green tea and rosemary extracts, alpha-tocopherol and BHT at concentration of 0.02%, counted over lipid content. It was found that pure winter butter was more stable than pure butter from summer season in Rancimat test conditions (p<0.05). No statistical differences between samples in Oxidograph test were found. Summer season butter oxidative stability was highest in sample with addition of green tea extract: 71.22h for Rancimat and 81.23h for Oxidograph test. Best antioxidative activity in winter butter showed green tea extract, where induction period was 66.5 h for Rancimat and 64.0 h for Oxidograph test. Also rosemary extract and tocopherol showed strong antioxidative activity, weaker however than green tea extract. BHT, strong synthetic antioxidant showed much lower activity. Study indicated strong antioxidant activity of examined plant extracts in lipid systems.

  18. In vitro biological evaluation of 100 selected methanol extracts from the traditional medicinal plants of Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunmei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In Asia, various medicinal plants have been used as the primary sources in the health care regimen for thousands of years. In recent decades, various studies have investigated the biological activity and potential medicinal value of the medicinal plants. In this study, 100 methanol extracts from 98 plant species were evaluated for their biological activities. MATERIALS/METHODS The research properties, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-pic-rylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, α-glucosidase and α-tyrosinase inhibitory effects, anti-inflammatory activity, and anticancer activity were evaluated for the selected extracts. RESULTS Fifteen of the extracts scavenged more than 90% of the DPPH radical. Among the extracts, approximately 20 extracts showed a strong inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase, while most had no effect on α-tyrosinase. In addition, 52% of the extracts showed low toxicity to normal cells, and parts of the extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities on the murine macrophage cell (RAW 264.7) and human colon cancer cell (HT-29) lines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our findings may contribute to further nutrition and pharmacological studies. Detailed investigations of the outstanding samples are currently underway. PMID:24741398

  19. Application of ionic liquid for extraction and separation of bioactive compounds from plants.

    PubMed

    Tang, Baokun; Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, ionic liquids (ILs), as green and designer solvents, have accelerated research in analytical chemistry. This review highlights some of the unique properties of ILs and provides an overview of the preparation and application of IL or IL-based materials to extract bioactive compounds in plants. IL or IL-based materials in conjunction with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) analytical technologies etc., have been applied successfully to the extraction or separation of bioactive compounds from plants. This paper reviews the available data and references to examine the advantages of IL and IL-based materials in these applications. In addition, the main target compounds reviewed in this paper are bioactive compounds with multiple therapeutic effects and pharmacological activities. Based on the importance of the targets, this paper reviews the applications of ILs, IL-based materials or co-working with analytical technologies. The exploitation of new applications of ILs on the extraction of bioactive compounds from plant samples is expected to increase.

  20. Ball mill assisted rapid mechanochemical extraction method for natural products from plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Bi, Wentao; Huang, Xiaohua; Chen, David Da Yong

    2016-06-03

    A ball mill assisted mechanochemical extraction method was developed to extract compounds of natural product (NP) from plant using ionic liquid (IL). A small volume ball mill, also known as PastPrep(®) Homogenizer, which is often used for high-speed lysis of biological samples and for other applications, was used to dramatically increase the speed, completeness and reproducibility of the extraction process at room temperature to preserve the chemical integrity of the extracted compounds. In this study, tanshinones were selected as target compounds to evaluate the performance of this extraction method. Factors affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the duration, IL concentration and solid/liquid ratio were systematically optimized using the response surface methodology. Under the optimized conditions, the described method was more efficient and much faster than the conventional extraction methods such as methanol based ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and heat reflux extraction (HRE) that consumes a lot more organic solvent. In addition, the natural products of interest were enriched by anion metathesis of ionic liquids, combining extraction and preconcentration in the same process. The extractant was analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS. The reproducibility (RSD, n=5), correlation coefficient (r(2)) of the calibration curve, and the limit of detection, were determined to be in the range of 4.7-5.2%, 0.9992-0.9995, and 20-51ng/mL, respectively.

  1. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane.

  2. Methanogenic potential of tailings samples from oil sands extraction plants.

    PubMed

    Fedorak, Phillip M; Coy, Debora L; Salloum, Myrna J; Dudas, Marvin J

    2002-01-01

    Approximately 20% of Canada's oil supply now comes from the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands deposits in northeastern Alberta. The oil sands are strip-mined, and the bitumen is typically separated from sand and clays by an alkaline hot water extraction process. The rapidly expanding oil sands industry has millions of cubic metres of tailings for disposal and large areas of land to reclaim. There are estimates that the consolidation of the mature fine tails (MFT) in the settling ponds will take about 150 years. Some of the settling ponds are now evolving microbially produced methane, a greenhouse gas. To hasten consolidation, gypsum (CaSO4 x 2H2O) is added to MFT, yielding materials called consolidated or composite tailings (CT). Sulfate from the gypsum has the potential to stimulate sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to out-compete methanogens, thereby stopping methanogenesis. This investigation examined three MFT and four CT samples from three oil sands extractions companies. Each was found to contain methanogens and SRB. Serum bottle microcosm studies showed sulfate in the CT samples stopped methane production. However, if the microcosms were amended with readily utilizable electron donors, the sulfate was consumed, and when it reached approximately 20 mg/L, methane production began. Some unamended microcosms were incubated for 372 days, with no methane production detected. This work showed that each MFT and CT sample has the potential to become methanogenic, but in the absence of exogenous electron donors, the added sulfate can inhibit methanogenesis for a long time.

  3. Central Nervous System Effects of Ginkgo Biloba, a Plant Extract.

    PubMed

    Itil, Turan M.; Eralp, Emin; Tsambis, Elias; Itil, Kurt Z.; Stein, Ulrich

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) are among the most prescribed drugs in France and Germany. EGb is claimed to be effective in peripheral arterial disorders and in "cerebral insufficiency." The mechanism of action is not yet well understood. Three of the ingredients of the extract have been isolated and found to be pharmacologically active, but which one alone or in combination is responsible for clinical effects is unknown. The recommended daily dose (3 x 40 mg extract) is based more on empirical data than on clinical dose-findings studies. However, despite these, according to double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, EGb has therapeutic effects, at least, on the diagnostic entity of "cerebral insufficiency," which is used in Europe as synonymous with early dementia. To determine whether EGb has significant pharmacological effects on the human brain, a pharmacodynamic study was conducted using the Quantitative Pharmacoelectroencephalogram (QPEEG(R)) method. It was established that the pharmacological effects (based on a predetermined 7.5--13.0-Hz alpha frequency band in a computer-analyzed electroencephalogram = CEEG(R)) of EGb on the central nervous system (CNS) are significantly different than placebo, and the high and low doses could be discriminated from each other. The 120-mg, but particularly the 240-mg, single doses showed the most consistent CNS effects with an earlier onset (1 h) and longer duration (7 h). Furthermore, it was established that the electrophysiological effects of EGb in CNS are similar to those of well-known cognitive activators such as "nootropics" as well as tacrine, the only marketed "antidementia" drug currently available in the United States.

  4. Investigation of antibacterial mechanism and identification of bacterial protein targets mediated by antibacterial medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Yong, Ann-Li; Ooh, Keng-Fei; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Chai, Tsun-Thai; Wong, Fai-Chu

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we investigated the antibacterial mechanism and potential therapeutic targets of three antibacterial medicinal plants. Upon treatment with the plant extracts, bacterial proteins were extracted and resolved using denaturing gel electrophoresis. Differentially-expressed bacterial proteins were excised from the gels and subjected to sequence analysis by MALDI TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. From our study, seven differentially expressed bacterial proteins (triacylglycerol lipase, N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, flagellin, outer membrane protein A, stringent starvation protein A, 30S ribosomal protein s1 and 60 kDa chaperonin) were identified. Additionally, scanning electron microscope study indicated morphological damages induced on bacterial cell surfaces. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first time these bacterial proteins are being reported, following treatments with the antibacterial plant extracts. Further studies in this direction could lead to the detailed understanding of their inhibition mechanism and discovery of target-specific antibacterial agents.

  5. A method for the solvent extraction of low-boiling-point plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Gruber, Margaret; Westcott, Neil; Soroka, Julie; Parkin, Isobel; Hegedus, Dwayne

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the extraction of volatiles from plant materials and tested on seedling tissue and mature leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana, pine needles and commercial mixtures of plant volatiles. Volatiles were extracted with n-pentane and then subjected to quick distillation at a moderate temperature. Under these conditions, compounds such as pigments, waxes and non-volatile compounds remained undistilled, while short-chain volatile compounds were distilled into a receiving flask using a high-efficiency condenser. Removal of the n-pentane and concentration of the volatiles in the receiving flask was carried out using a Vigreux column condenser prior to GC-MS. The method is ideal for the rapid extraction of low-boiling-point volatiles from small amounts of plant material, such as is required when conducting metabolic profiling or defining biological properties of volatile components from large numbers of mutant lines.

  6. Plant photosensitizers: A survey of their occurrence in arid and semiarid plants from North America.

    PubMed

    Downum, K R; Villegas, S; Rodriguez, E; Keil, D J

    1989-01-01

    Various plants native to arid and semiarid habitats throughout the southwestern United States, Baja California, and northern Mexico were bioassayed for phototoxic natural products. Approximately 115 species representing 57 genera and eight plant families were assayed for phototoxic activity by standard antimicrobial techniques usingEscherichia coli andSaccharomyces cerevisiae. Phototoxic constituents were extracted from numerous members in the Asteraceae (Compositae) and occurred with highest frequency among species of the subtribe Pectidinae (tribe Heliantheae). Extracts ofPectis, the largest genus in the Pectidinae, had substantial light-activated biocidal action despite the paucity of acetylenic thiophenes, the phototoxins characteristic of most other genera in the subtribe. Leaf resin from the creosote bush [Larrea tridentata (Sesse & Mol. ex DC.) Coville; Zygophyllaceae], a dominant desert shrub, possessed potent antimicrobial activity in the absence of light; however, the toxicity of this extract was slightly enhanced in the presence of UVA irradiation. Phototoxic antimicrobials were not detected in extracts of selected species from the Asclepiadaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Lamiaceae, Polygonaceae, or Solanaceae.

  7. Further studies on South African plants: Acaricidal activity of organic plant extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Wellington, Kevin W; Leboho, Tlabo; Sakong, Bellonah M; Adenubi, Olubukola T; Eloff, Jacobus N; Fouche, Gerda

    2017-01-30

    The goal of our research is to develop a lower cost eco-friendly tick control method because acaricides that are commonly used to control ticks are often toxic, harmful to the environment or too expensive for resource-limited farmers. Acetone and ethanol extracts were prepared and their acaricidal activities determined against the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. A 1% solution of each of the plant extracts was prepared for efficacy testing using the adapted Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT). The acetone stem extract from Cissus quadrangularis (Vitaceae) and the ethanol leaf and flower extract from Calpurnia aurea (Fabaceae) had potent activity like that of the commercial acaricide, chlorfenvinphos [corrected mortality (CM)=100.0%]. The ethanol extracts of the stem of C. quadrangularis (CM=98.9%) and that of the roots, leaves and fruit of Senna italica subsp arachoides (CM=96.7%) also had good acaricidal activity. There is potential for the development of botanicals as natural acaricides against R. (B.) microplus that can be used commercially to protect animals against tick infestation. Further studies to isolate the acaricidal active compounds and to determine the environmental fate, species toxicity and skin toxicity of these plants species are, however, required before they can be considered as a treatment against ticks.

  8. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Abtew, Andnet; Subramanian, Sevgan; Cheseto, Xavier; Kreiter, Serge; Tropea Garzia, Giovanna; Martin, Thibaud

    2015-01-01

    Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies. PMID:26463406

  9. Extraction methods and bioautography for evaluation of medicinal plant antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Nostro, A; Germanò, M P; D'angelo, V; Marino, A; Cannatelli, M A

    2000-05-01

    A comparative study on the antimicrobial properties of extracts from medicinal plants obtained by two different methods was carried out. The screening of the antimicrobial activity of extracts from six plants was conducted by a disc diffusion test against Gram-positive, -negative and fungal organisms. The most active extracts (inhibition diameter >/=12 mm) were assayed for the minimum inhibitory concentration and submitted to phytochemical screening by thin-layer chromatography and bioautography. The results obtained indicate that the diethyl ether extracts were the most efficient antimicrobial compounds. The activity was more pronounced against Gram-positive and fungal organisms than against Gram-negative bacteria. Bioautography showed that the antimicrobial activity was probably due to flavonoids and terpenes.

  10. In vitro nematocidal activity of plant extracts of Mexican flora against Haemonchus contortus fourth larval stage.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Hector Hugo Galicia; de Gives, Pedro Mendoza; Sánchez, David Osvaldo Salinas; Arellano, María Eugenia López; Hernández, Enrique Liébano; Aroche, Ulises López; Valladares-Cisneros, Guadalupe

    2008-12-01

    Fourteen plant extracts were evaluated in vitro against the fourth larval stage of Haemonchus contortus. The plants species used were Tagetes erecta, Argemone mexicana, and Castela tortuosa. The assays were run in 24-well cell culture plates at room temperature with three replicates. After exposure, aliquots were taken from the corresponding wells and transferred to a microscope for observation. Evaluation criteria were based on the average of live and/or dead larvae. ANOVA test and Tukey test were used to determine significant differences among the treatments. After 96 h, the T. erecta acetonic extract produced 99.7% lethal activity, followed by C. tortuosa hexanic extract (85.8%) and T. erecta methanolic extract (58.3%) (P < 0.0001).

  11. Adulticidal and repellent properties of indigenous plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2012-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikunguniya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The adulticidal and repellent activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Eclipta alba and Andrographis paniculata were assayed for their toxicity against two important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of A. paniculata against the adults of C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 149.81, 172.37 ppm and 288.12, 321.01 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extract of E. alba and A. paniculata plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito adulticidal and repellent activities of the reported E. alba and A. paniculata plants.

  12. Analysis of propolis from Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Compositae) and its effects on mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    de Funari, Cristiano Soleo; de Oliveira Ferro, Vicente; Mathor, Monica Beatriz

    2007-05-04

    This paper confirms Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Compositae) as the main botanical source of the propolis from southeastern Brazil (state of São Paulo) investigated to ascertain specific biological activity in relation to mouse NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, skin cells directly involved in the cicatrization processes. Flavonoid and total phenolic compounds were determined by spectrophotometry, and chemical composition by HPLC; the chromatographic profile, characterized largely by flavonoids and aromatic acids, was found to be qualitatively similar to that of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. The adsorption of phenolic compounds in the propolis to skin powder was also investigated, and 68% of these compounds adsorbed to the skin powder. At concentrations from 0.12 to 7.81 microg/ml, the propolis revealed no statistical significant differences from its control solutions; however, at concentrations of 31.25 microg/ml or more, the propolis was toxic to NIH-3T3 cells. Thus, the propolis from Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Compositae) presents an in vitro concentration-dependent toxicity on mouse NIH-3T3 fibroblasts.

  13. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  14. GC-MS analysis of bio-active compounds in methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata DC

    PubMed Central

    Kanthal, Lakshmi Kanta; Dey, Akalanka; Satyavathi, K.; Bhojaraju, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The presence of phytochemical constitutes has been reported from species of the Compositae (Asteraceae). Hitherto no reports exist on the phytochemical components and biological activity of Lactuca runcinata DC. Objective: The present study was designed to determine the bioactive compounds in the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening of the entire herb of Lactuca runcinata DC revealed the presence of some bio-active components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata was performed on a GC-MS equipment (Thermo Scientific Co.) Thermo GC-TRACE ultra ver.: 5.0, Thermo MS DSQ II. Results: The phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, phlobatannin, reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids, volatile oils, carbohydrates, and protein/amino acids in methanolic extract of L. runcinata. The GC-MS analysis has shown the presence of different phytochemical compounds in the methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata. A total of 21 compounds were identified representing 84.49% of total methanolic extract composition. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that Lactuca runcinata contains various phytocomponents and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance. PMID:24497744

  15. Comparative antimicrobial activity of callus and natural plant extracts of Solanum trilobatum L

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, S.M.; Kandasamy, S.; Chinnappa, R.

    2009-01-01

    Comparison of natural plant and callus extracts of Solanum trilobatum L. was studied against two bacteria and fungi, for their antimicrobial activity using cup diffusion method. Various solvents such as chloroform, petroleum ether and ethanol were used. The leaf and stem segments of the plant were culturedon Murashige and S koog basal medium supplemented with various growth regulators. Maximum callus was recorded on medium containing 0.5 mg/lNAA and 0.5 mgj IKinetin. The results reveals that the stem and leaf callus extracts has shown significant activity against the tested microorganisms than the natural sample. PMID:22557312

  16. Rice-planted area extraction from multi-temporal remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jinxiang; Zhang, Hong; Ma, Yanmei

    2015-12-01

    Rice-planted area and production monitoring has significance for governments to formulate some food related policy. Remote sensing has an obvious advantage for the rice monitoring. As for the rice-planted area, the special growth raw shows different feature in the remote sensing image. In this paper, the multi-temporal Landsat-8 OLI image of Menghun and Mengzhe town in Xishuangbanna autonomous prefecture where planting a large number of rice was used as the test data, the corresponding changes of the difference between NDVI and NDWI was used as the diagnostic feature, and the SAM classification approach was introduced to extract rice-planted area. The experiments shows that the approach could acquire more than 95% of the extraction accuracy.

  17. Molluscicidal sesquiterpene lactones from species of the tribe Vernonieae (Compositae).

    PubMed

    Borkosky, Susana; Ponce de León, Susana; Juárez, Gabriela; Sierra, Manuel González; Bardón, Alicia

    2009-04-01

    Schistosomiasis is caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, and some snails, particularly of the genus Biomphalaria (Planorbidae), are directly implicated in the transmission of the disease. Continuing with our investigations of bioactive plant constituents, we evaluated and report in the present article, the molluscicidal effects of 16 sesquiterpene lactones, as well as the commercial reagents tetrahydrofuran, furfural, and furfuryl alcohol, on an adult population of B. peregrina. The natural sesquiterpene lactones tested are characteristic constituents of species of the tribe Vernonieae, family Asteraceae. Compounds 1-3 and 7 came from a Bolivian collection of Vernonanthura pinguis, compounds 4 and 5 from an Argentine collection of Cyrtocymura cincta var. cincta, 6 was obtained from a Bolivian collection of Eirmocephala megaphylla, 8-14 from an Argentine collection of Centratherum punctatum ssp. punctatum, and compounds 15 and 16 were obtained by chemical derivatization from 5 and 14, respectively. Ten of the sesquiterpene lactones displayed moderate molluscicidal activity (LD50<100 microg/ml). Commercial reagents were inactive.

  18. Lipid Oxidation Inhibitory Effects and Phenolic Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Medicinal Plants of Colombian Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, Leandro J.; Viloria-Bernal, María; Vicente, Francisca; Berrueta, Luis Angel; Gallo, Blanca; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Ruiz-Larrea, Maria Begoña; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera). Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plant extracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte) contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin). By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity. PMID:22754307

  19. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Methanolic Plant Extracts against Nosocomial Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    García-Becerra, Ledy; Ortiz Martínez, David Mizael

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm is a complex microbial community highly resistant to antimicrobials. The formation of biofilms in biotic and abiotic surfaces is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New alternatives for controlling infections have been proposed focusing on the therapeutic properties of medicinal plants and their antimicrobial effects. In the present study the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of 8 methanolic plant extracts were evaluated against clinical isolated microorganisms. Preliminary screening by diffusion well assay showed the antimicrobial activity of Prosopis laevigata, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Gutierrezia microcephala. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined ranging from 0.7 to >15 mg/mL. The specific biofilm formation index (SBF) was evaluated before and after the addition of plant extracts (MBC × 0.75). Opuntia ficus-indica caused the major reduction on SBF in dose-dependent manner. Cytotoxic activity of plant extracts was determined using brine shrimp lethality test (Artemia salina L.). Lethal Dose concentration (LD50 values) of the plant extracts was calculated. LD50 values for P. laevigata and G. microcephala were 141.6 and 323.3 µg/mL, respectively, while O. ficus-indica showed a slight lethality with 939.2 µg/mL. Phytochemical analyses reveal the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and coumarines. PMID:27429633

  20. Screening of plant extracts for anthelmintic activity against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Huang, Ai-Guo; Yi, Yang-Lei; Ling, Fei; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-12-01

    With the aim of finding natural anthelmintic agents against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus), 26 plants were screened for antiparasitic properties using in vivo anthelmintic efficacy assay. The results showed that Caesalpinia sappan, Lysima chiachristinae, Cuscuta chinensis, Artemisia argyi, and Eupatorium fortunei were found to have 100% anthelmintic efficacy at 125, 150, 225, 300, and 500 mg L(-1) after 48 h of exposure. Crude extract of the five plants were further partitioned with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water to obtain anthelmintically active fractions with various polarity. Among these fractions tested, the ethyl acetate extract of L. chiachristinae was found to be the most effective with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) value of 5.1 mg/L after 48 h of exposure. This was followed by ethyl acetate extract of C. chinensis (48 h-EC50 = 8.5 mg L(-1)), chloroform extracts of C. sappan (48 h-EC50 = 15.6 mg L(-1)), methanol extract of C. chinensis (48 h-EC50 = 15.9 mg L(-1)), and chloroform and petroleum ether extract of L. chiachristinae (EC50 values of 17.2 and 21.1 mg/L, respectively), suggesting that these plants, as well as the active fractions, provide potential sources of botanic drugs for the control of D. intermedius in aquaculture.

  1. Anticariogenic activity and phytochemical studies of crude extract from some Indian plant leaves

    PubMed Central

    Barad, Mahesh K.; Ishnava, Kalpesh B.; Chauhan, Jenabhai B.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to screen the selected Indian plants for their antibacterial efficacy against four cariogenic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA)(Microbial Type Culture Collection [MTCC]-*447), Lactobacillus casei (LC) (MTCC-1423), Streptococcus mutans (SMU) (MTCC-890) and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96). To identify and characterize active principle present in these plants for the treatment of dental caries. Materials and Methods: The dried plant leaves materials are extracted by cold extraction using hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and distilled water. The solvents were evaporated, and the dried masses were suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide and used for anticariogenic activity by agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated by two-fold serial broth dilution method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of effective extract was carried out by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and bioautography. Results: Ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Eucalyptus globules was found most effective against L. acidophilus with MIC value 31 μg/ml and 62 μg/ml, respectively. Ethyl acetate extracts of Acacia nilotica and methanolic extract of E. globules also exhibited antibacterial activity against SMU and L. casei with MIC value of 50 μg/ml. Qualitative analysis of E. globules revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and cardiac glycosides. The active principle responsible for the anticariogenic activity from E. globules were separated by TLC and subjected to bioautography using SMU, LA and LC. Conclusion: Anticariogenic activity and preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed that E. globule have potential to treat dental caries. PMID:26401353

  2. Storage behavior of mango as affected by post harvest application of plant extracts and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nisha; Jain, S K

    2014-10-01

    The use of plant extracts could be a useful alternative to synthetic fungicides in the post harvest handling of fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of extracts obtained from four plants (neem, Pongamia, custard apple leaf and marigold flowers) on the extension of shelf life of mango fruits cv. Dashehri under two storage conditions (Cool store and ambient condition). The fruits were treated with 2 concentrations of each plant extracts (10 % and 20 %) were placed in perforated linear low density poly ethylene bags and stored in storage conditions viz., cool storage and ambient condition, respectively. The treatment of neem leaf extract in combination with cool storage gave encouraging results. Up to the end of the storage study the treatment combination of 20 % neem leaf extract and cool store completely inhibited the pathogens, and no spoilage was observed. There was minimum physiological loss in weight (6.24 %), minimum girth reduction (0.62 %), maximum ascorbic acid content (29.96 mg/ 100 g of pulp), maximum acidity (0.19 %), minimum pH (5.28), maximum total soluble solids (20.96 %), maximum total sugars (12.50 %), reducing sugars (4.12 %) and non- reducing sugars (7.96 %) and best organoleptic score (7.93/10) in this interaction. The inhibitory effect of neem leaf extract was ascribed to the presence of active principle azadirachtin.

  3. Pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical evaluation of extracts from different plant parts of indigenous origin for their hypoglycemic responses in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Naveed; Khan, Barkat Ali; Majid, Abdul; Khan, Haji M Shoaib; Mahmood, Tariq; Gulfishan; Saeed, Tariq

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects of different plant extracts in single and in combined formulation, in experimentally induced "diabetic rabbits". The extracts were obtained from seeds of Syzygium jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia and leaves of Azadirachta indica. Treatment of diabetes with plant extracts was started at 8 days after alloxan injection. Rabbits were randomly divided into four groups, each group consisting of six rabbits. Each group of rabbits was given a dose of granules containing 200 mg/kg b.w. concentrated ethanolic extract of a plant while the fourth group was given a dose of granules consisting of combined extract of all three folk plants. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. Serum glucose estimation was done by glucose oxidase kit method. Anti-diabetic effect was produced after 72 h in groups 1, 2 and 3 that were administered with a dose of granules of ethanolic extract of single plant but in group 4, treated with 200 mg/kg body weight of combined extract of all three plants, hypoglycemic effect was produced after 96 h. Hypoglycemic effects may be induced in rabbits by administration of extracts of various plant parts. The hypoglycemic effect produced by granules of single plant extract was more pronounced than antidiabetic effect produced by combining three extracts in a single formulation.

  4. Potential of using plant extracts for purification of shallow well water in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A.; O'Neill, J. G.; Kululanga, G.

    There has been very little scientific research work into the use of plant extracts to purify groundwater. Research studies on the purification of groundwater have mainly been carried out in developed countries and have focused on water purification systems using aluminium sulphate (a coagulant) and chlorine (a disinfectant). Such systems are expensive and not viable for rural communities due to abject poverty. Shallow well water, which is commonly available throughout Africa, is often grossly contaminated and usually consumed untreated. As a result, water-related diseases kill more than 5 million people every year worldwide. This research was aimed at examining natural plant extracts in order to develop inexpensive ways for rural communities to purify their groundwater. The study involved creating an inventory of plant extracts that have been used for water and wastewater purification. A prioritisation system was derived to select the most suitable extracts, which took into account criteria such as availability, purification potential, yield and cost of extraction. Laboratory trials were undertaken on the most promising plant extracts, namely: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Guar gum. The extracts were added to water samples obtained from five shallow wells in Malawi. The trials consisted of jar tests to assess the coagulation potential and the resulting effect on physico-chemical and microbiological parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity and coliforms. The results showed that the addition of M. oleifera, J. curcas and Guar gum can considerably improve the quality of shallow well water. Turbidity reduction was higher for more turbid water. A reduction efficiency exceeding 90% was achieved by all three extracts on shallow well water that had a turbidity of 49 NTU. A reduction in coliforms was about 80% for all extracts. The pH of the water samples increased with dosage, but remained within acceptable levels for drinking water for all the extracts

  5. Antiplasmodial potential of medicinal plant extracts from Malaiyur and Javadhu hills of South India.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Mohanakrishnan, Dinesh; Elango, Gandhi; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Sahal, Dinkar

    2012-08-01

    The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum with resistance to chloroquine (CQ), the safest and cheapest anti-malarial drug, coupled with the increasing cost of alternative drugs especially in developing countries have necessitated the urgent need to tap the potential of plants for novel anti-malarials. The present study investigates the anti-malarial activity of the methanolic extracts of 13 medicinal plants from the Malaiyur and Javadhu hills of South India against blood stage CQ-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (INDO) strains of P. falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green I assay. Sorbitol-synchronized parasites were incubated under normal culture conditions at 2% hematocrit and 1% parasitemia in the absence or presence of increasing concentrations of plant extracts. CQ and artemisinin were used as positive controls, while 0.4% DMSO was used as the negative control. The cytotoxic effects of extracts on host cells were assessed by functional assay using HeLa cells cultured in RPMI containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 0.21% sodium bicarbonate and 50 μg/mL gentamycin (complete medium). Plant extracts (bark methanol extracts of Annona squamosa (IC(50), 30 μg/mL), leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (IC(50), 32 μg/mL), Ocimum tenuiflorum (IC(50), 31 μg/mL), Solanum torvum (IC(50), 31 μg/mL) and Justicia procumbens (IC(50), 63 μg/mL), showed moderate activity. The leaf extracts of Aristolochia indica (IC(50), 10 μg/mL), Cassia auriculata (IC(50), 14 μg/mL), Chrysanthemum indicum (IC(50), 20 μg/mL) and Dolichos biflorus (IC(50), 20 μg/mL) showed promising activity and low activity was observed in the flower methanol extracts of A. indica , leaf methanol extract of Catharanthus roseus, and Gymnema sylvestre (IC(50), >100 μg/mL). These four extracts exhibited promising IC(50) (μg/mL) of 17, 24, 19 and 24 respectively also against the CQ resistant INDO strain of P. falciparum. The high TC(50) in mammalian cell cytotoxicity assay and

  6. Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography for crude plant extract profiling.

    PubMed

    Eugster, Philippe J; Guillarme, Davy; Rudaz, Serge; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) systems operating at very high pressures and using sub-2 microm packing columns have allowed a remarkable decrease in analysis time and increase in peak capacity, sensitivity, and reproducibility compared to conventional HPLC. This technology has rapidly been widely accepted by the analytical community and is being gradually applied to various fields of plant analysis such as QC, profiling and fingerprinting, dereplication, and metabolomics. For many applications, an important improvement of the overall performances has been reported. In this review, the basic principles of UHPLC are summarized, and practical information on the type of columns used and phase chemistry available is provided. An overview of the latest applications to natural product analysis in complex mixtures is given, and the potential and limitations as well as some new trends in the development of UHPLC are discussed.

  7. Closed vessel microwave assisted extraction - An innovative method for determination of trace metals in plant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oeztan, S.; Duering, R.-A.

    2012-04-01

    Determination of metal concentrations in plant samples is important for better understanding of effects of toxic metals that are biologically magnified through the food chain and compose a great danger to all living beings. In recent years the use of microwave assisted extraction for plant samples has shown tremendous research interest which will probably substitute conventional procedures in the future. Generally conventional procedures have disadvantages including consuming of time and solvents. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare a new closed vessel microwave extraction (MAE) method with the combination of EDTA (MAE-EDTA) for the determination of metal contents (Cd, Mn, Pb, Zn) in plant samples (Lolio-Cynosuretum) by ICP-OES. Validation of the method was done by comparison of the results with another MAE procedure (MAE-H) which is applied with the mixture of 69% nitric acid (HNO3) and 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Moreover, conventional plant extraction (CE) method, for which the dissolution of plant samples were handled in HNO3 after dry ashing at 420° C, was used as a reference method. Approximately 0.5 g of sample was digested in 5 ml HNO3, 3 ml H2O2, and 5 ml deionized H2O for MAE-H and in 8 ml EDTA solution for MAE-EDTA. Certified plant reference materials (CRMs) were used for comparison of recovery rates from different extraction protocols. Thereby, the applicability of both MAE-H and MAE-EDTA procedures could be demonstrated. For 58 plant samples MAE-H showed the same extraction yields as CE in the determination of trace metal contents of the investigated elements in plant samples. MAE-EDTA gave similar values when compared to MAE-H and highly linear relationships were found for determination of Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn amounts. The recoveries for the CRMs were within the range 89.6-115%. Finally, strategic characteristics of MAE-EDTA for determination metal contents (Cd, Mn, Pb, Zn) in plant samples are: (i) applicability to a large set

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant potential and reduction capacity of some plant extracts in silver nanoparticles' synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Vahid; Zamani, Hajar; Bajuli, Leila; Moradshahi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an active research area in nanotechnology. In the present study, antioxidant potential, total reducing capacity and silver nanoparticles' (Ag NPs) synthetic potential of methanolic leaf extracts of seven plant species were evaluated and compared. Antioxidant capacity, expressed as µmol Trolox equivalents g-1 DW (µmol TE g-1 DW), ranged from 116.0 to 1.80. The plants Rosmarinus sp. and Zataria Multiflora showed highest antioxidant capacities with IC50 of 1.07 and 1.22 mg ml-1, respectively. Total reducing capacity ranged from 7.6 to 0.17 mg gallic acid equivalent to g-1 DW (mg GAE g-1 DW). Plants with high antioxidant potentials also showed higher total reducing capacity. In fact, the order of the plants' reducing capacity was similar to that of their antioxidant potential. The same two plant species, i.e., Zataria Multiflora and Rosmarinus sp, with high reducing capacities, showed higher potentials for Ag NPs synthesis. It is concluded that reducing substances in the extracts contribute significantly to the antioxidant potential of the tested plant species, and plants with a high reducing capacity are excellent sources for the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In addition, synthetic antioxidants have adverse effects on human health; therefore, to benefit more from the health promoting properties of plant species, evaluating their novel natural antioxidants is recommended. PMID:27843980

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Various Plants Extracts Against Antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Al Laham, Shaza Anwar; Al Fadel, Frdoos Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeromonas hydrophila cause one of the most important diseases in fishes and lead to economic losses, and may be contaminated human beings. Objectives: The current research aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial activity shown by the extracts prepared from different parts of Olea europea, Myrtus communis, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinuis officinalis, and Achillea falcata that grow in Syria against A. hydrophila that causes the most dangerous bacterial diseases in fish. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in four stages: First of all, the presence of A. hydrophila was investigated in 450 Samples of Cyprinus Carpio fish using blood agar, Trypticase soya agar, and Analytical Profile Index (API20E). Secondly, the plants extract was obtained using water, absolute alcohol, then ether using Soxhlet extraction apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. Thirdly, the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics on these bacteria was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: The studied antibiotics showed no antibacterial activity against these bacteria, except amikacin which had an acceptable effectiveness. However, the ethanol extracts of the studied plants revealed different antibacterial effects against A. hydrophila which showed antibiotic resistant. T. vulgaris extract had the strongest effect, whereas O. europea extract had the weakest activity. The water and ether petroleum extracts had no antibacterial activities. Conclusions: Ethanol extracts of the studied plants had different antibacterial effects against antibiotic-resistant A. hydrophila. T. vulgaris had the highest activity, R. officinalis had the second, and M. communis and A. falcate were in the third place, while the O. europea had the weakest antibacterial activity. PMID:25368797

  10. LC-PDA-ESI/MS Identification of the Phenolic Components of Three Compositae Spices: Chamomile, Tarragon, and Mexican Arnica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) and Mexican arnica (Heterotheca inuoides) are common compositae spices and herbs found in the US market. They contain flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates that are potentially beneficial to human health. A standardized LC-PDA-ESI...

  11. Factors Affecting the Extraction of Intact Ribonucleic Acid from Plant Tissues Containing Interfering Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Newbury, H. John; Possingham, John V.

    1977-01-01

    Using conventional methods it is impossible to extract RNA as uncomplexed intact molecules from the leaves of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) and from a number of woody perennial species that contain high levels of reactive phenolic compounds. A procedure involving the use of high concentrations of the chaotropic agent sodium perchlorate prevents the binding of phenolic compounds to RNA during extraction. Analyses of the phenolics present in plant tissues used in these experiments indicate that there is a poor correlation between the total phenolic content and the complexing of RNA. However, qualitative analyses suggest that proanthocyanidins are involved in the tanning of RNA during conventional extractions. PMID:16660134

  12. Screening of Panamanian Plant Extracts for Pesticidal Properties and HPLC-Based Identification of Active Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Guldbrandsen, Niels; De Mieri, Maria; Gupta, Mahabir; Seiser, Tobias; Wiebe, Christine; Dickhaut, Joachim; Reingruber, Rüdiger; Sorgenfrei, Oliver; Hamburger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    A library of 600 taxonomically diverse Panamanian plant extracts was screened for fungicidal, insecticidal, and herbicidal activities. A total of 19 active extracts were submitted to HPLC-based activity profiling, and extracts of Bocconia frutescens, Miconia affinis, Myrcia splendens, Combretum aff. laxum, and Erythroxylum macrophyllum were selected for the isolation of compounds. Chelerythrine (2), macarpine (3), dihydrosanguinarine (5), and arjunolic acid (8) showed moderate-to-good fungicidal activity. Myricetin-3-O-(6’’-O-galloyl)-β-galactopyranoside (13) showed moderate insecticidal activity, but no compound with herbicidal activity was identified. PMID:26839818

  13. Cardioactive properties of Solanaceae plant extracts and pure glycoalkaloids on Zophobas atratus.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Marciniak, Paweł; Adamski, Zbigniew; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Chowański, Szymon; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino A

    2015-04-01

    Glycoalkaloids, the biologically active secondary metabolites produced by Solanaceae plants, are natural defenses against animals, insects and fungi. In this paper, the effects of glycoalkaloids present in extracts of Solanaceae plants (potato, tomato and black nightshade) or pure commercial glycoalkaloids on the coleopteran Zophobas atratus F. were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo bioassays using heart experimental models. Each tested extract induced a dose-dependent cardioinhibitory effect. The perfusion of Zophobas atratus semi-isolated heart using the highest potato and tomato extract concentration (1 mmol/L) caused irreversible cardiac arrests, while extract from black nightshade produced fast but reversible arrests. Pure commercial glycoalkaloids caused similar but less evident effects compared with extracts. Our results showed that the bioactivity of tested compounds depended on their structure and suggested the existence of synergistic interactions when combinations of the main glycoalkaloids of potato and black nightshade were used for trials. Surprisingly, injection of tomato and potato extracts in 1-day-old pupae of Zophobas atratus induced reversible positive chronotropic effects and decreased the duration of the both phases (anterograde and retrograde) of the heart contractile activity. Furthermore, these extracts affected the amplitude of the heart contractions.

  14. Potato and mushroom polyphenol oxidase activities are differently modulated by natural plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Tomas F M; van Herk, Teunie; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Janssen, Renske H; Narh, Deborah L; van Berkel, Willem J H; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-08

    Enzymatic browning is a major quality issue in fruit and vegetable processing and can be counteracted by different natural inhibitors. Often, model systems containing a single polyphenol oxidase (PPO) are used to screen for new inhibitors. To investigate the impact of the source of PPO on the outcome of such screening, this study compared the effect of 60 plant extracts on the activity of PPO from mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus , AbPPO) and PPO from potato ( Solanum tuberosum , StPPO). Some plant extracts had different effects on the two PPOs: an extract that inhibited one PPO could be an activator for the other. As an example of this, the mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) extract was investigated in more detail. In the presence of mate extract, oxygen consumption by AbPPO was found to be reduced >5-fold compared to a control reaction, whereas that of StPPO was increased >9-fold. RP-UHPLC-MS analysis showed that the mate extract contained a mixture of phenolic compounds and saponins. Upon incubation of mate extract with StPPO, phenolic compounds disappeared completely and saponins remained. Flash chromatography was used to separate saponins and phenolic compounds. It was found that the phenolic fraction was mainly responsible for inhibition of AbPPO and activation of StPPO. Activation of StPPO was probably caused by activation of latent StPPO by chlorogenic acid quinones.

  15. Evaluation of extracts and oils of tick-repellent plants from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, T G T; Pålsson, K; Borg-Karlson, A-K

    2005-12-01

    Abstract. Leaves of Myrica gale Linnaeus (Myricaceae), Rhododendron tomentosum (Stokes) H. Harmaja (formerly Ledum palustre Linnaeus: Ericaceae) and Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae) were extracted with organic solvents of different polarities and the essential oils of leaves were obtained by steam distillation. The extracts or oils were tested in the laboratory for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of Ixodes ricinus Linnaeus (Acari: Ixodidae). Rhododendron tomentosum oil, 10%, diluted in acetone, exhibited 95% repellency; R. tomentosum and A. absinthium extracts in ethyl acetate, > 70% repellency; A. absinthium extract in hexane, approximately 62% repellency; and M. gale oil, 10%, approximately 50% repellency on I. ricinus nymphs. Compounds in the leaf extracts or in the oils were collected by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and/or MS. Characteristic volatiles detected from oil or extract of M. gale were the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol and thujenol; and of R. tomentosum myrcene and palustrol. Characteristic volatiles from leaf extracts of A. absinthium were sabinene, oxygenated monoterpenes, e.g. thujenol and linalool, and geranyl acetate. Each plant species synthesized numerous volatiles known to exhibit acaricidal, insecticidal, 'pesticidal' and/or arthropod repellent properties. These plants may be useful sources of chemicals for the control of arthropods of medical, veterinary or agricultural importance.

  16. A New Application for the Optimal Foraging Theory: The Extraction of Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-01-01

    The Optimal Foraging Theory was used to identify possible patterns in bark extraction and the selective cutting of Anadenanthera colubrina (Angico), a medicinal plant. The hypotheses were built on two approaches: selection of collection place and bark exploitation occurrence in only one of these resource areas. The results suggest that the distance that must be traveled to reach each gathering site determines the extent of the extraction process, showing that people minimize the time and energy spent in A. colubrina collection. The availability of each site appears not to influence the operation. The resource amount was the optimized variable for bark extraction, which was analyzed in only one collection zone. In contrast to the phenomenon of collection place selection, the distance between angico individuals, the management period, and the tannin content did not affect bark extraction. This study also discusses how certain cultural aspects influence the extraction of angico. PMID:21949671

  17. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition.

  18. The antioxidant activity and polyphenolic contents of different plant seeds extracts.

    PubMed

    Atrooz, Omar M

    2009-08-01

    Different plant seeds extracts of Citrus sinensis, Hordeum sativum, Triticum sativum, Canna indica, Citrullus vulgaris and Capsicum annuum were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by the following methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycril-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, RBCs hemolysis and linoleic acid oxidation, a long with the determination of total phenolic and flavonoids contents. All the methanolic extracts showed high antioxidant activity and have high contents of phenolic and flavonoid. The Canna indica extract exhibited strong antioxidant as a reducing power and as DPPH radical-scavenging (3.61 absorbance, 87.12%, respectively), while the Hordeum sativum extract exhibited highest inhibitory effect on RBCs hemolysis (59.55%) and the Capsicum annuum extract has highest inhibitory effect on linoleic acid peroxidation (65.06%).

  19. Interactions of Papua New Guinea medicinal plant extracts with antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Erica C.; Hathaway, Laura B.; Lamb, John G.; Pond, Chris D.; Rai, Prem P.; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Piskaut, Pius; Barrows, Louis R.; Franklin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance A substantial proportion of the population in Papua New Guinea (PNG) lives with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Treatment requires lifelong use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The majority of people in PNG use traditional medicines (TM) derived from plants for all types of health promotions. Consequently, there is a concern that herb-drug interactions may impact the efficacy of ART. Herb-drug, or drug-drug, interactions occur at the level of metabolism through two major mechanisms: enzyme induction or enzyme inhibition. In this study, extracts of commonly-used medicinal plants from PNG were screened for herb-drug interactions related to cytochrome P450s (CYPs). Materials and Methods Sixty nine methanol extracts of TM plants were screened for their ability to induce CYPs by human aryl hydrocarbon receptor- (hAhR-) and human pregnane X receptor- (hPXR-) dependent mechanisms, utilizing a commercially available cell-based luciferase reporter system. Inhibition of three major CYPs, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6, was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Results Almost one third of the TM plant extracts induced the hAhR-dependent expression of CYP1A2, the hPXR-dependent expression of CYP3A4, or both. Almost two thirds inhibited CYP1A2, CYP3A4, or CYP2D6, or combinations thereof. Many plant extracts exhibited both induction and inhibition properties. Conclusions We demonstrated that the potent and selective ability of extracts from PNG medicinal plants to affect drug metabolizing enzymes through induction and/or inhibition is a common phenomenon. Use of traditional medicines concomitantly with ART could dramatically alter the concentrations of antiretroviral drugs in the body; and their efficacy. PNG healthcare providers should counsel HIV patients because of this consequence. PMID:25138353

  20. Cytotoxicity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts on pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been a long standing interest in the identification of medicinal plants and derived natural products for developing cancer therapeutics. Our study focuses upon pancreatic cancer, due to its high mortality rate, that is attributed in part to the lack of an effective chemotherapeutic agent. Previous reports on the use of medicinal plant extracts either alone or alongside conventional anticancer agents in the treatment of this cancer have shown promising results. This work aims to investigate the therapeutic properties of a library of medicinal plants from Bangladesh. Methods 56 extracts of 44 unique medicinal plants were studied. The extracts were screened for cytotoxicity against the pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Panc-1, using a label-free biosensor assay. The top cytotoxic extracts identified in this screen were tested on two additional pancreatic cancer cell lines (Mia-Paca2 and Capan-1) and a fibroblast cell line (Hs68) using an MTT proliferation assay. Finally, one of the most promising extracts was studied using a caspase-3 colorimetric assay to identify induction of apoptosis. Results Crude extracts of Petunia punctata, Alternanthera sessilis, and Amoora chittagonga showed cytotoxicity to three cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging between 20.3 - 31.4 μg/mL, 13.08 - 34.9 μg/mL, and 42.8 - 49.8 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, treatment of Panc-1 cells with Petunia punctata was shown to increase caspase-3 activity, indicating that the observed cytotoxicity was mediated via apoptosis. Only Amoora chittagonga showed low cytotoxicity to fibroblast cells with an IC50 value > 100 μg/mL. Conclusion Based upon the initial screening work reported here, further studies aimed at the identification of active components of these three extracts and the elucidation of their mechanisms as cancer therapeutics are warranted. PMID:20849608

  1. Medicinal plants extracts affect virulence factors expression and biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wojnicz, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kicia, Marta; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

    2012-12-01

    Medicinal plants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinal plants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betula pendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved in tissue colonization and biofilm formation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli rods. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant extracts were performed. Antimicrobial assay relied on the estimation of the colony forming unit number. Hydrophobicity of cells was established by salt aggregation test. Using motility agar, the ability of bacteria to move was examined. The erythrocyte hemagglutination test was used for fimbriae P screening. Curli expression was determined using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. The results of the study indicate significant differences between investigated extracts in their antimicrobial activities. The extracts of H. glabra and V. vitis-idaea showed the highest growth-inhibitory effects (p < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of autoaggregating E. coli strain changed after exposure to all plant extracts, except V. vitis-idaea (p > 0.05). The B. pendula and U. dioica extracts significantly reduced the motility of the E. coli rods (p < 0.05). All the extracts exhibited the anti-biofilm activity.

  2. Skin benefits of a myconoside-rich extract from resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis.

    PubMed

    Dell'Acqua, G; Schweikert, K

    2012-04-01

    Resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis develops molecules to survive drought stress. These molecules allow the plant to resurge from a desiccation state. We have extracted a specific fraction from the plant (Haberlea extract) and found it rich, among other molecules, of a caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside called myconoside, a molecule extremely abundant in the plant with a potential role in survival. Peroxide-stressed normal human dermal fibroblasts treated with the Haberlea extract, showed increased collagen VI (+822%), collagen XVI (+928%) and elastin (+144%) mRNA synthesis, measured by RT-qPCR. This effect was superior to those obtained with benchmarks retinoic acid and retinol. When used at 3% in human skin biopsies, Haberlea extract protected against UV-induced dermis oxidation by 100% (P < 0.01), as evidenced by immunohistochemistry. Finally, when tested in human volunteers (n = 20) at 3% in a cream against a placebo, Haberlea extract increased skin elasticity (3× placebo, P < 0.0002) and skin radiance (4× placebo, P < 0.05) after only 15 days of treatment, with the effect sustained after 30 and 60 days of treatment. We demonstrated that by using Haberlea extract (particularly rich in glycoside myconoside), it is possible to strongly stimulate antioxidant skin defences and extracellular matrix protein synthesis. This effect, in turn, will further stimulate skin elasticity and skin radiance significantly in human volunteers. The extract can be suggested for anti-ageing treatments, intended for claims such as protection from oxidation, increased skin elasticity and enhanced skin radiance.

  3. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (−) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μg/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 μg/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

  4. Pest-managing activities of plant extracts and anthraquinones from Cassia nigricans from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-04-01

    Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests.

  5. Screening of Thai medicinal plant extracts and their active constituents for in vitro antimalarial activity.

    PubMed

    Ichino, C; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Chuakul, W; Kiyohara, H; Ishiyama, A; Sekiguchi, H; Namatame, M; Otoguro, K; Omura, S; Yamada, H

    2006-04-01

    To discover antimalarial substances from plants cultivated in Thailand 80%-EtOH extracts from selected plants were screened for in vitro antimalarial activity against the drug resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. In total, 86 Thai medicinal plant samples representing 48 species from 35 genera in 16 families were screened and two species (Polyalthia viridis and Goniothalamus marcanii) were found to show notable antimalarial activity (IC50: 10.0 and 6.3 microg/mL). Marcanine A and 16-hydroxycleroda-3,13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide were identified as the respective major active constituents in P. viridis and G. marcanii, respectively.

  6. Extraction and purification methods in downstream processing of plant-based recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Łojewska, Ewelina; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Olejniczak, Szymon; Sakowicz, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    During the last two decades, the production of recombinant proteins in plant systems has been receiving increased attention. Currently, proteins are considered as the most important biopharmaceuticals. However, high costs and problems with scaling up the purification and isolation processes make the production of plant-based recombinant proteins a challenging task. This paper presents a summary of the information regarding the downstream processing in plant systems and provides a comprehensible overview of its key steps, such as extraction and purification. To highlight the recent progress, mainly new developments in the downstream technology have been chosen. Furthermore, besides most popular techniques, alternative methods have been described.

  7. Naturally occurring insect growth regulators. II. Screening of insect and plant extracts as insect juvenile hormone mimics.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M; Redfern, R E; Mills, G D

    1975-01-01

    Ethereal extracts prepared from the larvae, pupae, or eggs of 10 species of insects and from various parts of 343 species of higher plants were screened for juvenilizing effects against Tenebrio molitor and Oncopeltus fasciatus. Activity in both species was shown by an extract of the larvae of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, whereas an extract of the pupae was active in O. fasiatus only. Extracts of two plant species (Echinacea angustifolia roots and Chamaecyparis lawsoniana seeds) showed high juvenilizing activity in T. MOLITOR, AND EXtracts of five plant species (Clethra alnifolia stems, leaves, and fruits, Sassafras albidum roots and root bark, Eucalyptus camaldulensis stems and bark, Pinus rigida twigs and leaves, and Iris douglasiana roots, stems, and fruits) were highly active in O. fasciatus an extract of Tsuga canadensis leaves showed lower activity in this insect. Extracts of 16 species of plants showed high insecticidal activity (mortality) in O. fasciatus but lacked juvenilizing properties in both species of test insects.

  8. Closed vessel miniaturized microwave assisted chelating extraction for determination of trace metals in plant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Duering, Rolf-Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the use of closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (MAE) for plant samples has shown increasing research interest which will probably substitute conventional procedures in the future due to their general disadvantages including consumption of time and solvents. The objective of this study was to demonstrate an innovative miniaturized closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (µMAE) method under the use of EDTA (µMAE-EDTA) to determine metal contents (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in plant samples (Lolio-Cynosuretum) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Validation of the method was done by comparison of the results with another miniaturized closed vessel microwave HNO3 method (µMAE-H) and with two other macro scale MAE procedures (MAE-H and MAE-EDTA) which were applied by using a mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (MAE-H) and EDTA (MAE-EDTA), respectively. The already established MAE-H method is taken into consideration as a reference validation MAE method for plant material. A conventional plant extraction (CE) method, based on dry ashing and dissolving of the plant material in HNO3, was used as a confidence comparative method. Certified plant reference materials (CRMs) were used for comparison of recovery rates from different extraction protocols. This allowed the validation of the applicability of the µMAE-EDTA procedure. For 36 real plant samples with triplicates each, µMAE-EDTA showed the same extraction yields as the MAE-H in the determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn contents in plant samples. Analytical parameters in µMAE-EDTA should be further investigated and adapted for other metals of interest. By the reduction and elimination of the use of hazardous chemicals in environmental analysis and thus allowing a better understanding of metal distribution and accumulation process in plants and also the metal transfer from soil to plants and into the food chain, µ

  9. Herbal Extracts and Phytochemicals: Plant Secondary Metabolites and the Enhancement of Human Brain Function1

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, David O.; Wightman, Emma L.

    2011-01-01

    Humans consume a wide range of foods, drugs, and dietary supplements that are derived from plants and which modify the functioning of the central nervous sytem (CNS). The psychoactive properties of these substances are attributable to the presence of plant secondary metabolites, chemicals that are not required for the immediate survival of the plant but which are synthesized to increase the fitness of the plant to survive by allowing it to interact with its environment, including pathogens and herbivorous and symbiotic insects. In many cases, the effects of these phytochemicals on the human CNS might be linked either to their ecological roles in the life of the plant or to molecular and biochemical similarities in the biology of plants and higher animals. This review assesses the current evidence for the efficacy of a range of readily available plant-based extracts and chemicals that may improve brain function and which have attracted sufficient research in this regard to reach a conclusion as to their potential effectiveness as nootropics. Many of these candidate phytochemicals/extracts can be grouped by the chemical nature of their potentially active secondary metabolite constituents into alkaloids (caffeine, nicotine), terpenes (ginkgo, ginseng, valerian, Melissa officinalis, sage), and phenolic compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Hypericum perforatum, soy isoflavones). They are discussed in terms of how an increased understanding of the relationship between their ecological roles and CNS effects might further the field of natural, phytochemical drug discovery. PMID:22211188

  10. Could plant extracts have enabled hominins to acquire honey before the control of fire?

    PubMed

    Kraft, Thomas S; Venkataraman, Vivek V

    2015-08-01

    Honey is increasingly recognized as an important food item in human evolution, but it remains unclear whether extinct hominins could have overcome the formidable collective stinging defenses of honey bees during honey acquisition. The utility of smoke for this purpose is widely recognized, but little research has explored alternative methods of sting deterrence such as the use of plant secondary compounds. To consider whether hominins could have used plant extracts as a precursor or alternative to smoke, we review the ethnographic, ethnobotanical, and plant chemical ecology literature to examine how humans use plants in combination with, and independently of, smoke during honey collection. Plant secondary compounds are diverse in their physiological and behavioral effects on bees and differ fundamentally from those of smoke. Plants containing these chemicals are widespread and prove to be remarkably effective in facilitating honey collection by honey hunters and beekeepers worldwide. While smoke may be superior as a deterrent to bees, plant extracts represent a plausible precursor or alternative to the use of smoke during honey collection by hominins. Smoke is a sufficient but not necessary condition for acquiring honey in amounts exceeding those typically obtained by chimpanzees, suggesting that significant honey consumption could have predated the control of fire.

  11. Detecting the antimalarial artemisinin in plant extracts using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antimalarial artemisinin is produced by Artemisia annua L and can be used to kill the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, which is spread by mosquitoes. Artemisinin is extracted from these plants through tea preparation. The artemisinin content of the tea varies depending on how much artemisinin was ...

  12. Plant Growth Biostimulants, Dietary Feed Supplements and Cosmetics Formulated with Supercritical CO₂ Algal Extracts.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Saeid, Agnieszka

    2017-01-03

    The review paper presents the use of algal extracts as safe and solvent-free components of plant growth biostimulants, dietary feed additives and cosmetics. Innovative technology that uses extracts obtained by supercritical CO₂ extraction, as a method of isolation of biologically active compounds from algal biomass, is presented. An important part of the complete technology is the final formulation of the product. This enabled realization of the further step which was assessment of the utilitarian properties of the extract-based products. The extracts were analysed for the presence of biologically active molecules (e.g., plant hormones, polyphenols) which provide useful properties such as antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. The bio-products were tested in germination tests and underwent field trials to search for plant growth biostimulatory properties. Tests on animals (laying hens experiments) were conducted to assess pro-health properties of new dietary feed supplement. Another application were cosmetic formulations (dermatological tests). The results of the application tests were very promising, however further studies are required for the registration of the products and successful implementation to the market.

  13. In vivo antimalarial activity of extracts of Tanzanian medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Nondo, Ramadhani S.O.; Erasto, Paul; Moshi, Mainen J.; Zacharia, Abdallah; Masimba, Pax J.; Kidukuli, Abdul W.

    2016-01-01

    Plants used in traditional medicine have been the source of a number of currently used antimalarial medicines and continue to be a promising resource for the discovery of new classes of antimalarial compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo antimalarial activity of four plants; Erythrina schliebenii Harms, Holarrhena pubescens Buch-Ham, Phyllanthus nummulariifolius Poir, and Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Flem used for treatment of malaria in Tanzania. In vivo antimalarial activity was assessed using the 4-day suppressive antimalarial assay. Mice were infected by injection via tail vein with 2 × 107 erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Extracts were administered orally, once daily, for a total of four daily doses from the day of infection. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg/day) and solvent (5 mL/kg/day) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The extracts of C. bonducella, E. schliebenii, H. pubescens, and P. nummulariifolius exhibited dose-dependent suppression of parasite growth in vivo in mice, with the highest suppression being by C. bonducella extract. While each of the plant extracts has potential to yield useful antimalarial compounds, the dichloromethane root extract of C. bonducella seems to be the most promising for isolation of active antimalarial compound(s). In vivo antimalarial activity presented in this study supports traditional uses of C. bonducella roots, E. schliebenii stem barks, H. pubescens roots, and P. nummulariifolius for treatment of malaria. PMID:27144154

  14. Genetic repair of mutations in plant cell-free extracts directed by specific chimeric oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Rice, M C; May, G D; Kipp, P B; Parekh, H; Kmiec, E B

    2000-06-01

    Chimeric oligonucleotides are synthetic molecules comprised of RNA and DNA bases assembled in a double hairpin conformation. These molecules have been shown to direct gene conversion events in mammalian cells and animals through a process involving at least one protein from the DNA mismatch repair pathway. The mechanism of action for gene repair in mammalian cells has been partially elucidated through the use of a cell-free extract system. Recent experiments have expanded the utility of chimeric oligonucleotides to plants and have demonstrated genotypic and phenotypic conversion, as well as Mendelian transmission. Although these experiments showed correction of point and frameshift mutations, the biochemical and mechanistic aspects of the process were not addressed. In this paper, we describe the establishment of cell-free extract systems from maize (Zea mays), banana (Musa acuminata cv Rasthali), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Using a genetic readout system in bacteria and chimeric oligonucleotides designed to direct the conversion of mutations in antibiotic-resistant genes, we demonstrate gene repair of point and frameshift mutations. Whereas extracts from banana and maize catalyzed repair of mutations in a precise fashion, cell-free extracts prepared from tobacco exhibited either partial repair or non-targeted nucleotide conversion. In addition, an all-DNA hairpin molecule also mediated repair albeit in an imprecise fashion in all cell-free extracts tested. This system enables the mechanistic study of gene repair in plants and may facilitate the identification of DNA repair proteins operating in plant cells.

  15. The potency of plant extracts as antimicrobials for the skin or hide preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparno, Ono; Afifah, Amalia; Panandita, Tania; Marimin, Purnawati, Rini

    2017-03-01

    Preservation of skin or hide uses antimicrobial that will be disposed in wastewater in the skin or hide processing resulting in the environmental pollution. Extracts of some types of plants contain some antimicrobial substances which are potential to be used as biocides for the preservation of skin or hide and are more environmentally friendly. The objectives of this study were to determine the phytochemical contents of moringa, cucumber tree or wuluh starfruit, cherry, and white leadtree or lamtoro leaves and to analyse the antibacterial activities of the plant extracts against microorganisms that cause spoilage of skin or hide. Phytochemical constituents of the dried plant leaves were extracted by 70% ethanol. The resulting extracts were analysed their phytochemical contents and antimicrobial activities against gram negative and gram positive bacteria (inhibition zone test) by well diffusion method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Phytochemical test showed that the four leaf extracts contained alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, and glycosides. The inhibition zones of the extracts against Escherichia coli were 5 mm for moringa leaf, 6 mm for cucumber tree leaf, 12 mm for cherry leaf, and 17 mm for white leadtree leaf. Inhibition zone of the extracts against Staphylococcus aureus were 2.5 mm for moringa leaf, 7 mm for cucumber tree leaf, 7.3 mm for cherry leaf, and 13 mm for white leadtree leaf. Inhibition zones of the extracts against Bacillus subtilis were 8 mm for moringa leaf, 9 mm for cucumber tree starfruit leaf, 14 mm for cherry leaf, and 15 mm for white leadtree leaf. The best MIC and MBC tests were demonstrated by white leadtree leaf extract against E. coli found at concentration of 1500 µg/ml, against S. aureus at concentration of 3000 µg/ml, and against B. subtilis at concentration of 3000 µg/ml. The ethanol extract of white leadtree leaf had the best antibacterial activity

  16. Repellency and toxicity of aromatic plant extracts against the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, Abdallah F; El-Haj, Samih; Tueni, Marie; Taoubi, Khalil; Nader, Natalie Abi; Mrad, Abir

    2005-06-01

    The insecticidal activities of essential oil extracts from leaves, flowers and roots of aromatic plants against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus Forskal were determined. Extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill were the most toxic, followed by those of Ferula hermonis Boiss, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, Pinus pinea L, Laurus nobilis L and Eucalyptus spp with LC50 values of 24.5, 44.0, 60.0, 75.0, 117.0 and 120.0 mg litre(-1), respectively. Combination tests between the LC50 and the maximum sub-lethal concentration (MSLC) were determined. Over 20 major components were identified in extracts from each plant species tested. Five essential oils and nine pure components were studied for their repellency against mosquito bites. Terpineol and 1,8-cineole were the most effective against Culex pipiens molestus bites offering complete protection for 1.6 and 2 h, respectively.

  17. A non-phenol-chloroform extraction of double-stranded RNA from plant and fungal tissues.

    PubMed

    Balijja, Alitukiriza; Kvarnheden, Anders; Turchetti, Tullio

    2008-09-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules of viruses are found in nature at a very high frequency. Their detection in plants and fungi has been carried out with difficulty due to the complicated dsRNA extraction techniques used commonly which includes phenol-chloroform extractions. In this study, an extraction method for isolation of dsRNA is described that is free of phenol and chloroform. A lysis buffer, containing beta-mercaptoethanol and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP-40), was added to homogenised tissues and the subsequent supernatant was filtered through a cellulose CF-11 mini-column. DsRNA molecules were separated based on the differing affinity of nucleic acids for the cellulose CF-11 resin in 20% ethanol buffer. This easy, rapid and cheap technique has been successfully tested on fungi and plants containing different dsRNA virus molecules, indicating the possibility of a wide use of the method.

  18. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from plant seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghamri, Hatem S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; Batniji, Amal Y.

    2014-12-01

    The application of natural dyes extracted from plant seeds in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been explored. Ten dyes were extracted from different plant seeds and used as sensitizers for DSSCs. The dyes were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. DSSCs were prepared using TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured mesoporous films. The highest conversion efficiency of 0.875 % was obtained with an allium cepa (onion) extract-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. The process of TiO2-film sintering was studied and it was found that the sintering procedure significantly affects the response of the cell. The short circuit current of the DSSC was found to be considerably enhanced when the TiO2 semiconducting layer was sintered gradually.

  19. Larvicidal activity of a few plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Pushpalatha, E; Muthukrishnan, J

    1995-03-01

    Larvicidal activity of partially purified extracts of leaves of Vitex negundo, Nerium oleander and seeds of Syzygium jambolanum on different instars of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi was estimated. Petroleum ether (PE): Ethyl acetate (EA) 3:1 fraction of V. negundo, 1:1 fractions of N. oleander and S. jambolanum inflicted considerable larval mortality and interfered with pupal-adult metamorphosis. At very low concentration the active fractions of these plant extracts extended the duration of the various larval instars and of pupation. In general, I and II instar larvae were more susceptible to the active fractions. Species and stage specific differences in the susceptibility of the mosquitoes to the active fractions of the plant extracts were observed.

  20. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of the Methanol Extracts from 8 Traditional Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chang-Geun; Hah, Dae-Sik; Kim, Chung-Hui; Kim, Young-Hwan; Kim, Euikyung

    2011-01-01

    The methanol extract of 12 medicinal plants were evaluated for its antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (5 strains) and Gram-negative bacteria (10 strains) by assay for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC) . The antibacterial activity was determined by an agar dilution method (according to the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute) . All the compounds (12 extracts) of the 8 medicinal plants (leaf or root) were active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative showed a more potent action than Gram positive bacteria. The MIC concentrations were various ranged from 0.6 μg/ml to 5000 μg/ml. The lowest MIC (0.6 μg/ml) and MBC (1.22 μg/ml) values were obtained with extract on 4 and 3 of the 15 microorganisms tested, respectively. PMID:24278548

  1. Optimization of isolation and cultivation of bacterial endophytes through addition of plant extract to nutrient media.

    PubMed

    Eevers, N; Gielen, M; Sánchez-López, A; Jaspers, S; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2015-07-01

    Many endophytes have beneficial effects on plants and can be exploited in biotechnological applications. Studies hypothesize that only 0.001-1% of all plant-associated bacteria are cultivable. Moreover, even after successful isolations, many endophytic bacteria often show reduced regrowth capacity. This research aimed to optimize isolation processes and culturing these bacteria afterwards. We compared several minimal and complex media in a screening. Beside the media themselves, two gelling agents and adding plant extract to media were investigated to enhance the number and diversity of endophytes as well as the growth capacity when regrown after isolation. In this work, 869 medium delivered the highest numbers of cultivable bacteria, as well as the highest diversity. When comparing gelling agents, no differences were observed in the numbers of bacteria. Adding plant extract to the media lead to a slight increase in diversity. However, when adding plant extract to improve the regrowth capacity, sharp increases of viable bacteria occurred in both rich and minimal media.

  2. Extraction, identification, fractionation and isolation of phenolic compounds in plants with hepatoprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-03-15

    The liver is one of the most important organs of human body, being involved in several vital functions and regulation of physiological processes. Given its pivotal role in the excretion of waste metabolites and drugs detoxification, the liver is often subjected to oxidative stress that leads to lipid peroxidation and severe cellular damage. The conventional treatments of liver diseases such as cirrhosis, fatty liver and chronic hepatitis are frequently inadequate due to side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemical drugs. To overcome this problematic paradox, medicinal plants, owing to their natural richness in phenolic compounds, have been intensively exploited concerning their extracts and fraction composition in order to find bioactive compounds that could be isolated and applied in the treatment of liver ailments. The present review aimed to collect the main results of recent studies carried out in this field and systematize the information for a better understanding of the hepatoprotective capacity of medicinal plants in in vitro and in vivo systems. Generally, the assessed plant extracts revealed good hepatoprotective properties, justifying the fractionation and further isolation of phenolic compounds from different parts of the plant. Twenty-five phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, lignan compounds, phenolic acids and other phenolic compounds, have been isolated and identified, and proved to be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of chemically induced liver damage. In this perspective, the use of medicinal plant extracts, fractions and phenolic compounds seems to be a promising strategy to avoid side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemicals.

  3. Fabrication Of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Using Agricultural Crop Plant Leaf Extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajani, P.; SriSindhura, K.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Hussain, O. M.; Sudhakar, P.; Latha, P.; Balakrishna, M.; Kambala, V.; Reddy, K. Raja

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are being viewed as fundamental building blocks of nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Use of agricultural crop plant extracts for synthesis of metal nanoparticles would add a new dimension to the agricultural sector in the utilization of crop waste. Silver has long been recognized as having an inhibitory effect towards many bacterial strains and microorganisms commonly present in medical and industrial processes. Four pulse crop plants and three cereal crop plants (Vigna radiata, Arachis hypogaea, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, Zea mays, Pennisetum glaucum, Sorghum vulgare) were used and compared for their extra cellular synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles were formed by treating aqueous solution of AgNO3 with the plant leaf extracts as reducing agent at temperatures 50 °C-95 °C. UV-Visible spectroscopy was utilized to monitor the formation of silver nanoparticles. XRD analysis of formed silver nanoparticles revealed face centered cubic structure with (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. SEM and EDAX analysis confirm the size of the formed silver nanoparticles to be in the range of 50-200 nm. Our proposed work offers a enviro-friendly method for biogenic silver nanoparticles production. This could provide a faster synthesis rate comparable to those of chemical methods and potentially be used in areas such as cosmetics, food and medical applications.

  4. Anti-spermatogenic activities of Taraxacum officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts.

    PubMed

    Tahtamouni, Lubna Hamid; Al-Khateeb, Rema Ahmad; Abdellatif, Reem Nasser; Al-Mazaydeh, Zainab Ali; Yasin, Salem Refaat; Al-Gharabli, Samer; Elkarmi, Ali Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale has been used in Jordan folk medicine to treat male infertility. A recent study has proved a contradictory effect of the whole plant aqueous extract. The aim of the current study was to determine if the leaves of T. officinale have similar anti-fertility activities, and whether this effect is mediated through the regulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Fifty adult male rats were divided into five groups. Two groups were gavaged with 1/10 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (1.06 g kg(-1) body weight) or leaves (2.30 g kg(-1) body weight) aqueous extract; while two groups were gavaged with 1/20 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (2.13 g kg(-1)) or leaves (4.60 g kg(-1)) extract. The control group received distilled water. Oral administration of T. officinale (whole plant and leaves aqueous extract) caused a significant decrease in testis and seminal vesicle weight, a reduction in serum testosterone concentration, impaired sperm parameters, and a decrease in pregnancy parameters. Testicular histology of treated rats showed structural changes such as hypoplasia of germ cells, reduction in the thickness of germinal epithelium, arrest of spermatogenesis at spermatid stage (late maturation arrest) and reduction in the number of Leydig cells. Gene expression levels of two SSCs markers (GFRα1 and CSF1) responsible for self-renewal were relatively counter-balanced. In conclusion, T. officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts changed the gene expression of two SSCs markers leading to the imbalance between spermatogonia self-renewal and differentiation causing late maturation arrest.

  5. Anti-spermatogenic activities of Taraxacum officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts

    PubMed Central

    Tahtamouni, Lubna Hamid; Al-Khateeb, Rema Ahmad; Abdellatif, Reem Nasser; Al-Mazaydeh, Zainab Ali; Yasin, Salem Refaat; Al-Gharabli, Samer; Elkarmi, Ali Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale has been used in Jordan folk medicine to treat male infertility. A recent study has proved a contradictory effect of the whole plant aqueous extract. The aim of the current study was to determine if the leaves of T. officinale have similar anti-fertility activities, and whether this effect is mediated through the regulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Fifty adult male rats were divided into five groups. Two groups were gavaged with 1/10 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (1.06 g kg-1 body weight) or leaves (2.30 g kg-1 body weight) aqueous extract; while two groups were gavaged with 1/20 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (2.13 g kg-1) or leaves (4.60 g kg-1) extract. The control group received distilled water. Oral administration of T. officinale (whole plant and leaves aqueous extract) caused a significant decrease in testis and seminal vesicle weight, a reduction in serum testosterone concentration, impaired sperm parameters, and a decrease in pregnancy parameters. Testicular histology of treated rats showed structural changes such as hypoplasia of germ cells, reduction in the thickness of germinal epithelium, arrest of spermatogenesis at spermatid stage (late maturation arrest) and reduction in the number of Leydig cells. Gene expression levels of two SSCs markers (GFRα1 and CSF1) responsible for self-renewal were relatively counter-balanced. In conclusion, T. officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts changed the gene expression of two SSCs markers leading to the imbalance between spermatogonia self-renewal and differentiation causing late maturation arrest. PMID:27482352

  6. Larvicidal activity of some Euphorbiaceae plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Venkatesan, P; Geetha, Kannappan

    2008-04-01

    Larvicidal activity of ethyl acetate, butanol, and petroleum ether extracts of five species of Euphorbiaceae plants, Jatropha curcas, Pedilanthus tithymaloides, Phyllanthus amarus, Euphorbia hirta, and Euphorbia tirucalli, were tested against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed low larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract. The LC50 value of petroleum ether extracts of J. curcas, P. tithymaloides, P. amarus, E. hirta, and E. tirucalli were 8.79, 55.26, 90.92, 272.36, and 4.25 ppm, respectively, against A. aegypti and 11.34, 76.61, 113.40, 424.94, and 5.52 ppm, respectively, against C quinquefasciatus. Of the various ratios tested, the petroleum ether extracts of J. curcas and E. tirucalli were observed to be more efficient than the other plant extracts. It is, therefore, suggested that E. tirucalli can be applied as an ideal potential larvicide against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the dengue vector, A. aegypti, and the lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus.

  7. Surface decontamination and quality enhancement in meat steaks using plant extracts as natural biopreservatives.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Moussa, Shaaban H; El-Sabbagh, Sabha M

    2012-08-01

    Nine plant extracts were evaluated as biopreservatives to decontaminate and maintain the quality of meat steaks. Most of the extracts exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against antibiotic resistant strains from Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. The pomegranate peel extract (PPE), cinnamon bark extract (CBE), and lemon grass leaves extract (LGE) were the most effective as bactericides, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 250, 350, and 550 μg/mL, respectively. The most effective treatments, for decontaminating meat steak surfaces, were the application of combined PPE, CBE, and LGE at their MIC values and the treatment with double MIC from PPE; these treatments resulted in complete bacterial inhibitions during the first 2 days of storage period for 7 days. The sensory evaluation of treated steaks revealed that these two treatments had the highest panelist overall scores. The highest scores, for individual attributes, were observed in the treated steaks with double MIC from PPE. Application of plant extracts could be impressively recommended for comprehensive meat decontamination and quality attributes enhancement.

  8. Toxic effects of traditional Ethiopian fish poisoning plant Milletia ferruginea (Hochst) seed extract on aquatic macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, K; Bishaw, D; Mulat, T

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects of traditional Ethiopian fish poisoning plant Birbira [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Milletia ferruginea] seed extract on aquatic macroinvertebrates, Baetidae (Mayflies) and Hydropsychidae (Caddisflies), under laboratory conditions. In Ethiopia, toxic plant; Milletia ferruginea pulverized seeds have been used for fish poisoning since time immemorial. Macroinvertebrates are important biological indicators of alteration in the natural water sources. Milletia ferruginea seed extract was applied at concentrations of 125, 250, 500 1000 and 2000 ppm on Hydropsychididae whereas Baetidae were exposed at various concentrations viz., 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 & 500 ppm. Milletia ferruginea seeds crude extract of lethal doses (LCso and LC90) required for Baetidae 49.29 mg/l and 172.52 mg/l were respectively and the respective doses (LC50 and LC90) against Hydropsychidae were 679.64 mg/l and 2383.93 mg/l. The present investigation end result demonstrated that Milletia ferruginea seed extracts were extremely toxic to Baetidae than Hydropsychididae. As a result, application of Milletia ferruginea seed extracts into the rivers/streams for fish poisoning possibly leads to contamination and disruption of food chain in the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, the concerned authorities should launch appropriate awareness campaign among the local inhabitants and fisherman about adverse effect of Birbira seed extracts. Furthermore, providing alternative ecofriendly techniques for fish harvesting may possibly bring constructive out come in the near future.

  9. Curcuma and Scutellaria plant extracts protect chickens against inflammation and Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    PubMed

    Varmuzova, Karolina; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Gerzova, Lenka; Cejkova, Darina; Gardan-Salmon, Delphine; Panhéleux, Marina; Robert, Fabrice; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Rychlik, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    After a ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in farm animals in the European Union in 2006, an interest in alternative products with antibacterial or anti-inflammatory properties has increased. In this study, we therefore tested the effects of extracts from Curcuma longa and Scutellaria baicalensis used as feed additives against cecal inflammation induced by heat stress or Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection in chickens. Curcuma extract alone was not enough to decrease gut inflammation induced by heat stress. However, a mixture of Curcuma and Scutellaria extracts used as feed additives decreased gut inflammation induced by heat or S. Enteritidis, decreased S. Enteritidis counts in the cecum but was of no negative effect on BW or humoral immune response. Using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA we found out that supplementation of feed with the 2 plant extracts had no effect on microbiota diversity. However, if the plant extract supplementation was provided to the chickens infected with S. Enteritidis, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus, both bacterial genera with known positive effects on gut health were positively selected. The supplementation of chicken feed with extracts from Curcuma and Scutelleria thus may be used in poultry production to effectively decrease gut inflammation and increase chicken performance.

  10. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF PLANT EXTRACTS FROM SOUTHERN MINAS GERAIS CERRADO

    PubMed Central

    Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Prado E Feliphe, Bárbara Helena Muniz; Cerdeira, Claudio Daniel; Leandro, Fabrício Damasceno; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; da Silva, Jéferson Junior; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf and seed, of Plinia cauliflora leaf which statistically presented the same average of haloes inhibitory formation on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative and yeasts. The extracts of Heliconia rostrata did not present activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) appeared resistant to all the extracts. The susceptibility profile of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi were compared to one another and to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram negative Salmonella typhimurium bacteria (p > 0.05). The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out on C6-36 larvae cells of the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The extracts of stem and flower of Heliconia rostrata, leaf and stem of Plinia cauliflora, seed of Anonna crassiflora and stem, flower and root of B. pilosa did not present toxicity in the analyzed concentrations. The highest rates of selectivity appeared in the extracts of stem of A. crassiflora and flower of B. pilosa to Staphylococcus aureus, presenting potential for future studies about a new drug development. PMID:24553603

  11. Evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of plant extracts from southern Minas Gerais cerrado.

    PubMed

    Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Prado E Feliphe, Bárbara Helena Muniz; Cerdeira, Claudio Daniel; Leandro, Fabrício Damasceno; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Silva, Jéferson Junior da; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf and seed, of Plinia cauliflora leaf which statistically presented the same average of haloes inhibitory formation on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative and yeasts. The extracts of Heliconia rostrata did not present activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) appeared resistant to all the extracts. The susceptibility profile of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi were compared to one another and to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram negative Salmonella typhimurium bacteria (p > 0.05). The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out on C6-36 larvae cells of the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The extracts of stem and flower of Heliconia rostrata, leaf and stem of Plinia cauliflora, seed of Anonna crassiflora and stem, flower and root of B. pilosa did not present toxicity in the analyzed concentrations. The highest rates of selectivity appeared in the extracts of stem of A. crassiflora and flower of B. pilosa to Staphylococcus aureus, presenting potential for future studies about a new drug development.

  12. Insecticidal effect of plant extracts on Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bihar, India

    PubMed Central

    Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Kumari, Seema; Pandit, Vibhishan; Kumar, Jainendra; Kumari, Nisha; Kumar, Prahlad; Hassan, Faizan; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the established vector for kala-azar is presently being controlled by indoor residual spray of DDT in kala-azar endemic areas in India. Search for non-hazardous and non-toxic biodegradable active molecules from botanicals may provide cost-effective and eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic insecticides. The present study was aimed at evaluating various plant extracts from endemic and non-endemic areas of Bihar for their insecticidal activity against sandfly to identify the most effective plant extract. Methods: Bio-assay test was conducted with larvae and adult of P. argentipes with different plant extracts collected in distilled water, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted for detection of active molecules. Results: Adults and larvae of sandflies exposed to the aqueous extract of Nicotiana tabacum resulted in 100 per cent mortality. The hexane extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum was found to kill 77 per cent adults but was ineffective against larvae. Bio-assay test of the ninth fraction (hexane extract-methanol phase) separated by column chromatography was found to be 63 per cent effective. The purple spot on the TLC of this fraction indicated the presence of a diterpenoid. HPLC of this fraction detected nine compounds with two peaks covering 20.44 and 56.52 per cent areas with retention time of 2.439 and 5.182 min, respectively supporting the TLC results. Interpretation & conclusions: The column separated 9th fraction of C. infortunatum extract was found to be effective in killing 63 per cent of adult P. argentipes. Compounds of this fraction need to be evaluated further for identification and characterization of the active molecule by conducting individual bio-assay tests followed by further fractionation and HPLC. Once the structure of the active molecule is

  13. A Reliable and Inexpensive Method of Nucleic Acid Extraction for the PCR-Based Detection of Diverse Plant Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A reliable extraction method is described for the preparation of total nucleic acids from several plant genera for subsequent detection of plant pathogens by PCR-based techniques. By the combined use of a modified CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) extraction protocol and a semi-automatic homogen...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1179 - Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plant extract derived from Opuntia... Tolerances § 180.1179 Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and... derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle is exempted...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1179 - Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant extract derived from Opuntia... Tolerances § 180.1179 Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and... derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle is exempted...

  16. Screening North American plant extracts in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent for Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural products extracts from 522 plants collected from different parts of the North America were screened in vitro against trypamastigote forms of Trypanosoma brucei. The active extracts(150)with >90% inhibition at 20ug/mL concentrations from the plants namely, Alnus rubra, Hoita macrostachya, S...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1179 - Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plant extract derived from Opuntia... Tolerances § 180.1179 Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and... derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle is exempted...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1179 - Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plant extract derived from Opuntia... Tolerances § 180.1179 Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and... derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle is exempted...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1179 - Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plant extract derived from Opuntia... Tolerances § 180.1179 Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and... derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle is exempted...

  20. Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and anti-oxidant activities of extracts from 21 plants

    PubMed Central

    Thring, Tamsyn SA; Hili, Pauline; Naughton, Declan P

    2009-01-01

    Background Owing to their roles in tissue remodelling in health and disease, several studies have reported investigations on plant extracts as inhibitors of proteinases and as anti-oxidants. Methods The anti-ageing and anti-oxidant properties of 23 plant extracts (from 21 plant species) were assessed as anti-elastase and anti-collagenase activities and in selected anti-oxidant assays along with phenolic content. Results Anti-elastase activities were observed for nine of the extracts with inhibitory activity in the following order: white tea (~89%), cleavers (~58%), burdock root (~51%), bladderwrack (~50%), anise and angelica (~32%). Anti-collagenase activities were exhibited by sixteen plants of which the highest activity was seen in white tea (~87%), green tea (~47%), rose tincture (~41%), and lavender (~31%). Nine plant extracts had activities against both elastase (E) and collagenase (C) and were ranked in the order of white tea (E:89%, C:87%) > bladderwrack (E:50%, C:25%) > cleavers (E:58%, C:7%) > rose tincture (E:22%, C:41%) > green tea (E:10%: C:47%) > rose aqueous (E: 24%, C:26%) > angelica (E:32%, C:17%) > anise (E:32%, C:6%) > pomegranate (E:15%, C:11%). Total phenolic content varied between 0.05 and 0.26 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL with the exception of white tea (0.77 mg GAE/mL). For anti-oxidant assessment, the Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) assay revealed activity for all extracts. White tea had the highest activity equivalent to ~21 μM Trolox for a 6.25 μg aliquot. In addition, seven extracts exhibited activities = 10 μM Trolox with witch hazel (6.25 μg = 13 μM Trolox) and rose aqueous (6.25 μg = 10 μM Trolox) showing very high activities at low concentrations. A high activity for white tea was also found in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay in which it exhibited ~88% inhibition of reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. High activities were also observed for green tea (86.41%), rose tincture (82.77%), witch hazel (82

  1. Defined plant extracts can protect human cells against combined xenobiotic effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pollutants representative of common environmental contaminants induce intracellular toxicity in human cells, which is generally amplified in combinations. We wanted to test the common pathways of intoxication and detoxification in human embryonic and liver cell lines. We used various pollutants such as Roundup residues, Bisphenol-A and Atrazine, and five precise medicinal plant extracts called Circ1, Dig1, Dig2, Sp1, and Uro1 in order to understand whether specific molecular actions took place or not. Methods Kidney and liver are major detoxification organs. We have studied embryonic kidney and hepatic human cell lines E293 and HepG2. The intoxication was induced on the one hand by a formulation of one of the most common herbicides worldwide, Roundup 450 GT+ (glyphosate and specific adjuvants), and on the other hand by a mixture of Bisphenol-A and Atrazine, all found in surface waters, feed and food. The prevention and curative effects of plant extracts were also measured on mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity, on the entry of radiolabelled glyphosate (in Roundup) in cells, and on cytochromes P450 1A2 and 3A4 as well as glutathione-S-transferase. Results Clear toxicities of pollutants were observed on both cell lines at very low sub-agricultural dilutions. The prevention of such phenomena took place within 48 h with the plant extracts tested, with success rates ranging between 25-34% for the E293 intoxicated by Roundup, and surprisingly up to 71% for the HepG2. By contrast, after intoxication, no plant extract was capable of restoring E293 viability within 48 h, however, two medicinal plant combinations did restore the Bisphenol-A/Atrazine intoxicated HepG2 up to 24-28%. The analysis of underlying mechanisms revealed that plant extracts were not capable of preventing radiolabelled glyphosate from entering cells; however Dig2 did restore the CYP1A2 activity disrupted by Roundup, and had only a mild preventive effect on the CYP3A4, and no effect

  2. Antioxidant Activities of Extract and Fractions from the Hypocotyls of the Mangrove Plant Kandelia candel

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shu-Dong; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of 70% acetone extract (70% AE) from the hypocotyls of the mangrove plant Kandelia candel and its fractions of petroleum ether (PF), ethyl acetate (EF), water (WF), and the LF (WF fraction further purified through a Sephadex LH-20 column), were investigated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that all the extract and fractions possessed potent antioxidant activity. There was a significant linear correlation between the total phenolics concentration and the ferric reducing power or free radical scavenging activity of the extract and fractions. Among the extract and fractions, the LF fraction exhibits the best antioxidant performance. The MALDT-TOF MS and HPLC analyses revealed that the phenolic compounds associated with the antioxidant activity of the LF fraction contains a large number of procyanidins and a small amount of prodelphinidins, and the epicatechin is the main extension unit. PMID:21152321

  3. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extracts of selected Jordanian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Hudaib, Mohammad M.; Tawaha, Khaled A.; Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Assaf, Areej M.; Issa, Ala Y.; Alali, Feras Q.; Aburjai, Talal A.; Bustanji, Yasser K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The search for novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors with a higher therapeutic activity and fewer side effects are desired not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases associated with the XO activity. At present, the potential of developing successful natural products for the management of XO-related diseases is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we have screened the methanolic extracts of various Jordanian medicinal plants for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, belonging to 12 families, were tested in vitro, at 200 μg/ml concentrations, for their XO inhibitory potential. The dose-dependent inhibition profiles of the most active plants were further evaluated by estimating the IC50 values of their corresponding extracts. Results: Six plants were found most active (% inhibition more than 39%). These plants are Salvia spinosa L. (IC50 = 53.7 μg/ml), Anthemis palestina Boiss. (168.0 μg/ml), Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (199.5 μg/ml), Achillea biebersteinii Afansiev (360.0 μg/ml), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (650.0 μg/ml), and Ginkgo biloba L. (595.8 μg/ml). Moreover, four more plants, namely Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (28.7% inhibition), Helianthemum ledifolium (L.) Mill. (28.4%), Majorana syriaca (L.) Kostel. (25.1%), and Mentha spicata L. (22.5%) showed a XO inhibitory activity in the range of 22–30%. Conclusion: The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders. PMID:22262935

  4. Home at last: the enigmatic genera Eriachaenium and Adenocaulon (Compositae, Mutisioideae, Mutisieae, Adenocaulinae).

    PubMed

    Funk, Vicki A; Pasini, Eduardo; Bonifacino, J Mauricio; Katinas, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    The genera Eriachaenium and Adenocaulon (Compositae) have distinct but complex histories and both have been placed in a number of tribes across the family. For the first time the two genera are included in a molecular study and the results show that they are best placed in the tribe Mutisieae s.s. and are the only genera in the re-instated subtribe Adenocaulinae. When described, this subtribe contained only Adenocaulon and was found in the Inuleae. The study also confirms one of the conclusions of a recent morphological study that Eriachaenium and Adenocaulon are sister taxa. Past difficulties in tribal assignment are attributed to the distinct and unusual morphology of each genus. Both genera and the subtribe are described and a key to separate the genera is provided.

  5. Home at last: the enigmatic genera Eriachaenium and Adenocaulon (Compositae, Mutisioideae, Mutisieae, Adenocaulinae)

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Vicki A.; Pasini, Eduardo; Bonifacino, J. Mauricio; Katinas, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genera Eriachaenium and Adenocaulon (Compositae) have distinct but complex histories and both have been placed in a number of tribes across the family. For the first time the two genera are included in a molecular study and the results show that they are best placed in the tribe Mutisieae s.s. and are the only genera in the re-instated subtribe Adenocaulinae. When described, this subtribe contained only Adenocaulon and was found in the Inuleae. The study also confirms one of the conclusions of a recent morphological study that Eriachaenium and Adenocaulon are sister taxa. Past difficulties in tribal assignment are attributed to the distinct and unusual morphology of each genus. Both genera and the subtribe are described and a key to separate the genera is provided. PMID:27081341

  6. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM THE SHOOTS AND ROOTS OF pRi-TRANSFORMED PLANTS OF REHMANNIA GLUTINOSA LIBOSCH.

    PubMed

    Piatczak, Ewelina; Dfbska, Marta; Kontek, Bogdan; Olas, Beata; Wysokinskai, Halina

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts derived from shoots (HR-shoots) and roots (HR-roots) of pRi-transformed Rehmannia glutinosa plants were determined. The activity was indicated by the ability of the plant extracts to inhibit superoxide anion (O2(-·)) generation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production in resting blood platelets and platelets activated by thrombin. The strongest activity was exhibited by the HR-shoot extract (50 μg/mL). The present study also examines the antioxidant properties of the plant extracts against human plasma lipid peroxidation induced by strong biological oxidants: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and H2O2/Fe. The study shows that extracts from transformed R. glutinosa plants may be a promising source of natural antioxidants, which would be valuable in various cardiovascular diseases. The extracts may also protect lipids against oxidative modifications.

  7. Dosage of 2,6-Bis (1.1-Dimethylethyl)-4-Methylphenol (BHT) in the Plant Extract Mesembryanthemum crystallinum

    PubMed Central

    Ibtissem, Bouftira; Imen, Mgaidi; Souad, Sfar

    2010-01-01

    A naturally occurring BHT was identified in the leaves of the halophyte plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. This phenol was extracted in this study by two methods at the different plant growth stages. One of the methods was better for BHT extraction; the concentration of this phenol is plant growth stage dependent. In this study, the floraison stage has the highest BHT concentration. The antioxidant activity of the plant extract was not related to BHT concentration. The higher antioxidant activity is obtained at seedlings stage. PMID:21318161

  8. Cytotoxicity of Brazilian plant extracts against oral microorganisms of interest to dentistry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the emergence of strains resistant to conventional antibiotics, it is important to carry studies using alternative methods to control these microorganisms causing important infections, such as the use of products of plant origin that has demonstrated effective antimicrobial activity besides biocompatibility. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts of Equisetum arvense L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Punica granatum L. and Stryphnodendron barbatimam Mart. against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata, and to analyze the cytotoxicity of these extracts in cultured murine macrophages (RAW 264.7). Methods Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts was evaluated by microdilution method based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), M7-A6 and M27-A2 standards. The cytotoxicity of concentrations that eliminated the microorganisms was evaluated by MTT colorimetric method and by quantification of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) using ELISA. Results In determining the minimum microbicidal concentration, E. arvense L., P. granatum L., and S. barbatimam Mart. extracts at a concentration of 50 mg/mL and G. glabra L. extract at a concentration of 100 mg/mL, were effective against all microorganisms tested. Regarding cell viability, values were 48% for E. arvense L., 76% for P. granatum L, 86% for S. barbatimam Mart. and 79% for G. glabra L. at the same concentrations. About cytokine production after stimulation with the most effective concentrations of the extracts, there was a significant increase of IL-1β in macrophage cultures treated with S. barbatimam Mart. (3.98 pg/mL) and P. granatum L. (7.72 pg/mL) compared to control (2.20 pg/mL) and a significant decrease of TNF-α was observed in cultures treated with G. glabra L. (4.92 pg/mL), S. barbatimam Mart. (0.85 pg/mL), E. arvense L. (0.83 pg/mL), and P

  9. Use of Solid-Phase Extraction To Determine Ergosterol Concentrations in Plant Tissue Colonized by Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, M. O.; Schmitt, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    At present, the ergosterol and acetate-to-ergosterol techniques are generally considered to be the methods of choice to quantify fungal biomass, growth rate, and productivity under natural conditions. Both methods rely on the accurate isolation and quantification of ergosterol, a major membrane component of eumycotic fungi. Taking advantage of the solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique, we present a novel method to determine the ergosterol concentration in lipid extracts derived from plant tissues and dead organic matter colonized by fungi. In this method, a primary alkaline extract is acidified and passed through a reversed-phase (C(inf18)) SPE column. The column is then washed with an alkaline methanol-water solution to eliminate interfering substances and increase pH and is thoroughly dried in air. Ergosterol is eluted with alkaline isopropanol. This eluting solvent was chosen to produce a strongly basic pH of the final extract and thus confer stability on the ergosterol molecule before high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The recovery of ergosterol from plant tissues and the O(infhf) horizon of a woodland soil ranged from 85 to 98%, and the overall extraction efficiency was similar to that obtained by a conventional procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction. Potential pitfalls of ergosterol analysis by SPE include (i) insufficient acidification before sample loading on the extraction column, resulting in a poor affinity of ergosterol for the sorbent; (ii) incomplete drying of the sorbent bed before the elution step; and (iii) chemical breakdown of ergosterol after elution, which was found to be related to a low pH of the final extract and a high concentration of matrix compounds. When these pitfalls are avoided, SPE is an attractive alternative to existing methods of ergosterol analysis of environmental samples. PMID:16535229

  10. Anti-herpes simplex virus activities of crude water extracts of Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Yoosook, C; Bunyapraphatsara, N; Boonyakiat, Y; Kantasuk, C

    2000-01-01

    A number of Thai medicinal plants, recommended as remedies for herpesvirus infection and have been used in primary health care were investigated for their intracellular activities against herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Centella asiatica L., Maclura cochinchinensis Cornor, and Mangifera indica L. contained both anti-HSV-1 and -2 activities, as determined by plaque inhibition assay. An inhibition of the production of infectious HSV-2 virions from infected Vero cells could also be demonstrated. Combinations of each of these reconstituted extracts with 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl) guanosine (acyclovir; ACV) resulted either in subadditive, additive, or synergistic interaction, against HSV-2, depending on the dose of ACV used; mixture of C. asiatica and M. indica exerted an additive effect in a similar assay. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of these plant extracts were also substantiated by flow cytometric analysis of virus-specific antigens in the infected cells. The active constituent present in C. asiatica extract was determined to be asiaticoside while in M. indica was mangiferin. Thus, these data suggest therapeutic potential of these plant extracts.

  11. A high-throughput, high-quality plant genomic DNA extraction protocol.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Li, J; Cong, X H; Duan, Y B; Li, L; Wei, P C; Lu, X Z; Yang, J B

    2013-10-15

    The isolation of high-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) is a crucial technique in plant molecular biology. The quality of gDNA determines the reliability of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. In this paper, we reported a high-quality gDNA extraction protocol optimized for real-time PCR in a variety of plant species. Performed in a 96-well block, our protocol provides high throughput. Without the need for phenol-chloroform and liquid nitrogen or dry ice, our protocol is safer and more cost-efficient than traditional DNA extraction methods. The method takes 10 mg leaf tissue to yield 5-10 µg high-quality gDNA. Spectral measurement and electrophoresis were used to demonstrate gDNA purity. The extracted DNA was qualified in a restriction enzyme digestion assay and conventional PCR. The real-time PCR amplification was sufficiently sensitive to detect gDNA at very low concentrations (3 pg/µL). The standard curve of gDNA dilutions from our phenol-chloroform-free protocol showed better linearity (R(2) = 0.9967) than the phenol-chloroform protocol (R(2) = 0.9876). The results indicate that the gDNA was of high quality and fit for real-time PCR. This safe, high-throughput plant gDNA extraction protocol could be used to isolate high-quality gDNA for real-time PCR and other downstream molecular applications.

  12. Investigation of the use of various plant extracts activity in ruminant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüca, Songül; Gül, Mehmet; Ćaǧlayan, Alper

    2016-04-01

    The prohibition of the use of antibiotics and as a result of the adverse effect on health of synthetic products, research has focused on natural feed additives. In recent years, the diet of farm animals many feed additives have been used for various purposes or continues. These include as used in ruminant rations as plant extract thyme, anise, pepper, mint, garlic, rosemary, cinnamon, parsley, bay leaf, coconut, like used herbal extracts and their effects on the performance of ruminants was investigated. Antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflamaotry is known to have effects of plant extract. By stimulating the digestive system of ruminants, they increase the activity of digestive enzymes, to prevent environmental pollution caused by manure, regulations rumen fermentation, inhibition of methane formation and protein degradability in the rumen as well as the animal is known to have many benefits. The structure of essential oils and plant extracts in this collection, examining the use of ruminant livestock events and the importance of the use in animal nutrition into practice will be discussed.

  13. Total Soluble Protein Extraction for Improved Proteomic Analysis of Transgenic Rice Plant Roots.

    PubMed

    Raorane, Manish L; Narciso, Joan O; Kohli, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of high-throughput platforms, proteomics has become a powerful tool to search for plant gene products of agronomic relevance. Protein extractions using multistep protocols have been shown to be effective to achieve better proteome profiles than simple, single-step extractions. These protocols are generally efficient for above ground tissues such as leaves. However, each step leads to loss of some amount of proteins. Additionally, compounds such as proteases in the plant tissues lead to protein degradation. While protease inhibitor cocktails are available, these alone do not seem to suffice when roots are included in the plant sample. This is obvious given the lack of high molecular weight (HMW) proteins obtained from samples that include root tissue. For protein/proteome analysis of transgenic plant roots or of seedlings, which include root tissue, such pronounced protein degradation is especially undesirable. A facile protein extraction protocol is presented, which ensures that despite the inclusion of root tissues there is minimal loss in total protein components.

  14. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Paz; Zach, Raya; Hazan, Sharon; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Porat, Ze’ev; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. PMID:25187704

  15. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy.

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts on Interactions between Transcription Factors and Target DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Lampronti, Ilaria; Khan, Mahmud T.H.; Borgatti, Monica; Bianchi, Nicoletta

    2008-01-01

    Several transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in governing the expression of different genes involved in the immune response, embryo or cell lineage development, cell apoptosis, cell cycle progression, oncogenesis, repair and fibrosis processes and inflammation. As far as inflammation, TFs playing pivotal roles are nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), activator protein (AP-1), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STATs), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and GATA-1 factors. All these TFs regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of human disorders, particularly those with an inflammatory component. Since several medicinal plants can be employed to produce extracts exhibiting biological effects and because alteration of gene transcription represents a very interesting approach to control the expression of selected genes, this study sought to verify the ability of several extracts derived from Bangladeshi medicinal plants in interfering with molecular interactions between different TFs and specific DNA sequences. We first analyzed the antiproliferative activity of 19 medicinal plants on different human cell lines, including erythroleukemia K562, B lymphoid Raji and T lymphoid Jurkat cell lines. Secondly, we employed the electrophoretic mobility shift assay as a suitable technique for a fast screening of plant extracts altering the binding between NF-kB, AP-1, GATA-1, STAT-3, CREB and the relative target DNA elements. PMID:18830455

  17. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents.

    PubMed

    Elia, Paz; Zach, Raya; Hazan, Sharon; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Porat, Ze'ev; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant.

  18. Efficacy of indigenous plant extracts on the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Bagavan, A.; Kamaraj, C.; Rajakumar, G.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Marimuthu, S.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Eclipta prostrata and Tagetes erecta leaves tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal and repellent activities against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The dried leaves of the three plants were powdered mechanically and extracted with ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. One gram of crude extract was first dissolved in 100 ml of acetone (stock solution). From the stock solution, test solution concentrations of 31.21- 499.42 mg/l for oviposition- deterrence assay and repellency and 15.60 - 998.85 mg/l were used in ovicidal assay. The percentage oviposition- deterrence, hatching rate of eggs and protection time were calculated. One-way analysis of variance was used for the multiple concentration tests and for per cent mortality to determine significant treatment differences. Results: The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was highest at 499.42 mg/l and the lowest at 31.21 mg/l in ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 499.42 mg/l were -0.91, -0.93, -0.84, -0.84, -0.87, -0.82, -0.87, -0.89 and -0.87, respectively. Mortality (no egg hatchability) was 100 per cent with ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 998.85 mg/l. The maximum adult repellent activity was observed at 499.42 mg/l in ethyl acetate extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and methanol extracts of T. erecta, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 150 min with

  19. Stable Isotope-Assisted Evaluation of Different Extraction Solvents for Untargeted Metabolomics of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Doppler, Maria; Kluger, Bernhard; Bueschl, Christoph; Schneider, Christina; Krska, Rudolf; Delcambre, Sylvie; Hiller, Karsten; Lemmens, Marc; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of extraction protocols for untargeted metabolomics approaches is still difficult. We have applied a novel stable isotope-assisted workflow for untargeted LC-HRMS-based plant metabolomics , which allows for the first time every detected feature to be considered for method evaluation. The efficiency and complementarity of commonly used extraction solvents, namely 1 + 3 (v/v) mixtures of water and selected organic solvents (methanol, acetonitrile or methanol/acetonitrile 1 + 1 (v/v)), with and without the addition of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid were compared. Four different wheat organs were sampled, extracted and analysed by LC-HRMS. Data evaluation was performed with the in-house-developed MetExtract II software and R. With all tested solvents a total of 871 metabolites were extracted in ear, 785 in stem, 733 in leaf and 517 in root samples, respectively. Between 48% (stem) and 57% (ear) of the metabolites detected in a particular organ were found with all extraction mixtures, and 127 of 996 metabolites were consistently shared between all extraction agent/organ combinations. In aqueous methanol, acidification with formic acid led to pronounced pH dependency regarding the precision of metabolite abundance and the number of detectable metabolites, whereas extracts of acetonitrile-containing mixtures were less affected. Moreover, methanol and acetonitrile have been found to be complementary with respect to extraction efficiency. Interestingly, the beneficial properties of both solvents can be combined by the use of a water-methanol-acetonitrile mixture for global metabolite extraction instead of aqueous methanol or aqueous acetonitrile alone. PMID:27367667

  20. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants on Allium cepa Linn.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, A; Bakare, A A

    2007-07-25

    The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), Morinda lucida (Benth.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf.), Mangifera indica (Linn.) and Carica papaya (Linn.) was evaluated using the Allium cepa assay. The extracts were prepared with tap water as practised locally. Onion bulbs were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50%; and 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% concentrations (v/v) of each of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analyses, respectively. There was concentration-dependent and statistically significant (P<0.05) inhibition of root growth by the extracts when compared with the control. The EC(50) obtained for decoctions of Azadirachta indica. Cymbopogon citratus, Mangifera indica and Carica papaya were 0.6, 3.0, 1.4 and 0.8%, respectively. It was 2.6 and 0.8% for the squeezed extracts of Azadirachta indica and Morinda lucida, respectively. All the tested extracts were observed to have mitodepressive effects on cell division and induced mitotic spindle disturbance in Allium cepa. These results suggest an inhibitory, mitodepressive and turbagenic activities of the aqueous extracts on Allium cepa.

  1. High-level antimicrobial efficacy of representative Mediterranean natural plant extracts against oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Karygianni, Lamprini; Cecere, Manuel; Skaltsounis, Alexios Leandros; Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Hellwig, Elmar; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Wittmer, Annette; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Nature is an unexplored reservoir of novel phytopharmaceuticals. Since biofilm-related oral diseases often correlate with antibiotic resistance, plant-derived antimicrobial agents could enhance existing treatment options. Therefore, the rationale of the present report was to examine the antimicrobial impact of Mediterranean natural extracts on oral microorganisms. Five different extracts from Olea europaea, mastic gum, and Inula viscosa were tested against ten bacteria and one Candida albicans strain. The extraction protocols were conducted according to established experimental procedures. Two antimicrobial assays--the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assay--were applied. The screened extracts were found to be active against each of the tested microorganisms. O. europaea presented MIC and MBC ranges of 0.07-10.00 mg mL(-1) and 0.60-10.00 mg mL(-1), respectively. The mean MBC values for mastic gum and I. viscosa were 0.07-10.00 mg mL(-1) and 0.15-10.00 mg mL(-1), respectively. Extracts were less effective against C. albicans and exerted bactericidal effects at a concentration range of 0.07-5.00 mg mL(-1) on strict anaerobic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Parvimonas micra). Ethyl acetate I. viscosa extract and total mastic extract showed considerable antimicrobial activity against oral microorganisms and could therefore be considered as alternative natural anti-infectious agents.

  2. Medicinal plant extracts variously modulate susceptibility of Escherichia coli to different antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, Zoya; Smirnova, Galina; Muzyka, Nadezda; Oktyabrsky, Oleg

    2014-04-01

    Antioxidant activity of green and black tea and extracts of medicinal plants and their ability to modulate antibiotic susceptibility in Escherichia coli were studied. Among a number of extracts tested the maximal capacity to scavenge DPPH radicals and chelate iron in chemical tests was found in green and black tea, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Vaccinium vitis-idaea. These extracts contained high level of polyphenols and in aerobic conditions exhibited prooxidant features, producing H2O2 and inducing expression of the katG gene encoding catalase HPI in E. coli cells. A good correlation between the polyphenol content and the ability of extracts to protect bacteria against peroxide stress was observed (r = 0.88). Polyphenol-rich extracts and iron chelators demonstrated the highest modulating effect on the antibiotic susceptibility by changing the time period before lysis started and by influencing the colony-forming ability of bacteria. The direction of the modulating effect was dependent on nature of antibiotic applied: under treatment with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin the extracts predominantly provided protective effects, while under treatment with kanamycin a bactericidal action was enhanced. Mechanism of modulating action of extracts on bacterial antibiotic susceptibility probably involves antioxidant, preferentially iron-chelating, or prooxidant properties of polyphenols.

  3. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Several Plant Extracts and Oils against Some Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Safi, Mazen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants are considered new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 28 plant extracts and oils against four Gram-negative bacterial species. Methods: Experimental, in vitro, evaluation of the activities of 28 plant extracts and oils as well as some antibiotics against E. coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed. The activity against 15 isolates of each bacterium was determined by disc diffusion method at a concentration of 5%. Microdilution susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the plant extracts, oils, and antibiotics. Results: Among the evaluated herbs, only Origanum syriacum L., Thymus syriacus Boiss., Syzygium aromaticum L., Juniperus foetidissima Wild, Allium sativum L., Myristica fragrans Houtt, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. essential oils and Laurus nobilis L. plant extract showed anti-bacterial activity. The MIC50 values of these products against the Gram-negative organisms varied from 1.5 (Proteus spp. and K. pneumoniae( and 6.25 µl/ml (Yersinia enterocolitica O9 ) to 12.5 µl/ml (E. coli O:157). Conclusion: Among the studied essential oils, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. essential oils were the most effective. Moreover, Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics against almost all the studied bacteria. Therefore, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. could act as bactericidal agents against Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24453392

  4. Antinociceptive activity of extracts and secondary metabolites from wild growing and micropropagated plants of Renealmia alpinia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Betancur, Isabel; Cortés, Natalie; Benjumea, Dora; Osorio, Edison; León, Francisco; Cutler, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Renealmia alpinia is native to the American continent and can be found from Mexico to Brazil, and in the Caribbean islands. It is known as “matandrea” in Colombia, and it has been commonly used in traditional medicine to treat painful diseases and ailments. Based on its traditional uses, it is of interest to evaluate the pharmacologic effects of this plant and its secondary metabolites. Materials and methods Methanol and aqueous extracts of wild and micropropagated R. alpinia (leaves) were obtained and chemically compared by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). The antinociceptive activity of these extracts was examined using an in vivo assay (Siegmund test). Additionally, the dichloromethane extract of R. alpinia was fractionated and pure compounds were isolated by chromatographic methods. The structure elucidation of isolated compounds was performed by NMR experiments and spectroscopic techniques and comparison with the literature data. Purified compounds were evaluated for their in vitro binding affinity for opioids and cannabinoids receptors. Results The dichloromethane extract of the plant’s aerial part afforded sinostrobin (1), naringenin 7,4′-dimethyl ether (2), 2′,6′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxychalcone (3), 4-methoxy-6-(2-phenylethenyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (4), naringenin 7-methyl ether (5) and 3,5-heptanediol, 1,7-diphenyl (6), which were isolated using chromatographic methods. Their chemical structures were established by physical and spectroscopic techniques. The antinociceptive effects observed in mice by extracts of wild and micropropagated plants were similar. The compounds isolated from R. alpinia do not show affinity to opioid or cannabinoid receptors. Conclusion Aqueous and methanol extracts of R. alpinia provide antinociceptive and analgesic effects in an in vivo model. These results contribute additional insight as to why this plant is traditionally used for pain management. Also, this is the first

  5. Inhibitors of Urokinase Type Plasminogen Activator and Cytostatic Activity from Crude Plants Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Xueqiang; Diaz, Ricardo; Franco, Jose Javier Rosado; Sanchez, Veronica Forbes; Fasoli, Ezio; Barletta, Gabriel; Carvajal, Augusto; Bansal, Vibha

    2014-01-01

    In view of the clear evidence that urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) plays an important role in the processes of tumor cell metastasis, aortic aneurysm, and multiple sclerosis, it has become a target of choice for pharmacological intervention. The goal of this study was thus to determine the presence of inhibitors of uPA in plants known traditionally for their anti-tumor properties. Crude methanol extracts were prepared from the leaves of plants (14) collected from the subtropical dry forest (Guanica, Puerto Rico), and tested for the presence of inhibitors of uPA using the fibrin plate assay. The extracts that tested positive (6) were then partitioned with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol, in a sequential manner. The resulting fractions were then tested again using the fibrin plate assay. Extracts from leaves of Croton lucidus (C. lucidus) showed the presence of a strong uPA inhibitory activity. Serial dilutions of these C. lucidus partitions were performed to determine the uPA inhibition IC50 values. The chloroform extract showed the lowest IC50 value (3.52 μg/mL) and hence contained the most potent uPA inhibitor. Further investigations revealed that the crude methanol extract and its chloroform and n-butanol partitions did not significantly inhibit closely related proteases such as the tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasmin, indicating their selectivity for uPA, and hence superior potential for medicinal use with fewer side effects. In a further evaluation of their therapeutic potential for prevention of cancer metastasis, the C. lucidus extracts displayed cytostatic activity against human pancreatic carcinoma (PaCa-2) cells, as determined through an MTS assay. The cytostatic activities recorded for each of the partitions correlated with their relative uPA inhibitory activities. There are no existing reports of uPA inhibitors being present in any of the plants reported in this study. PMID:23896619

  6. Influence of two plant extracts on broilers performance, digestibility, and digestive organ size.

    PubMed

    Hernández, F; Madrid, J; García, V; Orengo, J; Megías, M D

    2004-02-01

    A 42-d trial was conducted to study the influence of 2 plant extracts on performance, digestibility, and digestive organ weights in broilers. The feeding program consisted of a starter diet until 21 d and a finisher diet until 42 d. There were 4 treatment groups: control; 10 ppm avilamycin (AB); 200 ppm essential oil extract (EOE) from oregano, cinnamon, and pepper; and 5,000 ppm Labiatae extract (LE) from sage, thyme, and rosemary. No differences in feed intake or feed conversion were observed. From 14 to 21 d of age, broilers fed the LE diet grew faster than the broilers fed the control or EOE feeds (68.8 vs. 63.9 and 61.6 g/d, respectively). Antibiotic and plant extract supplementation improved apparent whole-tract and ileal digestibility of the nutrients. For starter feed, LE supplementation improved apparent fecal digestibility of DM (P < 0.01), and all additives increased ether extract digestibility (P < 0.001). However, no effect was detected for CP digestibility (P > 0.1). At the ileal level, the AB, EOE, and LE supplementation of the starter feed increased DM and starch (P < 0.01) digestibility but not CP digestibility (P > 0.1). All additives improved apparent fecal digestibility of DM and CP of the finisher diet. No differences were observed for proventriculus, gizzard, liver, pancreas, or large or small intestine weight. In the present study, both plant extracts improved the digestibility of the feeds for broilers. The effect of different additives on digestibility improved the performance slightly, but this effect was not statistically significant.

  7. Water-extractable magnesium, manganese and copper in leaves and herbs of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Konieczyński, Paweł; Wesołowski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Since herbal teas, infusions and decoctions prepared from medicinal plants are popular remedies, it remains a topical question whether these herbal drugs can be treated as sources of essential elements for humans, who often use them in their everyday diet. Therefore, total and water-extractable contents of Mg, Mn and Cu were determined in 41 leaves originating from four botanical species of Plantago lanceolata, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Rubus fruticosus and Betula sp., as well as in 33 samples of herbs represented by three species of Urtica dioica, Hypericum perforatum and Achillea millefolium. The highest level was determined in the case of Mg (in a range from 2.0 to 7.0 mg/g of dry mass [d.m.]), followed by Mn (from 50.0 to 1300.0 mg/kg d.m.), and lowest of all, Cu (from 3.5 to 19.5 mg/kg d.m.). Student's t-test showed that a statistically significant difference exists between samples originating from different plant species regarding the total content and water-extractable forms of Mg, Mn and Cu. By analysis of the relations between elements, it was observed that total level of Cu correlated with total levels of Mg and Mn, which indicates a synergistic interaction between the essential elements under study. With regard to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), the leaves of Rubus fruticosus contained the highest amounts of a water-extractable bioavailable form of Mn, which guarantees from 160 to 200% of the daily requirement of Mn for women and men, respectively. On the other hand, the extract obtained from Urticae folium gave water-extractable Mg in the amount of 76 mg/500 mL, which constitutes about 20% of daily requirement. The plant material richest in water-extractable Cu was Hyperici herba, containing 154.5 microg/500 mL, or 17% of DRI for both sexes.

  8. Influence of harvest season on chemical composition and bioactivity of wild rue plant hydroalcoholic extracts.

    PubMed

    Pacifico, Severina; Piccolella, Simona; Galasso, Silvia; Fiorentino, Antonio; Kretschmer, Nadine; Pan, San-Po; Bauer, Rudolf; Monaco, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    The rue (Ruta graveolens) copiousness in rural areas of the Campania Region based a thorough chemical and biological investigation aimed at exploring the seasonal variability of phenol constituents in rue leaves and its influence on their antioxidant, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory capabilities. To this purpose, hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared from plant samples seasonally collected. LC-ESI-MS/MS techniques were employed to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively the seasonal rue phenol content, whereas different chemical antioxidant assays (by DPPH, ABTS, Fe(3+) RP, ORAC, and FCR methods) and XTT redox metabolic activity assay were performed to screen the seasonal phenol complex-related antioxidant and cytotoxic power. The ability of the rue leaf extracts to counteract cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression was also evaluated. Data obtained highlighted that the adopted extraction procedure markedly pauperized the furanocoumarin content in all the prepared rue extracts. Flavonol glycosides, along with the flavone acacetin and two sinapic acid derivatives were the main constituents of the spring harvest-derived extract, which exerted the highest antioxidant capability in cell-free systems and was capable to inhibit COX-2 synthesis by 44% comparably to dexamethasone, used as positive control. Data provide new insights for developing a proper management of rue plants for new safe industrial purposes in herbal medicine field.

  9. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of seven Cameroonian dietary plants against bacteria expressing MDR phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Seukep, Jackson A; Fankam, Aimé G; Djeussi, Doriane E; Voukeng, Igor K; Tankeo, Simplice B; Noumdem, Jaurès Ak; Kuete, Antoine Hln; Kuete, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality caused by bacterial infections significantly increased with resistance to commonly used antibiotics. This is partially due to the activation of efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria. The present work designed to assess the in vitro antibacterial activities of seven Cameroonian dietary plants (Sesamum indicum, Sesamum radiatum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Corchous olitorius, Cyperus esculentus, Adansonia digitata, Aframomum kayserianum), against multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria over expressing active efflux pumps. The standard phytochemical methods were used to detect the main classes of secondary metabolites in the extracts. The antibacterial activities of the studied extracts in the absence or presence of an efflux pump inhibitor (PAβN) were evaluated using liquid microbroth dilution method. The results obtained indicated that apart from the extract of C. esculentus, all other samples contained alkaloids, phenols and polyphenols meanwhile other classes of chemicals were selectively present. The studied extracts displayed antibacterial activities with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) values ranged from 64 to 1024 μg/mL on the majority of the 27 tested microbial strains. The extract of S. indicum was active against 77.77% of the tested microorganisms whilst the lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL) was recorded with that of A. kayserianum against E. aerogenes EA294. The results of the present work provide baseline information on the possible used of the tested Cameroonian dietary plants in the treatment of bacterial infections including multi-drug resistant phenotypes.

  10. Antibacterial activities of selected edible plants extracts against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In response to the propagation of bacteria resistant to many antibiotics also called multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, the discovery of new and more efficient antibacterial agents is primordial. The present study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activities of seven Cameroonian dietary plants (Adansonia digitata, Aframomum alboviolaceum, Aframomum polyanthum, Anonidium. mannii, Hibiscus sabdarifa, Ocimum gratissimum and Tamarindus indica). Methods The phytochemical screening of the studied extracts was performed using described methods whilst the liquid broth micro dilution was used for all antimicrobial assays against 27 Gram-negative bacteria. Results The results of the phytochemical tests indicate that all tested extracts contained phenols and triterpenes, other classes of chemicals being selectively present. The studied extracts displayed various degrees of antibacterial activities. The extracts of A. digitata, H. sabdarifa, A. polyanthum, A. alboviolaceum and O. gratissimum showed the best spectra of activity, their inhibitory effects being recorded against 81.48%, 66.66%, 62.96%, 55.55%, and 55.55% of the 27 tested bacteria respectively. The extract of A. polyanthum was very active against E. aerogenes EA294 with the lowest recorded minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 μg/ml. Conclusion The results of the present work provide useful baseline information for the potential use of the studied edible plants in the fight against both sensitive and MDR phenotypes. PMID:23837916

  11. Evaluation of indigenous plant extracts against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Vadivelu, M; Zahir, A Abduz; Elango, G; Pandiyan, G

    2009-02-01

    This study investigates the larvicidal potential of indigenous plant extracts from commonly used medicinal herbs as an environmentally safe measure to control the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The early fourth-instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, reared in the laboratory, were used for larvicidal assay with water, hot water, acetone, chloroform, and methanol leaf, stem-bark, and flower extracts of Acacia arabica Willd. Sans, Cedrus deodara Roxb, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Mangifera indica L., Nerium indicum Mill., Nicotiana tabacum Linn., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, and Solanum nigrum Linn. All plant extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest larval mortality was found in stem-bark hot water, acetone, and methanol extracts of C. deodara (LC50 = 133.85, 141.60, and 95.19 ppm, LC90 = 583.14, 624.19, and 639.99 ppm) and leaf hot water, acetone, methanol, and chloroform extracts of N. tabacum (LC50 = 76.27, 163.81, 83.38, and 105.85 ppm, LC90 = 334.72, 627.38, 709.51, and 524.39 ppm) against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus.

  12. Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Buchu Plant Extracts and Their Analgesic Properties.

    PubMed

    Chiguvare, Herbert; Oyedeji, Opeoluwa O; Matewu, Reuben; Aremu, Olukayode; Oyemitan, Idris A; Oyedeji, Adebola O; Nkeh-Chungag, Benedicta N; Songca, Sandile P; Mohan, Sneha; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi S

    2016-06-14

    We herein report for the first time the synthesis and analgesic properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using buchu plant extract. The as-synthesised Ag-NPs at different temperatures were characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission transform microscopy (TEM) to confirm the formation of silver nanoparticles. Phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract revealed the presence of glycosides, proteins, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins. The absorption spectra showed that the synthesis is temperature and time dependent. The TEM analysis showed that the as-synthesised Ag-NPs are polydispersed and spherical in shape with average particle diameter of 19.95 ± 7.76 nm while the FTIR results confirmed the reduction and capping of the as-synthesised Ag-NPs by the phytochemicals present in the ethanolic extract. The analgesic study indicated that the combined effect of the plant extract and Ag-NPs is more effective in pain management than both the aspirin drug and the extract alone.

  13. CO2 Plant Extracts Reduce Cholesterol Oxidation in Fish Patties during Cooking and Storage.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, Marko; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2016-12-28

    Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in foods may pose risks for human health. Suitable antioxidants can reduce the formation of COPs in industrial products. Consumer awareness of food additives has brought a need for more natural alternatives. This is the first study on the effects of supercritical CO2 extracts of rosemary, oregano, and an antimicrobial blend of seven herbs, tested at two levels (1 and 3 g/kg fish), against cholesterol oxidation in patties made of a widely consumed fish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), during baking and storage. Cholesterol oxidation was reduced by the extracts as indicated by lowered levels of 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholesterol, which were quantified by GC-MS. The total amount of COPs was smaller in all of the cooked samples containing the plant extracts (<1 μg/g extracted fat) than in the cooked control (14 μg/g). Furthermore, the plant extracts exhibited protective effects also during cold storage for up to 14 days.

  14. Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes lipase by extracts of Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Patil, V; Bandivadekar, A; Debjani, D

    2012-06-01

    Lipases play an important role in pathogenesis of acne by hydrolysing sebum triglycerides and releasing irritating free fatty acids in the pilosebaceous follicles. Lipase is a strong chemotactic and proinflammatory antigen. Therefore, lipase has generated a high interest as a pharmacological target for antiacne drugs. The aim of this study was to identify inhibitory effects of plant extracts on the lipase activity of Propionibacterium acnes. Colorimetric microassay was used to determine lipase activity. Extracts from Terminalia chebula and Embelia ribes showed lower IC(50) value (1 μg mL(-1) ) for lipase inhibition as compared to Vitex negundo and Picrorhiza kurroa (19 and 47 μg mL(-1) , respectively). The active component responsible for lipase inhibition was isolated. This study reports for the first time the novel antilipase activity of chebulagic acid (IC(50) : 60 μmol L(-1) ) with minimum inhibitory concentration value of 12.5 μg mL(-1) against P. acnes. The inhibitory potential of plant extracts was further confirmed by plate assay. The organism was grown in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of extracts from P. kurroa, V. negundo, T. chebula, E. ribes and antibiotics such as clindamycin and tetracycline. Extract from T. chebula showed significant inhibition of lipase activity and number of P. acnes.

  15. Host extract modulates metabolism and fumonisin biosynthesis by the plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Wilman, Karolina

    2015-01-16

    Fusarium proliferatum is a common pathogen able to infect a broad range of agriculturally important crops. Recently, some evidence for genetic variance among the species genotypes in relation to their plant origin has been reported. Mycotoxin contamination of plant tissues is the most important threat caused by F. proliferatum and fumonisins B (FBs) are the principal mycotoxins synthesized. The toxigenic potential of the pathogen genotypes is variable and also the reaction of different host plant species on the infection by pathogen is different. The objective of present study was to evaluate the impact of the extracts on the growth and fumonisin biosynthesis by 32 F. proliferatum strains originating from different host species (A-asparagus, M-maize, G-garlic, PS-pea and P-pineapple), and how it changes the secondary metabolism measured by fumonisin biosynthesis. The average strain dry weight was 65.2 mg for control conditions and it reached 180.7 mg, 100.5 mg, 76.6 mg, 126.2 mg and 51.1 mg when pineapple, asparagus, maize, garlic and pea extracts were added, respectively. In the second experiment the extracts were added after 5 days of culturing of the representative group of strains, displaying diverse reaction to the extract presence. Also, the influence of stationary vs. shaken culture was examined. Mean biomass amounts for shaken cultures of 15 chosen strains were as follows: 37.4 mg of dry weight for control culture (C), 219.6 mg (P), 113 mg (A), 93.6 mg (M), 62 mg (G) and 48 mg (PS), respectively. For stationary cultures, the means were as follows: C-57.4 mg, P-355.6 mg, A-291.6 mg, M-191.1 mg, G-171.1 mg and PS-58.9 mg. Few strains showed differential growth when stationary/shaken culture conditions were applied. Almost all strains synthesized moderate amounts of fumonisins in control conditions-less than 10 ng/μL, regardless of the origin and host species. Few strains were able to produce over 100 ng/μL of FBs when pineapple extract was added, twelve

  16. Isolation of plant DNA for PCR and genotyping using organic extraction and CTAB.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathan M

    2010-11-01

    A general difficulty in isolation of DNA from plant cells is the presence of a cell wall. It is necessary to degrade plant cell walls, either physically or enzymatically, in order to effectively isolate plant DNA. Additionally, some tissues (such as endosperm) or some species contain high levels of starches or phenolic compounds that can complicate DNA isolation. A number of plant DNA isolation protocols are designed to overcome species-specific difficulties. This is a relatively simple protocol that uses an extraction buffer containing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB); it can be used for many plant species. It provides a substantial amount of high-quality DNA that is suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures and is stable for long periods of time. The cost per sample is very low. In addition, this protocol is relatively robust and can be performed by individuals who have had relatively little training. A typical undergraduate student can perform ~200-300 isolations in a day using this protocol. The disadvantages are that it requires a freeze-dryer and a mill or paint-shaker-like device and that it utilizes an organic extraction step, requiring the use of a fume hood.

  17. Prediction of Heavy Metal Uptake by Marsh Plants Based on Chemical Extraction of Heavy Metals from Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    A field and laboratory study was conducted to establish the extent of heavy metal absorption and uptake by marsh plant species from dredged material...emphasizes the need for a method to predict heavy metal availability from dredged material to plants. DTPA extraction of heavy metals gave the best correlations with actual heavy metal concentrations in marsh plants.

  18. Impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaf, bark, and core extracts on germination of five plant species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the germination and post-germination development ...

  19. Evaluation of extraction protocols for anti-diabetic phytochemical substances from medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Okoduwa, Stanley Irobekhian Reuben; Umar, Ismaila A; James, Dorcas B; Inuwa, Hajara M; Habila, James D

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the efficacy of three extraction techniques: Soxhlet-extraction (SE), cold-maceration (CM) and microwave-assisted-extraction (MAE) using 80% methanol as solvent. METHODS The study was performed on each of 50 g of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and Occimum gratissimum (OG) leaves respectively. The percentage yield, duration of extraction, volume of solvent used, qualitative and quantitative phytoconstituents present was compared. The biological activities (hypoglycemic effect) were investigated using albino wistar rat model of diabetes mellitus (n = 36) with a combined dose (1:1) of the two plants leaf extracts (250 mg/kg b.w.) from the three methods. The extracts were administered orally, once daily for 21 d. RESULTS In this report, the percentage VA extract yield from MAE was highest (20.9% ± 1.05%) within 39 min using 250 mL of solvent, when compared to the CM (14.35% ± 0.28%) within 4320 min using 900 mL of solvent and SE (15.75% ± 0.71%) within 265 min using 500 mL of solvent. The percentage differences in OG extract yield between: MAE vs SE was 41.05%; MAE vs CM was 46.81% and SE vs CM was 9.77%. The qualitative chemical analysis of the two plants showed no difference in the various phytoconstituents tested, but differs quantitatively in the amount of the individual phytoconstituents, as MAE had significantly high yield (P > 0.05) on phenolics, saponins and tannins. SE technique gave significantly high yield (P > 0.05) on alkaloid, while CM gave significant high yield on flavonoids. The extracts from CM exhibited a significantly (P > 0.05) better hypoglycemic activity within the first 14-d of treatment (43.3% ± 3.62%) when compared to MAE (36.5% ± 0.08%) and SE methods (33.3% ± 1.60%). However, the percentage hypoglycemic activity, 21 d post-treatment with 250 mg/kg b.w. extract from MAE was 72.6% ± 1.03% and it was more comparable to 10 mg/kg b.w. glibenclamide treated group (75.0% ± 0.73%), unlike the SE (69.5% ± 0.71%) and CM (69.1% ± 1

  20. Screening the methanol extracts of some Iranian plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Gholamhoseinian, A.; Moradi, M.N.; Sharifi-far, F.

    2009-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the main enzyme for the breakdown of acetylcholine. Nowadays, usage of the inhibitors of this enzyme is one of the most important types of treatment of mild to moderate neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Herbal medicines can be a new source of inhibitors of this enzyme. In this study we examined around 100 different plants to evaluate their inhibitory properties for AChE enzyme. Plants were scientifically identified and their extracts were prepared by methanol percolation. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured using a colorimetric method in the presence or absence of the extracts. Eserine was used as a positive control. Methanol extracts of the Levisticum officinale, Bergeris integrima and Rheum ribes showed more than 50% AChE inhibitory activity. The inhibition kinetics were studied in the presence of the most effective extracts. L. officinale and B. integrima inhibited AChE activity in a non-competitive manner, while R. ribes competitively inhibitied the enzyme as revealed by double-reciprocal Linweaver-Burk plot analysis. Under controlled condition, Km and Vmax values of the enzyme were found to be 9.4 mM and 0.238 mM/min, respectively. However, in the presence of L. officinale, B. integrima, and R. ribes extracts, Vmax values were 0.192, 0.074 and 0.238 mM/min, respectively. Due to the competitive inhibition of the enzyme by R. ribes extract, the Km value of 21.2 mM was obtained. The concentration required for 50% enzyme inhibition (IC50 value) was 0.5, 0.9, and 0.95 mg/ml for the L. officinale, B. integrima and R. ribes extracts, respectively. The IC50 of the eserine was determined to be 0.8 mg/ml. PMID:21589805

  1. Identification of Plant Extracts that Inhibit the Formation of Diabetes-Linked IAPP Amyloid.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Ana Lucia; Hennessy, Kathleen; Pascual, Jacob; Pepe, Nicole; Wang, In; Santiago, Alexander; Chaggan, Cynthia; Martinez, Jessica; Rivera, Evelyn; Cota, Paola; Cunha, Christina; Nogaj, Luiza A; Moffet, David A

    2016-03-01

    The extracts of 27 vegetables, spices and herbs were screened for their functional ability to inhibit the aggregation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, amylin) into toxic amyloid aggregates. The aggregation of IAPP has been directly linked to the death of pancreatic β-islet cells in type 2 diabetes. Inhibiting the aggregation of IAPP is believed to have the potential to slow, if not prevent entirely, the progression of this disease. As vegetables, spices and herbs are known to possess many different positive health effects, the extracts of 27 plants (abundant within the United States and spanning several plant families) were screened for their ability to inhibit the formation of toxic IAPP aggregates. Their anti-amyloid activities were assessed through (1) thioflavin T binding assays, (2) visualization of amyloid fibers using atomic force microscopy and (3) cell rescue studies. From this research, mint, peppermint, red bell pepper and thyme emerged as possessing the greatest anti-amyloid activity.

  2. Potential Medicinal Application and Toxicity Evaluation of Extracts from Bamboo Plants

    PubMed Central

    Panee, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo plants play a significant role in traditional Asian medicine, especially in China and Japan. Biomedical investigations on the health-benefiting effects as well as toxicity of different parts and species of bamboo have been carried out worldwide since the 1960s, and documented a wide range of protective effects of bamboo-derived products, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, lipotoxicity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Some of these products may interfere with male and female reproductive function, thyroid hormone metabolism, and hepatic xenobiotransformation enzymes. The diversity of bamboo species, parts of the plants available for medicinal use, and different extraction methods suggest that bamboo has great potential for producing a range of extracts with functional utility in medicine. PMID:26617977

  3. Tragacanth gum as a natural polymeric wall for producing antimicrobial nanocapsules loaded with plant extract.

    PubMed

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid; Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz

    2015-11-01

    Tragacanth gum as a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer with good properties including emulsifying, viscosity and cross-linking ability can be used as the wall material in encapsulation of different compounds, specifically plant extracts. In this paper, for the first time, Tragacanth gum was used to produce nanocapsules containing plant extract through microemulsion method. The effect of different parameters on the average size of prepared nanocapsules in presence of aluminum and calcium chloride through ultrasonic and magnetic stirrer was investigated. The high efficient nanocapsules were prepared with spherical shape and smooth surface. The average size of nanocapsules prepared through ultrasonic using aluminum chloride (22nm) was smaller than other products. The structure of prepared nanocapsules was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. Antimicrobial activity of different nanocapsules against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans was investigated by shake flask method during their release showed 100% microbial reduction after 12h stirring.

  4. Is the extract from the plant catmint (Nepeta cataria) repellent to mosquitoes in Australia?

    PubMed

    Webb, Cameron E; Russell, Richard C

    2007-09-01

    The repellency of Nepeta cataria (catmint or catnip) was tested against Aedes aegypti, Ae. vigilax, Culex annulirostris, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, and compared with a blend of natural plant extracts and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) on human skin. The catmint and natural plant extract blend did not provide the same level of protection from biting mosquitoes as deet. There were significant differences in the level of protection provided by catmint to the 4 species of mosquito, with mean protection times ranging from 0 min for Ae. aegypti up to 240 +/- 60 min for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Significant differences in the mean landing rates of the 4 mosquito species on untreated forearms highlighted the difficulties in comparing laboratory tests of repellents between species.

  5. New Paradigm Shift for the Green Synthesis of Antibacterial Silver Nanoparticles Utilizing Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This review covers general information regarding the green synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles. Owing to their antibacterial properties, silver nanoparticles are widely used in many areas, especially biomedical applications. In green synthesis practices, the chemical reducing agents are eliminated, and biological entities are utilized to convert silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Among the various biological entities, natural plant extracts have emerged as green reducing agents, providing eco-friendly routes for the preparation of silver nanomaterials. The most obvious merits of green synthesis are the increased biocompatibility of the resulting silver nanoparticles and the ease with which the reaction can be carried out. This review summarizes some of the plant extracts that are used to produce antibacterial silver nanoparticles. Additionally, background information regarding the green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles is provided. Finally, the toxicological aspects of silver nanoparticles are briefly mentioned. PMID:25343010

  6. Extraction of high-quality genomic DNA from latex-containing plants.

    PubMed

    Michiels, An; Van den Ende, Wim; Tucker, Mark; Van Riet, Liesbet; Van Laere, André

    2003-04-01

    The isolation of intact, high-molecular-mass genomic DNA is essential for many molecular biology applications including long PCR, endonuclease restriction digestion, Southern blot analysis, and genomic library construction. Many protocols are available for the extraction of DNA from plant material. However, for latex-containing Asteraceae (Cichorioideae) species, standard protocols and commercially available kits do not produce efficient yields of high-quality amplifiable DNA. A cetyltrimethylammonium bromide protocol has been optimized for isolation of genomic DNA from latex-containing plants. Key steps in the modified protocol are the use of etiolated leaf tissue for extraction and an overnight 25 degrees C isopropanol precipitation step. The purified DNA has excellent spectral qualities, is efficiently digested by restriction endonucleases, and is suitable for long-fragment PCR amplification.

  7. Condensed tannins in extracts from European medicinal plants and herbal products.

    PubMed

    Ropiak, Honorata M; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2016-03-20

    Medicinal plant materials are not usually analysed for condensed tannins (CT). Thirty commercially available European medicinal plants and herbal products were screened for CT and fourteen CT samples were analysed in detail. This is also the first comprehensive CT analysis of pine buds, walnut leaves, heather flowers and great water dock roots. Acetone/water extracts contained between 3.2 and 25.9 g CT/100g of extract, had CT with mean degrees of polymerisation of 2.9 to 13.3, procyanidin/prodelphinidin ratios of 1.6/98.4 to 100/0 and cis/trans flavan-3-ol ratios of 17.7/82.3 to 97.3/2.7. The majority of samples contained procyanidins, four contained A-type linkages (blackthorn flowers, heather flowers, bilberry leaves and cowberry leaves) and one sample also had galloylated procyanidins (great water dock roots).

  8. Potential Medicinal Application and Toxicity Evaluation of Extracts from Bamboo Plants.

    PubMed

    Panee, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo plants play a significant role in traditional Asian medicine, especially in China and Japan. Biomedical investigations on the health-benefiting effects as well as toxicity of different parts and species of bamboo have been carried out worldwide since the 1960s, and documented a wide range of protective effects of bamboo-derived products, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, lipotoxicity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Some of these products may interfere with male and female reproductive function, thyroid hormone metabolism, and hepatic xenobiotransformation enzymes. The diversity of bamboo species, parts of the plants available for medicinal use, and different extraction methods suggest that bamboo has great potential for producing a range of extracts with functional utility in medicine.

  9. Metal nanoparticles (other than gold or silver) prepared using plant extracts for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasca, Roxana-Diana; Santa, Szabolcs; Racz, Levente Zsolt; Racz, Csaba Pal

    2016-12-01

    There are many modalities to prepare metal nanoparticles, but the reducing of the metal ions with plant extracts is one of the most promising because it is considerate less toxic for the environment, suitable for the use of those nanoparticles in vivo and not very expensive. Various metal ions have been already studied such as: cobalt, copper, iron, platinum, palladium, zinc, indium, manganese and mercury and the number of plant extracts used is continuously increasing. The prepared systems were characterized afterwards with a great number of methods of investigation: both spectroscopic (especially UV-Vis spectroscopy) and microscopic (in principal, electron microscopy-TEM) methods. The applications of the metal nanoparticles obtained are diverse and not completely known, but the medical applications of such nanoparticles occupy a central place, due to their nontoxic components, but some diverse industrial applications do not have to be forgotten.

  10. Plant Extract (Bupleurum falcatum) as a Green Factory for Biofabrication of Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, You Jeong; Cha, Song-Hyun; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Kim, Yeong Shik; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2015-09-01

    This work describes a biofabrication process for gold nanoparticles in which the plant extract (Bupleurum falcatum) is used as a reducing agent to convert gold ions to gold nanoparticles. Biofabricated gold nanoparticles with spherical shapes were observed with an average diameter of 10.5 ± 2.3 nm. The color of the gold nanoparticles was purple, with a surface plasmon resonance peak at 542 nm. The face-centered cubic structure of crystalline gold was confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction patterns. The biofabricated gold nanoparticles demonstrated excellent catalytic activity towards the 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction. The current report suggests that plant extracts are valuable natural sources for the biofabrication of gold nanoparticles with excellent catalytic activities.

  11. Identification of Plant Extracts that Inhibit the Formation of Diabetes-Linked IAPP Amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Ana Lucia; Hennessy, Kathleen; Pascual, Jacob; Pepe, Nicole; Wang, In; Santiago, Alexander; Chaggan, Cynthia; Martinez, Jessica; Rivera, Evelyn; Cota, Paola; Cunha, Christina; Nogaj, Luiza A; Moffet, David A

    2016-01-01

    The extracts of 27 vegetables, spices and herbs were screened for their functional ability to inhibit the aggregation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, amylin) into toxic amyloid aggregates. The aggregation of IAPP has been directly linked to the death of pancreatic β-islet cells in type 2 diabetes. Inhibiting the aggregation of IAPP is believed to have the potential to slow, if not prevent entirely, the progression of this disease. As vegetables, spices and herbs are known to possess many different positive health effects, the extracts of 27 plants (abundant within the United States and spanning several plant families) were screened for their ability to inhibit the formation of toxic IAPP aggregates. Their anti-amyloid activities were assessed through (1) thioflavin T binding assays, (2) visualization of amyloid fibers using atomic force microscopy and (3) cell rescue studies. From this research, mint, peppermint, red bell pepper and thyme emerged as possessing the greatest anti-amyloid activity. PMID:27042401

  12. Screening of anti-dengue activity in methanolic extracts of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue fever regardless of its serotypes has been the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral diseases among the world population. The development of a dengue vaccine is complicated by the antibody-dependent enhancement effect. Thus, the development of a plant-based antiviral preparation promises a more potential alternative in combating dengue disease. Methods Present studies investigated the antiviral effects of standardised methanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum and Pelargonium citrosum on dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1). Results O. sanctum contained 88.6% of total flavonoids content, an amount that was the highest among all the six plants tested while the least was detected in M. charantia. In this study, the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the six medicinal plants was determined by testing the methanolic extracts against Vero E6 cells in vitro. Studies also determined that the MNTD of methanolic extract was in the decreasing order of M. charantia >C. limon >P. citrosum, O. sanctum >A. paniculata >C. citratus. Antiviral assay based on cytopathic effects (CPE) denoted by degree of inhibition upon treating DENV1-infected Vero E6 cells with MNTD of six medicinal plants showed that A. paniculata has the most antiviral inhibitory effects followed by M. charantia. These results were further verified with an in vitro inhibition assay using MTT, in which 113.0% and 98.0% of cell viability were recorded as opposed to 44.6% in DENV-1 infected cells. Although methanolic extracts of O. sanctum and C. citratus showed slight inhibition effect based on CPE, a significant inhibition was not reflected in MTT assay. Methanolic extracts of C. limon and P. citrosum did not prevent cytopathic effects or cell death from DENV-1. Conclusions The methanol extracts of A. paniculata and M. charantia possess the ability of inhibiting the activity of DENV-1 in in vitro assays. Both of these plants are

  13. Effect of plant extracts on H2O2-induced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa (AL), Camellia sinensis (CS), Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG), and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM) are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study. Materials and methods Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (m)RNA expression of TNFα, COX2, IL1β, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPARγ was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2. Results A noncytotoxic dose (200 μM) of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1β, NFE2L2, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, and TNFα, while PPARγ was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001) regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1β expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NFκB1, NFκB2, and TNFα were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPARγ was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in vitro and in vivo investigation into molecular mechanisms modulated by herbal extracts should be undertaken to shed light on the development of novel

  14. First Discovery of Acetone Extract from Cottonseed Oil Sludge as a Novel Antiviral Agent against Plant Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Feng, Chaohong; Hou, Caiting; Hu, Lingyun; Wang, Qiaochun; Wu, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    A novel acetone extract from cottonseed oil sludge was firstly discovered against plant viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Rice stripe virus (RSV) and Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV). Gossypol and β-sitosterol separated from the acetone extract were tested for their effects on anti-TMV and analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assay. In vivo and field trials in different geographic distributions and different host varieties declared that this extract mixture was more efficient than the commercial agent Ningnanmycin with a broad spectrum of anti-plant-viruses activity. No phytotoxic activity was observed in the treated plants and environmental toxicology showed that this new acetone extract was environmentally friendly, indicating that this acetone extract has potential application in the control of plant virus in the future. PMID:25705894

  15. Extraction of green labeled pectins and pectic oligosaccharides from plant byproducts.

    PubMed

    Zykwinska, Agata; Boiffard, Marie-Hélène; Kontkanen, Hanna; Buchert, Johanna; Thibault, Jean-François; Bonnin, Estelle

    2008-10-08

    Green labeled pectins were extracted by an environmentally friendly way using proteases and cellulases being able to act on proteins and cellulose present in cell walls. Pectins were isolated from different plant byproducts, i.e., chicory roots, citrus peel, cauliflower florets and leaves, endive, and sugar beet pulps. Enzymatic extraction was performed at 50 degrees C for 4 h, in order to fulfill the conditions required for microbiological safety of extracted products. High methoxy (HM) pectins of high molar mass were extracted with three different enzyme mixtures. These pectins were subsequently demethylated with two pectin methyl esterases (PMEs), either the fungal PME from Aspergillus aculeatus or the orange PME. It was further demonstrated that high molar mass low methoxy (LM) pectins could also be extracted directly from cell walls by adding the fungal PME to the mixture of protease and cellulase. Moreover, health benefit pectic oligosaccharides, the so-called modified hairy regions, were obtained after enzymatic treatment of the residue recovered after pectin extraction. The enzymatic method demonstrates that it is possible to convert vegetable byproducts into high-added value compounds, such as pectins and pectic oligosaccharides, and thus considerably reduce the amount of these residues generated by food industries.

  16. Extraction and labeling methods for microarrays using small amounts of plant tissue.

    PubMed

    Stimpson, Alexander J; Pereira, Rhea S; Kiss, John Z; Correll, Melanie J

    2009-03-01

    Procedures were developed to maximize the yield of high-quality RNA from small amounts of plant biomass for microarrays. Two disruption techniques (bead milling and pestle and mortar) were compared for the yield and the quality of RNA extracted from 1-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings (approximately 0.5-30 mg total biomass). The pestle and mortar method of extraction showed enhanced RNA quality at the smaller biomass samples compared with the bead milling technique, although the quality in the bead milling could be improved with additional cooling steps. The RNA extracted from the pestle and mortar technique was further tested to determine if the small quantity of RNA (500 ng-7 microg) was appropriate for microarray analyses. A new method of low-quantity RNA labeling for microarrays (NuGEN Technologies, Inc.) was used on five 7-day-old seedlings (approximately 2.5 mg fresh weight total) of Arabidopsis that were grown in the dark and exposed to 1 h of red light or continued dark. Microarray analyses were performed on a small plant sample (five seedlings; approximately 2.5 mg) using these methods and compared with extractions performed with larger biomass samples (approximately 500 roots). Many well-known light-regulated genes between the small plant samples and the larger biomass samples overlapped in expression changes, and the relative expression levels of selected genes were confirmed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, suggesting that these methods can be used for plant experiments where the biomass is extremely limited (i.e. spaceflight studies).

  17. High-quality plant DNA extraction for PCR: an easy approach.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, I; Islam, M; Arshad, W; Mannan, A; Ahmad, W; Mirza, B

    2009-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction has found wide applications in modern research involving transformations and other genomic studies. For reproducible PCR results, however, the quantity and quality of template DNA is of considerable importance. A simple and efficient plant DNA extraction procedure for isolation of high-quality DNA from plant tissues is presented here. It requires maceration of plant tissue of about 1.0 cm(2) (e.g. of a leaf blade) in DNA extraction buffer (100 mM Tris-HCl, 100 mM EDTA, 250 mM NaCl) using 1.5-mL microfuge tubes, followed by cell lysis with 20% SDS, and DNA extraction with phenol: chloroform: iso-amyl alcohol (25:24:1). Hydrated ether is then used to remove polysaccharides and other contaminants from the DNA preparation. Average DNA yield is 20-30 microg cm(-2) for fresh tissues, and ratio of absorbance at 260 nm to absorbance at 280 nm is 1.5-1.8. The DNA is quite suitable for PCR using microsatellites, RAPD and specific markers for recombinant selection. Amplifications have been obtained for these markers by using template DNA extracted from fresh as well as frozen leaf tissues of various plants, including barley, oat, potato and tomato. DNA stored for more than 2 years has been successfully amplified with microsatellite markers, which shows suitability of this method after long-term storage of DNA. Besides, the ease of use and cost-effectiveness make the procedure attractive.

  18. Extraction of microalgae derived lipids with supercritical carbon dioxide in an industrial relevant pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Jan; Igl, Nadine; Tippelt, Marlene; Stege, Andrea; Qoura, Farah; Sohling, Ulrich; Brück, Thomas

    2017-03-15

    Microalgae are capable of producing up to 70% w/w triglycerides with respect to their dry cell weight. Since microalgae utilize the greenhouse gas CO2, they can be cultivated on marginal lands and grow up to ten times faster than terrestrial plants, the generation of algae oils is a promising option for the development of sustainable bioprocesses, that are of interest for the chemical lubricant, cosmetic and food industry. For the first time we have carried out the optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) mediated lipid extraction from biomass of the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and Scenedesmus obtusiusculus under industrrially relevant conditions. All experiments were carried out in an industrial pilot plant setting, according to current ATEX directives, with batch sizes up to 1.3 kg. Different combinations of pressure (7-80 MPa), temperature (20-200 °C) and CO2 to biomass ratio (20-200) have been tested on the dried biomass. The most efficient conditions were found to be 12 MPa pressure, a temperature of 20 °C and a CO2 to biomass ratio of 100, resulting in a high extraction efficiency of up to 92%. Since the optimized CO2 extraction still yields a crude triglyceride product that contains various algae derived contaminants, such as chlorophyll and carotenoids, a very effective and scalable purification procedure, based on cost efficient bentonite based adsorbers, was devised. In addition to the sequential extraction and purification procedure, we present a consolidated online-bleaching procedure for algae derived oils that is realized within the supercritical CO2 extraction plant.

  19. Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.

    2004-10-03

    The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

  20. Bacopa monnieri: An evaluation of antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive potential of methanolic extract of whole plants.

    PubMed

    Taznin, Inin; Mukti, Mohsina; Rahmatullah, Mohammed

    2015-11-01

    Antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity studies were carried out with methanolic extract of whole plants of Bacopa monnieri, respectively, through oral glucose tolerance test and gastric pain model induced by acetic acid in Swiss albino mice. In OGTT (oral glucose tolerance tests) conducted with glucose-challenged mice, the extract, administered at four doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400mg per kg body weight, dose-dependently and significantly inhibited the increase in serum glucose concentrations, respectively, by 33.3, 34.2, 42.1 and 44.2%. A standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10mg per kg body weight, inhibited increase in serum glucose concentration by 50.7%. From the results, it can be concluded that the methanolic extract of the plant possess significant antihyperglycemic potential. In antinociceptive activity tests, administration of the extract at the aforementioned four doses also significantly and dose-dependently reduced the number of acetic acid-induced gastric constrictions in mice. The percent inhibitions in gastric constrictions were, respectively, 43.4, 46.6, 50.0, and 53.4 at the above four doses. A reference antinociceptive drug, aspirin, when administered at a dose of 200 mg per kg body weight, reduced the number of gastric constrictions by 40.0%. Thus the extract at even the lowest dose of 50 mg, demonstrated antinociceptive activity better than that of aspirin, and which activity was much more than aspirin at the other three higher doses tested. The results demonstrate that the plant can be an excellent candidate for further studies towards isolation of antihyperglycemic and pain-killing compounds.

  1. [Photosynthesis in three altitudinal populations of the Andean plant Espeletia schultzii (Compositae)].

    PubMed

    Castrillo, Marisol

    2006-12-01

    Photosynthesis was compared in three altitudinal populations of Espeletia schultzii: 3,100, 3,550 and 4,200 masl. The measured parameters were Rubisco activity (EC 4.1.139), chlorophyll, soluble protein and soluble sugars contents, and specific leaf area (SLA). The 4,200 m population had a higher Rubisco activity (at 4 degrees C) followed by those at 3,550 m and 3,100 m. There were no significant differences between populations at 3,100 m and 3,550 m (ANOVA), but their activities were different from those of the 4,200 m population. Chlorophyll a content decreased slightly with elevation, while chlorophyll b was constant; therefore, the Ra/b ratio decreased with elevation, but not significantly. The leaf soluble sugars content increased along the altitudinal gradient. Leaf protein content did not differ. The SLA decreased with altitude. The increase in Rubisco activity might reflect higher enzyme activation and not higher enzyme protein. The increase in soluble sugars is probably associated to Rubisco activity. Three out of the five measured parameters revealed differences with altitude, suggesting a compromise between a higher metabolic activity and a smaller cellular volume.

  2. Assessment of effect of hydroalcoholic and decoction methods on extraction of antioxidants from selected Indian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Kaneria, Mital; Kanani, Bhavana; Chanda, Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant activities of selected Indian medicinal flora. Methods Different parts of plants were extracted by hydroalcoholic and decoction methods using water and various concentrations of methanol (ME) viz. 75%, 50% and 25% ME. The antioxidant activity of all the different extracts was evaluated using two different antioxidant assays viz. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay. Total phenol and flavonoid content was also estimated. Results The results showed that the extracting solvent significantly altered the antioxidant property estimations of screened plants. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of extracts were observed. High levels of antioxidant activities were detected in Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) as compared with other screened plants. Conclusions The results obtained appear to confirm the effect of different methods on extraction of antioxidants and antioxidant property of M. zapota. PMID:23569897

  3. Allelopathic Activity of Extracts from Different Brazilian Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cultivars on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Weed Plants

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, R.; Simas, N. K.

    2017-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the fourth most consumed oleaginous plant in the world, producing seeds with high contents of lipids, proteins, vitamins, and carbohydrates. Biological activities of different extracts of this species have already been evaluated by many researchers, including antioxidant, antitumoral, and antibacterial. In this work, the allelopathic activity of extracts from different Brazilian peanut cultivars against lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and two weed plants (Commelina benghalensis and Ipomoea nil) was studied. Aerial parts, roots, seeds, and seed coats were used for the preparation of crude extracts. Seed extract partitioning was performed with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous residue. Germination and growth of hypocotyls and rootlets were evaluated after one and five days of incubation with plant extracts, respectively. Crude seed extract and its dichloromethanic partition displayed highest allelopathic activity. These results contribute for the study of new potential natural herbicides.

  4. Analysis of Flavonoid in Medicinal Plant Extract Using Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Retnaningtyas, Yuni; Nuri; Lukman, Hilmia

    2016-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics has been developed for simple analysis of flavonoid in the medicinal plant extract. Flavonoid was extracted from medicinal plant leaves by ultrasonication and maceration. IR spectra of selected medicinal plant extract were correlated with flavonoid content using chemometrics. The chemometric method used for calibration analysis was Partial Last Square (PLS) and the methods used for classification analysis were Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogies (SIMCA), and Support Vector Machines (SVM). In this study, the calibration of NIR model that showed best calibration with R2 and RMSEC value was 0.9916499 and 2.1521897, respectively, while the accuracy of all classification models (LDA, SIMCA, and SVM) was 100%. R2 and RMSEC of calibration of FTIR model were 0.8653689 and 8.8958149, respectively, while the accuracy of LDA, SIMCA, and SVM was 86.0%, 91.2%, and 77.3%, respectively. PLS and LDA of NIR models were further used to predict unknown flavonoid content in commercial samples. Using these models, the significance of flavonoid content that has been measured by NIR and UV-Vis spectrophotometry was evaluated with paired samples t-test. The flavonoid content that has been measured with both methods gave no significant difference. PMID:27529051

  5. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Sairazi, Nur Shafika; Sirajudeen, K. N. S.; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Mummedy, Swamy; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

    2015-01-01

    Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS). In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA). KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration. PMID:26793262

  6. Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) separations and bioassays of plant extracts to identify antimicrobial compounds.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Isabelle A; Flythe, Michael D

    2014-03-27

    A common screen for plant antimicrobial compounds consists of separating plant extracts by paper or thin-layer chromatography (PC or TLC), exposing the chromatograms to microbial suspensions (e.g. fungi or bacteria in broth or agar), allowing time for the microbes to grow in a humid environment, and visualizing zones with no microbial growth. The effectiveness of this screening method, known as bioautography, depends on both the quality of the chromatographic separation and the care taken with microbial culture conditions. This paper describes standard protocols for TLC and contact bioautography with a novel application to amino acid-fermenting bacteria. The extract is separated on flexible (aluminum-backed) silica TLC plates, and bands are visualized under ultraviolet (UV) light. Zones are cut out and incubated face down onto agar inoculated with the test microorganism. Inhibitory bands are visualized by staining the agar plates with tetrazolium red. The method is applied to the separation of red clover (Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland) phenolic compounds and their screening for activity against Clostridium sticklandii, a hyper ammonia-producing bacterium (HAB) that is native to the bovine rumen. The TLC methods apply to many types of plant extracts and other bacterial species (aerobic or anaerobic), as well as fungi, can be used as test organisms if culture conditions are modified to fit the growth requirements of the species.

  7. Flavonoid glycosides isolated from unique legume plant extracts as novel inhibitors of xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Spanou, Chrysoula; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Kerasioti, Thalia; Kontou, Maria; Angelis, Apostolos; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Legumes and the polyphenolic compounds present in them have gained a lot of interest due to their beneficial health implications. Dietary polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, exert antioxidant properties and are potent inhibitors of xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. XO is the main contributor of free radicals during exercise but it is also involved in pathogenesis of several diseases such as vascular disorders, cancer and gout. In order to discover new natural, dietary XO inhibitors, some polyphenolic fractions and pure compounds isolated from two legume plant extracts were tested for their effects on XO activity. The fractions isolated from both Vicia faba and Lotus edulis plant extracts were potent inhibitors of XO with IC(50) values range from 40-135 µg/mL and 55-260 µg/mL, respectively. All the pure polyphenolic compounds inhibited XO and their K(i) values ranged from 13-767 µM. Ten of the compounds followed the non competitive inhibitory model whereas one of them was a competitive inhibitor. These findings indicate that flavonoid isolates from legume plant extracts are novel, natural XO inhibitors. Their mode of action is under investigation in order to examine their potential in drug design for diseases related to overwhelming XO action.

  8. Flavonoid Glycosides Isolated from Unique Legume Plant Extracts as Novel Inhibitors of Xanthine Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Spanou, Chrysoula; Veskoukis, Aristidis S.; Kerasioti, Thalia; Kontou, Maria; Angelis, Apostolos; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Legumes and the polyphenolic compounds present in them have gained a lot of interest due to their beneficial health implications. Dietary polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, exert antioxidant properties and are potent inhibitors of xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. XO is the main contributor of free radicals during exercise but it is also involved in pathogenesis of several diseases such as vascular disorders, cancer and gout. In order to discover new natural, dietary XO inhibitors, some polyphenolic fractions and pure compounds isolated from two legume plant extracts were tested for their effects on XO activity. The fractions isolated from both Vicia faba and Lotus edulis plant extracts were potent inhibitors of XO with IC50 values range from 40–135 µg/mL and 55–260 µg/mL, respectively. All the pure polyphenolic compounds inhibited XO and their Ki values ranged from 13–767 µM. Ten of the compounds followed the non competitive inhibitory model whereas one of them was a competitive inhibitor. These findings indicate that flavonoid isolates from legume plant extracts are novel, natural XO inhibitors. Their mode of action is under investigation in order to examine their potential in drug design for diseases related to overwhelming XO action. PMID:22396752

  9. Determination of the silicon concentration in plant material using Tiron extraction.

    PubMed

    Guntzer, F; Keller, C; Meunier, J D

    2010-11-01

    • The quantification of silicon (Si) in plants generally requires a digestion procedure before the determination of the dissolved Si concentration by spectrometric analysis. Recent procedures produce rapid and accurate measurements, but are based on either hazardous chemicals or sophisticated instrumentation. • Here, we describe a simpler procedure using Tiron. Tiron [4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene-disulfonic acid disodium salt, (HO)(2)C(6)H(2)(SO(3)Na)(2)] is currently used as a selective extractant for amorphous silica in soils. Because Si in the shoots is mostly composed of amorphous opaline silica particles (i.e. phytoliths), we tested the Tiron extraction procedure for plants. • Our results are critically discussed in relation to two other standard procedures: electrothermal vaporization determination and high-temperature lithium-metaborate digestion. • We demonstrate that Tiron extraction is an alternative method which allows the rapid, safe and accurate quantification of Si in shoots of various plants covering a wide range of Si concentrations.

  10. Effect of heating rate and plant species on the size and uniformity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aromatic plant extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Pinero, Jorge Luis; Terrón-Rebolledo, Manuel; Foroughbakhch, Rahim; Moreno-Limón, Sergio; Melendrez, M. F.; Solís-Pomar, Francisco; Pérez-Tijerina, Eduardo

    2016-11-01

    Mixing aqueous silver solutions with aqueous leaf aromatic plant extracts from basil, mint, marjoram and peppermint resulted in the synthesis of quasi-spherical silver nanoparticles in a range of size between 2 and 80 nm in diameter as analyzed by analytical high-resolution electron microscopy. The average size could be controlled by applying heat to the initial reaction system at different rates of heating, and by the specific botanical species employed for the reaction. Increasing the rate of heating resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the size of the nanoparticles produced, regardless of the species employed. This fact was more evident in the case of marjoram, which decreased the average diameter from 27 nm at a slow rate of heating to 8 nm at a high rate of heating. With regard to the species, minimum sizes of <10 nm were obtained with basil and peppermint, while marjoram and mint yielded an average size between 10 and 25 nm. The results indicate that aromatic plant extracts can be used to achieve the controlled synthesis of metal nanoparticles.

  11. Screening for oestrogenic activity of plant and food extracts using in vitro trout hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Bennetau-Pelissero, C; Latonnelle, K Gontier; Lamothe, V; Shinkaruk-Poix, S; Kaushik, S J

    2004-01-01

    The use of in vitro trout hepatocyte cultures is shown to provide a simple and effective way to screen plant and food products for oestrogenic activity. The relative oestrogenic activities of 0.1 g each of extracts of phytosterol, soy isoflavone, red clover, kudzu and soybean extracts were determined using this assay and found to be equivalent to 212, 1, 3.2, 132 and 1025 nM of 17beta-estradiol, respectively. Controls were performed on soybean and kudzu extracts using specific ELISAs for isoflavones and these confirmed the validity of the cell culture assay. The method described offers an advantage over current methods in that it can detect increased oestrogenic activity that may occur as a result of metabolic activation of pre- or pro-oestrogens liver cells.

  12. Safer DNA extraction from plant tissues using sucrose buffer and glass fiber filter.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Koh-Ichi; Nishio, Takayuki

    2012-11-01

    For some plant species, DNA extraction and downstream experiments are inhibited by various chemicals such as polysaccharides and polyphenols. This short communication proposed an organic-solvent free (except for ethanol) extraction method. This method consists of an initial washing step with STE buffer (0.25 M sucrose, 0.03 M Tris, 0.05 M EDTA), followed by DNA extraction using a piece of glass fiber filter. The advantages of this method are its safety and low cost. The purity of the DNA solution obtained using this method is not necessarily as high as that obtained using the STE/CTAB method, but it is sufficient for PCR experiments. These points were demonstrated empirically with two species, Japanese speedwell and common dandelion, for which DNA has proven difficult to amplify via PCR in past studies.

  13. Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi by plant extracts used in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lirussi, D; Li, J; Prieto, J M; Gennari, M; Buschiazzo, H; Ríos, J L; Zaidenberg, A

    2004-12-01

    In this work, we assessed the effect of extracts obtained from 17 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. These extracts were tested in vitro with the epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi, clone Bra C(15) C(2), at 27 degrees C in F-29 medium at a concentration of 100 microg/ml in axenic cultures. Allopurinol was used as reference drug. Seven plant extracts showed inhibitory activities lower than 25%. Pueraria lobata, Mahonia beaei, Dictamus dasycarpus, Kochia scoparia, Sophora flavescens and Ligustrum lucidum showed effects with inhibition values between 25% and 60%, whereas Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Saussurea lappa, Melia toosendan and Cinnamomum cassia showed the greatest inhibitory activity of 100%. The IC(50) of these extracts were: 0.4, 2.4, 1.8 and 3.9 microg/ml, respectively. The MTT assay was made and did not show cytotoxic activity. These results allowed us to suggest that L. erythrorhizon, S. lappa, M. toosendan and C. cassia could be a source of new compounds against T. cruzi.

  14. Fruit extract of the medicinal plant Crataegus oxyacantha exerts genotoxic and mutagenic effects in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    de Quadros, Ana Paula Oliveira; Mazzeo, Dania Elisa Christofoletti; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida; Perazzo, Fábio Ferreira; Rosa, Paulo Cesar Pires; Maistro, Edson Luis

    2017-02-17

    Crataegus oxyacantha, a plant of the Rosaceae family also known "English hawthorn, haw, maybush, or whitethorn," has long been used for medicinal purposes such as digestive disorders, hyperlipidemia, dyspnea, inducing diuresis, and preventing kidney stones. However, the predominant use of this plant has been to treat cardiovascular disorders. Due to a lack of studies on the genotoxicity of C. oxyacantha, this investigation was undertaken to determine whether its fruit extract exerts cytotoxic, genotoxic, or clastogenic/aneugenic effects in leukocytes and HepG2 (liver hepatocellular carcinoma) cultured human cells, or mutagenic effects in TA100 and TA98 strains of Salmonella typhimurium bacterium. Genotoxicity analysis showed that the extract produced no marked genotoxic effects at concentrations of 2.5 or 5 µg/ml in either cell type; however, at concentrations of 10 µg/ml or higher significant DNA damage was detected. The micronucleus test also demonstrated that concentrations of 10 µg/ml or higher produced clastogenic/aneugenic responses. In the Ames test, the extract induced mutagenic effects in TA98 strain of S. typhimurium with metabolic activation at all tested concentrations (2.5 to 500 µg/ml). Data indicate that, under certain experimental conditions, the fruit extract of C. oxyacantha exerts genotoxic and clastogenic/aneugenic effects in cultured human cells, and with metabolism mutagenicity occurs in bacteria cells.

  15. In vitro activity of plant extracts against biofilm-producing food-related bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nostro, Antonia; Guerrini, Alessandra; Marino, Andreana; Tacchini, Massimo; Di Giulio, Mara; Grandini, Alessandro; Akin, Methap; Cellini, Luigina; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Saraçoğlu, Hatice T

    2016-12-05

    The identification of effective antimicrobial agents also active on biofilms is a topic of crucial importance in food and industrial environment. For that purpose methanol extracts of Turkish plants, Ficus carica L., Juglans regia L., Olea europaea L., Punica granatum L. and Rhus coriaria L., were investigated. Among the extracts, P. granatum L. and R. coriaria L. showed the best antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 78-625μg/ml for Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and 312-1250μg/ml for Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. SubMICs produced a significant biofilm inhibition equal to 80-60% for L. monocytogenes and 90-80% for S. aureus. The extracts showed also the highest polyphenol content and the strongest antioxidant activity. Bioassay-guided and HPLC procedures demonstrated the presence of apigenin 4'-O-β-glucoside in P. granatum L. and myricetrin and quercitrin in R. coriaria L. Antigenotoxicity of plant extracts was also observed The present findings promote the value-adding of P. granatum L. and R. coriaria L. leaves as natural antimicrobial/antioxidant agents for control of food-related bacterial biofilms.

  16. In vitro activities of plant extracts on human Loa loa isolates and cytotoxicity for eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Mengome, Line-Edwige; Akue, Jean Paul; Souza, Alain; Feuya Tchoua, Guy Raymond; Nsi Emvo, Edouard

    2010-08-01

    Loa loa, a filarial worm, can cause fatal encephalitis in humans. In an attempt to find alternatives to the standard treatments (ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine citrate), we tested 12 methanolic extracts of nine traditional plant remedies. The extracts (100-0.09 microg/ml) were incubated with 20 Loa loa microfilariae isolated from patients at 37 degrees C with 5% CO(2) in modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal serum and antibiotics. Activity was evaluated 120 h later by counting live microfilariae under a microscope. Cytotoxicity for eukaryotic cells was estimated by measuring 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2-5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide transformation to formazan at 450 nM in a spectrophotometer. The plants tested were Lophira alata, Greenwayodendron suaveolens, Uapaca togoensis, Zanthoxylum heitzii, Peperomia pellucida, Piptadeniastrum africanum, Petersianthus macrocarpus, Vernonia conferta, and Vernonia hymenolepis. Chemical screening showed that most of the extracts contained reducing sugars, tannin or polyphenols, sterols or triterpenes, saponosides, and alkaloids. None contained carotinoids and few contained flavonoids. The 50% lethal concentration ranged from 0.22 to 70.28 microg/ml, while the 50% inhibitory concentration for eukaryotic cells (IC(50)) ranged from 8.52 to 119.52 microg/ml. Extracts of P. macrocarpus (selectivity index = 72.16), P. africanum (13.69), Z. heitzii (12.11), and L. alata (9.26) were highly selective for L. loa.

  17. Aqueous extracts of Mozambican plants as alternative and environmentally safe acid-base indicators.

    PubMed

    Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente

    2016-06-01

    Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available.

  18. Laboratory evaluation of Ethiopian local plant Phytolacca dodecandra extract for its toxicity effectiveness against aquatic macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, K; Bishaw, D; Mulat, T

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the toxicity effectiveness of berries crude extract of Endod [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Phytolacca dodecandra] against aquatic macroinvertebrates Baetidae (Mayflies) and Hydropsychidae (Caddisflies), under laboratory conditions. In Ethiopia, toxic plant, berries of Phytolacca dodecandra are being commonly used for washing clothes and to control fresh water snails. Macroinvertebrates are useful biological indicators of change in the aquatic ecosystems. The present study clearly revealed that the LC50 and LC90 values for berries crude extract of Phytolacca dodecandra against Baetidae were 181.94 and 525.78 mg/l and lethal doses (LC50 and LC90) required for Hydropsychidae were 1060.69 and 4120.4 mg/l respectively. The present investigation demonstrated that Baetidae was more susceptible than Hydropsychidae, even at shorter exposure period of 2 h. From our preliminary investigation the toxicity effectiveness of crude extracts of Phytolacca dodecandra has been clearly shown. In addition, it requires further explorations which address both the toxicity activity and the active principles that are responsible for its toxicity effectiveness. Ultimately, the release/introduction of Phytolacca dodecandra plant berries extracts into the river/streams leads to disruption of food chain in the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, at this moment preserving the aquatic ecosystem is extremely essential and inevitable.

  19. Biosynthesis of stable iron oxide nanoparticles in aqueous extracts of Hordeum vulgare and Rumex acetosa plants.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Valentin V; Makarova, Svetlana S; Love, Andrew J; Sinitsyna, Olga V; Dudnik, Anna O; Yaminsky, Igor V; Taliansky, Michael E; Kalinina, Natalia O

    2014-05-27

    We report the synthesis and characterization of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles from iron salts in aqueous extracts of monocotyledonous (Hordeum vulgare) and dicotyledonous (Rumex acetosa) plants. The nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, absorbance spectroscopy, SAED, EELS, XPS, and DLS methods and were shown to contain mainly iron oxide and iron oxohydroxide. H. vulgare extracts produced amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles with diameters of up to 30 nm. These iron nanoparticles are intrinsically unstable and prone to aggregation; however, we rendered them stable in the long term by addition of 40 mM citrate buffer pH 3.0. In contrast, amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles (diameters of 10-40 nm) produced using R. acetosa extracts are highly stable. The total protein content and antioxidant capacity are similar for both extracts, but pH values differ (H. vulgare pH 5.8 vs R. acetosa pH 3.7). We suggest that the presence of organic acids (such oxalic or citric acids) plays an important role in the stabilization of iron nanoparticles, and that plants containing such constituents may be more efficacious for the green synthesis of iron nanoparticles.

  20. Analysis of plant extracts by NIRS: simultaneous determination of kavapyrones and water in dry extracts of Piper methysticum Forst.

    PubMed

    Gaub, M; Roeseler, Ch; Roos, G; Kovar, K-A

    2004-11-19

    A near-infrared reflection spectroscopy (NIRS) method was developed to determine the total content of kavapyrones, kavain and water in dry extracts of Piper methysticum Forst. (kava kava, Piperaceae). Based on the recorded spectra and the reference data, performed by HPLC and Karl Fischer titration, a chemometrical analysis was calculated using PLS 2 algorithm. In general, good calibration statistics are obtained for the prediction of the different contents presenting high correlation coefficients (r(2) > 0.9913) and low root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP < 0.094%). Usually the main water bands are "cut out" of the spectra to improve the model, however this is associated with the loss of relevant spectroscopic information. Thus, the entire spectrum including the OH bands is used, as these are not only found in water but also in the kavapyrones. The use of this new strategy succeeds in overcoming the difficulties in NIRS and establishes NIRS as a valid alternative in the routine quality control of plant extracts.

  1. Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Penolazzi, Letizia; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Zennaro, Margherita; Piva, Roberta; Gambari, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible interest for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis by activating programmed cell death of human primary osteoclasts. Methods The effects of extracts from Emblica officinalis on differentiation and survival of human primary OCs cultures obtained from peripheral blood were determined by tartrate-acid resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positivity and colorimetric MTT assay. The effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on induction of OCs apoptosis were studied using TUNEL and immunocytochemical analysis of FAS receptor expression. Finally, in vitro effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on NF-kB transcription factor activity were determined by gel shift experiments. Results Extracts of Emblica officinalis were able to induce programmed cell death of mature OCs, without altering, at the concentrations employed in our study, the process of osteoclastogenesis. Emblica officinalis increased the expression levels of Fas, a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. Gel shift experiments demonstrated that Emblica officinalis extracts act by interfering with NF-kB activity, a transcription factor involved in osteoclast biology. The data obtained demonstrate that Emblica officinalis extracts selectively compete with the binding of transcription factor NF-kB to its specific target DNA sequences. This effect might explain the observed effects of Emblica officinalis on the expression levels of interleukin-6, a NF-kB specific target gene. Conclusion Induction of apoptosis of osteoclasts could be an important strategy both in

  2. Use of the BCR sequential extraction procedure for the study of metal availability to plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhui; Lu, Ying; Shim, Hojae; Deng, Xianglian; Lian, Jin; Jia, Zhenglei; Li, Jianhua

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the mobility and availability of metals from soil to plant, concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in topsoils and plants (lettuce, scallion, celery, tomato, carambola, wampee and longan) collected from the area around a petrochemical complex in Guangzhou, China, were analyzed. The modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) three-step sequential extraction procedure was applied to determine the concentration of metal fractions in soils. The results showed that the distribution of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in four fractions varied greatly among the soil samples, and 18.8% of vegetable and fruit samples for Cd and 5.8% for Pb exceeded the maximum permissible levels in food of China. Soil-to-plant transfer coefficients were in the order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Hg>As>Pb, suggesting Cd being the most mobile and available to plants among the metals studied. Principal component analysis indicated that metal fractions and soil physicochemical properties (pH, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, clay content and electrical conductivity) affected metal uptake by plants. Furthermore, atmospheric deposition may be another important factor for the accumulation of metals in plants.

  3. Insulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueous extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, C L; Polansky, M M; Anderson, R A

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate the possible effects on insulin function, 49 herb, spice, and medicinal plant extracts were tested in the insulin-dependent utilization of glucose using a rat epididymal adipocyte assay. Cinnamon was the most bioactive product followed by witch hazel, green and black teas, allspice, bay leaves, nutmeg, cloves, mushrooms, and brewer's yeast. The glucose oxidation enhancing bioactivity was lost from cinnamon, tea, witch hazel, cloves, bay leaf and allspice by poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) treatment, indicating that the active phytochemicals are likely to be phenolic in nature. The activity of sage, mushrooms, and brewers's yeast was not removed by PVP. Some products such as Korean ginseng, flaxseed meal, and basil have been reported to be effective antidiabetic agents; however, they were only marginally active in our assay. Our technique measures direct stimulation of cellular glucose metabolism, so it may be that the active phytochemicals in these plants improve glucose metabolism via other mechanisms or that this in vitro screening is not a reliable predictor of hypoglycemic effects in vivo for some products. In summary, the positive effects of specific plant extracts on insulin activity suggest a possible role of these plants in improving glucose and insulin metabolism.

  4. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plant extracts traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Monteiro, Cristina Leise Bastos; Miguel, Marilis Dallarmi; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Cunico, Miriam Machado; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; de Camargo, Eloá Ramalho; Kussen, Gislene Maria Botão; Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained from Bixa orellana L., Chamomilla recutita L., Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Malva sylvestris L., Plantago major L. and Rheum rhaponticum L. has been evaluated against two reference strains and eleven clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. All the plant species chosen are used in popular Brazilian cuisine and folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Initial screening was made by the disk diffusion test and then minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. The results presented in this work demonstrated that among the plant preparations analyzed, B. orellana L., C. recutita L., I. paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. and M. sylvestris L. were capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of H. pylori. PMID:24031496

  5. Screening of Korean Medicinal Plant Extracts for α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities.

    PubMed

    Sancheti, Shruti; Sancheti, Sandesh; Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinal plants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinal plant extracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Astilbe chinensis and Juglans regia showed the strongest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 10, 20, 30 and 80 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, Meliosma oldhamii and Symplocos chinensis showed moderate α-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values of 150 and 220 µg/mL, respectively. Therefore, they might prove to be a potential natural source for the treatment of metabolic ailments such as, diabetes, and need further investigations.

  6. Screening of Korean Medicinal Plant Extracts for α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Sancheti, Shruti; Sancheti, Sandesh; Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinal plants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinal plant extracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Astilbe chinensis and Juglans regia showed the strongest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 10, 20, 30 and 80 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, Meliosma oldhamii and Symplocos chinensis showed moderate α-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values of 150 and 220 µg/mL, respectively. Therefore, they might prove to be a potential natural source for the treatment of metabolic ailments such as, diabetes, and need further investigations. PMID:24250352

  7. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts and isolated compound epicatechin from Ricinus communis against Paramphistomum cervi.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Geetha, Kannappan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf extracts of Euphorbia hirta L., Psidium guajava L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum trilobatum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in the methanol extract of R. communis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of R. communis led to the separation and identification of epicatechin as a potential new compound (LC(50) = 31.2; LC(90) = 105.0 ppm) against P. cervi. The structures were established from infrared, ultraviolet, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data which confirmed the identification of the compound epicatechin from R. communis. Results of this study showed that the methanol extract of R. communis may be considered as a potent source and epicatechin as a new natural parasitic agent.

  8. Antifungal properties of crude extracts of five Egyptian medicinal plants against dermatophytes and emerging fungi.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Mohamed

    2011-07-01

    Antifungal properties of the crude extracts of five medicinal plants (Artemisia judaica, Ballota undulate, Cleome amblyocarpa, Peganum harmala, and Teucrium polium) were tested against dermatophytes and emerging fungi. Ethanol extract of Ballota undulate was the most effective against all tested fungi. Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. variotii, and Candida albicans were the most sensitive organisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Ballota undulate ethanol extract against C. albicans, P. lilacinus, and P. variotii was 25 mg/ml. GC-MS analysis revealed that Ballota undulate ethanol extract contains 35 aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, sesquiterpene hydrocarbon along with some other essential oils, which could be involved in antifungal activity. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have proved that Ballota undulate ethanol extract exhibits fungicidal effect on P. lilacinus through alterations in hyphal structures including budding of hyphal tip, anomalous structure, such as swelling, decrease in cytoplasmic content, with clear separation of cytoplasm from cell wall in hyphae. SEM clearly showed distorted mycelium, squashed and flattened conidiophores bearing damaged metullae. Eventually, the mycelia became papillated, flattened, and empty. Puncturing and squashing of hyphae as well as complete cell wall disruption were clear signs of complete death of hyphae.

  9. Plant extracts as phytogenic additives considering intake, digestibility, and feeding behavior of sheep.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Camila Sousa; de Souza, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira; Pereira, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti; Cavalcante, Edwilka Oliveira; de Lima, Ewerton Ivo Martins; Torres, Thaysa Rodrigues; da Silva, José Ricardo Coelho; da Silva, Daniel Cézar

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, and ingestive sheep behavior with feeding phytogenic additives derived from plant extracts. Five non-emasculated sheep without defined breed at 28 ± 1.81 kg initial body weight and 6 months age were used. Treatments consisted of administering four phytogenic additives from the garlic extracts, coriander seed, oregano, and pods of mesquite, plus a control treatment (without additive). The ration was composed of Tifton 85 hay grass, corn, soybean meal, and mineral salt. As experimental design, we used a 5 × 5 Latin square design (five treatments and five periods). The data were analyzed through the mixed model through the procedure PROC MIXED of software Systems Statistical Analysis version 9.1, with comparation analysis between the treatment without additive (control) with phytogenic additives produced from vegetable extracts of mesquite pod, of coriander seed, the bulb of garlic, and the oregano leaves. There were no significant differences for the nutrient intake and ingestive behavior patterns. However, the additive intake derived from mesquite pods and coriander extracts provided an increase in digestibility. Extracts from garlic, coriander, and mesquite pods can be used as phytogenic additives in feeding sheep.

  10. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Lorenzo, D.S.; Vejvoda, E.J.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-04-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic wastes, now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site, are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 7% of the transuranic waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by PUREX using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The PUREX Plant is currently operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy and is now in standby status while being prepared for permanent shutdown. The PUREX Plant is a collection of facilities that has been used primarily to separate plutonium for nuclear weapons from spent fuel that had been irradiated in the Hanford Site`s defense reactors. Originally designed to reprocess aluminum-clad uranium fuel, the plant was modified to reprocess zirconium alloy clad fuel elements from the Hanford Site`s N Reactor. PUREX has provided plutonium for research reactor development, safety programs, and defense. In addition, the PUREX was used to recover slightly enriched uranium for recycling into fuel for use in reactors that generate electricity and plutonium. Section 2.0 provides further details of the PUREX`s physical plant and its operations. The PUREX Plant functions that generate solid waste are as follows: processing operations, laboratory analyses and supporting activities. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these activities are discussed in detail.

  11. Impact of Plant Extracts and Antibiotics on Biofilm Formation of Clinical Isolates From Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Saba; Mujtaba Ghauri, Shahbaz; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Otitis media can lead to severe health consequences, and is the most common reason for antibiotic prescriptions and biofilm-mediated infections. However, the increased pattern of drug resistance in biofilm forming bacteria complicates the treatment of such infections. Objectives: This study was aimed to estimate the biofilm formation potential of the clinical isolates of otitis media, and to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotics and plant extracts as alternative therapeutic agents in biofilm eradication. Materials and Methods: The ear swab samples collected from the otitis media patients visiting the Mayo Hospital in Lahore were processed to isolate the bacteria, which were characterized using morphological, biochemical, and molecular (16S rRNA ribotyping) techniques. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the antibiotics and crude plant extracts were measured against the isolates. The cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm formation potential were determined, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with and without antibiotics. Finally, the molecular characterization of the biofilm forming proteins was done by amplifying the ica operon. Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KC417303-05), Staphylococcus hemolyticus (KC417306), and Staphylococcus hominis (KC417307) were isolated from the otitis media specimens. Among the crude plant extracts, Acacia arabica showed significant antibacterial characteristics (MIC up to 13 mg/ml), while these isolates exhibited sensitivity towards ciprofloxacin (MIC 0.2 µg/mL). All of the bacterial strains had hydrophobic cellular surfaces that helped in their adherence to abiotic surfaces, leading to strong biofilm formation potential (up to 7 days). Furthermore, the icaC gene encoding polysaccharide intercellular adhesion protein was amplified from S. hemolyticus. Conclusions: The bacterial isolates exhibited strong biofilm formation potential, while the extracts of Acacia arabica significantly inhibited biofilm

  12. Extracts from two ubiquitous Mediterranean plants ameliorate cellular and animal models of neurodegenerative proteinopathies.

    PubMed

    Briffa, Michelle; Ghio, Stephanie; Neuner, Johanna; Gauci, Alison J; Cacciottolo, Rebecca; Marchal, Christelle; Caruana, Mario; Cullin, Christophe; Vassallo, Neville; Cauchi, Ruben J

    2017-01-18

    A signature feature of age-related neurodegenerative proteinopathies is the misfolding and aggregation of proteins, typically amyloid-β (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and α-synuclein (α-syn) in Parkinson's disease (PD), into soluble oligomeric structures that are highly neurotoxic. Cellular and animal models that faithfully replicate the hallmark features of these disorders are being increasing exploited to identify disease-modifying compounds. Natural compounds have been identified as a useful source of bioactive molecules with promising neuroprotective capabilities. In the present report, we investigated whether extracts derived from two ubiquitous Mediterranean plants namely, the prickly pear Opuntia ficus-indica (EOFI) and the brown alga Padina pavonica (EPP) alleviate neurodegenerative phenotypes in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fly (Drosophila melanogaster) models of AD and PD. Pre-treatment with EPP or EOFI in the culture medium significantly improved the viability of yeast expressing the Arctic Aβ42 (E22G) mutant. Supplementing food with EOFI or EPP dramatically ameliorated lifespan and behavioural signs of flies with brain-specific expression of wild-type Aβ42 (model of late-onset AD) or the Arctic Aβ42 variant (model of early-onset AD). Additionally, we show that either extract prolonged the survival of a PD fly model based on transgenic expression of the human α-syn A53T mutant. Taken together, our findings suggest that the plant-derived extracts interfere with shared mechanisms of neurodegeneration in AD and PD. This notion is strengthened by evidence demonstrating that EOFI and to a greater extent EPP, while strongly inhibiting the fibrillogenesis of both Aβ42 and α-syn, accumulate remodelled oligomeric aggregates that are less effective at disrupting lipid membrane integrity. Our work therefore opens new avenues for developing therapeutic applications of these natural plant extracts in the treatment of amyloidogenic

  13. Effect of crude plant extracts from some Oaxacan flora on two deleterious fungal phytopathogens and extract compatibility with a biofertilizer strain.

    PubMed

    Lira-De León, Karla I; Ramírez-Mares, Marco V; Sánchez-López, Vladimir; Ramírez-Lepe, Mario; Salas-Coronado, Raúl; Santos-Sánchez, Norma F; Valadez-Blanco, Rogelio; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of 12 plant extracts was tested against the phytopathogens Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani. In addition, the compatibility of the extracts toward Bacillus liqueniformis, a biofertilizer and a non-target microorganism, was assessed. Plants tested belong to the Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Crassulaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Verbenaceae, Orchidaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Boraginaceae, and Tiliaceae families and were collected in the State of Oaxaca. The antifungal activity of the plant extracts (50-100 mg/mL) against A. alternata and F. solani, was determined by measuring the mycelium radial growth and obtaining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fungal growth. In addition, with the aim of finding plant extracts which are compatible with a B. licheniformis biofertilizer strain and to test the non-toxic nature of the treatments, the toxicity of the extracts toward this strain was evaluated using the agar diffusion method. Azoxystrobin (12 μg) and chloramphenicol (30 μg) were used as positive controls for the pathogens and for the non-target bacteria, respectively. Plant extracts inhibited fungal growth in the ranges of 0.76-56.17% against F. solani and 2.02-69.07% against A. alternata. The extracts of Acalypha subviscida, Ipomoea murucoides, Tournefortia densiflora and Lantana achyranthifolia showed MIC values between 5.77-12.5 mg/mL for at least one of the fungal species. The best treatment, Adenophyllum aurantium, exhibited a maximum inhibition for both F. solani (56.17%, MIC = 7.78 mg/mL) and A. alternata (68.64% MIC = 7.78 mg/mL), and resulted innocuous toward B. licheniformis. Therefore, this plant has an outstanding potential for the agroecological control of fungal phytopathogens in industrial crops.

  14. Effect of crude plant extracts from some Oaxacan flora on two deleterious fungal phytopathogens and extract compatibility with a biofertilizer strain

    PubMed Central

    Lira-De León, Karla I.; Ramírez-Mares, Marco V.; Sánchez-López, Vladimir; Ramírez-Lepe, Mario; Salas-Coronado, Raúl; Santos-Sánchez, Norma F.; Valadez-Blanco, Rogelio; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of 12 plant extracts was tested against the phytopathogens Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani. In addition, the compatibility of the extracts toward Bacillus liqueniformis, a biofertilizer and a non-target microorganism, was assessed. Plants tested belong to the Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Crassulaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Verbenaceae, Orchidaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Boraginaceae, and Tiliaceae families and were collected in the State of Oaxaca. The antifungal activity of the plant extracts (50–100 mg/mL) against A. alternata and F. solani, was determined by measuring the mycelium radial growth and obtaining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fungal growth. In addition, with the aim of finding plant extracts which are compatible with a B. licheniformis biofertilizer strain and to test the non-toxic nature of the treatments, the toxicity of the extracts toward this strain was evaluated using the agar diffusion method. Azoxystrobin (12 μg) and chloramphenicol (30 μg) were used as positive controls for the pathogens and for the non-target bacteria, respectively. Plant extracts inhibited fungal growth in the ranges of 0.76–56.17% against F. solani and 2.02–69.07% against A. alternata. The extracts of Acalypha subviscida, Ipomoea murucoides, Tournefortia densiflora and Lantana achyranthifolia showed MIC values between 5.77–12.5 mg/mL for at least one of the fungal species. The best treatment, Adenophyllum aurantium, exhibited a maximum inhibition for both F. solani (56.17%, MIC = 7.78 mg/mL) and A. alternata (68.64% MIC = 7.78 mg/mL), and resulted innocuous toward B. licheniformis. Therefore, this plant has an outstanding potential for the agroecological control of fungal phytopathogens in industrial crops. PMID:25147544

  15. High-Level Antimicrobial Efficacy of Representative Mediterranean Natural Plant Extracts against Oral Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Cecere, Manuel; Skaltsounis, Alexios Leandros; Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Hellwig, Elmar; Aligiannis, Nektarios

    2014-01-01

    Nature is an unexplored reservoir of novel phytopharmaceuticals. Since biofilm-related oral diseases often correlate with antibiotic resistance, plant-derived antimicrobial agents could enhance existing treatment options. Therefore, the rationale of the present report was to examine the antimicrobial impact of Mediterranean natural extracts on oral microorganisms. Five different extracts from Olea europaea, mastic gum, and Inula viscosa were tested against ten bacteria and one Candida albicans strain. The extraction protocols were conducted according to established experimental procedures. Two antimicrobial assays—the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assay—were applied. The screened extracts were found to be active against each of the tested microorganisms. O. europaea presented MIC and MBC ranges of 0.07–10.00 mg mL−1 and 0.60–10.00 mg mL−1, respectively. The mean MBC values for mastic gum and I. viscosa were 0.07–10.00 mg mL−1 and 0.15–10.00 mg mL−1, respectively. Extracts were less effective against C. albicans and exerted bactericidal effects at a concentration range of 0.07–5.00 mg mL−1 on strict anaerobic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Parvimonas micra). Ethyl acetate I. viscosa extract and total mastic extract showed considerable antimicrobial activity against oral microorganisms and could therefore be considered as alternative natural anti-infectious agents. PMID:25054150

  16. Evaluation of Supercritical Extracts of Algae as Biostimulants of Plant Growth in Field Trials

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Dmytryk, Agnieszka; Wilk, Radosław; Gramza, Mateusz; Rój, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the field trials was to determine the influence of supercritical algal extracts on the growth and development of winter wheat (variety Akteur). As a raw material for the supercritical fluid extraction, the biomass of microalga Spirulina plantensis, brown seaweed – Ascophyllum nodosum and Baltic green macroalgae was used. Forthial and Asahi SL constituted the reference products. It was found that the tested biostimulants did not influence statistically significantly the plant height, length of ear, and shank length. The ear number per m2 was the highest in the group where the Baltic macroalgae extract was applied in the dose 1.0 L/ha (statistically significant differences). Number of grains in ear (statistically significant differences) and shank length was the highest in the group treated with Spirulina at the dose 1.5 L/ha. In the group with Ascophyllum at the dose 1.0 L/ha, the highest length of ear was observed. The yield was comparable in all the experimental groups (lack of statistically significant differences). Among the tested supercritical extracts, the best results were obtained for Spirulina (1.5 L/ha). The mass of 1000 grains was the highest for extract from Baltic macroalgae and was 3.5% higher than for Asahi, 4.0% higher than for Forthial and 18.5% higher than for the control group (statistically significant differences). Future work is needed to fully characterize the chemical composition of the applied algal extracts. A special attention should be paid to the extracts obtained from Baltic algae because they are inexpensive source of naturally occurring bioactive compounds, which can be used in sustainable agriculture and horticulture. PMID:27826310

  17. Evaluation of Supercritical Extracts of Algae as Biostimulants of Plant Growth in Field Trials.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Dmytryk, Agnieszka; Wilk, Radosław; Gramza, Mateusz; Rój, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the field trials was to determine the influence of supercritical algal extracts on the growth and development of winter wheat (variety Akteur). As a raw material for the supercritical fluid extraction, the biomass of microalga Spirulina plantensis, brown seaweed - Ascophyllum nodosum and Baltic green macroalgae was used. Forthial and Asahi SL constituted the reference products. It was found that the tested biostimulants did not influence statistically significantly the plant height, length of ear, and shank length. The ear number per m(2) was the highest in the group where the Baltic macroalgae extract was applied in the dose 1.0 L/ha (statistically significant differences). Number of grains in ear (statistically significant differences) and shank length was the highest in the group treated with Spirulina at the dose 1.5 L/ha. In the group with Ascophyllum at the dose 1.0 L/ha, the highest length of ear was observed. The yield was comparable in all the experimental groups (lack of statistically significant differences). Among the tested supercritical extracts, the best results were obtained for Spirulina (1.5 L/ha). The mass of 1000 grains was the highest for extract from Baltic macroalgae and was 3.5% higher than for Asahi, 4.0% higher than for Forthial and 18.5% higher than for the control group (statistically significant differences). Future work is needed to fully characterize the chemical composition of the applied algal extracts. A special attention should be paid to the extracts obtained from Baltic algae because they are inexpensive source of naturally occurring bioactive compounds, which can be used in sustainable agriculture and horticulture.

  18. Screening of Methanolic Plant Extracts against Larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi in Mysore

    PubMed Central

    Mohankumar, Thirumalapura Krishnaiah; Shivanna, Kumuda Sathigal; Achuttan, Vijayan Valiakottukal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of death every year. Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Nine different locally available medicinally important plants suspected to posse larvicidal property were screened against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi to a series of concentrations of the methanolic extracts. Methods: Susceptibility tests on Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi were conducted using standard WHO methods. The larvae of two mosquito species were exposed to methanolic extracts and mortality counts were made after 24 hours of exposure as per WHO method. Larvae of Ae. aegypti were more susceptible than that of An. stephensi. Results: Among the nine plant species tested, Annona reticulata leaf extract was more effective against Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 and LC90 values of 95.24 and 262.64 ppm respectively and against An. stephensi larvae 262.71 and 636.94 ppm respectively. The least efficacy was in Cosmos bipinnatus with LC50 and LC90 values of 442.6 and 1225.93 ppm against Ae. aegypti and LC50 and LC90 values of 840.69 and 1334.01 ppm of Thespesia populnea against An. stephensi. Conclusion: The crude methanolic extract of the An. reticulata with good larvicidal efficacy could be considered for further characterization to control mosquito vectors instead of chemical insecticides. High efficacy found in An. reticulata extract will be considered for further studies to isolate the bioactive compound. PMID:27308289

  19. [Evaluation of non-host plant ethanol extracts against Plutella xylostella population].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui; Hou, Youming; Yang, Guang; Fu, Jianwei; You, Minsheng

    2005-06-01

    Through establishing experimental and natural population life tables, and by using the index of population trend (1) and interference index of population control (IIPC), this paper evaluated 8 kinds of non-host plant ethanol extracts against experimental population of Plutella xylostella, and 3 kinds of these extracts and their mixture against Plutella xylostella natural population. The experimental population life table of DBM showed that the index of population trend (I) was 69. 8964 in control, and decreased dramatically to 5.3702, 4.4842, 8.0945, 11.1382, 6.8937, 6.1609, 5.5199 and 9.8052, respectively in treatments of Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Nicotiana tabacum, Broussonetia papyrifera, Bauhinia variegata, Duranta repens, Euphorbia hirta and Camellia oleifera ethanol extracts, while the corresponding IIPC was 0.0768, 0.0642, 0.1158, 0.1594, 0.0986, 0.0881, 0.0790 and 0. 1403, respectively. The natural population life tables of DBM showed that the index of population trend (I) was 21.6232 in control, and decreased dramatically to 5.1997, 7.4160, 7. 3644 and 3.1399, respectively in treatments of the ethanol extracts of E. tereticornis, N. tabacum, C. oleifera and their mixture, while the corresponding IIPC was 0.2405, 0.3695, 0.3549 and 0.1608, respectively. All of these indicated that the test plant extracts could interfere the development of P. xylostella population significantly, and had the potential as an effective measure for controlling insect pest.

  20. Diuretic activity of the aqueous extracts of Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, Sanaa; Tahraoui, Adil; Israili, Zafar; Lyoussi, Badiaâ

    2007-04-04

    In the Moroccan traditional medicine, the ripe fruits of Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae) and the leaves of Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae/Compositae), two widely available plant materials, are used as diuretics. Since, the diuretic activity of these substances has not been investigated in scientifically controlled studies, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the diuretic potential of aqueous extracts of Carum carvi fruit (caraway) and the leaves of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) in normal rats after acute and sub-chronic oral administration. Water extracts of Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare (100 mg/kg) or the reference drug, furosemide (10 mg/kg) were administrated orally to male Wistar rats and their urine output was quantitated at several intervals of time after the dose. After single doses of the extracts of both caraway seeds and tansy leaves, urine output was significantly increased at all time points, and at 24 h after the dose, the total volume of urine excreted was similar for the plant extracts and furosemide. Both extracts increased urinary levels of Na(+) and K(+), to about the same extent, while furosemide increased urinary levels of only Na(+) and decreased urinary K(+). Despite changes in urinary excretion of the electrolytes, plasma Na(+) and K(+) levels were not affected by any of the three substances. In the 8-day sub-chronic study, all three substances induced significant diuresis and natriuresis; only tansy increased urinary potassium excretion. The plant extracts did not appear to have renal toxicity or any other adverse effects during the study period. In conclusion, water extracts of both Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare have strong diuretic action confirming their ethnopharmacological use. From the pattern of excretion of water, sodium and potassium, it may be deduced that there are atleast two types of active principals present in these extracts, one having a furosemide-like activity and the other a thiazide-like activity.

  1. A new green chemistry method based on plant extracts to synthesize gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes Castillo, Milka Odemariz

    Extraordinary chemical and physical properties exhibited by nanomaterials, as compared to their bulk counterparts, have made the area of nanotechnology a growing realm in the past three decades. It is the nanoscale size (from 1 to 100 nm) and the morphologies of nanomaterials that provide several properties and applications not possible for the same material in the bulk. Magnetic and optical properties, as well as surface reactivity are highly dependent on the size and morphology of the nanomaterial. Diverse nanomaterials are being widely used in molecular diagnostics as well as in medicine, electronic and optical devices. Among the most studied nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles are of special interest due to their multifunctional capabilities. For instance, spherical gold nanoparticles measuring 15-20 nm in diameter have been studied due to their insulin binding properties. Also, thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles between 5 and 30 nm are used in the detection of DNA. Thus, harnessing the shape and size of gold nanoparticles plays an important role in science and technology. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles via the reduction of gold salts, using citrate or other reducing agents, has been widely studied. In recent years, algae, fungi, bacteria, and living plants have been used to reduce trivalent gold (Au3+) to its zero oxidation state (Au 0) forming gold nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes. In addition, plant biomasses have also been studied for their gold-reducing power and nanoparticle formation. Although there is information about the synthesis of the gold nanoparticles by biologically based materials; to our knowledge, the study of the use of alfalfa extracts has not been reported. This innovation represents a significant improvement; that is an environmentally friendly method that does not use toxic chemicals. Also, the problem of extracting the formed gold nanoparticles from biomaterials is addressed in this research but still remains to be

  2. Screening of Venezuelan medicinal plant extracts for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter; Arsenak, Miriam; Abad, María Jesús; Fernández, Angel; Milano, Balentina; Gonto, Reina; Ruiz, Marie-Christine; Fraile, Silvia; Taylor, Sofía; Estrada, Omar; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2013-04-01

    There are estimated to be more than 20,000 species of plants in Venezuela, of which more than 1500 are used for medicinal purposes by indigenous and local communities. Only a relatively small proportion of these have been evaluated in terms of their potential as antitumor agents. In this study, we screened 308 extracts from 102 species for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a panel of six tumor cell lines using a 24-h sulphorhodamine B assay. Extracts from Clavija lancifolia, Hamelia patens, Piper san-vicentense, Physalis cordata, Jacaranda copaia, Heliotropium indicum, and Annona squamosa were the most cytotoxic, whereas other extracts from Calotropis gigantea, Hyptis dilatata, Chromolaena odorata, Siparuna guianensis, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Tapirira guianensis, Xylopia aromatica, Protium heptaphyllum, and Piper arboreum showed the greatest cytostatic activity. These results confirm previous reports on the cytotoxic activities of the above-mentioned plants as well as prompting further studies on others such as C. lancifolia and H. dilatata that have not been so extensively studied.

  3. Antioxidative activities and active compounds of extracts from Catalpa plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongyu; Hu, Gege; Dong, Juane; Wei, Qin; Shao, Hongbo; Lei, Ming

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g · DW) was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g · DW) and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g · DW). According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6) leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE), and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1) and apigenin (2), respectively.

  4. Antioxidative Activities and Active Compounds of Extracts from Catalpa Plant Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongyu; Hu, Gege; Dong, Juane; Wei, Qin; Shao, Hongbo; Lei, Ming

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g·DW) was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g·DW) and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g·DW). According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6) leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE), and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1) and apigenin (2), respectively. PMID:25431795

  5. DNA extraction from plant food supplements: Influence of different pharmaceutical excipients.

    PubMed

    Costa, Joana; Amaral, Joana S; Fernandes, Telmo J R; Batista, Andreia; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    The consumption of plant food supplements (PFS) has been growing globally, with an increase of misleading labeling and fraudulent practices also being reported. Recently, the use of molecular biology techniques has been proposed to detect botanical adulterations, one of the possible frauds in PFS. However, difficulties in recovering DNA from some PFS samples have been described. Aiming at using DNA-based methods for the unequivocal identification of plant species in PFS, adequate DNA isolation is required. However, PFS often contain pharmaceutical excipients known to have adsorbent properties that might interfere with DNA extraction. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the effect of different excipients (talc, silica, iron oxide and titanium dioxide) on the recovery/amplification of DNA. For that purpose, known amounts of template maize DNA were spiked either to PFS or to model mixtures of excipients and quantified by real-time PCR. The tested excipients evidenced clear adsorption phenomena that justify the hampering effect on DNA extraction from PFS. The use of either 10% talc or 0.5% dyes completely adsorbed DNA, resulting in negative PCR amplifications. For the first time, pharmaceutical excipients were shown to affect DNA extraction explaining the inability of recovering DNA from some PFS samples in previous studies.

  6. Estrogenic Plant Extracts Reverse Weight Gain and Fat Accumulation without Causing Mammary Gland or Uterine Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Saunier, Elise F.; Vivar, Omar I.; Rubenstein, Andrea; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Olshansky, Moshe; Baggett, Scott; Staub, Richard E.; Tagliaferri, Mary; Cohen, Isaac; Speed, Terence P.; Baxter, John D.; Leitman, Dale C.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term estrogen deficiency increases the risk of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Menopausal hormone therapy containing estrogens might prevent these conditions, but its prolonged use increases the risk of breast cancer, as wells as endometrial cancer if used without progestins. Animal studies indicate that beneficial effects of estrogens in adipose tissue and adverse effects on mammary gland and uterus are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). One strategy to improve the safety of estrogens to prevent/treat obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome is to develop estrogens that act as agonists in adipose tissue, but not in mammary gland and uterus. We considered plant extracts, which have been the source of many pharmaceuticals, as a source of tissue selective estrogens. Extracts from two plants, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (RG) and Pueraria montana var. lobata (RP) bound to ERα, activated ERα responsive reporters, and reversed weight gain and fat accumulation comparable to estradiol in ovariectomized obese mice maintained on a high fat diet. Unlike estradiol, RG and RP did not induce proliferative effects on mammary gland and uterus. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that RG and RP induced estradiol-like regulation of genes in abdominal fat, but not in mammary gland and uterus. The compounds in extracts from RG and RP might constitute a new class of tissue selective estrogens to reverse weight gain, fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. PMID:22163294

  7. Cytotoxic, Virucidal, and Antiviral Activity of South American Plant and Algae Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Faral-Tello, Paula; Mirazo, Santiago; Dutra, Carmelo; Pérez, Andrés; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucía; Frabasile, Sandra; Koncke, Elina; Davyt, Danilo; Cavallaro, Lucía; Heinzen, Horacio; Arbiza, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection has a prevalence of 70% in the human population. Treatment is based on acyclovir, valacyclovir, and foscarnet, three drugs that share the same mechanism of action and of which resistant strains have been isolated from patients. In this aspect, innovative drug therapies are required. Natural products offer unlimited opportunities for the discovery of antiviral compounds. In this study, 28 extracts corresponding to 24 plant species and 4 alga species were assayed in vitro to detect antiviral activity against HSV-1. Six of the methanolic extracts inactivated viral particles by direct interaction and 14 presented antiviral activity when incubated with cells already infected. Most interesting antiviral activity values obtained are those of Limonium brasiliense, Psidium guajava, and Phyllanthus niruri, which inhibit HSV-1 replication in vitro with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 185, 118, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. For these extracts toxicity values were calculated and therefore selectivity indexes (SI) obtained. Further characterization of the bioactive components of antiviral plants will pave the way for the discovery of new compounds against HSV-1. PMID:22619617

  8. Speciation of Mg, Mn and Zn in extracts of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Weber, Günther; Konieczyński, Paweł

    2003-04-01

    Aqueous extracts of birch leaves ( folium Betulae), peppermint leaves ( folium Menthae), sage leaves ( folium Salviae), valerian roots ( radix Valerianae), and dandelion roots ( radix Taraxaci) are analysed for the three essential elements magnesium, manganese and zinc. Ultrafiltration reveals that 60-100% of these metals are present as low molecular weight species (<5000 Da). Further characterisation of the low molecular weight fraction is done by using size exclusion chromatography and different detectors, namely element specific AAS detection, diode array UV-VIS detection and electrochemical detection. The similarities and differences of the plant extracts are well reflected by the respective chromatograms, and typical plant constituents can be identified by their spectral and electrochemical properties (e.g. flavonoids in Betula). Mg and Mn species are selectively detected by AAS in closely neighbouring chromatographic regions for all five samples. However, there are significant differences between the samples investigated. In all cases a good correlation exists between detection of these metals (Mg, Mn) and pulsed amperometric detection (PAD), which is selective for carbohydrates. The respective molecular weight of carbohydrate species is in the range of approximately 300-600 Da. The distribution of zinc species (detectable only in the Betula extract) is totally different from that of Mg and Mn species. For zinc, many more species are detected, and there is no correlation to carbohydrates; instead (poly)phenols are involved in zinc complexation.

  9. Storing carbon dioxide in saline formations : analyzing extracted water treatment and use for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Heath, Jason E.; Borns, David James; Dewers, Thomas A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Roach, Jesse D.; McNemar, Andrea; Krumhansl, James Lee; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2010-10-01

    In an effort to address the potential to scale up of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and sequestration in the United States saline formations, an assessment model is being developed using a national database and modeling tool. This tool builds upon the existing NatCarb database as well as supplemental geological information to address scale up potential for carbon dioxide storage within these formations. The focus of the assessment model is to specifically address the question, 'Where are opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use for existing and expanding power plants, and what are the economic impacts of these systems relative to traditional power systems?' Initial findings indicate that approximately less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data points meet the working criteria for combined CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water treatment systems. The initial results of the analysis indicate that less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data may meet the working depth, salinity and formation intersecting criteria. These results were taken from examining updated NatCarb data. This finding, while just an initial result, suggests that the combined use of saline formations for CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use may be limited by the selection criteria chosen. A second preliminary finding of the analysis suggests that some of the necessary data required for this analysis is not present in all of the NatCarb records. This type of analysis represents the beginning of the larger, in depth study for all existing coal and natural gas power plants and saline formations in the U.S. for the purpose of potential CO{sub 2} storage and water reuse for supplemental cooling. Additionally, this allows for potential policy insight when understanding the difficult nature of combined potential institutional (regulatory) and physical (engineered geological sequestration and extracted water system

  10. Enterococcus faecium LKE12 Cell-Free Extract Accelerates Host Plant Growth via Gibberellin and Indole-3-Acetic Acid Secretion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ko-Eun; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; You, Young-Hyun; Joo, Gil-Jae; Lee, In-Jung; Ko, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The use of microbial extracts containing plant hormones is a promising technique to improve crop growth. Little is known about the effect of bacterial cell-free extracts on plant growth promotion. This study, based on phytohormonal analyses, aimed at exploring the potential mechanisms by which Enterococcus faecium LKE12 enhances plant growth in oriental melon. A bacterial strain, LKE12, was isolated from soil, and further identified as E. faecium by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The plant growth-promoting ability of an LKE12 bacterial culture was tested in a gibberellin (GA)-deficient rice dwarf mutant (waito-C) and a normal GA biosynthesis rice cultivar (Hwayongbyeo). E. faecium LKE12 significantly improved the length and biomass of rice shoots in both normal and dwarf cultivars through the secretion of an array of gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA19, GA20, GA24, and GA53), as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study indicating that E. faecium can produce GAs. Increases in shoot and root lengths, plant fresh weight, and chlorophyll content promoted by E. faecium LKE12 and its cell-free extract inoculated in oriental melon plants revealed a favorable interaction of E. faecium LKE12 with plants. Higher plant growth rates and nutrient contents of magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, silicon, zinc, and nitrogen were found in cell-free extract-treated plants than in control plants. The results of the current study suggest that E. faecium LKE12 promotes plant growth by producing GAs and IAA; interestingly, the exogenous application of its cell-free culture extract can be a potential strategy to accelerate plant growth.

  11. Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Reynertson, Kurt A.; Charlson, Mary E.; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly-cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from twelve species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from three species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells. PMID:20955699

  12. Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Reynertson, Kurt A.; Charlson, Mary E.; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells.

  13. Root Canal Irrigation: Chemical Agents and Plant Extracts Against Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Borzini, Letizia; Condò, Roberta; De Dominicis, Paolo; Casaglia, Adriano; Cerroni, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are various microorganisms related to intra and extra-radicular infections and many of these are involved in persistent infections. Bacterial elimination from the root canal is achieved by means of the mechanical action of instruments and irrigation as well as the antibacterial effects of the irrigating solutions. Enterococcus faecalis can frequently be isolated from root canals in cases of failed root canal treatments. Antimicrobial agents have often been developed and optimized for their activity against endodontic bacteria. An ideal root canal irrigant should be biocompatible, because of its close contact with the periodontal tissues during endodontic treatment. Sodium hypoclorite (NaOCl) is one of the most widely recommended and used endodontic irrigants but it is highly toxic to periapical tissues. Objectives: To analyze the literature on the chemotherapeutic agent and plant extracts studied as root canal irrigants. In particularly, the study is focused on their effect on Enterococcus faecalis. Method: Literature search was performed electronically in PubMed (PubMed Central, MEDLINE) for articles published in English from 1982 to April 2015. The searched keywords were “endodontic irrigants” and “Enterococcus faecalis” and “essential oil” and “plant extracts”. Results: Many of the studied chemotherapeutic agents and plant extracts have shown promising results in vitro. Conclusion: Some of the considered phytotherapic substances, could be a potential alternative to NaOCl for the biomechanical treatment of the endodontic space. PMID:28217184

  14. Comparative toxicity of Paraquat herbicide and some plant extracts in Lymnaea natalensis snails.

    PubMed

    Bakry, Fayez A; Eleiwa, Mona E; Taha, Samir A; Ismil, Somya M

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat has been shown to be a highly toxic compound for humans and animals, and many cases of acute poisoning and death have been reported over the past few decades. The present study was undertaken to evaluate comprehensively herbicides (Paraquat) and some plant extracts to biochemical aspects of Lymnaea natalensis snails. It was found that the exposure of L. natalensis to Paraquat and plant extracts led to a significant reduction in the infectivity of Fasciola gigantica miracidia to the snail. The glucose level in hemolymph of exposed snails was elevated, while the glycogen showed a decrease in soft tissues when compared with the control group. In addition, the activity level of some enzymes representing glycolytic enzymes as hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) in snail's tissues were reduced in response to the treatment. It was concluded that the pollution of the aquatic environment by herbicide would adversely affect the metabolism of the L. natalensis snails. Snails treated with Agave attenuate, Ammi visnaga, and Canna iridiflora plant had less toxic effect compared to snails treated with Paraquat.

  15. Cree antidiabetic plant extracts display mechanism-based inactivation of CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Tam, Teresa W; Liu, Rui; Arnason, John T; Krantis, Anthony; Staines, William A; Haddad, Pierre S; Foster, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    Seventeen Cree antidiabetic medicinal plants were studied to determine their potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) through mechanism-based inactivation (MBI). The ethanolic extracts of the medicinal plants were studied for their inhibition of CYP3A4 using the substrates testosterone and dibenzylfluorescein (DBF) in high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microtiter fluorometric assays, respectively. Using testosterone as a substrate, extracts of Alnus incana, Sarracenia purpurea, and Lycopodium clavatum were identified as potent CYP3A4 MBIs, while those from Abies balsamea, Picea mariana, Pinus banksiana, Rhododendron tomentosum, Kalmia angustifolia, and Picea glauca were identified as less potent inactivators. Not unexpectedly, the other substrate, DBF, showed a different profile of inhibition. Only A. balsamea was identified as a CYP3A4 MBI using DBF. Abies balsamea displayed both NADPH- and time-dependence of CYP3A4 inhibition using both substrates. Overall, several of the medicinal plants may markedly deplete CYP3A4 through MBI and, consequently, decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 substrates including numerous medications used by diabetics.

  16. Activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis by extract of South African medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Mativandlela, Sannah Patience Nkami; Meyer, Jacob Jacobus Marion; Hussein, Ahmed A; Houghton, Peter J; Hamilton, Chris J; Lall, Namrita

    2008-06-01

    Seven ethnobotanically selected medicinal plants were screened for their antimycobacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of four plants namely Artemisia afra, Dodonea angustifolia, Drosera capensis and Galenia africana ranged from 0.781 to 6.25 mg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis. G. africana showed the best activity exhibiting an MIC of 0.78 mg/mL and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1.56 mg/mL. The MICs of ethanol extracts of D. angustifolia and G. africana against M. tuberculosis were found to be 5.0 and 1.2 mg/mL respectively. The mammalian cytotoxicity IC(50) value of the most active antimycobacterial extract, from G. africana, was found to be 101.3 microg/mL against monkey kidney Vero cells. Since the ethanol G. africana displayed the best antimycobacterial activity, it was subjected to fractionation which led to the isolation of a flavone, 5,7,2'-trihydroxyflavone. The MIC of this compound was found to be 0.031 mg/mL against M. smegmatis and 0.10 mg/mL against M. tuberculosis. This study gives some scientific basis to the traditional use of these plants for TB-related symptoms.

  17. Evaluation of the antioxidant activities and nutritional properties of ten edible plant extracts and their application to fresh ground beef.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Min, Sea C; Shin, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Yun-Jeong; Cho, Ah Reum; Kim, So Yeon; Han, Jaejoon

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we assessed the antioxidant efficacy and nutritional value of 10 leafy edible plants and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation. We measured total phenolic content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and vitamin C, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents of 70% ethanol and water extracts of the edible plants. Based on these results, we investigated the effects of butterbur and broccoli extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w) concentrations. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values and color parameters were tested periodically during 12 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p≤0.05) in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p≤0.05) better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  18. In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis: trematocidal plant alcoholic extracts.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jorge F S; Peaden, Paul; Keiser, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, and Echinostoma caproni in vitro. Mortality was best achieved by ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua (sweet Annie), Asimina triloba (paw-paw), and Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) which, at 2 mg/mL, killed S. mansoni and E. caproni in 20 h or less (except for wormwood), F. hepatica between 16 and 23 h (sweet Annie), or 40 h (paw-paw). Some extracts were active at 0.2 mg/mL and 20 μg/mL, although more time was required to kill trematodes. However, aqueous A. annua and methanol extracts of Fumaria officinalis had no activity. Chromatographic analysis of the three best extracts established that A. annua and A. triloba extracts contained bioactive artemisinin and acetogenins (asimicin and bullatacin), respectively. The anthelmintic activity of our extracts at such low doses indicates that their anthelmintic activity deserves further testing as natural alternative controls for parasites of both animals and humans. Our results also support recent evidence that synergistic effects of multiple bioactive compounds present in crude plant extracts is worth exploring.

  19. Antibacterial Activity of Plant Extracts Against Food-Borne Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria In Vitro and on Poultry Skin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some plant extracts are known to contain substances that inhibit the growth of bacteria; therefore, experiments were conducted to examine the ability of extracts of pomegranate, orange, and lemon peels to inhibit the growth of five bacteria associated with processed poultry. The antibacterial activi...

  20. In vitro antiplasmodial effect of ethanolic extracts of coastal medicinal plants along Palk Strait against Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Inbaneson, Samuel Jacob; Ravikumar, Sundaram; Suganthi, Palavesam

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the possible antiplasmodial compounds from Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera), Acalypha indica (A. indica), Jatropha glandulifera (J. glandulifera) and Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus). Methods The A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were collected along Palk Strait and the extraction was carried out in ethanol. The filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 µg/mL) of leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were tested for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The potential extracts were also tested for their phytochemical constituents. Results Of the selected plants species parts, the stem extract of A. indica showed excellent antiplasmodial activity (IC50= 43.81µg/mL) followed by stem extract of J. glandulifera (IC50= 49.14µg/mL). The stem extract of A. aspera, leaf and root extracts of A. indica, leaf, root and seed extracts of J. glandulifera and leaf and stem extracts of P. amarus showed IC50 values between 50 and 100 µg/mL. Statistical analysis revealed that, significant antiplasmodial activity (P<0.01) was observed between the concentrations and time of exposure. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out and it showed that there were no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the ethanolic extract of all the tested plant extracts. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, triterpenoids, proteins, and tannins in the ethanolic extracts of tested plants. Conclusions The ethanolic stem extracts of P. amarus and J. glandulifera possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs. PMID:23569931

  1. Species divergence and relationships in Stephanomeria (Compositae): PgiC phylogeny compared to prior biosystematic studies.

    PubMed

    Ford, V S; Lee, Joongku; Baldwin, B G; Gottlieb, L D

    2006-03-01

    We present a maximum likelihood tree of 41 PgiC sequences for the monophyletic Stephanomeria, with 10 perennial and six annual species, widely distributed in western North America and exemplary of different speciation processes. The phylogenetic analysis represents the first use of PgiC sequences for Compositae. The annual species were originally delimited by biosystematic studies that provided evidence of their reproductive compatibility and chromosome structural homology. The perennial species are highly distinctive in morphology and have not been examined similarly. The PgiC tree provides more resolution than our previous ITS/ETS tree and reflects both past and ongoing hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting. Two major PgiC clades were resolved in Stephanomeria. One clade contains the genes from the annual species plus the perennial, insular endemic S. guadalupensis, which appears closely related to a monophyletic S. virgata. Stephanomeria exigua is not monophyletic. The second clade includes the genes from all other sampled perennial species and a monophyletic subclade of four genes from two annual species. The results are compared to previous studies, also using PgiC, of Clarkia (Onagraceae). Both molecular systematic and biosystematic approaches are essential to discern the very different courses of evolution in these two, well-studied genera of western North America.

  2. Assessment of the antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of ethanolic extracts of some Colombian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, M F; Puebla, P; Carrón, R; Martín, M L; Arteaga, L; Román, L San

    2002-04-01

    The antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of ethanolic extracts prepared from Calea glomerata Klatt, Croton schiedeanus Schlecht, Curatella americana L., Lippia alba (Mill)n N.E.Br. and Lupinus amandus, which are medicinal plants used in Colombian folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, were assayed both in SHR and Wistar rats and in rat isolated aortic rings. At a dose of 20 mg/kg, intravenous bolus administration of the ethanolic extracts, from C. schiedeanus, C. americana and L. amandus showed significant antihypertensive activity in SHR, C. schiedeanus being the most active. C. schiedeanus elicited dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate (5-100 mg/kg, i.v.) in SHR but 200 mg/kg administered orally did not show any significant effects, even after 3 h of observation. In intact rat aortic rings, ethanolic extracts from C. schiedeanus and Calea glomerata relaxed the contractions induced by KCl (80 mM) and phenylephrine (10(-6) M) in a concentration-dependent manner (10(-6)-3x10(-4) g/ml), with IC(50) of 6.5x10(-5) (7.3-5.8) g/ml and 7.1x10(-5) (7.9-6.4) g/ml, respectively. Bioguided phytochemical fractionation of the ethanolic extract from C. schiedeanus was started. More than one active principle seems to be present, flavonoids and terpenoids compounds were detected.

  3. Effects of Greek legume plant extracts on xanthine oxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities.

    PubMed

    Spanou, Chrysoula I; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Stagos, Dimitrios; Liadaki, Kalliopi; Aligiannis, Nectarios; Angelis, Apostolos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Anastasiadi, Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2012-03-01

    Legumes are considered to have beneficial health implications, which have been attributed to their phytochemical content. Polyphenols are considered the most important phytochemical compounds extensively studied for their antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of potent antioxidant legume plant extracts on xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. XO exerts a dual role, as it is the major contributor of free radicals during exercise while it generates uric acid, the most potent antioxidant molecule in plasma. CAT and SOD are two of the main enzymes of the antioxidant defence of tissues. We demonstrate that the majority of the extracts inhibited XO activity, but they had no effect on CAT inhibition and SOD induction when used at low concentrations. These results imply that the tested extracts may be considered as possible source of novel XO inhibitors. However, we have shown that allopurinol administration, a known XO inhibitor, before exercise reduces performance and induces oxidative stress in rats. Considering the fact that the extracts examined had an inhibitory effect on XO activity, possibly posing a restriction in their characterization as antioxidants, phytochemical antioxidant administration before exercise should probably be reconsidered.

  4. Bioactivity of six plant extracts on adults of Demotispa neivai (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Luis C; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José C; Serrão, José E

    2015-01-01

    Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage oil palm fruits, which makes it necessary to develop products to control this insect. The mortality, repellency, and antifeeding effects on adults of D. neivai of six plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), Ricinus communis (L.) (Malpighiaes: Euphorbiaceae), Citrus sinensis Oesbek (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (L.) (Slanales: Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) were determined: 1) the lethal concentration LC50-90, lethal time of D. neivai was evaluated after spraying the fruits of oil palm; 2) repellent effects of each ingredient were evaluated by calculating the index of repellency; 3) antifeeding effects with the rate of inhibition calculated between doses of 20 and 24 g/liter. The mortality of D. neivai was higher with the extracts Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum. The mortality of D. neivai increased in the first 72 hr in all treatments. The extracts of N. tabacum, Ca. annuum, and A. indica were more repellent to D. neivai that those of Ci. sinensis, Ar. Absinthium, and R. communis. Antifeeding effect was higher with Ci. sinensis and R. communis. The increased mortality of D. neivai by Ci. sinensis can be explained by the effect of this compound on the respiratory system of insects. Extracts of Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum repelled and caused mortality of D. neivai and, thus, can be used in integrate pest management programs of this pest in oil palm plantations.

  5. Antibacterial Potential of Northeastern Portugal Wild Plant Extracts and Respective Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Soares, Graça; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The present work aims to assess the antibacterial potential of phenolic extracts, recovered from plants obtained on the North East of Portugal, and of their phenolic compounds (ellagic, caffeic, and gallic acids, quercetin, kaempferol, and rutin), against bacteria commonly found on skin infections. The disk diffusion and the susceptibility assays were used to identify the most active extracts and phenolic compounds. The effect of selected phenolic compounds on animal cells was assessed by determination of cellular metabolic activity. Gallic acid had a higher activity, against gram-positive (S. epidermidis and S. aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (K. pneumoniae) at lower concentrations, than the other compounds. The caffeic acid, also, showed good antibacterial activity against the 3 bacteria used. The gallic acid was effective against the 3 bacteria without causing harm to the animal cells. Gallic and caffeic acid showed a promising applicability as antibacterial agents for the treatment of infected wounds. PMID:24804249

  6. Multi range spectral feature fitting for hyperspectral imagery in extracting oilseed rape planting area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhuokun; Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Fumin

    2013-12-01

    Spectral feature fitting (SFF) is a commonly used strategy for hyperspectral imagery analysis to discriminate ground targets. Compared to other image analysis techniques, SFF does not secure higher accuracy in extracting image information in all circumstances. Multi range spectral feature fitting (MRSFF) from ENVI software allows user to focus on those interesting spectral features to yield better performance. Thus spectral wavelength ranges and their corresponding weights must be determined. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the performance of MRSFF in oilseed rape planting area extraction. A practical method for defining the weighted values, the variance coefficient weight method, was proposed to set up criterion. Oilseed rape field canopy spectra from the whole growth stage were collected prior to investigating its phenological varieties; oilseed rape endmember spectra were extracted from the Hyperion image as identifying samples to be used in analyzing the oilseed rape field. Wavelength range divisions were determined by the difference between field-measured spectra and image spectra, and image spectral variance coefficient weights for each wavelength range were calculated corresponding to field-measured spectra from the closest date. By using MRSFF, wavelength ranges were classified to characterize the target's spectral features without compromising spectral profile's entirety. The analysis was substantially successful in extracting oilseed rape planting areas (RMSE ≤ 0.06), and the RMSE histogram indicated a superior result compared to a conventional SFF. Accuracy assessment was based on the mapping result compared with spectral angle mapping (SAM) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The MRSFF yielded a robust, convincible result and, therefore, may further the use of hyperspectral imagery in precision agriculture.

  7. Prevention of Bacterial Biofilms Formation on Urinary Catheter by Selected Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Adesina, T D; Nwinyi, O C; Olugbuyiro, J A O

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica and Ocimum gratissimum leaf extracts in preventing Escherichia coli biofilm formation. The plants extractions were done with methanol under cold extraction. The various concentrations 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg mL(-1) were used to coat 63 catheters under mild heat from water bath. Biofilm formation on the catheter was induced using cultures of E. coli. Biofilm formation was evaluated using aerobic plate count and turbidity at 600 nm. From the obtained results, Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica and Ocimum gratissimum delayed the onset of biofilm formation for a week. Ocimum gratissimum coated catheter had the highest inhibitory effect at 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg mL(-1) with bacterial count ranging from 2.2 x 10(5)-7.0 x 10(4) and 5.7 x 10(5)-3.7 x10(5) for 120 and 128 h, respectively. The Psidium guajava coated catheter had the lowest inhibitory effect at 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg mL(-1), with bacterial count ranging between 4.3 x 10(5)-1.9 x 10(3) and 7.7 x 10(5)-3.8 x 10(5) for 120 and 128 h, respectively. Despite the antimicrobial activities, the differences in the activity of these plant extracts were statistically not significant (p < 0.05).

  8. Anticancer and antiviral activities of Youngia japonica (L.) DC (Asteraceae, Compositae).

    PubMed

    Ooi, Linda S M; Wang, Hua; Luk, Choi-Wan; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2004-09-01

    Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Youngia japonica (also known as Oriental hawksbeard) were tested in vitro for anti-tumor activity against three cell lines, human promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60), human myelogenous leukaemia (chronic K-562) and mouse Sarcoma 180 (S-180), and for antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A virus (Flu A) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) by cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Hot water extract of Youngia japonica inhibited cell proliferation and growth of all cancer cell lines to various extent. K-562 cells were the most sensitive to the extract whereas S-180 cells were the least. It did not show any significant cytotoxic effects on normal mammalian Vero cells up to the concentration of 450 microg/mL. The ethanol extract of whole plant of Youngia japonica exhibited antiviral activity against RSV cultured in HEp-2 cells, but did not have any activity against Flu A and HSV-1. Two partially purified fractions (Fr.10 and Fr.11) from the 95% ethanol extract exhibited significant anti-RSV with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) in the range of 3.0-6.0 microg/mL. The ratio of the viral titer reduction in the absence (viral control) and presence of the maximal non-cytotoxic concentration (MNCC) of the Fr.10 and Fr.11 was both estimated to be 1 x 10(4) (RF, viral titer reduction factors), indicating that their anti-RSV activity was high enough to justify for further analysis. Our preliminary analysis showed that the antiviral ingredients were likely to contain phenolic compounds including tannins by chemical tests.

  9. [Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Siberian plants].

    PubMed

    Nesterova, Iu V; Povet'eva, T N; Aksinenko, S G; Suslov, N I; Gaĭdamovich, N N; Nagorniak, Iu G; Popova, E V; Kravtsova, S S; Andreeva, T I

    2009-01-01

    Experimental investigations have shown that water-alcohol extracts from plants containing alkaloids (Aconitum baikalense, Aconitum septentrionale, Delphinium elatum L., Conium maculatum) and salicylic acid (Filipendula ulmaria, Salix viminalis, Fragaria vesca, Rubus idaeus) inhibited the development of main symptoms of inflammation, viz. exudation, pain, fever, to the same extent as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. The substances studied in this work may be used to develop new efficient pharmacological preparations for the treatment of different inflammatory conditions associated with severe pain syndrome.

  10. Effects of Five Bangladeshi Plant Extracts on In vitro Thrombolysis and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Raju; Emran, Talha Bin; Paul, Arkajyoti; Siddique, Mohammad Kutub Uddin; Khan, Mohammad Arfad; Rahman, Md. Golamur; Sarwar, Md. Shahid; Nasir Uddin, Mir Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Piper Betle, Pterospermum acerifolium, Saraca indica, Argyreia speciosa, and Rhaphidophora glauca are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. To examine, whether organic extracts of these plants possess thrombolytic properties with minimal or no toxicity is our main aim of the study. Materials and Methods: In vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effects using streptokinase (SK) as a positive control and water as a negative control. Cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate (VS) as positive control. Results: Among herbal drugs, different organic extracts of P. betle, P. acerifolium, S. indica, A. speciosa, and R. glauca showed significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001) clot lysis activity viz., 31.58% ±0.76%, 40.50% ±0.94%, 49.70% ±1.69%, 35.81% ±0.86%, and 43.80% ±0.91%, respectively, compared to reference drug SK (79.32% ±1.629%). In brine shrimp cytotoxic assay, mortality achieved by the extracts showed lethal concentration 50 (LC50) values 274.64 ± 3.46, 215.60 ± 4.59, 478.40 ± 6.98, 233.37 ± 2.56, and 209.32 ± 1.98 μg/ml, respectively, with reference to VS (LC50, 0.05 ± 0.34). Conclusion: In this study, S. indica, R. glauca, and P. acerifolium possessed effective thrombolytic activity. Further studies can be undertaken to identify certain structure of the ingredients in the extracts and to elucidate the precise mechanism of action. SUMMARY Five Bangladesh medicinal plants, named Piper betle, Pterospermum acerifolium, Saraca indica, Argyreia speciosa, and Rhaphidophora glauca were subjected to comparative antithrombotic and toxicity based analysis. In comparative study, Saraca indica showed highest clot lysis (49.70 ± 1.69%) activity among the other plant with lowest toxicity (LC50: 478.40 ± 6.98) Abbreviations Used: h: Hour; min: Minutes; sec: Second; kg: Kilogram; g: Gram; μg: Microgram; L: Liter; mL: Millilitre;

  11. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridine alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. However, the adaptive significance of this behavior especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. This study determined th...

  12. Optimization and stabilization of gold nanoparticles by using herbal plant extract with microwave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasmin, Akbar; Ramesh, Kumaraswamy; Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we have synthesized the gold nanoparticles by using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, a medicinal plant. The gold nanoparticles were synthesized rapidly by the involvement of microwave heating. By changing of plant extract concentration, gold solution concentration, microwave heating time and power of microwave heating the optimized condition was identified. The surface Plasmon resonance found at 520 nm confirmed the gold nanoparticles synthesis. The spherical sized nanoparticles in the size range of 16-30 nm were confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The stability of the nanoparticles is very well proved in the invitro stability tests. The biochemical like alkaloids and flavonoids play a vital role in the nanoparticles synthesis was identified using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Combining the phytochemical and microwave heating, the rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles is the novel process for the medically applicable gold nanoparticles production.

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Extracts Against Extended- Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Saeide; Amini Boroujeni, Negar; Ahmadi, Hassan; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli isolates make many serious infections, especially urinary tract infections. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial activities of some natural plant extracts against ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, which harbor the TEM gene in urine samples of the patients who have urinary tract infections. Materials and Methods: Evaluation has to be exactly determined for both methods of disk diffusion test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), separately. We evaluated 120 strains of E. coli isolates from the urine culture of the patients in Boo-Ali Hospital (Zahedan, south-eastern Iran) who were suffering from urinary tract infections. The ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were evaluated by disk diffusion test and PCR through TEM gene detection. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of commonly used antibiotics including ceftazidime, ceftriaxon, amikacin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin along with the MIC of the alcoholic extract of different natural plants including Myrtus communis L (Myrtaceae), Amaranthus retraflexus (Amaranthaceae), Cyminum cuminum L (Apiaceae), Marrubium vulgare (Laminaceae) and Peganum. harmala (Zygrophyllaceae) against the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, which harbor the TEM genes, were determined using the microdulition method. Results: Results of this study showed that in disk diffusion method, 80 samples of E. coli produced ESBLs. In PCR method, the TEM gene distribution in the isolated ESBL-producing organisms was 50 (41.6%). Amikacin was the most effective anti-bacterial agent and ciprofloxacin was the least effective against E. coli isolates. All the natural plant extracts mentioned above, especially P. harmala, were effective against the selected isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli. The most frequent ESBL rate producing E. coli isolates (32 out of 50) had MIC of 2.5 mg/mL in ethanol extract of P. harmala. Conclusions: The alcoholic

  14. Gas purge-microsyringe extraction: a rapid and exhaustive direct microextraction technique of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Yang, Cui; Li, Huijie; Piao, Xiangfan; Li, Donghao

    2013-12-17

    Gas purge-microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) is a rapid and exhaustive microextraction technique for volatile and semivolatile compounds. In this study, a theoretical system of GP-MSE was established by directly extracting and analyzing 16 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from plant samples. On the basis of theoretical consideration, a full factorial experimental design was first used to evaluate the main effects and interactions of the experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. Further experiments were carried out to determine the extraction kinetics and desorption temperature-dependent. The results indicated that three factors, namely desorption temperature (temperature of sample phase) Td, extraction time t, and gas flow rate u, had a significantly positive effect on the extraction efficiency of GP-MSE for PAHs. Extraction processes of PAHs in plant samples followed by first-order kinetics (relative coefficient R(2) of simulation curves were 0.731-1.000, with an average of 0.958 and 4.06% relative standard deviation), and obviously depended on the desorption temperature. Furthermore, the effect of the matrix was determined from the difference in Eapp,d. Finally, satisfactory recoveries of 16 PAHs were obtained using optimal parameters. The study demonstrated that GP-MSE could provide a rapid and exhaustive means of direct extraction of PAHs from plant samples. The extraction kinetics were similar that of the inverse process of the desorption kinetics of the sample phase.

  15. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Berger, I; Barrientos, A C; Cáceres, A; Hernández, M; Rastrelli, L; Passreiter, C M; Kubelka, W

    1998-09-01

    The activities of crude plant extracts of five plants popularly used in Guatemala against bacterial and protozoal infections and some of their fractions have been evaluated against the trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. The most active fraction of Neurolaena lobata has also been screened in vivo. Main in vitro activities against trypomastigotes have been observed for the hexane and ethanol extracts of N. lobata (Asteraceae). Both extracts were also active against epimastigotes, whereas all other extracts tested had no effect on epimastigotes. For the hexane extracts of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) and Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) a marked inhibition of trypomastigotes has been found. Also the ethanol extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae) leafs and Gliricidia sepium (Papilionaceae) bark showed some trypanocidal activity. Fraction 2 of the ethanol extract of N. lobata was highly active against T. cruzi as well in vitro as in vivo. The chloroforme fraction of P. alliacea showed a high inhibition of trypomastigotes in vitro. Also three fractions of the active extract of B. crassifolia inhibited T. cruzi trypomastigotes. No fraction of G. sepium bark extract showed a marked trypanocidal activity.

  16. Employing Solid Phase Microextraction as Extraction Tool for Pesticide Residues in Traditional Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gondo, Thamani T.; Mmualefe, Lesego C.; Okatch, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    HS-SPME was optimised using blank plant sample for analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) of varying polarities in selected medicinal plants obtained from northern part of Botswana, where OCPs such as DDT and endosulfan have been historically applied to control disease carrying vectors (mosquitos and tsetse fly). The optimised SPME parameters were used to isolate analytes from root samples of five medicinal plants obtained from Maun and Kasane, Botswana. The final analytes determination was done with a gas chromatograph equipped with GC-ECD and analyte was confirmed using electron ionisation mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Dieldrin was the only pesticide detected and confirmed with MS in the Terminalia sericea sample obtained from Kasane. The method was validated and the analyte recoveries ranged from 69.58 ± 7.20 to 113 ± 15.44%, with RSDs ranging from 1.19 to 17.97%. The method indicated good linearity (R2 > 0.9900) in the range of 2 to 100 ng g−1. The method also proved to be sensitive with low limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.48 ± 0.16 to 1.50 ± 0.50 ng g−1. It can be concluded that SPME was successfully utilized as a sampling and extraction tool for pesticides of diverse polarities in root samples of medicinal plants. PMID:27725893

  17. Calea zacatechichi dichloromethane extract exhibits antidiarrheal and antinociceptive effects in mouse models mimicking irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sałaga, M; Kowalczuk, A; Zielinska, M; Błażewicz, A; Fichna, J

    2015-10-01

    Calea zacatechichi Schltdl. (Asteraceae alt. Compositae) is a Mexican plant commonly used in folk medicine to treat respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of C. zacatechichi extracts in mouse models mimicking the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Powdered C. zacatechichi herb (leaves, stems, and flowers) was extracted with methanol. Methanolic extract was filtered and evaporated giving methanolic fraction. The residue was extracted with dichloromethane (DCM). Methanolic and DCM (200 mg/kg, per os) extracts were screened for their effect on GI motility in several in vitro tests, and the antidiarrheal and antinociceptive effects were assessed using mouse models. The influence of the DCM extract on motoric parameters and exploratory behaviors was also assessed. Finally, the composition of C. zacatechichi DCM extract was qualitatively analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. C. zacatechichi DCM extract significantly inhibited the contractility of mouse colon in vitro (IC50 = 17 ± 2 μg/ml). Administration of the DCM extract in vivo (200 mg/kg, per os) significantly prolonged the time of whole GI transit (46 ± 1 vs. 117 ± 27 min for control and DCM-treated animals, respectively; P = 0.0023), inhibited hypermotility, and reduced pain in mouse models mimicking functional GI disorders. Our findings suggest that constituents of the C. zacatechichi DCM extract exhibit antidiarrheal and analgesic activity. The extract may thus become an attractive material for isolation of compounds that may be used as a supplementary treatment for pain and diarrhea associated with IBS in the future.

  18. Screening of anti-diarrhoeal profile of some plant extracts of a specific region of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, P K; Saha, K; Murugesan, T; Mandal, S C; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    1998-02-01

    Ethanol extract of four different plants of the Khatra region of the Bankura district of West Bengal, India were evaluated for anti-diarrhoeal activity against different experimental models of diarrhoea in rats. The extracts of Ficus bengalensis Linn. (hanging roots), Eugenia jambolana Lam. (bark), Ficus racemosa Linn. (bark) and Leucas lavandulaefolia Rees (aerial parts) showed significant inhibitory activity against castor oil induced diarrhoea and PGE2 induced enteropooling in rats. These extracts also showed a significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in charcoal meal tests in rats. The results obtained establish the efficacy of all these plant materials as anti-diarrhoeal agents.

  19. Functional design criteria for the 242-A evaporator and PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction) Plant condensate interim retention basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cejka, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    This document contains the functional design criteria for a 26- million-gallon retention basin and 10 million gallons of temporary storage tanks. The basin and tanks will be used to store 242-A Evaporator process condensate, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process distillate discharge stream, and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate stream. Completion of the project will allow both the 242-A Evaporator and the PUREX Plant to restart. 4 refs.

  20. Systematic screening of plant extracts from the Brazilian Pantanal with antimicrobial activity against bacteria with cariogenic relevance.

    PubMed

    Brighenti, F L; Salvador, M J; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Delbem, Ádina Cleia Bottazzo; Oliveira, M A C; Soares, C P; Freitas, L S F; Koga-Ito, C Y

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes a bioprospection methodology regarding the antimicrobial potential of plant extracts against bacteria with cariogenic relevance. Sixty extracts were obtained from ten plants--(1) Jatropha weddelliana, (2) Attalea phalerata, (3) Buchenavia tomentosa, (4) Croton doctoris, (5) Mouriri elliptica, (6) Mascagnia benthamiana, (7) Senna aculeata, (8) Unonopsis guatterioides, (9) Allagoptera leucocalyx and (10) Bactris glaucescens--using different extraction methods - (A) 70° ethanol 72 h/25°C, (B) water 5 min/100°C, (C) water 1 h/55°C, (D) water 72 h/25°C, (E) hexane 72 h/25°C and (F) 90° ethanol 72 h/25°C. The plants were screened for antibacterial activity at 50 mg/ml using the agar well diffusion test against Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 19039, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35688, Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556, Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 33478 and Streptococcus mitis ATCC 9811. The active extracts were tested to determine their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), cytotoxicity and chemical characterization. Forty-seven extracts (78%) were active against at least one microorganism. Extract 4A demonstrated the lowest MIC and MBC for all microorganisms except S. gordonii and the extract at MIC concentration was non-cytotoxic. The concentrated extracts were slightly cytotoxic. Electrospray ionization with tandem mass spectrometry analyses demonstrated that the extract constituents coincided with the mass of the terpenoids and phenolics. Overall, the best results were obtained for extraction methods A, B and C. The present work proved the antimicrobial activity of several plants. Particularly, extracts from C. doctoris were the most active against bacteria involved in dental caries disease.

  1. Inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages by Jeju plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Yim, Eun-Young; Song, Gwanpil; Kim, Gi-Ok; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced in large amounts by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is known to be responsible for the vasodilation and hypotension observed during septic shock and inflammation. Thus, inhibitors of iNOS may be useful candidates for the treatment of inflammatory diseases accompanied by the overproduction of NO. In this study, we prepared alcoholic extracts of Jeju plants and screened them for their inhibitory activity against NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Among the 260 kinds of plant extract tested, 122 extracts showed potent inhibitory activity towards NO production by more than 25% at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. Plants such as Malus sieboldii, Vaccinium oldhamii, Corylus hallaisanensis, Carpinus laxiflora, Styrax obassia, and Securinega suffruticosa showed the most potent inhibition (above 70%) at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. The cytotoxic effects of the plant extracts were determined by colorimetric MTT assays and most plant extracts exhibited only moderate cytotoxicity at 100 µg/mL. Therefore, these plants should be considered promising candidates for the further purification of bioactive compounds and would be useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases accompanying overproduction of NO. PMID:21217861

  2. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activities in the bark extracts of Sonneratia caseolaris, a mangrove plant

    PubMed Central

    Simlai, Aritra; Rai, Archana; Mishra, Saumya; Mukherjee, Kalishankar; Roy, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the phytochemical contents, antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of bark tissue of Sonneratia caseolaris, a mangrove plant from Sundarban estuary, India. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of high amounts of phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and saponins. Antimicrobial efficacies of various extracts of S. caseolaris were assessed by disc diffusion method against two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus coagulans), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria and one fungus (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The methanolic extract among others showed significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The antioxidant activity as indicated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of the bark tissue extract from the species was found to be quite appreciable. The extracts were found to retain their antimicrobial activities despite pH and thermal treatments, thus indicating the stability of their activity even at extreme conditions. The antioxidant activity was also found to be considerably stable after thermal treatments. The components of the tissue extracts were subjected to separation using thin layer chromatography (TLC). The constituents with antimicrobial and antioxidative properties were identified using TLC-bioautography by agar-overlay and DPPH spraying methods respectively. A number of bioactive constituents with antimicrobial and radical scavenging properties were observed on the developed bioautography plate. The fractions with antimicrobial properties were isolated from the reference TLC plates and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for partial characterization and identification of the metabolites that might be responsible for the activities. The study suggests Sonneratia caseolaris bark as a potential source of bioactive compounds with stable antimicrobial and antioxidative properties and can be used as natural

  3. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activities in the bark extracts of Sonneratia caseolaris, a mangrove plant.

    PubMed

    Simlai, Aritra; Rai, Archana; Mishra, Saumya; Mukherjee, Kalishankar; Roy, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the phytochemical contents, antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of bark tissue of Sonneratia caseolaris, a mangrove plant from Sundarban estuary, India. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of high amounts of phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and saponins. Antimicrobial efficacies of various extracts of S. caseolaris were assessed by disc diffusion method against two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus coagulans), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria and one fungus (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The methanolic extract among others showed significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The antioxidant activity as indicated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of the bark tissue extract from the species was found to be quite appreciable. The extracts were found to retain their antimicrobial activities despite pH and thermal treatments, thus indicating the stability of their activity even at extreme conditions. The antioxidant activity was also found to be considerably stable after thermal treatments. The components of the tissue extracts were subjected to separation using thin layer chromatography (TLC). The constituents with antimicrobial and antioxidative properties were identified using TLC-bioautography by agar-overlay and DPPH spraying methods respectively. A number of bioactive constituents with antimicrobial and radical scavenging properties were observed on the developed bioautography plate. The fractions with antimicrobial properties were isolated from the reference TLC plates and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for partial characterization and identification of the metabolites that might be responsible for the activities. The study suggests Sonneratia caseolaris bark as a potential source of bioactive compounds with stable antimicrobial and antioxidative properties and can be used as natural

  4. Acaricidal activity of the organic extracts of thirteen South African plants against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Fouche, Gerda; Ramafuthula, Mary; Maselela, Vusi; Mokoena, Moses; Senabe, Jeremiah; Leboho, Tlabo; Sakong, Bellonah M; Adenubi, Olubukola T; Eloff, Jacobus N; Wellington, Kevin W

    2016-07-15

    The African blue tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, is a common tick species found in South Africa and affects cattle production as well as vectoring pathogens in regions of Africa and Asia. In an attempt to develop a non-toxic, lower cost and environmentally friendly tick control method, twenty-six plant extracts were prepared from thirteen plant species using 99.5% acetone and 99% ethanol. The adapted Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT) was used to test the efficacy of the extracts. A 1% solution of each of the plant extracts was prepared for efficacy testing and the ethanol extracts were found to have better acaricidal activity than the acetone extracts. The ethanol extract from the leaves and flowers of Calpurnia aurea had the best activity [corrected mortality (CM)=82.9%] which was followed by the stem extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CM=80.4%). The plant species were screened against Vero cells and were found to have low toxicity. From this study it is apparent that there is potential for the development of botanicals as natural acaricides against R. (B.) decoloratus.

  5. Identification of potential plant extracts for anti-tick activity against acaricide resistant cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Kumar, Bhanu; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Bandyopadhyay, A; Julliet, Sanis; Kumar, Rajesh; Rawat, A K S

    2015-05-01

    To develop an eco-friendly tick control method, seven plant extracts were prepared using 50 and 95% ethanol and evaluated for acaricidal activity against cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The adult immersion test was adopted for testing different extracts. Based on 72 h screening criterion, 95% ethanolic extracts of Datura metel fruits and Argemone mexicana whole plant were found effective showing more than 50% mortality of treated ticks. The 95% ethanolic extracts of D. metel fruits and A. mexicana whole plant exhibited acaricidal and reproductive inhibitory effects on treated ticks. The LC90 values of D. metel and A. mexicana extracts were determined as 7.13 and 11.3%, respectively. However, although both the extracts were found efficacious against deltamethrin-resistant IVRI-4 and multi-acaricide resistant IVRI-5 lines of R. (B.) microplus, they caused less mortality than treated ticks of the reference IVRI-I line. Phytochemical studies indicated the presence of alkaloids and glucosides in D. metel fruits and alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolics in A. mexicana whole plant extracts. The results indicated that these botanicals may play an important role in reducing the use of chemicals for tick control and possibly to manage resistant tick population in environment friendly manner.

  6. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss: An endangered medicinal plant in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nejad-Sadeghi, Masoud; Taji, Saeed; Goodarznia, Iraj

    2015-11-27

    Extraction of the essential oil from a medicinal plant called Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss was performed by green technology of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. A Taguchi orthogonal array design with an OA16 (4(5)) matrix was used to evaluate the effects of five extraction variables: pressure of 150-310bar, temperature of 40-60°C, average particle size of 250-1000μm, CO2 flow rate of 2-10ml/s and dynamic extraction time of 30-100min. The optimal conditions to obtain the maximum extraction yield were at 240bar, 60°C, 500μm, 10ml/s and 100min. The extraction yield under the above conditions was 2.72% (w/w) which is more than two times the maximum extraction yield that has been reported for this plant in the literature using traditional extraction techniques. Results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the CO2 flow rate and the extraction time were the most significant factors on the extraction yield by percentage contribution of 44.27 and 28.86, respectively. Finally, the chemical composition of the essential oil was evaluated by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Citral, p-mentha-1,3,8-triene, D-3-carene and methyl geranate were the major components identified.

  7. Cadmium-zinc interactions in plants and extractable cadmium and zinc fractions in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Sabour, M.F.; Mortvedt, J.J.; Kelsoe, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    This study related Cd-Zn concentrations in plants to levels of Cd and Zn in soil recovered by several extractants soon after application of Cd and Zn sources to soil. Cadmium nitrate and ZnSO/sub 4/ or Zn(C/sub 2/H/sub 3/O/sub 2/)/sub 2/ were mixed with a Zn-deficient Crowley silt loam soil, cropped with corn (Zea mays L.), and then cropped with Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris). Applied Cd significantly increased the Cd/Zn ratio in both crops, especially in Swiss chard, which accumulates heavy metals. A previously published sequential-extraction procedure was used to fractionate Cd and Zn in soil after the corn harvest. Results of statistical analyses showed the highest correlation between Cd uptake by each crop and the carbonate and sulfide fractions of Cd in soil. Including other Cd fractions resulted in only slightly higher R/sup 2/ values. Zinc uptake by each crop was best related to the organic fraction of Zn in soil, and including the other Zn fractions did not affect the relationship. These results show that Cd and Zn uptake by corn or Swiss chard was not related to similar chemical fractions of these elements in soil, and that the Cd/Zn ratio in plant tops was significantly affected by both Cd and Zn applications to soil.

  8. Host-extract induced changes in the secretome of the plant pathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum.

    PubMed

    Mattinen, Laura; Nissinen, Riitta; Riipi, Tero; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Pirhonen, Minna

    2007-10-01

    Pectobacterium atrosepticum is a Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacterium that causes rotting in potato stems and tubers. The secreted proteins of this pathogen were analyzed with proteomics from culture supernatant of cells grown in minimal medium supplemented with host extracts. More than 40 proteins were identified, among them known virulence determinants, such as pectic enzymes, metalloprotease, and virulence protein Svx, along with flagella proteins, GroEL and cyclophilin-type chaperones and several hypothetical proteins or proteins with unknown function. Some of the identified proteins may be involved in utilization of nutrients or transport of minerals. Northern and real-time RT-PCR analyses suggested that most of the proteins upregulated by plant extract were transcriptionally regulated. Among the identified proteins were VgrG and four homologs of hemolysin-coregulated proteins (Hcps). A mutant strain lacking one of the hcp genes was not affected in virulence, while a bacterial strain overexpressing the same gene was shown to have increased virulence, which suggests that these proteins may be new virulence determinants of P. atrosepticum. Comparison of the secretomes of wild type cells and hrcC mutant defective in Type III secretion suggested that the production of the identified proteins was independent of functional Type III secretion system.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Compounds in Plant Extracts against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Miyasaki, Yoko; Rabenstein, John D.; Rhea, Joshua; Crouch, Marie-Laure; Mocek, Ulla M.; Kittell, Patricia Emmett; Morgan, Margie A.; Nichols, Wesley Stephen; Van Benschoten, M. M.; Hardy, William David; Liu, George Y.

    2013-01-01

    The number of fully active antibiotic options that treat nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is extremely limited. Magnolia officinalis, Mahonia bealei, Rabdosia rubescens, Rosa rugosa, Rubus chingii, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Terminalia chebula plant extracts were previously shown to have growth inhibitory activity against a multidrug-resistant clinical strain of A. baumannii. In this study, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity were identified by fractionating each plant extract using high performance liquid chromatography, and determining the antimicrobial activity of each fraction against A. baumannii. The chemical structures of the fractions inhibiting >40% of the bacterial growth were elucidated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The six most active compounds were identified as: ellagic acid in Rosa rugosa; norwogonin in Scutellaria baicalensis; and chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, corilagin, and terchebulin in Terminalia chebula. The most potent compound was identified as norwogonin with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 128 µg/mL, and minimum bactericidal concentration of 256 µg/mL against clinically relevant strains of A. baumannii. Combination studies of norwogonin with ten anti-Gram negative bacterial agents demonstrated that norwogonin did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of the synthetic antibiotics chosen for this study. In conclusion, of all identified antimicrobial compounds, norwogonin was the most potent against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of norwogonin for infections due to multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. PMID:23630600

  10. Effects of four tanniferous plant extracts on the in vitro exsheathment of third-stage larvae of parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Bahuaud, D; Martinez-Ortiz de Montellano, C; Chauveau, S; Prevot, F; Torres-Acosta, F; Fouraste, I; Hoste, H

    2006-04-01

    The anthelmintic properties of tanniferous plants and of their secondary metabolites represent one possible alternative to chemotherapy that is currently being explored as a means of achieving sustainable control of gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Previous in vivo and in vitro results suggest that tanniferous plants can have direct anti-parasitic effect against different stages of nematodes. However, the mode of action of the bioactive plant compounds remains obscure. The objectives of the current study were (1) to examine the hypothesis that extracts of tanniferous plants might interfere with the exsheathment of third-stage infective larvae (L3); (2) to assess the role of tannins in the process by examining the consequence of adding an inhibitor of tannins (polyethylene glycol: PEG) to extracts. The effects of 4 tanniferous plant extracts on exsheathment have been examined on L3 of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Artificial exsheathment was induced in vitro by adding hypochloride solution to larval suspension. The evolution of exsheathment with time was measured by repeated observations at 10-min interval for 60 min. The selected plants were: genista (Sarothamnus scoparius), heather (Erica erigena), pine tree (Pinus sylvestris), and chestnut tree (Castanea sativa), with tannin contents ranging from 1.5 to 24.7% of DM. Extracts of a non-tanniferous plant (rye grass, tannin content: 0.3% of DM) were included in the assay as negative controls. The extracts were tested at the concentration of 600 microg/ml and the effects were compared to the rate of exsheathment of control larvae in PBS. No statistical differences in the pattern of exsheathment was observed after addition of rye grass or genista extracts for both nematode species and with heather extracts for T. colubriformis. In contrast, pine tree extracts on larvae of both species and heather extracts with H. contortus induced a significant delay in exsheathment. Last, contact

  11. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts and lignan identified in Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica roots against housefly (Musca domestica L.).

    PubMed

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-05-01

    Medicinal plant extracts from 27 plant species in 20 families were tested for their larvicidal activity against housefly, Musca domestica (L.). Responses varied with plant material and concentration. Among plant species tested, Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica showed 100% larvicidal activity against M. domestica at 10 mg/g concentration. Larvicidal activities of Atractylodes japonica, Saussurea lappa, Asiasarum sieboldi, and Gleditsia japonica var. koraiensis were 89.3%, 85.3%, 93.3%, and 96.6% at 10 mg/g concentration, respectively. Extracts of Prunus persica, Curcuma longa, and Paeonia moutan produced moderate activity. Larvicidal activity of other plant extracts was less than 50%. Among test plant species, P. leptostachya var. asiatica showed the most potent larvicidal activity. The active constituent of P. leptostachya var. asiatica roots was identified as the leptostachyol acetate by spectroscopic analysis. The LC(50) values of leptostachyol acetate against M. domestica larvae were 0.039 mg/g. Naturally occurring medicinal plant extracts and P. leptostachya var. asiatica root-derived compounds merit further study as potential housefly larval control agents or lead compounds.

  12. Pathogenesis-related protein expression in the apoplast of wheat leaves protected against leaf rust following application of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari; Wilson, Neil L; Guest, David; Roberts, Thomas H

    2014-09-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) is a major disease of wheat. We tested aqueous leaf extracts of Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae), Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae), and Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) for their ability to protect wheat from leaf rust. Extracts from all three species inhibited P. triticina urediniospore germination in vitro. Plants sprayed with extracts before inoculation developed significantly lower levels of disease incidence (number of plants infected) than unsprayed, inoculated controls. Sprays combining 0.6% leaf extracts and 2 mM salicylic acid with the fungicide Amistar Xtra at 0.05% (azoxystrobin at 10 μg/liter + cyproconazole at 4 μg/liter) reduced disease incidence significantly more effectively than sprays of fungicide at 0.1% alone. Extracts of J. mimosifolia were most active, either alone (1.2%) or in lower doses (0.6%) in combination with 0.05% Amistar Xtra. Leaf extracts combined with fungicide strongly stimulated defense-related gene expression and the subsequent accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in the apoplast of inoculated wheat leaves. The level of protection afforded was significantly correlated with the ability of extracts to increase PR protein expression. We conclude that pretreatment of wheat leaves with spray formulations containing previously untested plant leaf extracts enhances protection against leaf rust provided by fungicide sprays, offering an alternative disease management strategy.

  13. Detection of a plant enzyme exhibiting chlorogenate-dependant caffeoyltransferase activity in methanolic extracts of arbuscular mycorrhizal tomato roots.

    PubMed

    Negrel, Jonathan; Javelle, Francine; Morandi, Dominique

    2013-05-01

    When Glomus intraradices-colonised tomato roots were extracted in methanol at 6 °C, chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid), naturally present in the extract, was slowly converted by transesterification into methyl caffeate. The progress of the reaction could be monitored by HPLC. The reaction only occurred when the ground roots were left in contact with the hydro-alcoholic extract and required the presence of 15-35% water in the mixture. When the roots were extracted in ethanol, chlorogenic acid was transformed to ethyl caffeate in the same conditions. The reaction was also detected in Glomus mosseae-colonised tomato root extracts. It was also detectable in non-mycorrhizal root extracts but was 10-25 times slower. By contrast it was undetectable in extracts of the aerial parts of tomato plants, which also contain high amounts of chlorogenic acid, whether or not these plants were inoculated by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. We found that this transesterification reaction is catalysed by a tomato enzyme, which remains active in hydro-alcoholic mixtures and exhibits chlorogenate-dependant caffeoyltransferase activity in the presence of methanol or ethanol. This transferase activity is inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. The 4- and 3-caffeoylquinic acid isomers were also used as substrates but were less active than chlorogenic acid. Highest activity was detected in mycorrhizal roots of nutrient-deprived tomato plants. Surprisingly this caffeoyltransferase activity could also be detected in hydro-alcoholic extracts of G. intraradices-colonised roots of leek, sorghum or barrel medic.

  14. Biological Activities of Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    García-Risco, Mónica R; Mouhid, Lamia; Salas-Pérez, Lilia; López-Padilla, Alexis; Santoyo, Susana; Jaime, Laura; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) extracts were obtained by applying two sequential extraction processes: supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, followed by ultrasonic assisted extraction using green solvents (ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50). The extracts were analyzed in terms of the total content of phenolic compounds and the content of flavonoids; the volatile oil composition of supercritical extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and the antioxidant capacity and cell toxicity was determined. Lamiaceae plant extracts presented higher content of phenolics (and flavonoids) than Asteraceae extracts. Regardless of the species studied, the supercritical extracts presented the lowest antioxidant activity and the ethanol:water extracts offered the largest, following the order Origanum majorana > Melissa officinalis ≈ Achillea millefolium > Calendula officinalis. However, concerning the effect on cell toxicity, Asteraceae (especially Achillea millefolium) supercritical extracts were significantly more efficient despite being the less active as an antioxidant agent. These results indicate that the effect on cell viability is not related to the antioxidant activity of the extracts.

  15. Combined effects of plant extracts in inhibiting the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hyejung; Kim, Jinsol; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    A study was done to determine the potential use of plant extracts to inhibit the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal. A total of 2116 extracts were screened for inhibitory activity against B. cereus using an agar well diffusion assay. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal lethal concentrations (MLC) of 14 promising extracts in tryptic soy broth (TSB) were determined. Dryopteris erythrosora (autumn fern) root extract showed the lowest MIC (0.0156 mg/ml), followed by Siegesbeckia glabrescens (Siegesbeckia herb) leaf (0.0313 mg/ml), Morus alba (white mulberry) cortex (0.0313 mg/ml), Carex pumila (sand sedge) root (0.0625 mg/ml), and Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seed (0.0625 mg/ml) extracts. The order of MLCs of extracts was D. erythrosora root (0.0156 mg/ml)extracts against B. cereus in TSB were determined using a checkerboard assay. A combination of D. erythrosora and C. pumila extracts showed a partial synergistic inhibition, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.75. Single and combined inhibitory activities of selected plant extracts against B. cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal were investigated. The MICs of S. glabrescens, M. alba, D. erythrosora, and C. pumila extracts against B. cereus were 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, and 8.0mg/ml, respectively. A combination of D. erythrosora (1.00 mg/ml) and C. pumila (1.00 mg/ml) extracts showed a partial synergistic effect (FICI 0.63) in inhibiting the growth of B. cereus. Results indicate that by co