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Sample records for comprehension reading comprehension

  1. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory.

  2. Comprehension Processes in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition" (D. A. Balota); (3)…

  3. Comprehension of Discourse Markers and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    According to many research findings, the presence of discourse markers (DMs) enhances readers' comprehension of the texts they read. However, there is a paucity of research on the relationship between knowledge of DMs and reading comprehension (RC) and the present study explores the relationship between them. Knowledge of DMs is measured through…

  4. Reading Comprehension Strategy: Rainbow Dots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Claire; Lo, Lusa

    2008-01-01

    An action research study was conducted using the Rainbow Dots strategy to evaluate its effectiveness on reading comprehension skills in a third-grade class with students both with and without a specific learning disability. Results of the study indicated that students' overall performances in reading comprehension have increased. Students also…

  5. The Validity of Reading Comprehension Rate: Reading Speed, Comprehension, and Comprehension Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Christopher H.; Williams, Jacqueline L.; Morrow, Jennifer Ann; Hale, Andre D.; Neddenriep, Christine E.; Hawkins, Renee O.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a secondary analysis of a brief reading comprehension rate measure, percent comprehension questions correct per minute spent reading (%C/M). This measure includes reading speed (seconds to read) in the denominator and percentage of comprehension questions answered correctly in the numerator. Participants were 22 4th-, 29…

  6. Teaching Reading Comprehension through Collaborative Strategic Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Klingner, Janette Kettman

    1999-01-01

    Provides an overview of collaborative strategic reading (CSR) as an approach to enhancing the reading-comprehension skills of students with learning disabilities. Procedures for implementing CSR with collaborative groups and techniques for teaching reading-comprehension skills are provided. The role of the teacher is described and sample teaching…

  7. Reading Strategies and Hypertext Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmeron, Ladislao, Canas, Jose J.; Kintsch, Walter; Fajardo, Immaculada

    2005-01-01

    The literature on assessing the cognitive processes involved in hypertext comprehension during the past 15 years has yielded contradictory results. In this article we explore a possible factor affecting this situation, mainly the fact that previous works did not control for the potential effects on comprehension of reading strategies in hypertext.…

  8. Comprehension Monitoring and Reading Comprehension in Bilingual Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolic-Vehovec, Svjetlana; Bajsanski, Igor

    2007-01-01

    This study explored comprehension monitoring, use of reading strategies and reading comprehension of bilingual students at different levels of perceived proficiency in Italian. The participants were bilingual fifth to eighth-grade elementary school students from four Italian schools in Rijeka, Croatia. Students' reading comprehension was assessed.…

  9. Comprehensibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersson, Rune

    This paper addresses the difficulty involved in creating easily understood information. The act of communicating is not complete until the message has been both received and understood by the audience. Messages must always be comprehensible, otherwise they will have no effect. The readability, legibility, and reading value of a graphic message is…

  10. BASIC TEST OF READING COMPREHENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLOWARD, ROBERT D.; COHEN, S. ALAN

    THE TEST WAS DESIGNED TO ASSESS SPEED OF READING COMPREHENSION. IT CONSISTED OF NUMBERED PASSAGES, ONE TO THREE SENTENCES IN LENGTH, ARRANGED IN PARAGRAPH FORM TO SIMULATE THE NORMAL READING EXERCISE. TOWARD THE END OF EACH PASSAGE, A WORD WAS INSERTED WHICH SPOILED THE MEANING OF THE PASSAGE. THE PUPILS WERE INSTRUCTED TO FIND THE WORD THAT…

  11. Improving Science Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jill Caton; Martin-Hansen, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Students in science classrooms are given numerous opportunities to read expository text in a variety of formats and for a variety of purposes. They read to solve a problem, understand the steps in an experiment, gain base knowledge about a concept, answer their own questions, compare their inquiry results with what others have found, expand their…

  12. Reading Rate and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jodai, Hojat

    2011-01-01

    Reading fluency is one of the most important signs of language proficiency both for native and foreign language speakers (Grabe, 2010; Macalister, 2010; Winston, 2010; Hasbrouck, 2008; Rasinski, 2004; Oakley, 2003; Waldman, 1985; Cited in: Sayenko, 2010, Introduction Para 1). This paper is in the area of reading fluency and tries to investigate…

  13. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The authors review research on children’s reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children’s reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children’s reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers have identified in both laboratory and classroom-based research instructional practices that positively impact students’ reading motivation and ultimately their reading comprehension. There is a strong need for researchers to build on this work and develop and study in different age groups of children effective classroom-based reading motivation instructional programs for a variety of narrative and informational materials. PMID:27617030

  14. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The authors review research on children’s reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children’s reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children’s reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers have identified in both laboratory and classroom-based research instructional practices that positively impact students’ reading motivation and ultimately their reading comprehension. There is a strong need for researchers to build on this work and develop and study in different age groups of children effective classroom-based reading motivation instructional programs for a variety of narrative and informational materials.

  15. Help with Teaching Reading Comprehension: Comprehension Instructional Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Lauren Aimonette; Dole, Janice A.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents five instructional frameworks demonstrated by research as being effective in teaching reading comprehension: (1) The Scaffolded Reading Experience (SRE); (2) Questioning the Author (QtA); (3) Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR); (4) Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS); and (5) Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction…

  16. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  17. How Do We Motivate Reading Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Timothy

    1982-01-01

    Considers the nature of motivation and its place in the development of reading comprehension. Uses A. Maslow's hierarchy of motivation as a heuristic for examining the motivational quality of several teaching methods commonly proposed for comprehension instruction. (FL)

  18. University Students with Poor Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the nature of the working memory and general cognitive ability deficits experienced by university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit. A total of 32 university students with poor reading comprehension but average word-reading skills and 60 age-word-matched controls with no comprehension…

  19. Reading Comprehension in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Glynis; Brown, Heather; Main, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Two studies aimed to investigate the reading comprehension abilities of 14 readers with Down syndrome aged 6 years 8 months to 13 years relative to those of typically developing children matched on word reading ability, and to investigate how these abilities were associated with reading accuracy, listening comprehension, phonological awareness and…

  20. Tests of Reading Comprehension (TORCH) Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgon, J. R.

    A New Zealand pilot study examined Tests of Reading Comprehension (TORCH) scores compared to PAT: Reading Comprehension scores and compared with teacher ratings. TORCH is a reading test package published in 1987 by the Australian Council for Educational Research. It consists of 14 untimed passages intended to assess the extent to which readers in…

  1. Writing Composition Activities to Enhance Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Janet T.

    A program of written composition based on reading comprehension can help students gain greater in-depth understanding of reading materials. Once the reading comprehension skill has been clearly defined for the class, the writing activity can provide clarification by allowing for analysis of the definition through written manipulation of language.…

  2. Reading Comprehension among African American Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Mayes, Eric; Arthur, Leslie; Johnson, Joseph; Robinson, Veronica; Ashe, Shante; Elbedour, Salman; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the reading comprehension performance of African American graduate students. The result showed that though the African American sample attained statistically significantly higher levels of reading comprehension than a normative sample of undergraduate students, they achieved lower levels of reading comprehension…

  3. Effects of Cultural Familiarity on Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Yoshinori; And Others

    A study investigated the effect of cultural background on reading comprehension, specifically examining content knowledge (schemata) and overall familiarity with the setting. It tested the hypothesis that when a setting is familiar to readers, the text will be most readable, and will yield the shortest time to read, the best comprehension, and the…

  4. Learning Goals during Reading Comprehension Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schunk, Dale H.; Rice, Jo Mary

    A study investigated the effects of goal setting on children's self-efficacy and skillful performance during reading comprehension instruction. Subjects, 17 fourth graders and 16 fifth graders from one elementary school, had regularly received remedial reading comprehension instruction. Subjects were administered a pretest consisting of a…

  5. Strategy Value Information and Children's Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schunk, Dale H.; Rice, Jo Mary

    A study conducted during a training program, in which students were learning to find main ideas, investigated how different kinds of strategy value information influenced children's reading comprehension. Subjects, 15 fourth-grade and 15 fifth-grade students who regularly received remedial reading comprehension instruction, were divided into three…

  6. A Low Vision Reading Comprehension Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, G. R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Fifty adults (ages 28-86) with macular degeneration were given the Low Vision Reading Comprehension Assessment (LVRCA) to test its reliability and validity in evaluating the reading comprehension of those with vision impairments. The LVRCA was found to take only nine minutes to administer and was a valid and reliable tool. (CR)

  7. Reading Strategies or Comprehension Monitoring Strategies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yu-Fen

    2006-01-01

    In order to probe the relationship between reading strategies and comprehension monitoring strategies and how they function to help readers in comprehension process, the present study utilizes think-aloud and retrospective verbal reports to examine 20 EFL readers' performances in reading texts. The results reveal that the engagement of reading…

  8. Effectiveness of Four Supplemental Reading Comprehension Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James-Burdumy, Susanne; Deke, John; Gersten, Russell; Lugo-Gil, Julieta; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca; Dimino, Joseph; Haymond, Kelly; Liu, Albert Yung-Hsu

    2012-01-01

    This article presents evidence from a large-scale randomized controlled trial of the effects of four supplemental reading comprehension curricula (Project CRISS, ReadAbout, Read for Real, and Reading for Knowledge) on students' understanding of informational text. Across 2 school years, the study included 10 school districts, more than 200…

  9. Improving Reading Rates and Comprehension through Timed Repeated Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna C-S.; Millett, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen English as a foreign language students read 26 passages during a 13-week period. Each passage was read five times, and students answered comprehension questions after the first and the fifth reading. Another 13 students read the same number of passages but without repetition and only answered the comprehension questions once. All students…

  10. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Catts, Hugh W; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

    2016-09-01

    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension difficulties in third grade. A total of 366 children were administered a battery of screening measures at the beginning of kindergarten and progress monitoring probes across the school year. A subset of children also received a 26-week Tier 2 language intervention. Participants' achievement in word reading was assessed at the end of second grade, and their performance in reading comprehension was measured as the end of third grade. Results showed that measures of language ability in kindergarten significantly added to the prediction of reading comprehension difficulties over and above kindergarten word reading predictors and direct measures of word reading in second grade. Response to language intervention also proved to be a unique predictor of reading comprehension outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for the early identification of reading disabilities.

  11. Using Peer Tutors to Improve Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGue, Kristina M.; Wilson, Katrina

    2010-01-01

    The influential report "Teaching Children to Read: An Evidenced-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction" presented recommendations for daily literacy instruction in five key areas: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Applying techniques to…

  12. Unknown Vocabulary Density and Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsueh-Chao, Marcella Hu; Nation, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Examines what percentage of coverage of text is needed for unassisted reading for pleasure, where learners are able to read without the interruption of looking up words. Looks at the effect of three densities of unknown vocabulary on two measures of reading comprehension, a multiple-choice test and a cued written recall test. (Author/VWL)

  13. The Psychology of Reading and Language Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Just, Marcel Adam; Carpenter, Patricia A.

    This book, intended for researchers in the psychology of reading and language, college students in psychology and education, teachers of reading, and educators in general, is designed to be used in a course on the psychology of reading or the psychology of language comprehension. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "An Introduction and…

  14. National Survey of Reading Comprehension in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Juhani E.; Scheinin, Patrik; Kupiainen, Sirkku; Hautamaki, Jarkko

    2001-01-01

    Examines the cognitively high-level text processing, or macro-processing, of expository passages. Investigates reading comprehension during the sixth and ninth school years. Finds that girls outperformed boys regardless of the comprehension measure and also finds that performance on both measures, but particularly on hierarchy-rating, correlated…

  15. Improving Reading Comprehension in the Content Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durley, Jill; Emlen, Rita; Knox, Kimberly; Meeker, Marcia; Rhea, Peggy

    This report describes a program implemented to improve reading comprehension in the content areas. The targeted population will consist of students in grades two, three, four, and five, in five midwestern schools, four public and one private. The problem of poor comprehension will be documented through test scores, parent and student surveys, and…

  16. Monitoring Local Comprehension Monitoring in Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstius, Christian; Radach, Ralph; Mayer, Michael B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    on ways to improve children's reading comprehension. However, processes and mechanisms underlying this skill are currently not well understood. This article describes one of the first attempts to study comprehension monitoring using eye-tracking methodology. Students in…

  17. The Assessment of Reading Comprehension Difficulties for Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Gary

    2008-01-01

    There are many environmental and personal factors that contribute to reading success. Reading comprehension is a complex interaction of language, sensory perception, memory, and motivational aspects. However, most existing assessment tools have not adequately reflected the complex nature of reading comprehension. Good assessment requires a…

  18. Peer Tutors Improve Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGue, Kristina M.; Wilson, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The influential report "Teaching Children to Read: An Evidenced-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction," published by the National Reading Panel in 2000, presented recommendations for daily literacy instruction in five key areas: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency,…

  19. Electronic Books: Children's Reading and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimshaw, Shirley; Dungworth, Naomi; McKnight, Cliff; Morris, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in children's comprehension and enjoyment of storybooks according to the medium of presentation. Two different storybooks were used and 132 children participated. Of these, 51 children read an extract from "The Magicians of Caprona," about half reading an electronic version with an online dictionary, and the…

  20. Vocabulary Acquisition: Implications for Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard K., Ed.; Muse, Andrea E., Ed.; Tannenbaum, Kendra R., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding a text requires more than the ability to read individual words: it depends greatly on vocabulary knowledge. This important book brings together leading literacy scholars to synthesize cutting-edge research on vocabulary development and its connections to reading comprehension. The volume also reviews an array of approaches to…

  1. Effects of Instructional Method on Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewalt, Mark; And Others

    The relationship between type of reading instruction (whole language or basal) and reading comprehension as measured by the California Achievement Test (CAT) was investigated. Nineteen third- and fourth-grade teachers from school 5 districts in North Carolina took part in the project with 215 students in the basal group and 200 students in the…

  2. Using Image Analysis to Build Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sarah Drake; Swope, John

    2010-01-01

    Content area reading remains a primary concern of history educators. In order to better prepare students for encounters with text, the authors propose the use of two image analysis strategies tied with a historical theme to heighten student interest in historical content and provide a basis for improved reading comprehension.

  3. Aspects of Semantic Theory and Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeremiah, Milford A.

    This paper investigates the ways readers use two semantic tools, synonymy and entailment, when responding to reading-comprehension questions. After a brief overview of semantic theory, two reading passages and their attendant multiple-choice questions are analyzed, demonstrating how readers might choose the correct answer by analyzing the way it…

  4. Comprehension: The Key to Reading Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Kim; Del Santo, Jolene; Scheiner, Deb; Skok, Elly; Tucci, Leah Rae

    This report describes a program for using explicit instruction of reading strategies through the implementation of guided reading groups to improve student comprehension. The targeted population consisted of elementary school students in growing, middle class communities, located in northern Illinois. Evidence for the existence of a deficiency of…

  5. Reading Comprehension: From Research to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orasanu, Judith, Ed.

    In response to recommendations by a National Institute of Education (NIE) planning group to the effect that NIE should support efforts to understand the cognitive processes involved in acquiring basic reading skills and in comprehending linguistic messages, this book summarizes what has been learned about reading comprehension in the decade since…

  6. Improving Early Reading Comprehension Using Embodied CAI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenberg, Arthur M.; Goldberg, Andrew B.; Zhu, Xiaojin

    2011-01-01

    An embodied approach to reading comprehension suggests that emerging readers must learn to map words and phrases onto their remembered experiences, but this is made difficult by the necessity of focusing attention on decoding. Having children manipulate toys to correspond to what they are reading overcomes this problem, but introduces its own…

  7. The "RAP" on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagaman, Jessica L.; Luschen, Kati; Reid, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Reading problems are one of the most frequent reasons students are referred for special education services and the disparity between students with reading difficulties and those who read successfully appears to be increasing. As a result, there is now an emphasis on early intervention programs such as RTI. In many cases, early intervention in…

  8. A Cognitive View of Reading Comprehension: Implications for Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne; Karlsson, Josefine

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in the present paper is to discuss a "cognitive view" of reading comprehension, with particular attention to research findings that have the potential to improve our understanding of difficulties in reading comprehension. We provide an overview of how specific sources of difficulties in inference making, executive functions, and…

  9. Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Teacher Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first-…

  10. Eye-movement rhythmicity and reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of these two studies was to examine the rhythmical patterns displayed by subjects with and without reading disabilities while they were reading (Study 1), and to vary rhythmicity through priming and observe the effects on parsing ability using eye-movement and comprehension measures (Study 2). Rhythmicity during silent reading was operationalized by transcribing eye-movement measures into pitch, rhythm, and rests. In Study 1, 17 subjects with reading disabilities and 15 control subjects (M age = 15, male = 60%) parsed 20 flawed and control sentences. In Study 2, 35 control subjects (M age = 21, male = 43%) parsed 9 phrases from familiar songs under one of three rhythm-priming conditions. Results (Study 1) indicated significant differences in rhythm patterns. Subjects with reading disabilities exhibited rhythm variability, unpredictability, and lethargic tempos. In Study 2, significant differences across priming conditions were found, with primed subjects exhibiting improved parsing and comprehension. Rhythm may be an organizational substrate for syntax.

  11. Relationships of Three Components of Reading Fluency to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauda, Susan Lutz; Guthrie, John T.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships of 3 levels of reading fluency--the individual word, the syntactic unit, and the whole passage--to reading comprehension among 278 5th graders heterogeneous in reading ability. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that reading fluency at each level related uniquely to performance on a standardized reading…

  12. Shadow-Reading Effect on Reading Comprehension: Actualization of Interactive Reading Comprehension: (A Vygotskyan View!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Elahe; Afghari, Akbar; Zarei, Gholam-Reza

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension has been the main concern for second language learners and researchers. Today with rising interests towards Vygotskyan Sociocultural Theory (SCT), attempts have been made to insert Vygotskyan approach into Foreign/Second Language classrooms emphasizing the role of scaffolding and meaningful interactions to promote learners'…

  13. An Insight on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Edward R.

    1969-01-01

    Emphasizes the necessity of teaching disadvantaged students to organize and classify material and to attend to detail. It presents methods of alerting students to these things and to constructions found in literary language. Intelligent, creative reading, not speed, is the ultimate goal. Bibliography. (RW)

  14. Instructional Approaches that Significantly Increase Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Cathy Collins; Parris, Sheri R.; Reed, Kelly L.; Whiteley, Cinnamon S.; Cleveland, Maggie D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the most widely used literacy instructional approaches on the reading comprehension of Grade 2-6 students. Participants (N = 660) were enrolled in 4 districts in the United States; 53% were male (n = 348) and 47% were female (n = 312); 51% were Caucasian (n = 338), 23% were African American…

  15. Developing Reading Comprehension through Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-Drummond, Sylvia; Mazón, Nancy; Littleton, Karen; Vélez, Maricela

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores the development and promotion of reading comprehension in primary school students, in the context of the implementation of an educational programme called "Learning Together" (LT). The programme, which centred on collaborative learning activities, was designed to promote oral and written communication in…

  16. Single Parenting and Reading Comprehension Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Eugene W.; Smidchens, Uldis

    In a sample of more than 400 fifth grade students, the reading comprehension levels of children living with both parents and children living with only one parent were compared. Data were collected on the demographic variables of race, student sex, family organization (two parents/one parent), parent educational level, family occupational prestige,…

  17. Retell as an Indicator of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative synthesis is to determine the reliability and validity of retell protocols for assessing reading comprehension of students in grades K-12. Fifty-four studies were systematically coded for data related to the administration protocol, scoring procedures, and technical adequacy of the retell component. Retell was…

  18. Measuring Reading Comprehension with the Lexile Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenner, A. Jackson

    This paper shows how the concept of general objectivity can be used to improve behavioral science measurement, particularly as it applies to the Lexile Framework, a tool for objectively measuring reading comprehension. It begins with a dialogue between a physicist and a psychometrician that details some of the differences between physical science…

  19. Developing Reading Comprehension with Moving Image Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine, Fiona; Shields, Robin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a small-scale exploratory study that investigated how moving-image narratives might enable children to develop transferable reading comprehension strategies. Using short, animated, narrative films, 28 primary-aged children engaged in a 10-week programme that included the explicit instruction of comprehension…

  20. Improving Reading Comprehension through Explicit Summarization Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elledge, Deborah Harding

    2013-01-01

    Research over the last several decades has revealed that adolescents in the United States are leaving school with insufficient literacy skills to compete in the global marketplace. A primary contributor to poor literacy rates is poor reading comprehension. The purpose of this research was to develop and test the efficacy of a protocol for teaching…

  1. Early Prediction of Reading Comprehension within the Simple View Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catts, Hugh W.; Herrera, Sarah; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner

    2015-01-01

    The simple view of reading proposes that reading comprehension is the product of word reading and language comprehension. In this study, we used the simple view framework to examine the early prediction of reading comprehension abilities. Using multiple measures for all constructs, we assessed word reading precursors (i.e., letter knowledge,…

  2. The Importance of Metacognitive Reading Strategy Awareness in Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Abdullah, Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan

    2013-01-01

    Metacognitive reading strategy awareness plays a significant role in reading comprehension and educational process. In spite of its importance, metacognitive strategy has long been the ignored skill in English language teaching, research, learning, and assessment. This lack of good metacognitive reading strategy skill is exacerbated by the central…

  3. Reading Attitudes as a Predictor of Latino Adolescents' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Robert Glenn, III.

    2013-01-01

    Although literacy skills have been associated with critical academic, social, and economic outcomes, most adolescents in the United States lack basic proficiency in reading comprehension. Experts in the field of adolescent literacy have identified affective components of reading (e.g., reading attitudes) as a critical topic in need of further…

  4. Developing Reading Skills: A Practical Guide to Reading Comprehension Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grellet, Francoise

    This book is presented for teachers who do not use a reading course and who wish to produce their own material as well as for individuals developing materials for tailor-made courses. Various types of reading comprehension exercises are described and classified. The exercise-types suggested can be adapted for all reading levels. The book begins…

  5. Predicting individual differences in reading comprehension: a twin study.

    PubMed

    Harlaar, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dethorne, Laura S; Justice, Laura M; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A; Petrill, Stephen A

    2010-12-01

    We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap among phonological decoding, word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension was primarily due to genetic influences. Shared environmental influences accounted for associations among word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Independent of phonological decoding and word recognition, there was a separate genetic link between listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension and a specific shared environmental link between vocabulary and reading comprehension. There were no residual genetic or environmental influences on reading comprehension. The findings provide evidence for a genetic basis to the "Simple View" of reading.

  6. Retell as an Indicator of Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Deborah K.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative synthesis is to determine the reliability and validity of retell protocols for assessing reading comprehension of students in grades K–12. Fifty-four studies were systematically coded for data related to the administration protocol, scoring procedures, and technical adequacy of the retell component. Retell was moderately correlated with standardized measures of reading comprehension and, with older students, had a lower correlation with decoding and fluency. Literal information was retold more frequently than inferential, and students with learning disabilities or reading difficulties needed more supports to demonstrate adequate recall. Great variability was shown in the prompting procedures, but scoring methods were more consistent across studies. The influences of genre, background knowledge, and organizational features were often specific to particular content, texts, or students. Overall, retell has not yet demonstrated adequacy as a progress monitoring instrument. PMID:23125521

  7. Retell as an Indicator of Reading Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Reed, Deborah K; Vaughn, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative synthesis is to determine the reliability and validity of retell protocols for assessing reading comprehension of students in grades K-12. Fifty-four studies were systematically coded for data related to the administration protocol, scoring procedures, and technical adequacy of the retell component. Retell was moderately correlated with standardized measures of reading comprehension and, with older students, had a lower correlation with decoding and fluency. Literal information was retold more frequently than inferential, and students with learning disabilities or reading difficulties needed more supports to demonstrate adequate recall. Great variability was shown in the prompting procedures, but scoring methods were more consistent across studies. The influences of genre, background knowledge, and organizational features were often specific to particular content, texts, or students. Overall, retell has not yet demonstrated adequacy as a progress monitoring instrument.

  8. A dynamic developmental link between verbal comprehension-knowledge (Gc) and reading comprehension: verbal comprehension-knowledge drives positive change in reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Turek, Joshua J

    2012-12-01

    Intelligence and general academic achievement have a well-established relation, but the interrelated development of the two constructs over time is less well-known. In this study, the dynamic developmental relation between verbal comprehension-knowledge (Gc) and reading comprehension was examined by applying bivariate dual change score models (McArdle, 2009) to longitudinal data collected from children aged 9 through 15 who were part of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (NICHD SECCYD). A unidirectional dynamic link was found in which higher levels of prior Gc led to increased positive change in reading comprehension scores. This unidirectional link was not altered by including intelligence measured at 24-months, SES, sex, basic reading, and reading volume as time-invariant covariates. Gc is a leading indicator of reading comprehension and should be considered when developing and monitoring long-term reading comprehension interventions for children.

  9. Readability and Its Effects on Reading Rate, Subjective Judgments of Comprehensibility and Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Esther U.

    Prose passages read aloud or silently were rated for pronounceability and comprehensibility. The relationships of text-derived readability indices to reading rate, comprehensibility ratings and comprehension test scores were explored. Reading rate in syllables per minute was unrelated to readability. The high correlation between rate in words per…

  10. Promoting Different Reading Comprehension Levels through Online Annotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Sheng-Shiang; Yeh, Hui-Chin; Yang, Shih-hsien

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have evaluated reading comprehension as the general understanding of reading texts. However, this broad and generic assessment of reading comprehension overlooks the specific aspects and processes that students need to develop. This study adopted Kintsch's Construction-Integration model to tap into reading comprehension at…

  11. Reading Fluency as an Indicator of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basaran, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between fourth grade primary school students' reading habits/conditions/ situations and their comprehension regarding what they read. For this purpose, a correlational survey method was used in the study. 90 fourth-grade students who were attending a state primary school in the center of Ku¨tahya…

  12. Word Reading and Reading Comprehension: Stability, Overlap and Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Defries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal twin data were analyzed to investigate the etiology of the stability of genetic and environmental influences on word reading and reading comprehension, as well as the stability of those influences on their relationship. Participating twin pairs were initially tested at a mean age of 10.3 years, and retested approximately five years…

  13. Calibration of Comprehension and Performance in L2 Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarac, Seda; Tarhan, Betul

    2009-01-01

    Comprehension monitoring is crucial for successful reading. Although the researchers appreciate the importance of comprehension monitoring in L2 reading, there are only a few studies done on the comprehension monitoring ability of L2 readers. The main aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension monitoring abilities of university…

  14. How Reading Comprehension Is Embodied and Why That Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenberg, Arthur M.

    2011-01-01

    Reading comprehension, much like comprehension of situations and comprehension of oral language, is embodied. In all cases, comprehension is the ability to take effective action on the basis of affordances related to the body, the physical world, and personal goals and cultural norms. In language contexts, action-based comprehension arises from…

  15. Developing Reading Comprehension Modules to Facilitate Reading Comprehension among Malaysian Secondary School ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to develop a set of 6 Reading Comprehension Modules (RCMs) for Malaysian ESL teachers to facilitate different reading abilities of ESL students effectively. Different skill categories were selected for developing the RCMs. This article describes how and why diverse texts of varying length were adopted and adapted from various…

  16. Reading Comprehension--A Critical Analysis of Selected Factors Affecting Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlak, Stephen A.

    The purpose of this study were to survey scientific research, professional literature, and doctoral dissertations on reading comprehension done from 1948 to 1972, to identify the reading factors believed to affect reading comprehension, to analyze the identified reading factors by studying the major available research and related literature, to…

  17. Retrieval Speed in Reading Comprehension: Failure to Generalize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobowitz, Tina; Haupt, Edward J.

    To determine whether the Posner task, which measures the speed at which information is retrieved from the long term memory, improves prediction of reading comprehension, 121 students from reading and study skills and teacher education courses were administered the Posner task and listening comprehension, reading comprehension, and SAT verbal…

  18. Overlapping genetic and child-specific nonshared environmental influences on listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Victoria J; Petrill, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the genetic and environmental influences on observed associations between listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension. Univariate and multivariate quantitative genetic models were conducted in a sample of 284 pairs of twins at a mean age of 9.81 years. Genetic and nonshared environmental factors accounted for statistically significant variance in listening and reading comprehension, and nonshared environmental factors accounted for variance in reading motivation. Furthermore, listening comprehension demonstrated unique genetic and nonshared environmental influences but also had overlapping genetic influences with reading comprehension. Reading motivation and reading comprehension each had unique and overlapping nonshared environmental contributions. Therefore, listening comprehension appears to be related to reading primarily due to genetic factors whereas motivation appears to affect reading via child-specific, nonshared environmental effects.

  19. Specific Reading Comprehension Disability: Major Problem, Myth, or Misnomer?

    PubMed

    Spencer, Mercedes; Quinn, Jamie M; Wagner, Richard K

    2014-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to test three competing hypotheses about the nature of comprehension problems of students who are poor in reading comprehension. Participants in the study were first, second, and third graders, totaling 9 cohorts and over 425,000 participants in all. The pattern of results was consistent across all cohorts: Less than one percent of first- through third-grade students who scored as poor in reading comprehension were adequate in both decoding and vocabulary. Although poor reading comprehension certainly qualifies as a major problem rather than a myth, the term specific reading comprehension disability is a misnomer: Individuals with problems in reading comprehension that are not attributable to poor word recognition have comprehension problems that are general to language comprehension rather than specific to reading. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed.

  20. "Passageless" Administration of the Nelson-Denny Reading Comprehension Test: Associations with IQ and Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Rebecca E.; Chaudhry, Maheen F.; Schatz, Kelly C.; Strazzullo, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). "The Nelson-Denny Reading Test" (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension test…

  1. A Dynamic Developmental Link between Verbal Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc) and Reading Comprehension: Verbal Comprehension-Knowledge Drives Positive Change in Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Matthew R.; Turek, Joshua J.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence and general academic achievement have a well-established relation, but the interrelated development of the two constructs over time is less well-known. In this study, the dynamic developmental relation between verbal comprehension-knowledge (Gc) and reading comprehension was examined by applying bivariate dual change score models…

  2. The Role of First-Language Listening Comprehension in Second-Language Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edele, Aileen; Stanat, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Although the simple view of reading and other theories suggest that listening comprehension is an important determinant of reading comprehension, previous research on linguistic transfer has mainly focused on the role of first language (L1) decoding skills in second language (L2) reading. The present study tested the assumption that listening…

  3. Reading Comprehension and Understanding Idiomatic Expressions: A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiara Levorato, Maria; Nesi, Barbara; Cacciari, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate idiom comprehension in school-age Italian children with different reading comprehension skills. According to our hypothesis, the level of a child's text comprehension skills should predict his/her ability to understand idiomatic meanings. Idiom comprehension in fact requires children to go beyond a…

  4. A Case for the Sentence in Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Cheryl M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article addresses sentence comprehension as a requirement of reading comprehension within the framework of the narrow view of reading that was advocated in the prologue to this forum. The focus is on the comprehension requirements of complex sentences, which are characteristic of school texts. Method: Topics included in this…

  5. Reading Comprehension: What Every Teacher Needs to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes ten principles through which she examines the essentials of teaching reading comprehension. Topics explored include the nature of reading comprehension and the roles of good readers and influential teachers. Related issues include motivation, comprehension strategies, explicit instruction, and vocabulary.…

  6. The Effect of Explicit Teaching of Comprehension Strategies on Reading Comprehension in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, James Grant

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of explicit teaching of comprehension strategies on the comprehension performance of elementary school students. Two schools with similar demographics, including a significant proportion of students at risk for reading failure, participated in the study. One school utilized an explicit comprehension strategy…

  7. Retrieval Speed as a Determinant of Adult Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupt, Edward J.; Jacobowitz, Tina

    More than 100 college students enrolled in a reading and study skills course participated in a study designed to show the effects of retrieval speed on adult reading comprehension. A microcomputer version of the Posner task was used to measure memory retrieval speed, and reading and listening comprehension were measured from McCall-Crabbs…

  8. Reading Comprehension Strategies: An International Comparison of Teacher Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott; Hiller, Florian

    2013-01-01

    In response to international concern over poor reading skills among adolescent learners, teachers of these students are encouraged to integrate reading comprehension instruction into their classrooms. To increase the likelihood that reading comprehension strategies are effectively used in schools, teachers in all content areas need extensive…

  9. A Comparison of Deaf and Hearing Children's Reading Comprehension Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although deaf children typically exhibit severe delays in reading achievement, there is a paucity of research looking at their text-level comprehension skills. We present a comparison of deaf and normally hearing readers' profiles on a commonly used reading comprehension assessment: the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability II. Methods:…

  10. Improving Reading Comprehension by Predicting, Monitoring Comprehension, Remediation, and Personal Response Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobucci, Leanne; Richert, Judy; Ronan, Susan; Tanis, Ariana

    This report describes a program for improving inconsistent reading comprehension. The targeted population consisted of first, third, and fifth grade classrooms in a diverse middle class community located in Illinois. The problems of low academic achievement were documented through teacher observation, reading comprehension test scores, and low…

  11. Comparison of the Efficiency of Reading Comprehension Strategies on Iranian University Students' Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fotovatian, Sepideh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the strategies used by English as a foreign language (EFL) or second language (ESL) readers can help instructors teach these techniques and thereby enhance their students' reading comprehension. The present study compared three categories of reading comprehension strategies (metacognitive, cognitive, and socio-affective) to determine…

  12. THE CONTRIBUTION OF EXECUTIVE SKILLS TO READING COMPREHENSION

    PubMed Central

    Sesma, Heather Whitney; Mahone, E. Mark; Levine, Terry; Eason, Sarah H.; Cutting, Laurie E.

    2009-01-01

    Although word recognition deficits (WRD) are a known cause of reading comprehension deficits (RCD), other contributions to RCD, including executive function (EF), have not been fully explored. We examined the contribution of EF (working memory and planning), along with attention, decoding, fluency, and vocabulary to reading comprehension in 60 children (including 16 WRD and 10 RCD), ages 9–15 years. After controlling for commonly accepted contributors to reading comprehension (i.e., attention, decoding skills, fluency, and vocabulary), EF continued to make a significant contribution to reading comprehension but not to word recognition skills. These findings highlight the need for consideration of the role of EF in RCD. PMID:18629674

  13. Early Oral Language Comprehension, Task Orientation, and Foundational Reading Skills as Predictors of Grade 3 Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepola, Janne; Lynch, Julie; Kiuru, Noona; Laakkonen, Eero; Niemi, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    The present five-year longitudinal study from preschool to grade 3 examined the developmental associations among oral language comprehension, task orientation, reading precursors, and reading fluency, as well as their role in predicting grade 3 reading comprehension. Ninety Finnish-speaking students participated in the study. The students' oral…

  14. Revisiting the "Simple View of Reading" in a Group of Children with Poor Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.; Hayward, Denyse

    2009-01-01

    According to Gough and Tunmer's Simple View of Reading, Reading Comprehension = Decoding (D) x Listening Comprehension (C). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the model with a sample of First Nations children, known to have average decoding and listening comprehension but poor reading comprehension. In addition, the authors examined the…

  15. Monitoring Reading Comprehension by Thinking Aloud. Instructional Resource No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; And Others

    A think-aloud instructional program was developed to help students acquire the ability to monitor their reading comprehension and to employ various strategies to deal with comprehension breakdowns. Several research studies indicate that comprehension monitoring abilities discriminate successful readers from less successful ones and that…

  16. The Role of Speech Prosody and Text Reading Prosody in Children's Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Text reading prosody has been associated with reading comprehension. However, text reading prosody is a reading-dependent measure that relies heavily on decoding skills. Investigation of the contribution of speech prosody--which is independent from reading skills--in addition to text reading prosody, to reading comprehension could…

  17. Role of Reading Engagement in Mediating Effects of Reading Comprehension Instruction on Reading Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigfield, Allan; Guthrie, John T.; Perencevich, Kathleen C.; Taboada, Ana; Klauda, Susan Lutz; McRae, Angela; Barbosa, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The engagement model of reading development suggests that instruction improves students' reading comprehension to the extent that it increases students' engagement processes in reading. We compared how Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) (support for cognitive and motivational processes in reading), strategy instruction (support for…

  18. Effects of Differentiated Reading on Elementary Students' Reading Comprehension and Attitudes toward Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Evans, Linda; Ferron, John; Lindo, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, we examined the effects of a differentiated reading approach on fourth grade students' reading comprehension and attitudes toward reading. Eight Title I schools within one urban district were randomly assigned to treatment (Schoolwide Enrichment Model-Reading [SEM-R]) or control (district reading curriculum) conditions.…

  19. Correlates of Early Reading Comprehension Skills: A Componential Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babayigit, Selma; Stainthorp, Rhona

    2014-01-01

    This study had three main aims. First, we examined to what extent listening comprehension, vocabulary, grammatical skills and verbal short-term memory (VSTM) assessed prior to formal reading instruction explained individual differences in early reading comprehension levels. Second, we examined to what extent the three common component skills,…

  20. Investigating the Relationship between Connectives and Readers' Reading Comprehension Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gençer, Yusuf; ÇetiInkaya, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between connectives in Turkish texts and readers' reading comprehension. Research was conducted with a total of 50 teachers. In the study group, readers' reading comprehension was determined through 10 descriptive texts by using open-ended questions. The results of the analysis revealed…

  1. Riddle Appreciation and Reading Comprehension in Cantonese-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Ivy N. Y.; To, Carol K. S.; Weekes, Brendan S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Inference-making skills are necessary for reading comprehension. Training in riddle appreciation is an effective way to improve reading comprehension among English-speaking children. However, it is not clear whether these methods generalize to other writing systems. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between…

  2. The Assessment of Reading Comprehension: Considerations and Cautions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lynn; Caccamise, Donna; Wise, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the main purposes of reading comprehension assessment and identifies the key features of good assessment. The article also identifies pitfalls that clinicians and educators should avoid to conduct valid assessments of reading comprehension, such as the degree to which the measure taps the constructive and integrative…

  3. Critical Reading Comprehension in an Era of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comber, Barbara; Nixon, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues for the need for critical reading comprehension in an era of accountability that often promotes reading comprehension as readily assessable through students answering multiple choice questions of unseen texts. Based upon a 1 year study investigating literacy in Years 4-9 the ways strong-performing primary schools develop serious…

  4. Accessibility of Segmented Reading Comprehension Passages for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Kao, Jenny C.; Leon, Seth; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Sullivan, Lisa; Herman, Joan; Pope, Rita

    2010-01-01

    This study explores factors that affect the accessibility of reading comprehension assessments for students with disabilities in grade 8 public school classrooms. The study consisted of assessing students using reading comprehension passages that were broken down into shorter "segments" or "chunks" in order to assess the validity and effectiveness…

  5. The Association between Mathematical Word Problems and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilenius-Tuohimaa, Piia Maria; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interplay between mathematical word problem skills and reading comprehension. The participants were 225 children aged 9-10 (Grade 4). The children's text comprehension and mathematical word problem-solving performance was tested. Technical reading skills were investigated in order to categorise participants as…

  6. Contribution of Morphological Awareness to Second-Language Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the contribution of second-language (L2) morphological awareness to foreign language reading comprehension. Tenth graders (n = 188) at a South Korean high school were assessed on 6 reading- and language-related variables: phonological decoding, listening comprehension, vocabulary knowledge, passage-level reading…

  7. Reading Comprehension and Autism in the Primary General Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Neal Nghia; Leytham, Patrick; Schaefer Whitby, Peggy; Gelfer, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a critical building block for effective early literacy development. Many students with autism spectrum disorder demonstrate difficulties in reading comprehension. These difficulties may be attributed to deficits in Theory of Mind, Weak Central Coherence, and Executive Functioning. Given the rise in the number of students…

  8. Intercultural Rhetoric and Reading Comprehension in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Intercultural rhetoric has been studied in the context of second language writing for many decades. This article looks at the topic from a new perspective and offers an experimental study of the effects of intercultural rhetoric on reading comprehension. The experiment was set in Hong Kong, China, and assessed the reading comprehension (using a…

  9. Longitudinal Correlates of Reading Comprehension Difficulties in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Juan; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Zhang, Yuping

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the early predictors of reading comprehension difficulties in Chinese children. We originally recruited 290 Beijing and 154 Hong Kong children and further selected from each sample those (30 from Beijing and 22 from Hong Kong sample) in the lowest 25% on reading comprehension tests across the last two consecutive testing…

  10. Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nergis, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

  11. Effects of Comprehension Skill on Inference Generation during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Sarah E.; van den Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen; Rapp, David N.; Bohn-Gettler, Catherine M.; Kendeou, Panayiota; White, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between readers with different levels of comprehension skill when engaging in a causal questioning activity during reading, and the varied effects on inference generation. Fourth-grade readers (n?=?74) with different levels of comprehension skill read narrative texts aloud and were asked…

  12. The Effect of Text Types on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ayfer

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this study is to determine the effect of narrative and informative text types on Reading Comprehension levels of Primary Education 4th and 5th grade students. Application was fulfilled in 2011-2012 academic year with 134 students in a primary education school in Province Kirsehir. Reading comprehension tests prepared according to text types…

  13. Effects on Reading Comprehension of Building Background Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patricia

    1982-01-01

    The effects on reading comprehension of prior cultural experience were assessed in a study of 72 advanced ESL students reading about Halloween. Prior cultural experience was found to be helpful, but exposure to meanings of target vocabulary words had no significant effect on comprehension. (Author/MSE)

  14. Word Knowledge in a Theory of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfetti, Charles; Stafura, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    We reintroduce a wide-angle view of reading comprehension, the Reading Systems Framework, which places word knowledge in the center of the picture, taking into account the progress made in comprehension research and theory. Within this framework, word-to-text integration processes can serve as a model for the study of local comprehension…

  15. Metacognitive Strategies and Reading Comprehension in Elementary-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolic-Vehovec, Svjetlana; Bajsanski, Igor

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore comprehension monitoring and perceived use of reading strategies as factors of reading comprehension. Participants were elementary school students from the fifth to the eighth grade. Error correction and text sensitivity tasks from the Metacomprehension test (Pazzaglia, De Beni, & Cristante, 1994), and the…

  16. Predicting Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; DeThorne, Laura S.; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap…

  17. Effects of Motivational and Cognitive Variables on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taboada, Ana; Tonks, Stephen M.; Wigfield, Allan; Guthrie, John T.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how motivational and cognitive variables predict reading comprehension, and whether each predictor variable adds unique explanatory power when statistically controlling for the others. Fourth-grade students (N = 205) completed measures of reading comprehension in September and December of the same year, and measures of…

  18. Mining Student Behavior Patterns in Reading Comprehension Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Terry; McCalla, Gord

    2012-01-01

    Reading comprehension is critical in life-long learning as well as in the workplace. In this paper, we describe how multidimensional k-means clustering combined with Bloom's Taxonomy can be used to determine positive and negative cognitive skill sets with respect to reading comprehension tasks. This information could be used to inform environments…

  19. The Impact of Analogy on L3 Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karami, Hossein; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2014-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to investigate the effect of analogy on third language (L3, hereafter) reading comprehension though some experts believe that it has facilitating and debilitating effects on L1 and L2 respectively. This article explores the effect of analogies on reading comprehension of expository texts by students of English as…

  20. Preparing for Reading Comprehension: Fostering Text Comprehension Skills in Preschool and Early Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Broek, Paul; Kendeou, Panayiota; Lousberg, Sandra; Visser, Gootje

    2011-01-01

    To understand what they read or hear, children and adults must create a coherent mental representation of presented information. Recent research suggests that the ability to do so starts to develop early--well before reading age--and that early individual differences are predictive of later reading-comprehension performance. In this paper, we…

  1. What is Reading Comprehension and How Should it be Measured?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Ronald P.

    Four conceptually different variables in reading: (1) knowledge gained (new information), (2) amount comprehended (degree of understanding), (3) reading aptitude (differences between individuals), and (4) reading improvement (within individual changes as a result of treatment) are discussed. Existing measures of reading comprehension are evaluated…

  2. Reading Comprehension Strategies in Secondary Content Area Classrooms: Teacher Use of and Attitudes towards Reading Comprehension Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methodology study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in middle and high school social studies and science classrooms. An additional purpose was to explore teachers' perceptions of and beliefs about the need for reading comprehension instruction. In 2,400 minutes of direct classroom…

  3. Mental juggling: when does multitasking impair reading comprehension?

    PubMed

    Cho, Kit W; Altarriba, Jeanette; Popiel, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the conditions under which multitasking impairs reading comprehension. Participants read prose passages (the primary task), some of which required them to perform a secondary task. In Experiment 1, we compared two different types of secondary tasks (answering trivia questions and solving math problems). Reading comprehension was assessed using a multiple-choice test that measured both factual and conceptual knowledge. The results showed no observable detrimental effects associated with multitasking. In Experiment 2, the secondary task was a cognitive load task that required participants to remember a string of numbers while reading the passages. Performance on the reading comprehension test was lower in the cognitive load conditions relative to the no-load condition. The present study delineates the conditions under which multitasking can impair or have no effect on reading comprehension. These results further our understanding of our capacity to multitask and have practical implications in our technologically advanced society in which multitasking has become commonplace. PMID:25832739

  4. Mental juggling: when does multitasking impair reading comprehension?

    PubMed

    Cho, Kit W; Altarriba, Jeanette; Popiel, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the conditions under which multitasking impairs reading comprehension. Participants read prose passages (the primary task), some of which required them to perform a secondary task. In Experiment 1, we compared two different types of secondary tasks (answering trivia questions and solving math problems). Reading comprehension was assessed using a multiple-choice test that measured both factual and conceptual knowledge. The results showed no observable detrimental effects associated with multitasking. In Experiment 2, the secondary task was a cognitive load task that required participants to remember a string of numbers while reading the passages. Performance on the reading comprehension test was lower in the cognitive load conditions relative to the no-load condition. The present study delineates the conditions under which multitasking can impair or have no effect on reading comprehension. These results further our understanding of our capacity to multitask and have practical implications in our technologically advanced society in which multitasking has become commonplace.

  5. "Passageless" administration of the Nelson-Denny Reading Comprehension Test: associations with IQ and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Ready, Rebecca E; Chaudhry, Maheen F; Schatz, Kelly C; Strazzullo, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). The Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension test items can be answered correctly without reading the associated passage. The current study determined how IQ, verbal comprehension, and reading skills were associated with scores on a passageless administration of the NDRT. Results indicated that IQ, verbal comprehension, and broad reading skills were significantly associated with greater NDRT passageless scores. Results raise questions about the validity of the reading comprehension component of the NDRT and suggest that the test may have differential validity based on individual differences in vocabulary, general fund of knowledge, and broad reading skills.

  6. Updating during Reading Comprehension: Why Causality Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Smith, Emily R.; O'Brien, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The present set of 7 experiments systematically examined the effectiveness of adding causal explanations to simple refutations in reducing or eliminating the impact of outdated information on subsequent comprehension. The addition of a single causal-explanation sentence to a refutation was sufficient to eliminate any measurable disruption in…

  7. Neurological origins of poor reading comprehension despite fast word decoding?

    PubMed

    Yamada, Jun

    2002-02-01

    Barnes, Faulkner, and Dennis (2001) found that hydrocephalic children (mean age = 11.5 years) of average or above-average verbal intelligence exhibit poor reading comprehension despite their fast and accurate decoding skills on individual words. This finding attracts the attention of reading researchers because it appears to be against the following standard principle of reading comprehension failure (Gough & Hillinger, 1980), thereby provoking basic issues centering around it (e.g., Stanovich, 1991): Reading Comprehension = Word Decoding x Listening Comprehension. This formula indicates that when listening comprehension is kept well within the normal range, reading comprehension is highly correlated with word decoding (e.g., Perfetti, 1985). In contrast, with poor listening comprehension children would be poor readers however good they may be at reading words (e.g., Cain, Oakhill, & Bryant, 2000). Although Barnes et al. clearly demonstrated that children with hydrocephalus decoded individual words better than they comprehended text, it is not readily apparent whether their findings are inconsistent with the standard principle. The purpose of the present article is twofold. The first is to examine whether Barnes et al.'s findings constitute a counterexample of the above principle. (Note that Barnes et al. did not address this question.) The second and more important purpose is to discuss the possible origins of the decoding-better-than-sentence/text-comprehension pattern. We also present some pedagogical implications for poor readers such as hydrocephalic children.

  8. The neural correlates of strategic reading comprehension: cognitive control and discourse comprehension.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jarrod; Schunn, Christian D; Schneider, Walter; McNamara, Danielle S; Vanlehn, Kurt

    2011-09-15

    Neuroimaging studies of text comprehension conducted thus far have shed little light on the brain mechanisms underlying strategic learning from text. Thus, the present study was designed to answer the question of what brain areas are active during performance of complex reading strategies. Reading comprehension strategies are designed to improve a reader's comprehension of a text. For example, self-explanation is a complex reading strategy that enhances existing comprehension processes. It was hypothesized that reading strategies would involve areas of the brain that are normally involved in reading comprehension along with areas that are involved in strategic control processes because the readers are intentionally using a complex reading strategy. Subjects were asked to reread, paraphrase, and self-explain three different texts in a block design fMRI study. Activation was found in both executive control and comprehension areas, and furthermore, learning from text was associated with activation in the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC). The authors speculate that the aPFC may play a role in coordinating the internal and external modes of thought that are necessary for integrating new knowledge from texts with prior knowledge.

  9. Chinese College Students' English Reading Comprehension in Silent and Loud Reading-Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In language teaching, emphasis is usually placed on students' reading comprehension, because reading comprehension remains one of the main important factors for their English language learning. Research shows, however, that reading comprehension is a sophisticated process and many students have met difficulties in constructing meaning from writing…

  10. An Analysis of the Linguistic and Reading Comprehension Abilities of Severely Reading Disabled School Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, John Michael

    The study utilized standardized testing procedures to identify the reading comprehension and verbal language characteristics of 12 fourth and fifth grade disabled readers. Reading comprehension was assessed with a standardized test of reading comprehension. Verbal language was assessed with a standardized test of verbal language. Descriptive,…

  11. Is Oral/Text Reading Fluency a "Bridge" to Reading Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Park, Chea Hyeong; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we investigated developmental relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, and text reading fluency to reading comprehension in a relatively transparent language, Korean. A total of 98 kindergartners and 170 first graders in Korea were assessed on a series of tasks involving listening comprehension, word…

  12. Response variability in rapid automatized naming predicts reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Li, James J; Cutting, Laurie E; Ryan, Matthew; Zilioli, Monica; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark

    2009-10-01

    A total of 37 children ages 8 to 14 years, screened for word-reading difficulties (23 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; 14 controls) completed oral reading and rapid automatized naming (RAN) tests. RAN trials were segmented into pause and articulation time and intraindividual variability. There were no group differences on reading or RAN variables. Color- and letter-naming pause times and number-naming articulation time were significant predictors of reading fluency. In contrast, number and letter pause variability were predictors of comprehension. Results support analysis of subcomponents of RAN and add to literature emphasizing intraindividual variability as a marker for response preparation, which has relevance to reading comprehension.

  13. Ameliorating children's reading-comprehension difficulties: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Paula J; Snowling, Margaret J; Truelove, Emma; Hulme, Charles

    2010-08-01

    Children with specific reading-comprehension difficulties can read accurately, but they have poor comprehension. In a randomized controlled trial, we examined the efficacy of three interventions designed to improve such children's reading comprehension: text-comprehension (TC) training, oral-language (OL) training, and TC and OL training combined (COM). Children were assessed preintervention, midintervention, postintervention, and at an 11-month follow-up. All intervention groups made significant improvements in reading comprehension relative to an untreated control group. Although these gains were maintained at follow-up in the TC and COM groups, the OL group made greater gains than the other groups did between the end of the intervention and follow-up. The OL and COM groups also demonstrated significant improvements in expressive vocabulary compared with the control group, and this was a mediator of the improved reading comprehension of the OL and COM groups. We conclude that specific reading-comprehension difficulties reflect (at least partly) underlying oral-language weaknesses that can be effectively ameliorated by suitable teaching.

  14. A Model of Reading Comprehension in Chinese Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Wong, Yau-kai

    2013-01-01

    The relationships of reading-related skills (rapid naming, morphological awareness, syntactic skills, discourse skills, and verbal working memory) and word reading to reading comprehension were examined among 248 Chinese fourth graders in Hong Kong. Multiple regression analysis results showed that syntactic skills (word order knowledge,…

  15. Transforming Reading Comprehension Instruction through Student Conferencing and Teacher Journaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, David

    2014-01-01

    When I was asked to teach the entire literacy curriculum to my grade six students in only five months, I implemented reading conferences as an instructional practice to deepen students' reading comprehension. Classroom events related to reading conferences, student decision-making, and instructional planning were recorded in a journal. This…

  16. Testing Reading Comprehension of Theoretical Discourse with Cloze.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Benjamin B., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Presents evidence from a large sample of reading test scores for the validity of cloze-based assessments of reading comprehension for the discourse typically encountered in introductory college economics textbooks. Notes that results provide strong evidence that appropriately designed cloze tests permit valid assessments of reading comprehension…

  17. Reading Comprehension Improvement with Individualized Cognitive Profiles and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kathleen D.; Hancock, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    This study models improving classroom reading instruction through valid assessment and individualized metacomprehension. Individualized cognitive profiles of Woodcock-Johnson III cognitive abilities correlated with reading comprehension were used during classroom independent reading for judgments of learning, feedback, self-reflection, and…

  18. Now We Get It! Boosting Comprehension with Collaborative Strategic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Janette K.; Vaughn, Sharon; Boardman, Alison; Swanson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative Strategic Reading is an innovative new approach to teaching reading that weaves together two instructional programs: cooperative learning and reading comprehension strategy instruction. In small groups, students work through the four main steps-Preview, "Click and Clunk," Get the Gist, and Wrap Up-helping each other improve…

  19. Thematic Solutions Using Young Adult Literature to Increase Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jill; Bushman, John H.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss thematic solutions using young adult literature to increase reading comprehension. Here, they emphasize that prior knowledge plays a very important role in the reading process. As students read, they actively "construct meaning through the integration of existing and new knowledge and the flexible use of…

  20. Three Reading Comprehension Strategies: TELLS, Story Mapping, and QARs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrell, Adrian L.

    1990-01-01

    Three reading comprehension strategies are presented to assist learning-disabled students: an advance organizer technique called "TELLS Fact or Fiction" used before reading a passage, a schema-based technique called "Story Mapping" used while reading, and a postreading method of categorizing questions called "Question-Answer Relationships." (JDD)

  1. Reading Comprehension across Different Genres: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubawski, Michael; Sheehan, Caitlyn

    2010-01-01

    Reading comprehension is often a forgotten skill in secondary classrooms. Teachers of older students assign readings of different styles and levels, but don't teach the skills necessary to process different kinds of texts. This study examined which strategies are effective in giving students the skills necessary to read for understanding by…

  2. Exploring Written Narrative in Children with Poor Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragg, Lucy; Nation, Kate

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated written language production in 10-year-old children with impaired reading comprehension. Despite fluent and accurate reading, these children are poor at understanding what they read. Participants completed a spelling test, and were asked to write an extended narrative, prompted by a series of pictures. Poor comprehenders…

  3. Conceptual Change, Text Comprehension and Eye Movements during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Anto, Erkki; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2013-01-01

    In the two studies presented in this article, we examine the interplay of conceptual change, text comprehension, and eye-movements during reading and develop and test methods suitable for such explorations. In studies 1 and 2, university students (N = 15 and 23) read a text on photosynthesis, explained their reading processes retrospectively cued…

  4. Specific Reading Comprehension Disability: Major Problem, Myth, or Misnomer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Mercedes; Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to test three competing hypotheses about the nature of comprehension problems of students who are poor in reading comprehension. Participants in the study were first, second, and third graders, totaling nine cohorts and over 425,000 participants in all. The pattern of results was consistent across all cohorts:…

  5. How Graphic Novels Support Reading Comprehension Strategy Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenna, Beverley

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored the relationship between comprehension strategies and graphic novels in one Grade 4 classroom, utilising children as informants. The primary research questions related to children's applications of metacognitive reading comprehension strategies as well as the potential for graphic novels to support the…

  6. Assessing the Reading Comprehension of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, F. W.; Long, K.; Finlay, W. M. L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study's aim was to begin the process of measuring the reading comprehension of adults with mild and borderline learning disabilities, in order to generate information to help clinicians and other professionals to make written material for adults with learning disabilities more comprehensible. Methods: The Test for the Reception of…

  7. Processing Demands of Reading Comprehension Tests in Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Spanoudis, George

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we examined the processing demands of three reading comprehension tests, namely the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension (WJPC), a Curriculum-Based Measure test (CBM-Maze), and a Recall test, in the early elementary years. Our investigation was theoretically motivated by Perfetti's Verbal Efficiency Theory and examined the…

  8. Communicative Literacy Pedagogy: Engaging EAL Students in Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms reading comprehension is essential for students to access all areas of the curriculum. For English as an Additional Language (EAL) students, research has identified the need to combine literacy strategies with second language principles to scaffold students' comprehension of text. To…

  9. The role of reading time complexity and reading speed in text comprehension.

    PubMed

    Wallot, Sebastian; O'Brien, Beth A; Haussmann, Anna; Kloos, Heidi; Lyby, Marlene S

    2014-11-01

    Reading speed is commonly used as an index of reading fluency. However, reading speed is not a consistent predictor of text comprehension, when speed and comprehension are measured on the same text within the same reader. This might be due to the somewhat ambiguous nature of reading speed, which is sometimes regarded as a feature of the reading process, and sometimes as a product of that process. We argue that both reading speed and comprehension should be seen as the result of the reading process, and that the process of fluent text reading can instead be described by complexity metrics that quantify aspects of the stability of the reading process. In this article, we introduce complexity metrics in the context of reading and apply them to data from a self-paced reading study. In this study, children and adults read a text silently or aloud and answered comprehension questions after reading. Our results show that recurrence metrics that quantify the degree of temporal structure in reading times yield better prediction of text comprehension compared to reading speed. However, the results for fractal metrics are less clear. Furthermore, prediction of text comprehension is generally strongest and most consistent across silent and oral reading when comprehension scores are normalized by reading speed. Analyses of word length and word frequency indicate that the observed complexity in reading times is not a simple function of the lexical properties of the text, suggesting that text reading might work differently compared to reading of isolated word or sentences.

  10. Word Reading Efficiency, Text Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

  11. Evaluation of use of reading comprehension strategies to improve reading comprehension of adult college students with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres. PMID:25712402

  12. Evaluation of use of reading comprehension strategies to improve reading comprehension of adult college students with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres.

  13. Clarifying Linguistic Comprehension in the Simple View of Reading: The Influence of Word-, Sentence-, and Discourse-Level Linguistic Skills on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Julie Kay

    2012-01-01

    There are a high number of students who struggle with reading comprehension beyond the primary grades and understanding the skills involved in successful reading comprehension continues to be a topic of investigation. The Simple View of Reading (SVR) is a viable theory of reading that suggests reading comprehension results from developing skills…

  14. Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Bilingual Children

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Wallot, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures. These skills were correlated with their silent reading fluency on a self-paced story reading task. Text fluency was quantified using non-linear analytic methods: recurrence quantification and fractal analyses. Findings indicate that more fluent text reading appeared by grade 4, similar to monolingual findings, and that different aspects of fluency characterized passage reading performance at different grade levels. Text fluency and oral language proficiency emerged as significant predictors of reading comprehension.

  15. Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Bilingual Children

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Wallot, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures. These skills were correlated with their silent reading fluency on a self-paced story reading task. Text fluency was quantified using non-linear analytic methods: recurrence quantification and fractal analyses. Findings indicate that more fluent text reading appeared by grade 4, similar to monolingual findings, and that different aspects of fluency characterized passage reading performance at different grade levels. Text fluency and oral language proficiency emerged as significant predictors of reading comprehension. PMID:27630590

  16. Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Bilingual Children.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Beth A; Wallot, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures. These skills were correlated with their silent reading fluency on a self-paced story reading task. Text fluency was quantified using non-linear analytic methods: recurrence quantification and fractal analyses. Findings indicate that more fluent text reading appeared by grade 4, similar to monolingual findings, and that different aspects of fluency characterized passage reading performance at different grade levels. Text fluency and oral language proficiency emerged as significant predictors of reading comprehension. PMID:27630590

  17. Is Oral/Text Reading Fluency a “Bridge” to Reading Comprehension?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Park, Chea Hyeong; Wagner, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigated developmental relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, and text reading fluency to reading comprehension in a relatively transparent language, Korean. A total of 98 kindergartners and 170 first graders in Korea were assessed on a series of tasks involving listening comprehension, word reading fluency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Results from multigroup structural equation models showed that text reading fluency was a dissociable construct for both kindergartners and first graders. In addition, a developmental pattern emerged: listening comprehension was not uniquely related to text reading fluency for first graders, but not for kindergartners, over and above word reading fluency. In addition, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension for kindergartners, but not for first graders, after accounting for word reading fluency and listening comprehension. For first graders, listening comprehension dominated the relations. There were no differences in the pattern of relations for skilled and less skilled readers in first grade. Results are discussed from a developmental perspective for reading comprehension component skills including text reading fluency. PMID:25653474

  18. Improving Reading Fluency and Comprehension among Elementary Students: Evaluation of a School Remedial Reading Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausheer, Robin; Hansen, Alana; Doumas, Diana M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a remedial reading program on improving reading fluency and comprehension among elementary school students. Twenty-four students were selected to participate in the 8-month program. Results indicated reading fluency and reading comprehension scores improved significantly across the academic year for both…

  19. The Role of Reading Time Complexity and Reading Speed in Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallot, Sebastian; O'Brien, Beth A.; Haussmann, Anna; Kloos, Heidi; Lyby, Marlene S.

    2014-01-01

    Reading speed is commonly used as an index of reading fluency. However, reading speed is not a consistent predictor of text comprehension, when speed and comprehension are measured on the same text within the same reader. This might be due to the somewhat ambiguous nature of reading speed, which is sometimes regarded as a feature of the reading…

  20. Metacognition Theory as Related to Reading Strategies and Reading Comprehension at the Fifth Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppins, Laci Sharyl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the application of metacognition theory as related to reading strategies and reading comprehension in the Fifth Grade. Specifically, the researcher examined the impact of metacognition in reading comprehension, the effect of metacognition on reading strategies, and the role the teacher…

  1. Examining the Effectiveness of Pre-Reading Strategies on Saudi EFL College Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Rasheed, Hana S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a key issue in learning English as a foreign language, and it is critical that teachers utilize pre-reading strategies in reading classes in order to help students enhance their comprehension. The present study investigates the effectiveness of two pre-reading strategies on EFL students' performance in reading…

  2. How Does Speed and Accuracy in Reading Relate to Reading Comprehension in Arabic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Leil, Aula Khateeb; Share, David L.; Ibrahim, Raphiq

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential contribution of decoding efficiency to the development of reading comprehension among skilled adult native Arabic speakers. In addition, we tried to investigate the influence of Arabic vowels on reading accuracy, reading speed, and therefore to reading comprehension. Seventy-five Arabic…

  3. The Relationship between Reading Fluency, Writing Fluency, and Reading Comprehension in Suburban Third-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Mary Leonard

    2010-01-01

    The topic of reading fluency is of great importance in education today. Research has shown a significant positive relationship between reading fluency and reading comprehension. However, little is known about writing fluency and its connection with reading comprehension. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between reading…

  4. Theories of Reading Speed and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Poul Erik

    1978-01-01

    Research methodology on reading improvement should focus on the processing of stimuli and experience of content rather than on simple models of reading using eye movement, silent speech, perceptual span, reading ability and visual ability as explanatory concepts. (MKM)

  5. "Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension": Correction to Foroughi et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Reports an error in "Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension" by Cyrus K. Foroughi, Nicole E. Werner, Daniela Barragán and Deborah A. Boehm-Davis (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2015[Jun], Vol 144[3], 704-709). In the article the effect sizes (Cohen's d) were reported using the incorrect formula. The correct formula and effect sizes are provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-15250-001.) Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension

  6. "Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension": Correction to Foroughi et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Reports an error in "Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension" by Cyrus K. Foroughi, Nicole E. Werner, Daniela Barragán and Deborah A. Boehm-Davis (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2015[Jun], Vol 144[3], 704-709). In the article the effect sizes (Cohen's d) were reported using the incorrect formula. The correct formula and effect sizes are provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-15250-001.) Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension

  7. The Role of Reading Fluency in Children's Text Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a written text requires some higher cognitive abilities that not all children have. Some children have these abilities, since they understand oral texts; however, they have difficulties with written texts, probably due to problems in reading fluency. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of reading fluency are related to reading comprehension. Four expositive texts, two written and two read by the evaluator, were presented to a sample of 103 primary school children (third and sixth grade). Each text was followed by four comprehension questions. From this sample we selected two groups of participants in each grade, 10 with good results in comprehension of oral and written texts, and 10 with good results in oral and poor in written comprehension. These 40 subjects were asked to read aloud a new text while they were recorded. Using Praat software some prosodic parameters were measured, such as pausing and reading rate (number and duration of the pauses and utterances), pitch and intensity changes and duration in declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences and also errors and duration in words by frequency and stress. We compared the results of both groups with ANOVAs. The results showed that children with less reading comprehension made more inappropriate pauses and also intersentential pauses before comma than the other group and made more mistakes in content words; significant differences were also found in the final declination of pitch in declarative sentences and in the F0 range in interrogative ones. These results confirm that reading comprehension problems in children are related to a lack in the development of a good reading fluency. PMID:26640452

  8. The Role of Reading Fluency in Children's Text Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a written text requires some higher cognitive abilities that not all children have. Some children have these abilities, since they understand oral texts; however, they have difficulties with written texts, probably due to problems in reading fluency. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of reading fluency are related to reading comprehension. Four expositive texts, two written and two read by the evaluator, were presented to a sample of 103 primary school children (third and sixth grade). Each text was followed by four comprehension questions. From this sample we selected two groups of participants in each grade, 10 with good results in comprehension of oral and written texts, and 10 with good results in oral and poor in written comprehension. These 40 subjects were asked to read aloud a new text while they were recorded. Using Praat software some prosodic parameters were measured, such as pausing and reading rate (number and duration of the pauses and utterances), pitch and intensity changes and duration in declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences and also errors and duration in words by frequency and stress. We compared the results of both groups with ANOVAs. The results showed that children with less reading comprehension made more inappropriate pauses and also intersentential pauses before comma than the other group and made more mistakes in content words; significant differences were also found in the final declination of pitch in declarative sentences and in the F0 range in interrogative ones. These results confirm that reading comprehension problems in children are related to a lack in the development of a good reading fluency.

  9. EFL Reading Comprehension, Individual Differences and Text Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilikozen, Neslihan; Akyel, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relative contribution to EFL reading comprehension of the following individual-difference variables: prior knowledge, topic interest, linguistic proficiency, gender, reading motivation, and metacognitive awareness. It also investigates the relationship between the aforementioned individual differences and the role of text…

  10. Using the DASH Method to Measure Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Wenyuh; Freiermuth, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge has been recognized by researchers as a critical component of reading comprehension, not only as a means to facilitate first language acquisition but also as an integral element in the learning of English as a second or foreign language. To reduce the effect of insufficient vocabulary knowledge during reading, a compensatory…

  11. The Effects of Story Structure Questioning upon Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Margie; Gambrell, Linda

    A study investigated the effectiveness of a story structure questioning strategy upon the reading comprehension of sixth grade students. An alternate questioning strategy was used as a comparison treatment, and involved more traditional literal, interpretative, and problem solving questions. On the basis of reading level scores, 100 students were…

  12. Effects of Discourse Structure Graphic Organizers on EFL Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xiangying

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 16-week reading instruction program with discourse structure graphic organizers (DSGOs) on the development of English reading comprehension among college-level English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students. A total of 340 first and third semester students of non-English majors at a Chinese university…

  13. Oakland Adult Reading Lab. Building Comprehension in Adult Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Suzanne

    Many adult poor readers do not organize what they read in a way that best facilitates good comprehension. To help students overcome this problem, the Adult Day and Evening School in Oakland, California, organized a reading laboratory for their mostly low-income, educationally disadvantaged students with a diverse range of needs. Instruction in the…

  14. Rethinking Reading Comprehension. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Anne Polselli, Ed.; Snow, Catherine E., Ed.

    This practical book grew out of a recent report written by the RAND Reading Study Group (RRSG), which proposed a national research agenda in the area of reading comprehension. In the book, RRSG members have expanded on their findings and translated them into clear recommendations to inform practice. The book explains research-based ways to plan…

  15. Reading Comprehension, Learning Styles, and Seventh Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Reading is a basic life skill. Unfortunately, in 2007, only 29% of all eighth graders were able to comprehend at or above a proficient reading comprehension level. Sensory learning styles (kinesthetic, tactile, auditory, and visual) affect the way that students prefer to learn and the areas in which they will have difficulty learning. This study…

  16. Reading Comprehension CCA Basic Skills Curriculum. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Computer-Based Education Research Lab.

    Designed and programmed by the staff of the Courseware and Curriculum Applications (CCA) Group (a unit of the Computer-Based Education Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), this instructor's guide describes a computer-based reading comprehension curriculum designed for adults and adolescents who read at the…

  17. Teaching Reading and Comprehension Skills to Sub-Literate Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, M. R.; Dockrill, F. J.

    Forty sub-literate adults were given reading and comprehension skill training. Twenty of the subjects were taught using a multimedia, multimodal and multilevel communication skill system (Experimental Group). The other twenty were taught in a traditional manner using standard reading texts (Control Group). Both Groups received an average of 265…

  18. Inference Strategies to Improve Reading Comprehension of Challenging Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attaprechakul, Damrong

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore inference strategies necessary to successfully read journal articles. Eighty-eight graduate students read a set of texts on education and economic growth and answered comprehension questions. Twenty-four of these participants also volunteered for an in-depth interview. The findings revealed that students usually relied…

  19. RC-MAPS: Bridging the Comprehension Gap in EAP Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterzik, Angela Meyer; Fraser, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In academic environments, reading is assigned not simply to transmit information; students are required to take the information, and based on the task set by the instructor, assess, analyze, and critique it on the basis of personal experiences, prior knowledge, and other readings (Grabe, 2009). Thus text-based comprehension (Kintsch, 1998) alone…

  20. Unified (Russian) State Exam in English: Reading Comprehension Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solnyshkina, Marina I.; Harkova, Elena V.; Kiselnikov, Aleksander S.

    2014-01-01

    The article summarizes the study of Reading Comprehension Tasks utilized in preparation for Unified (Russian) State Exam. The corpus of reading tasks was analyzed with the use of the classification algorithm developed by Weir and Urquhart (1998), and aimed at determining the level of engagement (local or global) and type of engagement (literal or…

  1. How Specific Are Specific Comprehension Difficulties? An Investigation of Poor Reading Comprehension in Nine-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the incidence of poor comprehenders, that is, children identified as having reading comprehension difficulties, despite age-appropriate word reading skills. It supports the findings that some children do show poor reading comprehension, despite age-appropriate word reading, as measured with a phonological coding test. However,…

  2. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: a longitudinal study from Grade 1 to Grade 2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-09-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children's reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first and second graders. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 1, but not in Grade 2, after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 2, but not in Grade 1, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral reading fluency and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in Grade 1, whereas silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency in Grade 2.

  3. The Relations between Lower and Higher Level Comprehension Skills and Their Role in Prediction of Early Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Macarena; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study of 4- to 6-year-olds had 2 aims: first, to determine how lower level comprehension skills (receptive vocabulary and grammar) and verbal memory support early higher level comprehension skills (inference and literal story comprehension), and second, to establish the predictive power of these skills on subsequent reading comprehension.…

  4. Examining the Effects of Skill Level and Reading Modality on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Rachel H.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reading skill and reading modality (oral versus silent) on reading comprehension. A normative sample of sixth-grade students (N = 74) read texts aloud and silently and then answered questions about what they read. Skill in word reading fluency was assessed by the Test of Word Reading…

  5. READING SECTION--VOCABULARY SKILLS, READING COMPREHENSION, CRITICAL AND INTERPRETIVE READING. EXPERIMENTAL MATERIAL, PART 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANDERSON, VIVIENNE; SEGERSTROM, HAROLD

    THE PROGRAM OF INSTRUCTION IN ENGLISH CONSISTS OF A NUMBER OF VERTICAL STRANDS RUNNING FROM KINDERGARTEN THROUGH GRADE 12 AND BEYOND. THE READING STRAND IS PREPARED ON THE SEQUENTIAL DEVELOPMENT OF SKILLS. FIVE UNITS--WORK ATTACK SKILLS, VOCABULARY, ACQUISITION SKILLS, COMPREHENSION SKILLS, AND CRITICAL AND INTERPRETIVE READING--ARE DEVELOPED AND…

  6. Improving Reading Comprehension for High School Students with Disabilities: Effects for Comprehension and School Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Schnakenberg, Jennifer B.; Fall, Anna-Mária; Vaughn, Michael G.; Wexler, Jade

    2015-01-01

    The authors examine the results for students with disabilities from a 2-year randomized controlled trial with students identified in ninth grade and followed through 10th grade in their allotted condition group. Prior to ninth grade, students with disabilities who met criteria for low reading comprehension (i.e., through failure on the state…

  7. The Relation between Children's Reading Comprehension Level and Their Comprehension of Idioms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, K.; Oakhill, J.; Lemmon, K.

    2005-01-01

    We report an investigation of 9-year-olds' ability to interpret idioms in relation to their reading comprehension level. We manipulated whether the idioms were transparent or opaque, whether they were real or novel, whether they were presented in isolation or in a supportive narrative context. As predicted, children were better able to explain the…

  8. Comprehension of Written Sentences as a Core Component of Children's Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecalle, Jean; Bouchafa, Houria; Potocki, Anna; Magnan, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that sentence processing is an essential mediatory skill between word recognition and text comprehension in reading. In Experiment 1, a semantic similarity judgement task was used with children from Grade 2 to Grade 9. They had to say whether two written sentences had the same (or very similar)…

  9. Simple View of Reading in Down's Syndrome: The Role of Listening Comprehension and Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roch, Maja; Levorato, M. Chiara

    2009-01-01

    Background: According to the "Simple View of Reading" (Hoover and Gough 1990), individual differences in reading comprehension are accounted for by decoding skills and listening comprehension, each of which makes a unique and specific contribution. Aims: The current research was aimed at testing the Simple View of Reading in individuals with…

  10. Effects of Wide Reading vs. Repeated Readings on Struggling College Readers' Comprehension Monitoring Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ari, Omer

    2009-01-01

    Fluency instruction has had limited effects on reading comprehension relative to reading rate and prosodic reading (Dowhower, 1987; Herman, 1985; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000a). More specific components (i.e., error detection) of comprehension may yield larger effects through exposure to a wider range of materials…

  11. Why Intensive Interventions Matter: Longitudinal Studies of Adolescents with Reading Disabilities and Poor Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis, Michael; Miciak, Jeremy; Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe findings from a series of longitudinal studies utilizing a response to intervention framework implemented over 3 years with students in Grades 6 through 8 with reading disabilities and poor reading comprehension. Students were identified based on reading comprehension scores in Grade 5 (n = 1,083) and then randomized to treatment or…

  12. The Effects of an Intensive Reading Intervention for Ninth Graders with Very Low Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solís, Michael; Vaughn, Sharon; Scammacca, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This experimental study examined the efficacy of a multicomponent reading intervention compared to a control condition on the reading comprehension of adolescent students with low reading comprehension (more than 1½ standard deviations below normative sample). Ninth-grade students were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 25) and comparison (n =…

  13. Uneven Profiles: Language Minority Learners' Word Reading, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed…

  14. Elementary Reading Fluency and Comprehension: Do Laptops Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether a one-to-one laptop program had an effect on the reading-fluency and comprehension scores of fourth- and fifth-grade students over a half-year period. Pre- and post-test scores on the AIMSweb R-CBM fluency and Maze-CBM comprehension tests were collected for 1,048 students attending six diverse, high-poverty elementary…

  15. Improving text comprehension: scaffolding adolescents into strategic reading.

    PubMed

    Ukrainetz, Teresa A

    2015-02-01

    Understanding and learning from academic texts involves purposeful, strategic reading. Adolescent readers, particularly poor readers, benefit from explicit instruction in text comprehension strategies, such as text preview, summarization, and comprehension monitoring, as part of a comprehensive reading program. However, strategies are difficult to teach within subject area lessons where content instruction must take primacy. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have the expertise and service delivery options to support middle and high school students in learning to use comprehension strategies in their academic reading and learning. This article presents the research evidence on what strategies to teach and how best to teach them, including the use of explicit instruction, spoken interactions around text, cognitive modeling, peer learning, classroom connections, and disciplinary literacy. The article focuses on how to move comprehension strategies from being teaching tools of the SLP to becoming learning tools of the student. SLPs can provide the instruction and support needed for students to learn and apply of this important component of academic reading.

  16. Improving text comprehension: scaffolding adolescents into strategic reading.

    PubMed

    Ukrainetz, Teresa A

    2015-02-01

    Understanding and learning from academic texts involves purposeful, strategic reading. Adolescent readers, particularly poor readers, benefit from explicit instruction in text comprehension strategies, such as text preview, summarization, and comprehension monitoring, as part of a comprehensive reading program. However, strategies are difficult to teach within subject area lessons where content instruction must take primacy. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have the expertise and service delivery options to support middle and high school students in learning to use comprehension strategies in their academic reading and learning. This article presents the research evidence on what strategies to teach and how best to teach them, including the use of explicit instruction, spoken interactions around text, cognitive modeling, peer learning, classroom connections, and disciplinary literacy. The article focuses on how to move comprehension strategies from being teaching tools of the SLP to becoming learning tools of the student. SLPs can provide the instruction and support needed for students to learn and apply of this important component of academic reading. PMID:25633141

  17. Evaluation of the Cloze Procedure as a Teaching Device for Improving Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Billie Jean

    This study evaluated the effect of the cloze procedure in the development of comprehension, vocabulary, and speed of reading by comparing the scores on the Cooperative English Tests; Reading Comprehension of a group receiving cloze reading comprehension exercises, a group receiving conventional reading comprehension exercises, and a group…

  18. Shared Reading to Build Vocabulary and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Ted

    2010-01-01

    The author presents four approaches to shared reading that he used with first through third graders in a high-needs, urban elementary school with a large population of students from immigrant homes. Using sociocultural and cognitive constructivist principles, the author shows how these approaches built students' academic vocabulary and…

  19. Bidirectional Relations between Text Reading Prosody and Reading Comprehension in the Upper Primary School Grades: A Longitudinal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and from reading comprehension to text reading prosody…

  20. Multisyllabic word reading as a moderator of morphological awareness and reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jennifer K; Goodwin, Amanda P; Compton, Donald L; Kearns, Devin M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the relation between morphological awareness on reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability in fifth-grade students (N = 169, 53.7% female, 65.2% minority status, 69.2% free/reduced lunch status), oversampled for poor reading skill, when controlling for general knowledge and vocabulary. Based on the lexical quality hypothesis, it was expected that morphological awareness would have a stronger effect on comprehension for children with poor word reading skills, suggesting possible use of morphological awareness for word identification support. Results indicated that neither morphological awareness nor word reading was uniquely associated with reading comprehension when both were included in the model along with vocabulary and general knowledge. Instead, the interaction between word reading and morphological awareness explained significant additional variance in reading comprehension. By probing this interaction, it was determined that the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension was significant for the 39% of the sample that had more difficulty reading multisyllabic words but not for students at the higher end of the multisyllabic word reading continuum. We conclude from these results that the relation between morphological awareness and reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability, providing support for the lexical quality hypothesis. Although we have only correlational data, we suggest tentative instructional practices for improving the reading skill of upper elementary struggling readers.

  1. Multisyllabic Word Reading as a Moderator of Morphological Awareness and Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Goodwin, Amanda P.; Compton, Donald L.; Kearns, Devin M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the relation between morphological awareness on reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability in fifth grade students (N = 169, 53.7% female, 65.2% minority status, 69.2% free/reduced lunch status), oversampled for poor reading skill, when controlling for general knowledge and vocabulary. Based on the lexical quality hypothesis (Perfetti, 2007), it was expected that morphological awareness would have a stronger effect on comprehension for children with poor word reading skills, suggesting possible use of morphological awareness for word identification support. Results indicated that neither morphological awareness nor word reading was uniquely associated with reading comprehension when both were included in the model along with vocabulary and general knowledge. Instead, the interaction between word reading and morphological awareness explained significant additional variance in reading comprehension. By probing this interaction, it was determined that the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension was significant for the 39% of the sample that had more difficulty reading multisyllabic words), but not for students at the higher end of the multisyllabic word reading continuum. We conclude from these results that the relation between morphological awareness and reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability, providing support for the lexical quality hypothesis (Perfetti, 2007). Although we have only correlational data, we suggest tentative instructional practices for improving the reading skill of upper elementary struggling readers. PMID:24219914

  2. Paradigms and processes in reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Just, M A; Carpenter, P A; Woolley, J D

    1982-06-01

    This article compares several methods of presenting text, including a new paradigm that produces reading-time data with many of the characteristics of naturally occurring eye-fixation data. In the new paradigm, called the moving window condition, a reader presses a button to see each successive work in a text, and the previous work is removed when a new work appears. The words appear in the same position that they would in normal test, and word-length information is available in peripheral vision. The results are qualitatively and quantitatively compared to the results obtained by monitoring the eye fixations of subjects reading normal text. The word-level effects are generally similar. Readers pause longer on longer words, on less frequent words, on words that introduce a new topic, and at ends of sentences. The results suggest that readers initiate thr processing of each word as soon as they encounter it rather than buffer words and delay processing. Also considered are two other reading-time paradigms, one in which words are cumulatively displayed on the screen and one in which each successive word is presented at the same location on the screen. Finally, we consider how the tendency to immediately process text might interact with other techniques for text presentation, such as the rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) condition, and we generate predictions about the nature and limits of the method.

  3. The Contributions of Oral and Silent Reading Fluency to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Katherine W.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Louwerse, Max M.; D'Mello, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Silent reading fluency has received limited attention in the school-based literatures across the past decade. We fill this gap by examining both oral and silent reading fluency and their relation to overall abilities in reading comprehension in fourth-grade students. Lower-level reading skills (word reading, rapid automatic naming) and vocabulary…

  4. The Impact of Reading for Pleasure on Georgian University EFL Students' Reading Comprehension (IBSU Case)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goctu, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    Reading is one of the most significant skills, particularly for EFL students. Many students today do not have the reading skills needed to do effective work in their courses. This paper explores reading for pleasure, its importance and impact on reading comprehension. Pleasure reading helps students to communicate, listen and, most importantly, to…

  5. Examining Associations between Reading Motivation and Inference Generation beyond Reading Comprehension Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between reading motivation and inference generation while reading. Undergraduate participants (N = 69) read two science articles while thinking aloud, completed a standardized reading comprehension assessment, and self reported their habitual reading motivation. Findings indicate that…

  6. Metacognitive Reading Strategies, Motivation, and Reading Comprehension Performance of Saudi EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meniado, Joel C.

    2016-01-01

    Metacognitive reading strategies and reading motivation play a significant role in enhancing reading comprehension. In an attempt to prove the foregoing claim in a context where there is no strong culture for reading, this study tries to find out if there is indeed a relationship between and among metacognitive reading strategies, reading…

  7. The Effects of an Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy: A Culturally Responsive Teaching Approach for Fifth-Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Yvonne N.; Fagan, Yvette M.

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the effects of the Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy on two levels. The Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy integrated story grammar instruction and story maps, prior knowledge and prediction method, and word webs through a culturally responsive teaching framework; the Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy…

  8. A Synthesis of Reading Interventions and Effects on Reading Comprehension Outcomes for Older Struggling Readers

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Meaghan S.; Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Reutebuch, Colleen; Cable, Amory; Tackett, Kathryn Klingler; Schnakenberg, Jennifer Wick

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a synthesis of intervention studies conducted between 1994 and 2004 with older students (Grades 6–12) with reading difficulties. Interventions addressing decoding, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension were included if they measured the effects on reading comprehension. Twenty-nine studies were located and synthesized. Thirteen studies met criteria for a meta-analysis, yielding an effect size (ES) of 0.89 for the weighted average of the difference in comprehension outcomes between treatment and comparison students. Word-level interventions were associated with ES = 0.34 in comprehension outcomes between treatment and comparison students. Implications for comprehension instruction for older struggling readers are described. PMID:20072704

  9. Story Retell: A Fluency-Based Indicator of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Greg; Good, Roland; Corcoran, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a fluency-based measure of reading comprehension. A part of the Vitals Indicators of Progress (VIP) system, the measure outlined here represents an alternate form to the retell-fluency measure in the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy System (DIBELS). Measures of retell fluency provide an efficient, fluency-based tool…

  10. Joint Book Reading: How Do Blogs Foster Collaborative Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behjat, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    A blog is an innovative web tool which has an immense potential to enhance language abilities. As one of the ways to enhance foreign language learning is collaboration and interaction, the present study is an attempt to find out if blogs can be used to foster language learners' comprehension through collaborative book reading. To this end, 62…

  11. Reading Comprehension from a First to a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Florencia; Botero, María Patricia; Pechthalt, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this action research paper is to disseminate the results of a 2-month study which focuses on how a student's first language (L1) reading comprehension skills affect the same skills in their second language (L2). The subjects of the study are sixth grade girls, ranging in age from 11 to 13 years old. They attend a private bilingual…

  12. Rapid Naming Speed Components and Reading Comprehension in Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Miao; Kirby, John; Georgiou, George K.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the development of rapid automatised naming (RAN) components (i.e. articulation time and pause time) in English and Chinese, and their relations to English reading comprehension, in Chinese English immersion students at Grades 2, 4 and 6. Results indicated that pause time rather than articulation time was highly correlated with…

  13. On the Factor Structure of a Reading Comprehension Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the construct validly of a section of a high stakes test, an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis was employed. The rotation used was varimax with the suppression level of 0.30. Eleven factors were extracted out of 35 reading comprehension items. The fact that these factors emerged speak to the construct…

  14. The Correlation of IQ and Emotional Intelligence with Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghabanchi, Zargham; Rastegar, Rabe'e

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of both IQ and emotional intelligence on reading comprehension in Iran. Forty-five EFL college students from Payame Noor University of Gonbad and Azad University of Gorgan participated in this study. Three independent tests were administrated, including Bar-On's emotional intelligence…

  15. Structure Strategy Interventions: Increasing Reading Comprehension of Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Bonnie J. F.; Ray, Melissa N.

    2011-01-01

    In this review of the literature we examine empirical studies designed to teach the structure strategy to increase reading comprehension of expository texts. First, we review the research that has served as a foundation for many of the studies examining the effects of text structure instruction. Text structures generally can be grouped into six…

  16. Gender Effect on Reading Comprehension with Korean EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Tae-Il

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of gender on English reading comprehension for Korean EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners. The gender effect was measured using a DIF (Differential Item Functioning) methodology. Specifically, gender DIF was investigated for a random sample of 14,000 Korean examinees (7,000 males and 7,000 females) who took…

  17. Coop-Dis-Q: A Reading Comprehension Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Lane Roy

    2001-01-01

    This article describes a new technique for improving the reading comprehension of elementary students. The Coop-Dis-Q technique combines cooperative learning, discussion, and questioning strategies to create a synergistic instructional effect. The specific steps of the technique and successful use of the technique in a fifth-grade classroom are…

  18. Beyond Direct Explanation: Transactional Instruction of Reading Comprehension Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes transactional strategies instruction, an approach to teaching reading comprehension in elementary classes that focuses on student and teacher transactions with text. Contends that the approach differs from traditional strategy instruction. Provides examples of transactional strategies instruction, including dialogs between teachers and…

  19. Fast and Loud Background Music Disrupts Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, William Forde; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Letnic, Adriana Katharine

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of background music on reading comprehension. Because the emotional consequences of music listening are affected by changes in tempo and intensity, we manipulated these variables to create four repeated-measures conditions: slow/low, slow/high, fast/low, fast/high. Tempo and intensity manipulations were selected to be…

  20. Learning Styles, Personality Types and Reading Comprehension Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Nabiollah; Kasim, Zalina Mohd; Tan, Bee Hoon; Abdullah, Faiz Sathi

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at reviewing the relationship between learning styles, personality and reading comprehension performance. In the last two decades, ample studies have been done to examine the relationship between learning styles, learner's personality and performance in academic settings. The reviewed studies substantiate that there is a…

  1. Oral and Written Expression in Children with Reading Comprehension Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carretti, Barbara; Motta, Eleonora; Re, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted that children with reading comprehension difficulties also have problems in tasks that involve telling a story, in writing or verbally. The main differences identified regard poor comprehenders' lower level of coherence in their productions by comparison with good comprehenders. Only one study has compared poor and…

  2. Construct Validity of MSRT Reading Comprehension Module in Iranian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichani, Elham Fallahian; Tabatabaei, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers were interested in validity of the language proficiency tests in the previous decades. The present study aims to study the construct validity of the Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology Reading Comprehension module (MSRT) in the Iranian context. After administering a standard language proficiency test (OPT) 65…

  3. Drawing on Text Features for Reading Comprehension and Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risko, Victoria J.; Walker-Dalhouse, Doris

    2011-01-01

    Students read multiple-genre texts such as graphic novels, poetry, brochures, digitized texts with videos, and informational and narrative texts. Features such as overlapping illustrations and implied cause-and-effect relationships can affect students' comprehension. Teaching with these texts and drawing attention to organizational features hold…

  4. Efficacy of Supplementary Image Schemes on Reading Motivation and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Ming; Wang, I-Chen; Ma, Min-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of three teaching methods, namely, passive supported image pedagogy, active supported image pedagogy, and traditional instruction, in increasing the reading motivation and comprehension of students. 116 fourth-grade students participated in the study and were evenly assigned, according to their pre-test…

  5. The Years Alone: A Reading Comprehension Unit (7-9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair-Broeker, Lynn

    Based on Bloom's Taxonomy of thought, this thematic reading comprehension unit on "loneliness" is intended for teachers of grades 7-9. The thinking process is broken into six categories: (1) recall; (2) inference; (3) application; (4) analysis; (5) synthesis; and (6) evaluation. A short description is given for each of these processes. Students…

  6. Strategies for Improving Non-Fiction Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Karen; Caspari, Amy

    This report describes a program for introducing students to strategies for improving their comprehension of non-fiction materials. The targeted population consisted of students of one third grade class in a small, middle class suburb, northwest of a large, midwestern city. Difficulty reading and comprehending non-fiction material was documented…

  7. "Theoretical Inclinations": How One Teacher's Beliefs Influenced Reading Comprehension Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaback, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the year-long experience of one fourth grade teacher, Anne, as she learned about comprehension strategy instruction and attempted to integrate the approach in her reading program. The goal of the study was to extend current understanding of the factors that support or inhibit an individual teacher's instructional decision…

  8. Do Knowledge Arrangements Affect Student Reading Comprehension of Genetics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jen-Yi; Tung, Yu-Neng; Hwang, Bi-Chi; Lin, Chen-Yung; Che-Di, Lee; Chang, Yung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    Various sequences for teaching genetics have been proposed. Three seventh-grade biology textbooks in Taiwan share similar key knowledge assemblages but have different knowledge arrangements. To investigate the influence of knowledge arrangements on student understanding of genetics, we compared students' reading comprehension of the three…

  9. False Recollection in Children with Reading Comprehension Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weekes, Brendan S.; Hamilton, Stephen; Oakhill, Jane V.; Holliday, Robyn E.

    2008-01-01

    Children with reading comprehension difficulties display impaired performance on semantic processing tasks. These impairments are assumed to reflect weaker knowledge about abstract semantic associations between words in poor comprehenders [Nation, K., & Snowling, M. (1999). Developmental differences in sensitivity to semantic relations among good…

  10. Using Concept Mapping and Paraphrasing for Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marashi, Hamid; Bagheri, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the comparative impact of two types of teaching techniques, namely concept mapping and paraphrasing, on the reading comprehension of EFL learners. For this purpose, 60 learners of a total number of 90 intermediate learners studying at a language school in Karaj, Iran, were chosen through taking a piloted PET for…

  11. Sentence Anagram Organizational Training and Its Effect on Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Phyllis Ann

    This study investigated the possibility of training or improving intrasentence organizational skills (i.e., those that enable the reader to encode and process verbal information in higher-order units) and explored the effects that training had on reading comprehension. The subjects were 31 third graders, 16 experimental students and 15 control…

  12. How Consciousness-Raising Affects Intonation and Facilitates Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shariati, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation about the relation between a student's conscious awareness of the structure of a sentence and the degree of his/her intonation accuracy as well as his/her reading comprehension. The research was done based on the hypothesis that: "if the students are made conscious of the infrastructure of lengthy sentences…

  13. Reading Comprehension Strategies as Applied by Iranian EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shokrpour, Nasrin; Fotovatian, Sepide

    2006-01-01

    To enhance reading comprehension, several strategies have been identified in previous research conducted (Naiman et al. 1978; O'Malley & Chamot 1990; O'Malley, Chamot, Manzanares, Russo and Kypper 1985; Politzer and McGroarty 1985; Prokop 1989; Oxford 1990; Salataci and Akyel 2002; Tercanlioglu 2004). However, using different types of Reading…

  14. Effects of Reciprocal Teaching Strategies on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Tan Ooi Leng; Eng, Tan Kok; Ahmad, Norlida

    2011-01-01

    Reading Comprehension is one of the four components tested by the "MUET" (Malaysian University English Test) for Sixth-Form students in Malaysia, and school teachers are charged with the task of helping these students improve. This article discusses how "reciprocal teaching strategies" could help low-proficiency Sixth-Form students improve their…

  15. Implementing Online Question Generation to Foster Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Hui-Chin; Lai, Pei-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have concluded that question generation has a positive effect on students' reading comprehension. However, few studies have delineated how students generate questions from a text and what processes are involved in question generation. This study aims to investigate how the question generation processes improve students' reading…

  16. Practitioner Talk on Deaf Children's Reading Comprehension: Analysing Multiple Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanwick, Ruth A.; Kitchen, Ruth; Clarke, Paula J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined different perspectives of deaf education practitioners on deafness and reading comprehension. This involved a full deaf education support team comprising teachers of the deaf, communication support workers, and deaf instructors from a UK citywide service covering early years, primary and secondary settings. Using a focus group…

  17. Functional Anatomy of Listening and Reading Comprehension during Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berl, Madison M.; Duke, Elizabeth S.; Mayo, Jessica; Rosenberger, Lisa R.; Moore, Erin N.; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J.; Gaillard, William Davis

    2010-01-01

    Listening and reading comprehension of paragraph-length material are considered higher-order language skills fundamental to social and academic functioning. Using ecologically relevant language stimuli that were matched for difficulty according to developmental level, we analyze the effects of task, age, neuropsychological skills, and post-task…

  18. Improving Reading Comprehension and Social Studies Knowledge in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Greg; Wanzek, Jeanne; Stillman-Spisak, Stephanie J.; Solis, Michael; Simmons, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the efficacy of a content acquisition and reading comprehension treatment implemented by eighth-grade social studies teachers. Using a within-teacher design, the eighth-grade teachers' social studies classes were randomly assigned to treatment or comparison conditions. Teachers (n = 5) taught the same instructional…

  19. Uses of Programmed Materials in Teaching Reading and Aural Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Karl C.

    This paper describes some of the problems pertaining to teaching reading and aural comprehension in English as a second language, suggests some of the potential uses of programed learning in solving them, and reports on some of the approaches developed at the Economics Institute of the University of Colorado. While an increasing amount of adequate…

  20. Incidence of Executive Functions on Reading Comprehension Performance in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demagistri, Maria Silvina; Richards, Maria Marta; Canet Juric, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Reading comprehension is a complex cognitive skill that has been associated with executive functions such as working memory (WM) and inhibition. Given that the development of these abilities continues through late adolescence, this study seeks to explore the role that both processes play with respect to varying levels of reading…

  1. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their…

  2. A Scalable Set of ESL Reading Comprehension Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Kyle

    Guttman implicational scaling techniques were used to identify a unidimensional set of English as a Second Language reading comprehension items. Data were analyzed from 202 students who sat for an institutional administration of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The examinees who contributed to the scalable set had significantly…

  3. Bringing a Reading Passage to Life: A Creative Comprehension Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montone, Christopher L.; Short, Deborah J.

    A creative reading comprehension activity developed for multi-grade (6-8) English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) social studies classes is described. The activity was developed as part of a project integrating language and culture in social studies instruction. Researchers worked with an ESL teacher and a social studies teacher to create a series of…

  4. Eye Movements as Reflections of Comprehension Processes in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Keith; Chace, Kathryn H.; Slattery, Timothy J.; Ashby, Jane

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the use of eye movement data to assess moment-to-moment comprehension processes. We first review some basic characteristics of eye movements during reading and then present two studies in which eye movements are monitored to confirm that eye movements are sensitive to (a) global text passage difficulty, and (b)…

  5. Activity and Imagined Activity Can Enhance Young Children's Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenberg, Arthur M.; Gutierrez, Tiana; Levin, Joel R.; Japuntich, Sandra; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The Indexical Hypothesis suggests a new method for enhancing children's reading comprehension. Young readers may not consistently "index," or map, words to the objects the words represent. Consequently, these readers fail to derive much meaning from the text. The instructional method involves manipulating toy objects referred to in the text (e.g.,…

  6. The Interactions of Vocabulary, Phonemic Awareness, Decoding, and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Elaine; Jenkins, Frank; Li, Tiandong; Brownell, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The authors used data from a large, national sample to examine the interaction of various literacy measures among young children with disabilities. Using structural equation modeling, they examined the relationships among measures of phonemic awareness, decoding, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Child and family factors, including sex,…

  7. A Synthesis of Reading Interventions and Effects on Reading Comprehension Outcomes for Older Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Meaghan S.; Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Reutebuch, Colleen; Cable, Amory; Tackett, Kathryn Klingler; Schnakenberg, Jennifer Wick

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a synthesis of intervention studies conducted between 1994 and 2004 with older students (Grades 6-12) with reading difficulties. Interventions addressing decoding, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension were included if they measured the effects on reading comprehension. Twenty-nine studies were located and synthesized.…

  8. Assessing for Generalized Improvements in Reading Comprehension by Intervening to Improve Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neddenriep, Christine E.; Fritz, Abigail M.; Carrier, Miranda E.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between reading fluency and comprehension was evaluated in five 4th-grade students. These students were identified as being at risk of not meeting yearly goals in reading fluency and comprehension based on fall benchmark assessment data. A brief intervention assessment was used to determine which intervention components would be…

  9. Accuracy of the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency Measure for Predicting Third Grade Reading Comprehension Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehrig, Alysia D.; Petscher, Yaacov; Nettles, Stephen M.; Hudson, Roxanne F.; Torgesen, Joseph K.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the validity of DIBELS ("Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills") ORF ("Oral Reading Fluency") for predicting performance on the "Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test" (FCAT-SSS) and "Stanford Achievement Test" (SAT-10) reading comprehension measures. The usefulness of previously established ORF risk-level cutoffs [Good,…

  10. Impact of Nebraska Reading First on Reading Comprehension across Three Years of Implementation, 2005-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Malinda; Trainin, Guy

    2007-01-01

    This report offers an examination of the impact of Nebraska Reading First on comprehension across the first three years of implementation in the state. Grade level performance is defined as performance at or above the 40th percentile using grade level standards. Within each grade level section reading comprehension achievement is shown for all…

  11. Reading the Graphics: What Is the Relationship between Graphical Reading Processes and Student Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Rebecca R.

    2012-01-01

    Research on comprehension of written text and reading processes suggests a greater use of reading processes is associated with higher scores on comprehension measures of those same texts. Although researchers have suggested that the graphics in text convey important meaning, little research exists on the relationship between children's processes…

  12. The Effect of Text-to-Self Reading Strategies on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutright, Cathy Arlene

    2010-01-01

    Middle-school male students currently face a disadvantage in reading comprehension compared to female students. Research suggests the problem is that more male students score below grade level in reading comprehension because they require more cognitive scaffolding. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of text-to-self…

  13. Assessing Comprehension During Reading with the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT)

    PubMed Central

    Magliano, Joseph P.; Millis, Keith K.; Levinstein, Irwin

    2011-01-01

    Comprehension emerges as the results of inference and strategic processes that support the construction of a coherent mental model for a text. However, the vast majority of comprehension skills tests adopt a format that does not afford an assessment of these processes as they operate during reading. This study assessed the viability of the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT), which is an automated computer-based reading assessment designed to measure readers’ comprehension and spontaneous use of reading strategies while reading texts. In the tool, readers comprehend passages one sentence at a time, and are asked either an indirect (“What are your thoughts regarding your understanding of the sentence in the context of the passage?”) or direct (e.g., why X?) question after reading each pre-selected target sentence. The answers to the indirect questions are analyzed on the extent that they contain words associated with comprehension processes. The answers to direct questions are coded for the number of content words in common with an ideal answer, which is intended to be an assessment of emerging comprehension. In the study, the RSAT approach was shown to predict measures of comprehension comparable to standardized tests. The RSAT variables were also shown to correlate with human ratings. The results of this study constitute a “proof of concept” and demonstrate that it is possible to develop a comprehension skills assessment tool that assesses both comprehension and comprehension strategies. PMID:23901332

  14. Functional anatomy of listening and reading comprehension during development.

    PubMed

    Berl, Madison M; Duke, Elizabeth S; Mayo, Jessica; Rosenberger, Lisa R; Moore, Erin N; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J; Gaillard, William Davis

    2010-08-01

    Listening and reading comprehension of paragraph-length material are considered higher-order language skills fundamental to social and academic functioning. Using ecologically relevant language stimuli that were matched for difficulty according to developmental level, we analyze the effects of task, age, neuropsychological skills, and post-task performance on fMRI activation and hemispheric laterality. Areas of supramodal language processing are identified, with the most robust region being left-lateralized activation along the superior temporal sulcus. Functionally, this conjunction has a role in semantic and syntactic processing, leading us to refer to this conjunction as "comprehension cortex." Different from adults, supramodal areas for children include less extensive inferior frontal gyrus but more extensive right cerebellum and right temporal pole. Broader neuroanatomical pathways are recruited for reading, reflecting the more active processing and larger set of cognitive demands needed for reading compared to listening to stories. ROI analyses reveal that reading is a less lateralized language task than listening in inferior frontal and superior temporal areas, which likely reflects the difficulty of the task as children in this study are still developing their reading skills. For listening to stories, temporal activation is stable by age four with no correlations with age, neuropsychological skills or post-task performance. In contrast, frontal activation during listening to stories occurs more often in older children, and frontal activation is positively correlated with better performance on comprehension questions, suggesting that the activation of frontal networks may reflect greater integration and depth of story processing. PMID:20656105

  15. Functional anatomy of listening and reading comprehension during development.

    PubMed

    Berl, Madison M; Duke, Elizabeth S; Mayo, Jessica; Rosenberger, Lisa R; Moore, Erin N; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J; Gaillard, William Davis

    2010-08-01

    Listening and reading comprehension of paragraph-length material are considered higher-order language skills fundamental to social and academic functioning. Using ecologically relevant language stimuli that were matched for difficulty according to developmental level, we analyze the effects of task, age, neuropsychological skills, and post-task performance on fMRI activation and hemispheric laterality. Areas of supramodal language processing are identified, with the most robust region being left-lateralized activation along the superior temporal sulcus. Functionally, this conjunction has a role in semantic and syntactic processing, leading us to refer to this conjunction as "comprehension cortex." Different from adults, supramodal areas for children include less extensive inferior frontal gyrus but more extensive right cerebellum and right temporal pole. Broader neuroanatomical pathways are recruited for reading, reflecting the more active processing and larger set of cognitive demands needed for reading compared to listening to stories. ROI analyses reveal that reading is a less lateralized language task than listening in inferior frontal and superior temporal areas, which likely reflects the difficulty of the task as children in this study are still developing their reading skills. For listening to stories, temporal activation is stable by age four with no correlations with age, neuropsychological skills or post-task performance. In contrast, frontal activation during listening to stories occurs more often in older children, and frontal activation is positively correlated with better performance on comprehension questions, suggesting that the activation of frontal networks may reflect greater integration and depth of story processing.

  16. Reading Comprehension of Flemish Deaf Children in Belgium: Sources of Variability in Reading Comprehension after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Kant, Anne; Vermeulen, Anneke; De Raeve, Leo; Schreuder, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of two studies of reading comprehension of Flemish children in Belgium. In the northern part of Belgium (Flanders), Dutch is the official language. The Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Flanders are called Flemish. Dutch is also the national language of the Netherlands. Despite both groups using Dutch, cultural…

  17. Oral Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Kenya: Reading Acquisition in a Multilingual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Benjamin; Schroeder, Leila; Trudell, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Reading research has shown that variable relationships exist between measures of oral reading fluency and reading comprehension, depending on whether the language of the text is the reader's first language or an additional language. This paper explores this phenomenon, using reading assessment data for 2,000 Kenyan children in two or three…

  18. Effectiveness of Corrective Reading on Reading Comprehension and Fluency in At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Barbara Jean Alexander

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest predictors and characteristics of a high school dropout has been poor reading skills. Students with low achievement levels in reading by the end of third grade are at greater risk of becoming a dropout. The study sought to determine whether the Corrective Reading Program impacted reading comprehension and fluency skills of…

  19. Lexical-Semantic Processing and Reading: Relations between Semantic Priming, Visual Word Recognition and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobre, Alexandre de Pontes; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relations between lexical-semantic processing and two components of reading: visual word recognition and reading comprehension. Sixty-eight children from private schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil, from 7 to 12 years, were evaluated. Reading was assessed with a word/nonword reading task and a reading…

  20. The Effects of Read Naturally on Reading Fluency and Comprehension for Students of Low Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutman, Tricia E.

    2011-01-01

    The achievement gap in reading between students of low versus high socioeconomic status (SES) is detrimental to students of low SES who struggle with basic reading skills such as fluency and comprehension. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the systematic use of Read Naturally, a repeated reading fluency-based program, significantly…

  1. Motivating Reading Comprehension: Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T., Ed.; Wigfield, Allan, Ed.; Perencevich, Kathleen C., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Concept Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) is a unique, classroom-tested model of reading instruction that breaks new ground by explicitly showing how content knowledge, reading strategies, and motivational support all merge in successful reading instruction. A theoretical perspective (engagement in reading) frames the book and provides a…

  2. A Content Comprehension Approach to Reading English for Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Thom

    1991-01-01

    Reports on an English-for-special-purposes (ESP) reading project that emphasizes the role of content comprehension. The project results suggest that the content comprehension approach can improve reading comprehension as well as knowledge of reading grammar and general reading ability. (45 references) (GLR)

  3. Socio-Cultural Variation in Reading Comprehension Development among Fifth Graders in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Silvia Morales; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development was examined in 331 fifth graders from schools in Lima, Peru. Reading comprehension was measured using an adaptation of the PIRLS Reading Literacy test. The fifth graders' reading comprehension results, measured over the course of fifth grade, were related to the…

  4. Prior knowledge and reading comprehension ability of deaf adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D; Paul, P; Smith, J

    1997-01-01

    Fifty-one severely to profoundly deaf students (mean dB hearing loss = 89) were randomly assigned to two groups that differed by the type of probes (short or long) used to elicit prior knowledge (PK). PK scores were used to predict reading comprehension (RC), which was assessed by students' responses to three types of questions: test-explicit (TE), text-implicit (TI), and script-implicit (SI). Multiple regression models with PK scores and scores from a standardized achievement test (Stanford Achievement Test - Hearing Impaired Version, reading subtest) were also used to predict RC. The regression model showed that, for the group pretested with an in-depth, or long, probe of PK, the best predictor of RC was the ability to answer TE and SI questions. We present discussions of the observed differences in comprehension as a function of long and short knowledge probes and the use of three question types, together with implications for instruction.

  5. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text reading fluency; (3) unique emergent literacy predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, letter name knowledge, vocabulary) of text reading fluency vs. word reading fluency; and (4) unique language and cognitive predictors (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, theory of mind) of text reading fluency vs. reading comprehension. These questions were addressed using longitudinal data (two timepoints; Mean age = 5;24 & 6;08) from Korean-speaking children (N = 143). Results showed that listening comprehension was related to text reading fluency at time 2, but not at time 1. At both times text reading fluency was related to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension was related to text reading fluency over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. Orthographic awareness was related to text reading fluency over and above other emergent literacy skills and word reading fluency. Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge were independently related to text reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas theory of mind was related to reading comprehension, but not text reading fluency. These results reveal developmental nature of relations and mechanism of text reading fluency in reading development. PMID:26435550

  6. The reading comprehension abilities of dyslexic students in higher education.

    PubMed

    Simmons, F; Singleton, C

    2000-01-01

    The reading comprehension abilities of a group of dyslexic university students were compared with those of non-dyslexic university students. A 655-word passage, followed by literal and inferential questions, was used to measure reading comprehension. The text was designed to be syntactically complex, yet place relatively modest demands on decoding skills. Although dyslexic students performed at a similar level to the non-dyslexic students on the literal questions, their performance on the inferential questions was poorer. An index of the participants' ability to make inferences was calculated by subtracting the inferential question score from the literal question score. The groups differed significantly on this measure, indicating that the dyslexic students were specifically impaired in constructing inferences when processing complex text. It was concluded that dyslexic students in higher education have reading comprehension difficulties that cannot be accounted for by an inability to decode individual words in the text. The possible contribution that poor lexical automaticity and an impaired working memory make to this impairment is discussed. The implications for the assessment and support of dyslexic students are considered.

  7. Does Growth Rate in Oral Reading Fluency Matter in Predicting Reading Comprehension Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Foorman, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship of growth trajectories of oral reading fluency, vocabulary, phonological awareness, letter-naming fluency, and nonsense word reading fluency from 1st grade to 3rd grade with reading comprehension in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grades. Data from 12,536 children who were followed from kindergarten to 3rd grade…

  8. Matthew Effects in Young Readers: Reading Comprehension and Reading Experience Aid Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Kate; Oakhill, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The authors report data from a longitudinal study of the reading development of children who were assessed in the years of their 8th, 11th, 14th, and 16th birthdays. They examine the evidence for Matthew effects in reading and vocabulary between ages 8 and 11 in groups of children identified with good and poor reading comprehension at 8 years.…

  9. Multisyllabic Word Reading as a Moderator of Morphological Awareness and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Goodwin, Amanda P.; Compton, Donald L.; Kearns, Devin M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the relation between morphological awareness on reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability in fifth-grade students ("N" = 169, 53.7% female, 65.2% minority status, 69.2% free/reduced lunch status), oversampled for poor reading skill, when controlling for…

  10. Predictors of Foreign Language Reading Comprehension in a Hypermedia Reading Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbulut, Yavuz

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated factors affecting second/foreign language (L2) reading comprehension in a hypermedia environment within the theoretical framework of dual coding and cognitive load theories, and interactive models of L2 reading. The independent variables were reading ability, topic interest, prior topical knowledge, and the number of times…

  11. Extending Research on Oral Reading Fluency Measures, Reading Speed, and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schall, Megan; Skinner, Christopher H.; Cazzell, Samantha; Ciancio, Dennis; Ruddy, Jonah; Thompson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Middle-school students completed a comprehension assessment. The following day, they read four, 120-word passages, two standard and two non-standard ransom-note passages with altered font sizes. Altering font sizes increased students' reading time (i.e., reduced reading speed) by an average of 3 s and decreased students' words correct per minute…

  12. Promoting Reading Comprehension, Content Learning, and English Acquisition through Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Janette K.; Vaughn, Sharon

    1999-01-01

    Describes procedures for teaching Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR), in which students of mixed reading and achievement levels work in small, cooperative groups to assist one another in applying reading strategies to facilitate their comprehension of content-area text. Discusses whole-class instruction of CSR strategies, implementing CSR in…

  13. Improving Reading Comprehension of At-Risk High-School Students: The ART of Reading Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, R. Steve; Krohn, Katherine R.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Hilton-Prillhart, Angela; Hopkins, Michael; Waller, Steven; Polite, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Participants (115 low-socioeconomic-status [SES], inner-city, high-school students) were exposed to three reading conditions: (1) a control condition in which students silently read brief selected passages; (2) an experimental condition in which students were prompted to perform a three-part (Ask, Read, and Tell [ART]) comprehension enhancement…

  14. A Strategy Intervention to Increase the Reading Comprehension of Junior High School Students with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mothus, Trudy G.; Lapadat, Judith C.

    2006-01-01

    A challenge facing educators is to find ways to arrest and reverse the cumulative deficit in reading experienced by many students with learning disabilities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a strategy intervention to increase the reading comprehension of eighth grade students with reading disabilities in intact junior high school classes…

  15. The Ability of Oral Fluency to Predict Reading Comprehension among ELL Children Learning to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, Joseph Ridge

    2011-01-01

    The current study analyzed existing data, collected under a previous U.S. Department of Education Reading First grant, to investigate the strength of the relationship between scores on the first- through third-grade Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills-Oral Reading Fluency (DIBELS-ORF) test and scores on a reading comprehension test…

  16. Awareness of Reading Strategy Use of Indian ESL Students and the Relationship with Reading Comprehension Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhumathi, P.; Ghosh, Arijit

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports findings from the study that assessed the first year Indian ESL students' awareness of reading strategy use. It also investigated the relationship that exists between reading strategy use and the reading comprehension achievements of the Indian ESL students. The study utilized two instruments such as SORS and RCT which is the…

  17. Reading Motivation, Reading Amount, and Text Comprehension in Deaf and Hearing Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.; Williams, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the variables of reading motivation, reading amount, and text comprehension in deaf and hearing adults. Research has shown that less than 50% of deaf students leave high school reading at or above a fourth-grade level (Allen, 1994). Our question is, how does this affect the levels of…

  18. Investigating Reading Comprehension and Learning Styles in Relation to Reading Strategies in L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gürses, Meral Özkan; Bouvet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the extent to which reading comprehension and learning styles are related to perceived use of reading strategies among students studying French at an Australian university and a Turkish university. Ninety-one participants completed a background questionnaire, the Survey of Reading Strategies, the Kolb Learning Style…

  19. The Relationship between Phonological Features in Oral Reading and Reading Comprehension of Black West Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundre, Donna; Karlin, Andrea

    A study investigated the relationship between phonological features in the oral reading of black West Indians and their reading comprehension. Subjects were 54 college students at the College of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas. Each subject was recorded reading two passages and completed two cloze tests. The tapes then were analyzed for nine…

  20. Dynamic Testing, Working Memory, and Reading Comprehension Growth in Children with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed (a) whether performance changes in working memory (WM) as a function of dynamic testing were related to growth in reading comprehension and (b) whether WM performance among subgroups of children with reading disabilities (RD; children with RD only, children with both reading and arithmetic deficits, and low verbal…

  1. CORI: Explicit Reading Instruction to Enhance Informational Text Comprehension and Reading Engagement for Thai EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vongkrachang, Salila; Chinwonno, Apasara

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the effect of explicit reading instruction as an approach to Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) framework on EFL students' informational text comprehension and engagement. The explicit reading instruction was implemented with 39 first-year Thai undergraduate students over a 10-week period. It was found that the…

  2. Talking about Reading as Thinking: Modeling the Hidden Complexities of Online Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coiro, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights four cognitive processes key to online reading comprehension and how one might begin to transform existing think-aloud strategy models to encompass the challenges of reading for information on the Internet. Informed by principles of cognitive apprenticeship and an emerging taxonomy of online reading comprehension…

  3. Structures of Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategy Use for Reading Comprehension of Geometry Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kai-Lin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored the structural relationship between the students' perceived use of cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies (CMRS) and their reading comprehension of geometry proof (RCGP), and we also examined the differences in students' perceived use of reading strategies among the poor, moderate and good comprehenders. A sample…

  4. Reading Linear Texts on Paper versus Computer Screen: Effects on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangen, Anne; Walgermo, Bente R.; Bronnick, Kolbjorn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore effects of the technological interface on reading comprehension in a Norwegian school context. Participants: 72 tenth graders from two different primary schools in Norway. Method: The students were randomized into two groups, where the first group read two texts (1400-2000 words) in print, and the other group read the same…

  5. Using Repeated Reading to Improve Reading Speed and Comprehension in Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savaiano, Mackenzie E.; Hatton, Deborah D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study evaluated whether children with visual impairments who receive repeated reading instruction exhibit an increase in their oral reading rate and comprehension and a decrease in oral reading error rates. Methods: A single-subject, changing-criterion design replicated across three participants was used to demonstrate the…

  6. Relations among Oral Reading Fluency, Silent Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Variable Study of First-Grade Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Foster, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined oral and silent reading fluency and their relations with reading comprehension. In a series of structural equation models with latent variables using data from 316 first-grade students, (a) silent and oral reading fluency were found to be related yet distinct forms of reading fluency, (b) silent reading fluency…

  7. Conceptual Change, Text Comprehension and Eye Movements During Reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Anto, Erkki; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2013-08-01

    In the two studies presented in this article, we examine the interplay of conceptual change, text comprehension, and eye-movements during reading and develop and test methods suitable for such explorations. In studies 1 and 2, university students (N = 15 and 23) read a text on photosynthesis, explained their reading processes retrospectively cued with their own gaze videos, and answered written pre- and posttests. In Study 1, a case study demonstrated connections between re-readings and high-level cognitive processing. Out of all of the participants' retrospective reports, categories were formed based on the expressions referring to either situation model or textbase construction during reading. In Study 2, conceptual change learners differed from other learner groups in terms of prolonged overall reading time and a relatively high amount of expressing textbase construction at the beginning of the retrospective reporting. The results emphasise the importance of careful construction of the textbase in conceptual change and point to the benefits of complementing the eye tracking with cued retrospective reporting when examining high-level cognitive processes during reading.

  8. Effects of Direct Instruction on the Reading Comprehension of Students with Autism and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Margaret M.; Ganz, Jennifer B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated effects of a Direct Instruction reading comprehension program implemented with students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and developmental disabilities (DD). There is little research in the area of reading comprehension for students with ASD and no research as to the effectiveness of reading comprehension Direct…

  9. The Reading Comprehension Strategies of Second Language Learners: A Spanish-English Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta Caballero, Karen Anelice

    2012-01-01

    Reading comprehension of school-aged students is an important topic of research; however, research on the reading comprehension of adult foreign/second language learners whose first language is English is limited, especially studies investigating the reading comprehension strategies that readers of different proficiency levels use when they…

  10. Effects on and Predictability of Computer-Mediated Glosses in Reading Comprehension of EFL College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melhi, Abdullah A.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research indicated that computer-mediated glosses had an overall medium effect on second language reading comprehension. This study investigated the effects of computer-mediated glosses on reading comprehension. It also investigated the predictive power index of the e-glosses use with regard to reading comprehension performance, from a…

  11. Oral Morphosyntactic Competence as a Predictor of Reading Comprehension in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buil-Legaz, Lucía; Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with a diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) present impaired oral comprehension. According to the simple view of reading, general amodal linguistic capacity accounts for both oral and reading comprehension. Considering this, we should expect SLI children to display a reading comprehension deficit. However, previous…

  12. Adolescent reading skill and engagement with digital and traditional literacies as predictors of reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Lynne G; McGeown, Sarah P; Griffiths, Yvonne M; Stothard, Susan E; Dobai, Anna

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the concurrent predictors of adolescent reading comprehension (literal, inferential) for fiction and non-fiction texts. Predictors were examined from the cognitive (word identification, reading fluency), psychological (gender), and ecological (print exposure) domains. Print exposure to traditional and digital texts was surveyed using a diary method of reading habits. A cross-sectional sample of 312 students in early (11-13 years) or middle adolescence (14-15 years) participated from a range of SES backgrounds. Word identification emerged as a strong predictor of reading comprehension across adolescence and text genres. Gender effects favouring female students were evident for reading frequency but not for reading skill itself. Reading habits also differed, and comprehension advantages were observed among females for fiction and males for non-fiction. Age effects emerged for reading frequency, which was lower in middle adolescence. Although more time was spent on digital than on traditional texts, traditional extended text reading was the only reading habit to predict inference-making in comprehension and to distinguish skilled from less skilled comprehenders. The theoretical and educational implications of these results are discussed.

  13. The utility and accuracy of oral reading fluency score types in predicting reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Petscher, Yaacov; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-02-01

    This study used data from the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS; Good & Kaminski, 2002) oral reading fluency (ORF) probes to examine variation among different ORF score types (i.e., the median of three passages, the mean of all three passages, the mean of passages 2 and 3, and the score from passage 3) in predicting reading comprehension as a function of student reading fluency level and to compare the screening accuracy of these score types in predicting student reading comprehension. The results revealed that the relation between oral reading fluency and reading comprehension varied as a function of students' oral reading fluency and that different score types had varying predictive validity for year-end reading comprehension. The mean of all three passages demonstrated a marginally better balance in screening efficiency from September to December of grade one (especially for low-performing students), whereas in grades two and three, the median score was the best predictor. Furthermore, across all grades, increasing reading rates were observed for the three administered passages within an assessment period. The observed patterns mimicked previous experimental studies (Francis et al., 2008; Jenkins, Graff, & Miglioretti, 2009), suggesting that practice effects are an important consideration in the administration of multiple passages assessing oral reading fluency.

  14. Adolescent reading skill and engagement with digital and traditional literacies as predictors of reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Lynne G; McGeown, Sarah P; Griffiths, Yvonne M; Stothard, Susan E; Dobai, Anna

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the concurrent predictors of adolescent reading comprehension (literal, inferential) for fiction and non-fiction texts. Predictors were examined from the cognitive (word identification, reading fluency), psychological (gender), and ecological (print exposure) domains. Print exposure to traditional and digital texts was surveyed using a diary method of reading habits. A cross-sectional sample of 312 students in early (11-13 years) or middle adolescence (14-15 years) participated from a range of SES backgrounds. Word identification emerged as a strong predictor of reading comprehension across adolescence and text genres. Gender effects favouring female students were evident for reading frequency but not for reading skill itself. Reading habits also differed, and comprehension advantages were observed among females for fiction and males for non-fiction. Age effects emerged for reading frequency, which was lower in middle adolescence. Although more time was spent on digital than on traditional texts, traditional extended text reading was the only reading habit to predict inference-making in comprehension and to distinguish skilled from less skilled comprehenders. The theoretical and educational implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26094956

  15. Repeated Reading for Japanese Language Learners: Effects on Reading Speed, Comprehension, and Comprehension Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Greta; Taguchi, Etsuo; Umehara, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    A perennial challenge to second language educators and learners is getting sufficient input in settings where the L2 is not widely used, in this case beginning-level American university students learning Japanese. Reading is a significant means of getting L2 input, with recent calls for attention to reading and authentic texts as curriculum…

  16. Predicting reading comprehension of narrative and expository texts among Hebrew-speaking readers with and without a reading disability.

    PubMed

    Primor, Liron; Pierce, Margaret E; Katzir, Tami

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which cognitive and reading-related linguistic skills contribute to reading comprehension of narrative and expository texts. The study examined an Israeli national database of Hebrew-speaking readers in fourth grade, from which a subsample of 190 readers with a reading disability (RD) and 190 readers with no reading disability (NRD) was selected. IQ, text reading, reading comprehension, and various linguistic and cognitive skills were assessed. Structural equation modeling results suggested that both groups rely on lower level processes such as text reading accuracy and orthographic knowledge for reading comprehension of both genres. However, RD readers depend more heavily upon these lower level processes compared with NRD for whom higher level processes contribute more to reading comprehension. The various variables accounted for only 25-34% of reading comprehension variance, and possible explanations are discussed. Taken together, these findings highlight the variety of factors influencing reading comprehension and its multidimensional nature.

  17. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text-reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity): how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word-reading fluency, reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word-reading fluency and reading comprehension. The study examined (a) developmentally changing relations…

  18. Objective and comprehensive evaluation of bisulfite short read mapping tools.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hong; Porter, Jacob; Sun, Ming-An; Xie, Hehuang; Zhang, Liqing

    2014-01-01

    Background. Large-scale bisulfite treatment and short reads sequencing technology allow comprehensive estimation of methylation states of Cs in the genomes of different tissues, cell types, and developmental stages. Accurate characterization of DNA methylation is essential for understanding genotype phenotype association, gene and environment interaction, diseases, and cancer. Aligning bisulfite short reads to a reference genome has been a challenging task. We compared five bisulfite short read mapping tools, BSMAP, Bismark, BS-Seeker, BiSS, and BRAT-BW, representing two classes of mapping algorithms (hash table and suffix/prefix tries). We examined their mapping efficiency (i.e., the percentage of reads that can be mapped to the genomes), usability, running time, and effects of changing default parameter settings using both real and simulated reads. We also investigated how preprocessing data might affect mapping efficiency. Conclusion. Among the five programs compared, in terms of mapping efficiency, Bismark performs the best on the real data, followed by BiSS, BSMAP, and finally BRAT-BW and BS-Seeker with very similar performance. If CPU time is not a constraint, Bismark is a good choice of program for mapping bisulfite treated short reads. Data quality impacts a great deal mapping efficiency. Although increasing the number of mismatches allowed can increase mapping efficiency, it not only significantly slows down the program, but also runs the risk of having increased false positives. Therefore, users should carefully set the related parameters depending on the quality of their sequencing data. PMID:24839440

  19. Reading comprehension in autism spectrum disorders: the role of oral language and social functioning.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Jessie; Jones, Catherine R G; Happé, Francesca; Charman, Tony

    2013-04-01

    Reading comprehension is an area of difficulty for many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). According to the Simple View of Reading, word recognition and oral language are both important determinants of reading comprehension ability. We provide a novel test of this model in 100 adolescents with ASD of varying intellectual ability. Further, we explore whether reading comprehension is additionally influenced by individual differences in social behaviour and social cognition in ASD. Adolescents with ASD aged 14-16 years completed assessments indexing word recognition, oral language, reading comprehension, social behaviour and social cognition. Regression analyses show that both word recognition and oral language explain unique variance in reading comprehension. Further, measures of social behaviour and social cognition predict reading comprehension after controlling for the variance explained by word recognition and oral language. This indicates that word recognition, oral language and social impairments may constrain reading comprehension in ASD.

  20. Comparison of Two Oral Reading Feedback Strategies in Improving Reading Comprehension of School-Age Children with Low Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Linda K.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the effects of two oral reading feedback strategies in improving the reading comprehension of eight school-age children with low reading ability. Participants were assigned to one of two intervention groups matched on age, grade, gender, and general reading performance. Intervention 1 (I1) used traditional decoding-based…

  1. Increasing Secondary Reading Comprehension and Reading Proficiency across Content Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Marty

    2011-01-01

    This action research developed as a response to the researcher's experience with struggling and alliterate readers across all content areas in secondary schools. The researcher witnessed the negative impact of a depressed economy and depressed reading proficiency pervasive among students based on classroom experience and standardized testing. The…

  2. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions.

    PubMed

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-06-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their possible applicability in LA. We conclude that research-based pedagogical interventions are currently available to promote RC at school and may be suitable to implement in LA in order to improve RC.

  3. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions.

    PubMed

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-06-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their possible applicability in LA. We conclude that research-based pedagogical interventions are currently available to promote RC at school and may be suitable to implement in LA in order to improve RC. PMID:27254828

  4. Prediction of Reading Comprehension: Relative Contributions of Word Recognition, Language Proficiency, and Other Cognitive Skills Can Depend on How Comprehension Is Measured

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Laurie E.; Scarborough, Hollis S.

    2006-01-01

    Reading comprehension scores from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Tests, the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, and the Gray Oral Reading Test were examined in relation to measures of reading, language, and other cognitive skills that have been hypothesized to contribute to comprehension and account for comprehension differences. In a sample of 97…

  5. I "hear" what you're "saying": Auditory perceptual simulation, reading speed, and reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-01-01

    Auditory perceptual simulation (APS) during silent reading refers to situations in which the reader actively simulates the voice of a character or other person depicted in a text. In three eye-tracking experiments, APS effects were investigated as people read utterances attributed to a native English speaker, a non-native English speaker, or no speaker at all. APS effects were measured via online eye movements and offline comprehension probes. Results demonstrated that inducing APS during silent reading resulted in observable differences in reading speed when readers simulated the speech of faster compared to slower speakers and compared to silent reading without APS. Social attitude survey results indicated that readers' attitudes towards the native and non-native speech did not consistently influence APS-related effects. APS of both native speech and non-native speech increased reading speed, facilitated deeper, less good-enough sentence processing, and improved comprehension compared to normal silent reading.

  6. The Incremental Variance of Morphological Knowledge to Reading Comprehension in Grades 3-10 beyond Prior Reading Comprehension, Spelling, and Text Reading Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Petscher, Yaacov; Bishop, M. Denise

    2012-01-01

    We know that knowledge of word structure--morphology--relates to reading, but there is limited research on its unique contribution to reading comprehension, especially with students in middle and high schools and with the nesting of students within classrooms taken into account. In this study with 4780 students in grades 3 to 10, we examined how…

  7. Reading Comprehension on the Internet: Expanding Our Understanding of Reading Comprehension To Encompass New Literacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coiro, Julie

    2003-01-01

    Examines the skills and abilities needed to interact with text on the Internet. Proposes that the Internet provides opportunities for interacting with new text formats, reader elements, and activities. Notes that it also expands and influences the sociocultural context in which a student learns to read. Considers the implications of a broader…

  8. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading…

  9. The Relationship between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension in Fifth-Grade Turkish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Yildirim, Kasim; Ates, Seyit; Rasinski, Timothy; Fitzgerald, Shawn; Zimmerman, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This research study focused on the relationships among the various components of reading fluency components (word recognition accuracy, automaticity, and prosody), as well as their relationships with reading comprehension among fifth-grade students in Turkey. A total of 119 fifth-grade elementary school students participated in the study. The…

  10. The Effect of Reading Strategies on Reading Comprehension in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolukbas, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine which reading strategies students use while learning Turkish as a foreign language and investigate the effects of these strategies on reading comprehension skill. Conducted in compliance with "pretest-posttest control group model" as the experimental design, this research involved totally 36…

  11. Applied Cognition in Reading: An Analysis of Reading Comprehension in Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Joshua A.

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to add to a body of knowledge that is severely underrepresented in the scientific literature, reading comprehension in secondary students. Chapter 1 examines the current state of literacy in the nation's public schools and the consequences that arise if students leave high school with inadequate reading skills. It discusses…

  12. The Schema Strategies in Reading Comprehension Tasks of Fourth-Grade Students with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutkind, Rebeka Chaia

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method study investigated the schema strategy uses of fourth-grade boys with reading challenges; specifically, their ability to understand text based on two components within schema theory: tuning and restructuring. Based on the reading comprehension scores from the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (Form 2010), four comparison groups were…

  13. Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension in Chinese and English among Bilingual Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Dan; Wong, Ka Ki; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    One hundred four Hong Kong Chinese fifth graders completed a questionnaire on eight separate motivational subscales related to reading separately for Chinese as a first language (L1) and English as a foreign language (EFL) in addition to measures of both Chinese and English reading comprehension. Motivations related to self-efficacy, curiosity,…

  14. Effects of Pre-Reading Strategies on EFL/ESL Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihara, Kei

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on two pre-reading strategies: vocabulary pre-teaching and comprehension question presentation. Researchers have claimed that a vocabulary strategy is less effective than any other pre-reading strategy. This study investigates whether their claim is true of Japanese university students. The purpose of the study is twofold. The…

  15. Character Reading Fluency, Word Segmentation Accuracy, and Reading Comprehension in L2 Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Helen H.; Jiang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between lower-level processing and general reading comprehension among adult L2 (second-language) beginning learners of Chinese, in both target and non-target language learning environments. Lower-level processing in Chinese reading includes the factors of character-naming accuracy, character-naming speed,…

  16. The Longitudinal Relationship between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension Skills in Second-Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Stephanie A.; George Benjamin, Rebekah; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Kuhn, Melanie R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluent readers can read connected text with accuracy, automaticity, and prosody. Without practice, automaticity cannot develop in reading, and readers must focus their attention on decoding, limiting their ability to simultaneously comprehend. Researchers have traditionally assumed that fluency and comprehension have a unidirectional relationship…

  17. Language-Related Values, Reading Amount, and Reading Comprehension in Students with Migration Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Khechen, Wahiba; Ferdinand, Hanna D.; Steinmayr, Ricarda; McElvany, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although various studies on general language performance have investigated determinants of students' reading comprehension (e.g., reading amount), they have paid insufficient attention to how students perceive parental values influence their language-related values and behaviour--and, as a consequence, their performance. This is…

  18. Reading Methodology Textbooks: Are They Helping Teachers Teach Comprehension? Reading Education Report No. 59.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Dolores

    As part of an effort to discover what was being done with comprehension instruction in classrooms, basal reader manuals, and reading methodology textbooks, an analysis was made of the content of eight reading methods textbooks that had copyright dates at least as recent as 1983 and that were the most frequently used texts. All the pages in the…

  19. Engagement and Autonomy: Their Relationship and Impact on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This article relates aspects of my investigation into the effects of two differing approaches to teaching comprehension of narrative texts on students' task engagement and text enjoyment, and comprehension. The results demonstrate a complex relationship between engagement and comprehension. They highlight that academically weaker students…

  20. Cross-Cultural Reading Comprehension Assessment in Malay and English as It Relates to the Dagostino-Carifio Model of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagostino, Lorraine; Carifio, James; Bauer, Jennifer D. C.; Zhao, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The review of existing literature suggests that few researchers have adopted cross-language comparisons to explore how cultural background affects the assessment of reading comprehension of students. In this present study, the researchers independently reviewed and rated all the items of two reading comprehension tests translated from Malay into…

  1. The Effect of Summary Writing on Reading Comprehension: The Role of Mediation in EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Reading teachers focus more on the instruction of reading content or strategies, but pay relatively less attention to the impact of writing on reading comprehension. Based on mediation theory, the author examined the effect of summary writing about reading texts on readers' comprehension. By reviewing relevant literatures on the topic of…

  2. Effects of the TWA Strategy on Expository Reading Comprehension of Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howorth, Sarah; Lopata, Christopher; Thomeer, Marcus; Rodgers, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    High-functioning students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been shown to have significant reading comprehension difficulty. This multiple baseline study examined the effect of the think before reading, think while reading, and think after reading (TWA) strategy on expository text comprehension of four boys with ASD. Following baseline,…

  3. Use of a Measure of Reading Comprehension to Enhance Prediction on the State High Stakes Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Edward S.; Solari, Emily; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined the diagnostic accuracy of two screening measures of risk for future difficulties in reading comprehension, as well as the degree to which adding a screening measure of reading comprehension enhanced the prediction of Oral Reading Fluency to outcomes of student reading performance on the state high stakes assessment for…

  4. Independent Reading of CD-ROM Storybooks: Measuring Comprehension with Oral Retellings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearman, Cathy J.

    2008-01-01

    CD-ROM storybooks may facilitate reading comprehension for students who are struggling with reading comprehension. Therefore, the use of CD-ROM storybooks in the classroom as part of a reading instruction program, literacy center, or for independent reading time could benefit young readers. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  5. Progressive Achievement Tests in Reading: Comprehension & Vocabulary. Teacher's Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The teacher handbook for Progressive Achievement Tests (PATs) in Reading presents an overall description of these survey tests in reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge for school years 3 to 9. There are two alternative forms of each test: (1) the Reading Comprehension tests are designed to measure two major aspects of reading skills…

  6. The Relationship of Error Rate and Comprehension in Second and Third Grade Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Mary; Wills, Howard; Miller, Angela; Kaufman, Journ

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of oral reading speed and error rate on comprehension with second and third grade students with identified reading risk. The study included 920 second and 974 third graders. Results found a significant relationship between error rate, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension performance, and…

  7. Proximal and Distal Predictors of Reading Comprehension: Evidence from Young Korean Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated proximal and distal predictors of reading comprehension by including latent factors such as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, semantic knowledge, word reading, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension. The sample consisted of 79 five-year-old Korean-monolingual children who were assessed at the end…

  8. Contribution of Discourse and Morphosyntax Skills to Reading Comprehension in Chinese Dyslexic and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chik, Pakey Pui-man; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Yeung, Pui-sze; Wong, Yau-kai; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Lo, Lap-yan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying important skills for reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic children and their typically developing counterparts matched on age (CA controls) or reading level (RL controls). The children were assessed on Chinese reading comprehension, cognitive, and reading-related skills. Results showed that the dyslexic…

  9. Assessing Reading Comprehension in Adolescent Low Achievers: Subskills Identification and Task Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steensel, Roel; Oostdam, Ron; van Gelderen, Amos

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a validation study of a new test for assessing low-achieving adolescents' reading comprehension skills--the SALT-reading--we analyzed two issues relevant to the field of reading test development. Using the test results of 200 seventh graders, we examined the possibility of identifying reading comprehension subskills and the effects…

  10. Cognitive and linguistic predictors of reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    van Wingerden, Evelien; Segers, Eliane; van Balkom, Hans; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-11-01

    A considerable number of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) are able to acquire basic word reading skills. However, not much is known about their achievements in more advanced reading comprehension skills. In the present study, a group of 49 children with ID and a control group of 21 typically developing children with word decoding skills in the normal ranges of first grade were compared in lower level (explicit meaning) and higher level (implicit meaning) reading comprehension abilities. Moreover, in the group of children with ID it was examined to what extent their levels of lower level and higher level reading comprehension could be predicted from their linguistic skills (word decoding, vocabulary, language comprehension) and cognitive skill (nonverbal reasoning). It was found that children with ID were weaker than typically developing children in higher level reading comprehension but not in lower level reading comprehension. Children with ID also performed below the control group on nonverbal reasoning and language comprehension. After controlling for nonverbal reasoning, linguistic skills predicted lower level reading comprehension but not higher level reading comprehension. It can be concluded that children with ID who have basic decoding skill do reasonably well on lower level reading comprehension but continue to have problems with higher level reading comprehension.

  11. Instruction of Research-Based Comprehension Strategies in Basal Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilonieta, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Research supports using research-based comprehension strategies; however, comprehension strategy instruction is not highly visible in basal reading programs or classroom instruction, resulting in many students who struggle with comprehension. A content analysis examined which research-based comprehension strategies were presented in five…

  12. Instruction in Metacognitive Strategies to Increase Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, Kendra M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this intervention study was to test the use of a reading comprehension strategy with students who are deaf/hard of hearing (D/HH) in monitoring and resolving problems with comprehension. The strategy, named Comprehension Check and Repair (CC&R), was designed for D/HH students who struggle with comprehension, despite at least…

  13. Passageless Comprehension on the "Nelson-Denny Reading Test": Well above Chance for University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Chris; Lindstrom, Jennifer; Nelson, Jason; Lindstrom, William; Gregg, K. Noel

    2010-01-01

    The comprehension section of the "Nelson-Denny Reading Test" (NDRT) is widely used to assess the reading comprehension skills of adolescents and adults in the United States. In this study, the authors explored the content validity of the NDRT Comprehension Test (Forms G and H) by asking university students (with and without at-risk status for…

  14. Testing and Refining the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Azevedo, Roger

    2007-01-01

    A significant proportion of American high school students struggle with reading comprehension. Theoretical models of reading comprehension might help researchers understand these difficulties, because they can point to variables that make the largest contributions to comprehension. On the basis of an extensive review of the literature, we created…

  15. Choice of Reading Comprehension Test Influences the Outcomes of Genetic Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Keenan, Janice M.; Olson, Richard K.; DeFries, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Does the choice of test for assessing reading comprehension influence the outcome of genetic analyses? A twin design compared two types of reading comprehension tests classified as primarily associated with word decoding (RC-D) or listening comprehension (RC-LC). For both types of tests, the overall genetic influence is high and nearly identical.…

  16. ESL Elementary Teachers' Use of Children's Picture Books to Initiate Explicit Instruction of Reading Comprehension Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khaiyali, Al Tiyb S.

    2014-01-01

    Reading comprehension instruction has been recognized as a key factor in developing any reading and literacy program. Therefore, many attempts were devoted to improve explicit comprehension strategy instruction at different school levels and fields including EFL and ESL. Despite these efforts, explicit comprehension instruction is still drought…

  17. Developmental Relations between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: A Longitudinal Study from Grade 1 to Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children's reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first and second graders.…

  18. Comprehensive Reading Instruction across the Grade Levels: A Collection of Papers from the Reading Research 2001 Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Cathy M., Ed.

    This collection of 9 papers from the International Reading Association's Reading Research 2001 Conference (RR2001) addresses comprehensive reading instruction across the grade levels. The introduction, "How Will We Develop the Concept of Comprehensive Reading Instruction Across Grade Levels?," notes that five quandaries arose in the discussion of…

  19. Deep Reading, Cost/Benefit, and the Construction of Meaning: Enhancing Reading Comprehension and Deep Learning in Sociology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Judith C.; Roberts, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Reading comprehension skill is often assumed by sociology instructors, yet many college students seem to have marginal reading comprehension skills, which may explain why fewer than half of them are actually doing the reading. Sanctions that force students to either read or to pay a price are based on a rational choice model of behavior--a…

  20. A Comparison of Reading Rates, Comprehension, and Stamina in Oral and Silent Reading of Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainin, Guy; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Wilson, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between silent and oral reading fluency and comprehension. Findings indicated that fourth grade students had consistent levels of comprehension in both reading modes. Students of all reading levels showed a similar pattern across the segments of a text set in both oral and silent reading--a gradual increase in…

  1. Improving Reading Comprehension in Reading and Listening Settings: The Effect of Two Training Programmes Focusing on Metacognition and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carretti, Barbara; Caldarola, Nadia; Tencati, Chiara; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metacognition and working memory (WM) have been found associated with success in reading comprehension, but no studies have examined their combined effect on the training of reading comprehension. Another open question concerns the role of listening comprehension: In particular, it is not clear whether training to improve reading…

  2. Reading Assessment Methods for Middle-School Students: An Investigation of Reading Comprehension Rate and Maze Accurate Response Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Andrea D.; Henning, Jaime B.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Sheeley, Wesley; Shoemaker, Larissa; Reynolds, Jennifer R.; Moch, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the validity of four different aloud reading comprehension assessment measures: Maze, comprehension questions, Maze accurate response rate (MARR), and reading comprehension rate (RCR). The criterion measures used in this study were the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III ACH) Broad Reading…

  3. Effects of Metalinguistic Awareness on Reading Comprehension and the Mediator Role of Reading Fluency from Grades 2 to 4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liping; Wu, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the contribution of metalinguistic awareness including morphological awareness, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness to reading comprehension, and the role of reading fluency as a mediator of the effects of metalinguistic awareness on reading comprehension from grades 2 to 4. Methods Four hundred and fifteen elementary students in China mainland were administered a test battery that included measures of morphological awareness, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, reading fluency, reading comprehension and IQ. Hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM) were used to analyze the data. Results Morphological awareness uniquely explained 9%, 10% and 13% variance of reading comprehension respectively from grade 2 to grade 4, however, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness did not contribute to reading comprehension; Reading fluency partially mediated the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension in grades 2-4. Conclusions These findings indicated that reading fluency and morphological awareness should be facilitated in the Chinese instruction. Morphological awareness played an important role in Chinese reading and affected reading comprehension in grades 2 to 4; Reading fluency was a significant link between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in grades 2-4. PMID:25799530

  4. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading Comprehension: Evidence from Mediation and Longitudinal Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, S. Hélène; Kieffer, Michael J.; Laroche, Annie

    2014-01-01

    We examined the role of a hypothesized factor in reading comprehension: morphological awareness, or the awareness of and ability to manipulate the smallest meaningful units or morphemes. In this longitudinal study, we measured English-speaking children's morphological awareness, word reading skills, and reading comprehension at Grades 3 and…

  5. It Matters Whether Reading Comprehension Is Conceptualised as Rate or Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2016-01-01

    This study shows that it makes a difference whether accuracy measures or rate measures are used when assessing reading comprehension. When the outcome is reading comprehension accuracy (i.e., the number of correct responses), word reading skills (measured as access to orthographic representations) account for a modest amount of the variance in the…

  6. Comprehension Considerations in SWRL Reading Instruction. Technical Note No. 2-72-35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessemer, David W.; Jenkins, Charles M.

    Conceptualizations of the reading process and the nature of comprehension are discussed in relation to the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Beginning Reading Program. A method of syntactic analysis is proposed to help identify segments of meaning in reading materials. Components for comprehension assessment and instruction based on auch an…

  7. First-Grade Cognitive Abilities as Long-Term Predictors of Reading Comprehension and Disability Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bryant, V. Joan; Hamlett, Carol L.; Lambert, Warren

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 195 first graders selected for poor reading performance, the authors explored four cognitive predictors of later reading comprehension and reading disability (RD) status. In fall of first grade, the authors measured the children's phonological processing, rapid automatized naming (RAN), oral language comprehension, and nonverbal…

  8. Lexical Threshold Revisited: Lexical Text Coverage, Learners' Vocabulary Size and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laufer, Batia; Ravenhorst-Kalovski, Geke C.

    2010-01-01

    We explore the relationship between second language (L2) learners' vocabulary size, lexical text coverage that their vocabulary provides and their reading comprehension. We also conceptualize "adequate reading comprehension" and look for the lexical threshold for such reading in terms of coverage and vocabulary size. Vocabulary size was measured…

  9. The Relationship between Vocabulary Size and Reading Comprehension of ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Engku Haliza Engku; Sarudin, Isarji; Muhamad, Ainon Jariah

    2016-01-01

    There are many factors that contribute to one's ability to read effectively. Vocabulary size is one important factor that enhances reading comprehension. The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between students' reading comprehension skills and their vocabulary size. A total of 129 pre-university students undergoing an intensive…

  10. Effect of Music on Reading Comprehension of Junior High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stacey A.; Fuller, Gerald B.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study was an investigation of the effect of lyrical music on reading comprehension by adolescents. Existing research has produced results that range from concluding such distraction may be detrimental to finding it could be helpful. The reading comprehension subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, 4th edition (MacGinitie,…

  11. Reading Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Oral Language and Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Jessie; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is an area of difficulty for many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). According to the Simple View of Reading, word recognition and oral language are both important determinants of reading comprehension ability. We provide a novel test of this model in 100 adolescents with ASD of varying intellectual ability.…

  12. The Effects of Self-Questioning on Reading Comprehension: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Laurice M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila; Cullen, Jennifer; Rouse, Christina

    2016-01-01

    The ability to monitor one's own reading comprehension is a critical skill for deriving meaning from text. Self-questioning during reading is a strategy that enables students to monitor their reading comprehension and increases their ability to learn independently. The purpose of this article was to review experimental research studies that…

  13. What Is the Basis for Self-Assessment of Comprehension When Reading Mathematical Expository Texts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Österholm, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize students' self-assessments when reading mathematical texts, in particular regarding what students use as a basis for evaluations of their own reading comprehension. A total of 91 students read two mathematical texts, and for each text, they performed a self-assessment of their comprehension and…

  14. Looking at CIRC through Quantitative Lenses: Can It Improve the Reading Comprehension of Filipino ESL Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Wilkinson Daniel Wong; Torres, Patrisha Lliane

    2015-01-01

    Several pressing issues in reading instruction have prompted educators world-wide to conduct researches on how to best improve reading comprehension skills. Although there is a wealth of reading comprehension researches done with EFL learners and native English speakers, there seems to be limited published studies conducted in the Philippine ESL…

  15. Modeling Local Item Dependence in Cloze and Reading Comprehension Test Items Using Testlet Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Purya; Ravand, Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    In this study the magnitudes of local dependence generated by cloze test items and reading comprehension items were compared and their impact on parameter estimates and test precision was investigated. An advanced English as a foreign language reading comprehension test containing three reading passages and a cloze test was analyzed with a…

  16. Supporting Social Studies Reading Comprehension with an Electronic Pop-Up Dictionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Sara Winstead; Gosky, Ross

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated how middle school students' comprehension was impacted by reading social studies texts online with a pop-up dictionary function for every word in the text. A quantitative counterbalance design was used to determine how 129 middle school students' reading comprehension test scores for the pop-up dictionary reading differed…

  17. The Role of Vocabulary, Working Memory and Inference Making Ability in Reading Comprehension in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Hannah; Heath, James

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen children and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) completed tests of language and reading and their performance was compared to that of three control groups. Reading comprehension was confirmed to be a specific deficit in DS and found to be strongly correlated with underlying language skills. Although reading comprehension was more…

  18. Reading for Meaning: Fostering Comprehension in the Middle Grades. Language and Literacy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Barbara M., Ed.; Graves, Michael F., Ed.; van den Broek, Paul, Ed.

    Reading comprehension is of great concern to many Americans, as evidenced by the mandate in most states today for graduation standards in reading and for assessments aligned to those standards. This book focuses on what has been learned from research about fostering reading comprehension in the middle grades, providing a broad overview of current…

  19. Paths to Reading Comprehension in At-Risk Second-Grade Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.; Vermeulen, Karin; Fulton, Cynthia M.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies of second graders at risk for reading disability, which were guided by levels of language and functional reading system theory, focused on reading comprehension in this population. In Study 1 (n = 96), confirmatory factor analysis of five comprehension measures loaded on one factor in both fall and spring of second grade. Phonological…

  20. The Explicit Teaching of Reading Comprehension in Science Class: A Pilot Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concannon-Gibney, Tara; McCarthy, Mary Jean

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to address persistent gaps in the research regarding effective professional development models associated with reading comprehension pedagogy in content area classrooms (science). An appropriate instructional model was developed, ("Do-Read-Do") which attempts to embed the explicit teaching of reading comprehension strategies…

  1. Implementation and Effects of Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Fifth-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreassen, Rune; Braten, Ivar

    2011-01-01

    In this intervention study, teachers tried to implement four instructional principles derived from the literature on research-based, explicit reading comprehension instruction in their fifth-grade classrooms. The principles focused on relevant background knowledge, reading comprehension strategies, reading-group organization, and reading…

  2. Reading and Comprehension Levels in a Sample of Urban, Low-Income Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Cheryl; Weitzel, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because health literacy is related to healthcare outcomes, this study looked at reading and comprehension levels in a sample of urban, low-income persons. Design: This was a descriptive exploration of reading comprehension levels, controlled for medical problems that could impact on vision and therefore ability to read. Setting: Ninety…

  3. Effectiveness of false correction strategy on science reading comprehension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, Cynthia Anne

    False-correction reading strategy theoretically prompted college students to activate their prior knowledge when provided false statements linked to a portion of their biology textbook. This strategy is based in elaborative interrogation theory, which suggests that prompting readers to answer interrogatives about text students are reading increases their comprehension of that text. These interrogatives always asked "why" statements pulled from a text, one sentence in length, were "true." True statements in this study based on a text were converted by the experimenter into false statements, one sentence in length. Students were requested to rewrite each statement (n=12) on average every 200 words in a text as they were reading, converting each false statement into a true statement. These students outperformed other students requested to reread the same biology text twice (an established placebo-control strategy). These students, in turn, outperformed still other students reading an unrelated control text taken from the same textbook used only to establish a prior knowledge baseline for all students included in this study. Students participating in this study were enrolled students in an undergraduate introductory general biology course designed for non-majors. A three-group, posttest-only, randomized experimental control-group design was used to prevent pretest activation of students' prior knowledge thus increasing chances of producing evidence of false-correction effectiveness and to begin augmenting potential generalizability to science classrooms. Students' (n=357) general biology knowledge, verbal ability, and attempts to use the false correction strategy were collected and analyzed. Eight of the participants were interviewed by the researcher in a first attempt in this domain to collect data on participants' points of view about the strategy. The results of this study are not yet recommended for use in authentic school settings as further research is indicated.

  4. A meta-analysis of the reading comprehension skills of individuals on the autism spectrum.

    PubMed

    Brown, Heather M; Oram-Cardy, Janis; Johnson, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    This meta-analysis examined 36 studies comparing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and control groups in reading comprehension. Three moderators (semantic knowledge, decoding skill, PIQ) and two text types (high vs. low social knowledge) were examined as predictors of reading comprehension in ASD. The overall standardized mean difference for reading comprehension was g = -0.7 SD. The strongest individual predictors of reading comprehension were semantic knowledge (explaining 57 % of variance) and decoding skill (explaining 55 % of variance). Individuals with ASD were significantly worse at comprehending highly social than less social texts. Having ASD alone does not predict reading comprehension deficits. Instead, individual skills, especially language ability, must be considered before one can accurately predict whether a given individual with ASD will experience difficulties in reading comprehension.

  5. Investigating deaf students' use of visual multimedia resources in reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Nikolaraizi, Magda; Vekiri, Ioanna; Easterbrooks, Susan R

    2013-01-01

    A mixed research design was used to examine how deaf students used the visual resources of a multimedia software package that was designed to support reading comprehension. The viewing behavior of 8 deaf students, ages 8-12 years, was recorded during their interaction with multimedia software that included narrative texts enriched with Greek Sign Language videos, pictures, and concept maps. Also, students' reading comprehension was assessed through reading comprehension questions and retelling. Analysis of the students' viewing behavior data, their answers to reading comprehension questions, their "think alouds," and their story retells indicated that they used visual resources, but they did not exploit them in a strategic manner to aid their reading comprehension. The study underscores the important role of mediated instruction in "visual literacy" skills that enable students to learn how to process visual aids in a way that supports their reading comprehension.

  6. Lexical Quality and Reading Comprehension in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Isberner, Maj-Britt; Naumann, Johannes; Neeb, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between the quality of lexical representations and text comprehension skill in German primary school children (Grades 1-4). We measured the efficiency and accuracy of orthographical, phonological, and meaning representations by means of computerized tests. Text comprehension skill was…

  7. Reading Comprehension and Regularized Orthography. Parts 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvell, Robert L.

    The purpose of this study was to compare mature readers' comprehension of text presented in traditional orthography with their comprehension of text presented in a regularized orthography, specifically, to determine whether, when traditional orthography is regularized, any loss of meaning is attributable to the loss of the visual dissimilarity of…

  8. Choice of Reading Comprehension Test Influences the Outcomes of Genetic Analyses.

    PubMed

    Betjemann, Rebecca S; Keenan, Janice M; Olson, Richard K; Defries, John C

    2011-01-01

    Does the choice of test for assessing reading comprehension influence the outcome of genetic analyses? A twin design compared two types of reading comprehension tests classified as primarily associated with word decoding (RC-D) or listening comprehension (RC-LC). For both types of tests, the overall genetic influence is high and nearly identical. However, the tests differed significantly in how they covary with the genes associated with decoding and listening comprehension. Although Cholesky decomposition showed that both types of comprehension tests shared significant genetic influence with both decoding and listening comprehension, RC-D tests shared most genetic variance with decoding, and RC-LC tests shared most with listening comprehension. Thus, different tests used to measure the same construct may manifest very different patterns of genetic covariation. These results suggest that the apparent discrepancies among the findings of previous twin studies of reading comprehension could be due at least in part to test differences. PMID:21804757

  9. Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension Gains from Assisted Reading Practice: Pre Existing Conditions, Vocabulary Acquisition, and Amounts of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shany, Michal; Biemiller, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a study of the effects of assisted reading practice (Shany & Biemiller, 1995). In this paper we examined the original data to find factors affecting gains in reading comprehension. We contrasted 14 children who had below median gains in reading comprehension and 15 who had above median gains. There were no significant correlations…

  10. Reading Comprehension: Effects of Individualized, Integrated Language Arts as a Reading Approach with Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thames, Dana G.; Reeves, Carolyn; Kazelskis, Richard; York, Kathleen; Boling, Charlotte; Newell, Kavatus; Wang, Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of individualized, integrated language arts as a reading approach on struggling readers' comprehension scores obtained from oral narrative, silent narrative, and silent expository passages at three levels: below-grade, on-grade, and above-grade levels. Students (N = 93) in grades four through eight, who were reading…

  11. Understanding Reading: What Do I Do on Monday? Reading Comprehension Workshop Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advanced Technology, Inc., Indianapolis, IN.

    This Workshop Leader's Guide is designed to assist Technical Assistance Center staff members and other inservice providers in conducting successful workshops on reading comprehension for teachers, administrators, and others associated with Chapter 1 programs. The guide contains step-by-step procedures for preparing, organizing, and presenting a…

  12. Reading while Watching Video: The Effect of Video Content on Reading Comprehension and Media Multitasking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin; Lee, Jennifer; Robertson, Tip

    2011-01-01

    Media multitasking, or engaging in multiple media and tasks simultaneously, is becoming an increasingly popular phenomenon with the development and engagement in social media. This study examines to what extent video content affects students' reading comprehension in media multitasking environments. One hundred and thirty university students were…

  13. Substance Dependency's Effect on Reading Decoding and Comprehension: Reading Decoding and Comprehension Levels as Indicators of Brain Dysfunctioning with Ramifications for Traditional Rehabilitation Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schadler, Debbie E.

    This paper discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the effects of substance dependency on the reading decoding and comprehension of 497 adolescents (ages 12-18) involved in an inpatient drug and alcohol rehabilitation program. The first part of the study involved the formal assessment of reading decoding and reading comprehension…

  14. Predictors of Reading Comprehension for Struggling Readers: The Case of Spanish-speaking Language Minority Learners

    PubMed Central

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the process of English reading comprehension at age 11 for 173 low achieving Spanish-speaking children. The influence of growth rates, from early childhood (age 4.5) to pre-adolescence (age 11), in vocabulary and word reading skills on this complex process were evaluated using structural equation modeling. Standardized measures of word reading accuracy and productive vocabulary were administered annually, in English and Spanish, and English reading comprehension measures were administered at age 11. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that English skills accounted for all unique variance in English reading comprehension outcomes. Further, expected developmental shifts in the influence of word reading and vocabulary skills over time were not shown, likely on account of students’ below grade level reading comprehension achievement. This work underscores the need for theoretical models of comprehension to account for students’ skill profiles and abilities. PMID:20856691

  15. Lexical prosody beyond first-language boundary: Chinese lexical tone sensitivity predicts English reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Choi, William; Tong, Xiuli; Cain, Kate

    2016-08-01

    This 1-year longitudinal study examined the role of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity in predicting English reading comprehension and the pathways underlying their relation. Multiple measures of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity, English lexical stress sensitivity, Cantonese segmental phonological awareness, general auditory sensitivity, English word reading, and English reading comprehension were administered to 133 Cantonese-English unbalanced bilingual second graders. Structural equation modeling analysis identified transfer of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity to English reading comprehension. This transfer was realized through a direct pathway via English stress sensitivity and also an indirect pathway via English word reading. These results suggest that prosodic sensitivity is an important factor influencing English reading comprehension and that it needs to be incorporated into theoretical accounts of reading comprehension across languages.

  16. Lexical prosody beyond first-language boundary: Chinese lexical tone sensitivity predicts English reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Choi, William; Tong, Xiuli; Cain, Kate

    2016-08-01

    This 1-year longitudinal study examined the role of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity in predicting English reading comprehension and the pathways underlying their relation. Multiple measures of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity, English lexical stress sensitivity, Cantonese segmental phonological awareness, general auditory sensitivity, English word reading, and English reading comprehension were administered to 133 Cantonese-English unbalanced bilingual second graders. Structural equation modeling analysis identified transfer of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity to English reading comprehension. This transfer was realized through a direct pathway via English stress sensitivity and also an indirect pathway via English word reading. These results suggest that prosodic sensitivity is an important factor influencing English reading comprehension and that it needs to be incorporated into theoretical accounts of reading comprehension across languages. PMID:27135168

  17. Computerized trainings in four groups of struggling readers: Specific effects on word reading and comprehension.

    PubMed

    Potocki, Anna; Magnan, Annie; Ecalle, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Four groups of poor readers were identified among a population of students with learning disabilities attending a special class in secondary school: normal readers; specific poor decoders; specific poor comprehenders, and general poor readers (deficits in both decoding and comprehension). These students were then trained with a software program designed to encourage either their word decoding skills or their text comprehension skills. After 5 weeks of training, we observed that the students experiencing word reading deficits and trained with the decoding software improved primarily in the reading fluency task while those exhibiting comprehension deficits and trained with the comprehension software showed improved performance in listening and reading comprehension. But interestingly, the latter software also led to improved performance on the word recognition task. This result suggests that, for these students, training interventions focused at the text level and its comprehension might be more beneficial for reading in general (i.e., for the two components of reading) than word-level decoding trainings.

  18. The effects of reading comprehension and launch site on frequency-predictability interactions during paragraph reading.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2014-01-01

    We used eye movement measures of paragraph reading to examine whether word frequency and predictability interact during the earliest stages of lexical processing, with a specific focus on whether these effects are modulated by individual differences in reading comprehension or launch site (i.e., saccade length between the prior and currently fixated word--a proxy for the amount of parafoveal word processing). The joint impact of frequency and predictability on reading will elucidate whether these variables additively or multiplicatively affect the earliest stages of lexical access, which, in turn, has implications for computational models of eye movements during reading. Linear mixed effects models revealed additive effects during both early- and late-stage reading, where predictability effects were comparable for low- and high-frequency words. Moreover, less cautious readers (e.g., readers who engaged in skimming, scanning, mindless reading) demonstrated smaller frequency effects than more cautious readers. Taken together, our findings suggest that during extended reading, frequency and predictability exert additive influences on lexical and postlexical processing, and that individual differences in reading comprehension modulate sensitivity to the effects of word frequency.

  19. Accurate reading comprehension rate as an indicator of broad reading in students in first, second, and third grades.

    PubMed

    Ciancio, Dennis; Thompson, Kelly; Schall, Megan; Skinner, Christopher; Foorman, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between reading comprehension rate measures and broad reading skill development was examined using data from approximately 1425 students (grades 1-3). Students read 3 passages, from a pool of 30, and answered open-ended comprehension questions. Accurate reading comprehension rate (ARCR) was calculated by dividing the percentage of questions answered correctly (%QC) by seconds required to read the passage. Across all 30 passages, ARCR and its two components, %QC correct and time spent reading (1/seconds spent reading the passage), were significantly correlated with broad reading scores, with %QC resulting in the lowest correlations. Two sequential regressions supported previous findings which suggest that ARCR measures consistently produced meaningful incremental increases beyond %QC in the amount of variance explained in broad reading skill; however, ARCR produced small or no incremental increases beyond reading time. Discussion focuses on the importance of the measure of reading time embedded in brief accurate reading rate measures and directions for future research.

  20. An Investigation of Silent versus Aloud Reading Comprehension of Elementary Students Using Maze Assessment Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Andrea D.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Sheeley, Wesley; Reynolds, Jennifer R.; Jenkins, Shonna; Schmitt, Ara J.; Martin, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Many reading comprehension measures require the student to read silently. When students read silently, important information (e.g., consistent reading errors) may not be identified. It may also be difficult to detect a student who is choosing not to read the passage. For this reason, investigating whether there is a significant difference in…

  1. Reading Amount as a Mediator of the Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffner, Ellen; Schiefele, Ulrich; Ulferts, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of reading amount as a mediator of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation on higher order reading comprehension (comprised of paragraph-and passage-level comprehension) in a sample of 159 fifth-grade elementary students. A positive association between intrinsic reading motivation and reading amount…

  2. Syntactic Comprehension in Reading and Listening: A Study with French Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalis, Severine; Leuwers, Christel; Hilton, Heather

    2013-01-01

    This study examined syntactic comprehension in French children with dyslexia in both listening and reading. In the first syntactic comprehension task, a partial version of the Epreuve de Comprehension syntaxico-semantique (ECOSSE test; French adaptation of Bishop's test for receptive grammar test) children with dyslexia performed at a lower level…

  3. Comprehension: Process and Product. First Yearbook of the American Reading Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNinch, George H., Ed.

    Papers delivered at the First American Reading Forum are collected in this yearbook. Focusing on the theme of comprehension, many of the essays respond to a preceding essay. The essays and reactions cover a variety of topics, including the following: (1) comprehension measures, (2) instructional strategies to promote comprehension, (3) current…

  4. Using Story Grammar to Assist Students with Learning Disabilities and Reading Difficulties Improve Their Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetter, Maria Earman; Hughes, Marie Tejero

    2010-01-01

    With the majority of students with learning disabilities (LD) having difficulties in reading, teachers at all grade levels need to incorporate comprehension strategies into their instruction to explicitly teach students with LD how to use the strategies to enhance their comprehension. One way for teachers to support students' comprehension of…

  5. On Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintsch, Walter

    Attempts have been made to develop a model of the process of reading comprehension as a whole that would indicate under what conditions and for what reasons a long sentence might be more effective than several short ones, when repetition is helpful and when distracting, when content is better left implicit in a text, and how overexplicitness might…

  6. Longitudinal stability in reading comprehension is largely heritable from grades 1 to 6.

    PubMed

    Soden, Brooke; Christopher, Micaela E; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Olson, Richard K; Cutting, Laurie; Keenan, Janice M; Thompson, Lee A; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik G; Petrill, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a foundational academic skill and significant attention has focused on reading development. This report is the first to examine the stability and change in genetic and environmental influences on reading comprehension across Grades 1 to 6. This developmental range is particularly important because it encompasses the timespan in which most children move from learning how to read to using reading for learning. Longitudinal simplex models were fitted separately for two independent twin samples (N = 706; N = 976). Results suggested that the shared environment contributed to variance in early but not later reading. Instead, stability in reading development was largely mediated by continuous genetic influences. Thus, although reading is clearly a learned skill and the environment remains important for reading development, individual differences in reading comprehension appear to be also influenced by a core of genetic stability that persists through the developmental course of reading.

  7. Improving the Reading Comprehension Skills of Minority Adults from Educationally Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Gina; Verhulst, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a synergistic reading comprehension program to help minority adults from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds improve their reading skills in preparation for academics, standardized testing, and medical school. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  8. Effects of reading-oriented tasks on students' reading comprehension of geometry proof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai-Lin; Lin, Fou-Lai

    2012-06-01

    This study compared the effects of reading-oriented tasks and writing-oriented tasks on students' reading comprehension of geometry proof (RCGP). The reading-oriented tasks were designed with reading strategies and the idea of problem posing. The writing-oriented tasks were consistent with usual proof instruction for writing a proof and applying it. Twenty-two classes of ninth-grade students ( N = 683), aged 14 to 15 years, and 12 mathematics teachers participated in this quasi-experimental classroom study. While the experimental group was instructed to read and discuss the reading tasks in two 45-minute lessons, the control group was instructed to prove and apply the same propositions. Generalised estimating equation (GEE) method was used to compare the scores of the post-test and the delayed post-test with the pre-test scores as covariates. Results showed that the total scores of the delayed post-test of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Furthermore, the scores of the experimental group on all facets of reading comprehension except the application facet were significantly higher than those of the control group for both the post-test and delayed post-test.

  9. Effect of phonological and morphological awareness on reading comprehension in Hebrew-speaking adolescents with reading disabilities.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Rachel; Schwartz-Nahshon, Sarit; Nagar, Revital

    2011-06-01

    This research explored phonological and morphological awareness among Hebrew-speaking adolescents with reading disabilities (RD) and its effect on reading comprehension beyond phonological and word-reading abilities. Participants included 39 seventh graders with RD and two matched control groups of normal readers: 40 seventh graders matched for chronological age (CA) and 38 third graders matched for reading age (RA). We assessed phonological awareness, word reading, morphological awareness, and reading comprehension. Findings indicated that the RD group performed similarly to the RA group on phonological awareness but lower on phonological decoding. On the decontextualized morphological task, RD functioned on par with RA, whereas in a contextualized task RD performed above RA but lower than CA. In reading comprehension, RD performed as well as RA. Finally, results indicated that for normal readers contextual morphological awareness uniquely contributed to reading comprehension beyond phonological and word-reading abilities, whereas no such unique contribution emerged for the RD group. The absence of an effect of morphological awareness in predicting reading comprehension was suggested to be related to a different recognition process employed by RD readers which hinder the ability of these readers to use morphosemantic structures. The lexical quality hypothesis was proposed as further support to the findings, suggesting that a low quality of lexical representation in RD students leads to ineffective reading skills and comprehension. Lexical representation is thus critical for both lexical as well as comprehension abilities.

  10. Computer-Assisted Metacognitive Strategies and the Reading Comprehension Skills of ESL Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrasquillo, Angela; Nunez, Dulcinea

    With the advent of the computer as an instructional tool many curriculum specialists have been designing software for reading instruction. However, most of the software designed to help develop reading comprehension skills does not consider the inclusion of monitoring comprehension strategies, therefore limiting the instructional potential of the…

  11. The Role of Structured Cooperative Learning Groups for Enhancing Chinese Primary Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yin-Kum

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two types of cooperative learning groups used in reciprocal teaching (RT) classes (i.e. high-structured vs. low-structured groups) for enhancing students' reading comprehension. The participants were 235 Hong Kong Chinese Grade 6 students in nine classes. Reading comprehension tests and…

  12. A Meta-Analysis of the Reading Comprehension Skills of Individuals on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Heather M.; Oram-Cardy, Janis; Johnson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined 36 studies comparing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and control groups in reading comprehension. Three moderators (semantic knowledge, decoding skill, PIQ) and two text types (high vs. low social knowledge) were examined as predictors of reading comprehension in ASD. The overall standardized mean difference for reading…

  13. Reading Comprehension and Working Memory's Executive Processes: An Intervention Study in Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Madruga, Juan A.; Elosua, Maria Rosa; Gil, Laura; Gomez-Veiga, Isabel; Vila, Jose Oscar; Orjales, Isabel; Contreras, Antonio; Rodriguez, Raquel; Melero, Maria Angeles; Duque, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a highly demanding task that involves the simultaneous process of extracting and constructing meaning in which working memory's executive processes play a crucial role. In this article, a training program on working memory's executive processes to improve reading comprehension is presented and empirically tested in two…

  14. Influence of Phonological Awareness, Morphological Awareness and Non-Verbal Ability on Reading Comprehension in Malayalam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul Gafoor, K.; Remia, K. R.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of observations that students lack mastery of elementary reading comprehension in Malayalam even by the end of 5-7 years of formal schooling, this study applies multiple regression analysis for reading comprehension. Longitudinal survey data from a representative sample of 159 lower primary students from grade 2 to 4 revealed…

  15. The Effect of Project-Based Activities on Intermediate EFL Students' Reading Comprehension Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiraz, Mona Poorverdi; Larsari, Ebrahim Ezati

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between the use of Project-based activities and intermediate EFL students' reading comprehension. The study addresses the questions of whether students' reading comprehension differs after implementing Project-based activities, and whether different projects lead to different degrees of reading…

  16. Comparing Effects of Different Writing Activities on Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Michael; Simpson, Amy; Graham, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this review were to determine: (1) if different writing activities were more effective than others in improving students' reading comprehension, and (2) if obtained differences among writing activities was related to how reading comprehension was measured? Meta-analysis was used to examine these questions across studies involving…

  17. The Contribution of Attentional Control and Working Memory to Reading Comprehension and Decoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, C. Nikki; Kulesz, Paulina A.; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Barnes, Marcia A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how specific components of working memory, namely, attentional processes including response inhibition, sustained attention, and cognitive inhibition, are related to reading decoding and comprehension. The current study evaluated the relations of reading comprehension, decoding, working memory, and attentional control in…

  18. The Effect of Image Quality Training on Reading Comprehension of EFL Students Using the Keyword Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lihui; Lawson, Michael J.; Curtis, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Imagery training has been shown to improve reading comprehension. Recent research has also shown that the quality of visual mental imagery used is important for reading comprehension. A review of literature shows that there has been relatively little detailed research on the quality of imagery used by learners, especially in the case of students…

  19. Activation of Background Knowledge for Inference Making: Effects on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbro, Carsten; Buch-Iversen, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Failure to "activate" relevant, existing background knowledge may be a cause of poor reading comprehension. This failure may cause particular problems with inferences that depend heavily on prior knowledge. Conversely, teaching how to use background knowledge in the context of gap-filling inferences could improve reading comprehension in…

  20. How Logical Reasoning Mediates the Relation between Lexical Quality and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the role of logical reasoning in the relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension in 146 fourth grade Dutch children. We assessed their standardized reading comprehension measure, along with their decoding efficiency and vocabulary as measures of lexical quality, syllogistic reasoning as measure of…

  1. Perceptual Organization, Phonological Awareness, and Reading Comprehension in Adults with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stothers, Margot; Klein, Perry D.

    2010-01-01

    It is not clear from research whether, or to what extent, reading comprehension is impaired in adults who have learning disabilities (LD). The influence of perceptual organization (PO) and phonological awareness (PA) on reading comprehension was investigated. PO and PA are cognitive functions that have been examined in previous research for their…

  2. Differences in Literal and Inferential Comprehension after Reading Orally and Silently.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Samuel D.; Smith, Donald E. P.

    To test the assumption that questions measuring literal comprehension and those measuring inferential comprehension are equally valid indices for both oral and silent reading tests at all skill levels, questions from the Analytic Reading Inventory were classified as either literal or inferential. Subjects, 94 children in grades two to five, read…

  3. Validation of a Cognitive Diagnostic Model across Multiple Forms of a Reading Comprehension Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Amy K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to fit a cognitive diagnostic model (CDM) across multiple forms of a passage-based reading comprehension assessment using the attribute hierarchy method. Previous research on CDMs for reading comprehension assessments served as a basis for the attributes in the hierarchy. The two attribute hierarchies were fit to data from…

  4. Measuring Reading Comprehension in the Upper Primary School. EDRC Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearritt, D.; And Others

    A battery of reading tests designed to identify the component skills involved in reading comprehension was administered to 624 sixth grade students in the metropolitan Sydney (Australia) schools. Factor analysis of the data showed that knowledge of word meanings, sentence comprehension, and semantic context are experimentally identifiable…

  5. Facilitating Reading Comprehension in Learning Disabled Students: Metacognitive Goals and Instructional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Bonnie S.; Wildman, Terry M.

    1990-01-01

    This article addresses the planning of metacognitive instruction in reading, including such elements of metacognitive theory as metacognitive knowledge, self-regulation, comprehension monitoring, and regulation. Metacognitive goals for instruction, selected research in improving reading comprehension, and specific instructional implications for…

  6. The Listening and Reading Comprehension (LARC) Program....Experiential Based Sequential Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Holly; And Others

    The LARC (Listening and Reading Comprehension) Program, an experiential based story grammar approach to listening and reading comprehension is described, and a pilot study of its effectiveness with communication handicapped children is reviewed. The LARC framework translates children's own recent experiences into sequenced story episodes which are…

  7. The Difficulties That Seventh Grade Students Face in Comprehensive Reading Skill for English Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albdour, Waddah Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The study aims at identifying the difficulties affecting the student in the area of reading comprehension skill in English language curricula, measuring the differences in English language teachers' attitudes towards difficulties that seventh grade students face in reading comprehension skill for English language according to personal variables.…

  8. Vocabulary and Syntactic Knowledge Factors in 5th Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Niederhauser, Dale S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined 5th grade students' levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary…

  9. Television's Impact on Children's Reading Comprehension and Decoding Skills: A 3-Year Panel Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koolstra, Cees M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Explores longitudinal effects of television viewing on 1,050 Dutch children's reading comprehension, causal mechanisms that underlie these effects on reading comprehension, and longitudinal effects of television on decoding skills. Surveys children three times at one-year intervals. Suggests that television viewing inhibited development of reading…

  10. The New Literacies of Online Reading Comprehension: Expanding the Literacy and Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leu, Donald J.; McVerry, J. Gregory; O'Byrne, W. Ian; Kiili, Carita; Zawilinski, Lisa; Everett-Cacopardo, Heidi; Kennedy, Clint; Forzani, Elena

    2011-01-01

    This commentary explores a central issue for our times, online reading comprehension. It first defines three issues that have largely gone unnoticed as the Internet enters our classrooms: (1) literacy has become deictic; (2) effective online information use requires additional online reading comprehension practices, skills, and dispositions; and…

  11. Is There a Common Linkage among Reading Comprehension, Visual Attention, and Magnocellular Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solan, Harold A.; Shelley-Tremblay, John F.; Hansen, Peter C.; Larson, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships between reading comprehension, visual attention, and magnocellular processing in 42 Grade 7 students. The goal was to quantify the sensitivity of visual attention and magnocellular visual processing as concomitants of poor reading comprehension in the absence of either vision therapy or cognitive…

  12. Reciprocal Teaching and Emotional Intelligence: A Study of Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izadi, Mehri; Nowrouzi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring the effect of reciprocal reading strategies instruction on reading comprehension of EFL learners. Emotional intelligence, another variable of interest, was assessed to indicate whether it plays a role in learners' comprehension. In a pre- and post-test study, forty-two learners went through a reciprocal reading…

  13. Two for One: Using QAR to Increase Reading Comprehension and Improve Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This teaching tip describes an intervention used in a third-grade classroom implemented to help students pass an end-of-grade reading comprehension test. Low scores on a practice end-of-grade comprehension test prompted a re-examination of classroom reading instruction and a plan for intervention. This teaching tip describes the phases implemented…

  14. The Effects of the Paraphrasing Strategy on the Reading Comprehension of Young Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagaman, Jessica L.; Casey, Kathryn J.; Reid, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Reading comprehension is an important component of academic success and a skill required for many activities in school. However, little is known about effective reading comprehension interventions for younger students. This study investigated the effects of the paraphrasing strategy taught using the self-regulated strategy development model.…

  15. Knowledge, Writing, and Language Outcomes for a Reading Comprehension and Writing Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Linda H.; Davison, Megan Dunn; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Miller, Carol A.; Glutting, J. James

    2013-01-01

    Many students struggle with gaining knowledge and writing about content text material and therefore require effective intervention. In a randomized controlled trial study, 77 low-achieving fourth-grade students received reading comprehension instruction or reading comprehension plus writing instruction or were assigned to a no-treatment control.…

  16. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Stress and Their Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyman, Somayeh; Sadighi, Firooz

    2011-01-01

    This investigation intended to find out the relationship between EFL learners' stress and their reading comprehension. The subjects who included ninety EFL juniors from Shiraz Azad University were asked to answer a standardized reading comprehension test and a stress questionnaire. After finding out the results of stress questionnaire, 10% of the…

  17. The Development of Reading Comprehension Skills in Children Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Orly; Siegel, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a multi-dimensional process that includes the reader, the text, and factors associated with the activity of reading. Most research and theories of comprehension are based primarily on research conducted with monolingual English speakers (L1). The present study was designed to investigate the cognitive and linguistic…

  18. Building Comprehension in Adolescents: Powerful Strategies for Improving Reading and Writing in Content Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Linda H.; Reid, Robert; Hagaman, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Comprehension problems have become an epidemic: One out of every four secondary school students is unable to read and comprehend the material in textbooks. Start addressing the root of the problem today with this practical guidebook, designed to strengthen adolescents' reading comprehension and written expression so they can master academic…

  19. The Effects of Familiarization with Oral Expository Text on Listening and Reading Comprehension Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diakidoy, Irene-Anna N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of text type and early familiarization with oral expository text structures on listening and reading comprehension levels. Second-grade students read and listened to narrative and expository texts, and their comprehension was assessed with a sentence verification task. Half of the students had participated in a…

  20. Professional Development for Conceptual Change: Extending the Paradigm to Teaching Reading Comprehension in US Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Amy Feiker; Kalchman, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine American inservice teachers' instructional methods in reading comprehension following professional development (PD), illustrating the prolonged and significant gap between research and practice in the field of reading comprehension. We explore this gap from a conceptual change perspective, positing that some level of…

  1. Enhancing Reading Comprehension with Text-to-Speech (DECtalk) Computer System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    1992-01-01

    Studies the effect on reading comprehension of a computer system. Finds that the adolescent students gained in reading comprehension across both training modes, but the efficacy of DECtalk together with on-line explanations was found with only two prose passages and mainly with above average readers. Discusses results in the context of situated…

  2. Increasing Reading Comprehension in First and Second Graders Through Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Amanda; Sherman, Jennifer; Zaugra, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project report was to increase reading comprehension by using cooperative learning. Reading comprehension was a concern for the three teacher researchers at both research sites. There were 51 first and second grade students, 28 elementary teachers, and 51 families of the first and second grade students involved…

  3. Effects of Exposure to Literary Arabic on Reading Comprehension in a Diglossic Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    2000-01-01

    Examines the influence of exposure to literary Arabic of preschool children on their reading comprehension of literary Arabic stories in grades 1 and 2. Indicates better reading comprehension results for the children who were exposed to literary Arabic than for the children who were exposed only to spoken Arabic. (SC)

  4. Developing Reading Comprehension and Academic Vocabulary for English Language Learners through Science Content: A Formative Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taboada, Ana; Rutherford, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    This formative experiment explored the extent to which two instructional frameworks that varied in the explicitness of academic vocabulary instruction, comprehension strategy instruction, and supports for student autonomy influenced reading comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, perceptions of autonomy supports, and reading engagement in…

  5. The Role of First Language Literacy and Second Language Proficiency in Second Language Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xiangying

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships of first language (L1) literacy, second language (L2) proficiency, and L2 reading comprehension with 246 Chinese college students learning English. L1 literacy and L2 proficiency were measured with college admission exams in Chinese and English. L2 reading comprehension was measured with the reading…

  6. An Explanatory Mixed Methods Study of EFL College Students' Vocabulary Knowledge, Syntactic Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kuang Yu

    2009-01-01

    Success in reading comprehension is usually seen as fundamental to the academic success of foreign language learners. Many language factors affect second language learners' reading comprehension, such as vocabulary, and syntactic or grammatical knowledge. In practice, vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge can not be discussed separately with…

  7. A Computer-Based Spatial Learning Strategy Approach That Improves Reading Comprehension and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Hector R.; Mayer, Richard E.; Lopez, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the effectiveness of a computer-based spatial learning strategy approach for improving reading comprehension and writing. In reading comprehension, students received scaffolded practice in translating passages into graphic organizers. In writing, students received scaffolded practice in planning to write by filling in graphic…

  8. Instructional Design Implications about Comprehension of Listening to Music before and during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, Amy F.

    2013-01-01

    Low reading levels and lack of comprehension are current problems in high school classrooms confirmed by low standardized test scores and employer feedback as comprehension problems move into the workplace with students who do not have the necessary reading skills on the job. Midwestern high school science club students served as participants in…

  9. Can Cloze Tests Really Improve Second Language Learners' Reading Comprehension Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Guanxin

    2011-01-01

    Cloze testing is a widely-used procedure to test learners' reading comprehension in learning a language, but little is known if it can really improve learners' reading comprehension skills. This paper attempts to seek answers to this question by comparing the cloze test scores of two groups of students (Experimental versus Control) undertaking…

  10. Comprehension Tools for Teachers: Reading for Understanding from Prekindergarten through Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Phillips, Beth M.; Kaschak, Michael; Apel, Kenn; Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Johnson, Lakeisha Cooper; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the theoretical framework, as well as the development and testing of the intervention, "Comprehension Tools for Teachers" (CTT), which is composed of eight component interventions targeting malleable language and reading comprehension skills that emerging research indicates contribute to proficient reading for…

  11. Evaluation of Attention Training and Metacognitive Facilitation to Improve Reading Comprehension in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaime B.; Sohlberg, McKay Moore

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This pilot study investigated the impact of direct attention training combined with metacognitive facilitation on reading comprehension in individuals with aphasia. Method: A single-subject, multiple baseline design was employed across 4 participants to evaluate potential changes in reading comprehension resulting from an 8-week…

  12. Contribution of discourse and morphosyntax skills to reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Chik, Pakey Pui-man; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Yeung, Pui-sze; Wong, Yau-kai; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Lo, Lap-yan

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed at identifying important skills for reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic children and their typically developing counterparts matched on age (CA controls) or reading level (RL controls). The children were assessed on Chinese reading comprehension, cognitive, and reading-related skills. Results showed that the dyslexic children performed significantly less well than the CA controls but similarly to RL controls in most measures. Results of multiple regression analyses showed that word-level reading-related skills like oral vocabulary and word semantics were found to be strong predictors of reading comprehension among typically developing junior graders and dyslexic readers of senior grades, whereas morphosyntax, a text-level skill, was most predictive for typically developing senior graders. It was concluded that discourse and morphosyntax skills are particularly important for reading comprehension in the non-inflectional and topic-prominent Chinese system.

  13. Developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: a latent change score modeling study.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jamie M; Wagner, Richard K; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, Mage = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension to test for the presence of leading and lagging influences. Univariate models indicated growth in vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension was determined by two parts: constant yearly change and change proportional to the previous level of the variable. Bivariate models indicated previous levels of vocabulary knowledge acted as leading indicators of reading comprehension growth, but the reverse relation was not found. Implications for theories of developmental relations between vocabulary and reading comprehension are discussed.

  14. Role of verbal memory in reading text comprehension of individuals with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Levorato, Maria Chiara; Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena

    2011-03-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between verbal memory and reading text comprehension in individuals with Down syndrome. The hypothesis that verbal memory provides unique contribution to reading text comprehension after controlling for verbal skills was tested. Twenty-three individuals with Down syndrome (ages 11 years, 2 months-18 years, 1 month) were matched on reading text comprehension, which was the primary variable of interest, with 23 typically developing children (ages 6 years, 2 months-7 years, 1 month). The two groups were compared on verbal skills and verbal memory. The results showed that working memory (concurrent storage and processing functions), but not short-term memory, predicted unique variance in reading text comprehension, after the verbal skills were controlled for. No group differences emerged in the relationship between verbal memory and reading text comprehension.

  15. The role of vocabulary, working memory and inference making ability in reading comprehension in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nash, Hannah; Heath, James

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen children and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) completed tests of language and reading and their performance was compared to that of three control groups. Reading comprehension was confirmed to be a specific deficit in DS and found to be strongly correlated with underlying language skills. Although reading comprehension was more strongly related to language ability in the DS group, this was shown to be a function of more advanced word recognition rather than a characteristic of DS per se. Individuals with DS were found to have greater difficulty with inferential comprehension questions than expected given their overall comprehension ability and the reading profile associated with DS was found to be similar to that of children known as poor comprehenders. It is recommended that oral language training programs, similar to those that have been shown to improve reading comprehension in poor comprehenders, be trialed with children who have DS.

  16. The contribution of theory of mind, counterfactual reasoning, and executive function to pre-readers' language comprehension and later reading awareness and comprehension in elementary school.

    PubMed

    Guajardo, Nicole R; Cartwright, Kelly B

    2016-04-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the roles of theory of mind, counterfactual reasoning, and executive function in children's pre-reading skills, reading awareness, and reading comprehension. It is the first to examine this set of variables with preschool and school-aged children. A sample of 31 children completed language comprehension, working memory, cognitive flexibility, first-order false belief, and counterfactual reasoning measures when they were 3 to 5 years of age and completed second-order false belief, cognitive flexibility, reading comprehension, and reading awareness measures at 6 to 9 years of age. Results indicated that false belief understanding contributed to phrase and sentence comprehension and reading awareness, whereas cognitive flexibility and counterfactual reasoning accounted for unique variance in reading comprehension. Implications of the results for the development of reading skill are discussed.

  17. The Effect of a Timed Reading Activity on EFL Learners: Speed, Comprehension, and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna C-S

    2010-01-01

    To develop reading fluency, a 13-week timed reading activity was integrated into a normal curriculum with the aim of improving students' reading rates. Participants were 84 college students divided into an experimental and a control group. The test instruments involved pretests and posttests on reading speed and comprehension. Students'…

  18. Exploring Reading Comprehension Needs of Iranian EAP Students of Health Information Management (HIM): A Triangulated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atai, Mahmood Reza; Nazari, Ogholgol

    2011-01-01

    Discipline-based English for Academic Purposes (EAP) reading programs in Iran are designed to fill the gap between the students' general English reading competence and their ability to read authentic discipline-specific texts. This study attempted to assess target and present reading comprehension needs of EAP students of Health Information…

  19. Online versus Paper-Based Instruction: Comparing Two Strategy Training Modules for Improving Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsin-chou

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of online versus paper-based reading strategy instruction on EFL learners' reading comprehension. Fifty-seven university students from two intact reading classes with comparable proficiency levels were assigned to participate in either a paper-based or an online reading instructional module. Both…

  20. Relationships between Sixth-Graders' Reading Comprehension and Two Different Measures of Print Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear-Swerling, Louise; Brucker, Pamela O.; Alfano, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined sixth-graders' reading comprehension and component reading abilities in relation to two measures of print exposure: an author recognition test (ART) involving fiction authors and a reading habits questionnaire (RHQ) about children's voluntary reading for enjoyment across various genres. The ART correlated only with children's…

  1. Reading and Listening Comprehension and Their Relation to Inattention and Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Kate; Bignell, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have reading problems. To date, it is not clear whether poor reading is associated with both inattention and hyperactivity and also whether poor reading comprehension is the result of poor word reading skills or more general language comprehension…

  2. Are Electronic Books Effective in Teaching Young Children Reading and Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Jamillah M. A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether electronic books, CD-ROM'S, or interactive media are beneficial in teaching reading should be determined on evidence that they aid reading comprehension. Reading is worthless unless one comprehends. In order to examine the effectiveness of electronic books in a reading program, the characteristics and attributes of how…

  3. The Importance of Intrinsic Motivation for High and Low Ability Readers' Reading Comprehension Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Sarah; Medford, Emma; Hughes, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    The study examined how cognitive and motivational factors predicted reading skill and whether intrinsic reading motivation would explain significantly more variance in low ability readers' reading performance. One hundred and eleven children (aged 9-11) completed assessments of reading comprehension skill, verbal IQ, decoding skill and intrinsic…

  4. Assessment of Reading Comprehension, Panel 5; Conference on Studies in Reading (Washington, D.C., August 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marshall S., Ed.

    The aim of the panel on reading comprehension, sponsored by the National Institute of Education Conference on Studies in Reading, was to determine the influence of intellectual factors, general experiences with the world, knowledge specific to the particular reading task, and general decoding skills to successful reading performance. In addition,…

  5. The Functions of Cultural Schemata in the Chinese Reading Comprehension and Reading Time of College Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chen-Hong; Lai, Shu-Fen

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effects of cultural familiarity with a text on Chinese students' reading comprehension performance and reading time. In the first phase of the study, participants were required to read a culturally familiar text, write down the time they spent reading the passage, and immediately complete a cloze test without referring back…

  6. Variance in Broad Reading Accounted for by Measures of Reading Speed Embedded within Maze and Comprehension Rate Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Andrea D.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Wilhoit, Brian; Ciancio, Dennis; Morrow, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Maze and reading comprehension rate measures are calculated by using measures of reading speed and measures of accuracy (i.e., correctly selected words or answers). In sixth- and seventh-grade samples, we found that the measures of reading speed embedded within our Maze measures accounted for 50% and 39% of broad reading score (BRS) variance,…

  7. The Effects of the Paraphrasing Strategy on the Reading Comprehension of Middle School Students at Risk for Failure in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagaman, Jessica L.; Reid, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Reading is an important component of academic success and a skill required for many adult responsibilities. Many strategies exist that claim to increase reading comprehension. However, in contrast to foundational reading skills (e.g., vocabulary, fluency, decoding), there is relatively little research that has been done on reading comprehension…

  8. Increasing Reading Comprehension through the Explicit Teaching of Reading Strategies: Is There a Difference among the Genders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prado, Ludivina; Plourde, Lee A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between the intentional teaching of reading strategies and the increase in reading comprehension was studied. The Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) reading pretest and posttest scores of 57 subjects were analyzed to see if there was a significant increase in performance after the reading strategies were taught. The study…

  9. Analysis of Reading Comprehension Levels of Fifth Grade Students Who Learned to Read and Write with the Sentence Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagirli, Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the determination of reading comprehension levels of fifth grade's students who learned to read and write with the sentence method. With the program of 2005, it has been amended in the first reading and writing method. In the teaching of first reading and writing, it was passed to the sentence method instead of sound…

  10. The Effect of Speed Reading Instruction on Japanese High School Students' English Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Paul; Myskow, Gordon; Hattori, Takahiko

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a six-month course in speed reading in three areas of reading proficiency development: 1) general reading comprehension, 2) knowledge of high-frequency vocabulary, and 3) reading-rate and accuracy. The participants (N = 105) were Japanese students studying English as a foreign language in Grade 10 at a…

  11. Involvement of the right hemisphere in reading comprehension: a DTI study.

    PubMed

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Wang, Yingying; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K

    2014-09-25

    The Simple View of reading emphasizes the critical role of two factors in normal reading skills: word recognition and reading comprehension. The current study aims to identify the anatomical support for aspects of reading performance that fall within these two components. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained from diffusion tensor images in twenty-one typical adolescents and young adults using the tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. We focused on the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) as fiber tracts that connect regions already implicated in the distributed cortical network for reading. Our results demonstrate dissociation between word-level and narrative-level reading skills: the FA values for both left and right ILF were correlated with measures of word reading, while only the left ILF correlated with reading comprehension scores. FA in the AF, however, correlated only with reading comprehension scores, bilaterally. Correlations with the right AF were particularly robust, emphasizing the contribution of the right hemisphere, especially the frontal lobe, to reading comprehension performance on the particular passage comprehension test used in this study. The anatomical dissociation between these reading skills is supported by the Simple View theory and may shed light on why these two skills dissociate in those with reading disorders.

  12. Effect of Hypertextual Reading on Academic Success and Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durukan, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    As computer technology developed, hypertexts emerged as an influential environment for developing language skills. This study aims to evaluate a text prepared in a hypertextual environment and its effects on academic success and comprehension skills. In this study, "preliminary test final test control group experimental pattern" was used…

  13. Behaviour Modification and Reading Attainment in the Comprehensive School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrop, Alex; McCann, Chris

    1983-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the effects of promising pupils that a letter would be sent to their parents if they showed "good" progress in English comprehension. Results indicated a larger significant increase in scores for those pupils who had been promised a letter to their parents than for those who had not been given this promise. (NRJ)

  14. Intensity in Vocabulary Instruction and Effects on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has shown that vocabulary instruction can enhance the comprehension of passages when instruction includes definitional and contextual information, provides multiple instructional encounters with the words, and requires learners to engage actively in processing of word meanings (M. F. Graves, 1986; S. A. Stahl & M. M. Fairbanks,…

  15. Modeling: A Direct Instruction Model for Programming Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Beth S.

    Modeling the behaviors they expect students to exhibit is one way teachers can teach comprehension skills. Teachers need to give multiple examples wherein the teacher models every behavior students should exhibit, giving the answer to the question, and giving the line of reasoning followed to arrive at the answer. To teach each separate…

  16. Equivalence of Reading and Listening Comprehension across Test Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeders, Ulrich; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Whether an ability test delivered on either paper or computer provides the same information is an important question in applied psychometrics. Besides the validity, it is also the fairness of a measure that is at stake if the test medium affects performance. This study provides a comprehensive review of existing equivalence research in the field…

  17. Remediating Reading Comprehension Difficulties: A Cognitive Processing Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahapatra, Shamita; Das, J. P.; Stack-Cutler, Holly; Parrila, Rauno

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of a cognitive-based remediation program was investigated with 14 English-as-a-second-language (ESL) poor readers in Grade 4 who had significant difficulty in comprehension and 14 normal ESL readers in Grade 4 who received no remediation. Both groups were selected from 2 English-medium schools in India. We examined pretest-to-posttest…

  18. Embedding Reading Comprehension Training in Content-Area Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joanna P.; Stafford, K. Brooke; Lauer, Kristen D.; Hall, Kendra M.; Pollini, Simonne

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of comprehension training embedded in a program that taught science content to 2nd graders. The program included instruction about the structure of compare-contrast expository text, emphasizing clue words, generic questions, graphic organizers, and the close analysis of well-structured text exemplars. This…

  19. Bibliographies and Summaries of Selected Articles in Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganger, Sonia; And Others

    The 34 summaries contained in this collection represent the theoretical positions and the empirical studies of a wide variety of investigators currently working in the field of language comprehension. The entries summarize contributions from the areas of assessment, artificial intelligence, cognition (including schema theory), instruction,…

  20. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading comprehension effect sizes among the 10 constructs. The results indicated that six of the component skills exhibited strong relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .50): morphological awareness, language comprehension, fluency, oral vocabulary knowledge, real word decoding, and working memory. Three of the component skills yielded moderate relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .30 and < .50): pseudoword decoding, orthographic knowledge, and phonological awareness. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) was the only component skill that was weakly related to reading comprehension (r = .15). Morphological awareness was a significantly stronger correlate of reading comprehension than phonological awareness and RAN. This study provides the first attempt at a systematic synthesis of the recent research investigating the reading skills of adults with low literacy skills, a historically understudied population. Directions for future research, the relation of our results to the children's literature, and the implications for researchers and adult basic education programs are discussed.

  1. The contribution of phonological knowledge, memory, and language background to reading comprehension in deaf populations

    PubMed Central

    Hirshorn, Elizabeth A.; Dye, Matthew W. G.; Hauser, Peter; Supalla, Ted R.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    While reading is challenging for many deaf individuals, some become proficient readers. Little is known about the component processes that support reading comprehension in these individuals. Speech-based phonological knowledge is one of the strongest predictors of reading comprehension in hearing individuals, yet its role in deaf readers is controversial. This could reflect the highly varied language backgrounds among deaf readers as well as the difficulty of disentangling the relative contribution of phonological versus orthographic knowledge of spoken language, in our case ‘English,’ in this population. Here we assessed the impact of language experience on reading comprehension in deaf readers by recruiting oral deaf individuals, who use spoken English as their primary mode of communication, and deaf native signers of American Sign Language. First, to address the contribution of spoken English phonological knowledge in deaf readers, we present novel tasks that evaluate phonological versus orthographic knowledge. Second, the impact of this knowledge, as well as memory measures that rely differentially on phonological (serial recall) and semantic (free recall) processing, on reading comprehension was evaluated. The best predictor of reading comprehension differed as a function of language experience, with free recall being a better predictor in deaf native signers than in oral deaf. In contrast, the measures of English phonological knowledge, independent of orthographic knowledge, best predicted reading comprehension in oral deaf individuals. These results suggest successful reading strategies differ across deaf readers as a function of their language experience, and highlight a possible alternative route to literacy in deaf native signers. Highlights: 1. Deaf individuals vary in their orthographic and phonological knowledge of English as a function of their language experience. 2. Reading comprehension was best predicted by different factors in oral deaf and

  2. Dogmatism and Reading: The Effects of Dogmatism upon Reading Comprehension, Amount of Voluntary Reading, and Response to a Literary Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauterman, Philip

    Two purposes underlay this study--to determine the relationship between closed-mindedness and reading comprehension, and to test a particular rationale for the teaching of literature. Serving as background material were research findings in three areas: (1) dogmatism, tests of dogmatism, the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale, and education-oriented research…

  3. Working memory contributions to reading comprehension components in middle childhood children.

    PubMed

    Chrysochoou, Elisavet; Bablekou, Zoe; Tsigilis, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    This study examined working memory contributions to reading comprehension subskills in Greek children (mean age 9 years, 1 month). The phonological loop of the Baddeley and Hitch working memory model was assessed with 3 recall tasks (words, nonwords, and digits) and a word list matching task. The central executive (CE) was assessed with 3 tasks (listening, counting, and backward digit recall). Participants were also given a receptive vocabulary task, a reading fluency task, and written stories accompanied by comprehension questions. Canonical correlation analyses showed that the comprehension variables were related to the CE rather than the phonological loop measures. CE functions were more strongly associated with elaborative inference generation (involving significant offline processing) and comprehension control (involving metacognitive monitoring). Smaller yet significant associations were observed between the CE and the necessary inference and literal comprehension measures, whereas a moderate relationship was found in the case of the simile comprehension variable. Among the CE variables, listening recall demonstrated the highest loading on the canonical function, followed by moderate yet significant counting and backward digit recall loadings. Vocabulary was found to fully mediate several associations between working memory and comprehension measures; however, the relationship between listening recall and elaborative inferences was partly mediated. Reading fluency and, on several occasions, Greek vocabulary knowledge did not mediate the relationships between CE measures and comprehension skills assessed. This study demonstrates the usefulness of CE measures for identifying young children's possible difficulties in carrying out specific reading comprehension processes.

  4. Instruction in metacognitive strategies to increase deaf and hard-of-hearing students' reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Kendra M; Rivera, Maria C; Antia, Shirin D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this intervention study was to examine the use of a metacognitive strategy--the Comprehension, Check, and Repair Strategy--on strategic reading behavior, nonstrategic reading behavior, and reading comprehension of students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). A multiple baseline design was used across 3 teacher-student dyads. Frequency data were collected on students' strategic reading behavior. Reading comprehension was assessed by counting the number of details the students retold after reading a content area passage. Results showed (a) an increase in strategic reading behavior for Students A, B, and C; and (b) an increase in reading comprehension for Student A, and possibly for Student B. Social validity data indicated high acceptability of the intervention. Teachers not only continued to use the strategy with their students after the study ended but also introduced it to other students with whom they worked. Instruction in metacognitive strategies to increase strategic reading behavior may be an effective means by which to increase reading comprehension for D/HH students.

  5. Theory of Mind and Reading Comprehension in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Signing Children.

    PubMed

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is related to reading comprehension in hearing children. In the present study, we investigated progression in ToM in Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing children who were learning to read, as well as the association of ToM with reading comprehension. Thirteen children at Swedish state primary schools for DHH children performed a Swedish Sign Language (SSL) version of the Wellman and Liu (2004) ToM scale, along with tests of reading comprehension, SSL comprehension, and working memory. Results indicated that ToM progression did not differ from that reported in previous studies, although ToM development was delayed despite age-appropriate sign language skills. Correlation analysis revealed that ToM was associated with reading comprehension and working memory, but not sign language comprehension. We propose that some factor not investigated in the present study, possibly represented by inference making constrained by working memory capacity, supports both ToM and reading comprehension and may thus explain the results observed in the present study.

  6. Theory of Mind and Reading Comprehension in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Signing Children.

    PubMed

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is related to reading comprehension in hearing children. In the present study, we investigated progression in ToM in Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing children who were learning to read, as well as the association of ToM with reading comprehension. Thirteen children at Swedish state primary schools for DHH children performed a Swedish Sign Language (SSL) version of the Wellman and Liu (2004) ToM scale, along with tests of reading comprehension, SSL comprehension, and working memory. Results indicated that ToM progression did not differ from that reported in previous studies, although ToM development was delayed despite age-appropriate sign language skills. Correlation analysis revealed that ToM was associated with reading comprehension and working memory, but not sign language comprehension. We propose that some factor not investigated in the present study, possibly represented by inference making constrained by working memory capacity, supports both ToM and reading comprehension and may thus explain the results observed in the present study. PMID:27375532

  7. Theory of Mind and Reading Comprehension in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Signing Children

    PubMed Central

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is related to reading comprehension in hearing children. In the present study, we investigated progression in ToM in Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing children who were learning to read, as well as the association of ToM with reading comprehension. Thirteen children at Swedish state primary schools for DHH children performed a Swedish Sign Language (SSL) version of the Wellman and Liu (2004) ToM scale, along with tests of reading comprehension, SSL comprehension, and working memory. Results indicated that ToM progression did not differ from that reported in previous studies, although ToM development was delayed despite age-appropriate sign language skills. Correlation analysis revealed that ToM was associated with reading comprehension and working memory, but not sign language comprehension. We propose that some factor not investigated in the present study, possibly represented by inference making constrained by working memory capacity, supports both ToM and reading comprehension and may thus explain the results observed in the present study. PMID:27375532

  8. The Effects of Meta-Cognitive Instruction on Students' Reading Comprehension in Computerized Reading Contexts: A Quantitative Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Yi-Chin; Lo, Yu-Ling; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2014-01-01

    Comprehension is the essence of reading. Finding appropriate and effective reading strategies to support students' reading comprehension has always been a critical issue for educators. This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 17 studies of metacognitive strategy instruction on students' reading comprehension in computerized…

  9. Don't believe what you read (only once): comprehension is supported by regressions during reading.

    PubMed

    Schotter, Elizabeth R; Tran, Randy; Rayner, Keith

    2014-06-01

    Recent Web apps have spurred excitement around the prospect of achieving speed reading by eliminating eye movements (i.e., with rapid serial visual presentation, or RSVP, in which words are presented briefly one at a time and sequentially). Our experiment using a novel trailing-mask paradigm contradicts these claims. Subjects read normally or while the display of text was manipulated such that each word was masked once the reader's eyes moved past it. This manipulation created a scenario similar to RSVP: The reader could read each word only once; regressions (i.e., rereadings of words), which are a natural part of the reading process, were functionally eliminated. Crucially, the inability to regress affected comprehension negatively. Furthermore, this effect was not confined to ambiguous sentences. These data suggest that regressions contribute to the ability to understand what one has read and call into question the viability of speed-reading apps that eliminate eye movements (e.g., those that use RSVP).

  10. Don't believe what you read (only once): comprehension is supported by regressions during reading.

    PubMed

    Schotter, Elizabeth R; Tran, Randy; Rayner, Keith

    2014-06-01

    Recent Web apps have spurred excitement around the prospect of achieving speed reading by eliminating eye movements (i.e., with rapid serial visual presentation, or RSVP, in which words are presented briefly one at a time and sequentially). Our experiment using a novel trailing-mask paradigm contradicts these claims. Subjects read normally or while the display of text was manipulated such that each word was masked once the reader's eyes moved past it. This manipulation created a scenario similar to RSVP: The reader could read each word only once; regressions (i.e., rereadings of words), which are a natural part of the reading process, were functionally eliminated. Crucially, the inability to regress affected comprehension negatively. Furthermore, this effect was not confined to ambiguous sentences. These data suggest that regressions contribute to the ability to understand what one has read and call into question the viability of speed-reading apps that eliminate eye movements (e.g., those that use RSVP). PMID:24747167

  11. Effects of Reading Comprehension on Passage Fluency in Spanish and English for Second-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Doris Luft; Stoolmiller, Mike; Good, Roland H., III; Baker, Scott K.

    2011-01-01

    We empirically examined the effect of reading comprehension on passage fluency in English and Spanish in the context of Cummins interdependence hypothesis (1979) and Perfetti's blueprint of the General Components of Reading (1999). Participants were 96 second-grade English learners being taught to read in Spanish and English. Measures in both…

  12. The Effects of Reading Method on the Comprehension Performance of Saudi EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshumaimeri, Yousif

    2011-01-01

    In this study I investigated the relative effects of different reading methods on the comprehension performance of Saudi EFL 10th grade male students. The scores of participants who read three comparable passages in three ways (oral, silent and subvocalizing) were compared. Results revealed a significant difference between oral reading and…

  13. Impacts of Comprehensive Reading Instruction on Diverse Outcomes of Low- and High-Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the…

  14. The Effectiveness of Metacognitive Strategy Awareness in Reading Comprehension: The Case of Iranian University EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavakoli, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study that explored the overall pattern of metacognitive awareness of reading strategy use and its possible relationship with reading comprehension. Moreover, the study investigated the influence of gender and proficiency level on the use of these strategies. The Survey of Reading Strategies Questionnaire (SORS), the…

  15. Comprehension-Based Silent Reading Rates: What Do We Know? What Do We Need to Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Samuels, S. Jay; Rasinski, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This article uses a review of research to consider a fundamental aspect of reading instruction that has been marginalized in policies and practices over the last decade: the development of silent reading habits that involve strong comprehension and optimal reading rates. The review of research attends to typical development and performances of…

  16. The Integration of Literacy and Geography: The Arizona GeoLiteracy Program's Effect on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, Elizabeth R.; Osborn Popp, Sharon E.; Dorn, Ronald I.; Ekiss, Gale Olp; Mater, Martha; Smith, Carl B.; Libbee, Michael

    2007-01-01

    To provide the first interstate quasi-experimental assessment on the power of content integration in building reading skills, the authors studied the effects on reading comprehension of GeoLiteracy--a K-8 package of 85 lessons that teaches geography in the context of practicing reading and writing skills. Ninety-six third through eighth grade…

  17. Research Review: Reading Comprehension in Developmental Disorders of Language and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Jessie

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deficits in reading airment (SLI), Down syndrome (DS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Methods: In this review (based on a search of the ISI Web of Knowledge database to 2011), the Simple View of Reading is used as a framework for considering reading comprehension in these groups. Conclusions: There is substantial evidence for…

  18. Are University Students' Component Reading Skills Related to Their Text Comprehension and Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nancy Ewald

    2005-01-01

    Among developing and poor readers, text comprehension is strongly related to word decoding accuracy and reading fluency. However, among relatively skilled adult readers, these aspects of reading skill are largely independent of one another. The reading of 193 second- and third-year students enrolled in an educational psychology course at a public…

  19. Reading Comprehension Profiles of High-Functioning Students on the Autism Spectrum: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Pamela; Carnahan, Christina R.; Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, this study sought to understand what influences reading comprehension and how meaning is made from text among high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a think-aloud procedure, 13 individuals ages 7-13 with ASD read 16 passages at their instructional reading level.…

  20. How Children Talk Together to Make Meaning from Texts: A Dialogic Perspective on Reading Comprehension Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    This study considers reading comprehension as a dialogic transaction of making meaning from text. The concept of text and reading is taken to include the visual and multimodal as well as written forms. Case studies of children discussing texts are analysed to explore how children engage in inter-mental and intra-mental processes of reading,…

  1. Mathematics Is Differentially Related to Reading Comprehension and Word Decoding: Evidence from a Genetically Sensitive Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that individual differences in reading and mathematics skills are correlated, this relationship has typically only been studied in relation to word decoding or global measures of reading. It is unclear whether mathematics is differentially related to word decoding and reading comprehension. In the current study, the…

  2. Minimum Reading Fluency Necessary for Comprehension among Second-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Kwoka, Heather; Lim, Becky; Crone, Melissa; Haegele, Katherine; Parker, David C.; Petersen, Shawna; Scholin, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between oral reading fluency (ORF) and reading comprehension for students in second grade. A total of 84 participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions that involved reading a grade-appropriate passage with either 0%, 10%, 20%, or 30% scrambled words and answering subsequent comprehension…

  3. An Analysis of Three Theories of the Relationships Among Reading Comprehension Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Carita A.

    The focus in this analysis is on three theories of the relationships among reading comprehension skills primarily relating to the skills used in reading, not to the process or to the instructional procedures used for reading, as differentiated by Robinson. Consideration is given to three factors: (1) the existing need for theories and models in…

  4. The Role of Attribution Beliefs, Motivation and Strategy Use in Chinese Fifth-Graders' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yin-Kum

    2009-01-01

    Background: The latest report by the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), issued in 2006, indicated that Hong Kong Primary 4 Chinese students outperformed children from 45 countries and provinces in reading comprehension tests that measured their higher-order reading proficiency. However, the study gave no indication of how…

  5. Effects of Online Reciprocal Teaching on Reading Strategies, Comprehension, Self-Efficacy, and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ching-Ting; Yang, Shu Ching

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of two types of online remedial reading interventions on the reading strategy and comprehension, motivational beliefs, and self-efficacy of 36 low-achieving students (explicit teaching before reciprocal teaching [ET-RT] vs. direct instruction [DI]). We designed a 10-unit online remedial English reading program based…

  6. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  7. Reading comprehension skills of young adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Ransby, Marilyn J; Swanson, H Lee

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the contribution of cognitive processes to comprehension skills in adults who suffered from childhood developmental dyslexia (CD). The performance of adults with CD (ages 17 to 23), chronological age-matched (CA) adults, and reading level-matched (RL) children was compared on measures of phonological processing, naming speed, working memory (WM), general knowledge, vocabulary, and comprehension. The results showed that adults with CD scored lower on measures of phonological processing, naming speed, WM, general knowledge, and vocabulary when compared to CA readers but were comparable to RL children on the majority of process measures. Phonological processing, naming speed, vocabulary, general knowledge, and listening comprehension contributed independent variance to reading comprehension accuracy, whereas WM, intelligence, phonological processing, and listening comprehension contributed independent variance to comprehension fluency. Adults with CD scored lower than CA adults and higher than RL children on measures of lexical processing, WM, and listening comprehension when word recognition and intelligence were partialed from the analysis. In summary, constraints in phonological processing and naming speed mediate only some of the influence of high-order processes on reading comprehension. Furthermore, adults with CD experience difficulties in WM, listening comprehension, and vocabulary independently of their word recognition problems and intellectual ability.

  8. Hypertext Glosses for Foreign Language Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition: Effects of Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Jung

    2016-01-01

    This study compared how three different gloss modes affected college students' L2 reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition. The study also compared how results on comprehension and vocabulary acquisition may differ depending on the four assessment methods used. A between-subjects design was employed with three groups of Mandarin-speaking…

  9. The Association between Music Training, Background Music, and Adult Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haning, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether music training is correlated with increased reading comprehension skills in young adults. In addition, an attempt was made to replicate Patson and Tippett's (2011) finding that background music impairs language comprehension scores in musicians but not in nonmusicians. Participants with musical…

  10. Does Navigation Always Predict Performance? Effects of Navigation on Digital Reading Are Moderated by Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naumann, Johannes; Salmerón, Ladislao

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated interactive effects of navigation and offline comprehension skill on digital reading performance. As indicators of navigation, relevant page selection and irrelevant page selection were considered. In 533 Spanish high school students aged 11-17 positive effects of offline comprehension skill and relevant page selection on…

  11. The Impact of Reading Expressiveness on the Listening Comprehension of Storybooks by Prekindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mira, William A.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of oral reading expressiveness on the comprehension of storybooks by 4- and 5-year-old prekindergarten children. The possible impact of prosody on listening comprehension was explored. Method: Ninety-two prekindergarten children (M age = 57.26 months, SD = 3.89 months) listened to an…

  12. Applying the Think-Aloud Strategy to Improve Reading Comprehension of Science Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate the effectiveness of using the think-aloud strategy to improve the reading comprehension in the content area of science. Based on state standards assessments, many early elementary grade students who were considered fluent readers struggled with evaluative science comprehension. In this quasi-experimental…

  13. Reading Comprehension II. Bibliographies and Summaries of Selected Articles. Volume 6. Research Review Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGinitie, Walter H.; And Others

    Summaries of several papers are presented to develop a working theoretical analysis of reading comprehension and an understanding of development in language comprehension based upon empirical studies. Contributions from the areas of assessment, artificial intelligence, cognition (including schema theory), instruction, linguistics, learning…

  14. Improving Reading Comprehension for Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities: UDL Enhanced Story Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narkon, Drue E.; Wells, Jenny C.

    2013-01-01

    Story mapping is an effective visual strategy to enhance comprehension of narrative text in students, with or without disabilities. This article demonstrates how instruction can be designed using principles of universal design for learning with the evidence-based story-mapping strategy to improve reading comprehension for elementary students with…

  15. The Effect of Lexical Coverage and Dictionary Use on L2 Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Caleb; Matsumoto, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to further understand the role of lexical coverage on L2 reading comprehension. It examines test scores of learners at or near the 90-95% coverage level to determine if this coverage range allows for comprehension of authentic texts. The findings suggest that 92-93% may be a threshold mark at which understanding of a text…

  16. Does Domain Experience Compensate for Working Memory Capacity in Second Language Reading Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Tabitha W.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Jungers, Melissa K.

    2009-01-01

    Reading comprehension in a second language (L2) is a complex task involving knowledge of vocabulary and grammar as well as controlled attention for continuous updating of information. The purpose was to examine the relative contributions of working memory capacity (WMC), first language (L1) comprehension, and domain experience on L2 reading…

  17. Traffic Light Reading: Fostering the Independent Usage of Comprehension Strategies with Informational Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcell, Barclay

    2007-01-01

    Does fluency need to be an instructional precursor to comprehension? The perceived causal relationship between the two may in fact translate into the creation of word-calling students who can read with adequate speed and expression, but cannot retell story events or make inferences. A discussion of fluency's relationship to comprehension provides…

  18. The Effects of Questioning the Author on the Reading Comprehension of Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sencibaugh, Joseph M.; Sencibaugh, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of systematic explicit instruction of a questioning strategy for improving the text comprehension of middle school students. Specifically, the reading comprehension of six 8th grade students was investigated to determine whether the questioning strategy, QtA, lead to an increase in the…

  19. "Reading" Paintings: Evidence for Trans-Symbolic and Symbol-Specific Comprehension Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughlin, Sandra; Grossnickle, Emily; Dinsmore, Daniel; Alexander, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Art-based reading instruction and interventions for elementary and middle school students are growing in popularity despite scant theoretical rationale and empirical research support. This study explored the degree to which painting comprehension processes map onto text comprehension processes in this population. In particular, we used think aloud…

  20. Effectiveness of Instructional Strategies in Reading Comprehension for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Hyperlexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abnett, Jenelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) commonly show deficits in social and communication skills, as well as in interpreting metaphorical meaning of language. These deficits often make reading comprehension more difficult for students with ASD. Past research has primarily focused on decoding rather than on comprehension skill interventions;…