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Sample records for comprehensive histopathological evaluation

  1. [Histopathological evaluation of the meniscus].

    PubMed

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, A; Müller, K-M

    2011-05-01

    Menisci fulfill many functions within the complex biomechanics of the knee joint. In the case of meniscus lesions, sparing arthroscopic resection and surgical refixation are the treatments of choice. In terms of diagnosis, this means in general that histopathologic diagnostics are carried out on detached meniscus fragments of between 5 mm and 2 cm in size. A good knowledge of physiologically possible cellular and fibrous histological meniscus damage, as opposed to nonphysiological change regarded as normal with respect to age, is essential for diagnostic meniscus evaluation. The clinician expects clear statements from the pathologist regarding the severity of previous or secondary degenerative meniscus damage, the age and type of traumatic tears, and an appraisal of the relationship between trauma and meniscus damage from an insurance point of view. Close cooperation between the clinician and the pathologist allows for a fast and unambiguous correlation of anamnesis, the clinical picture, and morphological reporting such that problematic insurance cases can be clarified quickly.

  2. [Histopathological evaluation of the subtotal laryngectomy specimen].

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Manuel; Romero-Durán, Elizabeth; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Gallegos-Hernández, José Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The goal of conservative surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer is to obtain oncological control with preservation of laryngeal function. The concept of laryngeal function preservation should be understood as the preservation of the patient's ability to breathe normally with neither tracheostomy nor aspiration, and maintaining intelligible speech. This can be achieved by a balance between two fundamental aspects, proper patient selection (based on tumour extension and preoperative laryngeal function), and an adequate histopathological analysis of the surgical specimen. Supracricoid subtotal laryngectomy is the voice conservative surgical technique that offers the best possibility of control in patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer. The proper histopathological analysis allows staging and selecting patients for adjuvant therapy, avoiding unnecessary ones as well as designing monitoring and surveillance programs based on risk factors. To highlight key points in the histopathological evaluation of the surgical specimen of a subtotal laryngectomy. The proper communication between the surgeon and pathologist, offering complete information on preoperative clinical evaluation and the knowledge of the key points in the evaluation of the surgical specimen (sites of tumour leakage and surgical resection margins) are fundamental parameters to achieve a proper histopathological evaluation of the surgical specimen. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Histopathological evaluation of tissue undergoing thermal insult

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Minal; Bonde, Dushyant; Patil, Swati; Gawande, Madhuri; Hande, Alka; Jain, Deepali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Thermal insult is the major cause of thermal injury or death and in case of death due to thermal injury the body often has to be recovered from the site. Histologically, one can predict whether the victim was alive or dead when the fire was on going. However, determination of probable cause of thermal insult to which victim subjected to be difficult when the victim's body is found somewhere else from the crime scene or accident site or found alone. Hence, histopathological evaluation of the tissue which has undergone thermal insult in such conditions could help to place evidence in front of law officials, regarding probable condition, or scenario at time of burn of victim. Aims: Keeping this as a criteria in this study we aim to evaluate burnt tissue histopathologically, that undergone various degree of thermal insult, which simulates various real life scenario for mortality in burn cases. Settings and Design: We evaluate the changes in hematoxylin and eosin staining pattern of tissue which has undergone thermal insult compared to normal tissue and also the progressive changes in staining pattern, architectural, and cellular details. Materials and Methods: Samples were taken from the patients, in various surgical procedures. Each sample was cut into five parts with close margins so that each burnt tissue is evaluated for same field or region. The tissue that obtained was immediately subjected to varying degree of temperature over a specific period so as to simulate the various real-life condition. Then the tissues were fixed, processed, and stained with routine H and E staining. The processed slides of tissue were examined under the microscope, and the staining, and architectural changes were evaluated and described. Results: Results show that there was a progressive changes in the architectural pattern of the epithelium and connective tissue showing cleft formation and vacuolization, staining pattern also shows mixing of stains progressively as the

  4. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  5. An evaluation of websites to help neurosurgical trainees learn histopathology.

    PubMed

    Jeffree, R L

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge of histopathology is essential for good neurosurgical practice but current pressures on neurosurgical trainees' time restrict opportunities to learn histopathology by traditional methods. The internet offers a possible alternative resource. The aim of this project was to assess the existing, free, internet-based resources for learning histology and histopathology, from the perspective of a neurosurgical trainee. English language websites were evaluated by an expert, and by neurosurgical trainees, for the range of content, academic credibility, quality of the histopathological images, quality of supporting content, educational features and the usability. Thirty-nine websites were examined in detail by the author. Although many websites were useful, no individual website met all the requirements. Five neuropathology websites were clearly superior to the others. These were then assessed by neurosurgical trainees. The results of the assessment, a brief resume of each website, and the characteristics of a good website for the surgical trainees to learn pathology are discussed. The best websites featured a large number of high-quality images, accurate, detailed clinical and pathophysiological information, labelling or description of individual images, and organisation by organ system. Free internet sites can offer a valuable learning resource to supplement textbooks and clinical pathology sessions.

  6. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    MedlinePlus

    ... adolescent Interview of parents/guardians If needed, laboratory studies such as blood tests, x-rays, or special assessments (for example, psychological, educational, speech and language evaluation) The child and ...

  7. Multiparametric and semiquantitative scoring systems for the evaluation of mouse model histopathology - a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Histopathology has initially been and is still used to diagnose infectious, degenerative or neoplastic diseases in humans or animals. In addition to qualitative diagnoses semiquantitative scoring of a lesion`s magnitude on an ordinal scale is a commonly demanded task for histopathologists. Multiparametric, semiquantitative scoring systems for mouse models histopathology are a common approach to handle these questions and to include histopathologic information in biomedical research. Results Inclusion criteria for scoring systems were a first description of a multiparametric, semiquantiative scoring systems which comprehensibly describe an approach to evaluate morphologic lesion. A comprehensive literature search using these criteria identified 153 originally designed semiquantitative scoring systems for the analysis of morphologic changes in mouse models covering almost all organs systems and a wide variety of disease models. Of these, colitis, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, lupus nephritis and collagen induced osteoarthritis colitis were the disease models with the largest number of different scoring systems. Closer analysis of the identified scoring systems revealed a lack of a rationale for the selection of the scoring parameters or a correlation between scoring parameter value and the magnitude of the clinical symptoms in most studies. Conclusion Although a decision for a particular scoring system is clearly dependent on the respective scientific question this review gives an overview on currently available systems and may therefore allow for a better choice for the respective project. PMID:23800279

  8. Automatic evaluation of skin histopathological images for melanocytic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koosha, Mohaddeseh; Hoseini Alinodehi, S. Pourya; Nicolescu, Mircea; Safaei Naraghi, Zahra

    2017-03-01

    Successfully detecting melanocyte cells in the skin epidermis has great significance in skin histopathology. Because of the existence of cells with similar appearance to melanocytes in hematoxylin and eosin (HE) images of the epidermis, detecting melanocytes becomes a challenging task. This paper proposes a novel technique for the detection of melanocytes in HE images of the epidermis, based on the melanocyte color features, in the HSI color domain. Initially, an effective soft morphological filter is applied to the HE images in the HSI color domain to remove noise. Then a novel threshold-based technique is applied to distinguish the candidate melanocytes' nuclei. Similarly, the method is applied to find the candidate surrounding halos of the melanocytes. The candidate nuclei are associated with their surrounding halos using the suggested logical and statistical inferences. Finally, a fuzzy inference system is proposed, based on the HSI color information of a typical melanocyte in the epidermis, to calculate the similarity ratio of each candidate cell to a melanocyte. As our review on the literature shows, this is the first method evaluating epidermis cells for melanocyte similarity ratio. Experimental results on various images with different zooming factors show that the proposed method improves the results of previous works.

  9. Necessity of routine histopathological evaluation subsequent to bladder neck contracture resection

    PubMed Central

    Kaynar, Mehmet; Kucur, Mustafa; Çelik, Esin; Bugday, M. Serdar; Goktas, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bladder neck contracture is a well-known complication following some urologic surgical procedures. Regardless of the surgical procedure, any specimen resected should be submitted for histopathological evaluation worldwide. However, the charges of histopathological evaluation may bring a heavy burden to the hospital and health care system. Also, waiting the period of the pathological evaluation process can be an anxious time for patients. Hence, we aimed to investigate the necessity of routine histopathological evaluation of bladder neck contracture bladder neck contraction specimens. Material and methods Patients undergoing bladder neck contraction resection, from 2010 to 2015 were identified. Patient demographics, type of surgery and histopathological diagnosis and cost of histopathological analyses of the specimens were recorded and analyzed. Results Findings of the histopathologic evaluations of 340 bladder neck specimens were reviewed. Out of these, 294 had underwent transurethral resection of the prostate, 38 open prostatectomy, and 8 radical prostatectomy. Evidence of malignant disease involving prostate cancer was present in only 2 specimens. Both of the specimens had a known preexisting history of malignant disease. The remaining 338 specimens showed chronic inflammation (n = 176), chronic active inflammation (n = 64), adenomatous hyperplasia (n = 78) or cystitis (n = 20). Conclusions Our results indicate that routine histopathological examination of bladder neck contraction specimens is clinically unnecessary. We recommend that the surgeon should decide the need for histological examination on individual basis, depending on known preoperative risk factors. PMID:28127450

  10. Evaluating IPMN and pancreatic carcinoma utilizing quantitative histopathology.

    PubMed

    Glazer, Evan S; Zhang, Hao Helen; Hill, Kimberly A; Patel, Charmi; Kha, Stephanie T; Yozwiak, Michael L; Bartels, Hubert; Nafissi, Nellie N; Watkins, Joseph C; Alberts, David S; Krouse, Robert S

    2016-10-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) are pancreatic lesions with uncertain biologic behavior. This study sought objective, accurate prediction tools, through the use of quantitative histopathological signatures of nuclear images, for classifying lesions as chronic pancreatitis (CP), IPMN, or pancreatic carcinoma (PC). Forty-four pancreatic resection patients were retrospectively identified for this study (12 CP; 16 IPMN; 16 PC). Regularized multinomial regression quantitatively classified each specimen as CP, IPMN, or PC in an automated, blinded fashion. Classification certainty was determined by subtracting the smallest classification probability from the largest probability (of the three groups). The certainty function varied from 1.0 (perfectly classified) to 0.0 (random). From each lesion, 180 ± 22 nuclei were imaged. Overall classification accuracy was 89.6% with six unique nuclear features. No CP cases were misclassified, 1/16 IPMN cases were misclassified, and 4/16 PC cases were misclassified. Certainty function was 0.75 ± 0.16 for correctly classified lesions and 0.47 ± 0.10 for incorrectly classified lesions (P = 0.0005). Uncertainty was identified in four of the five misclassified lesions. Quantitative histopathology provides a robust, novel method to distinguish among CP, IPMN, and PC with a quantitative measure of uncertainty. This may be useful when there is uncertainty in diagnosis.

  11. Comprehensive Plan for Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Public Schools, Orlando, FL. Testing and Program Evaluation Section.

    The evaluation plans for the Orange County Public Schools, Orlando, Florida, are summarized. Both instructional programs and support services are assessed, to determine the effectiveness of the programs as well as their value. Evaluations are planned and conducted by the Program Evaluation Section, using the Educational Planning and Resource…

  12. Comparative evaluation of immunohistochemistry, histopathology and conventional radiography in differentiating periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Prahlad A; Kamat, Sharad; Puranik, R S; Puranik, Surekha; Saraf, Suma P; Singh, Bhanu Pratap

    2014-03-01

    Periapical lesions often present differently on the radiograph resulting in a dilemma in the mind of the dentist to arrive at a final diagnosis. Although, histopathologic diagnosis has been used for confirmation of the true nature of periapical lesion, the concept of transformation of periapical granulomas containing epithelium without cystification into cyst remains controversial. The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional radiography and histopathology in differentiating periapical lesions in adjunct with immunohistochemical analysis. Periapical lesions often present differently on the radiograph resulting in a dilemma in the mind of the dentist to arrive at a final diagnosis. Although, histopathologic diagnosis has been used for confirmation of the true nature of periapical lesion, the concept of transformation of periapical granulomas containing epithelium without cystification into cyst remains controversial. The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional radiography and histopathology in differentiating periapical lesions in adjunct with immunohistochemical analysis. Thirty patients having large periapical radiolucency that do not heal successfully with routine endodontic therapy in relation to either maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth were selected for the study. Intraoral periapical radiographs were obtained and provisional diagnosis of the apical areas were made. Endodontic surgery was performed to enable histopathogical investigation. The histopathological interpretation was done to arrive at a final diagnosis and selected questionable granulomas were subjected for cytokeratin (CK-14) stain. The histopathological profile of lesions consisted of 66.66% periapical granulomas, 10% cysts, 6.67% abscess and 16.67% granulomas with cystic potential. The radiographic and histopathologic correlation was found in only 30% of these cases. Strong CK-14 expression was observed in all five cases of

  13. Comparative evaluation of immunohistochemistry, histopathology and conventional radiography in differentiating periapical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Prahlad A; Kamat, Sharad; Puranik, R S; Puranik, Surekha; Saraf, Suma P; Singh, Bhanu Pratap

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Periapical lesions often present differently on the radiograph resulting in a dilemma in the mind of the dentist to arrive at a final diagnosis. Although, histopathologic diagnosis has been used for confirmation of the true nature of periapical lesion, the concept of transformation of periapical granulomas containing epithelium without cystification into cyst remains controversial. The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional radiography and histopathology in differentiating periapical lesions in adjunct with immunohistochemical analysis. Aim: Periapical lesions often present differently on the radiograph resulting in a dilemma in the mind of the dentist to arrive at a final diagnosis. Although, histopathologic diagnosis has been used for confirmation of the true nature of periapical lesion, the concept of transformation of periapical granulomas containing epithelium without cystification into cyst remains controversial. The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional radiography and histopathology in differentiating periapical lesions in adjunct with immunohistochemical analysis. Materials and Method: Thirty patients having large periapical radiolucency that do not heal successfully with routine endodontic therapy in relation to either maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth were selected for the study. Intraoral periapical radiographs were obtained and provisional diagnosis of the apical areas were made. Endodontic surgery was performed to enable histopathogical investigation. The histopathological interpretation was done to arrive at a final diagnosis and selected questionable granulomas were subjected for cytokeratin (CK-14) stain. Results: The histopathological profile of lesions consisted of 66.66% periapical granulomas, 10% cysts, 6.67% abscess and 16.67% granulomas with cystic potential. The radiographic and histopathologic correlation was found in only 30% of these cases. Strong CK

  14. Evaluation of haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters of transgenic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Jurcik, R; Suvegova, K; Hanusova, E; Massanyi, P; Ryban, L; Chrenek, P

    2007-11-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the hFVIII mRNA expression in different organs, pathological changes and selected haematological and biochemical blood parameters between transgenic and non-transgenic rabbits from F3 generation. Selected physiological parameters of 3- to 4-month-old transgenic rabbits from F3 generation carrying human factor VIII gene (hFVIII) were analysed and compared with those of non-transgenic ones. Before slaughtering, the blood for haematological and biochemical analysis was taken from the central ear artery. Pathological and histological examination of vital organs and RT-PCR analysis of several tissue organs of transgenic and non-transgenic animals were performed after slaughtering. Except for the mammary gland tissue, slight hfVIII mRNA expression in the spleen, lung and brain and none expression in the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle and heart of rabbits were recorded. pathological examination of vital organs showed some pathological changes in both transgenic and non-transgenic rabbits which were confirmed by histological qualitative evaluations. Statistically significant lower values of blood haemoglobin in blood of transgenic (11.86+/-0.86) animals compared with non-transgenic (12.41+/-1.02, P<0.05) ones and lower parameters of HCT (39.22+/-2.44 versus 40.89+/-2.26, P<0.01) in blood of transgenic rabbits were observed. Parameters of WBC, RBC and PLT showed no significant differences between the analysed groups. All biochemical serum parameters of transgenic rabbits were higher in comparison with non-transgenic ones. Significant differences were found in the concentration of the urea, AST and GMT between transgenic and non-transgenic animals (P<0.001) and in the total protein content, the difference was significant at P<0.05. In conclusion, our results showed that no considerable impact on the general health was found in transgenic rabbits.

  15. Bone marrow histopathology in the diagnostic evaluation of splenic marginal-zone and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma: a reliable substitute for spleen histopathology?

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, Maurilio; Kanellis, George; Pouliou, Evi; Baliakas, Panagiotis; Scarfò, Lydia; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Doglioni, Claudio; Bikos, Vasilis; Dagklis, Antonis; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Ghia, Paolo; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Papadaki, Theodora

    2012-11-01

    Primary splenic small B-cell lymphomas mostly comprise the distinct entity of splenic marginal-zone lymphoma (SMZL) and the provisional category of splenic lymphoma/leukemia unclassifiable, mainly represented by the hairy cell leukemia variant and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma (SDRL). Until recently, histopathologic examination of splenectomy specimens was considered mandatory for the diagnosis of SMZL. However, nowadays, mainly because of advances in chemoimmunotherapy, splenectomy is performed much less frequently. We evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of bone marrow biopsy (BMB) histopathology in the diagnostic approach toward SMZL and SDRL and tested whether it may serve as a substitute for spleen histopathology in the differential diagnosis between these 2 entities. To this end, we conducted a paired assessment of BMB and spleen diagnostic samples from 46 cases with a diagnosis of SMZL (n=32) or SDRL (n=14) based on spleen histopathology. We demonstrate that detailed immunohistopathologic BMB evaluation offers adequate evidence for the confirmation of these entities and their differential diagnosis from other small B-cell lymphoma histotypes. Notably, the immunophenotypical profile of SMZL and SDRL was identical in both BMB and spleen specimens for 21 evaluated markers. Paired assessment of BMB and spleen specimens did not identify discriminating patterns of BMB infiltration, cytology, and/or immunohistology between SMZL and SDRL. Accordingly, bone marrow histopathology contributes significantly in confirming the diagnosis of SMZL and SDRL. However, presently it is not possible to distinguish SMZL from SDRL on the basis of BMB evaluation alone; hence, histopathologic examination of the spleen remains the "gold standard" approach.

  16. Evaluating the credibility of histopathology data in environmental endocrine toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jeffrey C; Maack, Gerd

    2017-03-01

    Agencies responsible for environmental protection are tasked with developing regulatory guidance that is based on the best available scientific evidence. Histopathology is a common endpoint in toxicologic bioassays; however, because of the subjective nature of this endpoint, and the advanced level of specialized training required for its effective utilization, the reliability of histopathology data can be inconsistent. Consequently, mechanisms for evaluating such data on a case-by-case basis are needed. The purposes of the present review are to describe a methodology that can be used to evaluate the credibility of histopathology findings and to discuss the results of such assessments as applied to real-world data collected from the scientific literature. A key outcome of these efforts was the finding that only 54% of the studies examined contained histopathology data that were considered to be either highly credible or credible, whereas data in 46% of those studies were of equivocal, dubious, or no credibility. In addition, the results indicated that the quality of the data examined tended to decline during the past 15 yr. The ultimate goals of the present review are to draw attention to reliability issues that can affect histopathology results, provide recommendations to improve the quality of this endpoint, and suggest an approach for the expeditious and judicious use of histopathology data in the weight-of-evidence determinations required for hazard and/or risk assessment. This exercise was conducted initially as part of a SETAC Pellston Workshop™ entitled "Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Chemicals (EHRA): Developing Technical Guidance Based on Case Studies to Support Decision Making" that was held in Pensacola, Florida (USA) from 31 January to 5 February 2016. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:601-611. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. In vivo MR guided boiling histotripsy in a mouse tumor model evaluated by MRI and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Martijn; Eikelenboom, Dylan; den Brok, Martijn H; Veltien, Andor; Wassink, Melissa; Wesseling, Pieter; Dumont, Erik; Fütterer, Jurgen J; Adema, Gosse J; Heerschap, Arend

    2016-06-01

    Boiling histotripsy (BH) is a new high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation technique to mechanically fragmentize soft tissue into submicrometer fragments. So far, ultrasound has been used for BH treatment guidance and evaluation. The in vivo histopathological effects of this treatment are largely unknown. Here, we report on an MR guided BH method to treat subcutaneous tumors in a mouse model. The treatment effects of BH were evaluated one hour and four days later with MRI and histopathology, and compared with the effects of thermal HIFU (T-HIFU). The lesions caused by BH were easily detected with T2 w imaging as a hyper-intense signal area with a hypo-intense rim. Histopathological evaluation showed that the targeted tissue was completely disintegrated and that a narrow transition zone (<200 µm) containing many apoptotic cells was present between disintegrated and vital tumor tissue. A high level of agreement was found between T2 w imaging and H&E stained sections, making T2 w imaging a suitable method for treatment evaluation during or directly after BH. After T-HIFU, contrast enhanced imaging was required for adequate detection of the ablation zone. On histopathology, an ablation zone with concentric layers was seen after T-HIFU. In line with histopathology, contrast enhanced MRI revealed that after BH or T-HIFU perfusion within the lesion was absent, while after BH in the transition zone some micro-hemorrhaging appeared. Four days after BH, the transition zone with apoptotic cells was histologically no longer detectable, corresponding to the absence of a hypo-intense rim around the lesion in T2 w images. This study demonstrates the first results of in vivo BH on mouse tumor using MRI for treatment guidance and evaluation and opens the way for more detailed investigation of the in vivo effects of BH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Histopathological Evaluation of Skeletal Muscle with Specific Reference to Mouse Models of Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Terry, Rebecca L; Wells, Dominic J

    2016-12-01

    The muscular dystrophies are a diverse group of degenerative diseases for which many mouse models are available. These models are frequently used to assess potential therapeutic interventions and histological evaluation of multiple muscles is an important part of this assessment. Histological evaluation is especially useful when combined with tests of muscle function. This unit describes a protocol for necropsy, processing, cryosectioning, and histopathological evaluation of murine skeletal muscles, which is applicable to both models of muscular dystrophy and other neuromuscular conditions. Key histopathological features of dystrophic muscle are discussed using the mdx mouse (a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy) as an example. Optimal handling during dissection, processing and sectioning is vital to avoid artifacts that can confound or prevent future analyses. Muscles carefully processed using this protocol are suitable for further evaluation using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, special histochemical stains, and immuoblotting. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. A Comprehensive Framework for Evaluating Educational Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a comprehensive evaluative framework that draws on a larger range of goals that have been posed for education in a democratic and free society. Tradeoffs are made among criteria that include: (1) freedom of choice; (2) productive efficiency; (3) equity; and (4) social cohesion. (SLD)

  20. Evaluation of a Comprehensive Juvenile Delinquency Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Howard; And Others

    This paper discribes a comprehensive juvenile delinquency diversion program serving a poverty community in a large urban center, and attempts to evaluate the problems and effects of the program. The target population was primarily minority-group truants, aged 10-15, who had been in trouble with the authorities. The program included recreational…

  1. Comprehensive system models: Strategies for evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, Christopher; Kutzbach, John E.; Ramanathan, V.; Maccracken, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    The task of evaluating comprehensive earth system models is vast involving validations of every model component at every scale of organization, as well as tests of all the individual linkages. Even the most detailed evaluation of each of the component processes and the individual links among them should not, however, engender confidence in the performance of the whole. The integrated earth system is so rich with complex feedback loops, often involving components of the atmosphere, oceans, biosphere, and cryosphere, that it is certain to exhibit emergent properties very difficult to predict from the perspective of a narrow focus on any individual component of the system. Therefore, a substantial share of the task of evaluating comprehensive earth system models must reside at the level of whole system evaluations. Since complete, integrated atmosphere/ ocean/ biosphere/ hydrology models are not yet operational, questions of evaluation must be addressed at the level of the kinds of earth system processes that the models should be competent to simulate, rather than at the level of specific performance criteria. Here, we have tried to identify examples of earth system processes that are difficult to simulate with existing models and that involve a rich enough suite of feedbacks that they are unlikely to be satisfactorily described by highly simplified or toy models. Our purpose is not to specify a checklist of evaluation criteria but to introduce characteristics of the earth system that may present useful opportunities for model testing and, of course, improvement.

  2. Evaluation of the association between perineural invasion and clinical and histopathological features of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, You-Sheng; Yao, De-Sheng; Long, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) has been investigated as a new prognostic factor in a number of carcinomas. However, studies on PNI in cervical cancer are limited, and inconsistent conclusions have been reported by different groups. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between perineural invasion (PNI) and clinical and histopathological features of cervical cancer, and to evaluate the clinical significance of PNI of cervical cancer. Retrospective review identified 206 patients with cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy between December 2012 and August 2014. The association between PNI and clinical and histopathological features of cervical cancer and post-operative radiotherapy was evaluated based on univariate and multivariate analyses. PNI of cervical cancer was identified in 33 of 206 (16%) cervical cancer patients. Univariate analysis demonstrated that PNI was associated with clinical stage, tumor grade, tumor size, depth of invasion, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05), but not associated with age and histopathological types (P>0.05). Multivariate analysis suggests that LVSI and lymph node metastasis were associated with PNI of cervical cancer (P<0.05). In addition, post-operative radiotherapy was significantly more recommended for patients with PNI than those without PNI (P<0.001). In conclusion, PNI of cervical cancer is associated with LVSI and lymph node metastasis and can be used as an index for the determination of post-operative radiotherapy for cervical cancer patients.

  3. Direct comparison between confocal and multiphoton microscopy for rapid histopathological evaluation of unfixed human breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitake, Tadayuki; Giacomelli, Michael G.; Cahill, Lucas C.; Schmolze, Daniel B.; Vardeh, Hilde; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid histopathological examination of surgical specimen margins using fluorescence microscopy during breast conservation therapy has the potential to reduce the rate of positive margins on postoperative histopathology and the need for repeat surgeries. To assess the suitability of imaging modalities, we perform a direct comparison between confocal fluorescence microscopy and multiphoton microscopy for imaging unfixed tissue and compare to paraffin-embedded histology. An imaging protocol including dual channel detection of two contrast agents to implement virtual hematoxylin and eosin images is introduced that provides high quality imaging under both one and two photon excitation. Corresponding images of unfixed human breast tissue show that both confocal and multiphoton microscopy can reproduce the appearance of conventional histology without the need for physical sectioning. We further compare normal breast tissue and invasive cancer specimens imaged at multiple magnifications, and assess the effects of photobleaching for both modalities using the staining protocol. The results demonstrate that confocal fluorescence microscopy is a promising and cost-effective alternative to multiphoton microscopy for rapid histopathological evaluation of ex vivo breast tissue.

  4. High correlation between microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound, magnetic resonance and histopathology in the evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    de Queiroz, Marcos Roberto Gomes; Francisco, Miguel José; Garcia, Rodrigo Gobbo; Rahal, Antonio; Salvalaggio, Paolo; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmão

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of microbubble contrast ultrasound in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and to compare its results with those of magnetic resonance and histopathology. Methods A total of 29 patients suffering from chronic liver diseases and awaiting liver transplants at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein were subject to magnetic resonance, microbubble contrast ultrasound, and excision liver biopsies. Results Excellent agreement between magnetic resonance and microbubble contrast ultrasound was observed in this study. There was moderate agreement between both imaging methods and histopathology results. Conclusion Microbubble contrast ultrasound was as accurate as magnetic resonance to evaluate hepatocellular carcinoma. These results were confirmed by comparing both methods to histopathological diagnosis. PMID:24488392

  5. Comprehensive evaluation system of intelligent urban growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lian-Yan; Ren, Xiao-Bin

    2017-06-01

    With the rapid urbanization of the world, urban planning has become increasingly important and necessary to ensure people have access to equitable and sustainable homes, resources and jobs.This article is to talk about building an intelligent city evaluation system.First,using System Analysis Model(SAM) which concludes literature data analysis and stepwise regression analysis to describe intelligent growth scientifically and obtain the evaluation index. Then,using the improved entropy method to obtain the weight of the evaluation index.Afterwards, establishing a complete Smart Growth Comprehensive Evaluation Model(SGCEM).Finally,testing the correctness of the model.Choosing Otago(New Zealand )and Yumen(China) as research object by data mining and SGCEM model,then we get Yumen and Otago’s rational degree’s values are 0.3485 and 0.5376 respectively. It’s believed that the Otago’s smart level is higher,and it is found that the estimated value of rationality is consistent with the reality.

  6. Attitude towards Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyril, A. Vences; Jeyasekaran, D.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) refers to a system of school-based evaluation introduced by CBSE in all CBSE affiliated schools across the country to evaluate both scholastic and non-scholastic aspects of students' growth and development. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation is to evaluate every aspect of the child during their…

  7. Genetic, functional, and histopathological evaluation of two C‐terminal BRCA1 missense variants

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, P K; Healey, S; Au, W; Sum, E Y M; Tesoriero, A; Wong, E M; Hinson, S; Brinkworth, R; Bekessy, A; Diez, O; Izatt, L; Solomon, E; Jenkins, M; Renard, H; Hopper, J; Waring, P; Investigators, kConFab; Tavtigian, S V; Goldgar, D; Lindeman, G J; Visvader, J E; Couch, F J; Henderson, B R; Southey, M; Chenevix‐Trench, G; Spurdle, A B; Brown, M A

    2006-01-01

    Background The vast majority of BRCA1 missense sequence variants remain uncharacterised for their possible effect on protein expression and function, and therefore are unclassified in terms of their pathogenicity. BRCA1 plays diverse cellular roles and it is unlikely that any single functional assay will accurately reflect the total cellular implications of missense mutations in this gene. Objective To elucidate the effect of two BRCA1 variants, 5236G>C (G1706A) and 5242C>A (A1708E) on BRCA1 function, and to survey the relative usefulness of several assays to direct the characterisation of other unclassified variants in BRCA genes. Methods and Results Data from a range of bioinformatic, genetic, and histopathological analyses, and in vitro functional assays indicated that the 1708E variant was associated with the disruption of different cellular functions of BRCA1. In transient transfection experiments in T47D and 293T cells, the 1708E product was mislocalised to the cytoplasm and induced centrosome amplification in 293T cells. The 1708E variant also failed to transactivate transcription of reporter constructs in mammalian transcriptional transactivation assays. In contrast, the 1706A variant displayed a phenotype comparable to wildtype BRCA1 in these assays. Consistent with functional data, tumours from 1708E carriers showed typical BRCA1 pathology, while tumour material from 1706A carriers displayed few histopathological features associated with BRCA1 related tumours. Conclusions A comprehensive range of genetic, bioinformatic, and functional analyses have been combined for the characterisation of BRCA1 unclassified sequence variants. Consistent with the functional analyses, the combined odds of causality calculated for the 1706A variant after multifactorial likelihood analysis (1:142) indicates a definitive classification of this variant as “benign”. In contrast, functional assays of the 1708E variant indicate that it is pathogenic, possibly through

  8. Comparison of two histopathologic methods for evaluating subcutaneous reaction to mineral trioxide aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Mehrdad; Moradzadeh, Monir; Aghbali, Amirala; Rahimi, Saeed; Saghiri, Mohammadali; Zand, Vahid; Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Ranjkesh, Bahram; Doosti, Sirvan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: One of the most important factors for suitable materials for pulp therapy is biocompatibility. Two histopathologic methods of Cox and Federation Dentaire International (FDI) were used to evaluate inflammation. In Cox method, density of inflammatory cells, tissue reactions like fibrosis, vascular responses like congestion and fibrin extravasation have been used to evaluate inflammatory reactions. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of pathologists’ interpretations using two different methods. Study design: Three pathologists observed the degree of inflammation in 225 histopathologic sections. These sections showed inflammation in subcutaneous connective tissue of rats adjacent to polyethylene tubes, filled with white or gray mineral trioxide aggregate. Empty tubes served as controls. Samples were harvested after 7-, 15-, 30-, 60-, and 90-days. All pathologists examined the sections under a light microscope (Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) at ×400 magnifications. Chi-Square test was used to evaluate the difference between inflammation grades when one pathologist used two methods. Cohen’s Kappa value was used to measure agreement of three pathologists to recognize the degrees of inflammations when using one of the methods. Results: There were no significant differences between the two methods when one of the pathologist used these methods to report the degree of inflammation (p=0.054). However, two other pathologists reported significant differences between two methods (p=0.005, p=0.001). In the FDI method, there was an acceptable agreement between first and second, and first and third pathologist in terms of the degree of inflammation, and intermediate agreement existed between the second and third pathologist. With the Cox method, no agreement among the pathologists could be found. Conclusion: The results of three pathologists in terms of rating inflammation with the FDI method showed better agreement than with the Cox method

  9. Histopathological and Digital Morphometrical Evaluation of Uterine Leiomyoma in Brazilian Women

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Ana Paula Fernandes; Mello, Luciano de Albuquerque; dos Santos, Erlene Roberta Ribeiro; Paz, Silvania Tavares; Cavalcanti, Carmelita Lima Bezerra; de Melo-Junior, Mario Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to evaluate histopathological and digital morphometrical aspects associated with uterine leiomyomas in one hundred and fifty (150) patients diagnosed with leiomyoma. Uterine tissues were subjected to the histopathological and digital morphometric analyses of the interstitial collagen distribution. The analysis of medical records indicates that most of the women diagnosed with uterine leiomyomas (68.7%) are between 37 and 48 years old. As for the anatomic location of the tumors, approximately 61.4% of the patients had intramural and subserosal lesions. In 50% of the studied cases, the patients developed uterine leiomyomatosis (with more than eight tumors). As for the morphometric study, the average size of the interstitial collagen distribution held approximately 28.53% of the capture area, whereas it was of 7.43% in the normal tissue adjacent to the tumor. Another important aspect observed in the current study was the high rate of young women subjected to total hysterectomy, a fact that resulted in early and definitive sterility. PMID:27293441

  10. Viral Pneumonias in Forensic Autopsies: Evaluation and Classification of Histopathologic Changes With Microbiologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Daş, Taner; Sargan, Aytül; Yağmur, Gülhan; Yildirim, Muzaffer; Topal, Cumhur Selçuk; Gürler, Ahmet Selçuk; Asliyüksek, Hizir; Arslan, Murat Nihat; Özdemirel, Rifat

    2016-12-01

    Lower respiratory infections are commonly due to viruses and are the third largest cause of death. Respiratory tract viruses have a tendency to target the specific regions in the lung and can harm the host via direct effect of the virus and the host's inflammatory response. In this study, relationships between morphologic changes in the lung and the viral agent type isolated in the lung by the polymerase chain reaction technique were investigated. This study was performed retrospectively at 113 autopsy cases in the Council of Forensic Medicine in Istanbul. Slides from the lung tissues diagnosed as interstitial pneumonia and detected viral agent in polymerase chain reaction were evaluated and reviewed under light microscope by 2 pathologists simultaneously according to predetermined bronchiolar, alveolar, and interstitial findings. Alveolar findings were detected in 108 cases (95.6%), whereas interstitial and bronchiolar findings were detected in 91 (80.5%) and 38 (33.6%) cases, respectively. Intra-alveolar edema was the most common alveolar finding. Some findings such as multinucleated syncytial cells and smudge cells can aid the search for etiologic agent. Interstitial inflammation was the most common histopathologic finding in the lung in viral infections and the most prominent clue to viral infections in the lung histopathologically without discrimination of viral agent type.

  11. Clinical and histopathological evaluation of 16 dogs with T-zone lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    MIZUTANI, Noriyuki; GOTO-KOSHINO, Yuko; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and histopathological characteristics of 16 dogs with nodal paracortical (T-zone) lymphoma (TZL) were evaluated. At initial examination, generalized lymphadenopathy was found in all dogs, and peripheral lymphocytosis was found in 10 of the 16 dogs. At initial diagnosis or during the disease course, 8 dogs (50%) were affected with demodicosis. Immunohistochemical analysis for CD3, CD20 and CD25 was performed for 6 dogs with TZL; the tumor cells were positive for CD3 and CD25 and negative for CD20. Median overall survival time was 938 days. A watchful waiting approach was adopted for 6 cases (38%), and 5 of the 6 dogs were still alive at the end of follow-up. The clinical course of TZL in dogs is generally indolent; however, many cases develop a variety of infectious and other neoplastic diseases after the diagnosis of TZL. PMID:27098109

  12. Hyperthermic tissue sealing devices: a proposed histopathologic protocol for standardizing the evaluation of thermally sealed vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, Ryan H.; Vos, Jeffrey A.; Coad, James E.

    2011-03-01

    Hyperthermic tissue sealing devices are advancing modern laparoscopy and other minimally invasive surgical approaches. Histopathologic evaluation of thermally sealed vessels can provide important information on their associated tissue effects and reactions. However, a standardized systematic approach has not been historically used in the literature. This paper proposes a histologic approach for the analysis of thermally sealed vessels and their basis of hemostasis, including thermal tissue changes, healing, and thrombosis. Histologic evaluation during the first week (Days 3-7) can assess the seal's primary tissue properties. These parameters include the thermal seal's length, architecture, tissue layers involved, adventitial collagen denaturation length, entrapped vapor or blood pockets, tissue homogenization and thermal tissue injury zones. While the architectural features can be assessed in Day 0-3 specimens, the latter thermal injury zones are essentially not assessable in Day 0-3 specimens. Day 14 specimens can provide information on the early healing response to the sealed vessel. Day 30 and longer specimens can be used to evaluate the seal's healing reactions. Assessment of the healing response should include seal site inflammation, granulation tissue, necrosis resorption, fibroproliferative scar healing, and thrombus organization. In order to accurately evaluate these parameters, careful specimen orientation, embedding and multiple histologic sections across the entire seal width are required. When appropriate in vivo post-treatment times are used, thermal vessel seals can be evaluated with routine light microscopy and common histologic staining methods.

  13. Evaluation of the hematoma consequences, neurobehavioral profiles, and histopathology in a rat model of pontine hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lekic, Tim; Rolland, William; Manaenko, Anatol; Krafft, Paul R.; Kamper, Joel E.; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hartman, Richard E.; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Object Primary pontine hemorrhage (PPH) represents approximately 7% of all intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) and is a clinical condition of which little is known. The aim of this study was to characterize the early brain injury, neurobehavioral outcome, and long-term histopathology in a novel preclinical rat model of PPH. Methods The authors stereotactically infused collagenase (Type VII) into the ventral pontine tegmentum of the rats, in accordance with the most commonly affected clinical region. Measures of cerebrovascular permeability (brain water content, hemoglobin assay, Evans blue, collagen Type IV, ZO-1, and MMP-2 and MMP-9) and neurological deficit were quantified at 24 hours postinfusion (Experiment 1). Functional outcome was measured over a 30-day period using a vertebrobasilar scale (the modified Voetsch score), open field, wire suspension, beam balance, and inclined-plane tests (Experiment 2). Neurocognitive ability was determined at Week 3 using the rotarod (motor learning), T-maze (working memory), and water maze (spatial learning and memory) (Experiment 3), followed by histopathological analysis 1 week later (Experiment 4). Results Stereotactic collagenase infusion caused dose-dependent elevations in hematoma volume, brain edema, neurological deficit, and blood-brain barrier rupture, while physiological variables remained stable. Functional outcomes mostly normalized by Week 3, whereas neurocognitive deficits paralleled the cystic cavitary lesion at 30 days. Obstructive hydrocephalus did not develop despite a clinically relevant 30-day mortality rate (approximately 54%). Conclusions These results suggest that the model can mimic several translational aspects of pontine hemorrhage in humans and can be used in the evaluation of potential preclinical therapeutic interventions. PMID:23198805

  14. 76 FR 9849 - Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations for Antarctic Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations for Antarctic Activities SUMMARY: The Department of State gives notice of the availability of two draft Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations (CEEs) for activities.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Article 3 of Annex I to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic...

  15. Quality and Evaluation in a Comprehensive Health Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Malcolm; Brazil, Kevin

    1995-01-01

    An innovative approach to delivering health care is being developed in several Ontario (Canada) communities. This report describes the initial framework for quality and evaluation for a comprehensive health organization (CHO). As CHOs become operational, there is great opportunity to develop a comprehensive approach to quality and evaluation. (SLD)

  16. Comparison of two models for evaluation histopathology of experimental renal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Tirapelli, L F; Barione, D F; Trazzi, B F M; Tirapelli, D P C; Novas, P C; Silva, C S; Martinez, M; Costa, R S; Tucci, S; Suaid, H J; Cologna, A J; Martins, A C P

    2009-12-01

    Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the frequent causes of acute renal failure (ARF) due to the complex, interrelated sequence of events, that result in damage to and death of kidney cells. Cells of the proximal tubular epithelium are especially susceptible to I/R injury, leading to acute tubular necrosis, which plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ARF. Several models have been explicated to assess morphological changes, including those of Jabonski et al. and Goujon et al. We compared the 2 models for histopathological evaluation of 30- or 120-minute periods of renal ischemia followed by 24-hour reperfusion in rats. Several changes were observed after application of the 2 models: proximal tubular cell necrosis, loss of brush border, vacuolization, denudation of tubular basement membrane as a consequence of flattening of basal cells, and presence of intratubular exfoliated cells in the lumen of proximal convoluted tubules at various stages of degeneration (karyorexis, kariopyknosis and karyolysis). Evaluating tubular lesions after 2 periods of experimental ischemia with light microscopy allowed us to conclude that the Goujon classification better characterized the main changes in cortical renal tubules after ischemia.

  17. Effects of topical Catalase application on dental pulp tissue: a histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Alaçam, A; Tulunoglu, O; Oygür, T; Bilici, S

    2000-07-01

    recently, the role of antioxidant enzymes in wound healing and their therapeutic potential has been a subject of interest in medical sciences. However there is restricted knowledge on the results of topical application, optimal therapeutic dosage and carrier types. The purpose of this study was to investigate the wound healing response of dental pulp after direct pulp capping with an antioxidant enzyme; Catalase (C-40). three mongrel dogs were used in this study. A total of 32 perforated Cl V preparations were treated with either 0.8mg (n=16) or 1.6mg (n=16) Catalase (C-40) which was incorporated in gelatin carriers whereas 16 control teeth had carriers without Catalase. One millimeter thick Teflon disks were placed over the gelatin pellets and the cavities restored with silver amalgam. Short term and long term histopathologic reactions were evaluated after 7 and 90 days. there were no statistically significant differences between the inflammatory cell responses of control and either dosage groups of Catalase at the 7-day evaluation period. However, after 90 days, better tissue healing was observed in the teeth treated with Catalase, resulting in significant differences with the control group. it can be concluded that the results of this study encourage the topical use of antioxidant Catalase as a pulp-capping agent. However, further studies are required to determine optimal antioxidant dosages.

  18. Diabetic retinopathy: retina-specific methods for maintenance of diabetic rodents and evaluation of vascular histopathology and molecular abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Veenstra, Alexander; Liu, Haitao; Lee, Chieh Allen; Du, Yunpeng; Tang, Jie; Kern, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of visual impairment, which continues to increase in prevalence as more and more people develop diabetes. Despite the importance of vision, the retina is one of the smallest tissues in the body, and specialized techniques to study the retinopathy have been developed. This chapter will summarize several methods used to (i) induce diabetes, (ii) maintain the diabetic animals throughout the months required for the development of typical vascular histopathology, (iii) evaluate vascular histopathology of diabetic retinopathy, and (iv) quantitate abnormalities implicated in the development of the retinopathy. PMID:26331759

  19. Comprehensive School Transformation, Phase III. Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prine, Donald; Wilkinson, David

    The Iowa Educational Excellence Act and its amendments provide for four types of Phase III programs: performance-based pay, supplemental pay, a combination of both, or comprehensive school transformation. In 1993, the Des Moines Phase III program, which originated as a combination of performance-based pay and supplemental pay, changed to a…

  20. Hepatic steatosis assessment: a comparative study between surgeon evaluation and forward histopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline M A; Coelho, Gustavo R; Marques, Geraldo A; Moraes, Manoel O; Valença Jr, José Telmo; Garcia, José Huygens P

    2013-01-01

    Liver transplantation is one of the last viable resources for patients with end-stage liver disease. Many strategies are been used to improve the number of available organs and overcome waiting list delay. However, hepatic steatosis is one of the mainly concerns when organs are consider to transplantation due to it is importance as a risk factor for primary dysfunction. Surgeons play an important role to decide each organ will be accept or decline and its righteous allocation. Retrospectively evaluate the surgeon assessment of steatosis degree and its confrontation with further histopathologic findings. We analyzed 117 patients underwent deceased liver transplantation for end-stage liver disease in University Hospital Walter Cantideo, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. A matrix table was organized to estimate the categorical data observed. We clustered the subjects into mild (0%-30%) and moderate (30%-60%) steatosis degree under the clinical criteria of organ suitability for transplantation. We categorized the organs as suitable organ for transplant and as non-suitable organ for transplant. Evaluations between the two first assessments, before perfusion (pre-perfusion) vs biopsy findings and after perfusion vs biopsy findings observations were analyzed and also a comparison between pre-perfusion and after perfusion data was performed. On the first assessment, we obtained a 93% of agreement (n = 109) between the two evaluations. On the second assessment, we had an 8% (n = 9) of mistaken allocation. Comparing the observation before (pre-perfusion) and after (after perfusion), we obtained a strong agreement between the surgeons. Although our experienced surgeon team, we have wrongly evaluated feasible organs for transplantation. Nonetheless, our faulty percentage is low comparing to worldwide percentage.

  1. Comprehensive biometric, biochemical and histopathological assessment of nutrient deficiencies in gilthead sea bream fed semi-purified diets.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Estensoro, Itziar; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2015-09-14

    Seven isoproteic and isolipidic semi-purified diets were formulated to assess specific nutrient deficiencies in sulphur amino acids (SAA), n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LC-PUFA), phospholipids (PL), P, minerals (Min) and vitamins (Vit). The control diet (CTRL) contained these essential nutrients in adequate amounts. Each diet was allocated to triplicate groups of juvenile gilthead sea bream fed to satiety over an 11-week feeding trial period. Weight gain of n-3 LC-PUFA, P-Vit and PL-Min-SAA groups was 50, 60-75 and 80-85 % of the CTRL group, respectively. Fat retention was decreased by all nutrient deficiencies except by the Min diet. Strong effects on N retention were found in n-3 LC-PUFA and P fish. Combined anaemia and increased blood respiratory burst were observed in n-3 LC-PUFA fish. Hypoproteinaemia was found in SAA, n-3 LC-PUFA, PL and Vit fish. Derangements of lipid metabolism were also a common disorder, but the lipodystrophic phenotype of P fish was different from that of other groups. Changes in plasma levels of electrolytes (Ca, phosphate), metabolites (creatinine, choline) and enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase) were related to specific nutrient deficiencies in PL, P, Min or Vit fish, whereas changes in circulating levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I primarily reflected the intensity of the nutritional stressor. Histopathological scoring of the liver and intestine segments showed specific nutrient-mediated changes in lipid cell vacuolisation, inflammation of intestinal submucosa, as well as the distribution and number of intestinal goblet and rodlet cells. These results contribute to define the normal range of variation for selected biometric, biochemical, haematological and histochemical markers.

  2. Histopathological evaluation of colonic mucosal biopsy specimens in chronic inflammatory bowel disease: diagnostic implications.

    PubMed Central

    Seldenrijk, C A; Morson, B C; Meuwissen, S G; Schipper, N W; Lindeman, J; Meijer, C J

    1991-01-01

    In a prospective blind evaluation of multiple colonic mucosal biopsy specimens, 45 clinically well defined patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (21 Crohn's disease and 24 ulcerative colitis) and 16 control subjects (seven normal subjects and nine patients with diverticular disease) were studied to identify reproducible histopathological features which could distinguish chronic inflammatory bowel disease (CIBD) from non-CIBD and Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis. Using kappa statistics 16 of 41 histological features were sufficiently reproducible for further stepwise discriminant analysis to differentiate between CIBD and non-CIBD, and between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Using the combination of three features (an increase of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the lamina propria, the presence of branching of crypts, and neutrophils in the crypt epithelium) we were able to distinguish CIBD from non-CIBD in 89% of the cases with high probability (p greater than 0.85). To separate Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis three features (an excess of histiocytes in combination with a villous or irregular aspect of the mucosal surface and granulomas) had a high predictive value. Using these features 70% of Crohn's disease patients and 75% of ulcerative colitis patients were correctly classified with a high probability (p greater than 0.85). These findings indicate that the pathologist is dependent on the presence of only a few histological features for a reliable classification of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Images Figure 1 PMID:1773958

  3. Inflammation is present in de Quervain Disease--correlation study between biochemical and histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yao-Lung; Hsu, Che-Chia; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Wu, Po-Ting; Shao, Chung-Jung; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Wu, Tung-Tai; Jou, I-Ming

    2015-05-01

    De Quervain disease is a stenosing condition of the sheath of the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons at the radial styloid process. Previous studies consistently reported that the pathological change of this condition is thought to be primarily an extensor retinaculum thickened by fibrosis and angiogenesis instead of inflammation. Contradictorily, the conservative treatment for de Quervain disease is anti-inflammatory medication. The inflammatory response may be involved in this disease; however, there is no present study directly evidencing whether the inflammatory responses exist in de Quervain disease or not. The histopathology of de Quervain disease is yet to be elucidated clearly. To grade all specimens in the different stages and characterize specific inflammatory cell and factors to examine whether inflammatory response is involved in de Quervain disease. Retinaculum samples were collected from 13 patients with de Quervain disease after surgery. The specimens were evaluated histologically by collagen structure grading and immunohistochemically by quantifying the presence of neutrophil elastase, macrophages, cyclooxygenase, and vascular endothelium. Neutrophil elastase and cyclooxygenase occur in the de Quervain disease retinaculum and increased with the grade of collagen structure. After angiogenesis, macrophage infiltration occurs in the grade II matrix worse than grade III matrix. Inflammation is present in de Quervain disease. This study provides direct evidence for inflammatory cell and infiltration factors and offer valuable clues for specific pharmacological therapies for de Quervain disease.

  4. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland Cement for Direct Pulp Capping in Dog: A Histopathological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Bidar, Maryam; Naghavi, Neda; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Sheik-Nezami, Mahshid; Fallahrastegar, Amir; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Attaran Mashhadi, Negin; Nargesi, Iman

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide are considered the gold standard pulp-capping materials. Recently, Portland cement has been introduced with properties similar to those of mineral trioxide aggregate. Histopathological effects of direct pulp capping using mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cements on dog dental pulp tissue were evaluated in the present study. Materials and methods. This histopatological study was carried out on 64 dog premolars. First, the pulp was exposed with a sterile bur. Then, the exposed pulp was capped with white or gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white or gray Portland cements in each quadrant and sealed with glass-ionomer. The specimens were evaluated under a light microscope after 6 months. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was defined at α=5%. Results. There was no acute inflammation in any of the specimens. Chronic inflammation in white and gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white and gray Portland cements was reported to be 45.5%, 27.3%, 57.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Although the differences were not statistically significant, severe inflammation was observed mostly adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate. The largest extent of increased vascularization (45%) and the least increase in fibrous tissue were observed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, with no significant differences. In addition, the least calcified tissue formed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, although the difference was not significant. Conclusion. The materials used in this study were equally effective as pulp protection materials following direct pulp capping in dog teeth. PMID:25346831

  5. Mineral trioxide aggregate and portland cement for direct pulp capping in dog: a histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bidar, Maryam; Naghavi, Neda; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Sheik-Nezami, Mahshid; Fallahrastegar, Amir; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Attaran Mashhadi, Negin; Nargesi, Iman

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide are considered the gold standard pulp-capping materials. Recently, Portland cement has been introduced with properties similar to those of mineral trioxide aggregate. Histopathological effects of direct pulp capping using mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cements on dog dental pulp tissue were evaluated in the present study. Materials and methods. This histopatological study was carried out on 64 dog premolars. First, the pulp was exposed with a sterile bur. Then, the exposed pulp was capped with white or gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white or gray Portland cements in each quadrant and sealed with glass-ionomer. The specimens were evaluated under a light microscope after 6 months. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was defined at α=5%. Results. There was no acute inflammation in any of the specimens. Chronic inflammation in white and gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white and gray Portland cements was reported to be 45.5%, 27.3%, 57.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Although the differences were not statistically significant, severe inflammation was observed mostly adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate. The largest extent of increased vascularization (45%) and the least increase in fibrous tissue were observed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, with no significant differences. In addition, the least calcified tissue formed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, although the difference was not significant. Conclusion. The materials used in this study were equally effective as pulp protection materials following direct pulp capping in dog teeth.

  6. Evaluation of HIV Prevention and Comprehensive Health Education Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Gloria; And Others

    This study was undertaken to evaluate Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention and comprehensive health activities in public secondary schools in Mississippi. The Comprehensive School Health Curriculum (CSHC), for implementation in junior, middle, and senior high schools, was designed to promote improved knowledge and behaviors related to the…

  7. A Comprehensive Approach to the Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Trav D.; Ryan, Katherine E.

    2000-01-01

    Four issues seem to be at the heart of improving the evaluation of college teaching: defining faculty roles and expectations, understanding teachers and teaching contexts, meeting the multiple demands placed on teaching evaluations and the need for better use of evaluation in faculty development. (JM)

  8. Using Research and Evaluation to Support Comprehensive Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Thomas; Mayer, Alexander K.; Rutschow, Elizabeth Zachry

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the role that research and evaluation play in supporting comprehensive reform in community colleges, focusing on lessons from two major initiatives: Achieving the Dream and Completion by Design.

  9. Using Research and Evaluation to Support Comprehensive Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Thomas; Mayer, Alexander K.; Rutschow, Elizabeth Zachry

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the role that research and evaluation play in supporting comprehensive reform in community colleges, focusing on lessons from two major initiatives: Achieving the Dream and Completion by Design.

  10. MR evaluation of vessel size imaging of human gliomas: Validation by histopathology.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Elias; Breyer, Tobias; Gall, Peter; Müller, Klaus; Trippel, Michael; Staszewski, Ori; Stein, Florian; Saborowski, Olaf; Dyakova, Olga; Urbach, Horst; Kiselev, Valerij G; Mader, Irina

    2015-10-01

    To compare the vessel size and the cerebral blood volume in human gliomas with histopathology. Vessel size imaging (VSI) is a dynamic susceptibility contrast method for the assessment of the vessel size in normal and pathological tissue. Previous publications in rodents showed a satisfactory conformity with the vessel size derived from histopathology. To assess the clinical value, further, the progression-free interval was determined and correlated. Twenty-five gliomas (WHO grade °II [n = 10], °III [n = 3], °IV [n = 12]) were prospectively included and received a stereotaxic biopsy after VSI. The vessel size and the cerebral blood volume (CBV) were calculated in regions of interest at the tumor edge and correlated with the vessel size measured by histopathology. Both VSI and CBV showed a good correlation with the vessel size in histopathology (up to r = 0.84, P < 0.001, and r = 0.62, P < 0.001, respectively). Slope and offset of the linear regression (y = 0.77x + 0.36 μm) suggest that the size of normal capillaries is overestimated with VSI, while for grossly enlarged vessels an underestimation occurs. Both VSI and CBV were negatively correlated with the progression-free interval (r = -0.57, P = 0.008, and r = -0.50, P = 0.025, respectively). The correlation between VSI and vessel size from histopathology is in good accordance with the animal studies. The overestimation of small capillary sizes is also known from the animal trials. Vessel size and CBV showed similar results, both for the correlation with the histopathological vessel size and the progression-free interval. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Histopathology and serum clinical chemistry evaluation of broilers with femoral head separation disorder

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Femoral head disarticulation (FHD) and necrosis is a sporadic leg problem of unknown etiology in broiler breeders. To determine the underlying physiology of FHD, the blood chemistry and the histopathology of the femoral heads of the affected chickens were compared with their age matched controls. Ch...

  12. Neuroprotective effect of agmatine in rats with transient cerebral ischemia using MR imaging and histopathologic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y C; Tzeng, W S; Wang, C C; Cheng, B C; Chang, Y K; Chen, H H; Lin, P C; Huang, T Y; Chuang, T J; Lin, J W; Chang, C P

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to further investigate the effects of agmatine on brain edema in the rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) injury using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) monitoring and biochemical and histopathologic evaluation. Following surgical induction of MCAO for 90min, agmatine was injected 5min after beginning of reperfusion and again once daily for the next 3 post-operative days. The events during ischemia and reperfusion were investigated by T2-weighted images (T2WI), serial diffusion-weighted images (DWI), calculated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1WI) during 3h-72h in a 1.5T Siemens MAGNETON Avanto Scanner. Lesion volumes were analyzed in a blinded and randomized manner. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), Nissl, and Evans Blue stainings were performed at the corresponding sections. Increased lesion volumes derived from T2WI, DWI, ADC, CE-T1WI, and TTC all were noted at 3h and peaked at 24h-48h after MCAO injury. TTC-derived infarct volumes were not significantly different from the T2WI, DWI-, and CE-T1WI-derived lesion volumes at the last imaging time (72h) point except for significantly smaller ADC lesions in the MCAO model (P<0.05). Volumetric calculation based on TTC-derived infarct also correlated significantly stronger to volumetric calculation based on last imaging time point derived on T2WI, DWI or CE-T1WI than ADC (P<0.05). At the last imaging time point, a significant increase in Evans Blue extravasation and a significant decrease in Nissl-positive cells numbers were noted in the vehicle-treated MCAO injured animals. The lesion volumes derived from T2WI, DWI, CE-T1WI, and Evans blue extravasation as well as the reduced numbers of Nissl-positive cells were all significantly attenuated in the agmatine-treated rats compared with the control ischemia rats (P<0.05). Our results suggest that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against brain edema on a reperfusion model after

  13. Evaluation of Rosemont criteria for non-calcific chronic pancreatitis (NCCP) based on histopathology - A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Trikudanathan, Guru; Munigala, Satish; Barlass, Usman; Malli, Ahmad; Han, Yusheng; Sekulic, Miroslav; Bellin, Melena; Chinnakotla, Srinath; Dunn, Ty; Pruett, Timothy; Beilman, Gregory; Peralta, Jose-Vega; Arain, Mustafa; Amateau, Stuart; Mallery, Shawn; Freeman, Martin L; Attam, Rajeev

    Rosemont classification for chronic pancreatitis has not been evaluated specifically in non-calcific chronic pancreatitis (NCCP) patients and to this date, it has not been correlated with the gold standard namely histopathology. To assess the correlation of EUS Rosemont criteria for NCCP with histopathology from surgical specimens and evaluate the impact of age, sex, BMI, smoking and alcohol on Rosemont classification. Adult patients undergoing TPIAT for NCCP between July 2009 and January 2013 were identified from our institutional database. The presence or absence of standard and Rosemont (major and minor) criteria were determined by expert endosonographers using linear endosonography. Patients were categorized into normal, indeterminate and suggestive with CP based on Rosemont classification. Histology was obtained at time of TPIAT from the resected pancreas by wedge biopsy of head, body and tail. All histopathology were re-reviewed by a GI pathologist blinded to endosonographic features and clinical outcomes. Available pancreatic tissue was graded for severity of intralobular and perilobular pancreatic fibrosis by the Ammann classification system. 50 patients with NCCP (42 females, mean age± SD = 37.9 ± 10.8) underwent TPIAT with preoperative EUS during the study period. Univariate analysis of features such as age, sex, BMI, smoking and alcohol history showed no significant difference between patients identified as normal and those identified as indeterminate/suggestive (p > 0.05). Rosemont "Normal" was poor in excluding CP as 5/9 patients (55.5%) had CP on histopathology. 25/26 patients (96.2%) with features "suggestive" of CP had evidence of CP on histopathology. 12/15 patients (80.0%) with "indeterminate" features had CP on histopathology. Rosemont classification can be used independent of patient characteristics (age, sex and BMI) and environmental factors (smoking and alcohol exposure). In our cohort, Rosemont classification was strongly predictive

  14. Acute Toxicity and Cytotoxicity Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Spondias tuberosa Arruda Bark: Hematological, Biochemical and Histopathological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Humberto M; Nascimento, Jailson N DO; Araújo, Thiago A S; Duarte, Filipe S; Albuquerque, Ulysses P; Vieira, Jeymesson R C; Santana, Edson R B DE; Yara, Ricardo; Lima, Cláudia S A; Gomes, Dayane A; Lira, Eduardo C

    2016-01-01

    Spondias tuberosa Arruda, popularly named as umbu, is native from savanna-like vegetation and widely used for medicinal purposes, however, the toxicological profile is not available yet. This study evaluated the phytochemical profile and acute toxicity and citoxicity of Ethanolic Extract of Spondias tuberosa Arruda Bark (EEStb) in hematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters. Female Wistar rats were divided into: control (C) and animal treated single doses of 300mg/Kg (EEStb300) or 2.000mg/kg body weight (ESStb2.000) of the EEStb. After 24 hours and 14 days from gavage, the behavior, hematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters were assayed. Cytotoxicity effect was evaluated on HEp-2 cell lines. Neither EEStb300 nor EEStb2.000 produced mortality nor changes in body weight during the 14-days of observation, but EEStb2.000 reduced quietly the food and water intake as well as locomotor activity at first day. There were no changes in macroscopic, histopathological, biochemical and hematological parameters. EEStb in concentrations of 6.25- 50μg ml-1 on HEp-2 cell did not produce cytotoxic effect. These results suggest that EEStb did not cause acute toxicity and cytotoxic, suggesting a good safety rate for Spondias tuberosa Arruda.

  15. Hematological and biochemical profiles and histopathological evaluation of experimental intoxication by sodium fluoroacetate in cats.

    PubMed

    Collicchio-Zuanaze, R C; Sakate, M; Langrafe, L; Takahira, R K; Burini, C

    2010-11-01

    Sodium fluoroacetate (SFAC) is a potent rodenticide, largely used for rodent and domestic pest control. The toxic effects of SFAC are caused by fluoroacetate, a toxic metabolite, whose toxic action blocks the Krebs cycle and also induces the accumulation of citrate in the body, which is a serum calcium chelator. The most common clinical signs of this intoxication are the cardiac and neurological effects. However, the hematological, biochemical and histopathological findings occurring in intoxication are still unknown in different species. In the present study, 16 domestic cats were experimentally intoxicated with oral doses of fluoroacetate (0.45 mg/kg). The hematological and biochemical profiles and histopathological findings were made to look for auxiliary diagnosis methods in SFAC intoxications. The hematological profile showed transitory leucopenia and thrombocytopenia; in the biochemical profiles were detected hyperglycemia, increase of creatinequinase enzyme (CK) and creatinequinase cardiac isoenzyme (CK-MB), hypokalemia and hypophosfatemia. In the macroscopic and histopathological findings were observed lesions characteristic of degenerative and ischemic processes in heart, kidneys, liver, brain and lungs. These changes may be auxiliary to the diagnosis of intoxication by SFAC in cats, when associated with clinical signs described for the species. Thus, the complete blood count with platelet count, serum glucose, enzymes CK and CK-MB isoenzyme, as well as the electrolytes potassium and phosphorus, can facilitate the laboratory diagnosis during intoxication by SFAC, associated with the pathological findings in the case of death of the intoxicated animal.

  16. The Basic Shelf Experience: a comprehensive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dewolfe, Judith A; Greaves, Gaye

    2003-01-01

    The Basic Shelf Experience is a program designed to assist people living on limited incomes to make better use of their food resources. The purpose of this research was to learn if the Basic Shelf Experience program helps such people to 1. utilize food resources more effectively and 2. cope, through group support, with poverty-associated stressors that influence food security. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to evaluate the program objectives. Participants completed a questionnaire at the beginning and end of the six-week program. The questionnaire asked about their food access, food security, and feelings about themselves. Participants returned for a focus group discussion and completed the questionnaire again three months after the program ended. The focus group was designed to elicit information about perceived changes, if any, attributed to the program. Forty-two people completed the questionnaires pre-program and 20 post-program; 17 participated in the three-month follow-up session. While results from quantitative data analysis indicate that program objectives were not met, qualitative data provide evidence that the program did achieve its stated objectives. Our results suggest such programs as the Basic Shelf Experience can assist people living on limited incomes to achieve food security.

  17. Aquifer water abundance evaluation using a fuzzy- comprehensive weighting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Aquifer water abundance evaluation is a highly relevant issue that has been researched for many years. Despite prior research, problems with the conventional evaluation method remain. This paper establishes an aquifer water abundance evaluation method that combines fuzzy evaluation with a comprehensive weighting method to overcome both the subjectivity and lack of conformity in determining weight by pure data analysis alone. First, this paper introduces the principle of a fuzzy-comprehensive weighting method. Second, the example of well field no. 3 (of a coalfield) is used to illustrate the method's process. The evaluation results show that this method is can more suitably meet the real requirements of aquifer water abundance assessment, leading to more precise and accurate evaluations. Ultimately, this paper provides a new method for aquifer water abundance evaluation.

  18. [Comprehensive evaluation of cefotetan in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Fujii, R; Meguro, H; Yoshioka, H; Fujita, K; Maruyama, S; Sanae, N; Nagamatsu, I; Okuno, A; Izumi, Y; Aoyama, R

    1983-06-01

    Fundamental and clinical studies on cefotetan (CTT), a new cephamycin antibiotic, were carried out under a joint study programme in pediatric field, and the following results were obtained. Pharmacokinetic study In 20 pediatric patients with normal renal function, weighing 15 to 48 kg, CTT was injected intravenously at 20 mg/kg in 3 to 5 minutes. The mean blood concentration of CTT was 215.6 micrograms/ml at 15 minutes after the end of injection, 90.7 micrograms/ml at 1 hour, 57.2 micrograms/ml at 2 hours, 33.9 micrograms/ml at 4 hours and 10.2 micrograms/ml at 8 hours. The half-life of the drug in the beta-phase, computed from the mean blood concentrations up to 8 hours postdosing, was 2.61 hours. The peak of the mean urinary excretion of cefotetan appeared in 0 to 2 hours after the injection and 36.5% of the dose was recovered in the urine. The mean excretion at 0 to 8 hours was 68.1%. Clinical study Clinical effects of CTT was evaluated in 285 patients with 287 diseases, since 1 patient had both pneumonia and erysipelas, and another both pneumonia and acute otitis media. Daily dosage of CTT ranged from 15 to 123 mg/kg, and 266 patients (93.3%) received the drug either 2 or 3 times daily. The clinical response was seen in 83.3% of the 6 cases with sepsis, 89.3% of the 122 cases with pneumonia with or without pyothorax, 96.2% of the 52 cases with either acute bronchitis or tonsillitis, 92.5% of the 67 cases with urinary tract infection and 92.5% of the 40 cases with other infections. The causative organisms were detected in 160 patients and the rate of complete disappearance was 80.6%. Out of 310 patients, side effects were seen in 9 cases, diarrhea in 8 (2.6%) and rash in 1 (0.3%). Abnormal clinical laboratory findings were seen in 24 cases, elevation of serum transaminases in 19 (7.8%), elevation of TTT and LDH in 1 (0.4%) and eosinophilia in 4 (1.6%). None of these cases showed serious side effects or abnormal clinical laboratory findings. From the above

  19. Comparison between cytology and histopathology to evaluate subclinical endometritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bogado Pascottini, Osvaldo; Hostens, Miel; Dini, Pouya; Vandepitte, Jan; Ducatelle, Richard; Opsomer, Geert

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare endometrial cytology with histopathology to diagnose subclinical endometritis (SCE) in dairy cows. Endometrial cytology samples were collected from Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 32) just before slaughtering. Half of them were obtained by in vivo cytobrush (IV-CB), whereas the other half by in vivo low-volume lavage (IV-LVL). After slaughtering, reproductive tracts were collected, and the endometrium was sampled at eight locations. At each location, both a ex vivo cytobrush sample (EV-CB) and a tissue sample for histopathologic examination were taken. In the histopathology slides, polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell counts were differentiated as PMN cells in direct contact with the epithelial cells of the endometrium (PMN-EP), and PMN cells present in the deeper stratum compactum (PMN-SC). Summation of both countings was referred to as PMN-total. Pearson's correlation and Cohen's kappa coefficient were used to assess the correlation and agreement between both sampling methods (in vivo cytology [IV-CB and IV-LVL] with EV-CB and PMN-total). A Poisson mixed effect model was used to analyze the PMN cells' distribution. The prevalence of SCE was 18.75% (n = 6/32) for in vivo cytology. The SCE prevalence based on EV-CB analyses and on the assessment of PMN-total was determined both at the sample (n = 256) as well as at the cow level (n = 32): EV-CB 25% (n = 64/256) and 35.5% (n = 12/32), and PMN-total 37.11% (n = 95/256) and 59.38% (n = 19/32). Correlation and agreement between IV-CB and EV-CB were r = 0.81 and k = 0.97, whereas between IV-CB and PMN-total r = 0.15 and k = 0.23, respectively. In vivo low-volume lavage correlation and agreement were r = 0.52 and k = 0.66 with EV-CB, and r = 0.45 and k = 0.44 with PMN-total. Moreover, correlation and agreement between EV-CB and PMN-total were r = 0.60 and k = 0.50, respectively. More PMN cells (P < 0.05) were detected in PMN-SC when compared to PMN

  20. Endoscopic evaluation of celiac disease severity and its correlation with histopathological aspects of the duodenal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bonatto, Mauro W.; Kotze, Luiz; Orlandoski, Marcia; Tsuchyia, Ricardo; de Carvalho, Carlos A.; Lima, Doryane; Kurachi, Gustavo; Orso, Ivan R.B.; Kotze, Lorete

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disorder affecting genetically predisposed individuals, triggered and maintained by the ingestion of gluten. Triggered and maintained by the ingestion of gluten, celiac disease is a chronic systemic autoimmune disorder affecting genetically predisposed individuals. Persistent related inflammation of the duodenal mucosa causes atrophy architecture detectable on esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and histopathology. We investigated the association between endoscopic features and histopathological findings (Marsh) for duodenal mucosa in celiac disease patients and propose an endoscopic classification of severity. Patients and methods: Between January 2000 and March 2010, an electronic database containing 34,540 EDGs of patients aged > 14 years was searched for cases of CD. Out of 109 cases, 85 met the inclusion criteria: conventional EGD combined with chromoendoscopy, zoom and biopsy. EGD types 0, I and II corresponds to Marsh grades 0, 1 and 2, respectively, while EGD type III corresponds to Marsh grade 3 and 4. Results: Five patients (5.8 %) were EGD I but not Marsh grade 1; 25 patients (29.4 %) were EGD II, 4 of whom (16 %) were classified as Marsh grade 2; and 55 patients (64.7 %) were EGD III, 51 (92.7 %) of whom were classified as Marsh grades 3 and 4. The Spearman correlation coefficient (r = 0.33) revealed a significant association between the methods (P = 0.002). Conclusions: Changes in the duodenal mucosa detected on EGD were significantly and positively associated with histopathologic findings. The use of chromoendoscopy in addition to conventional EGD enhances changes in the duodenal mucosa and permits diagnosis of CD, even in routine examinations. The proposed endoscopic classification is practical and easily reproducible and provides valuable information regarding disease extension. PMID:27556094

  1. Histopathological evaluation of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Vasuri, Francesco; Malvi, Deborah; Gruppioni, Elisa; Grigioni, Walter F; D’Errico-Grigioni, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Although the morphological features of hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) have been well established in the last decades, the differential diagnosis still represents a challenge for the pathologist, especially early recurrent hepatitis C vs mild acute cellular rejection. The present review focuses on the role of the pathologist and the pathology laboratory in the management of recipients with recurrent hepatitis C, the usefulness of early and late post-OLT liver biopsies, and the potential role of ancillary techniques (immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR). The English literature on the topic is reviewed, focusing on the histopathology, the immunohistochemistry and the use of RT-PCR on HCV-positive post-OLT biopsies. The different histopathological illustrations of early and chronic recurrent hepatitis C are presented, with special focus on the main differential diagnoses and those features with prognostic relevance (cholestasis above all). The usefulness of ancillary techniques are discussed, especially HCV RNA quantitation by RT-PCR. Finally, the usefulness of long-term protocol biopsies is addressed: their usefulness for the study of allograft disease progression is clear, but their meaning in the long term is still debated. The significance of plasma cell infiltrate in HCV-positive allografts, the prognostic weight of graft steatosis, and the impact of donor age in recurrent hepatitis C also represent additional open issues. PMID:24659874

  2. [Evaluation of color Doppler imaging of ophthalmic tumors based on histopathologic findings].

    PubMed

    Németh, János; Tapasztó, Beáta; Tóth, Jeannette; Harkányi, Zoltán

    2005-01-01

    To examine retrospectively the diagnostic and differential diagnostic value of color Doppler imaging (CDI) in cases of suspected intraocular and orbital tumors. Color Doppler examination (using Acuson 128, Philips-ATL UM-9, HDI 3000, 5000, Siemens Elegra, GE Logiq9) was performed in a total of 194 patients (177 intraocular, 17 orbital tumors). The results were compared to the clinical findings (routine examination, conventional ultrasound examination) and the results of angiography (FLAG, ICG). Furthermore, in 73 cases histopathology records were obtained for comparison. Signs of blood flow could be detected in 137 cases (71%); the Doppler spectrum was low resistance in the large majority (130) of these cases. In cases where histopathology records were available, 60 of the 73 (82%) showed good concordance between the CDI diagnosis and the pathological results. CDI gave false positive results in 3, and false negative findings in 10 cases; the latter occurred mainly in small iris or ciliary body tumors. Using CDI, blood flow is demonstrable in the majority of intraocular and orbital tumors, especially if the tumor diameter is larger than 3 mm. CDI flow detection, however, is less reliable for iris or ciliary body tumors.

  3. Disaster Metrics: A Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies.

    PubMed

    Wong, Diana F; Spencer, Caroline; Boyd, Lee; Burkle, Frederick Skip; Archer, Frank

    2017-05-08

    Introduction The frequency of disasters is increasing around the world with more people being at risk. There is a moral imperative to improve the way in which disaster evaluations are undertaken and reported with the aim of reducing preventable mortality and morbidity in future events. Disasters are complex events and undertaking disaster evaluations is a specialized area of study at an international level. Hypothesis/Problem While some frameworks have been developed to support consistent disaster research and evaluation, they lack validation, consistent terminology, and standards for reporting across the different phases of a disaster. There is yet to be an agreed, comprehensive framework to structure disaster evaluation typologies. The aim of this paper is to outline an evolving comprehensive framework for disaster evaluation typologies. It is anticipated that this new framework will facilitate an agreement on identifying, structuring, and relating the various evaluations found in the disaster setting with a view to better understand the process, outcomes, and impacts of the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions. Research was undertaken in two phases: (1) a scoping literature review (peer-reviewed and "grey literature") was undertaken to identify current evaluation frameworks and typologies used in the disaster setting; and (2) a structure was developed that included the range of typologies identified in Phase One and suggests possible relationships in the disaster setting. No core, unifying framework to structure disaster evaluation and research was identified in the literature. The authors propose a "Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies" that identifies, structures, and suggests relationships for the various typologies detected. The proposed Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies outlines the different typologies of disaster evaluations that were identified in this study and brings them together into a single

  4. 45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 641.18 Section 641.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  5. 45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 641.18 Section 641.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  6. On-Line Quizzes to Evaluate Comprehension and Integration Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badia Valiente, José David; Olmo Cazevieille, Françoise; Navarro Jover, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This work demonstrates the use of a 2.0 tool, namely, Socrative, to evaluate one of the cross-curricular competences indicated by the Universitat Politècnica de València, specifically, comprehension and integration. It has been applied to the courses in different areas: sciences, engineering and languages. As part of its implementation, activities…

  7. A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Supreme Court's "Forest Grove" Decision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2013-01-01

    The article by Dixon, Eusebio, Turton, Wright, and Hale is entitled "Forest Grove School District v. T.A. Supreme Court Case: Implications for School Psychology Practice." Its implications are that a "comprehensive evaluation" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires assessment of the child's…

  8. 45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 641.18 Section 641.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  9. The Development of Comprehension of Chance Language: Evaluation and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.; Moritz, Jonathan B.

    2003-01-01

    Comprehension of chance language, such as is found in newspapers, is a fundamental aspect of statistical literacy. In this study, students' understandings of chance language were explored through responses to two items in surveys administered to 2,726 students from grades 5 to 11. One item involved evaluating the chance expressed in phrases from…

  10. Does Validation during Language Comprehension Depend on an Evaluative Mindset?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isberner, Maj-Britt; Richter, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Whether information is routinely and nonstrategically evaluated for truth during comprehension is still a point of contention. Previous studies supporting the assumption of nonstrategic validation have used a Stroop-like paradigm in which participants provided yes/no judgments in tasks unrelated to the truth or plausibility of the experimental…

  11. Does Validation during Language Comprehension Depend on an Evaluative Mindset?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isberner, Maj-Britt; Richter, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Whether information is routinely and nonstrategically evaluated for truth during comprehension is still a point of contention. Previous studies supporting the assumption of nonstrategic validation have used a Stroop-like paradigm in which participants provided yes/no judgments in tasks unrelated to the truth or plausibility of the experimental…

  12. College of the Siskiyous Comprehensive Institutional Evaluation System. Management Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Eugene; Peterson, Gary

    This special project, a fifth year review of an institution under current accrediting commission policy, was undertaken at College of the Siskiyous (COS). Its purpose was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the institution and its programs and services through surveys of community residents, staff members, and former and current students. A…

  13. Effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by 3G mobile phones on rat brains: magnetic resonance spectroscopy, biochemical, and histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dogan, M; Turtay, M G; Oguzturk, H; Samdanci, E; Turkoz, Y; Tasdemir, S; Alkan, A; Bakir, S

    2012-06-01

    The effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) produced by a third-generation (3G) mobile phone (MP) on rat brain tissues were investigated in terms of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), biochemistry, and histopathological evaluations. The rats were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 is composed of 3G-EMR-exposed rats (n = 9) and Group 2 is the control group (n = 9). The first group was subjected to EMR for 20 days. The control group was not exposed to EMR. Choline (Cho), creatinin (Cr), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels were evaluated by MRS. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities were measured by spectrophotometric method. Histopathological analyses were carried out to evaluate apoptosis in the brain tissues of both groups. In MRS, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and NAA/Cho ratios were not significantly different between Groups 1 and 2. Neither the oxidative stress parameters, CAT and GSH-Px, nor the number of apoptotic cells were significantly different between Groups 1 and 2. Usage of short-term 3G MP does not seem to have a harmful effect on rat brain tissue.

  14. Quantitative histopathological evaluation of vocal cord dysplasia with particular emphasis on nuclear orientation.

    PubMed

    Stenersen, T C; Boysen, M; Juhng, S W; Reith, A

    1992-06-01

    We have applied morphometry on formaldehyde-fixed, H & E-stained diagnostic laryngeal biopsies from 7 patients with mild dysplasia and 7 with severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, in search of objective parameters required for reproducible histopathological grading of epithelial dysplasias. Special emphasis has been put upon the individual nuclear polarity as a spatial variable. Also included were 4 specimens with normal epithelium. By means of a semiautomatic digitizing tablet, the nuclear and epithelial area, formfactor and the polarity variation between the longitudinal axes of adjacent nuclei were measured in the basal, parabasal, middle and luminal layers of the epithelium. N:C-ratio, mean values of nuclear area, formfactor or their coefficient of variation could not distinguish between mild and severe dysplasia. The variations in neighboring nuclear polarity, however, revealed a highly significant distinction between mild and severe dysplasia (p less than 0.001). This parameter may therefore have diagnostic potential.

  15. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic evaluation of Nd:YAG laser pulpotomy on human primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Odabaş, Mesut Enes; Bodur, Haluk; Bariş, Emre; Demir, Cem

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic effects of Nd:YAG laser pulpotomy to formocresol pulpotomy on human primary teeth. Patients with at least two vital primary molar teeth that required pulpotomy, because of pulpal exposure to caries, were selected for this study. After hemorrhage control, complete hemostasis into the canal orifice was achieved by exposure to Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) and an He-Ne laser (the aiming beam of the Nd:YAG laser) in noncontact mode at 2 W, 20 Hz, 100 mJ, or was achieved by applying 1:5 dilution of formocresol. Forty-two teeth in two groups were to be followed up clinically and radiographic at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Eighteen teeth planned for serial extractions were selected for histopathologic study. The teeth were extracted at 7 and 60 days. The teeth in the laser group had a clinical success rate of 85.71% and a radiographic success rate 71.42% at 12 months. The teeth in the formocresol group had a clinical and radiographic success rate of 90.47% at 12 months. There were no statistically significant differences between laser and formocresol group with regard to both clinical and radiographic success rates. There was a statistically significant difference between 7- and 60-day laser groups with regard to inflammatory cell response criteria. Dentin bridge was absent in all samples. No stained bacteria were observed in any of these samples. In conclusion, Nd:YAG laser may be considered as an alternative to formocresol for pulpotomies in primary teeth.

  16. Gene expression and histopathological evaluation of thiamine pyrophosphate on optic neuropathy induced with ethambutol in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cinici, Emine; Cetin, Nihal; Suleyman, Bahadir; Altuner, Durdu; Yarali, Oguzhan; Balta, Hilal; Calik, Ilknur; Tumkaya, Levent; Suleyman, Halis

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the effects of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and thiamine (TM) in oxidative optic neuropathy in rats induced by ethambutol. METHODS The animals were divided into four groups: a control group (CG), an ethambutol control (ETC) group, TM plus ethambutol group (TMG), and TPP plus ethambutol group (TPPG). One hour after intraperitoneal administration of TM 20 mg/kg to the TMG group and TPP 20 mg/kg to TPPG group, 30 mg/kg ethambutol was given via gavage to all the groups but the CG. This procedure was repeated once daily for 90d. After that period, all rats were exposed to high levels of anaesthesia in order to investigate the gene expression of malondialdehyde and glutathione in removed optic nerve tissue and histopathologically to examine these tissues. RESULTS Malondialdehyde gene expression significantly increased, whereas glutathione gene expression significantly decreased in the ETC group compared to the CG. TM could not prevent the increase of malondialdehyde gene expression and the decrease of glutathione, while TPP significantly could suppress. Histopathologically, significant vacuolization in the optic nerve, single-cell necrosis in the glial cells, and a decrease in oligodendrocytes were observed in the ETC group. Vacuolization in the optic nerve, a decrease in oligodendrocytes and single-cell necrosis were found in the TMG group, while no pathological finding was observed in the TPPG group except for mild vacuolization. CONCLUSION TPP protects the optic nerve against the ethambutol-induced toxicity but TM does not. TPP can be beneficial in prophilaxis of optic neuropathy in ethambutol therapy. PMID:27803853

  17. Histopathological and behavioral evaluations of the effects of crocin, safranal and insulin on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Farshid, Amir Abbas; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Crocin and safranal, the major constituents of saffron, exert neuroprotective effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of crocin and safranal (alone or in combination with insulin) on peripheral neuropathy in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ) and confirmed by blood glucose level higher than 250 mg/dl. After confirmation of diabetes, crocin (30 mg/kg, i.p.), safranal (1 mg/kg, i.p.) (alone or in combination with insulin) and insulin (5 IU/kg, s.c.) were administered for eight weeks. Neuropathic pain was evaluated using acetone drop test. Histopathological changes of sciatic nerve were evaluated using light microscope. Blood glucose levels and sciatic nerve malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were also measured. Results: STZ caused cold allodynia, edema and degenerative changes of sciatic nerve, hyperglycemia and an elevation of sciatic nerve MDA levels. Crocin, safranal and insulin improved STZ-induced behavioral, histopathological and biochemical changes. Combined treatments produced more documented improving effects. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed neuroprotective effects of crocin, safranal and insulin in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy. In addition, crocin and safranal enhanced the neuroprotective effect of insulin. The neuroprotective effects of theses chemical compounds could be associated with their anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant properties. PMID:26468467

  18. Histopathological and behavioral evaluations of the effects of crocin, safranal and insulin on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Farshid, Amir Abbas; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal

    2015-01-01

    Crocin and safranal, the major constituents of saffron, exert neuroprotective effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of crocin and safranal (alone or in combination with insulin) on peripheral neuropathy in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ) and confirmed by blood glucose level higher than 250 mg/dl. After confirmation of diabetes, crocin (30 mg/kg, i.p.), safranal (1 mg/kg, i.p.) (alone or in combination with insulin) and insulin (5 IU/kg, s.c.) were administered for eight weeks. Neuropathic pain was evaluated using acetone drop test. Histopathological changes of sciatic nerve were evaluated using light microscope. Blood glucose levels and sciatic nerve malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were also measured. STZ caused cold allodynia, edema and degenerative changes of sciatic nerve, hyperglycemia and an elevation of sciatic nerve MDA levels. Crocin, safranal and insulin improved STZ-induced behavioral, histopathological and biochemical changes. Combined treatments produced more documented improving effects. The results of the present study showed neuroprotective effects of crocin, safranal and insulin in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy. In addition, crocin and safranal enhanced the neuroprotective effect of insulin. The neuroprotective effects of theses chemical compounds could be associated with their anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant properties.

  19. Histopathologic evaluation following chronic implantation of chromium and steel based metal alloys in the rabbit central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Rauch, H C; Ekstrom, M E; Montgomery, I N; Parada, F; Berke, J

    1986-01-01

    Histopathologic evaluation of three metal alloys for chronic implantation in the central nervous system (CNS) was undertaken in rabbits. Throughout the 8 month evaluation period the inflammatory response to the alloys was bland. Two of the alloys tested (chromium based MP35N, Trademark of the Standard Pressed Steel Company, and a stainless steel alloy, BG42 VacArc, Trademark of Latrobe Steel) appeared suitable as CNS implants. The third alloy (stainless steel 440C, Carpenter Steel Company) showed more corrosion than the other alloys, and may be less suitable for implantation. While E. cuniculi infection was found in four rabbits, the infection did not directly interfere with the assessment of the histologic changes directly due to the implants. Autoantibodies to a brain constituent were not observed.

  20. Nigella sativa oil as a pulp medicament for pulpotomized teeth: a histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Omar, Ola Moustafa; Khattab, Nagwa Mohamed; Khater, Dina Soliman

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about the safety of formocresol (FC) as a pulpotomy agent in Pediatric Dentistry have lead to the search of new capping medicaments. Indigenous plant medicines such as Nigella Sativa (NS) have been the focus of many researches. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate histo-pathologically the pulp response to NS oil and FC in dogs. Forty teeth in 4 male dogs of undefined breed aging 12-14 months were used in this study. Coronal access cavities were performed on the upper and lower premolars so that both medicaments were tested in the same animal in alternate sides of the mouth. Four weeks after treatment the animals were sacrificed, paraffin sections were prepared for histological, histochemical and immuno-histochemical staining. Specimens in the NS group showed mild to moderate vasodilatation. Few specimens showed scattered inflammatory cell infiltration and the odontoblastic layer was continuous. While the FC group showed moderate to severe vasodilatation with high inflammatory cell infiltrate and degenerative changes. NS possesses an anti-inflammatory effect and the pulp maintains its vitality after its application, which could qualify its use as a pulp medicament for pulpotomized teeth in clinical practice.

  1. OARSI osteoarthritis cartilage histopathology assessment system: A biomechanical evaluation in the human knee.

    PubMed

    Waldstein, Wenzel; Perino, Giorgio; Gilbert, Susannah L; Maher, Suzanne A; Windhager, Reinhard; Boettner, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    The study compared the OARSI osteoarthritis cartilage histopathology assessment system with the biomechanical quality of human in vivo cartilage samples. In a prospective cohort study, 84 patients (100 knees) with varus deformity of the knee were included between May, 2010 and January, 2012. Osteochondral samples underwent biomechanical and histologic analysis. The dynamic modulus significantly (p < 0.001) decreased with each advancing grade of degeneration from OARSI Grade 0 (surface intact) to OARSI Grade 4 (erosion). For the aggregate modulus, there were significant (p < 0.001) differences between OARSI Grade 0 and OARSI Grade 1 as well as between OARSI Grade 1 and OARSI Grade 2. From OARSI Grade 2 to OARSI Grade 5, no differences in aggregate modulus occurred. The new OARSI grading system provides useful information about the functional properties of cartilage. There is a significant difference in cartilage stiffness between samples with intact surface and no signs of degeneration (OARSI Grade 0) and samples with intact surface and early signs of arthritis (OARSI Grade 1). Surgeons performing joint preserving procedures have to be aware that in knees with an intact cartilage surface (OARSI Grade 0/1), significant differences in the biomechanical properties may exist.

  2. Histopathological evaluation of melatonin as a protective agent in heart injury induced by radiation in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Gürses, Iclal; Özeren, Murat; Serin, Meltem; Yücel, Neslihan; Erkal, Haldun Şükrü

    2014-12-01

    Melatonin is a hormone which is known to be a powerful cardioprotective agent due to its free radical-scavenging properties. This study was carried out to evaluate whether melatonin administration prior to irradiation would have a protective effect on cardiac histopathological changes in an experimental rat model. Rats were divided into four groups. Single dose of 18 Gy radiation and sham radiation exposure were used in related groups. 50mg/kg dose of melatonin were injected intraperitonally 15 min prior to radiation exposure. Analyses and assessments were performed 6 months after radiation exposure. Severe myocardial fibrosis was observed prominently in three regions: the apex, tips of papillary muscles and adjacent to the atrioventricular valves. Inflammation was found to be more in irradiated groups. Increased inflammation and fibrosis were in concordance. The number of mast cells was found to be decreased in irradiated groups. Myocyte necrosis and fibrosis were diminished with melatonin while vasculitis was prevented. Elementary pathological lesions of radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) are fibrosis, vascular damage, vasculitis and myocyte necrosis. Development of vasculitis was prevented by the use of melatonin. Fibrosis and necrosis were prominently decreased. Prevention of RIHD with the use of melatonin at the long term is encouraging according to the histopathological results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Histopathological Evaluation of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury Rodent Models

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) can occur in 3–25% of patients receiving radiocontrast material (RCM) despite appropriate preventive measures. Often patients with an atherosclerotic vasculature have to receive large doses of RCM. Thus, animal studies to uncover the exact pathomechanism of CI-AKI are needed. Sensitive and specific histologic end-points are lacking; thus in the present review we summarize the histologic appearance of different rodent models of CI-AKI. Single injection of RCM causes overt renal damage only in rabbits. Rats and mice need an additional insult to the kidney to establish a clinically manifest CI-AKI. In this review we demonstrate that the concentrating ability of the kidney may be responsible for species differences in sensitivity to CI-AKI. The most commonly held theory about the pathomechanism of CI-AKI is tubular cell injury due to medullary hypoxia. Thus, the most common additional insult in rats and mice is some kind of ischemia. The histologic appearance is tubular epithelial cell (TEC) damage; however severe TEC damage is only seen if RCM is combined by additional ischemia. TEC vacuolization is the first sign of CI-AKI, as it is a consequence of RCM pinocytosis and lysosomal fusion; however it is not sensitive as it does not correlate with renal function and is not specific as other forms of TEC damage also cause vacuolization. In conclusion, histopathology alone is insufficient and functional parameters and molecular biomarkers are needed to closely monitor CI-AKI in rodent experiments. PMID:27975052

  4. Imaging Evaluation of Enhancement Patterns of Flat Gall Bladder Wall Thickening and Its Correlation with Clinical and Histopathological Findings.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Manoj; Singh, Jasvir; Singh, Devinder Pal; Kaur, Navneet; Gupta, Saryu; Haq, Samrin

    2017-04-01

    Gall bladder Wall Thickening (GWT) is caused by wide spectrum of diseases. Initially Ultrasound (USG) was used as imaging modality for screening of acute abdomen because of its high sensitivity and real time character. Now, Computed Tomography (CT) is used because of its high temporal and spatial resolution. Evaluation of GWT and its enhancement patterns on contrast enhanced CT scan in a bid to differentiate benign from malignant causes and to correlate the imaging features with clinical and histopathological findings. It was a hospital based prospective study in which USG was done as an initial modality for screening and Multi Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) scan was done later on for detailed evaluation of enhancement patterns of GWT. The study cases were then divided into five CT patterns according to enhancement patterns. The diagnostic performance of MDCT was compared with histopathological and serological findings. Relevant history, clinical examination and routine investigations were done. The one layered pattern with a heterogeneously enhancing thick layered pattern (Type 1) was significantly associated with gall bladder cancer (p<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of Type 1 enhancement pattern on CT for predicting the Gall Bladder (GB) malignancy were 90.476% and 97.43% respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 95% and 95%, respectively. Focal wall thickening, irregular margin character and hepatic infiltration by GWT and lymphadenopathy were other findings that predict malignancy (p-value<0.05). MDCT enhancement patterns of a thickened GB wall and associated findings were helpful in differentiating malignant GWT from benign GWT.

  5. A comprehensive health service evaluation and monitoring framework.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Carole; Humphreys, John; Wakerman, John

    2015-12-01

    To develop a framework for evaluating and monitoring a primary health care service, integrating hospital and community services. A targeted literature review of primary health service evaluation frameworks was performed to inform the development of the framework specifically for remote communities. Key principles underlying primary health care evaluation were determined and sentinel indicators developed to operationalise the evaluation framework. This framework was then validated with key stakeholders. The framework includes Donabedian's three seminal domains of structure, process and outcomes to determine health service performance. These in turn are dependent on sustainability, quality of patient care and the determinants of health to provide a comprehensive health service evaluation framework. The principles underpinning primary health service evaluation were pertinent to health services in remote contexts. Sentinel indicators were developed to fit the demographic characteristics and health needs of the population. Consultation with key stakeholders confirmed that the evaluation framework was applicable. Data collected routinely by health services can be used to operationalise the proposed health service evaluation framework. Use of an evaluation framework which links policy and health service performance to health outcomes will assist health services to improve performance as part of a continuous quality improvement cycle. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. [Comprehensive evaluation of protective measures in electric welding].

    PubMed

    Ye, K; Zhao, Z

    1995-03-01

    Protective effects of safety masks, eyewear, work clothes, gloves, periodically physical examination system, and ventilation and barriers at workplace, were evaluated by one-way analysis for handtorch welding, carbon dioxide gas-protective welding, and argon-arc welding operations, etc. in township and village enterprises and state-owned enterprises by interviewing managers in the departments of technology and work safety and field investigating. Based on the results of one-way analysis of protective measures, comprehensive evaluations of various enterprises were made with a fussy mathematical model. Both enterprises in township and village level and of state-owned were graded as A on a basis of the evaluation, which will be helpful to the better management of occupational health in the future.

  7. Evaluation of Renal Histopathological Changes, as a Predictor of Recoverability of Renal Function Following Pyeloplasty for Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kaushal; Ahmad, Ahsan; Kumar, Shailendra; Choudhry, Vijyanand; Tiwari, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Mahendra; Muzaffar, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pyeloplasty is a widely accepted treatment for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). However, the renal function recoverability after pyeloplasty is still a matter of debate. Different parameters have been used to predict renal functional recoverability after corrective surgery, with conflicting results. Objectives: In this study, renal biopsy was carried on a series of cases of UPJO, during pyeloplasty, to study the extent of histological alterations in renal parenchyma, as a result of obstruction, and its predictive value in renal function recoverability after pyeloplasty. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the renal biopsy obtained during pyeloplasty in 53 adult patients. Histopathological changes were graded on a scale of 1 to 3, according to their severity, and compared with the differential renal function (DRF) revealed on the preoperative and postoperative follow up diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal scan. A Fischer’s t test was used to evaluate statistical differences between values. Results: This study showed a linear relationship between the severity of histological changes and renal function recovery, after pyeloplasty. Out of 24 obstructed renal units (ORU), with minimal histopathological changes (grade I), 21 ORU (87.5%), with > 35% DRF preoperatively, showed significant improvement in renal function after 12 months of pyeloplasty (P < 0.05). On the other hand, all kidneys (n = 29) with moderate to severe obstructive changes (grade II and III) had minimal improvement in DRF, after pyeloplasty, which was clinically insignificant (P > 0.05). Renal function deterioration after pyeloplasty was not observed in any of the cases. Conclusions: The severity of pathological changes in renal parenchyma, due to UPJO, is a good predictor of renal function recoverability, after pyeloplasty. The ORUs, with DRF > 35%, usually have normal (grade I) renal biopsy and might be expected to present better functional

  8. Comprehensive approach to the evaluation of groin pain.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Juan C; Ely, Erin E; Mutnal, Amar B; Figueroa, Nathania M; Klika, Alison K; Patel, Preetesh D; Barsoum, Wael K

    2013-09-01

    Groin pain is often related to hip pathology. As a result, groin pain is a clinical complaint encountered by orthopaedic surgeons. Approximately one in four persons will develop symptomatic hip arthritis before age 85 years. Groin injuries account for approximately 1 in 20 athletic injuries, and groin pain accounts for 1 in 10 patient visits to sports medicine centers. Many athletes with chronic groin pain have multiple coexisting pathologies spanning several disciplines. In treating these patients, the orthopaedic surgeon must consider both musculoskeletal groin disorders and nonorthopaedic conditions that can present as groin pain. A comprehensive history and physical examination can guide the evaluation of groin pain.

  9. Comprehensive cognitive and cerebral hemodynamic evaluation after cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Fernanda; Oliveira, Arthur Maynart; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Freire, Fabio Rios; Calado, Vanessa Tome; Amorim, Robson Luis; Neville, Iuri Santana; de Andrade, Almir Ferreira; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Anghinah, Renato; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2014-01-01

    Decompressive craniectomy is an established procedure to lower intracranial pressure and can save patients’ lives. However, this procedure is associated with delayed cognitive decline and cerebral hemodynamics complications. Studies show the benefits of cranioplasty beyond cosmetic aspects, including brain protection, and functional and cerebrovascular aspects, but a detailed description of the concrete changes following this procedure are lacking. In this paper, the authors report a patient with trephine syndrome who underwent cranioplasty; comprehensive cognitive and cerebral hemodynamic evaluations were performed prior to and following the cranioplasty. The discussion was based on a critical literature review. PMID:24833902

  10. Comprehensibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersson, Rune

    This paper addresses the difficulty involved in creating easily understood information. The act of communicating is not complete until the message has been both received and understood by the audience. Messages must always be comprehensible, otherwise they will have no effect. The readability, legibility, and reading value of a graphic message is…

  11. The research and application of earthquake disaster comprehensive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hongmei; Chen, Weifeng

    2017-04-01

    All disaster relief operations of the government after a destructive earthquake are dependent on earthquake disaster information, including command decision、rescue force deployment、dispatch of relief supplies etc. Earthquake disaster information is the most important requirements during earthquake emergency response and emergency disposal period. The macro disaster information, including distribution of disaster area 、personnel casualty scale etc,determines the disaster relief scale and response level. The specific disaster information determines the process and details of specific rescue operations. In view of the importance of earthquake disaster information, experts have been devoted to the study of seismic hazard assessment and acquisition, mainly from two aspects: improving the pre-assessment accuracy of the disaster and enriching the disaster information acquisition means. The problem is that the experts have carried out in-depth research from a certain aspect, they usually focus on optimizing pre-evaluation method、refining and updating basic data、 establishing new disaster information access channels, while ignoring the comprehensive use of various methods and means。 According to several devastating earthquake emergency disposal experience of sichuan province in recent years, this paper presents a new earthquake disaster comprehensive evaluation technology, in which Multi-disaster information source coordination, multi-faceted research field expert's complementarity coordination, rear and on-site coordination, multi-sectoral multi-regional coordination were taken into account. On this basis, Earthquake disaster comprehensive evaluation system with expert experience has been established. Based on the pre-assessment, the system can combine the background information of the disaster area such as seismic geological background and socioeconomic backgrounds, with disaster information from various sources to realize the fusion and mining of multi

  12. Nail histopathology.

    PubMed

    Martin, B

    2013-09-01

    The structure of the nail unit is complex and many dermatologists and dermatopathologists have an incomplete understanding of it. Familiarity with the anatomy and histology of this unit, however, is a key factor in improving the diagnostic yield of nail biopsy. Inflammatory or infectious conditions that affect the nail can have a marked impact on a patient's quality of life. A wide-ranging variety of tumors can also develop in this region and they may be life-threatening or require surgery that will result in functional defects. The author reviews the anatomy and histology of the nail unit as well as the basic histopathologic findings in the most common conditions affecting the nails.

  13. Comprehensive Evaluation and Implementation of Improvement Actions in Butcher Shops

    PubMed Central

    Leotta, Gerardo A.; Brusa, Victoria; Galli, Lucía; Adriani, Cristian; Linares, Luciano; Etcheverría, Analía; Sanz, Marcelo; Sucari, Adriana; Peral García, Pilar; Signorini, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens can cause acute and chronic diseases and produce a wide range of symptoms. Since the consumption of ground beef is a risk factor for infections with some bacterial pathogens, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of butcher shops, implemented improvement actions for both butcher shops and consumers, and verified the impact of those actions implemented. A comprehensive evaluation was made and risk was quantified on a 1–100 scale as high-risk (1–40), moderate-risk (41–70) or low-risk (71–100). A total of 172 raw ground beef and 672 environmental samples were collected from 86 butcher shops during the evaluation (2010–2011) and verification (2013) stages of the study. Ground beef samples were analyzed for mesophilic aerobic organisms, Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus enumeration. Salmonella spp., E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), and Listeria monocytogenes were detected and isolated from all samples. Risk quantification resulted in 43 (50.0%) high-risk, 34 (39.5%) moderate-risk, and nine (10.5%) low-risk butcher shops. Training sessions for 498 handlers and 4,506 consumers were held. Re-evaluation by risk quantification and microbiological analyses resulted in 19 (22.1%) high-risk, 42 (48.8%) moderate-risk and 25 (29.1%) low-risk butcher shops. The count of indicator microorganisms decreased with respect to the 2010–2011 period. After the implementation of improvement actions, the presence of L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and stx genes in ground beef decreased. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 10 (11.6%) ground beef samples, without detecting statistically significant differences between both study periods (evaluation and verification). The percentage of pathogens in environmental samples was reduced in the verification period (Salmonella spp., 1.5%; L. monocytogenes, 10.7%; E. coli O157:H7, 0.6%; non-O157 STEC, 6.8%). Risk quantification was useful to identify those

  14. Comprehensive Evaluation and Implementation of Improvement Actions in Butcher Shops.

    PubMed

    Leotta, Gerardo A; Brusa, Victoria; Galli, Lucía; Adriani, Cristian; Linares, Luciano; Etcheverría, Analía; Sanz, Marcelo; Sucari, Adriana; Peral García, Pilar; Signorini, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens can cause acute and chronic diseases and produce a wide range of symptoms. Since the consumption of ground beef is a risk factor for infections with some bacterial pathogens, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of butcher shops, implemented improvement actions for both butcher shops and consumers, and verified the impact of those actions implemented. A comprehensive evaluation was made and risk was quantified on a 1-100 scale as high-risk (1-40), moderate-risk (41-70) or low-risk (71-100). A total of 172 raw ground beef and 672 environmental samples were collected from 86 butcher shops during the evaluation (2010-2011) and verification (2013) stages of the study. Ground beef samples were analyzed for mesophilic aerobic organisms, Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus enumeration. Salmonella spp., E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), and Listeria monocytogenes were detected and isolated from all samples. Risk quantification resulted in 43 (50.0%) high-risk, 34 (39.5%) moderate-risk, and nine (10.5%) low-risk butcher shops. Training sessions for 498 handlers and 4,506 consumers were held. Re-evaluation by risk quantification and microbiological analyses resulted in 19 (22.1%) high-risk, 42 (48.8%) moderate-risk and 25 (29.1%) low-risk butcher shops. The count of indicator microorganisms decreased with respect to the 2010-2011 period. After the implementation of improvement actions, the presence of L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and stx genes in ground beef decreased. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 10 (11.6%) ground beef samples, without detecting statistically significant differences between both study periods (evaluation and verification). The percentage of pathogens in environmental samples was reduced in the verification period (Salmonella spp., 1.5%; L. monocytogenes, 10.7%; E. coli O157:H7, 0.6%; non-O157 STEC, 6.8%). Risk quantification was useful to identify those relevant facts

  15. Histopathologic evaluation of three ultraviolet-activated composite resins on monkey pulps.

    PubMed

    Heys; RJ Heys, D R; Fox, C F; Avery, J K

    1977-11-01

    The pulpal responses of three ultraviolet-activated composite resins, Nuva-Fil, Experimental UV No. 1 and Experimental UV No. 2, were tested on adult monkey teeth using silicate and zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) as positive and negative controls. All materials were placed in Class V cavity preparations in Rhesus monkey teeth using approximately 48 anterior and 63 posterior teeth of both the maxillary and mandibular arches. A total of 111 teeth were utilized and all materials were evaluated at 3 days, 5 and 8 weeks. Following left ventricular perfusion, the teeth were prepared for microscopic evaluation using routine histological procedures. The 3-day pulpal response of all the ultraviolet-activated composites was slight with some disruption and vacuolization in the odontoblastic layer and a slight inflammatory response. At 5 weeks there was a reduction of the inflammatory response and the formation of reparative dentin was noted for all ultraviolet composites. The 8-week pulp response was slight, characterized by a minimal inflammatory response adjacent to the zone of reparative dentin. Generally, ZOE produced the mildest response while silicate produced the most severe response at the three time intervals.

  16. Evaluation of the Cloze Procedure as a Teaching Device for Improving Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Billie Jean

    This study evaluated the effect of the cloze procedure in the development of comprehension, vocabulary, and speed of reading by comparing the scores on the Cooperative English Tests; Reading Comprehension of a group receiving cloze reading comprehension exercises, a group receiving conventional reading comprehension exercises, and a group…

  17. Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Meningiomas with Reference to Proliferative Markers p53 and Ki-67

    PubMed Central

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Rukmangadha, Nandyala; Patnayak, Rashmi; Phaneendra, Bobbidi Venkata; Prasad, Bodapati Chandra Mowliswara; Reddy, Mandyam Kumaraswamy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Meningiomas are slow growing primary central nervous system (CNS) tumours attached to the duramater, which arise from the meningothelial cells of the arachnoid. Grading of meningioma based on histological findings assisted with supplementary immunohistochemical studies, predicts the prognosis of meningioma with good precision. Aim To evaluate proliferative markers and correlate with various histological subtypes and grade. Materials and Methods A total of 224 meningiomas, diagnosed between January1995 and October 2011were graded according to WHO 2007 criteria. Immunostaining for p53 and Ki-67 markers were performed on 100 cases. Results There was female predominance. There were 194 Grade I, 24 Grade II and 6 Grade III meningiomas. Brain invasion noted in 18(8%) meningiomas predominantly in grade III followed by grade II. Recurrence was seen in 7 (3.1%) cases, most common in psammomatous followed by angiomatous meningioma. Immunostaining showed p53 positivity in 72.5% of grade I, 83.3% of grade II and all the cases of grade III tumours. Ki-67 Labelling Index (LI) consistently increased from grade I to grade III tumours. Conclusion p53 and Ki-67 LI correlated well with increasing histological grade and biological behaviour of meningioma. PMID:26894073

  18. Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Meningiomas with Reference to Proliferative Markers p53 and Ki-67.

    PubMed

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Rukmangadha, Nandyala; Patnayak, Rashmi; Phaneendra, Bobbidi Venkata; Prasad, Bodapati Chandra Mowliswara; Reddy, Mandyam Kumaraswamy

    2016-01-01

    Meningiomas are slow growing primary central nervous system (CNS) tumours attached to the duramater, which arise from the meningothelial cells of the arachnoid. Grading of meningioma based on histological findings assisted with supplementary immunohistochemical studies, predicts the prognosis of meningioma with good precision. To evaluate proliferative markers and correlate with various histological subtypes and grade. A total of 224 meningiomas, diagnosed between January1995 and October 2011were graded according to WHO 2007 criteria. Immunostaining for p53 and Ki-67 markers were performed on 100 cases. There was female predominance. There were 194 Grade I, 24 Grade II and 6 Grade III meningiomas. Brain invasion noted in 18(8%) meningiomas predominantly in grade III followed by grade II. Recurrence was seen in 7 (3.1%) cases, most common in psammomatous followed by angiomatous meningioma. Immunostaining showed p53 positivity in 72.5% of grade I, 83.3% of grade II and all the cases of grade III tumours. Ki-67 Labelling Index (LI) consistently increased from grade I to grade III tumours. p53 and Ki-67 LI correlated well with increasing histological grade and biological behaviour of meningioma.

  19. Histopathological evaluation of pulpotomy with Er,Cr:YSGG laser vs formocresol.

    PubMed

    Toomarian, Lida; Fekrazad, Reza; Sharifi, Davood; Baghaei, Mojdeh; Rahimi, Hessam; Eslami, Behnam

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to histologically investigate whether pulpotomy with Er,Cr:YSGG laser is an acceptable alternative for formocresol. Pulpotomy of 48 dog's primary canine teeth was performed with formocresol or Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Histological evaluations on hematoxylin and eosin-stained pulp tissues were made by an optical microscope 7 or 60 days later. Statistical analysis was performed with Fisher's exact test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Student's t test. Seven days after pulpotomy, samples treated with laser had significantly favorable histological features in the following measures: continuity of odontoblastic layer (P<0.001), presence of hemorrhage (P<0.008), amount of inflammation (P<0.002), tissue necrosis (P<0.001), internal resorption (P<0.002), level of vascularization (P<0.002), and size of abscess (P<0.041). Similar results were observed 60 days after pulpotomy, except that the differences were not mostly significant due to natural exfoliation of 16 teeth. In conclusion, Er,Cr:YSGG laser system is an acceptable alternative for formocresol in pulpotomy of deciduous teeth.

  20. Evaluation of endoscopic and histopathological features of serrated adenoma of the colon.

    PubMed

    Morita, T; Tamura, S; Miyazaki, J; Higashidani, Y; Onishi, S

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the clinical features of serrated colonic adenoma by investigating its endoscopic features using a magnifying videoscope. 68 colorectal serrated adenomas presented for colonoscopic examination were included in this study. A magnifying videoscope with a zoom ranging from x 1 to x 100 magnification was employed to observe the pit patterns of colonic lesions, and 39 of the serrated adenoma specimens were evaluated using this. Some pit patterns appeared as elongated oval and stellar-like orifices of the crypts; we termed these type which was detected III(SA) patterns. Other pit patterns showed a flower petal-like or pineal form, and this was termed a type IV(SA) pit pattern. In the entire sample of serrated adenomas, 53 were of the protruded type, and 15 were superficial, for a protruded/superficial ratio of 3.5 : 1. The protruded type of serrated adenoma predominated in the distal portion. The superficial type was preferentially located in the proximal portion of the colon (P < 0.0001). Among the 13 superficial types in which the magnifying videoscope was used, all 13 showed the type III(SA) basic pit pattern. In these serrated adenomas of the superficial type, an additional IV(SA) pit pattern was found in 23.1% (3/13), which was detected in 53.8% (14/26) in the protruded type. Small serrated adenomas measuring less than 10 mm in diameter were preferentially mild to moderate atypia (odd's ratio = 15.9, P = 0.0216). The pit pattern may prove useful for the endoscopic diagnosis of serrated adenoma. Furthermore, endoscopic treatment is indicated for serrated adenoma; in particular those of 10 mm or more in diameter should be treated because of the possibility of high-grade glandular intraepithelial neoplasia.

  1. Evaluation and correlation of mammographically suspicious lesions with histopathology at Addington Hospital, Durban.

    PubMed

    Cupido, B D; Vawda, F; Sabri, A; Sikwila, C T

    2013-03-04

    Stereotactic core-needle biopsies (SCNBs) are a reliable alternative to surgical biopsy for microcalcifications. The positive predictive value (PPV) of SCNB has been shown to be reproducible in several studies using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) classification, which is the current gold standard in mammographic reporting. At this stage, no study has been done in KwaZulu-Natal to assess local outcomes against BIRADS. The current standard of care utilises vacuum-assisted breast biopsy, but is not available in a resource-constrained environment such as ours. The need, therefore, is for constant evaluation of existing practice to ensure that it is optimised for the challenges and limitations facing local radiologists. To assess the PPV of SCNB in Addington Hospital, and to compare it with that of BIRADS. Material and methods. Mammographically detected lesions were assigned to 3 categories: benign, indeterminate and suspicious. A retrospective review of 67 SCNBs was performed for lesions falling within the suspicious category, and the PPV and rates of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were determined. Our study demonstrated a PPV of 20.9%. This correlated well with international studies for BIRADS 4 and 5 lesions. DCIS accounted for 21.4% of detected malignancies, which is in keeping with current literature. Despite resource limitations, local outcomes were comparable to those of BIRADS. Given our fairly general categorisation of lesions, however, it should be emphasised that BIRADS allows better organisation, consistency and clarity in breast imaging reporting, as well as accurate data comparison between centres facing limitations similar to our own.

  2. Evaluating for Success. Comprehensive School Reform: An Evaluation Guide for Districts and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchinelli, Louis F.; Barley, Zoe

    This guide is designed to help districts and schools, participating in the federally sponsored Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration Program, meet the evaluation requirements of the program as well as their own needs for useful evaluation information. Much of the information is applicable to any local jurisdiction engaged in school reform that…

  3. Chemotherapy response evaluation in a mouse model of gastric cancer using intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MRI and histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jin; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Chun-Fang; Wang, He; Wu, Wei-Zhen; Pan, Feng; Hong, Nan; Deng, Jie

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the role of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a bi-exponential model in chemotherapy response evaluation in a gastric cancer mouse model. METHODS Mice bearing MKN-45 human gastric adenocarcinoma xenografts were divided into four treated groups (TG1, 2, 3 and 4, n = 5 in each group) which received Fluorouracil and Calcium Folinate and a control group (CG, n = 7). DW-MRI scans with 14 b-values (0-1500 s/mm2) were performed before and after treatment on days 3, 7, 14 and 21. Fast diffusion component (presumably pseudo-perfusion) parameters including the fast diffusion coefficient (D*) and fraction volume (fp), slow diffusion coefficient (D) and the conventional apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were calculated by fitting the IVIM model to the measured DW signals. The median changes from the baseline to each post-treatment time point for each measurement (ΔADC, ΔD* and Δfp) were calculated. The differences in the median changes between the two groups were compared using the mixed linear regression model by the restricted maximum likelihood method shown as z values. Histopathological analyses including Ki-67, CD31, TUNEL and H&E were conducted in conjunction with the MRI scans. The median percentage changes were compared with the histopathological analyses between the pre- and post-treatment for each measurement. RESULTS Compared with the control group, D* in the treated group decreased significantly (ΔD*treated% = -30%, -34% and -20%, with z = -5.40, -4.18 and -1.95. P = 0.0001, 0.0001 and 0.0244) and fp increased significantly (Δfptreated% = 93%, 113% and 181%, with z = 4.63, 5.52, and 2.12, P = 0.001, 0.0001 and 0.0336) on day 3, 7 and 14, respectively. Increases in ADC in the treated group were higher than those in the control group on days 3 and 14 (z = 2.44 and 2.40, P = 0.0147 and P = 0.0164). CONCLUSION Fast diffusion measurements derived from the bi-exponential IVIM model

  4. Evaluation of standardized Bacopa monniera extract in sodium fluoride-induced behavioural, biochemical, and histopathological alterations in mice.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Bhaskar; Kumar, Ekambaram Prem; Kumar, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Effect of standardized Bacopa monniera (BM; family: Scrophulariaceae) extract (100 and 300 mg/kg) against sodium fluoride (NaF; 100 and 200 ppm)-induced behavioural, biochemical, and neuropathological alterations in mice was evaluated. Akinesia, rotarod (motor coordination), forced swim test (depression), open field test (anxiety), transfer latency (memory), cholinesterase (ChE), and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation) were determined in mice treated with NaF for 30 days alone and in combination with BM. NaF induced motor incoordination, depression, and memory impairment, and these were prevented by coadministration of BM in mice. However, NaF did not alter the weight gain, feed/water consumption, and anxiety profile. Suppression of ChE levels and increased oxidative stress were observed in mice treated with NaF. Coadministration of BM significantly improved the memory, ChE levels, and antioxidant enzymes but failed to alter the fluoride levels in NaF-treated mice. Histopathological studies revealed that BM protected the neuropathological alterations induced by NaF.

  5. Evaluation of genotoxicity and subclinical toxicity of Agaricus blazei Murrill in the Ames test and in histopathological and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jin-Biou; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Liao, Nien-Chieh; Lee, Ching-Sung; Yeh, Ming-Yang; Liu, Chi-Ming; Chung, Ming-Teng; Man-Kuan, Au; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Wu, Ming-Fang; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to assess the safety and tolerability of Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) in general toxicological studies by Ames tests in vitro and in 28-day feeding toxicity experiments. There were no dose-dependent increases or decreases in the number of revertant colonies both with and without metabolic activation in Ames tests. Doses of 10, 5 and 0.1 mg/per mouse of ABM daily were administered by oral gavage to mice (n=10) for 28 days. The effects on clinical observations, clinical pathology, and histopathology were evaluated. There were no significant changes in the brain, heart, kidney, liver, spleen, adrenal gland, testes or ovaries visually. With increasing doses, male and female treated mice did not show any gradual elevation of serum concentration in any of the nine items we examined, except for aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in females. The AST levels of the treatment by medium or high dose and the ALT levels of the treatment by high dose in females were abnormal in comparison to those of the baseline control group, with significant differences. On studying the histological changes in mice, tissue sections of negative control and experimental groups exhibited no apparent pathological alterations. In summary, the Ames test, pathology determinations, biochemical analysis and routine blood parameters were all normal, except for AST and ALT in females. Results showed that the statistical differences observed in one sex were not observed in the other and were not dose dependent.

  6. The Revisited Classification of GN in SLE at 10 Years: Time to Re-Evaluate Histopathologic Lesions.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmus, Suzanne; Alpers, Charles E; Cook, H Terence; Ferrario, Franco; Fogo, Agnes B; Haas, Mark; Joh, Kensuke; Noël, Laure-Hélène; Seshan, Surya V; Bruijn, Jan A; Bajema, Ingeborg M

    2015-12-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the latest revision of the histopathologic classification of lupus nephritis. This revision was a significant improvement compared with the previous version, mainly because of clearer and more concise definitions and the elimination of mixed subclasses. Despite these improvements, there are still some difficulties in the classification for lupus nephritis, many of which are in the definitions provided. In this review, we focus on the difficulties surrounding the evaluation of classes III and IV lesions, particularly the definitions of endocapillary and extracapillary proliferation, the use of the terms endocapillary proliferation and hypercellularity, the clinical relevance of segmental and global subdivision in class IV, and the value of distinguishing lesions that indicate activity and chronicity. Vascular and tubulointerstitial lesions are also discussed. Furthermore, we give an overview of the history of the classification to provide background on the origin and development of the definitions in lupus nephritis. The issues raised in this review as well as the suggestions for improvements may assist with a revision of the lupus nephritis classification in the near future.

  7. Evaluation of liver histopathology and EROD activity in St. Lawrence lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in comparison with a reference population

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseaux, C.G. ||; Branchaud, A.; Spear, P.A.

    1995-05-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the effects of contaminants on the lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, fish were netted from two sites: Riviere des Prairies, confluent with the St. Lawrence River near Montreal, and a reference site on the upper reaches of the Ottawa River in the La Verendrye Park. Livers of fish collected from the Riviere des Prairies were difficult to homogenize, and they left behind strands of what appeared to be connective tissue. Suspecting hepatic fibrosis, the authors decided to evaluate the livers for histopathologic changes. Nineteen adult lake sturgeon (eleven male and eight female) were examined. Following fixation, routine processing, sectioning, and staining with hematoxylin and eosin, microscopic evaluation revealed the following: Sections taken from livers of fish from the Riviere des Prairies site showed excessive fat accumulation and often severe chronic-active cholangiohepatitis. Bile duct proliferation (p < 0.0001), periportal fibrosis (p < 0.0001), inflammation (p < 0.001), and fat accumulation (p < 0.05) were more pronounced in the fish from the Riviere des Prairies site. Melano-macrophage centers appeared to be both paler and gave the appearance of fewer numbers (p < 0.01). Livers from lake sturgeon taken from the reference site had a more normal appearance. The EROD levels were also significantly induced in these fish (reference 3.39 {+-} 0.57; Riviere des Prairies site 8.21 {+-} 0.87 pmol/mg protein/min; p < 0.0005). The EROD levels positively correlated with bile duct proliferation (r{sup 2} = 0.44; p = 0.001) and periportal fibrosis (r{sup 2} = 0.41; p = 0.002). Despite the statistical associations above, the authors cannot categorically state that contaminants are the sole cause of the lesions seen.

  8. Metabolic networks are almost nonfractal: a comprehensive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-08-01

    Network self-similarity or fractality are widely accepted as an important topological property of metabolic networks; however, recent studies cast doubt on the reality of self-similarity in the networks. Therefore, we perform a comprehensive evaluation of metabolic network fractality using a box-covering method with an earlier version and the latest version of metabolic networks and demonstrate that the latest metabolic networks are almost self-dissimilar, while the earlier ones are fractal, as reported in a number of previous studies. This result may be because the networks were randomized because of an increase in network density due to database updates, suggesting that the previously observed network fractality was due to a lack of available data on metabolic reactions. This finding may not entirely discount the importance of self-similarity of metabolic networks. Rather, it highlights the need for a more suitable definition of network fractality and a more careful examination of self-similarity of metabolic networks.

  9. A comprehensive evaluation of motion sensor step-counting error.

    PubMed

    Abel, Mark G; Peritore, Nicole; Shapiro, Robert; Mullineaux, David R; Rodriguez, Kelly; Hannon, James C

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the effect that walking speed, gender, leg length, motion sensor tilt angle, brand, and placement have on motion sensor step-counting error. Fifty-nine participants performed treadmill walking trials at 6 speeds while wearing 5 motion sensor brands placed on the anterior (Digiwalker, DW; Walk4Life, WFL; New Lifestyles, NL; Omron, OM), midaxillary (DW; WFL; NL; ActiGraph, AG), and posterior (DW, WFL, NL) aspects of the waistline. The anterior-placed NL and midaxillary-placed AG were the most accurate motion sensors. Motion sensor step-count error tended to decrease at faster walking speeds, with lesser tilt angles, and with an anterior waistline placement. Gender and leg length had no effect on motion sensor step-count error. We conclude that the NL and AG yielded the most accurate step counts at a range of walking speeds in individuals with different physical characteristics.

  10. Metabolic networks are almost nonfractal: A comprehensive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-08-01

    Network self-similarity or fractality are widely accepted as an important topological property of metabolic networks; however, recent studies cast doubt on the reality of self-similarity in the networks. Therefore, we perform a comprehensive evaluation of metabolic network fractality using a box-covering method with an earlier version and the latest version of metabolic networks and demonstrate that the latest metabolic networks are almost self-dissimilar, while the earlier ones are fractal, as reported in a number of previous studies. This result may be because the networks were randomized because of an increase in network density due to database updates, suggesting that the previously observed network fractality was due to a lack of available data on metabolic reactions. This finding may not entirely discount the importance of self-similarity of metabolic networks. Rather, it highlights the need for a more suitable definition of network fractality and a more careful examination of self-similarity of metabolic networks.

  11. Comparison of PET/CT and whole-mount histopathology sections of the human prostate: a new strategy for voxel-wise evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schiller, F; Fechter, T; Zamboglou, C; Chirindel, A; Salman, N; Jilg, C A; Drendel, V; Werner, M; Meyer, P T; Grosu, A-L; Mix, M

    2017-08-17

    Implementation of PET/CT in diagnosis of primary prostate cancer (PCa) requires a profound knowledge about the tracer, preferably from a quantitative evaluation. Direct visual comparison of PET/CT slices to whole prostate sections is hampered by considerable uncertainties from imperfect coregistration and fundamentally different image modalities. In the current study, we present a novel method for advanced voxel-wise comparison of histopathology from excised prostates to pre-surgical PET. Resected prostates from eight patients who underwent PSMA-PET/CT were scanned (ex vivo CT) and thoroughly pathologically prepared. In vivo and ex vivo CT including histopathology were coregistered with three different methods (manual, semi-/automatic). Spatial overlap after CT-based registration was evaluated with dice similarity (DSC). Furthermore, we constructed 3D cancer distribution models from histopathologic information in various slices. Subsequent smoothing reflected the intrinsically limited spatial resolution of PSMA-PET. The resulting histoPET models were used for quantitative analysis of spatial histopathology-PET pattern agreement focusing on p values and coefficients of determination (R (2)). We examined additional rigid mutual information (MI) coregistration directly based on PSMA-PET and histoPET. Mean DSC for the three different methods (ManReg, ScalFactReg, and DefReg) were 0.79 ± 0.06, 0.82 ± 0.04, and 0.90 ± 0.02, respectively, while quantification of PET-histopathology pattern agreement after CT-based registration revealed R (2) 45.7, 43.2, and 41.3% on average with p < 10(-5). Subsequent PET-based MI coregistration yielded R (2) 61.3, 55.9, and 55.6%, respectively, while implying anatomically plausible transformations. Creating 3D histoPET models based on thorough histopathological preparation allowed sophisticated quantitative analyses showing highly significant correlations between histopathology and (PSMA-)PET. We recommend manual CT

  12. Evaluating the effects of cognitive support on psychiatric clinical comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Dalai, Venkata V.; Khalid, Sana; Gottipati, Dinesh; Kannampallil, Thomas; John, Vineeth; Blatter, Brett; Patel, Vimla L.; Cohen, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Objective Clinicians’ attention is a precious resource, which in the current healthcare practice is consumed by the cognitive demands arising from complex patient conditions, information overload, time pressure, and the need to aggregate and synthesize information from disparate sources. The ability to organize information in ways that facilitate the generation of effective diagnostic solutions is a distinguishing characteristic of expert physicians, suggesting that automated systems that organize clinical information in a similar manner may augment physicians’ decision-making capabilities. In this paper, we describe the design and evaluation of a theoretically driven cognitive support system (CSS) that assists psychiatrists in their interpretation of clinical cases. The system highlights, and provides the means to navigate to, text that is organized in accordance with a set of diagnostically and therapeutically meaningful higher-level concepts. Methods and Materials To evaluate the interface, 16 psychiatry residents interpreted two clinical case scenarios, with and without the CSS. Think-aloud protocols captured during their interpretation of the cases were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively. In addition, the frequency and relative position of content related to key higher-level concepts in a verbal summary of the case were evaluated. In addition the transcripts from both groups were compared to an expert derived reference standard using latent semantic analysis (LSA). Results Qualitative analysis showed that users of the system better attended to specific clinically important aspects of both cases when these were highlighted by the system, and revealed ways in which the system mediates hypotheses generation and evaluation. Analysis of the summary data showed differences in emphasis with and without the system. The LSA analysis suggested users of the system were more “expert-like” in their emphasis, and that cognitive support was more effective in the

  13. Multi-order analysis framework for comprehensive biometric performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodnichy, Dmitry O.

    2010-04-01

    It is not uncommon for contemporary biometric systems to have more than one match below the matching threshold, or to have two or more matches having close matching scores. This is especially true for those that store large quantities of identities and/or are applied to measure loosely constrained biometric traits, such as in identification from video or at a distance. Current biometric performance evaluation standards however are still largely based on measuring single-score statistics such as False Match, False Non-Match rates and the trade-off curves based thereon. Such methodology and reporting makes it impossible to investigate the risks and risk mitigation strategies associated with not having a unique identifying score. To address the issue, Canada Border Services Agency has developed a novel modality-agnostic multi-order performance analysis framework. The framework allows one to analyze the system performance at several levels of detail, by defining the traditional single-score-based metrics as Order-1 analysis, and introducing Order- 2 and Order-3 analysis to permit the investigation of the system reliability and the confidence of its recognition decisions. Implemented in a toolkit called C-BET (Comprehensive Biometrics Evaluation Toolkit), the framework has been applied in a recent examination of the state-of-the art iris recognition systems, the results of which are presented, and is now recommended to other agencies interested in testing and tuning the biometric systems.

  14. Evaluation of use of reading comprehension strategies to improve reading comprehension of adult college students with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres.

  15. Experimental endometriosis remission in rats treated with Achillea biebersteinii Afan.: histopathological evaluation and determination of cytokine levels.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Murside Ayse; Suntar, Ipek; Ilhan, Mert; Keles, Hikmet; Kupeli Akkol, Esra

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the beneficial effects of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. in the treatment of endometriosis in order to find scientific evidence for the folkloric use of this plant. Experimental endometriosis was induced in six-week-old female, nonpregnant, Sprague Dawley rats by suturing a 15mm piece of endometrium from uterine cornu into abdominal wall. After twenty-eight days, a second laparotomy was performed: the endometrial foci areas were measured and intra-abdominal adhesions were scored, and the abdomen was closed. Different groups then received n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and methanol (MeOH) extracts prepared from the aerial parts of A. biebersteinii, and a control group received inert material, administered per os once a day throughout the experiment. At the end of the treatment procedure all rats were sacrified and endometriotic foci areas and intra-abdominal adhesions were again evaluated and compared with the previous findings. The tissues were also histopathologically investigated. Moreover, peritoneal fluid was collected to detect tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Dunnett's test was used to determine the significance of differences between groups. In order to compare two groups Student's t test was used. Post-treatment volumes of endometrial foci were found to be significantly decreased, and no adhesion was detected, in the EtOAc extract treated group. The levels of TNF-α, VEGF and IL-6 also fell after the treatment with EtOAc extract. The therapeutic effect of the EtOAc extract of A. biebersteinii could be attributed to the flavonoid aglycones found in the extract. The EtOAc extract of A. biebersteinii appears to be a promising alternative for the treatment of endometriosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychometric Evaluation of the Comprehensive Early Evaluation and Programming System (CEEPS). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Diane; Bailey, Earletta

    The study examined psychometric properties of the Comprehensive Early Evaluation and Programming System (CEEPS), a criterion-referenced instrument designed for handicapped children birth to 3 years old. The instrument was intended to provide specific information to develop program objectives across a range of developmental areas and to assess…

  17. A comparative study of volumetric analysis, histopathologic downstaging, and tumor regression grade in evaluating tumor response in locally advanced rectal cancer following preoperative chemoradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nam Kyu . E-mail: namkyuk@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Min, Byung Soh; Pyo, Hong Ryull; Choi, Yun Jung; Kim, Hogeun; Seong, Jinsil; Keum, Ki Chang; Rha, Sun Young; Chung, Hyun Cheol

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare tumor volume reduction rate, histopathologic downstaging, and tumor regression grade (TRG) among tumor responses in rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Patients and Methods: Between 2002 and 2004, 30 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer underwent preoperative CRT, followed by surgical resection. Magnetic resonance volumetry was performed before and after CRT. Histopathologic tumor staging and tumor regression were reviewed. We compared pre- and post-CRT tumor volume and percent of volume reduction, according to histopathologic downstaging and TRG. Results: The tumor volume reduction rates ranged from 14.6% to 100%. Mean pre- and post-CRT tumor volumes were significantly smaller in patients who showed T downstaging than in those who did not (p 0.040, 0.014). The mean tumor volume reduction was 66.4% vs. 55.2% (p 0.361). However, the mean pre- and post-CRT tumor volume and mean tumor volume reduction rate between patients who showed N downstaging and those who did not were not statistically different (p = 0.176, 0.767, and 0.899). With respect to TRG, the mean pre- and post-CRT tumor volumes were not statistically significant (p = 0.108, 0.708, and 0.120). Conclusion: Tumor volume reduction rate does not correlate with histopathologic downstaging and TRG. It might be hazardous to evaluate tumor response with respect to volume reduction and to select the surgical method on this basis.

  18. Vitiligo: a comprehensive overview Part I. Introduction, epidemiology, quality of life, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, associations, histopathology, etiology, and work-up.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Ali; Felsten, Lesley M; Daly, Meaghan; Petronic-Rosic, Vesna

    2011-09-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder of unknown etiology that is clinically characterized by the development of white macules related to the selective loss of melanocytes. The prevalence of the disease is around 1% in the United States and in Europe, but ranges from less than 0.1% to greater than 8% worldwide. A recorded predominance of women may reflect their greater willingness to express concern about cosmetically relevant issues. Half of all patients develop the disease before 20 years of age. Onset at an advanced age occurs but is unusual, and should raise concerns about associated diseases, such as thyroid dysfunction, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and alopecia areata. Generalized vitiligo is the most common clinical presentation and often involves the face and acral regions. The course of the disease is unpredictable and the response to treatment varies. Depigmentation may be the source of severe psychological distress, diminished quality of life, and increased risk of psychiatric morbidity. Part I of this two-part series describes the clinical presentation, histopathologic findings, and various hypotheses for the pathogenesis of vitiligo based on past and current research.

  19. Classification and Quality Evaluation of Tobacco Leaves Based on Image Processing and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xinhong

    2011-01-01

    Most of classification, quality evaluation or grading of the flue-cured tobacco leaves are manually operated, which relies on the judgmental experience of experts, and inevitably limited by personal, physical and environmental factors. The classification and the quality evaluation are therefore subjective and experientially based. In this paper, an automatic classification method of tobacco leaves based on the digital image processing and the fuzzy sets theory is presented. A grading system based on image processing techniques was developed for automatically inspecting and grading flue-cured tobacco leaves. This system uses machine vision for the extraction and analysis of color, size, shape and surface texture. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation provides a high level of confidence in decision making based on the fuzzy logic. The neural network is used to estimate and forecast the membership function of the features of tobacco leaves in the fuzzy sets. The experimental results of the two-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) show that the accuracy rate of classification is about 94% for the trained tobacco leaves, and the accuracy rate of the non-trained tobacco leaves is about 72%. We believe that the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is a viable way for the automatic classification and quality evaluation of the tobacco leaves. PMID:22163744

  20. Classification and quality evaluation of tobacco leaves based on image processing and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xinhong

    2011-01-01

    Most of classification, quality evaluation or grading of the flue-cured tobacco leaves are manually operated, which relies on the judgmental experience of experts, and inevitably limited by personal, physical and environmental factors. The classification and the quality evaluation are therefore subjective and experientially based. In this paper, an automatic classification method of tobacco leaves based on the digital image processing and the fuzzy sets theory is presented. A grading system based on image processing techniques was developed for automatically inspecting and grading flue-cured tobacco leaves. This system uses machine vision for the extraction and analysis of color, size, shape and surface texture. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation provides a high level of confidence in decision making based on the fuzzy logic. The neural network is used to estimate and forecast the membership function of the features of tobacco leaves in the fuzzy sets. The experimental results of the two-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) show that the accuracy rate of classification is about 94% for the trained tobacco leaves, and the accuracy rate of the non-trained tobacco leaves is about 72%. We believe that the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is a viable way for the automatic classification and quality evaluation of the tobacco leaves.

  1. Comprehensive computerized medical imaging: interim hypothetical economic evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, Rebecca N.; Fisher, Paul D.; Nosil, Josip

    1990-08-01

    The 422-bed Victoria General Hospital (VGH) and Siemens Electric Limited have since 1983 been piloting the implementation of comprehensive computerized medical imaging, including digital acquisition of diagnostic images, in British Columbia. Although full PACS is not yet in place at VGH, experience to date habeen used to project annual cost figures (including capital replacement) for a fully-computerized department. The resulting economic evaluation has been labelled hypothetical to emphasize that some key cost components were estimated rather than observed; this paper presents updated cost figures based on recent revisions to proposed departmental equipment configuration which raised the cost of conventional imaging equipment by 0.3 million* and lowered the cost of computerized imaging equipment by 0.8 million. Compared with conventional diagnostic imaging, computerized imaging appears to raise overall annual costs at VGH by nearly 0.7 million, or 11.6%; this is more favourable than the previous results, which indicated extra annual costs of 1 million (16.9%). Sensitivity analysis still indicates that all reasonable changes in the underlying assumptions result in higher costs for computerized imaging than for conventional imaging. Computerized imaging offers lower radiation exposure to patients, shorter waiting times, and other potential advantages, but as yet the price of obtaining these benefits remains substantial.

  2. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Disease Phenotype Networks for Gene Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianhua; Lin, Xiaoyan; Teng, Yueyang; Qi, Shouliang; Xiao, Dayu; Zhang, Jianying; Kang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Identification of disease-causing genes is a fundamental challenge for human health studies. The phenotypic similarity among diseases may reflect the interactions at the molecular level, and phenotype comparison can be used to predict disease candidate genes. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a database of human genetic diseases and related genes that has become an authoritative source of disease phenotypes. However, disease phenotypes have been described by free text; thus, standardization of phenotypic descriptions is needed before diseases can be compared. Several disease phenotype networks have been established in OMIM using different standardization methods. Two of these networks are important for phenotypic similarity analysis: the first and most commonly used network (mimMiner) is standardized by medical subject heading, and the other network (resnikHPO) is the first to be standardized by human phenotype ontology. This paper comprehensively evaluates for the first time the accuracy of these two networks in gene prioritization based on protein–protein interactions using large-scale, leave-one-out cross-validation experiments. The results show that both networks can effectively prioritize disease-causing genes, and the approach that relates two diseases using a logistic function improves prioritization performance. Tanimoto, one of four methods for normalizing resnikHPO, generates a symmetric network and it performs similarly to mimMiner. Furthermore, an integration of these two networks outperforms either network alone in gene prioritization, indicating that these two disease networks are complementary. PMID:27415759

  3. An Evaluation of a Testing Model for Listening Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangli, Ji

    A model for testing listening comprehension in English as a Second Language is discussed and compared with the Test for English Majors (TEM). The model in question incorporates listening for: (1) understanding factual information; (2) comprehension and interpretation; (3) detailed and selective information; (4) global ideas; (5) on-line tasks…

  4. Investigate and Evaluate Online Resources of Reading Comprehension Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Xin

    2009-01-01

    If the purpose of language learning is communication, then improving students' reading comprehension competence becomes an overall goal in language teaching. This paper examines the online resources of reading comprehension tests with non-English major college students, and tackles the problem with the teaching method of integrating web-based…

  5. Comprehensive Diagnostic Battery for Evaluating Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jerry W.; Chowdhury, Naweed; Mody, Avni; Tonini, Ross; Emery, Claudia; Haymond, Jody; Oghalai, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Selection of diagnostic tests for children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is influenced by clinical suspicion. Testing results reported in the literature are similarly biased. We evaluate the usefulness of a comprehensive diagnostic battery for each child. Study Design Retrospective review. Setting Tertiary care university hospital. Patients A total of 270 children referred for severe to profound SNHL between January 2002 and June 2009. Interventions Results of the following were reviewed: magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, renal ultrasound, electrocardiography, fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test, connexin 26 sequencing, genetic consultation, and ophthalmologic consultation. Main Outcome Measure Diagnostic yield of each test was determined. Results Each diagnostic test or consultation was completed by at least 95% of patients for whom it was ordered. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities explaining SNHL in 24% of patients. Computed tomography showed inner ear anomalies in 18% of patients. Biallelic connexin 26 mutations were found in 15%. Renal ultrasound found anomalies in 4% of patients. Electrocardiography found 1% of patients with prolonged QT intervals. Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test result was positive in 0.5%. Genetic consultation found a genetic cause for hearing loss in 25%. Ophthalmologic consultation found abnormalities associated with hearing loss in 8%. Conclusion Diagnostic radiologic imaging is the highest yielding test for evaluating children with SNHL. Connexin 26 sequencing identifies a nearly nonoverlapping subset of children compared with imaging. Specialty consultations, particularly from a clinical geneticist, can improve diagnostic yield. Other tests, although of lower diagnostic yield for SNHL, can identify important diseases that significantly affect patient health. PMID:21131880

  6. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task: Comprehension Predicts Production

    PubMed Central

    Friend, Margaret; Schmitt, Sara A.; Simpson, Adrianne M.

    2017-01-01

    Until recently, the challenges inherent in measuring comprehension have impeded our ability to predict the course of language acquisition. The present research reports on a longitudinal assessment of the convergent and predictive validity of the CDI: Words and Gestures and the Computerized Comprehension Task (CCT). The CDI: WG and the CCT evinced good convergent validity however the CCT better predicted subsequent parent reports of language production. Language sample data in the third year confirm this finding: the CCT accounted for 24% of the variance in unique word use. These studies provide evidence for the utility of a behavior-based approach to predicting the course of language acquisition into production. PMID:21928878

  7. Evaluation of the persistence, integration, histopathology and environmental release of DNA vaccine encoding Eimeria tenella TA4 and chicken IL-2.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaokai; Zhang, Zeyang; Liu, Chang; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Li, Xiangrui

    2016-10-15

    In a previous study, the construction of the Eimeria tenella DNA vaccine pVAX1.0-TA4-IL-2 which provides effective protection against coccidiosis was described and the immunization procedure was optimized. However, the persistence, integration, histopathology and environmental release of the DNA vaccine remain unknown. In this study, the persistence, integration and histopathology of the DNA vaccine pVAX1.0-TA4-IL-2 was evaluated in chickens in the following immunization studies: (1) single-dose immunization in one-day-old chickens; (2) repeat-dose immunization in chickens; and (3) single-high-dose immunization of three batches of plasmid in chickens. The persistence, integration, histopathology of the DNA vaccine was also evaluated in mice. At 1, 1.5, 2-4 months post immunization, blood, duodenum, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and the immunized muscle tissue were collected from ten animals of each group. Persistence and integration were evaluated using PCR with a confirmed sensitivity of 30 plasmid copies. Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections were examined for the presence of inflammation or abnormalities that may result from vaccination. Water and fecal samples were also collected from the chicken enclosures to evaluate the potential for environmental release of the DNA vaccine. Testing various tissues by PCR confirmed that plasmid DNA persisted 1.5 months in blood, heart, liver and spleen, 2 months in kidneys and muscle of injected site. Furthermore, the vaccine did not integrate with the host genome. The histopathological examinations did not show obvious inflammation or pathological damage in any tissue of the immunized chickens. Similar results were observed in mice. Moreover, the DNA vaccine was not released into the surrounding environment. These results indicate that the DNA vaccine pVAX1.0-TA4-IL-2 has potential as safe vaccine against coccidiosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers. Interim Report. NCEE 2010-4033

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Brenda J.; White, Richard N.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Riley, Derek; Sipe, Cynthia L.; Pistorino, Carol

    2010-01-01

    This first of two reports presents early findings from the National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers (Comprehensive Centers), a federally funded program that provides technical assistance to states in connection with the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. The law authorizing the Comprehensive Centers, the…

  9. Metabolic, pathologic, and genetic analysis of prostate tissues: quantitative evaluation of histopathologic and mRNA integrity after HR-MAS spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carissa F; Kurhanewicz, John; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Simko, Jeffry P; Keshari, Kayvan R; Gbegnon, Akpene; Santos, Romelyn Delos; Federman, Scot; Shinohara, Katsuto; Carroll, Peter R; Haqq, Christopher M; Swanson, Mark G

    2010-05-01

    The impact of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) spectroscopy on the histopathologic and mRNA integrity of human prostate tissues was evaluated. Forty prostate tissues were harvested at transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy (n = 20) or radical prostatectomy surgery (n = 20), snap-frozen on dry ice, and stored at -80°C until use. Twenty-one samples (n = 11 biopsy, n = 10 surgical) underwent HR-MAS spectroscopy prior to histopathologic and cDNA microarray analysis, while 19 control samples (n = 9 biopsy, n = 10 surgical) underwent only histopathologic and microarray analysis. Frozen tissues were sectioned at 14-µm intervals and placed on individual histopathology slides. Every 8th slide was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and used to target areas of predominantly epithelial tissue on the remaining slides for mRNA integrity and cDNA microarray analysis. Histopathologic integrity was graded from 1 (best) to 5 (worst) by two 'blinded' pathologists. Histopathologic integrity scores were not significantly different for post-surgical tissues (HR-MAS vs controls); however, one pathologist's scores were significantly lower for biopsy tissues following HR-MAS while the other pathologist's scores were not. mRNA integrity assays were performed using an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer and the electrophoretic traces were scored with an RNA integrity number (RIN) from 1 (degraded) to 10 (intact). RIN scores were not significantly different for surgical tissues, but were significantly lower for biopsy tissues following HR-MAS spectroscopy. The isolated mRNA then underwent two rounds of amplification, conversion to cDNA, coupling to Cy3 and Cy5 dyes, microarray hybridization, imaging, and analysis. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) identified no significantly over- or under-expressed genes, including 14 housekeeping genes, between HR-MAS and control samples of surgical and biopsy tissues (5% false discovery rate). This study

  10. Metabolic, pathologic, and genetic analysis of prostate tissues: quantitative evaluation of histopathologic and mRNA integrity after HR-MAS spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carissa F.; Kurhanewicz, John; Tabatabai, Z. Laura; Simko, Jeffry P.; Keshari, Kayvan R.; Gbegnon, Akpene; Santos, Romelyn DeLos; Federman, Scot; Shinohara, Katsuto; Carroll, Peter R.; Haqq, Christopher M.; Swanson, Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) spectroscopy on the histopathologic and mRNA integrity of human prostate tissues was evaluated. Forty prostate tissues were harvested at transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy (n =20) or radical prostatectomy surgery (n =20), snap-frozen on dry ice, and stored at −80°C until use. Twenty-one samples (n =11 biopsy, n =10 surgical) underwent HR-MAS spectroscopy prior to histopathologic and cDNA microarray analysis, while 19 control samples (n =9 biopsy, n =10 surgical) underwent only histopathologic and microarray analysis. Frozen tissues were sectioned at 14-μm intervals and placed on individual histopathology slides. Every 8th slide was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and used to target areas of predominantly epithelial tissue on the remaining slides for mRNA integrity and cDNA microarray analysis. Histopathologic integrity was graded from 1 (best) to 5 (worst) by two ‘blinded’ pathologists. Histopathologic integrity scores were not significantly different for post-surgical tissues (HR-MAS vs controls); however, one pathologist’s scores were significantly lower for biopsy tissues following HR-MAS while the other pathologist’s scores were not. mRNA integrity assays were performed using an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer and the electrophoretic traces were scored with an RNA integrity number (RIN) from 1 (degraded) to 10 (intact). RIN scores were not significantly different for surgical tissues, but were significantly lower for biopsy tissues following HR-MAS spectroscopy. The isolated mRNA then underwent two rounds of amplification, conversion to cDNA, coupling to Cy3 and Cy5 dyes, microarray hybridization, imaging, and analysis. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) identified no significantly over- or under-expressed genes, including 14 housekeeping genes, between HR-MAS and control samples of surgical and biopsy tissues (5% false discovery rate). This study demonstrates that

  11. Perception of School Teachers with Reference to Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manichander, T.; Brindhamani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation refers to a system of school-based evaluation of students that covers all aspects of students' development. The main purpose of this study was to find out teachers' perception about the scheme of continuous and comprehensive evaluation and the problems they faced while its execution in the school system. The…

  12. Clinico-pathological study to evaluate oral lichen planus for the establishment of clinical and histopathological diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Santhosh; Kale, Alka D; Hallikerimath, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus and lichenoid lesions affecting the oral cavity show similar clinico-pathological features creating a diagnostic dilemma. Hence, the aim of the present study was to establish a clinical and histopathological correlation in the diagnosis of oral lichen planus, based on the modified WHO diagnostic criteria of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions proposed by Van der Meij and Van der Waal in 2003. In the present study, 100 cases of oral lichen planus were clinically and histopathologically analyzed. Out of the 100 cases, 50 were prospective and 50 were retrospective cases. Prospective cases were collected based on the clinical diagnosis of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesion. Retrospective cases were collected based on the histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus. Both the clinical and histopathological analyses were performed based on a proposal for a set of modified diagnostic criteria of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesion. A final diagnosis of oral lichen planus was made only after the correlation of the clinical diagnosis with the histopathological diagnosis. The interobserver agreement among three observers for both prospective and retrospective cases in the final diagnosis of oral lichen planus was found to be "good" to "very good" indicating high reproducibility. However, the final diagnoses of true oral lichen planus after clinico-pathological correlation in prospective and retrospective study groups appeared to be 38.0% and 54.0% respectively. The results of the present study revealed mild to moderate clinico-pathological correlation in the final diagnosis of oral lichen planus for the prospective and retrospective study groups respectively.

  13. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task: Comprehension Predicts Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Margaret; Schmitt, Sara A.; Simpson, Adrianne M.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the challenges inherent in measuring comprehension have impeded our ability to predict the course of language acquisition. The present research reports on a longitudinal assessment of the convergent and predictive validity of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories: Words and Gestures (CDI: WG; Fenson et al.,…

  14. Histopathological morphometric evaluation of 2 different hydroxyapatite-bone derivatives in sinus augmentation procedures: a comparative study in humans.

    PubMed

    Artzi, Z; Nemcovsky, C E; Tal, H; Dayan, D

    2001-07-01

    Xenografts to augment the maxillary sinus have been used extensively. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, qualitatively and quantitatively, two different HA derivatives of natural and synthetic sources on newly formed bone in the augmented sinus. A bilateral sinus augmentation procedure with simultaneous (16 out of 20 sites) or subsequent implant placement was performed in 10 patients. The antrum was randomly filled with a deproteinized, bovine hydroxyapatite mineral (B-HA) on one side and a non-ceramic resorbable hydroxyapatite (NC-HA) on the other. Cylindrical specimens were harvested from the augmented core at 12 months. Decalcified specimens were sectioned at a cross-horizontal plane and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic and histomorphometric examinations. Tissue area fractions of bone, marrow, and the grafted particles were calculated for each specimen from the lateral to the deep region, and changes in values were compared within each material and between them. New bone formation was evident. B-HA and NC-HA particles were observed in all specimens surrounded by newly formed bone in direct connection or by soft tissue marrow. Morphometrically in the B-HA sites, from the lateral to deeper area, bone area fraction increased from 29.8% to 54.2% (average 42.1%) and marrow area fraction decreased from 37.9% to 26.7% (average 33.3%). The mineral area fraction decreased from 32.3% to 19.1% (average 24.7%). All increasing/decreasing patterns were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In the NC-HA sites, from the lateral to deeper area, bone area fraction increased from 25% to 36.5% (average 32.3%) and marrow area fraction decreased from 51.6% to 41.9% (average 43.2%) (P <0.001). The mineral area fraction decreased from 29% to 21.7% (average 24.6%) (P = 0.038). Comparison between the two HA derivative groups showed a significant difference between the bone area fraction averages (P = 0.0053) and between the increasing patterns along the

  15. Grey Comprehensive Evaluation of Biomass Power Generation Project Based on Group Judgement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Huicong; Niu, Dongxiao

    2017-06-01

    The comprehensive evaluation of benefit is an important task needed to be carried out at all stages of biomass power generation projects. This paper proposed an improved grey comprehensive evaluation method based on triangle whiten function. To improve the objectivity of weight calculation result of only reference comparison judgment method, this paper introduced group judgment to the weighting process. In the process of grey comprehensive evaluation, this paper invited a number of experts to estimate the benefit level of projects, and optimized the basic estimations based on the minimum variance principle to improve the accuracy of evaluation result. Taking a biomass power generation project as an example, the grey comprehensive evaluation result showed that the benefit level of this project was good. This example demonstrates the feasibility of grey comprehensive evaluation method based on group judgment for benefit evaluation of biomass power generation project.

  16. Evaluation of alveolar epithelial cells in the sheep model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia: Type 1 alveolar epithelial cells and histopathological image analysis.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Juma; Kawaguchi, Kohei; Koike, Junki; Tanaka, Kunihide; Seki, Yasuji; Nagae, Hideki; Manabe, Shutaro; Ohyama, Kei; Takagi, Masayuki; Kitagawa, Hiroaki; Pringle, Kevin C

    2017-09-04

    There are few reports comparing type 1 alveolar epithelial cell development with histopathological image analysis. We investigated these as indicators of maturity in fetal lambs' lungs in a congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) model. We created left CDH in 4 fetal lambs at 75 or 76days' gestation (Group A). Controls were 5 sham-operated lambs (Group B); both groups delivered at term. The right lower lung lobe (RLL) and left lower lobe (LLL) were sampled. Using histopathological image analysis, alveoli/air sacs count (AC), alveoli/air sacs area percentage (AP), average area (AA), total area (TA), and perimeter (PM) were determined. We also evaluated total lung volumes, radial alveolar count (RAC), and Type 1 alveolar epithelial cells ratio (AT1 ratio), which we previously reported. Regression analysis was performed, with p<0.05 considered significant. RLL and LLL AT1 ratio and LLL RAC in Group A were lower than in Group B. There are no significant differences demonstrated by histopathological image analysis. In Group A, the AT1 ratio in the LLL was lower than in the RLL. There were no differences between LLL and RLL in Group B. AT1 ratio was superior to the other indicators evaluating lung maturity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating patients' comprehensibility of a standardized medication plan.

    PubMed

    Botermann, Lea; Monzel, Katharina; Krueger, Katrin; Eickhoff, Christiane; Wachter, Angelika; Kloft, Charlotte; Laufs, Ulrich; Schulz, Martin

    2016-10-01

    A standardized medication plan for patients has been developed and recently enacted into German law depicting all medicines taken. It can only increase medication safety if patients use and understand it. We evaluated patients' comprehensibility of the medication plan and analyzed potential variables influencing patients' understanding. The medication plan template v2.0 was first tested in N = 40 patients, and the "Evaluation Tool to test the handling of the Medication Plan" (ET-MP) was developed, rating patients' understanding from 0 to 100 %. The cut-off, distinguishing if patients understand the medication plan, was set at 90 %. The ET-MP was then applied to an amended medication plan questioning N = 40 general internal medicine (GIM) and N = 50 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). The mean (± standard deviation (SD)) age of the study cohort was 69 ± 13 years, 47 % female. Patients took 8 ± 3 drugs chronically. The CHF patients had a lower level of education compared to the GIM group (p = 0.004). The overall ET-MP score was 82 ± 21 % (GIM 86 ± 19 %, CHF 78 ± 23 %; p = 0.16). Forty-three percent achieved a score >90 %. A moderate correlation was found between the ET-MP score and the level of education (r = 0.45) and age (r = -0.46), respectively (both p < 0.001). Cognitively impaired CHF patients (p = 0.03) and patients with advanced CHF (p = 0.006) achieved a lower ET-MP score. In the CHF cohort, signs of depression or a lower level of self-care behaviour were not associated with a lower ET-MP score. The ET-MP is suitable to explore patients' understanding of a medication plan. Less than 50 % of the patients reached a score above 90 %. Higher age and lower level of education but not the diagnosis of CHF seem to correlate with impaired understanding of the standardized medication plan. In addition to a medication plan, a significant number of patients are in need of further and

  18. A prospective evaluation of the impact of second-opinion histopathology on diagnostic testing, cost and treatment in dogs and cats with cancer.

    PubMed

    Regan, R C; Rassnick, K M; Malone, E K; McDonough, S P

    2015-06-01

    Second-opinion histopathology is a common practice in human medicine to avoid unnecessary procedures, costs and to optimize therapy. Histopathology review has been recommended in veterinary oncology as well. In this prospective evaluation of 52 tumours over a 1-year period, there was diagnostic agreement between first and second opinions in 52% of cases. Twenty-nine percent of cases had partial diagnostic disagreement, most often a change in grade, tumour subtype or margin status. Nineteen percent had complete diagnostic disagreement, including a change in cell of origin or a change from benign to malignant. Minor disagreements, which would not affect treatment or prognosis, were present in 21% of cases. Major disagreements, which would affect either treatment or prognosis, were present in 37% of cases. Costs of ideal staging and treatment recommendations were considerably different between first and second opinions.

  19. Evaluation of the degree of pancreatic fatty infiltration by area-based assessment of CT images: comparison with histopathology-based and CT attenuation index-based assessments.

    PubMed

    Hori, Mika; Onaya, Hiroaki; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Yamaji, Taiki; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Takahashi, Mami; Mutoh, Michihiro; Shimada, Kazuaki; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of fatty infiltration (FI) of the pancreas using area-based assessment on computed tomography (CT) (CT area-based assessment) in its correlation and agreement/concordance with histopathology-based assessment. Furthermore, we examined whether CT area-based assessment was better than CT attenuation index-based assessment. We retrospectively evaluated the degree of FI of the pancreas in 37 pancreatic cancer patients who had undergone preoperative CT and pancreaticoduodenectomy. The degree of FI of the pancreas was examined by histopathology-based assessment using surgical resection samples, and CT area-based and CT attenuation index-based assessments. Mean values of pancreatic FI measured by area-based assessment on unenhanced CT and by histopathology-based assessments were 14.4 ± 23.2 % (range 0-77.7 %) and 16.2 ± 17.4 % (range 0.2-60.2 %), respectively. Area-based assessment on unenhanced CT showed higher correlation and concordance with histopathology-based assessment, demonstrating a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.78 (P < 0.0001) and a Kendall's tau-b coefficient of 0.69 (P < 0.0001). For CT attenuation index-based assessment, the corresponding values were -0.66 (P < 0.0001) and -0.39 (P = 0.008), respectively. To order/categorize subjects according to the degree of FI of the pancreas, CT area-based assessment is suggested to be better than CT attenuation index-based assessment.

  20. Use of step-section histopathology to evaluate 18F-fluorocholine PET sextant localization of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kwee, Sandi A; Thibault, Gregory P; Stack, Richard S; Coel, Marc N; Furusato, Bungo; Sesterhenn, Isabell A

    2008-01-01

    To assess positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine-18 fluorocholine for sextant localization of malignant prostate tumors. Histopathologic analysis was performed on step-sectioned whole-mounted prostate specimens from 15 patients who underwent PET with fluorocholine prior to radical prostatectomy. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) corresponding to prostate sextants on PET was measured by region of interest analysis and compared with histopathologic results. Histopathology demonstrated malignant involvement in 61 of 90 prostate sextants. The mean total tumor volume per specimen was 4.9 mL (range 0.01-28.7 mL). Mean SUVmax was 6.0+/-2.0 in malignant sextants and 3.8+/-1.4 in benign sextants (p<.0001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.82 for sextant detection of malignancy based on SUVmax measurement. Tumor diameter directly correlated with sextant SUVmax in malignant sextants (r=.54, p<.05). In 13 subjects, the largest tumor in the specimen corresponded to the sextant with the highest SUVmax. Fluorocholine PET can serve to localize dominant areas of malignancy in patients with prostate cancer. However, PET with fluorocholine may fail to identify sextants with smaller volumes of malignancy.

  1. Comprehension evaluation and regulation in learning from science texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Jose C.; Campanario, Juan M.

    Metacognitive variables influence students' learning from science texts. This article deals with the comprehension monitoring abilities of secondary school science students, one of the areas of metacognition which has drawn considerable attention from researchers. The aims of the study are, in particular: (a) to know the extent to which comprehension is monitored by secondary science students as revealed by inconsistency detection in manipulated science texts, and (b) to identify the strategies used to regulate comprehension by the students who detect the inconsistencies. The results indicate that knowing that one understands or fails to understand science texts could be as important a problem as understanding proper. Besides, some incorrect regulatory strategies used by students who notice the inconsistencies in the texts are identified. These could also have an annoying influence in the regulatory behavior of students when studying regular science texts.

  2. A Comprehensive Curriculum Evaluation of the Christian Action Ministry Academy-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eash, Maurice J.

    The results of a comprehensive curriculum evaluation of the Christian Action Ministry (CAM) Academy, which was founded to help black dropouts complete their high school education and secure college placement are reported. The CAM Academy requested the assistance of the University of Illinois in undertaking a comprehensive curriculum evaluation to…

  3. The Comprehensive Evaluation of Electronic Learning Tools and Educational Software (CEELTES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolcík, Štefan; Cipková, Elena; Hrušecký, Roman; Veselský, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that digital technologies are more and more used in the learning and education process, there is still lack of professional evaluation tools capable of assessing the quality of used digital teaching aids in a comprehensive and objective manner. Construction of the Comprehensive Evaluation of Electronic Learning Tools and…

  4. Comprehensive Russian Instructional Program, 1983-1984: OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    In 1983-84, the second and final year of funding, Project CRIP (Comprehensive Russian Instructional Program) provided career orientation and support services to 430 Russian-speaking student of limited English proficiency (LEP) at three public and four private high schools in Brooklyn and Queens, New York. All of the students were foreign-born and…

  5. Student evaluation of a standardized comprehensive testing program.

    PubMed

    Richards, Elizabeth A; Stone, Cynthia L

    2008-01-01

    Computer-based, standardized, comprehensive testing is becoming a popular assessment tool in nursing education.This study sought to determine student response and satisfaction regarding such testing at a large state nursing school. Surveys that reviewed the entire testing process were provided to all students taking the computerized testing. Student feedback led to revisions for future testing.

  6. Evaluating Comprehensive School Reform Models at Scale: Focus on Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernez, Georges; Karam, Rita; Mariano, Louis T.; DeMartini, Christine

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to fill the "implementation measurement" gap. A methodology to quantitatively measure the level of Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) implementation that can be used across a variety of CSR models was developed, and then applied to measure actual implementation of four different CSR models in a large number of schools. The…

  7. Evaluating Comprehensive School Reform Models at Scale: Focus on Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernez, Georges; Karam, Rita; Mariano, Louis T.; DeMartini, Christine

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to fill the "implementation measurement" gap. A methodology to quantitatively measure the level of Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) implementation that can be used across a variety of CSR models was developed, and then applied to measure actual implementation of four different CSR models in a large number of schools. The…

  8. Comprehensive Evaluation of Intervention for Young Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, Phillip S.

    1987-01-01

    The paper offers examples of measurement procedures and experimental designs that can be employed to assess the delivery and effects of program components in a comprehensive service delivery system for young autistic children. The "Learning Experiences...An Alternative Program for Preschoolers and Parents" program at the University of…

  9. A Process Evaluation of a Comprehensive Drug Education Training Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewit, David J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined effects of a comprehensive drug education training package on the planning, development, and implementation of drug education lessons. Results based on 205 teacher questionnaires indicate a high approval rating. A majority of teachers reported that they would recommend the program to their colleagues; one-quarter reported using it to…

  10. Comprehensive Russian Instructional Program, 1983-1984: OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    In 1983-84, the second and final year of funding, Project CRIP (Comprehensive Russian Instructional Program) provided career orientation and support services to 430 Russian-speaking student of limited English proficiency (LEP) at three public and four private high schools in Brooklyn and Queens, New York. All of the students were foreign-born and…

  11. Safety evaluation of Chinese nickel resources based on analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhifeng

    2017-08-01

    China is now the world’s largest producer and consumer of nickel. As an important strategic metal, nickel is widely used in various industries of national economy. Whether the supply of nickel ore resources is sufficient or not directly restricts the development of downstream industries. It is becoming more and more important to evaluate the safety of nickel resources in our country, and to formulate the corresponding safety strategy. This paper uses fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to evaluate the safety of nickel resources in China, and overcomes the subjectivity and singleness of traditional evaluation methods. On the basis of the analytic hierarchy process to determine the weight, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is introduced. At present, the safety situation of nickel resources in our country is in a more dangerous level, and we need to take positive measures to improve it.

  12. Evaluation of the hemostatic and histopathological effects of Ankaferd Blood Stopper in experimental liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Satar, Nihal Y Gul; Akkoc, Ahmet; Oktay, Ayberk; Topal, Ayse; Inan, Kivanc

    2013-07-01

    We studied the hemostatic and histopathological effects, and intra-abdominal adhesion scores of a new hemostatic agent, Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS), in an experimental liver injury model and compared it with regenerated oxidized cellulose. Thirty-six rats were randomly assigned to ABS, oxidized cellulose (Surgicel), and control groups (n=12, each). A wedge resection was performed on the left medial lobe of the liver. In the ABS group the liver surface was sprayed with ABS, whereas in the Surgicel group the liver was covered with double-layered oxidized cellulose. In the control group, saline solution was sprayed on the cut surface. The mean bleeding time was shorter in the ABS (23.08±6.99s) and Surgicel groups (47.91±8.21s) than in the control group (223.42±57.83s). No significant difference was found in the ABS and Surgicel groups in terms of preoperative and postoperative hematocrit (hct) values (P>0.05). Whereas there was no significant difference on day 7 (P>0.05), total adhesion score of ABS group was lower than both Surgicel (P<0.05) and control groups (P<0.01) on day 14. Liver sections from ABS group displayed more favorable histopathological changes when compared with Surgicel group on day 7 and day 14. All livers in the ABS group completed their regeneration process with minimal signs of inflammation. Our findings suggest that ABS is more effective than Surgicel and control groups in achieving hemostasis and in reducing blood loss. Apart from this, ABS causes more encouraging histopathological changes and better intra-abdominal adhesion scores in rat experimental liver trauma model.

  13. Histopathological, Histomorphometrical, and Radiographical Evaluation of Injectable Glass-Ceramic-Chitosan Nanocomposite in Bone Reconstruction of Rat

    PubMed Central

    Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Rabiee, Seyedmahmood; Haghanifar, Sina; Seyedmajidi, Seyedkamal; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam ali; Alaghehmand, Homayoun; Jamaatlu, Naghmeh; Bijani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background. Bone defects following tumor resection and osteolysis due to bone lesions, periodontal tissue disorders, and bone reconstruction are challenges that surgeons face. Gass-ceramic-chitosan nanocomposite contains chitosan, a derivative of crustaceans' exoskeleton. Methods. Thirty-two 6–8-week-old male Wistar rats were chosen. One hole on each right and left tibia was made. The right tibia holes were filled with injectable glass-ceramic-chitosan nanocomposite, and the left tibia holes were left empty. After 7, 14, 28, and 60 days, histopathological, histomorphometrical, and radiographical assessments were performed. Results. Radiographic density on days 7 and 14 was significantly higher in the right tibias than in the left tibias. Trabecular bone thickness, which was higher in the right tibias, increased from day 7 to day 60 in both right and left tibias, although not significantly. Conclusions. Glass-ceramic-chitosan nanocomposite is suggested for use in bone repair in cases of bone loss. More histopathological, histomorphometrical, and radiographical assessments are also recommended. PMID:25737725

  14. Correlation of mechanistic data and histopathology in the evaluation of selected toxic endpoints of the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Capen, C C

    1998-12-28

    The objective of this review is to correlate endocrinologic data from mechanistic studies with quantitative histopathology in selected examples of toxic endpoints of the endocrine system in laboratory animals. Mechanistic data can aid in the interpretation of animal toxicology findings and help clarify their significance in risk assessment. Endocrine organs of rodents frequently undergo proliferative changes with advancing age and following chronic exposure to large doses of xenobiotic chemicals, and the sensitivity of rodent endocrine tissues appears to be increasing. Many xenobiotic chemicals in large doses disrupt thyroid function in rodents either by a direct effect on the thyroid influencing synthesis of thyroid hormones or by adversely influencing their peripheral metabolism. A number of chemicals disrupt thyroid function by inhibiting the important enzyme, thyroperoxidase (TPO). A contemporary example of a chemical acting as TPO-inhibitor is sulfamethazine. In short-term mechanistic studies in rats there was a log-dose response relationship in circulating levels of thyroid and pituitary hormones plus a similar non-linear dose-response in morphologic changes in thyroid follicular cells. Endocrinologic data from mechanistic studies and histopathologic/ultrastructural findings will also be presented for the effects of the food color, FDC Red No. 3 (Erythrosine), on the thyroid gland in rats and parathyroid hormone-related protein (a major causative factor in cancer-associated hypercalcemia) on parathyroid chief cells in mice.

  15. Dextran-functionalized magnetic fluid mediating magnetohyperthermia for treatment of Ehrlich-solid-tumor-bearing mice: toxicological and histopathological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Yamamoto, Kelly Reis; Miranda, Kely Lopes Caiado; Matos, Breno Noronha; de Almeida, Marcos Célio; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; de Souza Filho, José; Fernandes, Juliana Menezes Soares; Sartoratto, Patrícia Pommé Confessori; Lacava, Zulmira Guerrero Marques

    2014-04-01

    Dextran-functionalized maghemite fluid (DexMF) has been tested to treat Ehrlich-solid-tumor-bearing mice, evidencing its potential use in mediating magnetohyperthermia in breast cancer treatment. However, although magnetic nanoparticles tend to accumulate in tumor tissues, part of the nanomaterial can reach the blood stream, and then the organism. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute systemic effects of the intratumoral injection of DexMF mediating magnetohyperthermia in the treatment of an advanced clinical Ehrlich-solid-tumor, assessed through histopathological analyses of liver, kidneys, heart and spleen, comet assay, micronucleus test, hemogram, and serum levels of bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, and urea. The tumor's histopathology and morphometry were used to assess its aggressiveness and regression. DexMF mediating hyperthermia was effective in containing tumor aggressiveness and in inducing tumor regression, besides showing no toxic effects. Its physical characteristics also suggest that it is safe to use in other biomedical applications.

  16. Evaluation of the antiandrogenic effects of flutamide, DDE, and linuron in the weanling rat assay using organ weight, histopathological, and proteomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Tinwell, Helen; Friry-Santini, Claire; Rouquié, David; Belluco, Sara; Elies, Laetitia; Pallen, Catherine; Bars, Remi

    2007-11-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is currently funding the validation of the Hershberger assay as a rapid in vivo means of identifying (anti-) androgens. However, as the assay measures weight changes in the androgen-sensitive tissues of castrated rats, the evaluation of the androgen-stimulated intact weanling as a more ethical model to use in the assay has been requested. As part of the OECD validation exercise two weak antiandrogens, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4 chlorophenyl)ethane (DDE) and linuron (LIN), were investigated in our laboratory at several dose levels in the testosterone propionate (TP)-stimulated weanling using flutamide (FM) as a positive control. In addition to weight measurements (sex accessory tissues [SATs], epididymides, and testes), histopathological assessment of the seminal vesicles, prostate, and testes was conducted for vehicle control, TP-stimulated, and TP-stimulated animals treated with FM or the top dose level of DDE or LIN. The modulation of a novel prostate protein associated with apoptosis, L-amino acid oxidase (LAO), was evaluated in these same treatment groups. Our gravimetric data (supported by the histopathology data) indicated that the weanling assay can detect SAT and epididymal weight changes induced by the antiandrogens evaluated. Inconsistent and variable data were recorded for the testicular weight and histopathological effects, suggesting that the testis is of little value in the identification of antiandrogens using this model. Three isoforms of LAO were identified, and all were regulated by TP. Modulation of LAO by the antiandrogens indicated that this protein could be a biomarker for endocrine disruption in male rodents.

  17. Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Ethanol Extract of Rosa canina L. fruit on Diabetic Rats: An Experimental Study With Histopathological Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Rashidi, Ali Akbar; Taherian, Ali Akbar; Vakili, Zarichehr; Sajad Sajadian, Mohammad; Ghardashi, Mostafa

    2016-10-01

    Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae) has been traditionally used as a medicinal plant. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Rosa canina fruit extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The results showed oral administration of Rosa canina fruit extract significantly ameliorated the high levels of blood glucose compared with the control group. Serum triglyceride levels significantly decreased by the administration of Rosa canina extract compared with control. Histopathological examinations showed that the Rosa canina extract improved islets necrotic and regenerated pancreatic islet cells. Rosa canina extract has the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Experimental bone defect healing with xenogenic demineralized bone matrix and bovine fetal growth plate as a new xenograft: radiological, histopathological and biomechanical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bigham, A S; Dehghani, S N; Shafiei, Z; Nezhad, S Torabi

    2009-02-01

    The following study was designed to evaluate xenogenic bovine demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and new xenograft (Bovine fetal growth plate) effects on bone healing process. Twenty male White New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. In group I (n = 10) the defect was filled by xenogenic DBM and in group II (n = 10) the defect was filled by a segment of bovine fetal growth plate and was fixed by cercelage wire. Radiological, histopathological, and biomechanical evaluations were performed blindly and results scored and analyzed statistically. Statistical tests did not support significant differences between two groups radiographically (P > 0.05). There was a significant difference for union at the 28th postoperative radiologically (P < 0.05). Xenograft was superior to DBM group at the 28th postoperative day for radiological union (P < 0.03). Histopathological and biomechanical evaluation revealed no significant differences between two groups. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that satisfactory healing occurred in rabbit radius defect filled with xenogenic bovine DBM and xenogenic bovine fetal growth plate. Complications were not identified and healing was faster in two grafting groups.

  19. [Evaluation of comprehensiveness: ascribing meaning to agreements on goals for local health systems].

    PubMed

    Conill, Eleonor Minho

    2004-01-01

    As a policy guideline, ideal, or objective, comprehensiveness is a relevant attribute in the evaluation of quality of care and health systems. The article discusses the meaning of the concept of comprehensiveness in practice in some health services and systems, analyzing various methodologies to implement the concept. In Brazil, what prevails is an expanded perception emphasizing the complete, continuous, and coordinated nature of health care and management. The article highlights the importance of combining the evaluation of comprehensiveness with measures of access, suggesting the selection of indicators pertaining to agreements on goals for local health systems and their monitoring. This initiative could enhance the validity of existing evaluation instruments, from a communications perspective.

  20. Evaluation of Eleventh Grade Turkish Pupils' Comprehension of General Chemistry Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belge Can, Hatice; Boz, Yezdan

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate eleventh grade Turkish pupils' comprehension of various general chemistry concepts which in turn enables to investigate chemistry concepts which are easier and harder for students to comprehend. Examining the effect of gender and last semester chemistry course grades on pupils' comprehension of general…

  1. Evaluation of Attention Training and Metacognitive Facilitation to Improve Reading Comprehension in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaime B.; Sohlberg, McKay Moore

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This pilot study investigated the impact of direct attention training combined with metacognitive facilitation on reading comprehension in individuals with aphasia. Method: A single-subject, multiple baseline design was employed across 4 participants to evaluate potential changes in reading comprehension resulting from an 8-week…

  2. Evaluation of Eleventh Grade Turkish Pupils' Comprehension of General Chemistry Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belge Can, Hatice; Boz, Yezdan

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate eleventh grade Turkish pupils' comprehension of various general chemistry concepts which in turn enables to investigate chemistry concepts which are easier and harder for students to comprehend. Examining the effect of gender and last semester chemistry course grades on pupils' comprehension of general…

  3. An evaluation of the nursing success program: reading comprehension, graduation rates, and diversity.

    PubMed

    Symes, Lene; Tart, Kathryn; Travis, Lucille

    2005-01-01

    The Nursing Success Program was developed to enhance retention of baccalaureate nursing students. Reading comprehension scores are used to identify students who are at risk for failure and direct them into the retention program that addresses their skill deficits. To evaluate the program, the authors assessed reading comprehension, graduation rates, and ethnic diversity.

  4. Evaluating Capacity Building in Education: The North Central Comprehensive Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beesley, Andrea D.; Shebby, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform evaluators of a method of evaluating capacity building in educational programs. One definition of capacity building is helping an organization increase its ability to fulfill its mission (Wing, 2004). Evaluators of capacity-building efforts therefore must focus on evidence that the program has helped to build…

  5. A Comprehensive Evaluation Rubric for Assessing Instructional Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheng-Yuan; Cherner, Todd Sloan

    2015-01-01

    There is a pressing need for an evaluation rubric that examines all aspects of educational apps designed for instructional purposes. In past decades, many rubrics have been developed for evaluating educational computer-based programs; however, rubrics designed for evaluating the instructional implications of educational apps are scarce. When an…

  6. A Comprehensive Evaluation Rubric for Assessing Instructional Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheng-Yuan; Cherner, Todd Sloan

    2015-01-01

    There is a pressing need for an evaluation rubric that examines all aspects of educational apps designed for instructional purposes. In past decades, many rubrics have been developed for evaluating educational computer-based programs; however, rubrics designed for evaluating the instructional implications of educational apps are scarce. When an…

  7. Teacher Evaluation: A Comprehensive Guide to New Directions and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Kenneth D.

    In many schools and districts, teacher evaluation is poorly conducted, or even disparaged or ignored altogether. This handbook advocates a new approach to teacher evaluation--a cooperative effort undertaken by a group of professionals. Evaluation can reassure teachers that they are doing good and valued jobs, give security and status to…

  8. A Comprehensive Approach To Critically Evaluate an Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachimowicz, Ruth A.; Lee, David Y.

    1999-01-01

    At Illinois College of Optometry a peer-review committee evaluates the exams of both basic science and clinical courses to provide an objective means of evaluating a faculty member's teaching ability. Five aspects of the exam (content, construction, statistical analysis, adjusted questions, instructor's rationale) are evaluated to determine the…

  9. Comprehensive Evaluation and Compilation of H 3+ Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, C. Michael; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2001-11-01

    Since its initial detection in 1980, there have been 17 laboratory studies of the H3+ infrared spectrum, reporting 895 transitions from a variety of fundamental, overtone, combination, and hot bands. The results of these two decades of labor, however, are difficult to utilize. There is no comprehensive list of the observed H3+ transitions, and the literature contains errors in frequency measurement and assignment due to the inherent difficulty of the measurements and the complexity of the spectrum. This paper resolves these problems while assembling all of the data into a single source. We have reviewed all reported transitions of H3+ for reliability in frequency measurement and have reassigned them based on a comparison with recent theoretical calculations. We have also developed a complete labeling scheme for all energy levels below 9000 cm-1, which alleviates the confusion in assigning H3+ transitions that results from the difficulty of labeling the rovibrational energy levels of a molecule with such strong mixing. Our comprehensive linelist was then used to produce a set of 526 experimentally determined energy levels, which facilitates direct comparison with theoretical calculations and prediction of the 'forbidden' pure rotation spectrum of H3+.

  10. A morphometric and histopathologic evaluation of the effects of propolis on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Toker, Hulya; Ozan, Fatih; Ozer, Hatice; Ozdemir, Hakan; Eren, Kaya; Yeler, Hasan

    2008-06-01

    Propolis collected by honeybees from various plant sources is a resinous hive product possessing a broad spectrum of biologic activities. Propolis has been used extensively in the diet to improve health and prevent disease. The purpose of this study was to analyze the morphometric and histopathologic changes associated with experimental periodontitis in rats in response to the systemic administration of propolis. Forty Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups: non-ligated (NL; N = 10); ligature only (LO; N = 10); and systemic administration of ligature and propolis (100 mg/kg body weight per day [Pro100; N = 10] or 200 mg/kg body weight per day [Pro200; N = 10]). Silk ligatures were placed at the gingival margin of the lower first molars in both mandibular quadrants. The study duration was 11 days, and the animals were sacrificed at the end of this period. Changes in alveolar bone levels were clinically measured, and tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. At the end of 11 days, alveolar bone loss was significantly higher in the LO group compared to the NL, Pro100, and Pro200 groups (P <0.05). Osteoclast numbers in the LO group were significantly higher than those of the NL, Pro100, and Pro200 groups (P <0.05). Both dosages of propolis significantly reduced the periodontitis-related bone loss, but the differences between the two propolis groups were not statistically significant (P >0.05). The findings of this study provide morphologic and histologic evidence that propolis, when administered systemically, prevents alveolar bone loss in the rat model.

  11. Evaluation of histopathological alterations in the gills of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis Karaman) as an indicator of river pollution.

    PubMed

    Barišić, Josip; Dragun, Zrinka; Ramani, Sheriban; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra; Kostov, Vasil; Rebok, Katerina; Jordanova, Maja

    2015-08-01

    Quantification of histopathological alterations in the gills of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis Karaman) was performed in 2012 in rivers of north-eastern Macedonia, with the aim to examine the effects of water quality in the rivers (Zletovska and Kriva River-impacted by active Pb/Zn mines; Bregalnica River-contaminated by agricultural waste). The biological alterations in chub were classified as: circulatory disturbances, regressive and progressive changes, but their severity differed. Altogether the mildest changes were observed in the gills of chub from the Bregalnica River, a less polluted river, whereas mining impacted rivers were characterized by more severe alterations. In the gills of chub from the Zletovska River, which is highly contaminated with numerous metals, sulphates and chlorides, the highest lesion indices were found for the regressive changes of both epithelium and supporting tissue, with typical lesions referring to atrophy, thinning and lifting of epithelial cells, necrosis of epithelium and chloride cells, as well as deformations of lamellar cartilaginous base. Gill damages of chub from the Kriva River were overall milder compared to the Zletovska River, in accordance with pollution status. In the gills of chub from that river, progressive changes were more pronounced, specifically severe hyperplasia of mucous cells and epithelium in the interlammellar space, leading to fusion of lamellae, as well as hypertrophy of chloride cells. The comparison between seasons indicated higher intensity of progressive changes in all three rivers in autumn, when water level was very low, and consequently, water contamination was more pronounced due to concentration effect. The pattern and severity of histopathological alterations in the chub gills reflected differences in contamination levels and type of contaminants in different rivers and sampling periods, and thus have been proven as a valuable indicator of water quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  12. Unique findings of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma within cortical tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex: a histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Katz, Joel S; Frankel, Hyman; Ma, Tracy; Zagzag, David; Liechty, Benjamin; Zeev, Bruria Ben; Tzadok, Michal; Devinsky, Orrin; Weiner, Howard L; Roth, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is associated with three central nervous system pathologies: cortical/subcortical tubers, subependymal nodules (SENs), and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs). Tubers are associated with epilepsy, which is often medication-resistant and often leads to resective surgery. Recently, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi) have been shown to be effective reducing seizure burden in some patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-related refractory epilepsy. mTORi have also been shown to be an alternative for surgery treating SEGAs. We describe several cases of resected tubers that contained SEGA tissue without an intraventricular SEGA. After institutional review board (IRB) protocol approval, we retrospectively reviewed the surgical-pathological data for all TSC patients who underwent cortical resections for treatment of refractory epilepsy at NYU Langone Medical Center and Tel Aviv Medical Center between 2003 and 2013. Data included demographics, epilepsy type, MRI characteristics, epilepsy outcome, and histopathological staining. We reviewed cortical resections from 75 patients with complete pathological studies. In three patients, cortical lesions demonstrated histopathological findings consistent with a SEGA within the resected tuber tissue, with no intraventricular SEGA. All lesions were cortically based and none had any intraventricular extension. No patient had been treated before surgery with an mTORi. Two of the three patients remain Engel grade I-II. All lesions stained positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), synaptophysin, and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN). This is the first description of cortical tubers harboring SEGA tissue. This observation though preliminary may suggest a subgroup of patients with intractable epilepsy in whom mTORi may be considered before surgical intervention.

  13. Prospective evaluation of potential toxicity of repeated doses of Thymus vulgaris L. extracts in rats by means of clinical chemistry, histopathology and NMR-based metabonomic approach.

    PubMed

    Benourad, Fouzia; Kahvecioglu, Zehra; Youcef-Benkada, Mokhtar; Colet, Jean-Marie

    2014-10-01

    In the field of natural extracts, research generally focuses on the study of their biological activities for food, cosmetic, or pharmacological purposes. The evaluation of their adverse effects is often overlooked. In this study, the extracts of Thymus vulgaris L. were obtained by two different extraction methods. Intraperitoneal injections of both extracts were given daily for four days to male Wistar Han rats, at two different doses for each extract. The evaluation of the potential toxic effects included histopathological examination of liver, kidney, and lung tissues, as well as serum biochemistry of liver and kidney parameters, and (1)H-NMR-based metabonomic profiles of urine. The results showed that no histopathological changes were observed in the liver and kidney in rats treated with both extracts of thyme. Serum biochemical investigations revealed significant increases in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid in animals treated with polyphenolic extract at both doses. In these latter groups, metabonomic analysis revealed alterations in a number of urine metabolites involved in the energy metabolism in liver mitochondria. Indeed, the results showed alterations of glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and β-oxidative pathways as evidenced by increases in lactate and ketone bodies, and decreases in citrate, α-ketoglutarate, creatinine, hippurate, dimethylglycine, and dimethyalanine. In conclusion, this work showed that i.p. injection of repeated doses of thyme extracts causes some disturbances of intermediary metabolism in rats. The metabonomic study revealed interesting data which could be further used to determine the cellular pathways affected by such treatments.

  14. Language Use without Comprehension: A Suggested Methodology for the Clinical Evaluation of Spina Bifida Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culatta, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Three spina bifida children (mean age 66 months) were studied to illustrate the comprehension deficit and to demonstrate how evaluations can be structured. Available from Eterna Press, P.O. Box 19, Bolingbrook, Illinois 60439. (Author/PHR)

  15. Language Use without Comprehension: A Suggested Methodology for the Clinical Evaluation of Spina Bifida Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culatta, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Three spina bifida children (mean age 66 months) were studied to illustrate the comprehension deficit and to demonstrate how evaluations can be structured. Available from Eterna Press, P.O. Box 19, Bolingbrook, Illinois 60439. (Author/PHR)

  16. Characterization of mild and severe post-radical nephrectomy renal functional deterioration utilizing histopathological evaluation of non-neoplastic nephrectomized renal parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Sejima, Takehiro; Yumioka, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Noriya; Iwamoto, Hideto; Masago, Toshihiko; Morizane, Shuichi; Honda, Masashi; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    We investigated factors affecting mild (MRFD) and severe renal functional deterioration (SRFD) after radical nephrectomy with a special focus on the histopathology of nephrectomized non-neoplastic renal parenchyma. MRFD was defined as a postoperative decline of percent estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) lower than the value of the mean minus standard deviation (SD). SRFD was defined as a rate greater than the value of the mean plus SD. The histopathological factors of global glomerulosclerosis (GS) and arteriosclerosis in non-neoplastic renal parenchyma and multiple clinical factors were analyzed to determine whether they affected postoperative renal functional deterioration in 100 renal cell carcinoma cases. The prognoses, including non-cancer mortality, were collected from long-term follow-up data. A higher preoperative eGFR and a higher global GS extent in non-neoplastic renal parenchyma were independently associated with MRFD and SRFD, respectively. The cardiovascular disease-specific survival rates of the SRFD group and the group with global GS extent >14 % were significantly worse than those of their counterparts. This is the first report to identify global GS extent in nephrectomized non-neoplastic renal parenchyma as a factor affecting the development of life-threatening post-nephrectomy renal functional deterioration. Moreover, we are the first to advocate the importance of the characterization of favorable post-nephrectomy renal functional deterioration. The identification of MRFD and SRFD by histopathological evaluation of nephrectomized non-neoplastic renal parenchyma will contribute to personalized postoperative follow-up. It may improve follow-up of individual patients with SRFD by permitting collaboration with other clinical departments such as cardiology.

  17. Program Evaluation Theory and Practice: A Comprehensive Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.; Wilson, Amy T.

    2012-01-01

    This engaging text takes an evenhanded approach to major theoretical paradigms in evaluation and builds a bridge from them to evaluation practice. Featuring helpful checklists, procedural steps, provocative questions that invite readers to explore their own theoretical assumptions, and practical exercises, the book provides concrete guidance for…

  18. Evaluation for Continuing Education: A Comprehensive Guide to Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Alan B.

    This book presents systematic guidelines and practical tools to assist adult and continuing education program coordinators in planning and conducting successful program evaluations. Chapters 1-3 explain how to accomplish the following tasks: (1) assess their existing experience and familiarity with evaluation concepts and procedures; (2) identify…

  19. Source Evaluation, Comprehension, and Learning in Internet Science Inquiry Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Jennifer; Goldman, Susan R.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Sanchez, Christopher A.; Ash, Ivan K.; Hemmerich, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, undergraduates' evaluation and use of multiple Internet sources during a science inquiry task were examined. In Experiment 1, undergraduates had the task of explaining what caused the eruption of Mt. St. Helens using the results of an Internet search. Multiple regression analyses indicated that source evaluation significantly…

  20. Comprehensive Evaluation of a K-12 Counseling Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Martha Y.; Wasielewski, Raquel A.; Ash, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of the Teachers as Counselors (TAC) program in which students were given an evaluation to complete that measured satisfaction with the program, life events, and associated stresses. Results show that a lack of consistency in the defining or supporting role of the counselor minimizes direct services to students. (Author/JDM)

  1. Comprehension Power Program. MicroSIFT Courseware Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT (Except for the Evaluation Summary Table): PRODUCER: Milliken Publishing Company, Instructional/Communications Technology, 10 Stepar Place, Huntington Station, NY 11746. EVALUATION COMPLETED: June 1982 by the Portland Public Schools, Portland, Oregon. VERSION: Level B, level H. COST: $425.00. ABILITY…

  2. Source Evaluation, Comprehension, and Learning in Internet Science Inquiry Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Jennifer; Goldman, Susan R.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Sanchez, Christopher A.; Ash, Ivan K.; Hemmerich, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, undergraduates' evaluation and use of multiple Internet sources during a science inquiry task were examined. In Experiment 1, undergraduates had the task of explaining what caused the eruption of Mt. St. Helens using the results of an Internet search. Multiple regression analyses indicated that source evaluation significantly…

  3. Histopathological analysis of rat mesentery as a method for evaluating neutrophil migration: differential effects of dexamethasone and pertussis toxin.

    PubMed

    Brito, G A; Falcão, J L; Saraiva, S N; Lima, A A; Flores, C A; Ribeiro, R A

    1998-10-01

    In the present study, histopathological analysis of rat mesentery was used to quantify the effect of two anti-inflammatory agents, dexamethasone (Dex) and pertussis toxin (Ptx), on leukocyte migration. The intravenous injection of Dex (1 mg/kg) and Ptx (1,200 ng) 1 h prior to the intraperitoneal injection of the inflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) significantly reduced the neutrophil diapedesis (LPS: Ptx = 0.86 +/- 0.19 and Dex = 0.35 +/- 0.13 vs saline (S) = 2.85 +/- 0.59; fMLP: Ptx = 0.43 +/- 0.09 and Dex 0.01 +/- 0.01 vs S = 1.08 +/- 0.15 neutrophil diapedesis/field) and infiltration (LPS: Ptx = 6.29 +/- 1.4 and Dex = 3.06 +/- 0.76 vs S = 15.94 +/- 3.97; fMLP: Ptx = 3.85 +/- 0.56 and Dex = 0.40 +/- 0.16 vs S = 7.15 +/- 1.17 neutrophils/field) induced by the two agonists in the rat mesentery. The inhibitory effect of Dex and Ptx was clearly visible in the fields nearest the venule (up to 200 microns), demonstrating that these anti-inflammatory agents act preferentially in the transmigration of neutrophils from the vascular lumen into the interstitial space, but not in cell movement in response to a haptotactic gradient. The mesentery of rats pretreated with Dex showed a decreased number of neutrophils within the venules (LPS: Dex = 1.50 +/- 0.38 vs S = 4.20 +/- 1.01; fMLP: Dex = 0.25 +/- 0.11 vs S = 2.20 +/- 0.34 neutrophils in the lumen/field), suggesting that this inhibitor may be acting at a step that precedes neutrophil arrival in the inflamed tissue. In contrast to that observed with Dex treatment, the number of neutrophils found in mesenteric venules was significantly elevated in animals pretreated with Ptx (LPS: Ptx = 9.85 +/- 2.25 vs S = 4.20 +/- 1.01; fMLP: Ptx = 4.66 +/- 1.24 vs S = 2.20 +/- 0.34 neutrophils in the lumen/field). This discrepancy shows that Ptx and Dex act via different mechanisms and suggests that Ptx prevents locomotion of neutrophils from the vascular lumen to the interstitial

  4. Developing a Comprehensive Teaching Evaluation System for Foundation Courses with Enhanced Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yueyu

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at developing a comprehensive teaching evaluation system, a more useful educational technology, for achieving relatively reliable and valid results that can be well acknowledged by instructors, students, and by administrators. Adopting multi-method approaches, the study integrates student evaluation, expert evaluation and regular…

  5. Developing a Comprehensive Teaching Evaluation System for Foundation Courses with Enhanced Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yueyu

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at developing a comprehensive teaching evaluation system, a more useful educational technology, for achieving relatively reliable and valid results that can be well acknowledged by instructors, students, and by administrators. Adopting multi-method approaches, the study integrates student evaluation, expert evaluation and regular…

  6. Interim Outcomes Assessment of the Comprehensive Clinical Performance Grid for Student Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolls, Dorothy Bazzinotti; Carlson, Nancy; Wilson, Roger; Richman, Jack

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the viability of the Comprehensive Clinical Performance Grid for Student Evaluation, introduced at The New England College of Optometry in 1996 in clinical student assessment. Analyzed faculty and student feedback and consistency with previous evaluations, between evaluators, and between clinical sites and tracts. Found satisfaction with…

  7. Evaluating potential of curcumin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in aluminium induced behavioural, biochemical and histopathological alterations in mice brain.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Vandita; Kaur, Indu Pal

    2011-11-01

    Aluminium, a well established neurotoxicant, is reported to be involved in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to its easy admittance and accumulation in central nervous system (CNS). Simultaneous curcumin treatment during the induction of neurotoxicity by AlCl(3) is reported to provide protection. However, the therapeutic potential of curcumin in terms of reversing the neuronal damage once induced is limited due to its compromised bioavailability (BA). We prepared solid lipid nanoparticles of curcumin (C-SLNs) with enhanced BA (32-155 times) and investigated its therapeutic role in alleviating behavioural, biochemical and histochemical changes upon oral administration (100mg/kg) of AlCl(3) in male Lacca mice. Adverse effects of AlCl(3) were completely reversed by oral administration of C-SLNs. Treatment with free curcumin showed ≤ 15% recovery in membrane lipids (LPO) and 22% recovery in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with respect to AlCl(3) treated group. C-SLNs showed significantly better results (97.46% and 73% recovery in LPO and AChE) at a dose of 50mg/kg, and the results were comparable (p ≤ 0.001) to those achieved with rivastigmine. Histopathology of the brain sections of C-SLNs treated groups also indicated significant improvement. Study highlights the potential of C-SLNs for treatment of AD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model of interuniversity collaborative learning based on network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenhui, Ma; Yu, Wang

    2017-06-01

    Learning evaluation is an effective method, which plays an important role in the network education evaluation system. But most of the current network learning evaluation methods still use traditional university education evaluation system, which do not take into account of web-based learning characteristics, and they are difficult to fit the rapid development of interuniversity collaborative learning based on network. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to evaluate interuniversity collaborative learning based on the combination of fuzzy theory and analytic hierarchy process. Analytic hierarchy process is used to determine the weight of evaluation factors of each layer and to carry out the consistency check. According to the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, we establish interuniversity collaborative learning evaluation mathematical model. The proposed scheme provides a new thought for interuniversity collaborative learning evaluation based on network.

  9. Draft: Joint Federal/State Task Force on Evaluation Comprehensive Evaluation System--Current Status and Development Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scientific Educational Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    The Joint Federal/State Task Force on Evaluation (the Belmont Group) is currently developing a Joint Comprehensive Evaluation System (JCES) for the federally funded programs under the federal acts listed above. It is planned that JCES will replace the multiplicity of evaluation systems (and paper work) under the separate existing programs. This…

  10. Comprehensible evaluation of prognostic factors and prediction of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Robnik-Sikonja, Marko; Cukjati, David; Kononenko, Igor

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the data of a controlled clinical study of the chronic wound healing acceleration as a result of electrical stimulation. The study involved a conventional conservative treatment, sham treatment, biphasic pulsed current, and direct current electrical stimulation. Data was collected over 10 years and suffices for an analysis with machine learning methods. So far, only a limited number of studies have investigated the wound and patient attributes which affect the chronic wound healing. There is none to our knowledge to include treatment attributes. The aims of our study are to determine effects of the wound, patient and treatment attributes on the wound healing process and to propose a system for prediction of the wound healing rate. First we analyzed which wound and patient attributes play a predominant role in the wound healing process and investigated a possibility to predict the wound healing rate at the beginning of the treatment based on the initial wound, patient and treatment attributes. Later we tried to enhance the wound healing rate prediction accuracy by predicting it after a few weeks of the wound healing follow-up. Using the attribute estimation algorithms ReliefF and RReliefF we obtained a ranking of the prognostic factors which was comprehensible to experts. We used regression and classification trees to build models for prediction of the wound healing rate. The obtained results are encouraging and may form a basis for an expert system for the chronic wound healing rate prediction. If the wound healing rate is known, then the provided information can help to formulate the appropriate treatment decisions and orient resources towards individuals with poor prognosis.

  11. Health Information Technology Evaluation Framework (HITREF) Comprehensiveness as Assessed in Electronic Point-of-Care Documentation Systems Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Sockolow, Paulina S; Bowles, Kathryn H; Rogers, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Health Information Technology (HIT) Reference-based Evaluation Framework (HITREF) comprehensiveness in two HIT evaluations in settings different from that in which the HITREF was developed. Clinician satisfaction themes that emerged from clinician interviews in the home care and the hospital studies were compared to the framework components. Across both studies, respondents commented on 12 of the 20 HITREF components within 5 of the 6 HITREF concepts. No new components emerged that were missing from the HITREF providing evidence that the HITREF is a comprehensive framework. HITREF use in a range of HIT evaluations by researchers new to the HITREF demonstrates that it can be used as intended. Therefore, we continue to recommend the HITREF as a comprehensive, research-based HIT evaluation framework to increase the capacity of informatics evaluators' use of best practice and evidence-based practice to support the credibility of their findings for fulfilling the purpose of program evaluation.

  12. 40 CFR 8.8 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evaluate the CEE to determine if the CEE meets the requirements under Article 8 and Annex I to the Protocol... operator, the EPA will inform the operator if EPA, with the concurrence of the National Science Foundation... Article 8 and Annex I of the Protocol and the provisions of this part. This notification will occur within...

  13. 40 CFR 8.8 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reference state in the absence of the proposed activity; (3) A description of the methods and data used to... conduct of scientific research and on other existing uses and values; (10) An identification of gaps in... evaluate the CEE to determine if the CEE meets the requirements under Article 8 and Annex I to the Protocol...

  14. 40 CFR 8.8 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reference state in the absence of the proposed activity; (3) A description of the methods and data used to... conduct of scientific research and on other existing uses and values; (10) An identification of gaps in... evaluate the CEE to determine if the CEE meets the requirements under Article 8 and Annex I to the Protocol...

  15. Comprehensive Evaluation of the 1996 Interdisciplinary Teamed Instruction Summer Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.

    The Interdisciplinary Teamed Instruction (ITI) Project was a 2-year project aimed at determining the effects of ITI on teaching and learning and at validating the effectiveness of a professional development model to facilitate development, implementation, and evaluation of ITI. Through summer institutes and onsite workshops, project staff provided…

  16. Histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of 53 cases of feline lymphoplasmacytic enteritis and low-grade alimentary lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, K A; Krockenberger, M; Beatty, J A; Crowley, A; Dennis, M M; Canfield, P J; Dhand, N; Lingard, A E; Barrs, V R

    2011-01-01

    Low-grade alimentary lymphoma (LGAL) is a recently described entity displaying many microscopical features similar to lymphoplasmacytic enteritis (LPE). The aim of this study was to review the histopathological and immunohistochemical features of LPE and LGAL to determine if specific features are useful in distinguishing between these disorders. Fifty-three cases of LPE (n=24) or LGAL (n=29) were recruited retrospectively and prospectively. Of the 24 cases of LPE, 12 were mild, seven were moderate and five were marked in severity. The ileum and jejunum were the most common sites affected for both LGAL and LPE (70-90% of cases). Involvement of the stomach was more common with LPE (29%) than LGAL (7%) (P<0.0001). Twelve cases of LGAL (41%) had evidence of concurrent LPE. Microscopical features significantly associated with LGAL were epitheliotropism, involvement of the muscularis propria and/or serosa, more severe infiltration and more severe changes to the villus and crypt architecture. Plasma cell infiltration within the mucosa, conversely, was a feature of LPE. Twenty-eight of the 29 cases of LGAL were of T-cell phenotype. While many LGAL and most LPE cases had a mixed infiltrate of T and B lymphocytes, LGAL cases had a clear predominance of the T-cell phenotype. Expression of class II molecules of the major histocompatibility complex by enterocytes did not differentiate between LGAL and LPE. In eight of 12 cases of moderate-marked LPE there was disparity in diagnosis by two pathologists regarding differentiation from LGAL, requiring assessment by a third pathologist to reach a consensus diagnosis. This demonstrates the inherent difficulty in differentiating LPE from LGAL on the basis of microscopical and immunohistochemical features alone. Other diagnostic tools such as clonality testing may assist in the definitive diagnosis of such cases.

  17. The usefulness of routine histopathology of bilateral nasal polyps - a systematic review, meta-analysis, and cost evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jay S M; Hoffbauer, Stephanie; Yeh, David H; Rotenberg, Brian; Gupta, Michael; Sommer, Doron D

    2015-11-04

    Controversy regarding the usefulness of routine histopathological examination of bilateral nasal polyps removed during endoscopic sinus surgery to identify occult diagnoses still exists. There is a paucity of high-level evidence in the literature. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Two independent reviewers were used. Pooled proportions and numbers needed to screen were calculated. A cost per life year model was generated based on varying survival benefits and compared to other Canadian screening programs to provide financial context. Six studies (n = 3772 patients) were included. Of the 3772 patients, 3751 had a pre-operative clinical and post-operative pathological diagnosis of inflammatory nasal polyps. Agreement proportion was 99.44 %. There were 18 unexpected benign and three unexpected malignant diagnoses identified. This translated to a proportion of 0.48 and 0.08 % respectively. Number needed to screen was 210 and 1258 respectively. Pooled proportion for expected findings using a random effect model was 0.99 (95 % CI = 0.99-1). Pooled proportion for unexpected benign findings using a random effect model was 0.00522 (95 % CI = 0.00133-0.01). Pooled proportion for unexpected malignant findings using a random effect model was 0.00107 (95 % CI = 0.000147-0.00283). The cost to pick up one unexpected benign diagnosis was $14557.2. The cost to pick up 1 unexpected malignant diagnosis was $87204.56. Cost per quality life year calculated ranged from 3211.83 to $64677.58 based on varying assumptions on the survival benefits of identifying an unexpected malignancy. Routine pathological examination in screening for neoplasia may be low yield, however, no compelling evidence was found to cease such practice. Surgeons should exercise individual judgment in requesting routine examination.

  18. Evaluation of histopathological changes, viral load and immune function of domestic geese infected with Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ailing; Diao, Youxiang; Chen, Hao; Wang, Jiao; Ge, Pingping; Sun, Xiaoyan; Hao, Dongmin

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of Newcastle disease in flocks of geese with high morbidity and mortality in southern and eastern China have been reported frequently since the late 1990s, which broke the traditional view that geese are considered to be the natural reservoir of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) but show few or no clinical signs after infection. In this present study, geese were infected intranasally with a local strain of NDV. Clinical disease and gross pathology were observed. Serum and immune organs were collected from geese sequentially euthanized or after disease-associated death. We studied the histopathology of immune organs by haematoxylin and eosin staining and NDV fusion protein was detected in tissues by immunohistochemistry. At the same time, the SYBR Green I real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect the viral load from the collected samples. Serum samples were tested for NDV-specific antibodies and avian influenza virus (AIV)-specific antibodies by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The results showed that severe lesions and numerous positive reactions of NDV antigen were detected in the immune organs. High viral loads developed in immune organs of infected geese, correlating with the severity of clinical signs and lesions in the tissues. Furthermore, the infected geese developed low HI antibody titres to both AIV and NDV. The present study showed that the replication and dissemination of the NDV isolate was widespread in immune organs of geese. The study revealed that waterfowl may not only be a natural reservoir of NDV but also become susceptible to disease and may play a major role in the epidemiology of Newcastle disease.

  19. Comprehensive safeguards evaluation methods and societal risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    Essential capabilities of an integrated evaluation methodology for analyzing safeguards systems are discussed. Such a methodology must be conceptually meaningful, technically defensible, discriminating and consistent. A decompostion of safeguards systems by function is mentioned as a possible starting point for methodology development. The application of a societal risk equation to safeguards systems analysis is addressed. Conceptual problems with this approach are discussed. Technical difficulties in applying this equation to safeguards systems are illustrated through the use of confidence intervals, information content, hypothesis testing and ranking and selection procedures.

  20. The acetic acid test in evaluation of subclinical genital papillomavirus infection: a comparative study on penoscopy, histopathology, virology and scanning electron microscopy findings.

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, A; Hedblad, M A; Johansson, B; Kalantari, M; Syrjänen, S; Lindberg, M; von Krogh, G

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate colposcopic criteria in acetowhite lesions of the penis ("penoscopy") for the diagnosis of subclinical genitoanal papillomavirus infection (GPVI) compared with histopathological criteria of HPV involvement and to various hybridisation assays for HPV DNA detection, and to depict typical lesions by scanning electron microscopy. DESIGN--The study included 101 randomly selected male partners of females with known GPVI, or with penile symptoms such as itching, burning and dyspareunia who did not exhibit overt genital warts but appeared to be afflicted with acetowhite penile lesions after topical application of 5% acqueous acetic acid. Lesions were judged by penoscopy as either typical, conspicuous or nontypical for underlying HPV infection. Biopsy specimens from 91 men were examined by light microscopy and by either Southern blot (SB), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or in situ hybridisation (ISH) assays for the presence of HPV DNA of the HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33 and 42 (Group A). From another ten men lesions clinically typical for GPVI were also examined topographically by scanning electronic microscopy (Group B). SETTING--The STD out-patient clinic of the Department of Dermatovenereology of Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. RESULTS--Group A Seventy eight (86%) of the biopsied lesions met the penoscopy criteria of being either typical of or conspicuous for GVPI. The agreement between penoscopy and histopathology was fairly good, as HPV diagnosis was made by both methods in 56 (62%) of the cases. The reliability of applying strict colposcopic hallmarks was further substantiated by the finding that 55 (60%) of the biopsy specimens taken from penoscopically typical/conspicuous lesions contained HPV DNA. However, there are diagnostic pitfalls for the acetic acid test. Coexistence of an eczematoid reaction with changes indicative of HPV influence was detected in six (7%) of the cases, while an inflammatory response only occurred in

  1. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Locally Delivered Vitamin C in the Treatment of Persistent Gingival Inflammation: Clinical and Histopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Aziz, Manar A.; Abdel Rahman, Ahmed R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role and efficiency of the locally injected vitamin C in the treatment of persistent gingival inflammation. Design. Twenty adult patients with persistent chronic gingival inflammation were included in this study. The same dose of sterile vitamin C was injected in gingival tissues after the completion of phase I therapy. Gingival biopsies were taken after total resolution of inflammation. The specimens were examined histologically, using H&E stain. Results. Clinical evaluation revealed great improvement of the injected sites with recall visits. Histopathological results revealed marked decrease in inflammatory cells and epithelial thickness and a higher number of newly formed subbasal capillaries. Conclusions. Vitamin C is an effective adjunctive treatment in reducing various degrees of chronic gingival inflammation. PMID:28050280

  2. Psoriasis comprehensive care: an evaluation of a web site.

    PubMed

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Leyva-Garcia, Ana; Ruiz-Carrascosa, Jose Carlos; Naranjo-Sintes, Ramon; Jiménez-Moleon, Jose Juan

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a disease that affects many facets of life. Psoriasis patients have needs that cannot be addressed within the traditional consultation structure. Although the Internet provides a number of health resources, the quality of the information is variable, and many sites are not editorially independent. After reviewing the contents available on the Internet related to psoriasis, the staff of the psoriasis unit at San Cecilio University Hospital (Granada, Spain) developed a Web site to meet the needs of psoriasis patients. A group of 241 patients who attended a follow-up visit to our psoriasis unit evaluated the Web site and provided feedback through an online survey. The result of the Web development process was the creation of "Psoriasis365" (https://sites.google.com/site/psoriasis365/). Overall, the Web site achieved high scores, the most popular section being "research." These results suggest that the Web site can complement the healthcare of psoriasis patients and is potentially useful for research purposes.

  3. A comprehensive benchmarking system for evaluating global vegetation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, D. I.; Prentice, I. C.; Harrison, S. P.; Wang, H.; Simard, M.; Fisher, J. B.; Willis, K. O.

    2013-05-01

    We present a benchmark system for global vegetation models. This system provides a quantitative evaluation of multiple simulated vegetation properties, including primary production; seasonal net ecosystem production; vegetation cover; composition and height; fire regime; and runoff. The benchmarks are derived from remotely sensed gridded datasets and site-based observations. The datasets allow comparisons of annual average conditions and seasonal and inter-annual variability, and they allow the impact of spatial and temporal biases in means and variability to be assessed separately. Specifically designed metrics quantify model performance for each process, and are compared to scores based on the temporal or spatial mean value of the observations and a "random" model produced by bootstrap resampling of the observations. The benchmark system is applied to three models: a simple light-use efficiency and water-balance model (the Simple Diagnostic Biosphere Model: SDBM), the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) and Land Processes and eXchanges (LPX) dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). In general, the SDBM performs better than either of the DGVMs. It reproduces independent measurements of net primary production (NPP) but underestimates the amplitude of the observed CO2 seasonal cycle. The two DGVMs show little difference for most benchmarks (including the inter-annual variability in the growth rate and seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2), but LPX represents burnt fraction demonstrably more accurately. Benchmarking also identified several weaknesses common to both DGVMs. The benchmarking system provides a quantitative approach for evaluating how adequately processes are represented in a model, identifying errors and biases, tracking improvements in performance through model development, and discriminating among models. Adoption of such a system would do much to improve confidence in terrestrial model predictions of climate change impacts and feedbacks.

  4. A comprehensive benchmarking system for evaluating global vegetation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, D. I.; Prentice, I. Colin; Harrison, S. P.; Wang, H.; Simard, M.; Fisher, J. B.; Willis, K. O.

    2012-11-01

    We present a benchmark system for global vegetation models. This system provides a quantitative evaluation of multiple simulated vegetation properties, including primary production; seasonal net ecosystem production; vegetation cover, composition and height; fire regime; and runoff. The benchmarks are derived from remotely sensed gridded datasets and site-based observations. The datasets allow comparisons of annual average conditions and seasonal and inter-annual variability, and they allow the impact of spatial and temporal biases in means and variability to be assessed separately. Specifically designed metrics quantify model performance for each process, and are compared to scores based on the temporal or spatial mean value of the observations and a "random" model produced by bootstrap resampling of the observations. The benchmark system is applied to three models: a simple light-use efficiency and water-balance model (the Simple Diagnostic Biosphere Model: SDBM), and the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) and Land Processes and eXchanges (LPX) dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). SDBM reproduces observed CO2 seasonal cycles, but its simulation of independent measurements of net primary production (NPP) is too high. The two DGVMs show little difference for most benchmarks (including the inter-annual variability in the growth rate and seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2), but LPX represents burnt fraction demonstrably more accurately. Benchmarking also identified several weaknesses common to both DGVMs. The benchmarking system provides a quantitative approach for evaluating how adequately processes are represented in a model, identifying errors and biases, tracking improvements in performance through model development, and discriminating among models. Adoption of such a system would do much to improve confidence in terrestrial model predictions of climate change impacts and feedbacks.

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of fracture parameters by dual laterolog data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saboorian-Jooybari, Hadi; Dejam, Morteza; Chen, Zhangxin; Pourafshary, Peyman

    2016-08-01

    Reservoir quality and productivity of tight formations depend heavily on the degree of fracture development. In fact, hard and dense carbonate formations may not be considered as net pay without the presence of fractures that convey fluids towards the wellbore. The evaluation of fractures is key to effective reservoir characterization for purposes like well drilling and completion as well as development and simulation of fractured reservoirs. Although imaging technologies such as Formation Micro-Scanners and Imagers (FMS and FMI) provide useful information about fracture properties (i.e., dip angle, porosity, aperture, and permeability), they are very expensive and may not be available in all wells. In this work, fracture parameters are estimated using conventional dual laterolog (DLL) resistivity which includes shallow (LLS) and deep (LLD) responses. This technique is based on electrical resistivity anomalies resulting from the separation of shallow and deep laterolog curves. Fracture parameters that can be calculated by DLL include dip angle, aperture, porosity, permeability, and cementation factor. The accuracy of the parameters calculated using DLL data is validated by the results of FMI in a well in one of the Iranian fractured reservoirs. Contrary to the image logs, the conventional DLL is run routinely in all drilled wells. Therefore, if a reservoir has limited and insufficient data of image logs, as it is often the case, the DLLs can be used as a reliable replacement in the construction of fracture models. Furthermore, DLL has an advantage of deeper evaluation of fractures in comparison with the immediate borehole investigation of image logs.

  6. Comprehensive evaluation of embarrassment and pain associated with invasive urodynamics.

    PubMed

    Yiou, René; Audureau, Etienne; Loche, Catherine-Marie; Dussaud, Marie; Lingombet, Odile; Binhas, Michele

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate pain and embarrassment associated with invasive urodynamics and to determine underlying factors. One hundred seventy one consecutive patients referred to our department for invasive urodynamics were evaluated using visual numeric rating scales for sensations of apprehension, pain, and embarrassment during several steps of the procedure (scores ranging from 0 [no symptom] to 10 [worst imaginable symptom]). We also investigated the influence of sex, age, information provided before urodynamics, and medical indication on these sensations. The Spearman correlation, non-parametric test, and logistic regression analysis were performed to determine explicative factors for the most painful sensations. The mean age was 61.0 (standard deviation ± 15 years). The mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) apprehension level was 2.9/10 (2.4; 3.4). The mean (95% CI) pain levels at installation on urodynamic table, transurethral catheter insertion (cystometry), and catheter repositioning (urethral pressure profilometry) were 0.3/10 (0.1; 0.5), 1.9/10 (1.6; 2.3), and 1.3/10 (1.0; 1.7), respectively. At catheter insertion, 25% of patients reported a pain level ≥ 4/10. The mean embarrassment level due to urination in front of the doctor was 1.9/10 (1.4; 2.3). Painful sensations reported during the different steps were strongly correlated with each other and with levels of apprehension and embarrassment. Age <54 years (lower quartile) and apprehension level were the only factors associated with painful sensation. Our study confirms that invasive urodynamics is a well-tolerated procedure. However, some patients experience high levels of pain and embarrassment throughout the procedure. Younger age and apprehension were the most influential factors. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effects of subchronic exposure to lead acetate and cadmium chloride on rat's bone: Ca and Pi contents, bone density, and histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongke; Yuan, Guiping; Yin, Zhongqiong; Dai, Shujun; Jia, Renyong; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Lv, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of low-dose subchronic exposure to lead acetate (Pb(NO₃)₂) and cadmium chloride (CdCl₂·2.5H₂O) on bone in rats. The rats were assigned randomly to a control group and three experimental groups that were given the mixture of Pb(NO₃)₂ and CdCl₂·2.5H₂O by gastric gavage at doses of 0 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) (Group I, to serve as a control), 29.96 mg/kg b.w. (Group II, 29.25+0.71), 89.88 mg/kg b.w. (Group III, 87.74+2.14), and 269.65 mg/kg b.w. (Group IV, 263.23+6.42) for at least 90 consecutive days. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (Pi) contents in the bone were determined. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the tibia and femur region by dual-energy X-ray absorbsiometry. The histopathology of bone was evaluated by light microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The BMD of rats in the experimental group was significantly lower and the contents of Ca and Pi were decreased than those in the control group. The histopathological evaluation showed that co-induction of Pb and Cd results in bone microstructure damage, especially to trabecular bone, marrow cavity, collagen fiber, and osteoblast. In general, results indicate that combining Pb with Cd induces bone damage and increases the risk of osteoporosis.

  8. Assessing Teachers: A Mixed-Method Case Study of Comprehensive Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Donna

    2013-01-01

    A review of studies selected from the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC) covering the years 1985 through 2011 revealed three key evaluation components to analyze within a comprehensive teacher evaluation program: (a) designing, planning, and implementing instruction; (b) learning environments; and (c) parent and peer surveys. In this…

  9. Evaluation of Turkish Hearing Impaired Students' Reading Comprehension with the Miscue Analysis Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girgin, Umit

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the reading comprehension of hearing impaired 8th graders who are being trained through an auditory-oral approach. The evaluation is conducted through miscue analysis using complex stories. To realize this aim, the following research questions are formulated. (1) To what extent do hearing impaired…

  10. Evaluation of Comprehensive Treatment Models for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Samuel L.; Boyd, Brian A.; Hall, Laura J.; Hume, Kara

    2010-01-01

    Multiple dimensions of comprehensive treatment models (CTMs) for learners with autism were evaluated in this study. The purpose of the study was to provide evaluative information upon which service providers, family members, and researchers could make decisions about model adoption, selection for a family member, or future research. Thirty CTMs…

  11. Whether Experience and Training of Teachers Affect Their Attitude towards Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahanowas, S. K.; Halder, Santoshi

    2016-01-01

    Teaching experience and training of the teachers are important variables for teaching and evaluating effectively having an immense impact to their inclination, attitude and perfection. West Bengal Board of Secondary Education (W.B.B.S.E), India, has taken the initiative to implement Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation system up to class VIII…

  12. Assessing Teachers: A Mixed-Method Case Study of Comprehensive Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Donna

    2013-01-01

    A review of studies selected from the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC) covering the years 1985 through 2011 revealed three key evaluation components to analyze within a comprehensive teacher evaluation program: (a) designing, planning, and implementing instruction; (b) learning environments; and (c) parent and peer surveys. In this…

  13. Comprehensive evaluation of imputation performance in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Pritam; Yuhki, Naoya; Li, Man; Bader, Joel S; Hartz, Alex; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kao, WH Linda; Arking, Dan E

    2012-01-01

    Imputation of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays to a larger known reference panel of SNPs has become a standard and an essential part of genome-wide association studies. However, little is known about the behavior of imputation in African Americans with respect to the different imputation algorithms, the reference population(s) and the reference SNP panels used. Genome-wide SNP data (Affymetrix 6.0) from 3207 African American samples in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) was used to systematically evaluate imputation quality and yield. Imputation was performed with the imputation algorithms MACH, IMPUTE and BEAGLE using several combinations of three reference panels of HapMap III (ASW, YRI and CEU) and 1000 Genomes Project (pilot 1 YRI June 2010 release, EUR and AFR August 2010 and June 2011 releases) panels with SNP data on chromosomes 18, 20 and 22. About 10% of the directly genotyped SNPs from each chromosome were masked, and SNPs common between the reference panels were used for evaluating the imputation quality using two statistical metrics—concordance accuracy and Cohen’s kappa (κ) coefficient. The dependencies of these metrics on the minor allele frequencies (MAF) and specific genotype categories (minor allele homozygotes, heterozygotes and major allele homozygotes) were thoroughly investigated to determine the best panel and method for imputation in African Americans. In addition, the power to detect imputed SNPs associated with simulated phenotypes was studied using the mean genotype of each masked SNP in the imputed data. Our results indicate that the genotype concordances after stratification into each genotype category and Cohen’s κ coefficient are considerably better equipped to differentiate imputation performance compared with the traditionally used total concordance statistic, and both statistics improved with increasing MAF irrespective of the imputation method. We also find that both MACH and IMPUTE

  14. A Comprehensive Evaluation of a Lifelong Learning Program: Program 60.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Hoon; Lee, KyongWeon; Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly

    2016-09-28

    Lifelong learning programs meet older adults' educational needs and further support their health and well-being leading to more successful aging. In particular, university-based lifelong learning programs have provided older adults with opportunities to not only develop skills and knowledge but also expand new social networks with people of different ages. This study evaluated a university-based lifelong learning program, Program 60, to identify the relationships between participants' experiences in the program and their quality of life. An online survey was employed, and 107 participants completed the self-report survey. The participants reported that classes helped increase their emotional satisfaction and that they enjoyed taking classes with younger students. Their experiences in the program reliably predicted psychological and social elements of their quality of life (p = .004 and p = .019, respectively). Study results provide helpful information for the development of lifelong learning programs that are responsive to the increasing demands of older adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Chest pain evaluation in the emergency department: can MDCT provide a comprehensive evaluation?

    PubMed

    White, Charles S; Kuo, Dick; Kelemen, Mark; Jain, Vineet; Musk, Amy; Zaidi, Eram; Read, Katrina; Sliker, Clint; Prasad, Rajnish

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether MDCT can provide a comprehensive assessment of cardiac and noncardiac causes of chest pain in stable emergency department patients. Patients with chest pain who presented to the emergency department without definitive findings of acute myocardial infarction based on history, physical examination, and ECG were recruited immediately after the initial clinical assessment. For each patient, the emergency department physician was asked whether a CT scan would normally have been ordered on clinical grounds (e.g., to exclude pulmonary embolism). Each consenting patient underwent enhanced ECG-gated 16-MDCT. Ten cardiac phases were reconstructed. The images were evaluated for cardiac (coronary calcium and stenosis, ejection fraction, and wall motion and perfusion) and significant noncardiac (pulmonary embolism, dissection, pneumonia, and so forth) causes of chest pain. Correlation was made between the presence of significant cardiac and noncardiac findings on CT and the final clinical diagnosis based on history, examination, and any subsequent cardiac workup at the 1-month follow-up by a consensus of three physicians. Sixty-nine patients met all criteria for enrollment in the study, of whom 45 (65%) would not otherwise have undergone CT. Fifty-two patients (75%) had no significant CT findings and a final diagnosis of clinically insignificant chest pain. Thirteen patients (19%) had significant CT findings (cardiac, 10; noncardiac, 3) concordant with the final diagnosis. CT failed to suggest a diagnosis in two patients (3%), both of whom proved to have clinically significant coronary artery stenoses. In two patients (3%), CT overdiagnosed a coronary stenosis. Sensitivity and specificity for the establishment of a cardiac cause of chest pain were 83% and 96%, respectively. Overall sensitivity and specificity for all other cardiac and noncardiac causes were 87% and 96%, respectively. ECG-gated MDCT appears to be logistically

  16. Histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of nitrogen mustard-induced cutaneous effects in SKH-1 hairless and C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Orlicky, David J; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-03-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicant warfare agent which causes severe skin injuries. Currently, we lack effective antidotes against SM-induced skin injuries, in part due to lack of appropriate animal model(s) that can be used for efficacy studies in laboratory settings to identify effective therapies. Therefore, to develop a relevant mouse skin injury model, we examined the effects of nitrogen mustard (NM), a primary vesicant and a bifunctional alkylating agent that induces toxic effects comparable to SM. Specifically, we conducted histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of several applicable cutaneous pathological lesions following skin NM (3.2mg) exposure for 12-120h in SKH-1 and C57BL/6 mice. NM caused a significant increase in epidermal thickness, incidence of microvesication, cell proliferation, apoptotic cell death, inflammatory cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) and myleoperoxidase activity in the skin of both mouse strains. However, there was a more prominent NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, and macrophages and mast cell infiltration, in SKH-1 mice relative to what was seen in C57BL/6 mice. NM also caused collagen degradation and edema at early time points (12-24h); however, at later time points (72 and 120h), dense collagen staining was observed, indicating either water loss or start of integument repair in both the mouse strains. This study provides quantitative measurement of NM-induced histopathological and immunohistochemical cutaneous lesions in both hairless and haired mouse strains that could serve as useful tools for screening and identification of effective therapies for treatment of skin injuries due to NM and SM.

  17. Histopathological and clinical evaluation of Kombucha tea and Nitrofurazone on cutaneous full-thickness wounds healing in rats: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Kombucha, a fermented tea (KT) is claimed to possess many beneficial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and histopathological alterations of Kombucha tea and Nitrofurazone on cutaneous full-thickness wounds healing in rat. Methods In present study 24 Wister -albino rats weighing 150–200 g were selected and divided to two treatment groups as Nitrofurazone ointment (0.2%) and Kombucha tea. Subsequently, the anesthesia was exerted by Ketamin hydrochloride 10% (40 mg/kg) and Xylasine (2 mg/kg) through intra muscular (IM) route. Furthermore, upon preparation of dorsal region of the animal for surgery, a piece of full-thickness skin removed (2 × 2 cm). In order to comparing wounds healing clinically and histologically, once every four days from the commencement, the wounds were photographed and the healed surface was measured by Scion image software. Result The clinical findings indicated that the Kombucha fungus resulted in precipitating healing than Nitrofurazone; however, it was not significant (p > 0.05). In order to pathological comparing of wound healing process, several wound biopsies were taken on 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20th days. Additionally, the histopathological results demonstrated that there was inflammation in Nitrofurazone group through twelveth day, somehow the epithelium was formed and abundant vessels were visible. Although on 16th day and the previous days the healing condition of Kombucha fungus was considered as minimal rate, revealing it is similar to Nitrofurazone group on 20th day. Conclusions To wrap up. These observations suggest that the Kombucha fungus healing quality was rapid from 12th day to the end of the research, whereas no significant difference was observed. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1107407136102196 PMID:23866960

  18. Histopathological and clinical evaluation of Kombucha tea and Nitrofurazone on cutaneous full-thickness wounds healing in rats: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Barati, Fardin; Javanbakht, Javad; Adib-Hashemi, Farajollah; Hosseini, Ehsan; Safaeie, Reyhaneh; Rajabian, Mojtaba; Razmjoo, Mostafa; Sedaghat, Reza; Aghamohammad Hassan, Mehdi

    2013-07-17

    Kombucha, a fermented tea (KT) is claimed to possess many beneficial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and histopathological alterations of Kombucha tea and Nitrofurazone on cutaneous full-thickness wounds healing in rat. In present study 24 Wister -albino rats weighing 150-200 g were selected and divided to two treatment groups as Nitrofurazone ointment (0.2%) and Kombucha tea. Subsequently, the anesthesia was exerted by Ketamin hydrochloride 10% (40 mg/kg) and Xylasine (2 mg/kg) through intra muscular (IM) route. Furthermore, upon preparation of dorsal region of the animal for surgery, a piece of full-thickness skin removed (2 × 2 cm). In order to comparing wounds healing clinically and histologically, once every four days from the commencement, the wounds were photographed and the healed surface was measured by Scion image software. The clinical findings indicated that the Kombucha fungus resulted in precipitating healing than Nitrofurazone; however, it was not significant (p > 0.05). In order to pathological comparing of wound healing process, several wound biopsies were taken on 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20th days. Additionally, the histopathological results demonstrated that there was inflammation in Nitrofurazone group through twelveth day, somehow the epithelium was formed and abundant vessels were visible. Although on 16th day and the previous days the healing condition of Kombucha fungus was considered as minimal rate, revealing it is similar to Nitrofurazone group on 20th day. To wrap up. These observations suggest that the Kombucha fungus healing quality was rapid from 12th day to the end of the research, whereas no significant difference was observed. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1107407136102196.

  19. Colorectal carcinoma: Ex vivo evaluation using 3-T high-spatial-resolution quantitative T2 mapping and its correlation with histopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ichiro; Yoshino, Norio; Hikishima, Keigo; Miyasaka, Naoyuki; Yamauchi, Shinichi; Uetake, Hiroyuki; Yasuno, Masamichi; Saida, Yukihisa; Tateishi, Ukihide; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Eishi, Yoshinobu

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of determining the mural invasion depths of colorectal carcinomas using high-spatial-resolution (HSR) quantitative T2 mapping on a 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. Twenty colorectal specimens containing adenocarcinomas were imaged on a 3-T MR system equipped with a 4-channel phased-array surface coil. HSR quantitative T2 maps were acquired using a spin-echo sequence with a repetition time/echo time of 7650/22.6-361.6ms (16 echoes), 87×43.5-mm field of view, 2-mm section thickness, 448×224 matrix, and average of 1. HSR fast-spin-echo T2-weighted images were also acquired. Differences between the T2 values (ms) of the tumor tissue, colorectal wall layers, and fibrosis were measured, and the MR images and histopathologic findings were compared. In all specimens (20/20, 100%), the HSR quantitative T2 maps clearly depicted an 8-layer normal colorectal wall in which the T2 values of each layer differed from those of the adjacent layer(s) (P<0.001). Using this technique, fibrosis (73.6±9.4ms) and tumor tissue (104.2±6.4ms) could also be clearly differentiated (P<0.001). In 19 samples (95%), the HSR quantitative T2 maps and histopathologic data yielded the same findings regarding the tumor invasion depth. Our results indicate that 3-T HSR quantitative T2 mapping is useful for distinguishing colorectal wall layers and differentiating tumor and fibrotic tissues. Accordingly, this technique could be used to determine mural invasion by colorectal carcinomas with a high level of accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of nitrogen mustard-induced cutaneous effects in SKH-1 hairless and C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Orlicky, David J.; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicant warfare agent which causes severe skin injuries. Currently, we lack effective antidotes against SM-induced skin injuries, in part due to lack of appropriate animal model(s) that can be used for efficacy studies in laboratory settings to identify effective therapies. Therefore, to develop a relevant mouse skin injury model, we examined the effects of nitrogen mustard (NM), a primary vesicant and a bifunctional alkylating agent that induces toxic effects comparable to SM. Specifically, we conducted histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of several applicable cutaneous pathological lesions following skin NM (3.2 mg) exposure for 12–120 h in SKH-1 and C57BL/6 mice. NM caused a significant increase in epidermal thickness, incidence of microvesication, cell proliferation, apoptotic cell death, inflammatory cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) and myleoperoxidase activity in the skin in both mouse strains. However, there was a more prominent NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, and macrophages and mast cell infiltration, in SKH-1 mice relative to what was seen in C57BL/6 mice. NM also caused collagen degradation and edema at early time points (12–24 h); however, at later time points (72 and 120 h), dense collagen staining was observed, indicating either water loss or start of integument repair in both mouse strains. This study provides quantitative measurement of NM-induced histopathological and immunohistochemical cutaneous lesions in both hairless and haired mouse strains that could serve as useful tools for screening and identification of effective therapies for treatment of skin injuries due to NM and SM. PMID:24373750

  1. An evaluation of reading comprehension of expository text in adults with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Griffiths, Gina G; Fickas, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    This project was conducted to obtain information about reading problems of adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) with mild-to-moderate cognitive impairments and to investigate how these readers respond to reading comprehension strategy prompts integrated into digital versions of text. Participants from 2 groups, adults with TBI (n = 15) and matched controls (n = 15), read 4 different 500-word expository science passages linked to either a strategy prompt condition or a no-strategy prompt condition. The participants' reading comprehension was evaluated using sentence verification and free recall tasks. The TBI and control groups exhibited significant differences on 2 of the 5 reading comprehension measures: paraphrase statements on a sentence verification task and communication units on a free recall task. Unexpected group differences were noted on the participants' prerequisite reading skills. For the within-group comparison, participants showed significantly higher reading comprehension scores on 2 free recall measures: words per communication unit and type-token ratio. There were no significant interactions. The results help to elucidate the nature of reading comprehension in adults with TBI with mild-to-moderate cognitive impairments and endorse further evaluation of reading comprehension strategies as a potential intervention option for these individuals. Future research is needed to better understand how individual differences influence a person's reading and response to intervention.

  2. Combination of histopathological and electromyographic patterns can help to evaluate functional outcome of critical ill patients with neuromuscular weakness syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Kerbaul, François; Brousse, Muriel; Collart, Frédéric; Pellissier, Jean-François; Planche, Denis; Fernandez, Carla; Gouin, François; Guidon, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to describe patterns of neuromuscular weakness using a combination of electromyography and histology, and to evaluate functional outcome in patients following complicated cardiovascular surgery. Methods Fifteen adults requiring long-term mechanical ventilation (>15 days) following cardiovascular surgery associated with postoperative complications were prospectively included. Electrophysiological and histological analyses (muscle and nerve) were performed when failure to wean from mechanical ventilation associated with peripheral neuromuscular weakness was noticed. Functional disability was evaluated 12 months after surgery. Results Six patients had a predominantly axonal neuropathy, six presented with myopathy, and three patients had a combination of axonal neuropathy and myopathy. All of them presented with acute tetraparesis and failure to wean from mechanical ventilation. All of the study patients who received corticosteroids exhibited a myopathic pattern (with or without axonopathic changes) but never an axonopathic pattern only. Only two of the eight survivors at 12 months were not ambulatory. These two patients had no detectable compound muscle action potential on electrophysiological examination. Conclusion The combination of electromyographic evaluation and neuromuscular histological abnormalities could help to identify the type and severity of neuromuscular weakness, in turn helping to evaluate the patient's potential functional prognosis. PMID:15566579

  3. [Histopathological meniscus diagnostic].

    PubMed

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, A; Müller, K-M

    2009-06-01

    Menisci fulfill many functions within the complex biomechanics of the knee joint. In the case of meniscus lesions, sparing arthroscopic resections and operative refixation are the treatments of choice. With regard to diagnostics, this means that in general terms, the histopathologic diagnostics are carried out on detached meniscus fragments of between 5 mm and 2 cm in size. An experienced pathologist's knowledge of physiologically possible cellular and fibrous histological meniscus damage, as opposed to nonphysiological change regarded as normal with respect to age, is essential during a diagnostic meniscus evaluation. The clinician expects clear statements from the pathologist regarding the severity of previous or secondary degenerative meniscus damage, the age and type of traumatic tears, and appraisal of the relationship between trauma and meniscus damage from an insurance point of view. Close cooperation between the clinician and the pathologist allows for fast and unambiguous correlation of anamnesis, the clinical picture, and morphological reporting so that cases involving insurance problems - which are numerous, often long-term, and often unsatisfactory - can be clarified quickly.

  4. A Comprehensive Evaluation of a K-5 Chinese Language Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Shoufen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation was designed to provide a comprehensive data-driven evaluation of a Chinese language Immersion Program (CIP) for the stakeholders. CIP was implemented in 2006 with a goal for students to become proficient in the Chinese language and develop increased cultural awareness while reaching at least the same level of academic…

  5. Evaluation Issues in the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spirer, Janet E.

    Underutilization of evaluation findings relative to the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) legislation may not stem primarily from factors usually identified in the literature (e.g., methodological reasons) but may be superseded by a more potent factor such as the prominence of the policy or program on the national agenda. Viewed…

  6. A Comprehensive Evaluation System for Military Hospitals' Response Capability to Bio-terrorism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Jiang, Nan; Shao, Sicong; Zheng, Tao; Sun, Jianzhong

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to establish a comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. Literature research and Delphi method were utilized to establish the comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. Questionnaires were designed and used to survey the status quo of 134 military hospitals' response capability to bio-terrorism. Survey indicated that factor analysis method was suitable to for analyzing the comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. The constructed evaluation system was consisted of five first-class and 16 second-class indexes. Among them, medical response factor was considered as the most important factor with weight coefficient of 0.660, followed in turn by the emergency management factor with weight coefficient of 0.109, emergency management consciousness factor with weight coefficient of 0.093, hardware support factor with weight coefficient of 0.078, and improvement factor with weight coefficient of 0.059. The constructed comprehensive assessment model and system are scientific and practical.

  7. National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers. Final Report. Executive Summary. NCEE 2011-4032

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Brenda J.; White, Richard N.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Riley, Derek L.; Pistorino, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This final report presents findings from a multi-year evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers, a federally funded program that provides technical assistance to states in connection with the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, as reauthorized by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. With the redesign of the Center…

  8. National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers. Final Report. NCEE 2011-4031

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Brenda J.; White, Richard N.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Riley, Derek L.; Pistorino, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This final report presents findings from a multi-year evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers, a federally funded program that provides technical assistance to states in connection with the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, as reauthorized by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. With the redesign of the Center…

  9. The Research and Evaluation of Serious Games: Toward a Comprehensive Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Igor; Bekebrede, Geertje; Harteveld, Casper; Warmelink, Harald; Zhou, Qiqi; van Ruijven, Theo; Lo, Julia; Kortmann, Rens; Wenzler, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the methodological background to and underlying research design of an ongoing research project on the scientific evaluation of serious games and/or computer-based simulation games (SGs) for advanced learning. The main research questions are: (1) what are the requirements and design principles for a comprehensive social…

  10. Forming a Belief: The Contribution of Comprehension to the Evaluation and Persuasive Impact of Argumentative Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diakidoy, Irene-Anna N.; Christodoulou, Stelios A.; Floros, Georgios; Iordanou, Kalypso; Kargopoulos, Philip V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has shown substantial belief change as a result of reading text and the pervasive influence of prior belief in the evaluation of short arguments. Both outcomes have been attributed to the depth to which the text or the argument has been processed. This study brings together critical thinking and text comprehension research by…

  11. A Comprehensive Framework for Evaluating Hypotheses about Cultural Bias in Educational Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a working definition of the term "culture," as well as to describe and demonstrate a comprehensive framework for evaluating hypotheses about cultural bias in educational testing. The framework is demonstrated using 5th-grade reading and language arts data from the Terra Nova test (CTB/McGraw-Hill, 1999).…

  12. A Comprehensive Evaluation of a K-5 Chinese Language Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Shoufen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation was designed to provide a comprehensive data-driven evaluation of a Chinese language Immersion Program (CIP) for the stakeholders. CIP was implemented in 2006 with a goal for students to become proficient in the Chinese language and develop increased cultural awareness while reaching at least the same level of academic…

  13. Comprehensive Evaluation of an Online Tobacco Control Continuing Education Course in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Kirsten E.; Cohen, Joanna E.; Drope, Jacqui

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: To respond to the increasing need to build capacity for planning, implementing, and supporting tobacco control strategies, an evidence-based, online continuing education (CE) course aimed at Canadian public health professionals was developed. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the course, Tobacco and Public…

  14. Using RTI within a Comprehensive SLD Evaluation: A Review of a State's First Year Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn S.; Semmelroth, Carrie; Mellard, Daryl F.; Hopper, Gina

    2012-01-01

    The Idaho State Department of Education (SDE) recently revised its SLD identification policy to include a requirement to document a student's response to intervention coupled with a comprehensive evaluation. To implement this policy, the SDE is using multiple implementation drivers. In this article, we describe how and why the new policy was…

  15. Findings from an Evaluation of a Comprehensive Parent Education Program for School-Age Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Maureen H.; Fuscaldo, Diane P.

    This study evaluates the impact of the Parent Linking Project III (PLP III) on its participants. The PLP III is a comprehensive program for teenage mothers which offers workshops in parenting, mother-child interaction, and vocational awareness, and provides day care services that allow teen mothers to take the opportunity to complete their high…

  16. Comprehensive Instructional Management System (CIMS) Communication Arts 1985-86. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    Using both qualitative and quantitative data, the Office of Educational Assessment/Instructional Support Unit evaluated the 1985-1986 New York City Board of Education's Comprehensive Instructional Management Systems-Communication Arts (CIMS-CA) Project. The 1985-1986 CIMS-CA aimed to (1) implement an integrated communication arts program for…

  17. Teaching Fourth and Fifth Graders to Evaluate Information Sources during Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macedo-Rouet, Monica; Braasch, Jason L. G.; Britt, M. Anne; Rouet, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined fourth and fifth graders' comprehension of the source of information in texts presenting controversial issues. In Experiment 1, participants read short texts in which two people presented different arguments regarding an issue. Participants identified who said what and evaluated each source's knowledge of the issue.…

  18. The Comprehensive Evaluation of Professional Development Software: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaupsin, Carl J.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the development of professional development software for special education teachers reviews the literature to (1) consolidate the database of literature regarding professional development software; (2) examine the degree to which the described software has been comprehensively evaluated; and (3) provide suggestions for future…

  19. Models Matter--The Final Report of the National Longitudinal Evaluation of Comprehensive School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladjem, Daniel K.; LeFloch, Kerstin Carlson; Zhang, Yu; Kurki, Anja; Boyle, Andrea; Taylor, James E.; Herrmann, Suzannah; Uekawa, Kazuaki; Thomsen, Kerri; Fashola, Olatokunbo

    2006-01-01

    The National Longitudinal Evaluation of Comprehensive School Reform (NLECSR) is a quantitative and qualitative study of behavior, decisions, processes, and outcomes. It employs a quasi-experimental design with matched treatment and comparison schools. NLECSR seeks to determine the effects of CSR models on student achievement in about 650…

  20. A Comprehensive and Systematic Model of User Evaluation of Web Search Engines: I. Theory and Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Louise T.

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a project that proposes and tests a comprehensive and systematic model of user evaluation of Web search engines. This article describes the model, including a set of criteria and measures and a method for implementation. A literature review portrays settings for developing the model and places applications of the model in contemporary…

  1. The Comprehensive Evaluation of Professional Development Software: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaupsin, Carl J.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the development of professional development software for special education teachers reviews the literature to (1) consolidate the database of literature regarding professional development software; (2) examine the degree to which the described software has been comprehensively evaluated; and (3) provide suggestions for future…

  2. Textbook Evaluation: An Analysis of Listening Comprehension Parts in Top Notch 2A & 2B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soori, Afshin; Haghani, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Textbooks are the instruments that assist both teachers and learners in process of second language learning. With respect to the importance of textbooks in a language course, evaluation of course books is a significant issue for most researchers. The present study investigated and analyzed Listening Comprehension parts in Top Notch 2A & 2B 2nd…

  3. Forming a Belief: The Contribution of Comprehension to the Evaluation and Persuasive Impact of Argumentative Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diakidoy, Irene-Anna N.; Christodoulou, Stelios A.; Floros, Georgios; Iordanou, Kalypso; Kargopoulos, Philip V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has shown substantial belief change as a result of reading text and the pervasive influence of prior belief in the evaluation of short arguments. Both outcomes have been attributed to the depth to which the text or the argument has been processed. This study brings together critical thinking and text comprehension research by…

  4. PAVEd for Success: An Evaluation of a Comprehensive Preliteracy Program for Four-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Hamilton, Claire E.; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Bradley, Barbara A.; Webb, Mi-Young

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of "PAVEd for Success," comprehensive preliteracy program guidelines to support the development of foundational preliteracy skills in 4 year olds. Prekindergarten teachers received professional development on variables of the program that included a summer institute, after-school…

  5. Teaching Fourth and Fifth Graders to Evaluate Information Sources during Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macedo-Rouet, Monica; Braasch, Jason L. G.; Britt, M. Anne; Rouet, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined fourth and fifth graders' comprehension of the source of information in texts presenting controversial issues. In Experiment 1, participants read short texts in which two people presented different arguments regarding an issue. Participants identified who said what and evaluated each source's knowledge of the issue.…

  6. Evaluating the extent of cell death in 3D high frequency ultrasound by registration with whole-mount tumor histopathology

    SciTech Connect

    Vlad, Roxana M.; Kolios, Michael C.; Moseley, Joanne L.; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Brock, Kristy K.

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: High frequency ultrasound imaging, 10-30 MHz, has the capability to assess tumor response to radiotherapy in mouse tumors as early as 24 h after treatment administration. The advantage of this technique is that the image contrast is generated by changes in the physical properties of dying cells. Therefore, a subject can be imaged before and multiple times during the treatment without the requirement of injecting specialized contrast agents. This study is motivated by a need to provide metrics of comparison between the volume and localization of cell death, assessed from histology, with the volume and localization of cell death surrogate, assessed as regions with increased echogeneity from ultrasound images. Methods: The mice were exposed to radiation doses of 2, 4, and 8 Gy. Ultrasound images were collected from each tumor before and 24 h after exposure to radiation using a broadband 25 MHz center frequency transducer. After radiotherapy, tumors exhibited hyperechoic regions in ultrasound images that corresponded to areas of cell death in histology. The ultrasound and histological images were rigidly registered. The tumors and regions of cell death were manually outlined on histological images. Similarly, the tumors and hyperechoic regions were outlined on the ultrasound images. Each set of contours was converted to a volumetric mesh in order to compare the volumes and the localization of cell death in histological and ultrasound images. Results: A shrinkage factor of 17{+-}2% was calculated from the difference in the tumor volumes evaluated from histological and ultrasound images. This was used to correct the tumor and cell death volumes assessed from histology. After this correction, the average absolute difference between the volume of cell death assessed from ultrasound and histological images was 11{+-}14% and the volume overlap was 70{+-}12%. Conclusions: The method provided metrics of comparison between the volume of cell death assessed from

  7. Histopathology of hepatitis C in children, a systematic review: implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Indolfi, Giuseppe; Guido, Maria; Azzari, Chiara; Resti, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C in children is usually considered a clinically mild and slowly progressive disease. Few pediatric studies focused on histopathology of children with hepatitis C are available. Those available show, overall, a wide spectrum of findings ranging from normal liver to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The present systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the studies that explored histopathology in children with hepatitis C. Factors affecting the presence and the degree of necroinflammation, fibrosis and steatosis and the risk of progression to advanced liver disease were extensively evaluated. Insights on the possible role of histopathology findings in the decision-making process of whether or not to treat children with hepatitis C are provided.

  8. Method and Application for Dynamic Comprehensive Evaluation with Subjective and Objective Information

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dinglin; Zhao, Xianglian

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to deal with more complicated evaluation situations, scientists have focused their efforts on dynamic comprehensive evaluation research. How to make full use of the subjective and objective information has become one of the noteworthy content. In this paper, a dynamic comprehensive evaluation method with subjective and objective information is proposed. We use the combination weighting method to determine the index weight. Analysis hierarchy process method is applied to dispose the subjective information, and criteria importance through intercriteria correlation method is used to handle the objective information. And for the time weight determination, we consider both time distance and information size to embody the principle of esteeming the present over the past. And then the linear weighted average model is constructed to make the evaluation process more practicable. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method. Overall, the results suggest that the proposed method is reasonable and effective. PMID:24386176

  9. Towards a Comprehensive Method for Evaluating Social Studies Curriculum Materials: With Examples from the Elementary School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisland, Beverly Milner

    The evaluation methodology delineated in this paper is a work in progress. The purpose is to develop a method for evaluating social studies curriculum materials that encompasses the materials' comprehensibility and the perspective offered. The paper draws from past evaluations that focused on either comprehensibility or perspective but have not…

  10. Comprehensiveness of Care from the Patient Perspective: Comparison of Primary Healthcare Evaluation Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Jeannie L.; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Pineault, Raynald; Burge, Frederick; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Santor, Darcy A.; Bouharaoui, Fatima; Beaulieu, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensiveness relates both to scope of services offered and to a whole-person clinical approach. Comprehensive services are defined as “the provision, either directly or indirectly, of a full range of services to meet most patients' healthcare needs”; whole-person care is “the extent to which a provider elicits and considers the physical, emotional and social aspects of a patient's health and considers the community context in their care.” Among instruments that evaluate primary healthcare, two had subscales that mapped to comprehensive services and to the community component of whole-person care: the Primary Care Assessment Tool – Short Form (PCAT-S) and the Components of Primary Care Index (CPCI, a limited measure of whole-person care). Objective: To examine how well comprehensiveness is captured in validated instruments that evaluate primary healthcare from the patient's perspective. Method: 645 adults with at least one healthcare contact in the previous 12 months responded to six instruments that evaluate primary healthcare. Scores were normalized for descriptive comparison. Exploratory and confirmatory (structural equation modelling) factor analysis examined fit to operational definition, and item response theory analysis examined item performance on common constructs. Results: Over one-quarter of respondents had missing responses on services offered or doctor's knowledge of the community. The subscales did not load on a single factor; comprehensive services and community orientation were examined separately. The community orientation subscales did not perform satisfactorily. The three comprehensive services subscales fit very modestly onto two factors: (1) most healthcare needs (from one provider) (CPCI Comprehensive Care, PCAT-S First-Contact Utilization) and (2) range of services (PCAT-S Comprehensive Services Available). Individual item performance revealed several problems. Conclusion: Measurement of comprehensiveness is problematic, making

  11. Long-Term Histopathologic and IVUS Evaluations of a Novel Coiled Sheet Stent in Porcine Carotid Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneda, Hideaki; Ikeno, Fumiaki Lyons, Jennifer; Rezaee, Mehrdad; Yeung, Alan C.; Fitzgerald, Peter J.

    2006-06-15

    Carotid angioplasty with stent placement has been proposed as an alternative method for revascularization of carotid artery stenosis. A novel stent with a laser-cut, rolled sheet of Nitinol (EndoTex Interventional Systems, Inc., Cupertino, CA) has been developed to customize treatment of stenotic lesions in carotid arteries utilizing a single stent, designed to adapt to multiple diameters and to tapered or nontapered configurations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the conformability and vascular response to a novel stent in a chronic porcine carotid model using serial three-dimensional intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) analysis as well as histological examination. Ten Yucatan pigs underwent stent implantation in both normal carotid arteries with adjunctive balloon angioplasty. Three-dimensional IVUS analysis was performed before stent implantation, after adjunctive balloon angioplasty, and at follow-up [1 month (n = 6), 3 months (n = 6), or 6 months (n = 8)]. Histological examination (injury score, percent plaque obstruction, and qualitative analysis) was also performed. All stents were successfully deployed and well apposed in different sized vessels (lumen area range: 19-30 mm{sup 2}). Volumetric IVUS analysis showed no significant difference between the lumen areas before stent implantation and after adjunctive balloon angioplasty and no stent area change at each follow-up point compared to immediately postprocedure. Histological examination revealed minimal injury and neointimal hyperplasia at each follow-up point. In the chronic porcine carotid model, the novel stent system demonstrated good conformability, resulting in minimal vessel injury and neointimal formation.

  12. Research on the Construction Method of Comprehensive Evaluation Index of Geographic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, S. H.; Zhang, J. X.; Zhang, Z. H.; Jiao, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    This article proposes a construction method for a comprehensive geographic conditions evaluation index based on geographic conditions survey data combined with thematic data on society, economy, ecology and population. This article constructs a three-level evaluation framework composed of index level, object level and factor level from the perspectives of ecological coordination, urban development, regional economic potential and basic public services, studies a method of acquiring all-level factor data on geographic conditions and discusses the comprehensive evaluation factor system of geographic conditions. The components of the all-level index are selected through principal component analysis, and iterative analysis is performed by innovatively setting conditions to ensure the independence of the factors and establish an evaluation factor set for geographic conditions. The weighting for the all-level index is obtained through the analytic hierarchy process resulting in the index of geographic conditions. From the perspective of geographic conditions, this article makes a dynamic and quantitative evaluation of national conditions and strengths to provide a reference basis for regional sustainable development and governmental management decisions. By using the method, this article first obtains the index of geographic conditions of Q city with comprehensive evaluation and analysis to verify the objectivity and scientific nature of the method and expand and deepen the application of survey data on geographic conditions.

  13. Using a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to determine product usability: A proposed theoretical framework

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ronggang; Chan, Alan H. S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to compare existing usability data to ideal goals or to that for other products, usability practitioners have tried to develop a framework for deriving an integrated metric. However, most current usability methods with this aim rely heavily on human judgment about the various attributes of a product, but often fail to take into account of the inherent uncertainties in these judgments in the evaluation process. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a universal method of usability evaluation by combining the analytic hierarchical process (AHP) and the fuzzy evaluation method. By integrating multiple sources of uncertain information during product usability evaluation, the method proposed here aims to derive an index that is structured hierarchically in terms of the three usability components of effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction of a product. METHODS: With consideration of the theoretical basis of fuzzy evaluation, a two-layer comprehensive evaluation index was first constructed. After the membership functions were determined by an expert panel, the evaluation appraisals were computed by using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation technique model to characterize fuzzy human judgments. Then with the use of AHP, the weights of usability components were elicited from these experts. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Compared to traditional usability evaluation methods, the major strength of the fuzzy method is that it captures the fuzziness and uncertainties in human judgments and provides an integrated framework that combines the vague judgments from multiple stages of a product evaluation process. PMID:28035943

  14. Using a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to determine product usability: A proposed theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ronggang; Chan, Alan H S

    2017-01-01

    In order to compare existing usability data to ideal goals or to that for other products, usability practitioners have tried to develop a framework for deriving an integrated metric. However, most current usability methods with this aim rely heavily on human judgment about the various attributes of a product, but often fail to take into account of the inherent uncertainties in these judgments in the evaluation process. This paper presents a universal method of usability evaluation by combining the analytic hierarchical process (AHP) and the fuzzy evaluation method. By integrating multiple sources of uncertain information during product usability evaluation, the method proposed here aims to derive an index that is structured hierarchically in terms of the three usability components of effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction of a product. With consideration of the theoretical basis of fuzzy evaluation, a two-layer comprehensive evaluation index was first constructed. After the membership functions were determined by an expert panel, the evaluation appraisals were computed by using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation technique model to characterize fuzzy human judgments. Then with the use of AHP, the weights of usability components were elicited from these experts. Compared to traditional usability evaluation methods, the major strength of the fuzzy method is that it captures the fuzziness and uncertainties in human judgments and provides an integrated framework that combines the vague judgments from multiple stages of a product evaluation process.

  15. ICF Based Comprehensive Evaluation for Post-Acute Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyung Seok; Kim, Kwang Dong; Shin, Hyung Ik

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of the ICF for initial comprehensive evaluation of early post-acute spinal cord injury. A comprehensive evaluation of 62 early post-acute spinal cord injury (SCI) patients was conducted by rehabilitation team members, such as physicians, physical therapists, occupational therapists, nutritionists, medical social-workers, and nurses. They recorded each of their evaluation according to the ICF first level classification. The contents of the comprehensive evaluation were linked to the ICF second level categories, retrospectively. The linked codes were analyzed descriptively and were also compared with the brief ICF core set for early post-acute SCI. In the evaluation of early post-acute SCI patients based on the ICF first level categories, 19 items from the body functions domain, such as muscle power functions (b730) and urination functions (b620), 15 items from the body structures domain, including spinal cord and related structures (s120), 11 items from the activities and participation domain, such as transferring oneself (d420) and walking (d450), and 9 items from the environmental factors domain, e.g., health professionals (e355), were linked to the ICF second level categories. In total, 82.4% of all contents were linked to the brief ICF core set. Prognosis insight, a personal factor not linkable to an ICF code, was mentioned in 29.0% of all patients. First level ICF categories can provide a structural base for a comprehensive evaluation in early post-acute spinal cord injury. However, frequently linked items, including the brief core set, as well as personal factors should be considered via a checklist in order to prevent the omission of significant contents.

  16. Forming a belief: The contribution of comprehension to the evaluation and persuasive impact of argumentative text.

    PubMed

    Diakidoy, Irene-Anna N; Christodoulou, Stelios A; Floros, Georgios; Iordanou, Kalypso; Kargopoulos, Philip V

    2015-09-01

    Research has shown substantial belief change as a result of reading text and the pervasive influence of prior belief in the evaluation of short arguments. Both outcomes have been attributed to the depth to which the text or the argument has been processed. This study brings together critical thinking and text comprehension research by employing an extended argumentative text and varying the quality of its arguments. The study examines the contribution of comprehension outcomes to the critical evaluation and persuasive impact of argumentative text. One hundred and sixteen first-year graduate and third- and fourth-year undergraduate university students. Measures of initial topic-related beliefs, perceived topic knowledge, and need for cognition were obtained. Students read one of two versions of a two-sided, implicitly persuasive argumentative text (677 words) varying in argument quality. Post-reading tasks included main claim recall, overall recall, inference generation, claim agreement, and text evaluation. The text was positively evaluated and highly persuasive regardless of argument quality, but half of the students either failed to identify the main claim promoted or confused it with individual arguments. Despite a modest but positive association between inference generation and text evaluation, no comprehension measure had a significant main or interactive effect. Need for cognition contributed to positive evaluations in the absence of prior topic knowledge regardless of argument quality. The findings suggest a dissociation between the elaboration associated with deep comprehension and the elaboration associated with critical evaluation with implications for belief formation and the teaching of thinking. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  17. ICF Based Comprehensive Evaluation for Post-Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyung Seok; Kim, Kwang Dong

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of the ICF for initial comprehensive evaluation of early post-acute spinal cord injury. Method A comprehensive evaluation of 62 early post-acute spinal cord injury (SCI) patients was conducted by rehabilitation team members, such as physicians, physical therapists, occupational therapists, nutritionists, medical social-workers, and nurses. They recorded each of their evaluation according to the ICF first level classification. The contents of the comprehensive evaluation were linked to the ICF second level categories, retrospectively. The linked codes were analyzed descriptively and were also compared with the brief ICF core set for early post-acute SCI. Results In the evaluation of early post-acute SCI patients based on the ICF first level categories, 19 items from the body functions domain, such as muscle power functions (b730) and urination functions (b620), 15 items from the body structures domain, including spinal cord and related structures (s120), 11 items from the activities and participation domain, such as transferring oneself (d420) and walking (d450), and 9 items from the environmental factors domain, e.g., health professionals (e355), were linked to the ICF second level categories. In total, 82.4% of all contents were linked to the brief ICF core set. Prognosis insight, a personal factor not linkable to an ICF code, was mentioned in 29.0% of all patients. Conclusion First level ICF categories can provide a structural base for a comprehensive evaluation in early post-acute spinal cord injury. However, frequently linked items, including the brief core set, as well as personal factors should be considered via a checklist in order to prevent the omission of significant contents. PMID:23342313

  18. Evaluation of B lymphocyte stimulator and a proliferation inducing ligand as candidate biomarkers in lupus nephritis based on clinical and histopathological outcome following induction therapy

    PubMed Central

    Parodis, Ioannis; Zickert, Agneta; Sundelin, Birgitta; Axelsson, Magnus; Gerhardsson, Jakob; Svenungsson, Elisabet; Malmström, Vivianne; Gunnarsson, Iva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Lupus nephritis (LN) is a major cause of morbidity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). B cells have a central role in the pathogenesis of SLE. B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) and a proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL) are pivotal in B cell homeostasis. We aimed to investigate a potential role of serum BLyS and APRIL as biomarkers in LN, especially as predictors of treatment response. Methods Sixty-four patients with active LN (52 proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN); 12 membranous LN) were included. Renal biopsies were performed at baseline and after immunosuppressive treatment. Serum levels of BLyS, APRIL and autoantibodies were measured on both biopsy occasions and in 64 individually matched controls. Renal biopsies were evaluated using the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society classification, and scored for Activity Index and Chronicity Index. Clinical responders (CR) were required to have ≥50% reduction in proteinuria, normal or improved renal function, and inactive urinary sediment. Histopathological responders (HR) were required to have ≥50% improvement in Activity Index. Results Baseline BLyS levels were significantly higher in LN patients compared with controls (p<0.001) and remained unchanged following induction treatment. APRIL levels were significantly higher in patients compared with controls at baseline (p=0.005) and decreased following treatment (p<0.001). Among PLN patients, APRIL levels decreased significantly only in responders (CR: p=0.009; HR: p=0.01). Baseline BLyS levels <1.5 ng/mL predicted treatment response, attaining a positive predictive value of 92% for CR with PLN at baseline. Conclusions BLyS and APRIL were affected differently by immunosuppression; BLyS levels remained unchanged following therapy while APRIL levels decreased. Despite unchanged BLyS levels following therapy, low baseline levels predicted both clinical and histopathological improvement. Our data support APRIL as a

  19. Evaluation of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography With Histopathologic Correlation in the Initial Staging of Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hannah, Anthony; Scott, Andrew M.; Tochon-Danguy, Henri; Chan, J. Gordon; Akhurst, Tim; Berlangieri, Salvatore; Price, David; Smith, Gerard J.; Schelleman, Tony; McKay, W. J.; Sizeland, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the use of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the initial staging of squamous cell head and neck carcinoma. Summary Background Data The status of cervical lymph nodes is an important prognostic factor and determinant of management approach in squamous cell head and neck cancer. Methods FDG-PET findings were compared with those of computed tomography (CT) before removal of the primary tumor and/or neck dissection. Histopathologic analysis was used as the gold standard for assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of these modalities. Results FDG-PET correctly identified the primary tumor in 35 of 40 patients in whom the site of the primary was known clinically and still present (sensitivity 88%). None of four unknown primaries were detected. Tumors not detected by FDG-PET were generally superficial, with depths of less than 4 mm. CT correctly identified 18 of the 35 primary tumors (sensitivity 51%). Eleven of 17 CT false-negative tumors were detected by FDG-PET. The sensitivity and specificity for the presence of metastatic neck disease on FDG-PET were 82% and 100%, respectively; those for CT were 81% and 81%, respectively. FDG-PET was true positive for metastatic neck disease in two of the three CT false-negative patients. Conclusions FDG-PET shows promise in the initial staging of head and neck cancer and provides additional accuracy to a conventional staging process using CT. PMID:12170026

  20. Classification and prognosis evaluation of individual teeth--a comprehensive approach.

    PubMed

    Samet, Nachum; Jotkowitz, Anna

    2009-05-01

    Following a complete evaluation of the patient, treatment planning requires the analysis of individual teeth, accurate diagnosis, and prognosis evaluation. Currently, there is no accepted comprehensive, standardized, and meaningful classification system for the evaluation of individual teeth that offers a common language for dental professionals. A search was conducted reviewing existing literature relating to classification and prognostication of individual teeth. The dimensions determined to be of importance to gain an overall perspective of the individual relative tooth prognosis were the periodontal, restorative, endodontic, and occlusal plane perspectives. The authors present a comprehensive classification system by conjugating the literature and currently accepted concepts in dentistry. This easy-to-use system assesses the condition of individual teeth and enables a relative prognostic value to be attached to those teeth based on tooth condition and patient-level factors.

  1. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation for grid-connected performance of integrated distributed PV-ES systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Z. H.; Li, Q.; Huang, R. W.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, D.

    2016-08-01

    Based on the discussion about topology structure of integrated distributed photovoltaic (PV) power generation system and energy storage (ES) in single or mixed type, this paper focuses on analyzing grid-connected performance of integrated distributed photovoltaic and energy storage (PV-ES) systems, and proposes a comprehensive evaluation index system. Then a multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method based on grey correlation degree is proposed, and the calculations for weight matrix and fuzzy matrix are presented step by step. Finally, a distributed integrated PV-ES power generation system connected to a 380 V low voltage distribution network is taken as the example, and some suggestions are made based on the evaluation results.

  2. [Evaluation of comprehensive capacity of resources and environments in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone].

    PubMed

    Song, Yan-Chun; Yu, Dan

    2014-10-01

    With the development of the society and economy, the contradictions among population, resources and environment are increasingly worse. As a result, the capacity of resources and environment becomes one of the focal issues for many countries and regions. Through investigating and analyzing the present situation and the existing problems of resources and environment in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone, seven factors were chosen as the evaluation criterion layer, namely, land resources, water resources, biological resources, mineral resources, ecological-geological environment, water environment and atmospheric environment. Based on the single factor evaluation results and with the county as the evaluation unit, the comprehensive capacity of resources and environment was evaluated by using the state space method in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone. The results showed that it boasted abundant biological resources, quality atmosphere and water environment, and relatively stable geological environment, while restricted by land resource, water resource and mineral resource. Currently, although the comprehensive capacity of the resources and environments in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone was not overloaded as a whole, it has been the case in some counties/districts. State space model, with clear indication and high accuracy, could serve as another approach to evaluating comprehensive capacity of regional resources and environment.

  3. Comprehensive Evaluation and Analysis of China's Mainstream Online Map Service Websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Jiang, J.; Huang, W.; Wang, Q.; Gu, X.

    2012-08-01

    With the flourish development of China's Internet market, all kinds of users for map service demand is rising continually, within it contains tremendous commercial interests. Many internet giants have got involved in the field of online map service, and defined it as an important strategic product of the company. The main purpose of this research is to evaluate these online map service websites comprehensively with a model, and analyse the problems according to the evaluation results. Then some corresponding solving measures are proposed, which provides a theoretical and application guidance for the future development of fiercely competitive online map websites. The research consists of three stages: (a) the mainstream online map service websites in China are introduced and the present situation of them is analysed through visit, investigation, consultant, analysis and research. (b) a whole comprehensive evaluation quota system of online map service websites from the view of functions, layout, interaction design color position and so on, combining with the data indexes such as time efficiency, accuracy, objectivity and authority. (c) a comprehensive evaluation to these online map service websites is proceeded based on the fuzzy evaluation mathematical model, and the difficulty that measure the map websites quantitatively is solved.

  4. Comprehensive Stability Evaluation of Rock Slope Using the Cloud Model-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zaobao; Shao, Jianfu; Xu, Weiya; Xu, Fei

    2014-11-01

    This article presents the cloud model-based approach for comprehensive stability evaluation of complicated rock slopes of hydroelectric stations in mountainous area. This approach is based on membership cloud models which can account for randomness and fuzziness in slope stability evaluation. The slope stability is affected by various factors and each of which is ranked into five grades. The ranking factors are sorted into four categories. The ranking system of slope stability is introduced and then the membership cloud models are applied to analyze each ranking factor for generating cloud memberships. Afterwards, the obtained cloud memberships are synthesized with the factor weights given by experts for comprehensive stability evaluation of rock slopes. The proposed approach is used for the stability evaluation of the left abutment slope in Jinping 1 Hydropower Station. It is shown that the cloud model-based strategy can well consider the effects of each ranking factor and therefore is feasible and reliable for comprehensive stability evaluation of rock slopes.

  5. Comprehensive evaluation for fused images of multispectral and panchromatic images based on entropy weight method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiaojie; Yuan, Yan; Su, Lijuan; Hu, Liang

    2016-09-01

    An evaluation model of image fusion based on entropy weight method is put forward to resolve evaluation issue for fused results of multispectral and panchromatic images, such as the lack of overall importance in single factor metric evaluation and the discrepancy among different categories of characteristic evaluation. In this way, several single factor metrics in different aspects of image are selected to form a metric set, then the entropy weights for each single factor index are calculated based on entropy weight method, thus a new comprehensive evaluation index is obtained to evaluate each fused image and images with higher spectral resolution and spatial resolution can be acquired. Experimental analysis shows that the proposed method is of versatility, objectivity and rationality and performs well on the evaluation of fused results of multispectral and panchromatic images.

  6. Adding New Dimensions to Case Study Evaluations: The Case of Evaluating Comprehensive Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Davis, Darnella

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the adaptation of the case study method to assessing increasingly complex, comprehensive reform initiatives that highlight the blurring of the boundaries between phenomenon and context and the concurrence of multiple interventions. Completed studies of two education reform programs illustrate the ongoing challenges of…

  7. A comprehensive model to evaluate implementation of the world health organization framework convention of tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Kelishad, Roya; Rabiei, Katayoun; Abedi, Heidarali; Mohaseli, Khadijeh Fereydoun; Masooleh, Hasan Azaripour; Alavi, Mousa; Heidari, Gholamreza; Ghaffari, Mostafa; O’Loughlin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: Iran is one of the countries that has ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), and has implemented a series of tobacco control interventions including the Comprehensive Tobacco Control Law. Enforcement of this legislation and assessment of its outcome requires a dedicated evaluation system. This study aimed to develop a generic model to evaluate the implementation of the Comprehensive Tobacco Control Law in Iran that was provided based on WHO-FCTC articles. Materials and Methods: Using a grounded theory approach, qualitative data were collected from 265 subjects in individual interviews and focus group discussions with policymakers who designed the legislation, key stakeholders, and members of the target community. In addition, field observations data in supermarkets/shops, restaurants, teahouses and coffee shops were collected. Data were analyzed in two stages through conceptual theoretical coding. Findings: Overall, 617 open codes were extracted from the data into tables; 72 level-3 codes were retained from the level-2 code series. Using a Model Met paradigm, the relationships between the components of each paradigm were depicted graphically. The evaluation model entailed three levels, namely: short-term results, process evaluation and long-term results. Conclusions: Central concept of the process of evaluation is that enforcing the law influences a variety of internal and environmental factors including legislative changes. These factors will be examined during the process evaluation and context evaluation. The current model can be applicable for providing FCTC evaluation tools across other jurisdictions. PMID:23833621

  8. A comprehensive model to evaluate implementation of the world health organization framework convention of tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Kelishad, Roya; Rabiei, Katayoun; Abedi, Heidarali; Mohaseli, Khadijeh Fereydoun; Masooleh, Hasan Azaripour; Alavi, Mousa; Heidari, Gholamreza; Ghaffari, Mostafa; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2012-03-01

    Iran is one of the countries that has ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), and has implemented a series of tobacco control interventions including the Comprehensive Tobacco Control Law. Enforcement of this legislation and assessment of its outcome requires a dedicated evaluation system. This study aimed to develop a generic model to evaluate the implementation of the Comprehensive Tobacco Control Law in Iran that was provided based on WHO-FCTC articles. Using a grounded theory approach, qualitative data were collected from 265 subjects in individual interviews and focus group discussions with policymakers who designed the legislation, key stakeholders, and members of the target community. In addition, field observations data in supermarkets/shops, restaurants, teahouses and coffee shops were collected. Data were analyzed in two stages through conceptual theoretical coding. Overall, 617 open codes were extracted from the data into tables; 72 level-3 codes were retained from the level-2 code series. Using a Model Met paradigm, the relationships between the components of each paradigm were depicted graphically. The evaluation model entailed three levels, namely: short-term results, process evaluation and long-term results. Central concept of the process of evaluation is that enforcing the law influences a variety of internal and environmental factors including legislative changes. These factors will be examined during the process evaluation and context evaluation. The current model can be applicable for providing FCTC evaluation tools across other jurisdictions.

  9. MVIAeval: a web tool for comprehensively evaluating the performance of a new missing value imputation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Sheng; Jhou, Meng-Jhun

    2017-01-13

    Missing value imputation is important for microarray data analyses because microarray data with missing values would significantly degrade the performance of the downstream analyses. Although many microarray missing value imputation algorithms have been developed, an objective and comprehensive performance comparison framework is still lacking. To solve this problem, we previously proposed a framework which can perform a comprehensive performance comparison of different existing algorithms. Also the performance of a new algorithm can be evaluated by our performance comparison framework. However, constructing our framework is not an easy task for the interested researchers. To save researchers' time and efforts, here we present an easy-to-use web tool named MVIAeval (Missing Value Imputation Algorithm evaluator) which implements our performance comparison framework. MVIAeval provides a user-friendly interface allowing users to upload the R code of their new algorithm and select (i) the test datasets among 20 benchmark microarray (time series and non-time series) datasets, (ii) the compared algorithms among 12 existing algorithms, (iii) the performance indices from three existing ones, (iv) the comprehensive performance scores from two possible choices, and (v) the number of simulation runs. The comprehensive performance comparison results are then generated and shown as both figures and tables. MVIAeval is a useful tool for researchers to easily conduct a comprehensive and objective performance evaluation of their newly developed missing value imputation algorithm for microarray data or any data which can be represented as a matrix form (e.g. NGS data or proteomics data). Thus, MVIAeval will greatly expedite the progress in the research of missing value imputation algorithms.

  10. Research on Comprehensive Evaluation of Knowledge Capital of Power Enterprise Based on Membership Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligen, Yao; Miaomiao, Li

    Based on the knowledge capital theory, the article attempts to conduct a research on the evaluation of the electric power enterprise's knowledge capital. Firstly this paper explained the theory of knowledge capital, and analyzed the particularity of the power enterprise. Then we constructed an evaluation index system on the basis of structure of knowledge capital and also established a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model based on membership conversion. The case presented proves that this model is feasible and simple and the result of appraisal is practical and reliable.

  11. A pilot study to evaluate assisted freehand ultrasound elasticity imaging in the sizing of early breast cancer: a comparison of B-mode and AFUSON elasticity ultrasound with histopathology measurements

    PubMed Central

    English, R E; Li, J; Parker, A J C; Roskell, D; Adams, R F; Parulekar, V; Baldwin, J; Chi, Y; Noble, J A

    2011-01-01

    Objective This pilot study investigates the role of assisted-freehand ultrasound (AFUSON) elasticity imaging of the breast in assessing the contour, size and area of 23 early breast cancers by making comparison of AFUSON with the equivalent B-mode ultrasound images and gold standard histopathology slides. Methods The B-mode, AFUSON and digitised histopathology slides of three early breast cancers were compared for contour, size and area with histopathology scans. AFUSON features that corresponded to areas of known malignant change on the histopathology slides were regarded as diagnostic. These diagnostic criteria were then applied to the B-mode and AFUSON elasticity images of all 23 breast cancers in the pilot study without having the availability of the histopathology scans for reference. Corresponding diameters were measured and the results were compared with the equivalent measurements on the scans of the histology slides. The results were tabulated in histogram form. Diagnostic confidence levels were evaluated. Results Size dimension accuracy increased from 66% using B-mode alone to 82% using combined B-mode and AFUSON elasticity images. Tumour area accuracy was also increased. A small number of cases had a striking visual similarity of shape on AFUSON elasticity scans and histopathology slides. Conclusion In spite of the shortfalls in this study, AFUSON elasticity imaging was capable of acquiring some high-quality images that showed strong correlation between AFUSON elasticity and scans of histology slides. Further studies will be carried out to refine the technique and determine if it has a role in the diagnosis and management of breast cancer. PMID:21632651

  12. The Age of OrthoInfo: A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating Patient Comprehension of Informed Consent.

    PubMed

    Egekeze, Nkemakolam; Dubin, Jonathan; Williams, Karen; Bernhardt, Mark

    2016-10-05

    Integral to an orthopaedic surgeon-patient informed consent discussion is the assessment of patient comprehension of their medical care. However, little is known about how to optimize patient comprehension of an informed consent discussion. The purpose of our study was to evaluate three time-controlled informed consent discussion methods to determine which optimized patient comprehension immediately after the discussion. Sixty-seven consecutive patients with knee osteoarthritis who were considered medically appropriate for a knee corticosteroid injection were enrolled in our trial. Participants were randomized and were allocated into one of three groups in a parallel fashion and 1:1:1 ratio. Our three groups varied by sensory input and included verbal (hearing), verbal and video (hearing and sight), and verbal and model (hearing, sight, and touch). Each participant listened to a 10-minute scripted lecture given by a researcher; this lecture was based on content from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons patient education web site OrthoInfo. Patient comprehension was assessed after the lecture using a validated questionnaire called the Nkem test. Our primary outcome evaluated patient comprehension utilizing a pairwise comparison of mean comprehension scores between the groups. The primary outcome was analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance with the least significant difference calculated post hoc and a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The health-care staff, study participants, and outcome assessor were each blinded to group assignments. The mean comprehension scores were 84% (95% CI, 79% to 88%) for the verbal and model group, 74% (95% CI, 63% to 80%) for the verbal and video group, and 71% (95% CI, 61% to 80%) for the verbal group. The omnibus analysis of variance was significant and showed a difference among the groups (p = 0.019). The pairwise comparison of the groups using the least significant difference calculated post hoc showed that the verbal

  13. Report filing in histopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Blenkinsopp, W K

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of alternative methods of filing histopathology report forms in alphabetical order showed that orthodox card index filing is satisfactory up to about 100000 reports but, because of the need for long-term retrieval, when the reports filed exceed this number they should be copied on jacketed microfilm and a new card index file begun. PMID:591645

  14. Histopathologic diagnosis of multifactorial alopecia.

    PubMed

    Wohltmann, Wendi E; Sperling, Leonard

    2016-06-01

    Establishing a definitive diagnosis for any form of alopecia can be challenging. Adding to the diagnostic complexity is the fact that many patients have more than one form of alopecia contributing to their hair loss. We conducted a review of 1360 consecutive scalp biopsy specimens submitted for the evaluation of scalp hair loss over a 16-month period, demonstrating that 12.5% of cases had a combination of diagnoses (multifactorial alopecia) accounting for their hair loss. An approach to the histopathologic diagnosis of multifactorial alopecia, particularly multiple forms of alopecia found in a single biopsy, is here presented.

  15. Evaluation of safety margin” in ameloblastoma of the mandible by surgical, radiological, and histopathological methods: An evidence-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kalaiselvan, S.; Dharmesh Kumar Raja, A. V.; Saravanan, B.; Vigneswari, A. Srivel; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to elicit the amount of safety margin necessary around the ameloblastic lesion in view of preventing further recurrence. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 25 cases of mandibular ameloblastoma. Diagnosis was based on clinical and radiological analysis and confirmed by histopathological report. An incisional biopsy was done preoperatively to confirm the diagnosis. Segmental resection was planned for all the cases. After the resection, postoperative panoramic radiograph of the specimen was taken followed by histopathological examination of its margin to detect tumor cell infiltration. Results and Conclusion: In all our cases, the ameloblastoma was infiltrating in nature. A follow-up period of 10 years showed neither recurrence nor implant failure. In our study, we conclude our safe margin for infiltrating variant of ameloblastoma based on histopathological report of the resected specimen. PMID:27829762

  16. A comprehensive performance evaluation on the prediction results of existing cooperative transcription factors identification algorithms.

    PubMed

    Lai, Fu-Jou; Chang, Hong-Tsun; Huang, Yueh-Min; Wu, Wei-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic transcriptional regulation is known to be highly connected through the networks of cooperative transcription factors (TFs). Measuring the cooperativity of TFs is helpful for understanding the biological relevance of these TFs in regulating genes. The recent advances in computational techniques led to various predictions of cooperative TF pairs in yeast. As each algorithm integrated different data resources and was developed based on different rationales, it possessed its own merit and claimed outperforming others. However, the claim was prone to subjectivity because each algorithm compared with only a few other algorithms and only used a small set of performance indices for comparison. This motivated us to propose a series of indices to objectively evaluate the prediction performance of existing algorithms. And based on the proposed performance indices, we conducted a comprehensive performance evaluation. We collected 14 sets of predicted cooperative TF pairs (PCTFPs) in yeast from 14 existing algorithms in the literature. Using the eight performance indices we adopted/proposed, the cooperativity of each PCTFP was measured and a ranking score according to the mean cooperativity of the set was given to each set of PCTFPs under evaluation for each performance index. It was seen that the ranking scores of a set of PCTFPs vary with different performance indices, implying that an algorithm used in predicting cooperative TF pairs is of strength somewhere but may be of weakness elsewhere. We finally made a comprehensive ranking for these 14 sets. The results showed that Wang J's study obtained the best performance evaluation on the prediction of cooperative TF pairs in yeast. In this study, we adopted/proposed eight performance indices to make a comprehensive performance evaluation on the prediction results of 14 existing cooperative TFs identification algorithms. Most importantly, these proposed indices can be easily applied to measure the performance of new

  17. Evaluating Specialized Instructional Support Personnel: Supplement to the Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Teacher Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdheide, Lynn R.; Hayes, Lindsey; Goe, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In most states, educator evaluation systems are moving toward more frequent and focused evaluations that include educators' contributions to student outcomes such as learning growth. Many states include "Specialized Instructional Support Personnel" (SISP) in their educator evaluation systems, but the measures and methods used to evaluate…

  18. Customized Titanium Mesh for Repairing Cranial Defects: A Method With Comprehensive Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Long, Jianhong; Yang, Xinghua; Lei, Shaorong; Xiao, Muzhang; Fan, Pengju; Qi, Min; Tan, Wuyuan

    2015-11-01

    Titanium cranioplasty is one of the well-established and widely used techniques for repairing cranial defects. In this paper, we present an improved way to design and create titanium meshes with more evaluation process. Computed tomography scan data of patients were used to create three-dimensional virtual models. Implants were designed with NX ImageWare 13.2 (Siemens PLM Software, Plano, TX). Final titanium meshes were assessed by Geomagic Studio 12 (Geomagic, Inc., Morrisville, NC) and NX ImageWare 13.2.Titanium meshes were designed and applied to cranioplasty surgery on 8 patients. Postoperative results were evaluated by computed tomography scanning and further analyzed with rainbow difference tomography. All patients were satisfied with the outcome. With this method, surgeons, engineers, and patients work together to evaluate and edit implant design. Our method provides better communication and comprehensive evaluation, which result in a satisfying outcome.

  19. Comprehensive Review and Critical Evaluation of the Half-Life of Tritium

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, L. L.; Unterweger, M. P.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the preparation and calibration of three new National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) tritiated-water radioactivity Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), we have performed a comprehensive review and critical evaluation of the half-life of tritium (hydrogen-3). Twenty three experimentally-determined values of the half-life of tritium, reported between 1936 and 2000, were found. Six of these values were updated by later values. Two values were limits. Two values were deemed to be outliers. The 13 remaining values were evaluated in several ways. The results are compared with the results of other recent evaluations and all are found to be in good agreement. Our final recommended value for the half-life of tritium is the average of the adopted values from the four most recent evaluations, (4500 ± 8) d, where 8 d corresponds to one standard uncertainty. PMID:27551621

  20. Malignancy is associated with microcalcification and higher AP/T ratio in ultrasonography, but not with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in histopathology in patients with thyroid nodules evaluated as Bethesda Category III (AUS/FLUS) in cytology.

    PubMed

    Topaloglu, Oya; Baser, Husniye; Cuhaci, Fatma Neslihan; Sungu, Nuran; Yalcin, Abdussamed; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2016-10-01

    The predictors of malignancy are important for the decision of appropriate management in nodules with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS). Our aim was to determine the ultrasonographical, clinical, and biochemical predictors of malignancy in these patients. A total of 427 patients with cytologically Bethesda Category III (AUS/FLUS) thyroid nodules were included in this retrospective study. We divided the nodules into two subgroups according to the histopathology as benign and malignant, and compared the preoperative ultrasonographical, clinical, and biochemical findings. In overall, 427 patients with 449 AUS/FLUS nodules who had undergone surgery, the rate of malignancy was 23.4 % (105/449). When evaluated separately, the rate of malignancy was 25.8 % in nodules with AUS (82/318) and 17.6 % in nodules with FLUS (23/131) (p = 0.061). The vast majority of malignant specimens in histopathology consisted of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) (n = 91, 86.7 %). Preoperative ultrasonographic features of 105 malignant nodules in histopathology were compared with the 344 benign nodules in histopathology. Anteroposterior/Transverse (AP/T) ratio was significantly higher in malignant group compared to benign group (p = 0.013). In multiple logistic analysis, we found that higher AP/T ratio and microcalcification were independently associated with malignancy (p < 0.05). The malignancy-associated cut-off value of AP/T ratio at maximum sensitivity and specificity was ≥0.81. We did not find any correlation between malignancy and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in histopathology in multivariate analysis (p > 0.05). In Bethesda Category III nodules with higher AP/T ratio and microcalcification, surgery might be considered as a first therapeutic option instead of repeat fine-needle aspiration biopsy or observation.

  1. Using a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to determine product usability: A test case

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ronggang; Chan, Alan H. S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to take into account the inherent uncertainties during product usability evaluation, Zhou and Chan [1] proposed a comprehensive method of usability evaluation for products by combining the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy evaluation methods for synthesizing performance data and subjective response data. This method was designed to provide an integrated framework combining the inevitable vague judgments from the multiple stages of the product evaluation process. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In order to illustrate the effectiveness of the model, this study used a summative usability test case to assess the application and strength of the general fuzzy usability framework. To test the proposed fuzzy usability evaluation framework [1], a standard summative usability test was conducted to benchmark the overall usability of a specific network management software. Based on the test data, the fuzzy method was applied to incorporate both the usability scores and uncertainties involved in the multiple components of the evaluation. Then, with Monte Carlo simulation procedures, confidence intervals were used to compare the reliabilities among the fuzzy approach and two typical conventional methods combining metrics based on percentages. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: This case study showed that the fuzzy evaluation technique can be applied successfully for combining summative usability testing data to achieve an overall usability quality for the network software evaluated. Greater differences of confidence interval widths between the method of averaging equally percentage and weighted evaluation method, including the method of weighted percentage averages, verified the strength of the fuzzy method. PMID:28035942

  2. Using a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to determine product usability: A test case.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ronggang; Chan, Alan H S

    2017-01-01

    In order to take into account the inherent uncertainties during product usability evaluation, Zhou and Chan [1] proposed a comprehensive method of usability evaluation for products by combining the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy evaluation methods for synthesizing performance data and subjective response data. This method was designed to provide an integrated framework combining the inevitable vague judgments from the multiple stages of the product evaluation process. In order to illustrate the effectiveness of the model, this study used a summative usability test case to assess the application and strength of the general fuzzy usability framework. To test the proposed fuzzy usability evaluation framework [1], a standard summative usability test was conducted to benchmark the overall usability of a specific network management software. Based on the test data, the fuzzy method was applied to incorporate both the usability scores and uncertainties involved in the multiple components of the evaluation. Then, with Monte Carlo simulation procedures, confidence intervals were used to compare the reliabilities among the fuzzy approach and two typical conventional methods combining metrics based on percentages. This case study showed that the fuzzy evaluation technique can be applied successfully for combining summative usability testing data to achieve an overall usability quality for the network software evaluated. Greater differences of confidence interval widths between the method of averaging equally percentage and weighted evaluation method, including the method of weighted percentage averages, verified the strength of the fuzzy method.

  3. The scheme and research of TV series multidimensional comprehensive evaluation on cross-platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Jianping; Bai, Xuesong; Zhou, Hongjun; Yin, Fulian

    2016-10-01

    As for shortcomings of the comprehensive evaluation system on traditional TV programs such as single data source, ignorance of new media as well as the high time cost and difficulty of making surveys, a new evaluation of TV series is proposed in this paper, which has a perspective in cross-platform multidimensional evaluation after broadcasting. This scheme considers the data directly collected from cable television and the Internet as research objects. It's based on TOPSIS principle, after preprocessing and calculation of the data, they become primary indicators that reflect different profiles of the viewing of TV series. Then after the process of reasonable empowerment and summation by the six methods(PCA, AHP, etc.), the primary indicators form the composite indices on different channels or websites. The scheme avoids the inefficiency and difficulty of survey and marking; At the same time, it not only reflects different dimensions of viewing, but also combines TV media and new media, completing the multidimensional comprehensive evaluation of TV series on cross-platform.

  4. [Exploration and research on comprehensive evaluation model of Chinese patent medicines supply in national essential drugs].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Huang, Lu-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhao, Yu-Ping; Yang, Guang

    2017-07-01

    Chinese medicine prices often have sharp rise or fall, and even the impact of short-term price rise on the quality of feed can't be ignored.On the other hand, the production of traditional Chinese medicine is strictly subject to resource constraints, so much of the industrial production due to lack of or prohibited use of resources must bestopped. Based on 203 Chinese patent medicines in the National Essential Drugs (2012 Edition), the factors that influence the supply of essential drugs of traditional Chinese medicine were analyzed and seven indicators for the supply of essential medicines were designed in this paper. According to the Chinese herbal medicine resources survey and dynamic monitoring service system data, a multi-index comprehensive evaluation model based on radar chart analysis was proposed, providing a holistic and overall evaluation of the supply situation of essential drugs of traditional Chinese medicine. The evaluation results were concise, clear and intuitive. In this paper, Jiuwei Qianghuo Wan and Ganmao Qingre Keli were taken as the examples to prove that the proposed comprehensive evaluation method is concise, clear, intuitive, credible and practical. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. A Comprehensive Evaluation for Aspiration After Esophagectomy Reduces the Incidence of Post-Operative Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Mark F.; Atkins, B. Zane; Tong, Betty C.; Harpole, David H.; D’Amico, Thomas A.; Onaitis, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study assesses the impact of using a comprehensive swallowing evaluation before starting oral feedings on aspiration detection and pneumonia occurrence after esophagectomy. METHODS The records of all esophagectomy patients between January 1996 and June 2009 were reviewed. Multivariable logistic regression analysis assessed the effect of preoperative and operative variables on the incidence of aspiration and pneumonia. Separate analyses were performed on patients before (early era, 1996–2002) and after (later era, 2003–2009) a rigorous swallowing evaluation was used routinely before starting oral feedings. RESULTS During the study period, 799 patients (379 early era, 420 later era) underwent esophagectomy; 30-day mortality was 3.5% (28 patients). Cervical anastomoses were performed in 76% of patients in the later era compared with 40% of patients in the early era. Overall, 96 patients (12%) had evidence of aspiration postoperatively, and the pneumonia incidence was 14% (113 patients). Age (odds ratio 1.05 per year, p<0.0001) and later era (odds ratio 1.90, p=0.0001) predicted aspiration in all patients in a multivariable model. In the early era, cervical anastomosis and aspiration independently predicted pneumonia. With a comprehensive swallowing evaluation in the later era, the detected incidence of aspiration increased (16% vs 7%, p<0.0001) while the incidence of pneumonia declined (11% vs 18%, p=0.004) compared to the early era, such that neither anastomotic location nor aspiration predicted pneumonia in the later era. CONCLUSIONS Esophagectomy is often associated with occult aspiration. A comprehensive swallowing evaluation for aspiration prior to initiating oral feedings significantly decreases the occurrence of pneumonia. PMID:20884018

  6. Comprehensive Assessment and Evaluation of Students with Learning Disabilities: A Paper Prepared by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Disability Quarterly, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) strongly supports comprehensive assessment and evaluation of students with learning disabilities by a multidisciplinary team for the identification and diagnosis of students with learning disabilities. Comprehensive assessment of individual students requires the use of multiple data…

  7. Comprehensive Assessment and Evaluation of Students with Learning Disabilities: A Paper Prepared by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Disability Quarterly, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) strongly supports comprehensive assessment and evaluation of students with learning disabilities by a multidisciplinary team for the identification and diagnosis of students with learning disabilities. Comprehensive assessment of individual students requires the use of multiple data…

  8. An Evaluation of Two Approaches for Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies in the Primary Years Using Science Information Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Smith, John A.; Fawson, Parker C.

    2005-01-01

    There are few research studies on the effects of teaching comprehension strategies to young children in the primary grades. Using a Dominant-Less Dominant Mixed Model design employing both qualitative and quantitative data collection, we evaluated two approaches for teaching comprehension strategies to 7- and 8-year-old children in four…

  9. A comprehensive evaluation of the toxicology of cigarette ingredients: aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Christopher R E; Liu, Jianmin; Merski, Jerome A; Werley, Michael S; Oldham, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids are present in tobacco and tobacco smoke. A battery of tests was used to compare the toxicity of mainstream smoke from experimental cigarettes containing eight aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids and the salt of one acid that were added individually at three different levels (lowest and highest target inclusions were 100 and 90,000 ppm, respectively). Mainstream smoke from cigarettes containing each of the test ingredients was evaluated using analytical chemistry and assays to measure in vitro cytotoxicity (neutral red uptake) and Salmonella (five strains) mutagenicity. For four of the compounds (citric, lactic, benzoic acids, and sodium benzoate), 90-day rodent inhalation studies were also performed. Although sporadic statistically significant differences in some experimental cigarette smoke constituents occurred, none resulted in significant changes in mutagenicity or cytotoxicity responses, nor in responses measured in the inhalation studies, except for lactic acid (LA). Inclusion of LA resulted in dose-dependent increase in water and caused a dose-dependent decrease in cytotoxicity. Incorporation of LA into cigarettes resulted in several dose-related reductions in histopathology, which were largely restricted to the nasal passages. Incorporation of LA also ameliorated some of the typical decrease in body weight gain seen in cigarette smoke-exposed rats. Inclusion of these ingredients at exaggerated use levels resulted in sporadic dose-related and treatment effects for some smoke constituents, but no toxicological response was noted in the in vitro and in vivo tests performed.

  10. The Study of CIQ Inspection Rate's Setting Problem Based on Gray-fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Liu; Ding, Liu Wen

    Inspection is not only one of the most significant duties, but the important prerequisite for going through Customs. Setting the inspection rate scientifically can not only solve the contradiction between the "check on" and "service" for CIQ (CHINA ENTRY-EXIT INSPECTION AND UARANTINE)site inspection personnel, but can highlight the key of inspection and enhance the ratio of discovering, achieving the optimum allocation of CIQ's limited human and material resources. In this article, from the characteristics of inspection risk evaluation themselves, considering the setting problem of check rate at from the angle of data mining, construct an index system rationally and objectively. On the basis of Fuzzy theory, evaluate the risk of the inward and outward goods with the grey-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, and establish the inspection rate scientifically.

  11. Protective and antidiabetic effects of extract from Nigella sativa on blood glucose concentrations against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic in rats: an experimental study with histopathological evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes in humans induces chronic complications such as cardiovascular damage, cataracts and retinopathy, nephropathy and polyneuropathy. The most common animal model of human diabetes is streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in the rat. The present study investigated the effects of Nigella sativa hydroalcholic extract on glucose concentrations in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Methods In this study Twenty-five Wister-Albino rats (aged 8-9 weeks and weighing 200-250 g) were tested. Rats were divided into five experimental groups (control, untreated STZ-diabetic (60 mg/kg B.W., IP), treated STZ-diabetic with hydroalcholic extract of Nigella Sativa (NS) (5 mg/kg B.W, IP), treated STZ-diabetic with hydroalcholic extract of NS (10 mg/kg B.W., IP) and treated STZ-diabetic with hydroalcholic extract of NS (20 mg/kg B.W., IP and 32 days were evaluated to assess its effect on fasting blood glucose (FBG), and in different groups fasting blood glucose (FBG) and body weight (BW) were measured in the particular days (1, 16 and 32). At the end of the study, the animals were fasted overnight, anaesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital (60 mg/kg), and sacrificed for obtaining tissues samples (liver, pancreases). The number of islets and cells were counted and the islet diameters were determined by calibrated micrometer. The glycogen content in the liver was examined by Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. Results Treatment with NS (5 mg/kg b.w.) markedly increased BW gain and the FBG level was significantly (p<0.001) reduced when compared to the control. Histopathological examination showed that the NS (5 mg/kg b.w.) partially recovered hepatic glycogen content and protected the great deal of the pancreatic islet cells. The number of islets, cells and islets diameter were found statistically significant when compared to the control (p<0.01, p<0.05). Conclusions Higher doses of NS did not exhibit any therapeutic effect. These results

  12. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation on occupational health hazards of electric field in substation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Jing; Gao, Yang; Chen, Tao

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, multilevel fuzzy analysis method is used to making a comprehensive evaluation on the health hazards of workers exposed to electric field in 500kV substation. The five different regions of 500kV substation is identified as the first level index, according to the specific measurement substation of each area to set up the second level index. The first level weight is established according to the proportion of the retention time of the workers in the different areas, and the weight of the second level is determined according to the proportion of the measuring points. Establishing five comment sets, and carrying out the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation according to the maximum membership principle, eventually come to the conclusion: although the measured data show that a small number of electric field intensity exposure value of 500kV substation beyond the requirements of the International Commission on non-ionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP) and the requirements of the People's Republic of China(PRC), but workers have very little contact time, therefore, it cannot be explained that there is a large occupational health hazard in 500kV substation. The multilevel fuzzy analysis method can be used to evaluate the health hazards of the electric field in the substation working environment well, it avoids the subjective and limitations of the traditional methods, and can be able to make a more accurate and objective judgment of the substation

  13. [A comprehensive evaluation of intervention effects on workplace health promotion in a pharmaceutical company].

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Li, Tao; Li, Jian-guo; Chen, Li; Ren, Jun; Li, Chao-lin

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the comprehensive workplace health promotion intervention effect in a pharmaceutical company. The evaluation was conducted by using questionnaires, access to information, on-site surveys, satisfaction surveys and interviews. After the intervention, the awareness rate of the staff on "Occupational Disease Prevention Law", occupational disease prevention measures, the definition of hypertension, HIV transmission and high blood pressure, coronary heart disease preventive measures, have been raised from 72.4%, 13.8%, 67.5%, 45.8%, 51.7% to 97.8%, 19.9%, 82.3%, 94.7%, 53.1% respectively. The lifestyle of the staff has been improved, the improvement rate of smoking, drinking, having breakfast 4 times a week and above are 98.5%, 70.2% and 30.6% separately. Out of the 47 evaluation indicators, 41 meet the requirements, 5 basically meet the requirements. After implementing workplace health promotion activities, the level of occupational safety and health management of the pharmaceutical company has been enhanced, the physical and mental health of the staff have been promoted. The WHP comprehensive interventions are feasible and effective.

  14. Economic Evaluation of a Comprehensive Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Program: Pilot Program

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Ross, Joseph S.; Bilodeau, RoseAnne; Richter, Rosemary S.; Palley, Jane E.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention programs that address sexual education and life skills development and provide academic are effective in reducing births among enrolled teenagers. However, there have been limited data on costs and cost-effectiveness of such programs. Objectives To use a community-based participatory research approach, to develop estimates of the cost-benefit of the Pathways/Senderos Center, a comprehensive neighborhood-based program to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote positive development for adolescents. Methods Using data from 1997-2003, we conducted an in-time intervention analysis to determine program cost-benefit while teenagers were enrolled and then used an extrapolation analysis to estimate accyrred economibc benefits and cost-benefit up to age 30. Results The program operating costs totaled $3,228,152.59 and reduced the teenage childbearing rate from 94.10 to 40.00 per 1000 teenage females, averting $52,297.84 in total societal costs, with an economic benefit to society from program participation of $2,673,153.11. Therefore, total costs to society exceeded economic benefits by $559,677.05, or $1,599.08 per adolescent per year. In an extrapolation analysis, benefits to society exceed costs by $10,474.77 per adolescent per year by age 30 on average, with social benefits outweighing total social costs by age 20.1. Conclusions We estimate that this comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program would provide societal economic benefits once participants are young adults, suggesting the need to expand beyond pilot demonstrations and evaluate the long-range cost-effectiveness of similarly comprehensive programs when implemented more widely in high-risk neighborhoods. PMID:19896030

  15. Economic evaluation of a comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program: pilot program.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Ross, Joseph S; Bilodeau, Roseanne; Richter, Rosemary S; Palley, Jane E; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2009-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention programs that address sexual education and life skills development and provide academic support are effective in reducing births among enrolled teenagers. However, there have been limited data on the costs and cost effectiveness of such programs. The study used a community-based participatory research approach to develop estimates of the cost-benefit of the Pathways/Senderos Center, a comprehensive neighborhood-based program to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote positive development for adolescents. Using data from 1997-2003, an in-time intervention analysis was conducted to determine program cost-benefit while teenagers were enrolled; an extrapolation analysis was then used to estimate accrued economic benefits and cost-benefit up to age 30 years. The program operating costs totaled $3,228,152.59 and reduced the teenage childbearing rate from 94.10 to 40.00 per 1000 teenage girls, averting $52,297.84 in total societal costs, with an economic benefit to society from program participation of $2,673,153.11. Therefore, total costs to society exceeded economic benefits by $559,677.05, or $1599.08 per adolescent per year. In an extrapolation analysis, benefits to society exceed costs by $10,474.77 per adolescent per year by age 30 years on average, with social benefits outweighing total social costs by age 20.1 years. This comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program is estimated to provide societal economic benefits once participants are young adults, suggesting the need to expand beyond pilot demonstrations and evaluate the long-range cost effectiveness of similarly comprehensive programs when they are implemented more widely in high-risk neighborhoods.

  16. Combined evaluation of adenosine deaminase level and histopathological findings from pleural biopsy with Cope’s needle for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy

    PubMed Central

    Behrsin, Rodolfo Fred; Junior, Cyro Teixeira da Silva; Cardoso, Gilberto Perez; Barillo, Jorge Luiz; de Souza, Joeber Bernardo Soares; de Araújo, Elizabeth Giestal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Closed needle pleural biopsy (CNPB) has historically been the gold standard procedure for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an efficient biomarker for tuberculosis that is measurable in pleural fluids. Objective: We compared the diagnostic accuracy of the pleural ADA (P-ADA) level and histopathological findings of CNPB specimens in patients with pleural tuberculosis. Methods: This prospective study consisted of two groups of examinations with a proven diagnosis of pleural effusion. The P-ADA level was measured in 218 patients with pleural effusion due to a number of causes, and 157 CNPB specimens underwent histopathological analysis. Results: CNPBs were performed in patients with tuberculosis (n=122) and other diseases: adenocarcinoma (n=23), lymphoma (n=5), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=4), squamous cell carcinoma (n=2), and small cell lung cancer (n=1). According to the ROC curve, the optimal cut-off value of the P-ADA level (Giusti and Galanti colorimetric method) was equal to or greater than 40.0 U/L. The diagnostic accuracy of the P-ADA test was 83.0%, and that of histopathological examination of the CNPB tissue, was 78.8% (AUC=0.293, P=0.7695). The association between the P-ADA assay and pleural histopathology was 24.41 (P<0.0001). The tetrachoric correlation coefficient was 0.563 (high correlation). Conclusion: In Brazil and other countries with a high incidence of tuberculosis, P-ADA activity is an accurate test for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusions, and its use should be encouraged. The high diagnostic performance of the P-ADA test could to aid the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis and render CNPB unnecessary. PMID:26261621

  17. Histopathology of chromoblastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Uribe, F; Zuluaga, A I; Leon, W; Restrepo, A

    1989-01-01

    A study aimed at determining the histopathologic appearance of chromoblastomycotic lesions was undertaken. Biopsies from 26 patients with the disease were examined. It was found that 23 cases (88.46%) exhibited the organized mixed mycotic granuloma - OMMA -, a granuloma modified by the presence polymorphonuclear neutrophils - PMN's. An equal proportion of cases exhibited pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, with the epithelium playing an important role in the transepidermic elimination of the fungus. Healing of the lesions took place by fibrosis which was observed in 21 (80.77%) patients; this type of reaction was more common in the deeper areas of the dermis.

  18. Evaluation of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and NFkB activation, oxidative stress response, acetylcholinesterase activity, and histopathological changes in rainbow trout brain exposed to linuron.

    PubMed

    Topal, Ahmet; Alak, Gonca; Altun, Serdar; Erol, Hüseyin Serkan; Atamanalp, Muhammed

    2017-01-01

    Linuron is a widely used herbicide to control grasses and annual broad leaf weeds. It is known that linuron has toxic effects on different organisms. However, the toxic effects of linuron on aquatic organisms, especially fish, is completely unknown. Thus, we aimed to investigate changes in 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) activity, histopathological changes, antioxidant responses and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rainbow trout brain after exposure to linuron. Fish were exposed to 30μg/L, 120μg/L and 240μg/L concentrations of linuron for twenty-one days. Brain tissues were taken from fish for 8-OHdG and NFkB activity, histopathological examination and determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Our data indicated that high linuron concentrations caused a decrease in GSH levels, SOD and CAT activities in brain tissues (p<0.05). LPO levels were significantly increased by 240μg/L linuron. All concentrations caused a significant inhibition in brain AChE enzyme activity (p<0.05). Immunopositivity was detected for 8-OHdG and NFkB, and linuron exposure caused histopathological damage to the brain tissues. The results of this study can provide useful information for understanding of linuron-induced toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Theory-Based Evaluation of a Comprehensive Latino Education Initiative: An Interactive Evaluation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesman, Teresa M.; Batsche, Catherine; Hernandez, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Latino student access to higher education has received significant national attention in recent years. This article describes a theory-based evaluation approach used with ENLACE of Hillsborough, a 5-year project funded by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation for the purpose of increasing Latino student graduation from high school and college. Theory-based…

  20. Risk assessment of groundwater contamination: a multilevel fuzzy comprehensive evaluation approach based on DRASTIC model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuwen; Yang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yan; Zhong, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater contamination is a serious threat to water supply. Risk assessment of groundwater contamination is an effective way to protect the safety of groundwater resource. Groundwater is a complex and fuzzy system with many uncertainties, which is impacted by different geological and hydrological factors. In order to deal with the uncertainty in the risk assessment of groundwater contamination, we propose an approach with analysis hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation integrated together. Firstly, the risk factors of groundwater contamination are identified by the sources-pathway-receptor-consequence method, and a corresponding index system of risk assessment based on DRASTIC model is established. Due to the complexity in the process of transitions between the possible pollution risks and the uncertainties of factors, the method of analysis hierarchy process is applied to determine the weights of each factor, and the fuzzy sets theory is adopted to calculate the membership degrees of each factor. Finally, a case study is presented to illustrate and test this methodology. It is concluded that the proposed approach integrates the advantages of both analysis hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, which provides a more flexible and reliable way to deal with the linguistic uncertainty and mechanism uncertainty in groundwater contamination without losing important information.

  1. Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination: A Multilevel Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Approach Based on DRASTIC Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zhong, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater contamination is a serious threat to water supply. Risk assessment of groundwater contamination is an effective way to protect the safety of groundwater resource. Groundwater is a complex and fuzzy system with many uncertainties, which is impacted by different geological and hydrological factors. In order to deal with the uncertainty in the risk assessment of groundwater contamination, we propose an approach with analysis hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation integrated together. Firstly, the risk factors of groundwater contamination are identified by the sources-pathway-receptor-consequence method, and a corresponding index system of risk assessment based on DRASTIC model is established. Due to the complexity in the process of transitions between the possible pollution risks and the uncertainties of factors, the method of analysis hierarchy process is applied to determine the weights of each factor, and the fuzzy sets theory is adopted to calculate the membership degrees of each factor. Finally, a case study is presented to illustrate and test this methodology. It is concluded that the proposed approach integrates the advantages of both analysis hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, which provides a more flexible and reliable way to deal with the linguistic uncertainty and mechanism uncertainty in groundwater contamination without losing important information. PMID:24453883

  2. Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome: diagnostic yield of comprehensive clinical evaluation of pediatric first-degree relatives.

    PubMed

    Giudici, Valentina; Spanaki, Adriani; Hendry, Jennifer; Mead-Regan, Sarah; Field, Ella; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Abrams, Dominic; Lowe, Martin; Kaski, Juan Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) is most often caused by heritable cardiac diseases. Studies in adults have identified evidence of inherited cardiovascular diseases in up to 53% of families, but data on the prevalence of familial disease in children are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of clinical screening in pediatric first-degree relatives of victims of SADS using a systematic and comprehensive protocol. Patients referred for family screening after sudden cardiac death (SCD) of a family member were, retrospectively, enrolled into the study. Systematic evaluation of the children included clinical examination, family history, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, 24-hour tape, and signal-averaged ECG. Older patients also underwent exercise testing, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and ajmaline provocation testing. A total of 90 children from 52 consecutive families were included in the study. An inherited cardiac disease was identified in seven first-degree children from seven (13.5%) families (five children were diagnosed with Brugada syndrome, one with long QT syndrome, and one with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia). Two further children had late potentials on signal-averaged ECGs with no other abnormalities. These data show a high prevalence of inherited heart disease in pediatric first-degree relatives of SADS victims. The results highlight the importance of a systematic, comprehensive approach and ongoing screening of pediatric family members. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation of nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Shu-xiao; Hao, Ji-ming

    2010-07-01

    A multi-level assessment index system was established to quantitatively and comprehensively evaluate the performance of typical nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation was conducted to assess six NO, control technologies, including low NO, burner (LNB), over the fire (OFA), flue gas reburning (Reburning), selective catalyst reduction (SCR), selective non-catalyst reduction (SNCR) and hybrid SCR/SNCR. Case studies indicated that combination of SCR and LNB are the optimal choice for wall-fired boilers combusting anthracite coal which requires NO, removal efficiency to be over 70%, however, for W-flame or tangential boilers combusting bituminous and sub-bituminous coal which requires 30% NO, removal, LNB and reburning are better choices. Therefore, we recommend that in the developed and ecological frangible regions, large units burning anthracite or meager coal should install LNB and SCR and other units should install LNB and SNCR. In the regions with environmental capacity, units burning anthracite or meager coal shall install LNB and SNCR, and other units shall apply LNB to reduce NO, emissions.

  4. Improving the interaction between the ophthalmology and histopathology departments

    PubMed Central

    Maudgil, A; Salvi, S M; Tan, J H Y; Mudhar, H S

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to improve communication between the ophthalmology and histopathology departments at Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, by effectively changing the structure and completion of the histopathology request form through the process of a successful audit. This aimed to ensure that comprehensive information was made available to the histopathologist. Methods An audit was performed by review of 710 histopathology request forms, completed by the ophthalmology department, over a 1-year period, between July 2005 and June 2006 inclusive. Results were used to re-model the ophthalmic histopathology request form. New forms were circulated and all forms completed over a 3-month period, between January 2008 and March 2008, were reviewed, thus closing the audit loop. Results On the basis of audit results of 710 histopathology request forms, a new histopathology request form was created, which was easier to complete. Review of the 224 new histopathology request forms showed improved percentages of completion of important sections of the form. Conclusions Through the audit process we have created a new ophthalmic histopathology request form that is more user-friendly for the ophthalmologist and more consistently provides the necessary information for the ophthalmic histopathologist. This has improved efficiency and effectiveness of communication between the specialities, which should contribute to minimise the chances of medical error and improved turnaround times for the planning and delivery of patient care. PMID:21587272

  5. Improving the interaction between the ophthalmology and histopathology departments.

    PubMed

    Maudgil, A; Salvi, S M; Tan, J H Y; Mudhar, H S

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve communication between the ophthalmology and histopathology departments at Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, by effectively changing the structure and completion of the histopathology request form through the process of a successful audit. This aimed to ensure that comprehensive information was made available to the histopathologist. An audit was performed by review of 710 histopathology request forms, completed by the ophthalmology department, over a 1-year period, between July 2005 and June 2006 inclusive. Results were used to re-model the ophthalmic histopathology request form. New forms were circulated and all forms completed over a 3-month period, between January 2008 and March 2008, were reviewed, thus closing the audit loop. On the basis of audit results of 710 histopathology request forms, a new histopathology request form was created, which was easier to complete. Review of the 224 new histopathology request forms showed improved percentages of completion of important sections of the form. Through the audit process we have created a new ophthalmic histopathology request form that is more user-friendly for the ophthalmologist and more consistently provides the necessary information for the ophthalmic histopathologist. This has improved efficiency and effectiveness of communication between the specialities, which should contribute to minimise the chances of medical error and improved turnaround times for the planning and delivery of patient care.

  6. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method Applied in the Real Estate Investment Risks Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ML(Zhang Minli), Zhang; Wp(Yang Wenpo), Yang

    Real estate investment is a high-risk and high returned of economic activity, the key of real estate analysis is the identification of their types of investment risk and the risk of different types of effective prevention. But, as the financial crisis sweeping the world, the real estate industry also faces enormous risks, how effective and correct evaluation of real estate investment risks becomes the multitudinous scholar concern[1]. In this paper, real estate investment risks were summarized and analyzed, and comparative analysis method is discussed and finally presented fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, not only in theory has the advantages of science, in the application also has the reliability, for real estate investment risk assessment provides an effective means for investors in real estate investing guidance on risk factors and forecasts.

  7. [Comprehensive Toxicity Evaluation and Toxicity Identification Used in Tannery and Textile Wastewaters].

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Chen, Wen-yan; Wan, Yu-shan; Zheng, Guo-juan; Zhao, Yuan; Cai, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    To better evaluate the toxicity of tannery and textile effluents from various emission stages, the research attempted battery of toxicological bioassays and toxicological indices. The bioassays employed Microtox test, zebra fish embryo-larval test and algae (Chlorella vulgaris) test. Meanwhile, toxicological indices including Toxicity Unit (TU), Average Toxicity (AvTx), Toxic Print (TxPr), Most Sensitive Test (MST) and Potential Ecotoxic Effects Probe (PEEP) were applied. The results illustrated that PEEP was the most comprehensive index to take account of the emissions and toxic potential of effluents. PEEP values showed that the reduction rates of toxicity in tannery and textile effluents were 36. 8% and 23. 2%, respectively. Finally, based on the Microtox toxicity test, toxicants in textile effluent were identified through the toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. The results indicated that the main toxicant of textile effluent was non-polar organic pollutants, followed by filterable compounds, heavy metals, oxidizing substances and volatile components.

  8. Quality and safety aspects in histopathology laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Adyanthaya, Soniya; Jose, Maji

    2013-01-01

    Histopathology is an art of analyzing and interpreting the shapes, sizes and architectural patterns of cells and tissues within a given specific clinical background and a science by which the image is placed in the context of knowledge of pathobiology, to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. To function effectively and safely, all the procedures and activities of histopathology laboratory should be evaluated and monitored accurately. In histopathology laboratory, the concept of quality control is applicable to pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical activities. Ensuring safety of working personnel as well as environment is also highly important. Safety issues that may come up in a histopathology lab are primarily those related to potentially hazardous chemicals, biohazardous materials, accidents linked to the equipment and instrumentation employed and general risks from electrical and fire hazards. This article discusses quality management system which can ensure quality performance in histopathology laboratory. The hazards in pathology laboratories and practical safety measures aimed at controlling the dangers are also discussed with the objective of promoting safety consciousness and the practice of laboratory safety. PMID:24574660

  9. Quality and safety aspects in histopathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Adyanthaya, Soniya; Jose, Maji

    2013-09-01

    Histopathology is an art of analyzing and interpreting the shapes, sizes and architectural patterns of cells and tissues within a given specific clinical background and a science by which the image is placed in the context of knowledge of pathobiology, to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. To function effectively and safely, all the procedures and activities of histopathology laboratory should be evaluated and monitored accurately. In histopathology laboratory, the concept of quality control is applicable to pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical activities. Ensuring safety of working personnel as well as environment is also highly important. Safety issues that may come up in a histopathology lab are primarily those related to potentially hazardous chemicals, biohazardous materials, accidents linked to the equipment and instrumentation employed and general risks from electrical and fire hazards. This article discusses quality management system which can ensure quality performance in histopathology laboratory. The hazards in pathology laboratories and practical safety measures aimed at controlling the dangers are also discussed with the objective of promoting safety consciousness and the practice of laboratory safety.

  10. An approach to a comprehensive test framework for analysis and evaluation of text line segmentation algorithms.

    PubMed

    Brodic, Darko; Milivojevic, Dragan R; Milivojevic, Zoran N

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces a testing framework for the evaluation and validation of text line segmentation algorithms. Text line segmentation represents the key action for correct optical character recognition. Many of the tests for the evaluation of text line segmentation algorithms deal with text databases as reference templates. Because of the mismatch, the reliable testing framework is required. Hence, a new approach to a comprehensive experimental framework for the evaluation of text line segmentation algorithms is proposed. It consists of synthetic multi-like text samples and real handwritten text as well. Although the tests are mutually independent, the results are cross-linked. The proposed method can be used for different types of scripts and languages. Furthermore, two different procedures for the evaluation of algorithm efficiency based on the obtained error type classification are proposed. The first is based on the segmentation line error description, while the second one incorporates well-known signal detection theory. Each of them has different capabilities and convenience, but they can be used as supplements to make the evaluation process efficient. Overall the proposed procedure based on the segmentation line error description has some advantages, characterized by five measures that describe measurement procedures.

  11. Information theory provides a comprehensive framework for the evaluation of protein structure predictions

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Rosemarie; Vannucci, Marina; Tsai, Jerry W.

    2008-01-01

    Protein structure prediction has a number of important ad hoc similarity measures for evaluating predictions, but would benefit from a measure that is able to provide a common framework for a broad range of comparisons. Here we show that a mutual information-like measure can provide a comprehensive framework for evaluating protein structure prediction of all types. We discuss the concept of information, its application to secondary structure, and the obstacle to applying it to 3D structure. Based on insights from the secondary structure case, we present an approach to work around the 3D difficulties, and develop a method to measure the mutual information provided by a 3D structure prediction. We integrate the evaluation of all types of protein structure prediction into a single frame work, and compare the amount of information provided by various prediction methods, including secondary structure prediction. Within this broadened framework, the idea that structure is better preserved than sequence during evolution is evaluated quantitatively for the globin family. A nearly perfect sequence match in the globin family corresponds to about 300 bits of information, whereas a nearly perfect structural match for the same two proteins corresponds to about 2500 bits of information, where bits of information describes the probability of obtaining a match of similar closeness by chance. Mutual information provides both a theoretical basis for evaluating structure similarity and an explanatory surround for existing similarity measures. PMID:18704942

  12. Comprehensive review of the functional outcome evaluation of clubfoot treatment: a preferred methodology.

    PubMed

    Graf, Adam; Wu, Kuan-Wen; Smith, Peter A; Kuo, Ken N; Krzak, Joseph; Harris, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Treatment outcome has been a focus of interest in those who manage clubfeet. Because of a lack of a common evaluation protocol, it has become necessary to establish a universally recognized quantitative measurement to compare and better understand the treatment outcome. The outcome is not merely morphological and radiographic, but it should also include functional and quality-of-life measurements. In this article, we will outline the most commonly used methods of long-term evaluation for congenital clubfeet and recommend the data collection parameters that are most appropriate for a comprehensive functional analysis. This will begin with pretreatment classifications that are important in prognosticating the results. The physical examinations and plain radiographs in standing position are also two fundamental evaluations of clubfoot. Several outcome evaluations have been published in the literature and may be useful depending on the desired metrics. Gait analysis is an additional useful technical tool for analyzing the motion of the foot and ankle and its relation to the whole body function; pedobarography added to the dynamics of the evaluation. Functional quality-of-life questionnaires are increasing in popularity for measuring the total body functional status and the quality of life.

  13. Have we Comprehensively Evaluated the Effectiveness of Endoscopic Screening for Gastric Cancer?

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopy has been increasingly used in clinical practice and as a standardized examination procedure for gastrointestinal diseases. However, only a few studies on endoscopic screening for evaluating mortality reduction from gastric cancer have been carried out. Even if a high detection rate is obtained in clinical practice, such a rate cannot be directly accepted as evidence providing the effectiveness of cancer screening. Endoscopic screening for gastric cancer is not an exception of possibility to detect overdiagnosis. If detection rate is used for the evaluation of the effectiveness of cancer screening, the possibility of overestimating the effectiveness of cancer screening cannot be ruled out. To avoid the effect of overdiagnosis and confirm the effectiveness of endoscopic screening, mortality reduction from gastric cancer must be carefully evaluated by conducting reliable studies. The burden of gastric cancer remains real and this cannot be ignored in Eastern Asian countries. To determine the best available method for gastric cancer screening, evaluation of its effectiveness is a must. Endoscopic screening for gastric cancer has shown promising results, and thus deserves further comprehensive evaluation to reliably confirm its effectiveness and how its optimal use can be strategically promoted.

  14. An Approach to a Comprehensive Test Framework for Analysis and Evaluation of Text Line Segmentation Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Brodic, Darko; Milivojevic, Dragan R.; Milivojevic, Zoran N.

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces a testing framework for the evaluation and validation of text line segmentation algorithms. Text line segmentation represents the key action for correct optical character recognition. Many of the tests for the evaluation of text line segmentation algorithms deal with text databases as reference templates. Because of the mismatch, the reliable testing framework is required. Hence, a new approach to a comprehensive experimental framework for the evaluation of text line segmentation algorithms is proposed. It consists of synthetic multi-like text samples and real handwritten text as well. Although the tests are mutually independent, the results are cross-linked. The proposed method can be used for different types of scripts and languages. Furthermore, two different procedures for the evaluation of algorithm efficiency based on the obtained error type classification are proposed. The first is based on the segmentation line error description, while the second one incorporates well-known signal detection theory. Each of them has different capabilities and convenience, but they can be used as supplements to make the evaluation process efficient. Overall the proposed procedure based on the segmentation line error description has some advantages, characterized by five measures that describe measurement procedures. PMID:22164106

  15. Comprehensive retrospective evaluation of existing in vitro chromosomal aberration test data by cytotoxicity index transformation.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yurika; Morita, Takeshi; Matsumura, Shoji; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Ito, Yuichi; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    New OECD test guidelines have been issued, in which the cytotoxicity index relative cell count (RCC) is replaced with a new index, RICC or RPD (relative increase in cell count/relative population doubling), with the goal of reducing the high proportion of false positive results in in vitro chromosomal aberration tests. Using a mathematical approach to estimate new indices from the RCC, we constructed an evaluation flow that quantitatively estimates how often the previous test conclusions change when applying the updated cytotoxicity criteria. The new evaluation flow was applied to a retrospective evaluation of 285 chemicals in two databases. The effects of the employment of new cytotoxicity indices are investigated at a large scale. Using the new evaluation flow, 90 chemicals were estimated as positive, 39 were designated as estimated negative (13 probably negative and 26 possibly negative), and 140 were designated as negative. Moreover, we also applied a prioritization index to indicate the likelihood of a chemical being re-evaluated as negative and assigned priorities for testing. Most of the chemicals that were designated as estimated negative and had negative results in the in vivo micronucleus tests were considered as false-positives that would be correctly judged under the new test guideline. Furthermore, statistical analysis of the frequency of estimated negatives revealed that the results for Ames-positive chemicals, especially those with a strong response, are unlikely to change. Therefore, we concluded that the new indices would likely reduce the proportion of false positive results and not increase the proportion of false negative results. This study is the first report of a comprehensive re-evaluation of test results in terms of new cytotoxicity indices. The evaluation flow we have developed facilitates efficient retrospective evaluation of genotoxicity.

  16. Histopathologic classification of parapharyngeal space tumors: a case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Locketz, Garrett D; Horowitz, Gilad; Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Wasserzug, Oshri; Abergel, Abraham; Yehuda, Moshe; Fliss, Dan M

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study is to present a large case series of parapharyngeal space tumors (PPST) and the most comprehensive literature review of tumor histopathologic distribution. The study was designed as internal case series and full Pubmed/MEDLINE electronic database review in a tertiary academic medical center. Tumor histopathology and patient demographics were obtained from a comprehensive Pubmed/MEDLINE database review, as well from an internal case series of 117 patients referred to our center between 1993 and 2013. Main outcome and measures of the study were to define the age, gender, and histopathology of PPST within a large internal case series and among the current body of published literature, and to propose a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for these tumors. Our cohort included 117 cases, 58 females and 59 males, with benign tumors comprising 85 % (n = 99) and malignant tumors 15 % (n = 18). A systematic review of published literature from 1963 to the present revealed 37 case series, and when combined with our present series, yielded a total of 2160 cases. Benign tumors are most common (78.8 %), with tumors of salivary gland (44.4 %), neural (34.4 %), and vascular (2.64 %) origin representing the largest subtypes. Pleomorphic adenomas (30.9 %), paragangliomas (13.1 %), and schwannomas (12.3 %) comprised the majority of all cases. Due to their rarity, data regarding the histopathologic distribution of PPST is scarce. We provide one of the largest case series and the most comprehensive review of these tumors in the literature to date, and offer our algorithm for evaluation and treatment.

  17. The accuracy of pre-appendectomy computed tomography with histopathological correlation: a clinical audit, case discussion and evaluation of the literature.

    PubMed

    Collins, George Benjamin; Tan, Tien Jin; Gifford, John; Tan, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    The increasing use of computed tomography (CT) in acute appendicitis makes recognising the radiological hallmarks of the condition and its mimics vital. The differential diagnosis includes both appendiceal and nonappendiceal pathologies. The correlation between pre-appendectomy CT and post-appendectomy histopathology was audited retrospectively. Cases of clinico-histopathological discrepancy underwent blind peer-review, and possible improvements were discussed in the context of the medical literature. A grade for discrepancy was given based on the RADPEER scoring system, and interesting or discrepant cases were examined more closely to identify targets for education. Of the 199 procedures, 4 appendectomies were negative (histologically normal), 182 were positive (primary appendicitis) and 13 were incidental (another primary process caused inflammation). The positive predictive value for pre-appendectomy CT was 91.5 %, and the negative appendectomy rate was 2 %. There were many secondary pathologies, including neoplasia, tuberculosis and endometriosis. Although no CT reports missed a diagnosis that should be made "almost all of the time" and in 96 % of cases, the second, blinded radiologist agreed with the initial assessment, in 3 cases, a missed diagnosis altered clinical management; 2 were "understandable" misses but 1 was not. In five cases, a discrepancy was "understandable" but clinically insignificant. Overall, in comparison to the medical literature, the degree of clinico-histopathological correlation was good. Although identifying areas for improvement was challenging, after a pictorial review of four cases and a discussion of the medical literature, we present our audit results and some valuable learning points for use in the CT assessment of suspected acute appendicitis.

  18. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of China's urban underground transportation construction projects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Dongjun

    2015-07-01

    Urban underground transportation projects are introduced to address problems of scarce green land and traffic pollution. As construction of urban underground transportation is still in its infancy, there is no definite quantitative measurement on whether the construction is beneficial and what influences it will place on the region in China. This study intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating social, economic and environmental benefits of urban underground transportation projects and proposes the concept, role and principle for evaluation of environmental and economic benefits. It figures out relationship between the environment and factors of city development. It also summarizes three relevant factors, including transportation, biophysics and social economy, and works out indicators to evaluate the influence of urban underground transportation construction. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Cost of Illness Approach (CIA), Human Capital Approach (HCA), this paper constructs 13 monetization calculation models for social, economic and environmental benefits in response to seven aspects, namely, reducing noise pollution and air pollution, using land efficiently, improving traffic safety, reducing traffic congestion, saving shipping time and minimizing transportation costs.

  19. Optimizing informed consent in living liver donors: Evaluation of a comprehension assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Elisa J; Mullee, Jack; Butt, Zeeshan; Kang, Joseph; Baker, Talia

    2015-10-01

    Adult-to-adult living liver donation is associated with considerable risks with no direct medical benefit to liver donors (LDs). Ensuring that potential LDs comprehend the risks of donation is essential to medically and ethically justify the procedure. We developed and prospectively evaluated the initial psychometrics of an "Evaluation of Donor Informed Consent Tool" (EDICT) designed to assess LDs' comprehension about the living donation process. EDICT includes 49 true/false/unsure items related to LD informed consent. Consecutive LDs undergoing evaluation at 1 academic medical center from October 2012 to September 2014 were eligible for participation in pretest/posttest interviews. Medical records were reviewed for postdonation complications. Twenty-seven LDs participated (96% participation rate). EDICT demonstrated good internal consistency reliability at pretest, 2 days before donating (Cronbach's α = 0.78), and posttest, 1 week after donating (α = 0.70). EDICT scores significantly increased over time (P = 0.01) and demonstrated good test-retest reliability (r = 0.68; P < 0.001). EDICT was associated with race/ethnicity (P = 0.02) and relationship to the recipient (P = 0.01; pretest), and income (P = 0.01) and insurance (P = 0.01; posttest), but not with decisional conflict, preoperative preparedness, satisfaction, or decisional regret (pretest and posttest). Donor complications did not impact postdonation EDICT scores. In conclusion, EDICT has promising measurement properties and may be useful in the evaluation of informed consent for potential LDs. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  20. [Evaluation on the effectiveness of intervention comprehensive program on child obesity, using Generalized Estimating Equation].

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhijuan; Wang, Shumei; Zheng, Wenjuan; Guo, Jianing; Qu, Shuangxiao

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of child obesity intervention comprehensive program on the improvement of overweight, obese control and knowledge-attitude-practice. The study design was under cluster-randomized controlled trial, with 965 children in the intervention and 895 children in the control groups. Repeated measurement data on child obesity was analyzed through Generalized Estimating Equation models. The risk of becoming overweight or obesity in the intervention group was 0.824 times more than children in the control group, showing a reduction of 17.6% the risk of being overweight or obese (P = 0.031). In addition, the possibility of increasing one unit of correct rate on obesity related knowledge, children in the intervention group children was 1.044 times (P = 0.001)than in the control group. On the mean obesity related correct attitude rate, it was 1.023 times (P = 0.001) in the intervention group of the control group. Regarding the possibility of increasing one unit om the mean obesity related behavior score, children in the intervention group was 1.522 times (P = 0.001)than those in the control group (P = 0.046). The comprehensive child obesity intervention program could effectively reduce the risk of developing overweight or obesity and improving the obesity related knowledge, attitude and behavior in children.

  1. A comprehensive evaluation of imidazole-zinc reverse stain for current proteomic researches.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Yu; Wang, Vinchi; Shui, Hao-Ai; Juang, Rong-Huay; Hour, Ai-Ling; Chen, Pei-Sing; Huang, Hui-Ming; Wu, Szu-Yu; Lee, Jen-Chieh; Tsai, Tzung-Lin; Chen, Han-Min

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we comprehensively evaluated the capability of imidazole-zinc reverse stain (ZN) in comparative proteomics. Three commonly used protein gel staining methods, including silver (SN), SYPRO Ruby (SR), and CB stain were investigated alongside for comparison purpose. A transparency scanning procedure, which may deliver more even and contrasting gel images, was found best for documenting ZN stained gels. Our results showed that ZN was more sensitive than SN, SR, and CB. It may reveal as few as 1.8 ng of proteins in a gel. Moreover, ZN was found to provide a linear dynamic range of staining for revealing proteins up to 140 ng, and show an insignificant staining preference. To analyze a ZN stained 2-D gel image that generally comprises an apparent but even background, the Melanie 4 software was found more suitable than others. Furthermore, ZN demonstrated an equivalent or better MS compatibility than the other three staining methods. Intense and comprehensive MS profiles were frequently observed for ZN stained gel spots. Approximate two-third of ZN stained gel spots were successfully identified for protein identities. Taken together, our results suggest that the prompt, cost effective and versatile ZN is well suited for current proteomic researches.

  2. Comprehensive evaluation of power grid enterprises' credit rating under the reform of transmission and distribution price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Yi; Fan, Lisha; Wei, Jiaxiang

    2017-03-01

    On March 15, 2015, the central office issued the "Opinions on Further Deepening the Reform of Electric Power System" (in the 2015 No. 9). This policy marks the central government officially opened a new round of electricity reform. As a programmatic document under the new situation to comprehensively promote the reform of the power system, No. 9 document will be approved as a separate transmission and distribution of electricity prices, which is the first task of promoting the reform of the power system. Grid tariff reform is not only the transmission and distribution price of a separate approval, more of the grid company input-output relationship and many other aspects of deep-level adjustments. Under the background of the reform of the transmission and distribution price, the main factors affecting the input-output relationship, such as the main business, electricity pricing, and investment approval, financial accounting and so on, have changed significantly. The paper designed the comprehensive evaluation index system of power grid enterprises' credit rating under the reform of transmission and distribution price to reduce the impact of the reform on the company's international rating results and the ability to raise funds.

  3. Comprehensive evaluation of power grid projects' investment benefits under the reform of transmission and distribution price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Yi; Fan, Lisha; Ling, Yunpeng

    2017-03-01

    On March 15, 2015, the Central Office issued the "Opinions on Further Deepening the Reform of Electric Power System" (Zhong Fa No. 9). This policy marks the central government officially opened a new round of electricity reform. As a programmatic document under the new situation to comprehensively promote the reform of the power system, No. 9 document will be approved as a separate transmission and distribution of electricity prices, which is the first task of promoting the reform of the power system. Grid tariff reform is not only the transmission and distribution price of a separate approval, more of the grid company input-output relationship and many other aspects of deep-level adjustments. Under the background of the reform of the transmission and distribution price, the main factors affecting the input-output relationship, such as the main business, electricity pricing, and investment approval, financial accounting and so on, have changed significantly. The paper designed the comprehensive evaluation index system of power grid projects' investment benefits under the reform of transmission and distribution price to improve the investment efficiency of power grid projects after the power reform in China.

  4. World Hip Trauma Evaluation (WHiTE): framework for embedded comprehensive cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Matthew L; Griffin, Xavier L; Achten, Juul; Metcalfe, David; Judge, Andrew; Pinedo-Villanueva, Rafael; Parsons, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Osteoporotic hip fractures present a significant global challenge to patients, clinicians and healthcare systems. It is estimated that hip fracture accounts for 1.4% of total social and healthcare costs in the established market economies. Methods and analysis The World Hip Trauma Evaluation (WHiTE) was set up to measure outcome in a comprehensive cohort of UK patients with hip fracture. All patients in the cohort are treated under a single comprehensive treatment pathway. A core outcome set, including health-related quality of life, is collected on all the patients. This protocol describes the current multicentre project that will be used as a vehicle to deliver a series of embedded observational studies. Ethics and dissemination Research Ethics Committee approval was granted (Rec reference 11/LO/0927, approved 18/8/2011) and each hospital trust provided National Health Service (NHS) approvals. Trial registration number The study is registered with National Institute of Health Research Portfolio (UKCRN ID 12351) and the ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN63982700). PMID:27797994

  5. Aggressive surgery for borderline resectable pancreatic cancer: evaluation of National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Suguru; Fujii, Tsutomu; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Nomoto, Shuji; Takeda, Shin; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Nakao, Akimasa

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relevance of defining borderline resectable (BR) pancreatic cancer as a distinct entity in the treatment scheme of pancreatic cancer as proposed by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Among 375 patients with pancreatic cancer, 137 patients were deemed to have resectable disease (R) by preoperative imaging studies, whereas 96 were found to have an unresectable disease during surgery. The remaining 142 patients fulfilled the definition of BR and were further classified into 3 subgroups based on the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines: portal vein invasion (PV[+]), common hepatic artery invasion (CHA[+]), and superior mesenteric artery invasion (SMA[+]). PV(+) was subdivided into types B, C, and D according to the degree of portal vein invasion. Patients in the R group had significantly better survival than those in the PV(+) group (P = 0.0038), who in turn survived significantly longer than those classified as SMA(+) (P = 0.041). Type B patients survived significantly longer than did types C and D patients (P = 0.013 and P = 0.030, respectively). In PV(+) patients, compliance with postoperative chemotherapy at 3 and 6 months was 56.9% and 44.6%, respectively, substantially inferior to patients with resectable disease (72.6% and 54.7%, respectively). The optimal treatment strategy may differ among various subgroups within the BR category.

  6. A Novel Evaluation algorithm of Urban Comprehensive Carrying Capacity Index System in Northwest China:Lanzhou city as a example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Lei, Song; Ling, Ma

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid growth of the urban population and quick expansion of urban dimensions, the affecting urban development constraints of urban carrying capacity has increasingly been attracting people's attention. However, the effective synthesization of urban resources carrying capacity, urban environmental carrying capacity, economic carrying capacity, society carrying capacity and traffic carrying capacity hardly acted as an urban comprehensive carrying capacity evaluation system. In this paper, the novel comprehensive index system of urban resources carrying capacity, urban environmental carrying capacity, economic carrying capacity, society carrying capacity and traffic carrying capacity was used for analyzing and evaluating urban comprehensive carrying capacity. Firstly, the standardization of evaluation index was constructed in the urban comprehensive carrying capacity index system. In addition, the past decade data from 2002 to 2011 was analyzed and evaluated in the weighted index system. Finally, the influence mechanism of various carrying capacity factors on urban comprehensive carrying capacity was investigated in Lanzhou. Experimental results can be summarized that the variation tendency of urban comprehensive carrying capacity was the annual increase of levels and the promotion countermeasure was put forward with congenital restricting factors and acquired restricting factors.

  7. Malignant tumours of the small intestine: a review of histopathology, multidetector CT and MRI aspects.

    PubMed

    Anzidei, M; Napoli, A; Zini, C; Kirchin, M A; Catalano, C; Passariello, R

    2011-08-01

    Small bowel neoplasms, including adenocarcinoma, carcinoid tumour, lymphoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumours, represent a small percentage of gastrointestinal cancers, yet are among those with the poorest prognosis compared with other gastrointestinal malignancies. Unclear clinical scenarios and difficult radiological diagnosis often delay treatment with negative effects on patient survival. Recently, multidetector CT (MDCT) and MRI have been introduced as feasible and accurate diagnostic techniques for the identification and staging of small bowel neoplasms. These techniques are gradually replacing conventional barium radiography as the tool of choice. However, the inherent technical and physiological challenges of small bowel imaging require a familiarity with patient preparation and scan protocols. Adequate knowledge of the histopathology and natural evolution of small bowel neoplasms is also important for differential diagnosis. The aim of this article is to review MDCT and MRI protocols for the evaluation of small bowel tumours and to provide a concise yet comprehensive guide to the most relevant imaging features relative to histopathology.

  8. A comprehensive evaluation of machine learning techniques for cancer class prediction based on microarray data.

    PubMed

    Raza, Khalid; Hasan, Atif N

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is among the most common cancer in males and its heterogeneity is well known. The genomic level changes can be detected in gene expression data and those changes may serve as standard model for any random cancer data for class prediction. Various techniques were implied on prostate cancer data set in order to accurately predict cancer class including machine learning techniques. Large number of attributes but few numbers of samples in microarray data leads to poor training; therefore, the most challenging part is attribute reduction or non-significant gene reduction. In this work, a combination of interquartile range and t-test is used for attribute reduction. Further, a comprehensive evaluation of ten state-of-the-art machine learning techniques for their accuracy in class prediction of prostate cancer is done. Out of these techniques, Bayes Network outperformed with an accuracy of 94.11% followed by Naïve Bayes with an accuracy of 91.17%.

  9. Comprehensive benefit evaluation of direct power-purchase for large consumers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. N.; Li, Z. H.; Zhou, H. M.; Zhao, Q.; Xu, X. F.

    2017-06-01

    Based on "several opinions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on further deepening the reform of electric power system" in 2015, this paper analyses the influence of direct power-purchase for large consumers on operation benefit of power grid. In three aspects, such as economic benefit, cleaning benefit and social benefit, the index system is proposed. In which, the profit of saving coal energy consumption, reducing carbon emissions and reducing pollutant emissions is quantitative calculated. Then the subjective and objective weights and index scores are figured out through the analytic hierarchy process, entropy weight method and interval number method. Finally, the comprehensive benefit is evaluated combined with the actual study, and some suggestions are made.

  10. Risk assessment of supply chain for pharmaceutical excipients with AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Maozhong; Du, Yunai; Wang, Qiyue; Sun, Chunmeng; Ling, Xiang; Yu, Boyang; Tu, Jiasheng; Xiong, Yerong

    2016-04-01

    As the essential components in formulations, pharmaceutical excipients directly affect the safety, efficacy, and stability of drugs. Recently, safety incidents of pharmaceutical excipients posing seriously threats to the patients highlight the necessity of controlling the potential risks. Hence, it is indispensable for the industry to establish an effective risk assessment system of supply chain. In this study, an AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was developed based on the analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy mathematical theory, which quantitatively assessed the risks of supply chain. Taking polysorbate 80 as the example for model analysis, it was concluded that polysorbate 80 for injection use is a high-risk ingredient in the supply chain compared to that for oral use to achieve safety application in clinic, thus measures should be taken to control and minimize those risks.

  11. Risk assessment of supply chain for pharmaceutical excipients with AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Maozhong; Du, Yunai; Wang, Qiyue; Sun, Chunmeng; Ling, Xiang; Yu, Boyang; Tu, Jiasheng; Xiong, Yerong

    2016-01-01

    As the essential components in formulations, pharmaceutical excipients directly affect the safety, efficacy, and stability of drugs. Recently, safety incidents of pharmaceutical excipients posing seriously threats to the patients highlight the necessity of controlling the potential risks. Hence, it is indispensable for the industry to establish an effective risk assessment system of supply chain. In this study, an AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was developed based on the analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy mathematical theory, which quantitatively assessed the risks of supply chain. Taking polysorbate 80 as the example for model analysis, it was concluded that polysorbate 80 for injection use is a high-risk ingredient in the supply chain compared to that for oral use to achieve safety application in clinic, thus measures should be taken to control and minimize those risks.

  12. Reporting Tumor Molecular Heterogeneity in Histopathological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mafficini, Andrea; Amato, Eliana; Fassan, Matteo; Simbolo, Michele; Antonello, Davide; Vicentini, Caterina; Scardoni, Maria; Bersani, Samantha; Gottardi, Marisa; Rusev, Borislav; Malpeli, Giorgio; Corbo, Vincenzo; Barbi, Stefano; Sikora, Katarzyna O.; Lawlor, Rita T.; Tortora, Giampaolo; Scarpa, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Background Detection of molecular tumor heterogeneity has become of paramount importance with the advent of targeted therapies. Analysis for detection should be comprehensive, timely and based on routinely available tumor samples. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic potential of targeted multigene next-generation sequencing (TM-NGS) in characterizing gastrointestinal cancer molecular heterogeneity. Methods 35 gastrointestinal tract tumors, five of each intestinal type gastric carcinomas, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, ampulla of Vater carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, cholangiocarcinomas, pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumors were assessed for mutations in 46 cancer-associated genes, using Ion Torrent semiconductor-based TM-NGS. One ampulla of Vater carcinoma cell line and one hepatic carcinosarcoma served to assess assay sensitivity. TP53, PIK3CA, KRAS, and BRAF mutations were validated by conventional Sanger sequencing. Results TM-NGS yielded overlapping results on matched fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, with a mutation detection limit of 1% for fresh-frozen high molecular weight DNA and 2% for FFPE partially degraded DNA. At least one somatic mutation was observed in all tumors tested; multiple alterations were detected in 20/35 (57%) tumors. Seven cancers displayed significant differences in allelic frequencies for distinct mutations, indicating the presence of intratumor molecular heterogeneity; this was confirmed on selected samples by immunohistochemistry of p53 and Smad4, showing concordance with mutational analysis. Conclusions TM-NGS is able to detect and quantitate multiple gene alterations from limited amounts of DNA, moving one step closer to a next-generation histopathologic diagnosis that integrates morphologic, immunophenotypic, and multigene mutational analysis on routinely processed tissues, essential for personalized cancer therapy. PMID:25127237

  13. Evaluating the potential role of pomegranate peel in aluminum-induced oxidative stress and histopathological alterations in brain of female rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2012-12-01

    Studies have shown that pomegranate, Punica granatum Linn. (Lythraceae), has remarkable biological and medicinal properties. However, the effects of pomegranate peel methanolic extract (PPME) on the aluminum-induced oxidative stress and histopathological change have not been reported yet. To determine the effect of PPME (200 mg/kg bwt) on the aluminum chloride (AlCl₃; 34 mg/kg bwt)-induced neurotoxicity, aluminum accumulation in brain and oxidant/antioxidant status were determined. The change of brain structure was investigated with hematoxylin and eosin, and anti-apoptosis effects of PPME were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The present study showed an indication of carcinogenicity in the AlCl₃-treated group representing an increase in tissue tumor markers such as tumor necrosis factor-α and angiogenin and inflammation by inducing an increase in prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2α. PPME protected brain through decreasing the aluminum accumulation and stimulating antioxidant activities and anti-apoptotic proteins namely Bcl-2. Therefore, these results indicated that pomegranate peel methanolic extract could inhibit aluminum-induced oxidative stress and histopathological alternations in brain of female rats, and these effects may be related to anti-apoptotic and antioxidants activities.

  14. Evaluation of lemon fruit extract as an antioxidant agent against histopathological changes induced by cyclophosphamide in the testes of albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Quita, Salwa Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of lemon fruit extracts (LFE) against histopathological changes induced in the testes of male mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CP). Methods Thirty male mice were divided evenly into six groups: 1) group 1: the controls, 2) group 2: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg b wt.), 3) group 3: treated with CP (10 mg/kg b wt.), 4) group 4: treated with CP (20 mg/kg b wt.), 5) group 5: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg) + CP (10 mg/kg), 6) group 6: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg) + CP (20 mg/kg). Results Histological examination of the testes of mice treated with CP revealed histopathological changes, such as atrophy, degeneration, incomplete spermatogenic series in most seminiferous tubules, and spermatogenic necrosis with pyknotic nuclei. Advanced degree of improvement was seen in testes of mice treated with LFE co-administered with CP. Most of the seminiferous tubules restored their normal structure and spermatogenic layers appeared semi-normal with complete spermatogenic series. Conclusion Lemon fruit extract in conjunction with drug treatment protects the testicular tissue against CP-induced testicular injury in mice. PMID:26955455

  15. Comprehensive evaluation of the liquid fraction during the hydrothermal treatment of rapeseed straw.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Wen; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Li, Ming-Fei; Wang, Jun-Qi; Wei, Qin; Sun, Run-Cang

    2016-01-01

    The requirement for efficient and green conversion technologies has prompted hydrothermal processing as a promising treatment option for sustainable biorefinery industry. The treatment has been applied to process plenty of lignocellulose materials, yielding abundant high value-degraded products, especially the products in the liquid fraction. Therefore, it is essential to systematically evaluate the degraded products in aqueous fraction by comprehensive analysis and structural characterization during the treatment. Rapeseed straw was hydrothermally treated at temperature ranging from 145 to 205 °C for various retention time (15, 30, 60 and 120 min), and the degraded polysaccharides and lignin products in aqueous phase were systematically evaluated by comprehensive analysis and structural characterization. Results showed that with an increase of severity, the polymers were gradually depolymerized resulting in a decrease of the molecular weight from 8430 (log R 0 3.26) to 2130 g/mol (log R 0 5.08), an increase of oligosaccharides from 19.44 (log R 0 2.88) to 99.94 g/kg (log R 0 4.32) and an increase of monosaccharides from 0.91 (log R 0 2.88) to 30.43 g/kg (log R 0 4.37). With the increase of monosaccharide degradation components (8.26 to 125.68 g/kg), the saccharides gradually decreased after its maximum value. The maximum yield of oligosaccharides (99.94 g/kg) accompanying a relatively low level of monosaccharides (17.77 g/kg) was obtained at a high temperature (190 °C) for a short reaction time (15 min). The degraded polysaccharides had a linear backbone of (1 → 4)-linked β-d-xylopyranosyl xylan decorated with branches based on 2D NMR spectra analysis. Lignin was strongly condensed with a decrease of S/G ratio as the severity increased. The yields of the degraded constitutions have a incomplete linear correlation with the treatment severity. The liquid fractions obtained from hydrothermal treatment were subjected to comprehensive analysis

  16. [Comprehensive evaluation of eco-tourism resources in Yichun forest region of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Maozhu; Hu, Haiqing; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Lijun

    2006-11-01

    By using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and Delphi method, a total of 30 representative evaluation factors in the aspects of tourism resources quantity, environmental quantity, tourism conditions, and tourism functions were chosen to build up a comprehensive quantitative evaluation model to evaluate the eco-tourism resources of Yichun forest region in Northeast China. The results showed that in Yichun forest region, the natural eco-tourism resources were superior to the humanity resources. On the regional distribution of favorable level eco-tourism resources quantity, 4 sites were very prominent, i.e., north (Jiayin) -center (Yichun) -east (Jinshantun) -south (Tieli). As for the distribution of eco-tourism resources type, it was basically in the sequence of north (Jiayin, Tangwang River, Wuying) -center (Yichun, Shangganling) -east (Jinshantun, Meixi) -south (Teli, Dailing). Based on the above analyses, Yichun forest region could be divided into four tourism areas, i.e., the south, the east, the central, and the north. Aimed at the special features of each area, the initial development directions were introduced.

  17. Improving residential treatment services: implementation and norm-referenced evaluation of a comprehensive management system.

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, M B; Cash, V B; Reid, D H

    1989-01-01

    Ensuring effective service delivery by direct-care personnel in institutional living units for persons with developmental disabilities historically has been a difficult process, despite considerable attention from researchers, service providers, and governmental regulatory agencies. In this investigation, we conducted a normative evaluation of the extent and quality of treatment services currently provided in residential living units and evaluated a comprehensive management system designed to improve such services. Results of the first experiment, encompassing 22 living units in three states, indicated that on the average two thirds of observed resident behavior did not involve any therapeutic activity. The results also provided social validity for the criteria used to evaluate the quality of treatment provision based on opinions of mental retardation professionals. Results of the second experiment indicated that a behavioral management program implemented during 23 separate time periods across five living units was accompanied by consistent and durable decreases in resident nontherapeutic activity as well as increases in specifically designated habilitative activity. The results provide support for the successful incorporation of behavioral management technology into human service settings on a large-scale, long-term basis. PMID:2745236

  18. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of multiple environmental factors for swine building assessment and control.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiuju; Ni, Ji-Qin; Su, Zhongbin

    2017-10-15

    In confined swine buildings, temperature, humidity, and air quality are all important for animal health and productivity. However, the current swine building environmental control is only based on temperature; and evaluation and control methods based on multiple environmental factors are needed. In this paper, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) theory was adopted for multi-factor assessment of environmental quality in two commercial swine buildings using real measurement data. An assessment index system and membership functions were established; and predetermined weights were given using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) combined with knowledge of experts. The results show that multi-factors such as temperature, humidity, and concentrations of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can be successfully integrated in FCE for swine building environment assessment. The FCE method has a high correlation coefficient of 0.737 compared with the method of single-factor evaluation (SFE). The FCE method can significantly increase the sensitivity and perform an effective and integrative assessment. It can be used as part of environmental controlling and warning systems for swine building environment management to improve swine production and welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of nurse providers of comprehensive abortion care using MVA in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Basnett, I; Shrestha, M K; Shah, M; Pearson, E; Thapa, K; Andersen, K L

    2012-01-01

    Although Nepal's maternal mortality ratio has fallen over the past decade, unsafe abortion remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. A key strategy for improving access to safe abortion services is to train mid-level providers such as nurses in comprehensive abortion care (CAC). The Family Health Division of the Nepal Ministry of Health trained an initial cohort of 96 nurses to provide first trimester CAC services using manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) between September 2006 and July 2009. This study evaluates the acceptability and quality of CAC services provided by trained nurses in Nepal. Five assessments were used to evaluate post-training service provision on CAC: facility logbooks registry, nurse provider interviews, facility assessments, facility manager interviews and procedure observation checklists. Ninety-two nurses from 50 facilities participated in the evaluation. Descriptive statistics are reported. Overall, 5,600 women received CAC services from 42 facilities where nurses were providing services between June 2009 and April 2010. Complications were experienced by 68 surgical abortion clients (1.6%) and 12 medical abortion clients (1.2%). All nurses reported that clients were happy to receive care from them, and 67% of facility managers reported that clients preferred nurse providers over physicians or had no preference. Facility managers and nurses reported a need for additional support, including further training and improved drug and equipment supply. Trained nurses provide high quality CAC services in Nepal. Additional support in the form of facilitative supervision and training should be considered to strengthen CAC service provision.

  20. Statistical analysis of histopathological endpoints.

    PubMed

    Green, John W; Springer, Timothy A; Saulnier, Amy N; Swintek, Joe

    2014-05-01

    Histopathological assessments of fish from aquatic ecotoxicology studies are being performed with increasing frequency. Aquatic ecotoxicology studies performed for submission to regulatory agencies are usually conducted with multiple subjects (e.g., fish) in each of multiple vessels (replicates) within a water control and within each of several concentrations of a test substance. A number of histopathological endpoints are evaluated in each fish, and a severity score is generally recorded for each endpoint. The severity scores are often recorded using a nonquantitative scale of 0 to 4, with 0 indicating no effect, 1 indicating minimal effect, through 4 for severe effect. Statistical methods often used to analyze these scores suffer from several shortcomings: computing average scores as though scores were quantitative values, considering only the frequency of abnormality while ignoring severity, ignoring any concentration-response trend, and ignoring the possible correlation between responses of individuals within test vessels. A new test, the Rao-Scott Cochran-Armitage by Slices (RSCABS), is proposed that incorporates the replicate vessel experimental design and the biological expectation that the severity of the effect tends to increase with increasing doses or concentrations, while retaining the individual subject scores and taking into account the severity as well as frequency of scores. A power simulation and examples demonstrate the performance of the test. R-based software has been developed to carry out this test and is available free of charge at www.epa.gov/med/Prods_Pubs/rscabs.htm. The SAS-based RSCABS software is available from the first and third authors. © 2014 SETAC.

  1. Combinative Method Using Multi-components Quantitation and HPLC Fingerprint for Comprehensive Evaluation of Gentiana crassicaulis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiuhua; Chen, Fengzheng; Liu, Jiang; Zou, Yuanfeng; Luo, Yun; Yi, Xiaoyan; Meng, Jie; Chen, Xingfu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gentiana crassicaulis () is an important traditional Chinese herb. Like other herbs, its chemical compounds vary greatly by the environmental and genetic factors, as a result, the quality is always different even from the same region, and therefore, the quality evaluation is necessary for its safety and effective use. In this study, a comprehensive method including HPLC quantitative analysis and fingerprints was developed to evaluate the quality of Cujingqinjiao and to classify the samples collected from Lijiang City of Yunnan province. A total of 30 common peaks including four identified peaks, were found, and were involved for further characterization and quality control of Cujingqinjiao. Twenty-one batches of samples from Lijiang City of Yunnan Province were evaluated by similarity analysis (SA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) according to the characteristic of common peaks. Results: The obtained data showed good stability and repeatability of the chromatographic fingerprint, similarity values were all more than 0.90. This study demonstrated that a combination of the chromatographic quantitative analysis and fingerprint offered an efficient way to quality consistency evaluation of Cujingqinjiao. Consistent results were obtained to show that samples from a same origin could be successfully classified into two groups. Conclusion: This study revealed that the combinative method was reliable, simple and sensitive for fingerprint analysis, moreover, for quality control and pattern recognition of Cujingqinjiao. SUMMARY HPLC quantitative analysis and fingerprints was developed to evaluate the quality of Gentiana crassicaulisSimilarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis and factor analysis were employed to analysis the chromatographic dataset.The results of multi-components quantitation analysis, similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, principal

  2. Assessing coastal reclamation suitability based on a fuzzy-AHP comprehensive evaluation framework: A case study of Lianyungang, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lan; Zhu, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiang

    2014-12-15

    Coastal reclamation suitability evaluation (CRSE) is a difficult, complex and protracted process requiring the evaluation of many different criteria. In this paper, an integrated framework employing a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to the suitability evaluation for coastal reclamation for future sustainable development in the coastal area of Lianyungang, China. The evaluation results classified 6.63%, 22.99%, 31.59% and 38.79% of the coastline as suitable, weakly suitable, unsuitable and forbidden, respectively. The evaluation results were verified by the marine pollution data and highly consistent with the water quality status. The fuzzy-AHP comprehensive evaluation method (FACEM) was found to be suitable for the CRSE. This CRSE can also be applied to other coastal areas in China and thereby be used for the better management of coastal reclamation and coastline protection projects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Comprehensive Approach for the Ergonomic Evaluation of 13 Emergency and Transport Ventilators.

    PubMed

    Marjanovic, Nicolas; L'Her, Erwan

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical ventilation is an important part of emergency medicine and is frequently used for transportation. Human errors during ventilator settings are frequent and may be associated with high morbidity/mortality. The aim of the study was to provide a complete ergonomic evaluation of emergency and transport ventilators, taking into account objective and subjective human-machine interface assessments and individual mental work load. We performed a prospective bench ergonomic evaluation of 13 emergency and transport ventilators, using standardized conditions and a global methodological approach. The study was performed in an evaluation laboratory dedicated to respiratory care, and 12 emergency physicians unfamiliar with the tested devices were included in the evaluation. The ventilators were classified into 3 categories (simple, sophisticated, and ICU-like). Objective chronometric evaluations were conducted considering 9 tasks, and subjective evaluations were performed (ease of use, willingness to use, and user-friendliness of monitoring) using Likert scales. Mental work load evaluation was performed using the NASA Task Load Index scale. Overall task failure rate represented 4% of all attempts. Setting modifications, ventilation mode changes, and powering down durations were different between simple and other emergency and transport ventilator categories (P < .005). There was no difference between ventilator categories for the ease of use and user-friendliness of the monitoring. In contrast, the willingness to use was lower for simple devices, compared with sophisticated and ICU-like emergency and transport ventilators (2.9 ± 1.4 vs 3.9 ± 1.2, P = .002 and 4.3 ± 1, P < .001). No differences were observed between devices regarding the mental work load, except for several specific devices in the sophisticated category. A comprehensive ergonomic evaluation provides valuable information while investigating operational friendliness in emergency and transport

  4. Histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schlageter, Manuel; Terracciano, Luigi Maria; D’Angelo, Salvatore; Sorrentino, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the sixth most common type of cancer with a high mortality rate and an increasing incidence worldwide. Its etiology is usually linked to environmental, dietary or life-style factors. HCC most commonly arises in a cirrhotic liver but interestingly an increasing proportion of HCCs develop in the non-fibrotic or minimal fibrotic liver and a shift in the underlying etiology can be observed. Although this process is yet to be completely understood, this changing scenario also has impact on the material seen by pathologists, presenting them with new diagnostic dilemmas. Histopathologic criteria for diagnosing classical, progressed HCC are well established and known, but with an increase in detection of small and early HCCs due to routine screening programs, the diagnosis of these small lesions in core needle biopsies poses a difficult challenge. These lesions can be far more difficult to distinguish from one another than progressed HCC, which is usually a clear cut hematoxylin and eosin diagnosis. Furthermore lesions thought to derive from progenitor cells have recently been reclassified in the WHO. This review summarizes recent developments and tries to put new HCC biomarkers in context with the WHOs reclassification. Furthermore it also addresses the group of tumors known as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocellular carcinomas. PMID:25473149

  5. Using the Evaluative Linguistic Framework for Questionnaires to Assess Comprehensibility of Self-Report Health Questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Clerehan, Rosemary; Guillemin, Francis; Epstein, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2016-06-01

    The Evaluative Linguistic Framework (ELF) was developed to judge the quality of health care texts for patients, based on systemic functional linguistic theory. This approach considers key variables such as context and structure, known to be important for communication. Our objective was to adapt the ELF to evaluate the quality of self-report questionnaires. We reviewed the Health Literacy Questionnaire using the ELF. On the basis of these data, we drafted the preliminary version of the Evaluative Linguistic Framework for Questionnaires (ELF-Q) and applied it to English- and French-language versions of two arthritis self-report questionnaires and to Spanish, Dutch, and Turkish versions of an arthritis questionnaire. The developed ELF-Q was found to be effective for evaluating questionnaires in English and in four other languages. It contains nine items with new descriptions and assessment probes. These include overall organizational or generic structure of the questionnaire, metadiscourse (or text about the text), headings, rhetorical elements (function of each "move" or stage of the text in relation to the reader), the writer-reader relationship, technicality of vocabulary, lexical density (proportion of content words in the text), format, and overall judgment. We added assessment responses on a two- or three-point Likert scale to complement the assessment probes and make the intent and meaning of the probes fully explicit for the questionnaire developer or assessor. The ELF-Q is a framework practical to use for the development or assessment of any type of self-report questionnaire. Its application can identify features of a self-report questionnaire that could be improved to optimize its comprehensibility. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Periodontal risk and recall interval evaluation after a program of comprehensive supragingival plaque control.

    PubMed

    Butze, Juliane Pereira; Angst, Patrícia Daniela Melchiors; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Gomes, Sabrina Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    To investigate if a comprehensive supragingival control can modify the periodontal risk and suggested recall interval over time, using an adaptation of an available model of periodontal risk assessment (PRA, Perio-Tools® website). Single-arm clinical trial data (visible plaque and gingival bleeding indexes, periodontal probing depth, bleeding on probing, and clinical attachment level from baseline (day 0, T0), day 30 (T1), and day 180 (T2) from 50 moderate-to-severe periodontitis patients (25 never-smokers; 25 smokers) submitted to a comprehensive supragingival plaque control regimen for 180 days were subjected to a secondary analysis using an adaptation of the PRA. The periodontal risk (high, medium, or low) and suggested recall interval were calculated per patient and at each experimental time. General linear models and the Cochran test were used for statistical analysis, considering the dependence of the data. All patients were at high risk at baseline. At T1, 20% migrated to medium-risk (P = .002). At T2, 38% and 8% exhibited medium- and low-risk, respectively (P ≤ .001). The reduction between T1 and T2 was significant (P = .001). The mean recall interval increased from 3.0 ± 0.0 (T0) to 3.6 ± 1.2 (T1), and 4.9 ± 2.6 months at T2 (P < .003). The effect that smoking habit exerted on risk was limited to the first 30 days, and no effect on recall interval was observed. The oral hygiene condition is an important indicator that influences the risk and the recall interval over time, thus deserving attention when evaluating the individual periodontal prognosis.

  7. Cognitive spare capacity: evaluation data and its association with comprehension of dynamic conversations

    PubMed Central

    Keidser, Gitte; Best, Virginia; Freeston, Katrina; Boyce, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    It is well-established that communication involves the working memory system, which becomes increasingly engaged in understanding speech as the input signal degrades. The more resources allocated to recovering a degraded input signal, the fewer resources, referred to as cognitive spare capacity (CSC), remain for higher-level processing of speech. Using simulated natural listening environments, the aims of this paper were to (1) evaluate an English version of a recently introduced auditory test to measure CSC that targets the updating process of the executive function, (2) investigate if the test predicts speech comprehension better than the reading span test (RST) commonly used to measure working memory capacity, and (3) determine if the test is sensitive to increasing the number of attended locations during listening. In Experiment I, the CSC test was presented using a male and a female talker, in quiet and in spatially separated babble- and cafeteria-noises, in an audio-only and in an audio-visual mode. Data collected on 21 listeners with normal and impaired hearing confirmed that the English version of the CSC test is sensitive to population group, noise condition, and clarity of speech, but not presentation modality. In Experiment II, performance by 27 normal-hearing listeners on a novel speech comprehension test presented in noise was significantly associated with working memory capacity, but not with CSC. Moreover, this group showed no significant difference in CSC as the number of talker locations in the test increased. There was no consistent association between the CSC test and the RST. It is recommended that future studies investigate the psychometric properties of the CSC test, and examine its sensitivity to the complexity of the listening environment in participants with both normal and impaired hearing. PMID:25999904

  8. Comprehensive evaluation of the contribution of X chromosome genes to platinum sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Gamazon, Eric R; Im, Hae Kyung; O'Donnell, Peter H; Ziliak, Dana; Stark, Amy L; Cox, Nancy J; Dolan, M Eileen; Huang, Rong Stephanie

    2011-03-01

    Using a genome-wide gene expression data set generated from Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0ST array, we comprehensively surveyed the role of 322 X chromosome gene expression traits on cellular sensitivity to cisplatin and carboplatin. We identified 31 and 17 X chromosome genes whose expression levels are significantly correlated (after multiple testing correction) with sensitivity to carboplatin and cisplatin, respectively, in the combined HapMap CEU (Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe) and YRI (Yoruba in Ibahan, Nigeria) populations (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.05). Of those, 14 overlap for both cisplatin and carboplatin. Using an independent gene expression quantification method, the Illumina Sentrix Human-6 Expression BeadChip, measured on the same HapMap cell lines, we found that 4 and 2 of these genes are significantly associated with carboplatin and cisplatin sensitivity, respectively, in both analyses. Two genes, CTPS2 and DLG3, were identified by both genome-wide gene expression analyses as correlated with cellular sensitivity to both platinating agents. The expression of DLG3 gene was also found to correlate with cellular sensitivity to platinating agents in NCI-60 cancer cell lines. In addition, we evaluated whether the expression of X chromosome genes contributed to the observed differences in sensitivity to the platinums between CEU and YRI-derived cell lines. Of the 34 distinct genes significantly correlated with either carboplatin or cisplatin sensitivity, 14 are differentially expressed (defined as P < 0.05) between CEU and YRI. Thus, sex chromosome genes play a role in cellular sensitivity to platinating agents and differences in the expression level of these genes are an important source of variation that should be included in comprehensive pharmacogenomic studies. ©2011 AACR.

  9. A Comprehensive Evaluation of PCR Primers to Amplify the nifH Gene of Nitrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Gaby, John Christian; Buckley, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    The nifH gene is the most widely sequenced marker gene used to identify nitrogen-fixing Bacteria and Archaea. Numerous PCR primers have been designed to amplify nifH, but a comprehensive evaluation of nifH PCR primers has not been performed. We performed an in silico analysis of the specificity and coverage of 51 universal and 35 group-specific nifH primers by using an aligned database of 23,847 nifH sequences. We found that there are 15 universal nifH primers that target 90% or more of nitrogen fixers, but that there are also 23 nifH primers that target less than 50% of nifH sequences. The nifH primers we evaluated vary in their phylogenetic bias and their ability to recover sequences from commonly sampled environments. In addition, many of these primers will amplify genes that do not mediate nitrogen fixation, and thus it would be advisable for researchers to screen their sequencing results for the presence of non-target genes before analysis. Universal primers that performed well in silico were tested empirically with soil samples and with genomic DNA from a phylogenetically diverse set of nitrogen-fixing strains. This analysis will be of great utility to those engaged in molecular analysis of nifH genes from isolates and environmental samples. PMID:22848735

  10. Methane production, oxidation and mitigation: A mechanistic understanding and comprehensive evaluation of influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Malyan, Sandeep K; Bhatia, Arti; Kumar, Amit; Gupta, Dipak Kumar; Singh, Renu; Kumar, Smita S; Tomer, Ritu; Kumar, Om; Jain, Niveta

    2016-12-01

    Methane is one of the critical greenhouse gases, which absorb long wavelength radiation, affects the chemistry of atmosphere and contributes to global climate change. Rice ecosystem is one of the major anthropogenic sources of methane. The anaerobic waterlogged soil in rice field provides an ideal environment to methanogens for methanogenesis. However, the rate of methanogenesis differs according to rice cultivation regions due to a number of biological, environmental and physical factors like carbon sources, pH, Eh, temperature etc. The interplay between the different conditions and factors may also convert the rice fields into sink from source temporarily. Mechanistic understanding and comprehensive evaluation of these variations and responsible factors are urgently required for designing new mitigation options and evaluation of reported option in different climatic conditions. The objective of this review paper is to develop conclusive understanding on the methane production, oxidation, and emission and methane measurement techniques from rice field along with its mitigation/abatement mechanism to explore the possible reduction techniques from rice ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the comprehensive potential for land reclamation in Huadian City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C.; Liu, Y.; Tang, X. M.; Ren, Y. M.

    2017-07-01

    In order to understand the potential for land reclamation in Huadian City, this research constructs an evaluation model for land reclamation potential based on the double restraints of ecological security and social economy to measure comprehensive potential for land reclamation that conforms to the level of regional development and ecologic protection objective. The research shows: (1) Under constraint conditions, the potential for land reclamation in the towns of Huadian City has been reduced in different degrees, with the change of potential in urban areas being much smaller than in rural area. Under the restraint of ecological protection, Jiapigou Town, Erdaodianzi Town, Hongshilazi Town and Changshan Town suffer the high restraint. In terms of restraint of social economy, Huashulinzi Town is subject to the high constraint. (2) During the 13th Five-Year Plan Period, through arable land reclamation, Huadian City will have 4,121.47 more hectares of arable land and save 2,410.82 hectares of construction land. The findings provide an approach to land reclamation potential evaluation and form a basis for the compiling of the plan for land reclamation during the 13th Five-Year Plan Period.

  12. Evaluation of CAMEL - comprehensive areal model of earthquake-induced landslides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, S.B.; Keefer, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    A new comprehensive areal model of earthquake-induced landslides (CAMEL) has been developed to assist in planning decisions related to disaster risk reduction. CAMEL provides an integrated framework for modeling all types of earthquake-induced landslides using fuzzy logic systems and geographic information systems. CAMEL is designed to facilitate quantitative and qualitative representation of terrain conditions and knowledge about these conditions on the likely areal concentration of each landslide type. CAMEL has been empirically evaluated with respect to disrupted landslides (Category I) using a case study of the 1989 M = 6.9 Loma Prieta, CA earthquake. In this case, CAMEL performs best in comparison to disrupted slides and falls in soil. For disrupted rock fall and slides, CAMEL's performance was slightly poorer. The model predicted a low occurrence of rock avalanches, when none in fact occurred. A similar comparison with the Loma Prieta case study was also conducted using a simplified Newmark displacement model. The area under the curve method of evaluation was used in order to draw comparisons between both models, revealing improved performance with CAMEL. CAMEL should not however be viewed as a strict alternative to Newmark displacement models. CAMEL can be used to integrate Newmark displacements with other, previously incompatible, types of knowledge. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Epidural application of spinal instrumentation particulate wear debris: a comprehensive evaluation of neurotoxicity using an in vivo animal model.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Bryan W; Hallab, Nadim J; Hu, Nianbin; McAfee, Paul C

    2013-09-01

    significant histopathological changes in the systemic tissues. Gross histopathological examination demonstrated increased levels of epidural fibrosis in the experimental treatment groups compared with the control group. Histopathological evaluation of the epidural fibrous tissues showed evidence of a histiocytic reaction containing phagocytized inert particles and foci of local inflammatory reactions. At 3 months, immunohistochemical examination of the spinal cord and epidural tissues demonstrated upregulation of IL-6 in the groups in which metallic and UHMWPe debris were implanted (p < 0.05), while macrophage activity levels were greatest in the stainless-steel and UHMWPe groups (p < 0.05). By 6 months, the levels of activated cytokines and macrophages in nearly all experimental cases were downregulated and not significantly different from those of the operative controls (p > 0.05). The spinal cord had no evidence of lesions or neuropathology. However, multiple treatments in the metallic groups exhibited a mild, chronic macrophage response to particulate debris, which had diffused intrathecally. Epidural application of spinal instrumentation particulate wear debris elicits a chronic histiocytic reaction localized primarily within the epidural fibrosis. Particles have the capacity to diffuse intrathecally, eliciting a transient upregulation in macrophage/cytokine activity response within the epidural fibrosis. Overall, based on the time periods evaluated, there was no evidence of an acute neural or systemic histopathological response to the materials included in the current project.

  14. Short Time Exposure (STE) test in conjunction with Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay including histopathology to evaluate correspondence with the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) eye irritation classification of textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Ducas, Rafael do Nascimento; Teixeira, Gabriel Campos; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Oliveira, Danielle Palma; Valadares, Marize Campos

    2015-09-01

    Eye irritation evaluation is mandatory for predicting health risks in consumers exposed to textile dyes. The two dyes, Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) and Reactive Green 19 (RG19) are classified as Category 2A (irritating to eyes) based on the UN Globally Harmonized System for classification (UN GHS), according to the Draize test. On the other hand, animal welfare considerations and the enforcement of a new regulation in the EU are drawing much attention in reducing or replacing animal experiments with alternative methods. This study evaluated the eye irritation of the two dyes RO16 and RG19 by combining the Short Time Exposure (STE) and the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assays and then comparing them with in vivo data from the GHS classification. The STE test (first level screening) categorized both dyes as GHS Category 1 (severe irritant). In the BCOP, dye RG19 was also classified as GHS Category 1 while dye RO16 was classified as GHS no prediction can be made. Both dyes caused damage to the corneal tissue as confirmed by histopathological analysis. Our findings demonstrated that the STE test did not contribute to arriving at a better conclusion about the eye irritation potential of the dyes when used in conjunction with the BCOP test. Adding the histopathology to the BCOP test could be an appropriate tool for a more meaningful prediction of the eye irritation potential of dyes.

  15. Comprehensive evaluations of the adverse effects of drugs: importance of appropriate study selection and data sources.

    PubMed

    Loke, Yoon K; Golder, Su P; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2011-04-01

    While systematic reviews and meta-analyses are at the top of the evidence hierarchy, most of the methodology has focused on assessing treatment benefit. Hence, we propose a structured framework for the initial steps of searching and identifying relevant data sources so that adverse effects can be evaluated in a comprehensive, unbiased manner. The unique methodological challenges stem from the difficulties of addressing diverse outcomes encompassing common, mild symptoms to rare, fatal events. Retrieval of the most appropriate studies should be specifically tailored to fit the nature of the adverse effects, according to the primary objective and study question. In our framework, the structure of the review takes different forms depending on whether the main aim is on scoping/hypothesis generation, or evaluating statistically the magnitude of risk (hypothesis testing), or clarifying characteristics and risk factors of the adverse effect. The wide range of data sources covering adverse effects all have distinct strengths and limitations, and selection of appropriate sources depends on characteristics of the adverse effect (e.g. background incidence and effect size of the drug, clinical presentation, time of onset after drug exposure). Reviewers need to retrieve particular study designs that are most likely to yield robust data on the adverse effects of interest, rather than rely on studies that cannot reliably detect adverse effects, and may yield 'false negatives'. Type II errors (a particular problem when evaluating rare adverse effects) can lull us into a false sense of security (e.g. wrongly concluding that there was no significant difference in harm between drug and control, with the drug erroneously judged as safe). Given the rapid rate at which methodological improvements occur, this proposed framework is by no means definitive, but aims to stimulate further debate and discussion amongst the pharmacoepidemiological and systematic review communities to reach a

  16. Cross-compartment evaluation of a fully-coupled hydrometeorological modeling system using comprehensive observation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fersch, Benjamin; Senatore, Alfonso; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Fully-coupled hydrometeorological modeling enables investigations about the complex and often non-linear exchange mechanisms among subsurface, land, and atmosphere with respect to water and energy fluxes. The consideration of lateral redistribution of surface and subsurface water in such modeling systems is a crucial enhancement, allowing for a better representation of surface spatial patterns and providing also channel discharge predictions. However, the evaluation of fully-coupled simulations is difficult since the amount of physical detail along with feedback mechanisms leads to high degrees of freedom. Therefore, comprehensive observation data is required to obtain meaningful model configurations. We present a case study for a medium-sized river catchment in southern Germany that includes the calibration of the stand-alone and the evaluation of the fully-coupled WRF-Hydro modeling system with a horizontal resolution of 1 x 1 km2, for the period June to August 2015. ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis is used for model driving. Land-surface processes are represented by the Noah-MP land surface model. Land-cover is described by the EU CORINE data set. Observations for model evaluation are obtained from the TERENO Pre-Alpine observatory (http://www.imk-ifu.kit.edu/tereno.php) and are complemented by further measurements from the ScaleX campaign (http://scalex.imk-ifu.kit.edu) such as atmospheric profiles obtained from radiometer sounding and airborne systems as well as soil moisture and -temperature networks. We show how well water budgets and heat-fluxes are being reproduced by the stand-alone WRF, the stand-alone WRF-Hydro and the fully-coupled WRF-Hydro model.

  17. Effectiveness of Autologous Fat Grafting in Adherent Scars: Results Obtained by a Comprehensive Scar Evaluation Protocol.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Mariëlle E H; Brouwer, Katrien M; van Trier, Antoine J M; Groot, Marloes L; Middelkoop, Esther; van Zuijlen, Paul P M

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, patients normally survive severe traumas such as burn injuries and necrotizing fasciitis. Large skin defects can be closed but the scars remain. Scars may become adherent to underlying structures when the subcutical fat layer is damaged. Autologous fat grafting provides the possibility of reconstructing a functional sliding layer underneath the scar. Autologous fat grafting is becoming increasingly popular for scar treatment, although large studies using validated evaluation tools are lacking. The authors therefore objectified the effectiveness of single-treatment autologous fat grafting on scar pliability using validated scar measurement tools. Forty patients with adherent scars receiving single-treatment autologous fat grafting were measured preoperatively and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome parameter was scar pliability, measured using the Cutometer. Scar quality was also evaluated by the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale and the DSM II ColorMeter. To prevent selection bias, measurements were performed following a standardized algorithm. The Cutometer parameters elasticity and maximal extension improved 22.5 percent (p < 0.001) and 15.6 percent (p = 0.001), respectively. Total Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale scores improved from 3.6 to 2.9 on the observer scale, and from 5.1 to 3.8 on the patient scale (both p < 0.001). Color differences between the scar and normal skin remained unaltered. For the first time, the effect of autologous fat grafting on functional scar parameters was ascertained using a comprehensive scar evaluation protocol. The improved scar pliability supports the authors' hypothesis that the function of the subcutis can be restored to a certain extent by single-treatment autologous fat grafting. Therapeutic, IV.

  18. [Improving the teaching quality by multiple tools and technology in oral histopathology experimental course].

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhen; Wang, Li-Zhen; Hu, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Chun-Ye; Li, Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Oral histopathology is a course which needs to be combined with theory and practice closely. Experimental course plays an important role in teaching oral histopathology. Here, we aim to explore a series of effective measures to improve the teaching quality of experimental course and tried to train observation, thinking, analysis and problem solving skills of dental students. We re-edited and updated the experimental textbook "guidelines of experimental course of oral histopathology", and published the reference book for experimental course--"color pocket atlas of oral histopathology: experiment and diadactic teaching". The number of clinicopathological cases for presentation and class discussion was increased, and high-quality teaching slides were added and replaced the poor-quality or worn out slides. We established a variety of teaching methods based on the internet, which provided an environment of self-directed learning for dental students. Instead of simple slice-reading examination, a new evaluation system based on computer was established. The questionnaire survey showed that the students spoke positively on the teaching reform for experimental course. They thought that the reform played a significant role in enriching the teaching content, motivating learning interest and promoting self-study. Compared with traditional examination, computer-based examination showed a great advantage on mastering professional knowledge systematically and comprehensively. The measures adopted in our teaching reform not only effectively improve the teaching quality of experimental course of oral histopathology, but also help the students to have a clear, logical thinking when facing complicated diseases and have the ability to apply theoretical knowledge into clinical practice.

  19. Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Teacher Evaluation Systems: A Tool to Assist in the Development of Teacher Evaluation Systems. Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goe, Laura; Holdheide, Lynn; Miller, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    Across the nation, states and districts are in the process of building better teacher evaluation systems that not only identify highly effective teachers but also systematically provide data and feedback that can be used to improve teacher practice. The "Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Teacher Evaluation Systems" is a tool…

  20. A clinical evaluation of comprehensive dental treatment for children under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Su, H L; Chen, P S

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the comprehensive dental treatment for children under general anesthesia. From 1989 to 1991, 57 children with mean age of 3 years 2 months were treated, followed up with a minimal of 1 year. This procedure allows the dentition to be restored in one visit. Further care including preventive options and behavior shaping was provided on a 3-6 months recall schedule. The reasons for general anesthesia are that these children were either unable to accept treatment because of handicaps, extreme fear or young age. Their mean number of decayed tooth was 15 (Standard Deviation, SD = 5) and nearly three quarters of the children were under 6 years old. The most frequent treatment procedures were the extraction of teeth, composite resin restoration and Ni-Cr crown restoration. The Ni-Cr crown (1.7% failure rate) was more successful than the amalgam and composite resin restoration (9.7% failure rate). Pedo-strip crown had the highest failure rate (22%) for anterior teeth restoration. Nineteen children needed retreatment with conventional behavior guide. Six children had new caries and required further treatment. Thirty eight children returned for regular recall during the minimal 1 year follow-up period.

  1. A comprehensive approach for the evaluation and comparison of emission inventories in Madrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedrenne, Michel; Borge, Rafael; Lumbreras, Julio; Rodríguez, María Encarnación; de la Paz, David; Pérez, Javier; Manuel de Andrés, Juan; Quaassdorff, Christina

    2016-11-01

    Emission inventories provide a description of the polluting activities that occur across a specific geographic domain, and are widely used as input for air quality modelling for the assessment of compliance with environmental legislation. The spatial scale to which these inventories are referred has an influence in the representativeness of the emission estimates, as these are underpinned by a number of considerations and data with different levels of granularity. This study proposes a comprehensive framework for the evaluation of emission inventories that allows identifying methodological issues by examining differences in performance to a chemical transport model (CTM) when such inventories are used as input. To demonstrate the approach, a comparison between the national and regional emissions inventories for the Autonomous Community of Madrid (ACM) was carried out (NEI and REI respectively). The analysis revealed discrepancies in compilation methodologies for the domestic sector (SNAP 02), industrial combustion (SNAP 03), road traffic (SNAP 07) and other mobile sources (SNAP 08); most of the differences were originally caused by taking into account different activity variables, fuel mixes, and spatial disaggregation and allocation proxies. The granularity of the base data (statistics, fuel consumption, facilities, etc.) proved to be an essential limiting factor, which means that whenever bottom-up approaches were followed, the description of emission sectors tended to be more accurate.

  2. Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids: a controlled evaluation of a comprehensive universal eating disorder prevention program.

    PubMed

    McVey, Gail; Tweed, Stacey; Blackmore, Elizabeth

    2007-06-01

    This study was a controlled evaluation of a comprehensive school-based universal prevention program involving male and female students, parents, teachers, school administrators and local public health professionals. A total of 982 male and female Grades 6 and 7 middle school students (and 91 teachers/school administrators) completed self-report surveys at baseline on measures of body satisfaction, internalization of media ideals, size acceptance, disordered eating, weight-based teasing, weight loss and muscle-gaining behaviours, and perceptions of school climate (teachers only). Eighty-four percent of the students repeated the surveys immediately following the 8-month school-wide intervention and 71% again 6 months later. Repeated measures ANCOVAs revealed that participation in the Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids (HS-HK) program had a positive influence by reducing the internalization of media ideals among male and female students and by reducing disordered eating among female students. The program was also associated with reductions in weight-loss behaviours among the students, although this effect was lost by the 6-month follow-up. When the intervention students were sub-divided into low versus high-risk groups, the high-risk group appeared to benefit most from the intervention with significant reductions in internalization of media ideals, greater body satisfaction, and reduced disordered eating over time. There were no intervention effects for teachers. Challenges of engaging teachers in prevention are discussed.

  3. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation-based disaster risk assessment of desertification in Horqin Sand Land, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongfang; Zhang, Jiquan; Guo, Enliang; Sun, Zhongyi

    2015-02-03

    Desertification is a typical disaster risk event in which human settlements and living environments are destroyed. Desertification Disaster Risk Assessment can control and prevent the occurrence and development of desertification disasters and reduce their adverse influence on human society. This study presents the methodology and procedure for risk assessment and zoning of desertification disasters in Horqin Sand Land. Based on natural disaster risk theory and the desertification disaster formation mechanism, the Desertification Disaster Risk Index (DDRI) combined hazard, exposure, vulnerability and restorability factors and was developed mainly by using multi-source data and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The results showed that high risk and middle risk areas account for 28% and 23% of the study area, respectively. They are distributed with an "S" type in the study area. Low risk and very low risk areas account for 21% and 10% of the study area, respectively. They are distributed in the west-central and southwestern parts. Very high risk areas account for 18% of the study area and are distributed in the northeastern parts. The results can be used to know the desertification disaster risk level. It has important theoretical and practical significance to prevention and control of desertification in Horqin Sand Land and even in Northern China.

  4. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation-Based Disaster Risk Assessment of Desertification in Horqin Sand Land, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongfang; Zhang, Jiquan; Guo, Enliang; Sun, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a typical disaster risk event in which human settlements and living environments are destroyed. Desertification Disaster Risk Assessment can control and prevent the occurrence and development of desertification disasters and reduce their adverse influence on human society. This study presents the methodology and procedure for risk assessment and zoning of desertification disasters in Horqin Sand Land. Based on natural disaster risk theory and the desertification disaster formation mechanism, the Desertification Disaster Risk Index (DDRI) combined hazard, exposure, vulnerability and restorability factors and was developed mainly by using multi-source data and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The results showed that high risk and middle risk areas account for 28% and 23% of the study area, respectively. They are distributed with an “S” type in the study area. Low risk and very low risk areas account for 21% and 10% of the study area, respectively. They are distributed in the west-central and southwestern parts. Very high risk areas account for 18% of the study area and are distributed in the northeastern parts. The results can be used to know the desertification disaster risk level. It has important theoretical and practical significance to prevention and control of desertification in Horqin Sand Land and even in Northern China. PMID:25654772

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of municipal garbage disposal in Changchun City by the strategic environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianling L; Tang, Zhanhui H; Shang, Jincheng C; Zhao, Yuanhui H

    2010-06-01

    The environmental issues caused by the municipal solid waste disposal are becoming a worldwide concern. We studied the situations both domestically and abroad by the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) approach and also conducted comprehensive evaluations of garbage disposal in Changchun City. On the basis of this study, we found that SEA is of great importance in the municipal solid waste disposal. Moreover, with the rapid socioeconomic development of Changchun City, municipal solid waste production increases on an annual basis, and thus, good waste management planning is of great significance. Considering the situation of the economic development of Changchun City, garbage disposal was handled mainly in the major sanitary landfills with appropriate use of incineration technology. This plan is environmentally friendly at a relatively high degree and has met the requirements of minimum investment. It also takes into account the requirements of the development of incineration technology. Regarding environmental pollution in terms of groundwater pollution and atmospheric pollution, this plan is a feasible one by meeting various requirements with low environmental impact among the three plans discussed in this study.

  6. A comprehensive evaluation of cattle introgression into US federal bison herds.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Natalie D; Derr, James N

    2007-01-01

    Genetic introgression, especially from interspecies hybridization, is a significant threat to species conservation worldwide. In this study, 11 US federal bison populations were comprehensively examined for evidence of both mitochondrial and nuclear domestic cattle (Bos taurus) introgression. Mitochondrial introgression was examined using established polymerase chain reaction methods and confirmed through analysis of D-loop sequences. Nuclear introgression was assessed in 14 chromosomal regions through examination of microsatellite electromorph and sequence differences between bison and domestic cattle. Only one population was identified with domestic cattle mitochondrial DNA introgression. In contrast, evidence of nuclear introgression was found in 7 (63.6%) of the examined populations. Historic accounts of bison transfers among populations were corroborated with evidence of introgressed DNA transmission. While neither nuclear nor mitochondrial domestic cattle introgression was detected in bison from Grand Teton National Park, Sully's Hill National Game Preserve, Wind Cave National Park, or Yellowstone National Park, adequate sample sizes were available only from the last 2 populations to allow for statistical confidence (>90%) in nuclear introgression detection limits. The identification of genetically unique and undisturbed populations is critical to species conservation efforts, and this study serves as a model for the genetic evaluation of interspecies introgression.

  7. Comprehensive School Improvement and Planning Process 1985-86. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    During 1985-86, its first year, the Comprehensive School Improvement and Planning process (CSIP) operated in 156 of 392 New York City schools identified by the State Education Department's Comprehensive Assessment Report (CAR) as most in need of improvement. CSIP offers a holistic approach to school improvement and planning, and is designed to…

  8. A Comprehensive Approach to Evaluating Hazards of Microplastics in the Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, A. E.; Lewis, A. S.; Butler, C. H.; Lunsman, T. D.; Verslycke, T.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic debris in the environment is a growing global concern, and the past decade has brought particular attention to a small size range of plastic debris, often referred to as microplastics. The potential environmental effects of microplastics are complex and, as yet, poorly understood. Emerging research suggests that specific plastic types pose environmental risks primarily via indirect toxicity caused by hazardous compounds associated with microplastics (e.g., monomers, additives, and sorbed environmental pollutants). However, our understanding of the physicochemical properties that determine the environmental fate and toxicity of microplastics is limited. Some recent regulatory initiatives have been broad, seeking to regulate all solid synthetic polymers ≤5 mm despite the lack of a sound technical basis for using solely a size-based cutoff. Such broad regulation of all solid synthetic polymers may actually discourage the use and innovation of less hazardous synthetic polymers and "greener" substitutes. We propose a polymer-specific approach to evaluating potential hazards of microplastics, informed by the state of the science and current research needs. This approach relies on identifying focused tests and analyses to set criteria for determining the degree to which a solid synthetic polymer is likely to pose environmental risk. Important considerations include degradation, sorptive capacity, and monomer/additive content. Our approach is a first step toward a more comprehensive way to evaluate the environmental hazards and risks of microplastics. Our goals are to develop clearer criteria to assess future solid synthetic polymers of unknown concern, inform microplastics regulation, and drive innovation of greener solutions to this global concern.

  9. Performance Evaluation and Labeling Comprehension of a New Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Integrated Information Management

    PubMed Central

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Method Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples <75 mg/dl) and ±20% (samples ≥75 mg/dl)]. Clinical accuracy was determined by Parkes error grid analysis. Subject labeling comprehension was assessed by HCP ratings of subject proficiency. Key system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. Results All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as “very good” or “excellent.” Conclusions CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. PMID:22027308

  10. Economic evaluations of comprehensive geriatric assessment in surgical patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Eamer, Gilgamesh; Saravana-Bawan, Bianka; van der Westhuizen, Brenden; Chambers, Thane; Ohinmaa, Arto; Khadaroo, Rachel G

    2017-10-01

    Seniors presenting with surgical disease face increased risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality and have increased treatment costs. Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is proposed to reduce morbidity, mortality, and the cost after surgery. A systematic review of CGA in emergency surgical patients was conducted. The primary outcome was cost-effectiveness; secondary outcomes were length of stay, return of function, and mortality. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were predefined. Systematic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database were performed. Text screening, bias assessment, and data extraction were performed by two authors. There were 560 articles identified; abstract review excluded 499 articles and full-text review excluded 53 articles. Eight studies were included; one nonorthopedic trauma and seven orthopedic trauma studies. Bias assessment revealed moderate to high risk of bias for all studies. Economic evaluation assessment identified two high-quality studies and six moderate or low quality studies. Pooled analysis from four studies assessed loss of function; loss of function decreased in the experimental arm (odds ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.97). Pooled results for length of stay from five studies found a significant decrease (mean difference: -1.17, 95% CI: -1.63 to -0.71) after excluding the nonorthopedic trauma study. Pooled mortality was significantly decreased in seven studies (risk ratio: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.67-0.90). All studies decreased cost and improved health outcomes in a cost-effective manner. CGA improved return of function and mortality with reduced cost or improved utility. Our review suggests that CGA is economically dominant and the most cost-effective care model for orthogeriatric patients. Further research should examine other surgical fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comprehensive evaluation of canonical versus Dicer-substrate siRNA in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Donald J.; Barros, Scott; Duncan, Rick; Shaikh, Sarfraz; Cantley, William; Dell, Amy; Bulgakova, Elena; O'Shea, Jonathan; Taneja, Nate; Kuchimanchi, Satya; Sherrill, Christopher B.; Akinc, Akin; Hinkle, Gregory; Seila White, Amy C.; Pang, Bo; Charisse, Klaus; Meyers, Rachel; Manoharan, Muthiah; Elbashir, Sayda M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi), researchers have identified a variety of small interfering RNA (siRNA) structures that demonstrate the ability to silence gene expression through the classical RISC-mediated mechanism. One such structure, termed “Dicer-substrate siRNA” (dsiRNA), was proposed to have enhanced potency via RISC-mediated gene silencing, although a comprehensive comparison of canonical siRNAs and dsiRNAs remains to be described. The present study evaluates the in vitro and in vivo activities of siRNAs and dsiRNAs targeting Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN) and Factor VII (FVII). More than 250 compounds representing both siRNA and dsiRNA structures were evaluated for silencing efficacy. Lead compounds were assessed for duration of silencing and other key parameters such as cytokine induction. We identified highly active compounds from both canonical siRNAs and 25/27 dsiRNAs. Lead compounds were comparable in potency both in vitro and in vivo as well as duration of silencing in vivo. Duplexes from both structural classes tolerated 2′-OMe chemical modifications well with respect to target silencing, although some modified dsiRNAs demonstrated reduced activity. On the other hand, dsiRNAs were more immunostimulatory as compared with the shorter siRNAs, both in vitro and in vivo. Because the dsiRNA structure does not confer any appreciable benefits in vitro or in vivo while demonstrating specific liabilities, further studies are required to support their applications in RNAi therapeutics. PMID:22294662

  12. Histopathological and Reproductive Evaluation in Male Rats Fed Jatropha curcas Seed Cake with or without Alkaline Hydrolysis and Subjected to Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Teixeira Sousa Moura, Laiane; Palomaris Mariano Souza, Domenica; Mendonça, Simone; de Aquino Ribeiro, José Antônio; Fernandes Sousa, Luciano; Tony Ramos, Adriano; Maiorka, Paulo César; de Araújo, Vera Lúcia; Mayumi Maruo, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha curcas cake, a by-product of biodiesel production, is rich in protein and has potential to be used in livestock feed; however, the presence of antinutritional factors and phorbol esters limits its use. Thus, this study investigated toxicological and reproductive effects in male Wistar rats after subchronic exposure to J. curcas cake subjected to detoxification procedures. Rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10) and treated for 60 days. The control group received commercial feed, while experimental groups received a diet containing 5% J. curcas cake nonhydrolyzed or hydrolyzed with 5 M NaOH. The cakes were unwashed or washed with ethanol or water and were autoclaved at 121°C for 30 minutes. Alkaline hydrolysis combined with ethanol washing decreased the phorbol ester concentration in the cake by 98%. Histopathological findings included diffuse degeneration of the liver and edema around the pulmonary vessels in the nonhydrolyzed groups. In addition, nontreated females mated with males of nonhydrolyzed unwashed group showed a decreased number of live fetuses and an increased placental weight. There were no signs of toxicity in rats given hydrolyzed cakes washed and unwashed, indicating that alkaline hydrolysis associated with heat treatment is an efficient method for detoxification of the J. curcas cake.

  13. Comprehensive evaluation of long-term hydrological data sets: Constraints of the Budyko framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, Peter; Orlowsky, Boris; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2013-04-01

    An accurate estimate of the climatological land water balance is essential for a wide range of socio-economical issues. Despite the simplicity of the underlying water balance equation, its individual variables are of complex nature. Global estimates, either derived from observations or from models, of precipitation (P ) and especially evapotranspiration (ET) are characterized by high uncertainties. This leads to inconsistent results in determining conditions related to the land water balance and its components. In this study, we consider the Budyko framework as a constraint to evaluate long-term hydrological data sets within the period from 1984 to 2005. The Budyko framework is a well established empirically based relationsship between ET-P and Ep-P , with Ep being the potential evaporation. We use estimates of ET associated with the LandFlux-EVAL initiative (Mueller et. al., 2012), either derived from observations, CMIP5 models or land-surface models (LSMs) driven with observation-based forcing or atmospheric reanalyses. Data sets of P comprise all commonly used global observation-based estimates. Ep is determined by methods of differing complexity with recent global temperature and radiation data sets. Based on this comprehensive synthesis of data sets and methods to determine Ep, more than 2000 possible combinations for ET-P in conjunction with Ep-P are created. All combinations are validated against the Budyko curve and against physical limits within the Budyko phase space. For this purpose we develop an error measure based on the root mean square error which combines both constraints. We find that uncertainties are mainly induced by the ET data sets. In particular, reanalysis and CMIP5 data sets are characterized by low realism. The realism of LSMs is further not primarily controlled by the forcing, as different LSMs driven with the same forcing show significantly different error measures. Our comprehensive approach is thus suitable to detect uncertainties

  14. A comprehensive evaluation of adaptive daily planning for cervical cancer HDR brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Meerschaert, Rebecca; Nalichowski, Adrian; Burmeister, Jay; Paul, Arun; Miller, Steven; Hu, Zhenghui; Zhuang, Ling

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adaptive daily planning for cervical cancer patients who underwent high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-BT) using comprehensive interfractional organ motion measurements. This study included 22 cervical cancer patients who underwent 5 fractions of HDR-BT. Regions of interest (ROIs) including high-risk clinical tumor volume (HR-CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were manually contoured on daily CT images. All patients were clinically treated with adaptive daily plans (ADP), which involved ROI delineation and dose optimization at each treatment fraction. Single treatment plans (SP) were retrospectively generated by applying the first treatment fraction's dwell times adjusted for decay and dwell positions of the applicator to subsequent treatment fractions. Various existing similarity metrics were calculated for the ROIs to quantify interfractional organ variations. A novel similarity (JRARM) score was established, which combined both volumetric overlap metrics (DSC, JSC, and RVD) and distance metrics (ASD, MSD, and RMSD). Linear regression was performed to determine a relationship between interfractional organ variations of various similarity metrics and D2cc variations from both plans. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to assess ADP and SP by comparing EQD2D2cc(α/β=3) for OARs. For interfractional organ variations, the sigmoid demonstrated the greatest variations based on the JRARM, DSC, and RMSD metrics. Comparisons between paired ROIs showed differences in metrics at each treatment fraction. RVD, MSD, and RMSD were found to be significantly correlated to D2cc variations for bladder and sigmoid. The comparison between plans found ADP provided lower EQD2 D2cc of OARs than SP. Specifically, the sigmoid demonstrated statistically significant dose variations (p=0.015). Substantial interfractional organ motion occurs during HDR-BT based on comprehensive measurements and may significantly affect D2cc of OARs. Adaptive

  15. A comprehensive evaluation of adaptive daily planning for cervical cancer HDR brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Meerschaert, Rebecca; Nalichowski, Adrian; Burmeister, Jay; Paul, Arun; Miller, Steven; Hu, Zhenghui; Zhuang, Ling

    2016-11-08

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adaptive daily planning for cervi-cal cancer patients who underwent high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-BT) using comprehensive interfractional organ motion measurements. This study included 22 cervical cancer patients who underwent 5 fractions of HDR-BT. Regions of interest (ROIs) including high-risk clinical tumor volume (HR-CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were manually contoured on daily CT images. All patients were clinically treated with adaptive daily plans (ADP), which involved ROI delineation and dose optimization at each treatment fraction. Single treatment plans (SP) were retrospectively generated by applying the first treatment fraction's dwell times adjusted for decay and dwell positions of the applicator to subsequent treatment fractions. Various existing similarity metrics were calculated for the ROIs to quantify interfractional organ variations. A novel similarity (JRARM) score was established, which combined both volumetric overlap metrics (DSC, JSC, and RVD) and distance metrics (ASD, MSD, and RMSD). Linear regression was performed to determine a relationship between interfractional organ varia-tions of various similarity metrics and D2cc variations from both plans. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to assess ADP and SP by comparing EQD2 D2cc (α/β = 3) for OARs. For interfractional organ variations, the sigmoid demonstrated the greatest variations based on the JRARM, DSC, and RMSD metrics. Comparisons between paired ROIs showed differences in metrics at each treatment fraction. RVD, MSD, and RMSD were found to be significantly correlated to D2cc varia-tions for bladder and sigmoid. The comparison between plans found ADP provided lower EQD2 D2cc of OARs than SP. Specifically, the sigmoid demonstrated sta-tistically significant dose variations (p = 0.015). Substantial interfractional organ motion occurs during HDR-BT based on comprehensive measurements and may significantly affect D2cc of OARs

  16. Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE): a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Winstein, Carolee J; Wolf, Steven L; Dromerick, Alexander W; Lane, Christianne J; Nelsen, Monica A; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Blanton, Sarah; Scott, Charro; Reiss, Aimee; Cen, Steven Yong; Holley, Rahsaan; Azen, Stanley P

    2013-01-11

    Residual disability after stroke is substantial; 65% of patients at 6 months are unable to incorporate the impaired upper extremity into daily activities. Task-oriented training programs are rapidly being adopted into clinical practice. In the absence of any consensus on the essential elements or dose of task-specific training, an urgent need exists for a well-designed trial to determine the effectiveness of a specific multidimensional task-based program governed by a comprehensive set of evidence-based principles. The Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE) Stroke Initiative is a parallel group, three-arm, single blind, superiority randomized controlled trial of a theoretically-defensible, upper extremity rehabilitation program provided in the outpatient setting.The primary objective of ICARE is to determine if there is a greater improvement in arm and hand recovery one year after randomization in participants receiving a structured training program termed Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program (ASAP), compared to participants receiving usual and customary therapy of an equivalent dose (DEUCC). Two secondary objectives are to compare ASAP to a true (active monitoring only) usual and customary (UCC) therapy group and to compare DEUCC and UCC. Following baseline assessment, participants are randomized by site, stratified for stroke duration and motor severity. 360 adults will be randomized, 14 to 106 days following ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke onset, with mild to moderate upper extremity impairment, recruited at sites in Atlanta, Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. The Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) time score is the primary outcome at 1 year post-randomization. The Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) hand domain is a secondary outcome measure.The design includes concealed allocation during recruitment, screening and baseline, blinded outcome assessment and intention to treat analyses. Our primary hypothesis is that the improvement in log

  17. Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE): a randomized controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Residual disability after stroke is substantial; 65% of patients at 6 months are unable to incorporate the impaired upper extremity into daily activities. Task-oriented training programs are rapidly being adopted into clinical practice. In the absence of any consensus on the essential elements or dose of task-specific training, an urgent need exists for a well-designed trial to determine the effectiveness of a specific multidimensional task-based program governed by a comprehensive set of evidence-based principles. The Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE) Stroke Initiative is a parallel group, three-arm, single blind, superiority randomized controlled trial of a theoretically-defensible, upper extremity rehabilitation program provided in the outpatient setting. The primary objective of ICARE is to determine if there is a greater improvement in arm and hand recovery one year after randomization in participants receiving a structured training program termed Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program (ASAP), compared to participants receiving usual and customary therapy of an equivalent dose (DEUCC). Two secondary objectives are to compare ASAP to a true (active monitoring only) usual and customary (UCC) therapy group and to compare DEUCC and UCC. Methods/design Following baseline assessment, participants are randomized by site, stratified for stroke duration and motor severity. 360 adults will be randomized, 14 to 106 days following ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke onset, with mild to moderate upper extremity impairment, recruited at sites in Atlanta, Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. The Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) time score is the primary outcome at 1 year post-randomization. The Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) hand domain is a secondary outcome measure. The design includes concealed allocation during recruitment, screening and baseline, blinded outcome assessment and intention to treat analyses. Our primary hypothesis is that the

  18. Evaluation of a comprehensive program for youth with severe emotional disorders: an analysis of family experiences and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Greenley, J R; Robitschek, C G

    1991-04-01

    An innovative pilot program of comprehensive services to youth with severe emotional disorders was evaluated by means of a self-administered questionnaire survey of family members. Results indicate that the program increased use of noninstitutional outpatient services, improved access to services, and enhanced family satisfaction and involvement with treatment planning and implementation.

  19. Effect of Cartoon Illustrations on the Comprehension and Evaluation of Information Presented in the Print and Audio Mode.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Edward H., Jr.

    This study investigates the effects of cartoon illustrations on female and male college student comprehension and evaluation of information presented in several combinations of print, audio, and visual formats. Subjects were assigned to one of five treatment groups: printed text, printed text with cartoons, audiovisual presentations, audio only…

  20. An Initial Evaluation of the Use of Captioned Television to Improve the Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension of Navy Sailors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Ray; Dumestre, Jeanie

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study of the use of captioned television to improve the reading comprehension and vocabulary skills of U.S. Navy sailors that was conducted to help find low-cost, low-intervention methods of improving reading skills. Results for experimental and control groups are compared, and the evaluation questionnaire is appended. (17 references)…

  1. Comprehensive Information Systems for Local School Improvement:A Reality-Test in Secondary Schools. Systemic Evaluation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for the Study of Evaluation.

    This monograph contains four position papers and two conference papers from the Systemic Evaluation Project (fiscal year, 1984) on the methodological issues associated with applying a comprehensive information system in a secondary school setting. These papers represent work in progress at a suburban Los Angeles high school field test of systemic…

  2. Review of "The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Fourth Year Reports"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive

    2011-01-01

    This review is of "The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Fourth Year Reports," published by the School Choice Demonstration Project, University of Arkansas. The report makes eight claims about the effectiveness of the program, most of them positive. On the key issue of achievement…

  3. An Evaluation of Public School Participation in Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) Youth Programs in Utah's Bear River District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindholm, Michael; Jones, Roger C.

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of school district participation in CETA (Comprehensive Employment and Training Act) youth programs in Box Elder and Cache Counties, Utah, as well as the overall effectiveness of CETA youth programs administered by the Bear River Association of Governments. For three years, the Bear River Association of…

  4. Comprehensive High School Bilingual Program. E.S.E.A. Title VII Final Evaluation Report, 1980-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima, Ed.; And Others

    This report describes, provides demographic data for, and evaluates the effectiveness of the Comprehensive High School Bilingual Program (C.H.S.B.P.), which provided staff and material resources to five high school Spanish, Chinese, and Italian bilingual programs in New York City. In 1980-81, C.H.S.B.P. served 468 students of limited English…

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Computer Assisted Self-Assessment of Reading Comprehension: Effects on Reading Achievement and Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollands, Stacy R.; And Others

    A study evaluated the effect software for self-assessment and management of reading practice had on reading achievement and motivation in two primary schools in Aberdeen, Scotland. The program utilized was The Accelerated Reader (AR) which was designed to enable curriculum based assessment of reading comprehension within the classroom. Students…

  6. Histopathological Image Analysis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gurcan, Metin N.; Boucheron, Laura; Can, Ali; Madabhushi, Anant; Rajpoot, Nasir; Yener, Bulent

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, dramatic increases in computational power and improvement in image analysis algorithms have allowed the development of powerful computer-assisted analytical approaches to radiological data. With the recent advent of whole slide digital scanners, tissue histopathology slides can now be digitized and stored in digital image form. Consequently, digitized tissue histopathology has now become amenable to the application of computerized image analysis and machine learning techniques. Analogous to the role of computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) algorithms in medical imaging to complement the opinion of a radiologist, CAD algorithms have begun to be developed for disease detection, diagnosis, and prognosis prediction to complement to the opinion of the pathologist. In this paper, we review the recent state of the art CAD technology for digitized histopathology. This paper also briefly describes the development and application of novel image analysis technology for a few specific histopathology related problems being pursued in the United States and Europe. PMID:20671804

  7. Evaluation of comprehensive chromosome screening platforms for the detection of mosaic segmental aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, David; Xing, Tongji; Tao, Xin; Lonczak, Agnieszka; Zhan, Yiping; Landis, Jessica; Zimmerman, Rebekah; Scott, Richard T; Treff, Nathan R

    2017-08-01

    A subset of preimplantation embryos identified as euploid may in fact possess both whole and sub-chromosomal mosaicism, raising concerns regarding the predictive value of current comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) methods utilizing a single biopsy. Current CCS methods may be capable of detecting sub-chromosomal mosaicism in a trophectoderm biopsy by examining intermediate levels of segmental aneuploidy within a biopsy. This study evaluates the sensitivity and specificity of segmental aneuploidy detection by three commercially available CCS platforms utilizing a cell line mixture model of segmental mosaicism in a six-cell trophectoderm biopsy. Two cell lines with known karyotypes were obtained and mixed together at specific ratios of six total cells (0:6, 1:5, 2:4, 3:3, 4:2, 5:1, and 6:0). A female cell line containing a 16.2 Mb deletion on chromosome 5 and a male cell line containing a 25.5 Mb deletion on chromosome 4 were used to create mixtures at each level. Six replicates of each mixture were prepared, randomized, and blinded for analysis by one of the three CCS platforms (SNP-array, VeriSeq NGS, or NexCCS). Sensitivity and specificity of segmental aneuploidy at each level of mosaicism was determined and compared between each platform. Additionally, an alternative VeriSeq NGS analysis method utilizing previously published criteria was evaluated. Examination of the default settings of each platform revealed that the sensitivity was significantly different between NexCCS and SNP up to 50% mosaicism, custom VeriSeq, and SNP-array up to 66% mosaicism, and between NexCCS and custom VeriSeq up to 50% mosaicism. However, no statistical difference was observed in mixtures with >50% mosaicism with any platform. No comparison was made between default VeriSeq, as it does not report segmental imbalances. Furthermore, while the use of previously published criteria for VeriSeq NGS significantly increased sensitivity at low levels of mosaicism, a significant decrease

  8. Comprehensive evaluation of functional and anatomical disorders of the patients with distal occlusion and accompanying obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabiev, F. H.; Dobrodeev, A. S.; Libin, P. V.; Kotov, I. I.; Ovsyannikov, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    The paper defines the therapeutic and rehabilitation approach to the patients with Angle's classification Class II dento-facial anomalies, accompanied by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The proposed comprehensive approach to the diagnostics and treatment of patients with posterior occlusion, accompanied by OSA, allows for objective evaluation of intensity of a dento-facial anomaly and accompanying respiratory disorders in the nasal and oral pharynx, which allows for the pathophysiological mechanisms of OSA to be identified, and an optimal plan for surgical procedures to be developed. The proposed comprehensive approach to the diagnostics and treatment of patients with Angle's classification Class II dento-facial anomalies provides high functional and aesthetic results.

  9. Comprehensive evaluation of one-carbon metabolism pathway gene variants and renal cell cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Todd M; Brennan, Paul; Han, Summer; Karami, Sara; Zaridze, David; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helen; Bencko, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mates, Dana; Slamova, Alena; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Mayne, Susan T; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen; Rothman, Nat; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rosenberg, Philip S; Boffetta, Paolo; Moore, Lee E

    2011-01-01

    Folate and one-carbon metabolism are linked to cancer risk through their integral role in DNA synthesis and methylation. Variation in one-carbon metabolism genes, particularly MTHFR, has been associated with risk of a number of cancers in epidemiologic studies, but little is known regarding renal cancer. Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected to produce high genomic coverage of 13 gene regions of one-carbon metabolism (ALDH1L1, BHMT, CBS, FOLR1, MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, SHMT1, SLC19A1, TYMS) and the closely associated glutathione synthesis pathway (CTH, GGH, GSS) were genotyped for 777 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cases and 1,035 controls in the Central and Eastern European Renal Cancer case-control study. Associations of individual SNPs (n = 163) with RCC risk were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and study center. Minimum p-value permutation (Min-P) tests were used to identify gene regions associated with risk, and haplotypes were evaluated within these genes. The strongest associations with RCC risk were observed for SLC19A1 (P(min-P) = 0.03) and MTHFR (P(min-P) = 0.13). A haplotype consisting of four SNPs in SLC19A1 (rs12483553, rs2838950, rs2838951, and rs17004785) was associated with a 37% increased risk (p = 0.02), and exploratory stratified analysis suggested the association was only significant among those in the lowest tertile of vegetable intake. To our knowledge, this is the first study to comprehensively examine variation in one-carbon metabolism genes in relation to RCC risk. We identified a novel association with SLC19A1, which is important for transport of folate into cells. Replication in other populations is required to confirm these findings.

  10. An in vivo evaluation of bonding ability of comprehensive antibacterial adhesive system incorporating MDPB.

    PubMed

    Imazato, Satoshi; Tay, Franklin R; Kaneshiro, Andrea V; Takahashi, Yusuke; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2007-02-01

    This study examined the in vivo bonding ability to sound dentin of antibacterial adhesive systems incorporating an antibacterial monomer MDPB based on morphological evaluation of the resin-dentin interface. Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of the teeth of a beagle dog and a composite filling performed using (1) commercial self-etching system Liner Bond 2 (LB primer+LB bond), (2) experimental primer containing 5% MDPB and LB bond, (3) LB primer and experimental bonding-resin containing 2.5% MDPB, or (4) combination of experimental primer and bonding-resin. After 7 days, the tooth crown was cut and fixed in half-Karnovsky's solution, and the sectioned surface observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after treatment with phosphoric acid and NaOCl. The ultrastructure of the bonding interface was also examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Microtensile bond strengths (microTBS) of each group were measured using extracted teeth. SEM demonstrated that all groups produced a 1-2microm thick hybrid layer with funnel shaped resin tags, although the length of tags was shorter for the group in which MDPB-containing bonding-resin was used. TEM examination supported good adhesion of the comprehensive adhesive system employing MDPB-containing primer/bonding-resin, showing integrity between resin and dentin. There were no significant differences in microTBS among the four groups tested (p>0.05, ANOVA). This study confirmed that the experimental antibacterial adhesive systems employing MDPB-containing primer or/and bonding-resin could produce an effective bond under in vivo conditions.

  11. Evaluation of quality indicators for Dutch community pharmacies using a comprehensive assessment framework.

    PubMed

    Schoenmakers, Tim W A; Teichert, Martina; Braspenning, Jozé; Vunderink, Lydia; De Smet, Peter A G M; Wensing, Michel

    2015-02-01

    In 2008, the Dutch Health Care Transparency Programme (Zichtbare Zorg) was set up to develop and apply quality indicators (QIs) for health care. These QIs serve a range of purposes and can be categorized into those for internal use--for meeting quality standards and to continuously measure improvement (formative)--and external use--to enable patients and health insurance companies to distinguish between health care providers (summative). In order to assess the validity of QIs, a comprehensive Indicator Assessment Framework (IAF) was developed. This framework specifies the following criteria for validation: content validity, absence of selection bias, absence of measurement bias, and statistical reliability. Because of the intended summative use, the IAF was used for structural assessment of the QIs set for Dutch community pharmacists. To assess the validity of the current set of 52 QIs for community pharmacies using the IAF. An expert panel applied the IAF criteria to the set of QIs collected in 1,807 Dutch community pharmacies on their performance in 2011. The QIs were judged as meeting, partly meeting, or not meeting the requirements regarding these criteria. The judgments were evaluated for QI type (structure, process, or outcome) and for predefined domains. Thirteen QIs (25%) were judged as meeting the requirements for all criteria. Among them were 12 structure indicators and 1 process indicator. For process indicators, the criterion for measurement bias poorly met the requirements, and content validity was unsatisfactory for outcome indicators. The 13 overall valid QIs covered 6 out of 10 predefined domains: continuity of care, clinical risk management, compounding, dispensing of medication, management, and quality management. When subjecting the QI set for community pharmacies to the requirements of the IAF, only a quarter of the QIs met all requirements. To increase the number of valid process and outcome indicators, meaningful aspects for the outcome of

  12. Comprehensive Evaluation of One-Carbon Metabolism Pathway Gene Variants and Renal Cell Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Todd M.; Brennan, Paul; Han, Summer; Karami, Sara; Zaridze, David; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helen; Bencko, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mates, Dana; Slamova, Alena; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Mayne, Susan T.; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen; Rothman, Nat; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Boffetta, Paolo; Moore, Lee E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Folate and one-carbon metabolism are linked to cancer risk through their integral role in DNA synthesis and methylation. Variation in one-carbon metabolism genes, particularly MTHFR, has been associated with risk of a number of cancers in epidemiologic studies, but little is known regarding renal cancer. Methods Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected to produce high genomic coverage of 13 gene regions of one-carbon metabolism (ALDH1L1, BHMT, CBS, FOLR1, MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, SHMT1, SLC19A1, TYMS) and the closely associated glutathione synthesis pathway (CTH, GGH, GSS) were genotyped for 777 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cases and 1,035 controls in the Central and Eastern European Renal Cancer case-control study. Associations of individual SNPs (n = 163) with RCC risk were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and study center. Minimum p-value permutation (Min-P) tests were used to identify gene regions associated with risk, and haplotypes were evaluated within these genes. Results The strongest associations with RCC risk were observed for SLC19A1 (Pmin-P = 0.03) and MTHFR (Pmin-P = 0.13). A haplotype consisting of four SNPs in SLC19A1 (rs12483553, rs2838950, rs2838951, and rs17004785) was associated with a 37% increased risk (p = 0.02), and exploratory stratified analysis suggested the association was only significant among those in the lowest tertile of vegetable intake. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to comprehensively examine variation in one-carbon metabolism genes in relation to RCC risk. We identified a novel association with SLC19A1, which is important for transport of folate into cells. Replication in other populations is required to confirm these findings. PMID:22039442

  13. Readying the workforce: evaluation of VHA's comprehensive women's health primary care provider initiative.

    PubMed

    Maisel, Natalya C; Haskell, Sally; Hayes, Patricia M; Balasubramanian, Vidhya; Torgal, Anupama; Ananth, Lakshmi; Saechao, Fay; Iqbal, Samina; Phibbs, Ciaran S; Frayne, Susan M

    2015-04-01

    Veterans Health Administration (VHA) primary care providers (PCPs) often see few women, making it challenging to maintain proficiency in women's health (WH). Therefore, VHA in 2010 established Designated WH Providers, who would maintain proficiency in comprehensive WH care and be preferentially assigned women patients. To evaluate early implementation of this national policy. At each VHA health care system (N=140), the Women Veterans Program Manager completed a Fiscal Year 2012 workforce capacity assessment (response rate, 100%), representing the first time the national Designated WH Provider workforce had been identified. Assessment data were linked to administrative data. Of all VHA PCPs, 23% were Designated WH Providers; 100% of health care systems and 83% of community clinics had at least 1 Designated WH Provider. On average, women veterans comprised 19% (SD=27%) of the patients Designated WH Providers saw in primary care, versus 5% (SD=7%) for Other PCPs (P<0.001). For women veterans using primary care (N=313,033), new patients were less likely to see a Designated WH Provider than established women veteran patients (52% vs. 64%; P<0.001). VHA has achieved its goal of a Designated WH Provider in every health care system, and is approaching its goal of a Designated WH Provider at every hospital/community clinic. Designated WH Providers see more women than do Other PCPs. However, as the volume of women patients remains low for many providers, attention to alternative approaches to maintaining proficiency may prove necessary, and barriers to assigning new women patients to Designated WH Providers merit attention.

  14. Canada’s northern food subsidy Nutrition North Canada: a comprehensive program evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Nutrition North Canada (NNC) is a retail subsidy program implemented in 2012 and designed to reduce the cost of nutritious food for residents living in Canada’s remote, northern communities. The present study evaluates the extent to which NNC provides access to perishable, nutritious food for residents of remote northern communities. Design: Program documents, including fiscal and food cost reports for the period 2011–2015, retailer compliance reports, audits of the program, and the program’s performance measurement strategy are examined for evidence that the subsidy is meeting its objectives in a manner both comprehensive and equitable across regions and communities. Results: NNC lacks price caps or other means of ensuring food is affordable and equitably priced in communities. Gaps in food cost reporting constrain the program’s accountability. From 2011–15, no adjustments were made to community eligibility, subsidy rates, or the list of eligible foods in response to information provided by community members, critics, the Auditor General of Canada, and the program’s own Advisory Board. Measures to increase program accountability, such as increasing subsidy information on point-of-sale receipts, make NNC more visible but do nothing to address underlying accountability issues Conclusions: The current structure and regulatory framework of NNC are insufficient to ensure the program meets its goal. Both the volume and cost of nutritious food delivered to communities is highly variable and dependent on factors such as retailers’ pricing practices, over which the program has no control. It may be necessary to consider alternative forms of policy in order to produce sustainable improvements to food security in remote, northern communities. PMID:28151097

  15. Evaluation of quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mitrevski, Blagoj; Marriott, Philip J

    2014-10-03

    Quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOFMS) has been evaluated with respect to its applicability in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). At a maximum acquisition frequency, while approximately 50 full accurate mass spectra on disk were acquired per s (50Hz) in scan mode, the sampling rate in target mode (MS/MS) was strongly dependent on the number of target ions selected. The number of selected precursor ions per time window proportionally decreased the acquisition rate for each ion; one precursor ion ≅31.35Hz; two ions ≅16.68Hz; and for 8 precursor ions, a sampling rate of just 4.18Hz was found. When Q-TOFMS was used in simultaneous mode, where in addition to the acquisition of target ion MS/MS signals, it also collects the full mass spectrum, sampling rates were even lower. It is demonstrated that Q-TOFMS generates sufficient data points over each peak in GC×GC operation in scan mode using TOFMS acquisition only, or is able to collect sufficient data points for relatively wide chromatographic peaks (≥600ms) in the target mode (MS/MS), however only if one or two precursor ions are selected per time window. Mass accuracy was found to perform within specification (<5ppm), even for the fastest acquisition operation (50Hz). Spectral deconvolution is demonstrated to work better in GC×GC than in 1D GC mode. Data visualisation in target GC×GC mode presents difficulties when there are overlapping target windows comprising different numbers of precursor ions.

  16. Comprehensive evaluation of long-term trends in occupational exposure: Part 1. Description of the database

    PubMed Central

    Symanski, E.; Kupper, L. L.; Rappaport, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive evaluation of long term changes in occupational exposure among a broad cross section of industries worldwide. METHODS: A review of the scientific literature identified studies that reported historical changes in exposure. About 700 sets of data from 119 published and several unpublished sources were compiled. Data were published over a 30 year period in 25 journals that spanned a range of disciplines. For each data set, the average exposure level was compiled for each period and details on the contaminant, the industry and location, changes in the threshold limit value (TLV), as well as the type of sampling method were recorded. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to identify monotonic changes in exposure over time and simple linear regression analyses were used to characterise trends in exposure. RESULTS: About 78% of the natural log transformed data showed linear trends towards lower exposure levels whereas 22% indicated increasing trends. (The Spearman rank correlation analyses produced a similar breakdown between exposures monotonically increasing or decreasing over time.) Although the rates of reduction for the data showing downward trends ranged from -1% to -62% per year, most exposures declined at rates between -4% and -14% per year (the interquartile range), with a median value of -8% per year. Exposures seemed to increase at rates that were slightly lower than those of exposures which have declined over time. Data sets that showed downward (versus upward) trends were influenced by several factors including type and carcinogenicity of the contaminant, type of monitoring, historical changes in the threshold limit values (TLVs), and period of sampling. CONCLUSIONS: This review supports the notion that occupational exposures are generally lower today than they were years or decades ago. However, such trends seem to have been affected by factors related to the contaminant, as well as to the period and type of

  17. Comprehensive clinical evaluation as an outcome assessment for a graduate orthodontics program.

    PubMed

    Pinskaya, Yuliya B; Hsieh, Tsung-Ju; Roberts, W Eugene; Hartsfield, James K

    2004-11-01

    To supplement the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) objective grading system (OGS) for posttreatment dental casts and panoramic radiographs, a comprehensive clinical assessment (CCA) method was developed to assess facial form, dental esthetics, vertical dimension, arch form, periodontium preservation, root resorption, and treatment efficiency. The sum of the CCA and the ABO OGS scores was defined as the clinical outcome. To determine a 3-year baseline for treatment outcomes in a graduate orthodontic program, the posttreatment records of 521 consecutive patients were evaluated. The mean ABO OGS score for the entire sample was 34.4 points: 32.4, 33.1, and 37.8 points for 1998, 1999, and 2000, respectively. The mean CCA score for the entire sample was 4.67 points: 2.96, 5.13, and 6.15 points for 1998, 1999, and 2000, respectively. Corresponding ABO OGS and CCA scores showed a progressive decrease in the quality of finished cases that was associated with a treatment time increase from 28.9 to 39.3 months. Overall, longer active treatment times resulted in a diminished clinical outcome, primarily due to "patient burn-out." Scoring of all finished cases is an effective means for determining clinical outcomes. However, the data suggest that, in initiating a clinical grading program, it is important to establish a multiyear baseline. Patients who are progressing well in treatment tend to be finished by the time the current class graduates, and the problem patients are transferred. Because long treatment times are associated with diminished clinical outcomes, it is often in the best interest of the uncooperative patient to terminate treatment rather than extend active mechanics in an attempt to achieve a better result.

  18. A Review of Sleeve Gastrectomy Specimen Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Kinsinger, Luke A; Garber, James C; Whipple, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing popularity of sleeve gastrectomy, many stomach specimens are being evaluated. Understanding the significance and treatment for unexpected pathology is important. This study examines the incidence of relevant histopathology of sleeve gastrectomy specimens. It evaluates previous data for each histopathology and provides recommendations for treatment. In this study, a retrospective review was performed for 241 patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy from 2009 to 2014 at a single institution. Of the specimens, 122 had no significant histopathology, 91 had gastritis, 13 had lymphoid aggregates, 5 had hyperplasia, 3 had intestinal metaplasia, 3 had gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and 3 had gastric polyps. Of the GISTs all had a low mitotic rate and the size of the tumor ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 cm. The findings of metaplasia may be a marker for increased risk of malignancy and may require additional surveillance. The findings of GIST may warrant interval imaging to survey for recurrence, though the likelihood of recurrence for the tumors in this study is less than 2 per cent based on previous studies.

  19. [Research and demonstration of comprehensive measures of schistosomiasis prevention and control technology. II. Longitudinal evaluation on control effect].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zi-Qing; Hu, Fei; Liu, Ying; Ding, Jian-Nan; Liu, Yue-Min; Yuan, Min; Hu, Qi-Wu; Huang, Mei-Jiao

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of comprehensive measures of schistosomiasis prevention and control technique. The comprehensive measures including forbidding grazing on marshlands, renovating latrines and supplying safe water, and health education were carried out in a demonstrative area, and the schistosomiasis endemic situation and other relative factors were investigated. After the control measures were carried out for 3 years, the prevalence of schistosomiasis in human decreased from 3.57% to 0.83%, and the infection rates of cattle decreased from 17.14% to 0. No infected Oncomelania snails were found on the marshlands in the demonstration area. The comprehensive measures aforementioned are effective in the control of schistosomiasis in Poyang Lake region.

  20. Agreement Between Cytology and Histopathology for Regional Lymph Node Metastasis in Dogs With Melanocytic Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Janet A; Matz, Brad M; Christopherson, Pete W; Koehler, Jey W; Cappelle, Kelsey K; Hlusko, Katelyn C; Smith, Annette

    2017-07-01

    Melanocytic neoplasms are common in dogs and frequently occur within the oral cavity or in haired skin. The behavior of melanocytic neoplasms is variable and depends on tumor location, size, and histopathologic features. This study compared cytopathology and histopathology of 32 lymph nodes from 27 dogs diagnosed with melanocytic neoplasms. Agreement between the original cytology report, cytology slide review, original histopathology report, and histopathology slide review was determined for each lymph node. A subset of lymph nodes was subjected to immunohistochemistry (Melan-A) and additional histochemical stains/techniques (Prussian blue, bleach) to assist in differentiation of melanocytes and melanophages. Agreement ranged from slight to fair for each of the variables evaluated with weighted kappa (κw) or kappa (κ) analysis (original cytology vs cytology review κw = 0.24; original cytology vs original histopathology κw = 0.007; original cytology vs histopathology review κw = 0.23; cytology review vs original histopathology κw = 0.008; cytology review vs histopathology review κw = 0.006; and original histopathology vs histopathology review κ = 0.18). The diagnoses (metastatic, equivocal, or negative for metastasis) of the original report and slide review for both cytology and histopathology were not significantly correlated with survival in this population of patients. Overall, agreement between cytology and histopathology was poor even with a single clinical or anatomic pathologist performing slide review. Consensus between routine cytology and histopathology for staging of lymph nodes in patients with melanocytic neoplasms is poor and does not correlate with survival.

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of multisatellite precipitation estimates over India using gridded rainfall data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunilkumar, K.; Narayana Rao, T.; Saikranthi, K.; Purnachandra Rao, M.

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a comprehensive evaluation of five widely used multisatellite precipitation estimates (MPEs) against 1° × 1° gridded rain gauge data set as ground truth over India. One decade observations are used to assess the performance of various MPEs (Climate Prediction Center (CPC)-South Asia data set, CPC Morphing Technique (CMORPH), Precipitation Estimation From Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA-3B42), and Global Precipitation Climatology Project). All MPEs have high detection skills of rain with larger probability of detection (POD) and smaller "missing" values. However, the detection sensitivity differs from one product (and also one region) to the other. While the CMORPH has the lowest sensitivity of detecting rain, CPC shows highest sensitivity and often overdetects rain, as evidenced by large POD and false alarm ratio and small missing values. All MPEs show higher rain sensitivity over eastern India than western India. These differential sensitivities are found to alter the biases in rain amount differently. All MPEs show similar spatial patterns of seasonal rain bias and root-mean-square error, but their spatial variability across India is complex and pronounced. The MPEs overestimate the rainfall over the dry regions (northwest and southeast India) and severely underestimate over mountainous regions (west coast and northeast India), whereas the bias is relatively small over the core monsoon zone. Higher occurrence of virga rain due to subcloud evaporation and possible missing of small-scale convective events by gauges over the dry regions are the main reasons for the observed overestimation of rain by MPEs. The decomposed components of total bias show that the major part of overestimation is due to false precipitation. The severe underestimation of rain along the west coast is attributed to the predominant occurrence of shallow rain

  2. Histopathology of Conjunctivochalasis Compared to Normal Conjunctiva

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Hesam; Mahbod, Mirgholamreza; Amoli, Fahimeh A.; Kiarudi, Mohammad Y.; Jabbarvand, Mahmoud; Kheirkhah, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the histopathologic changes in the conjunctiva of patients with conjunctivochalasis (CCh) compared to age-matched controls. Methods: This cross-sectional, controlled study included 27 eyes of 27 patients with CCh and 16 eyes of 16 age-matched controls. A biopsy of the bulbar conjunctiva was performed along the temporal lower lid margin before cataract surgery in both groups. Histopathologic evaluation of the specimens was done with light microscopy using staining with hematoxylin/eosin, periodic acid Schiff, and van Gieson elastic stain. Various histopathologic features of the conjunctival epithelium and stroma were compared between the two groups. Results: The mean age of patients was 62.4 ± 6.9 years in the CCh group and 65.1 ± 6.3 years in the control group (P = 0.54). No significant differences were noted between the two groups in terms of conjunctival epithelial changes including papillomatosis, epithelial clefts, epithelial goblet cells, or infiltration of inflammatory cells. Mean thickness of the conjunctival stroma was 0.21 ± 0.08 mm in the CCh group and 0.26 ± 0.21 mm in the control group (P = 0.10). For the conjunctival stroma, there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of elastosis, fibrosis, lymphangiectasia, or infiltration of inflammatory cells. Conclusion: No noticeable differences were found in the histopathologic features by light microscopy between eyes with CCh and those of age-matched controls. Therefore, the primary pathology of CCh may not be within the conjunctiva itself. Instead, loose attachment of the conjunctiva to the underlying tissue may be the reason for the redundant folds in the bulbar conjunctiva. PMID:27994801

  3. Correlation between clinical and histopathological diagnoses in periapical inflammatory lesions.

    PubMed

    Diegues, Liliane Lopes; Colombo Robazza, Carlos Roberto; Costa Hanemann, João Adolfo; Costa Pereira, Alessandro Antônio; Silva, Cléverson O

    2011-08-01

      The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between clinical and histopathological diagnoses of periapical inflammatory lesions, focusing mainly on cystic conditions.   Files dating from 1998 to 2006 at the Oral Pathology Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Alfenas Federal University, Brazil, were reviewed to identify cases with histopathological diagnoses of periapical inflammatory lesions. A total of 1788 files were analyzed, and 255 cases were identified with clinical diagnoses of periapical inflammatory lesions.   The most prevalent clinical diagnosis was apical periodontal cyst (59%), followed by periapical granuloma (20%), and dentoalveolar abscess (2%). After histopathological analysis, 53% of the cases represented apical periodontal cyst, 42% periapical granuloma, and 5% dentoalveolar abscess.   The outcomes of the present study show a high prevalence of periapical cysts among periapical inflammatory lesions. Moreover, this study highlights the importance of histopathological evaluation for the correct diagnosis of periapical inflammatory lesions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Histopathological and immunohistochemical profile in anaplastic gangliogliomas.

    PubMed

    Romero-Rojas, Alfredo E; Diaz-Perez, Julio A; Chinchilla-Olaya, Sandra I; Amaro, Deirdre; Lozano-Castillo, Alfonso; Restrepo-Escobar, Ligia I

    2013-01-01

    The anaplastic ganglioglioma (AG) is the high-grade counterpart of ganglioglioma, a rare mixed tumor composed of neuronal/ganglion and glial cells. We describe the histopathology and immunohistochemistry in 7 cases of AG and correlate them with the clinical and radiological features. Our AG patients correspond to 2.5% of the central nervous system tumor patients evaluated in our institution. The mean age at presentation was 25.7 years, with a male predominance. The most common clinical presentation was generalized tonic-clonic seizures (3/7 cases), in correlation with frequent cortical/subcortical location (6/7 cases). Histopathologically, all our cases showed high-grade features in glial (glial fibrillary acid protein-positive) and neuron-ganglion cells (synaptophysin, PGP-9.5, neurofilament, NSE and CD56-positive), as well as moderate cellularity, frequent mitotic figures and a Ki-67 labeling index >5%. All our patients had poor survival. We found that a typical histopathological and immunohistochemical profile is constant and can be useful in early diagnosis of these aggressive neoplasms. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of analytic hierarchy process-grey target theory systematic model in comprehensive evaluation of water environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Tian, Xiaogang; Tang, Ya; Zhao, Yujie; Hu, Yandi; Fang, Zili

    2010-07-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of the water environment for effective water quality management is complicated by a considerable number of factors and uncertainties. It is difficult to combine micro-evaluation with the macro-evaluation process. To effectively eliminate the subjective errors of the traditional analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a new modeling approach--the analytic hierarchy process and grey target theory (AHP-GTT) systematic model--is presented in this study to evaluate water quality in a certain watershed. A case study of applying the AHP-GTT systematic model to the evaluation and analysis of the water environment was conducted in the Yibin section of the Yangtze River, China. The micro-evaluation is based on defining the weights of indices of the water quality (IWQ) of each water cross-section, while the macro-evaluation is based on calculating the comprehensive indices of water environmental quality and analyzing the tendency of the water environment of each cross-section. The results indicated that the Baixi and Shuidongmen sections are seriously polluted areas, with the tendencies of becoming worse. Also, the key IWQs of these two cross-sections are 5-day biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand of permanganate, respectively.

  6. Variability study between Pap smear, Colposcopy and Cervical Histopathology findings.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Shahida; Bari, Arifa; Hayat, Zartaj

    2015-12-01

    To determine the agreement/variability between colposcopic findings, Pap smear cytology and histopathological diagnosis in gynaecology patients. The cross-sectional cohort study was conducted from October 2010 to September 2011 at the Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, and comprised women who presented to the out-patient department with various gynaecological complaints. Colposcopy was performed in all women with unhealthy cervix during gynaecological examination, abnormal Pap smear report, recurrent vaginal discharge and postcoital bleeding. Pap smear was performed before colposcopy if not done earlier. Colposcopic findings were recorded on a specially-designed proforma. Biopsies from abnormal areas were taken and sent for histopathology. Colposcopic findings were compared with histopathology and Pap smear reports The agreement between the methods was evaluated by using Kappa coefficient and chi square test at a significance level of 5%. The mean age of the 143 women was 44 8.5 years (range: 25-72 years). Colposcopic findings were normal in 66(46%) women, while 77(54%) had abnormal findings and among the latter, 62(80.5%) had abnormal histopathology, indicating strong agreement (K=0.65; p<0.001). Pap smear report was abnormal in 48(33.5%) cases and among them histopathology was abnormal in 28(58%). In the remaining 95(66.4%) patients with normal Pap smear, histopathology was abnormal in 44((46%), indicating weak agreement between Pap smear and histopathological diagnosis (K=0.10; p=0.08). There was a strong agreement between colposcopic findings and histopathological diagnosis. However, agreement between cytological findings and colposcopic findings and cytology and histopathological diagnosis remained weak.

  7. A Summative Program Evaluation of a Comprehensive 9th Grade Transition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roybal, Victoria M.

    2011-01-01

    The transition from 8th grade to 9th grade is one that is replete with challenges for students, especially for minority students who live in economically disadvantaged communities. One low-income, high minority comprehensive high school in the western United States implemented five separate strategies to create a freshman transition program to aid…

  8. Print and Digital Texts: Evaluating the Differences in Reading Comprehension Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Stephanie Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about the reading comprehension skills of students in the United States have been raised partly because of the introduction of digital products into their lives and the classroom setting. The Arizona Instrument to Measure Standards results from 2013 that were provided by the Arizona Department of Education indicated that reading scores…

  9. The Role of Neuropsychological Assessment in the Comprehensive Evaluation of Preschool-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deysach, Robert E.

    1986-01-01

    The integration of neuropsychological (NP) methods into the comprehensive assessment of preschool children is examined. It is concluded that NP assessment serves as a powerful tool for individual case planning only when used in combination with information gathered in other settings. (Author/LMO)

  10. Evaluating the Role of Polysemous Word Knowledge in Reading Comprehension among Bilingual Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, J. Kenneth; Kieffer, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the development of an assessment to measure bilingual adolescents' knowledge of polysemous vocabulary and explores the contribution of polysemous word knowledge to reading comprehension among those students. Spanish-English bilingual students in seventh grade (n = 107) completed a battery of standardized reading and language…

  11. Understanding What Students Know: Evaluating Their Online Research and Reading Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castek, Jill; Coiro, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This piece is framed by questions we are often asked when we talk about online reading assessments and instruction with teachers. We begin with some of the lessons we have learned in our own experiences with designing measures of online reading comprehension. Then we share our thoughts about key design considerations as well as some of the biggest…

  12. A Summative Program Evaluation of a Comprehensive 9th Grade Transition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roybal, Victoria M.

    2011-01-01

    The transition from 8th grade to 9th grade is one that is replete with challenges for students, especially for minority students who live in economically disadvantaged communities. One low-income, high minority comprehensive high school in the western United States implemented five separate strategies to create a freshman transition program to aid…

  13. Evaluating the Effects of Comprehensive Substance Abuse Intervention on Successful Reunification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Jody; McDonald, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examines permanency outcomes of families with children in foster care who participated in a comprehensive service-delivery program designed to assist families and communities in dealing with alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems. Method: Survival analysis is used to measure the impact of program participation on family…

  14. Evaluating the Effects of Comprehensive Substance Abuse Intervention on Successful Reunification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Jody; McDonald, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examines permanency outcomes of families with children in foster care who participated in a comprehensive service-delivery program designed to assist families and communities in dealing with alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems. Method: Survival analysis is used to measure the impact of program participation on family…

  15. Interactive Video Listening Comprehension in Foreign Language Instruction: Development and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Robert

    The report details development, at Southwest Texas State University and later at Pennsylvania State University, of a computer authoring system ("Libra") enabling foreign language faculty to develop multimedia lessons focusing on listening comprehension. Staff at Southwest Texas State University first developed a Macintosh version of the…

  16. Comprehensive Russian Instructional Program. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1982-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima; Schulman, Robert

    Project CRIP (Comprehensive Russian Instructional Program) in its first year provided career orientation and support services to 460 Russian-speaking students of limited English proficiency at three public and four private high schools in Brooklyn and Queens, New York. The primary project goal was to help students to plan and prepare for future…

  17. Evaluation of the Comprehensive School Reform Program Implementation and Outcomes. Third-Year Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orland, Martin; Connolly, Brooke; Fong, Tony; Sosenko, Lauren Davis; Tushnet, Naida C.; Yin, Robert K.; Burt, Janeula M.; Warner, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) Program was established as a demonstration program in 1998 and authorized as a full program in 2002 as part of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). It is one approach to help low-performing K-12 public schools meet state performance standards. CSR emphasizes two major concepts: mandating that school reform…

  18. Understanding What Students Know: Evaluating Their Online Research and Reading Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castek, Jill; Coiro, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This piece is framed by questions we are often asked when we talk about online reading assessments and instruction with teachers. We begin with some of the lessons we have learned in our own experiences with designing measures of online reading comprehension. Then we share our thoughts about key design considerations as well as some of the biggest…

  19. The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Final Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This report contains a summary of the findings from the various topical reports that comprise the author's comprehensive longitudinal study. As a summary, it does not include extensive details regarding the study samples and scientific methodologies employed in those topical studies. The research revealed a pattern of school choice results that…

  20. [Histopathologic study of chronic sinusitis].

    PubMed

    Wayoff, M; Parache, R M; Bodelet, B; Gazel, P

    1983-01-01

    The conventional histopathology of the sinus is a criterium for the therapeutic indication, since it is possible to distinguish between granulomatous chronic sinusitis, chronic sinusitis with oedema and nasal polyposis. Each one of these clinical pictures has his own etiology and requires a specific therapeutic approach.

  1. Engaging the Dan River Region to reduce obesity: application of the Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation process.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, Jamie; Motley, Monica; Wilkinson, Margie E; Jackman, Barbara; Barlow, Morgan L; Hill, Jennie L

    2012-01-01

    Despite ongoing recommendations to engage health-disparate populations in the initiation and execution of community-based research, few studies report on the process of community engagement. The action-oriented Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation (CPPE) process is designed to guide community health planning and evaluation. This article describes how the CPPE process was utilized within a community-based participatory research initiative aimed at addressing obesity in the health-disparate Dan River Region. Encouraging community engagement in formulating research agendas and promoting ownership of health solutions will be key to improving obesity risk factors among Dan River Region residents and similar vulnerable communities.

  2. The Research of Doubly-fed Wind Turbine Gear Box of the Status of the Comprehensive Evaluation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiuchen; Sheng, Gehao; Wang, Zhijie; Liu, Sanming; Sun, Congcong

    2017-05-01

    Multiple indexes and multiple level comprehensive evaluations for wind power gear box focus more attention in recent days. Through the analysis of the state of wind turbine gearbox, fault hazard degree and other factors that is related with the internal temperature in gear box, environment temperature and the characteristics of wind speed, state evaluation index system of health indicators that is based on the current state of the age and the fault hazard health degree is established in this paper. Combined with the hazard matrix, current hazard degree is obtained. The effectiveness of adding health indicators is proved by examples.

  3. Usefulness of comprehensive cardiothoracic computed tomography in the evaluation of acute undifferentiated chest discomfort in the emergency department (CAPTURE).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Ian S; Banerji, Dahlia; Siegel, Emily L; Truong, Quynh A; Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Irlbeck, Thomas; Abbara, Suhny; Gupta, Rajiv; Benenstein, Ricardo J; Choy, Garry; Avery, Laura L; Novelline, Robert A; Bamberg, Fabian; Brady, Thomas J; Nagurney, John T; Hoffmann, Udo

    2011-03-01

    Newer cardiac computed tomographic (CT) technology has permitted comprehensive cardiothoracic evaluations for coronary artery disease, pulmonary embolism, and aortic dissection within a single breath hold, independent of the heart rate. We conducted a randomized diagnostic trial to compare the efficiency of a comprehensive cardiothoracic CT examination in the evaluation of patients presenting to the emergency department with undifferentiated acute chest discomfort or dyspnea. We randomized the emergency department patients clinically scheduled to undergo a dedicated CT protocol to assess coronary artery disease, pulmonary embolism, or aortic dissection to either the planned dedicated CT protocol or a comprehensive cardiothoracic CT protocol. All CT examinations were performed using a 64-slice dual source CT scanner. The CT results were immediately communicated to the emergency department providers, who directed further management at their discretion. The subjects were then followed for the remainder of their hospitalization and for 30 days after hospitalization. Overall, 59 patients (mean age 51.2 ± 11.4 years, 72.9% men) were randomized to either dedicated (n = 30) or comprehensive (n = 29) CT scanning. No significant difference was found in the median length of stay (7.6 vs 8.2 hours, p = 0.79), rate of hospital discharge without additional imaging (70% vs 69%, p = 0.99), median interval to exclusion of an acute event (5.2 vs 6.5 hours, p = 0.64), costs of care (p = 0.16), or the number of revisits (p = 0.13) between the dedicated and comprehensive arms, respectively. In addition, radiation exposure (11.3 mSv vs 12.8 mSv, p = 0.16) and the frequency of incidental findings requiring follow-up (24.1% vs 33.3%, p = 0.57) were similar between the 2 arms. Comprehensive cardiothoracic CT scanning was feasible, with a similar diagnostic yield to dedicated protocols. However, it did not reduce the length of stay, rate of subsequent testing, or costs. In conclusion

  4. Correlation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Tumor Volume with Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Turkbey, Baris; Mani, Haresh; Aras, Omer; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R.; Shah, Vijay; Bernardo, Marcelino; Pohida, Thomas; Daar, Dagane; Benjamin, Compton; McKinney, Yolanda L.; Linehan, W. Marston; Wood, Bradford J.; Merino, Maria J.; Choyke, Peter L.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The biology of prostate cancer may be influenced by the index lesion. The definition of index lesion volume is important for appropriate decision making, especially for image guided focal treatment. We determined the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for determining index tumor volume compared with volumes derived from histopathology. Materials and Methods We evaluated 135 patients (mean age 59.3 years) with a mean prostate specific antigen of 6.74 ng/dl who underwent multiparametric 3T endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate and subsequent radical prostatectomy. Index tumor volume was determined prospectively and independently by magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology. The ellipsoid formula was applied to determine histopathology tumor volume, whereas manual tumor segmentation was used to determine magnetic resonance tumor volume. Histopathology tumor volume was correlated with age and prostate specific antigen whereas magnetic resonance tumor volume involved Pearson correlation and linear regression methods. In addition, the predictive power of magnetic resonance tumor volume, prostate specific antigen and age for estimating histopathology tumor volume (greater than 0.5 cm3) was assessed by ROC analysis. The same analysis was also conducted for the 1.15 shrinkage factor corrected histopathology data set. Results There was a positive correlation between histopathology tumor volume and magnetic resonance tumor volume (Pearson coefficient 0.633, p <0.0001), but a weak correlation between prostate specific antigen and histopathology tumor volume (Pearson coefficient 0.237, p=0.003). On linear regression analysis histopathology tumor volume and magnetic resonance tumor volume were correlated (r2=0.401, p <0.00001). On ROC analysis AUC values for magnetic resonance tumor volume, prostate specific antigen and age in estimating tumors larger than 0.5 cm3 at histopathology were 0.949 (p <0.0000001), 0.685 (p=0.001) and 0.627 (p=0

  5. Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging tumor volume with histopathology.

    PubMed

    Turkbey, Baris; Mani, Haresh; Aras, Omer; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R; Shah, Vijay; Bernardo, Marcelino; Pohida, Thomas; Daar, Dagane; Benjamin, Compton; McKinney, Yolanda L; Linehan, W Marston; Wood, Bradford J; Merino, Maria J; Choyke, Peter L; Pinto, Peter A

    2012-10-01

    The biology of prostate cancer may be influenced by the index lesion. The definition of index lesion volume is important for appropriate decision making, especially for image guided focal treatment. We determined the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for determining index tumor volume compared with volumes derived from histopathology. We evaluated 135 patients (mean age 59.3 years) with a mean prostate specific antigen of 6.74 ng/dl who underwent multiparametric 3T endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate and subsequent radical prostatectomy. Index tumor volume was determined prospectively and independently by magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology. The ellipsoid formula was applied to determine histopathology tumor volume, whereas manual tumor segmentation was used to determine magnetic resonance tumor volume. Histopathology tumor volume was correlated with age and prostate specific antigen whereas magnetic resonance tumor volume involved Pearson correlation and linear regression methods. In addition, the predictive power of magnetic resonance tumor volume, prostate specific antigen and age for estimating histopathology tumor volume (greater than 0.5 cm(3)) was assessed by ROC analysis. The same analysis was also conducted for the 1.15 shrinkage factor corrected histopathology data set. There was a positive correlation between histopathology tumor volume and magnetic resonance tumor volume (Pearson coefficient 0.633, p <0.0001), but a weak correlation between prostate specific antigen and histopathology tumor volume (Pearson coefficient 0.237, p = 0.003). On linear regression analysis histopathology tumor volume and magnetic resonance tumor volume were correlated (r(2) = 0.401, p <0.00001). On ROC analysis AUC values for magnetic resonance tumor volume, prostate specific antigen and age in estimating tumors larger than 0.5 cm(3) at histopathology were 0.949 (p <0.0000001), 0.685 (p = 0.001) and 0.627 (p = 0.02), respectively. Similar

  6. A comprehensive evaluation of high friction overlay systems on bridge decks in cold climate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostick, Robert D.

    In recent history the Minnesota Department of Transportation has looked to improve the safety of bridge decks by installing high friction overlays (HFO). A comprehensive study researched four different proprietary HFO systems placed on fourteen bridge decks throughout Minnesota. Research was split into three separate tasks: (1) laboratory testing of aggregate properties, (2) field observations and testing, and (3) a comprehensive analysis of crash data investigated crash rates on bridges with HFO systems. Field observations and testing revealed that the use of snowplows quickly abrades HFO systems. Abrasion, among other factors, causes a reduction in surface friction values, and reduces the life of HFO systems. Furthermore, improving crash rate trends cannot be directly correlated to the installation of HFO systems. Research concludes that HFO systems should not be used in Minnesota. Other cold climate transportation agencies should conduct research emulated after this study to assess HFO systems in their jurisdiction.

  7. Developing and testing a framework for evaluating the quality of comprehensive family assessment in child welfare.

    PubMed

    Smithgall, Cheryl; Jarpe-Ratner, Elizabeth; Gnedko-Berry, Natalya; Mason, Sally

    2015-06-01

    Over the last decade, Comprehensive Family Assessment (CFA) has become a best practice in child welfare. Comprehensive Family Assessments go beyond risk assessment to develop a full picture of the child's and family's situation. When appropriately synthesized, assessment information can lead to a clear articulation of the patterns of child or family functioning which are related to child abuse and maltreatment or which can be strengthened to facilitate change. This study defines and provides concrete examples of dimensions of quality in child welfare assessment reports that are consistent with the CFA guidelines and best practices embraced by child welfare agencies, courts, and other key stakeholders. Leveraging a random assignment design, the study compares the quality of reports written by a caseworker alone versus those written by a caseworker paired with a licensed Integrated Assessment (IA) screener. Findings are discussed in the context of the dual professional model and factors contributing to the timely completion of high quality assessment reports.

  8. Development and preliminary evaluation of a new test of ongoing speech comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Best, Virginia; Keidser, Gitte; Buchholz, Jörg M.; Freeston, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Objective The overall goal of this work is to create new speech perception tests that more closely resemble real world communication and offer an alternative or complement to the commonly used sentence recall test. Design We describe the development of a new ongoing speech comprehension test based on short everyday passages and on-the-go questions. We also describe the results of an experiment conducted to compare the psychometric properties of this test to those of a sentence test. Study Sample Both tests were completed by a group of listeners that included normal hearers as well as hearing-impaired listeners who participated with and without their hearing aids. Results Overall, the psychometric properties of the two tests were similar, and thresholds were significantly correlated. However, there was some evidence of age/cognitive effects in the comprehension test that were not revealed by the sentence test. Conclusions This new comprehension test promises to be useful for the larger goal of creating laboratory tests that combine realistic acoustic environments with realistic communication tasks. Further efforts will be required to assess whether the test can ultimately improve predictions of real-world outcomes. PMID:26158403

  9. Evaluation of a comprehensive intervention with a behavioural modification strategy for childhood obesity prevention: a nonrandomized cluster controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-jing; Lau, Wing-chung Patrick; Wang, Hai-jun; Ma, Jun

    2015-12-03

    With regard to the global childhood obesity epidemic, it is imperative that effective lifestyle interventions are devised to combat childhood obesity. This paper describes the development and implementation of a comprehensive (a combination of diet and physical activity (PA)), social cognitive behaviour modification intervention using accelerometry and a dietary diary to tackle child overweight and obesity. The comprehensive intervention effect was evaluated in a comparison with diet only, PA only and a no-treatment control group. A pilot study was conducted with a non-randomized cluster design. Four hundred thirty-eight overweight and obese children aged 7-12 years from ten primary schools in Beijing were recruited to receive a one-year intervention. Participants were allocated into one of four groups: the comprehensive intervention group; the PA only group (Happy 10 program); the diet only group (nutrition education program); and a control group. The effects of intervention on adiposity, blood pressure, and biochemical indicators were assessed by examining 2-way interactions (time × intervention) in linear mixed models. Means and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the adjusted changes between post-intervention and baseline relative to changes in the control group were calculated and reported as effect sizes. The percentage of body fat in the comprehensive intervention group showed a significant relative decrease (adjusted change: -1.01 %, 95 % CI: (-1.81, -0.20) %) compared with the PA only, diet only or control groups (P < 0.001). Systolic blood pressure significantly decreased in the comprehensive intervention group (adjusted change: -4.37 mmHg, 95 % CI: (-8.42, -0.33) mmHg), as did diastolic blood pressure (adjusted change: -5.50 mmHg, 95 % CI (-8.81, -2.19) mmHg) (P < 0.05). Compared with the other two intervention groups and the control group, positive adjusted changes in fasting glucose in the comprehensive group were found, although not for

  10. Histopathologic evaluation of postmortem autolytic changes in bluegill (Lepomis macrohirus) and crappie (Pomoxis anularis) at varied time intervals and storage temperatures

    PubMed Central

    George, Jami; Van Wettere, Arnaud J.; Michaels, Blayk B.; Crain, Debbi

    2016-01-01

    Information is lacking on preserving fish carcasses to minimize postmortem autolysis artifacts when a necropsy cannot be performed immediately. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively identify and score histologic postmortem changes in two species of freshwater fish (bluegill—Lepomis macrochirus; crappie—Pomoxis annularis), at varied time intervals and storage temperatures, to assess the histologic quality of collected samples. A pooled sample of 36 mix sex individuals of healthy bluegill and crappie were euthanized, stored either at room temperature, refrigerated at 4 °C, or frozen at −20 °C, and then necropsied at 0, 4, 24, and 48 h intervals. Histologic specimens were evaluated by light microscopy. Data showed that immediate harvesting of fresh samples provides the best quality and refrigeration would be the preferred method of storage if sample collection had to be delayed for up to 24 h. When sample collection must be delayed more than 24 h, the preferred method of storage to minimize autolysis artifacts is freezing if evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract is most important, or refrigeration if gill histology is most important. The gill arch, intestinal tract, followed by the liver and kidney were the most sensitive organs to autolysis. PMID:27114885

  11. [On the comprehensibility of German hospital quality reports: systematic evaluation and need for action].

    PubMed

    Friedemann, J; Schubert, H-J; Schwappach, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the current resolutions for quality reports of German hospitals as released in 2007 as well as on comprehensibility of these reports for patients. It is meant to analyse the textual information given by these quality reports. Its main objective was to attain a reliable assessment of their comprehensibility for patients on the basis of objective measuring methods. A further goal was to qualify eventual differences between large and small or private and public hospital operators. On the basis of the attained results conclusions on the appropriateness of the current legal situation and the existing criteria for quality reports were to be drawn. The textual system part of 200 German hospital reports was analysed as published in the Internet (latest download 28th May, 2007). The selection took place by means of a controlled sample. The sample structure essentially corresponds to the German hospital system structure in terms of bed numbers and its ratio of public and private operators. The analysis measured all formal text patterns as well as technical terms by means of a computer-aided device. The readability index for each text was calculated according to all known readability formulas for the German language. German hospital quality reports are readable only for those patients who dispose of above-average communicative skills. The analysed reports contain more than 10% technical terms while 17% of the chosen words and 60% of all sentences are too long. 10% of all sentences are too complex and 25% comprise more than three technical terms. To understand these texts at least an entrance qualification for higher education is required in accordance to readability indices. The texts' degree of complexity is comparable to that of philosophical papers. Most textual information given by German hospital quality reports is proven to be unreadable and incomprehensible for most patients. There are no fundamental differences concerning hospital size and

  12. Histopathological evaluation of the effects of variable extraoral dry times and enamel matrix proteins (enamel matrix derivatives) application on replanted dogs' teeth.

    PubMed

    Barbizam, Joao V B; Massarwa, Rasha; da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Consolaro, Alberto; Cohenca, Nestor

    2015-02-01

    The extra-alveolar dry period and storage medium in which the tooth was kept prior to replantation remain the critical factors affecting the survival and regeneration of the damaged periodontium. When the replantation is delayed, replacement root resorption is the most common complication following replantation of an avulsed tooth. The aim of this histological study was to evaluate the periodontal healing of replanted dogs' teeth after 20 min (short) and 60 min (long) extraoral dry time with and without the application of enamel matrix proteins. Eighty mature premolar roots (40 teeth) maxillary and mandibular premolars were extracted, the root canals were accessed, instrumented, and filled using a lateral condensation technique, and the access cavity was restored with amalgam. Each root was randomly assigned to one of experimental groups: Groups I and II: Roots were replanted after an extraoral dry time of 20 min. In group II, Emdogain(®) (Biora, Malmo, Sweden) was applied directly to the external root surface with complete coverage. Groups III and IV: Roots were replanted after an extraoral dry time of 60 min. In group IV, Emdogain(®) was applied to the whole external root surface before replantation. Roots that replanted within a total extraoral dry time of 10 min were used as negative controls, while those replanted after 90 min of extraoral dry time were assigned as positive controls. After 4 months, the dogs were euthanized, and the maxillary and mandibular processes were processed for histology and microscopically evaluated. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences (P = 0.1075) among the experimental groups. The results of this study show that 20 min of extraoral dry time is as detrimental to the PDL cells as 60 or 90 min of extraoral dry time, with avulsed dogs' teeth, even when replanted with an inductive material such as EMD. This study provides strong evidence in relation to the threshold of the extraoral dry time of avulsed teeth

  13. Pharmacologic Effects of Cannabidiol on Acute Reperfused Myocardial Infarction in Rabbits: Evaluated With 3.0T Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanbo; Chen, Feng; Yin, Ting; Xia, Qian; Liu, Yewei; Huang, Gang; Zhang, Jian; Oyen, Raymond; Ni, Yicheng

    2015-10-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) has anti-inflammatory effects. We explored its therapeutic effects on cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury with an experimental imaging platform. Reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was induced in rabbits with a 90-minute coronary artery occlusion followed by 24-hour reperfusion. Before reperfusion, rabbits received 2 intravenous doses of 100 μg/kg CBD (n = 10) or vehicle (control, n = 10). Evans blue was intravenously injected for later detection of the AMI core. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed to evaluate cardiac morphology and function. After euthanasia, blood troponin I (cTnI) was assessed, and the heart was excised and infused with multifunctional red iodized oil dye. The heart was sliced for digital radiography to quantify the perfusion density rate, area at risk (AAR), and myocardial salvage index, followed by histomorphologic staining. Compared with controls, CBD treatment improved systolic wall thickening (P < 0.05), significantly increased blood flow in the AAR (P < 0.05), significantly decreased microvascular obstruction (P < 0.05), increased the perfusion density rate by 1.7-fold, lowered the AMI core/AAR ratio (P < 0.05), and increased the myocardial salvage index (P < 0.05). These improvements were associated with reductions in serum cTnI, cardiac leukocyte infiltration, and myocellular apoptosis (P < 0.05). Thus, CBD therapy reduced AMI size and facilitated restoration of left ventricular function. We demonstrated that this experimental platform has potential theragnostic utility.

  14. Evaluation of Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Responses and Recovery Ability of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Acute Exposure to Atrazine Herbicide

    PubMed Central

    Blahova, Jana; Modra, Helena; Sevcikova, Marie; Marsalek, Petr; Zelnickova, Lenka; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of atrazine exposure (5, 15, 20, and 30 mg·L−1) on common carp and the ability of regeneration. During 96 h exposure we observed abnormal behavior in fish exposed to 20 and 30 mg·L−1. Mortality and histological alterations were noticed only in the group exposed to 30 mg·L−1. Most experimental groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower values of haemoglobin, haematocrit, leukocyte, and lymphocyte and significantly higher values of monocytes, segmented and band neutrophile granulocytes, and also metamyelocytes and myelocytes. A significantly lower (P < 0.05) leukocyte count was also recorded in experimental groups (5 and 15 mg·L−1) after recovery period. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) alterations in glucose, total protein, lactate, phosphorus, calcium, and biopterin as well as in activities of ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH were found in most experimental groups. These changes were most apparent in the groups exposed to 20 and 30 mg·L−1. Most of the indices were found to be restored after the 7-day recovery period with the exception of LDH, ALT, and lactate in the group exposed to 15 mg·L−1. Our results showed that atrazine exposure had a profound negative influence on selected indices and also on histological changes of common carp. PMID:24791011

  15. Comprehensive genetic testing in the clinical evaluation of 1119 patients with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Sloan-Heggen, Christina M; Bierer, Amanda O; Shearer, A Eliot; Kolbe, Diana L; Nishimura, Carla J; Frees, Kathy L; Ephraim, Sean S; Shibata, Seiji B; Booth, Kevin T; Campbell, Colleen A; Ranum, Paul T; Weaver, Amy E; Black-Ziegelbein, E Ann; Wang, Donghong; Azaiez, Hela; Smith, Richard J H

    2016-04-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory deficit in humans, affecting 1 in 500 newborns. Due to its genetic heterogeneity, comprehensive diagnostic testing has not previously been completed in a large multiethnic cohort. To determine the aggregate contribution inheritance makes to non-syndromic hearing loss, we performed comprehensive clinical genetic testing with targeted genomic enrichment and massively parallel sequencing on 1119 sequentially accrued patients. No patient was excluded based on phenotype, inheritance or previous testing. Testing resulted in identification of the underlying genetic cause for hearing loss in 440 patients (39%). Pathogenic variants were found in 49 genes and included missense variants (49%), large copy number changes (18%), small insertions and deletions (18%), nonsense variants (8%), splice-site alterations (6%), and promoter variants (<1%). The diagnostic rate varied considerably based on phenotype and was highest for patients with a positive family history of hearing loss or when the loss was congenital and symmetric. The spectrum of implicated genes showed wide ethnic variability. These findings support the more efficient utilization of medical resources through the development of evidence-based algorithms for the diagnosis of hearing loss.

  16. Evaluation of Microscopic Disease in Oral Tongue Cancer Using Whole-Mount Histopathologic Techniques: Implications for the Management of Head-and-Neck Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Sorcha; Poon, Ian; Markel, Dan; Vena, Dan; Higgins, Kevin; Enepekides, Dan; Rapheal, Simon; Wong, John; Allo, Ghassan; Morgen, Eric; Khaoum, Nader; Smith, Ben; Balogh, Judith; MacKenzie, Robert; Davidson, Jean; Wang, Dan; Yaffe, Martin

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To map the distribution of microscopic disease (MD) in head-and-neck cancer by analyzing digital images of whole-mounted serial sections of tongue cancer specimens. Methods and Materials: Ten T1-3 oral tongue cancer specimens were evaluated. The specimens were sliced into 3-mm blocks from which one or more 4-{mu}m slides were taken and digitized to create whole-mounted serial sections. Gross tumor and microscopic disease were digitally contoured on each slide. Lines perpendicular to the gross tumor volume (GTV) edge were created at 0.05-mm intervals and the distance between GTV and MD measured. Results: Of 88 slides assessed, 44 (50%) had evidence of MD. Of the 63,809 perpendicular lines drawn along the GTV edges, 2320 (3.6%) encountered microscopic disease along their path. The majority of MD abutted the GTV, and only 26.7% was noncontiguous with the GTV edge. The maximum distance from the border was 7.8 mm. Ninety-nine percent of all MD was within 4.75 mm and 95% was within 3.95 mm of the GTV. Conclusion: In this study we were able to assess the distribution of MD more accurately than has been possible with routine pathologic techniques. The results indicate that when the GTV is correctly identified, there is very little MD to be found outside this volume. This has implications for the volume of tissue resected at surgery and the volume included in the clinical target volume in conformal radiotherapy planning.

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of a community coalition: a case study of environmental tobacco smoke reduction.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Mary E; Mueller, Keith J; Harrop, Dianne

    2003-01-01

    Community coalitions have become an increasingly popular means for addressing community health issues, yet evaluating their effectiveness and performance has presented formidable challenges. To meet the community's need for health program evaluation, public health nurses will need to become better prepared to deal with the complexities of evaluating coalitions and their multifaceted organizational structures. This article presents the methodology and conceptual framework, Targeting Outcomes of Programs (TOP), used to evaluate the performance and impact of a local community coalition. The case study offered here focuses on a tobacco-prevention coalition composed of 15 public and private agencies and their 121 activities. The TOP evaluation model provided the coalition with formative evaluation, needed to improve the coalition's on-going program delivery, and summative evaluation, needed for annual reviews of the coalition's effectiveness and impact in the community. The methodological approach and instrument presented here provide the public health nurse with a solid conceptual framework for approaching such a task.

  18. Evaluating clinical competence during nursing education: A comprehensive integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Lejonqvist, Gun-Britt; Eriksson, Katie; Meretoja, Riitta

    2016-04-01

    This paper explored concepts, definitions and theoretical perspectives evaluating clinical competence during nursing education. The questions were: (i) How is clinical competence evaluated? and (ii) What is evaluated? An integrative review of 19 original research articles from 2009 to 2013 was performed. Results showed that evaluation tools were used in 14, observations in 2 and reflecting writing in 3 studies. The students participated in all but one evaluation alone or together with peers, faculty members or preceptors. Three themes were found: (i) professional practice with a caring perspective; (ii) clinical skills and reflective practice; and (iii) cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills both with a nursing perspective. This review shows an emphasis on structured methods with a risk reducing nursing to tasks and skills why combinations with qualitative evaluations are recommended. A holistic view of competence dominated and in designing evaluations, explicit perspectives and operationalized definitions of clinical competence became evident.

  19. Histopathological features of equine superficial, nonhealing, corneal ulcers.

    PubMed

    Hempstead, Julie E; Clode, Alison B; Borst, Luke B; Gilger, Brian C

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate corneal changes associated with chronic, nonhealing, superficial, corneal ulcers in horses via common histopathological stains. Retrospective study. Twenty-four horses diagnosed with chronic, nonhealing, superficial, corneal ulceration. The medical records of horses evaluated at North Carolina State University's Veterinary Teaching Hospital (NCSU-VTH) from 2005 to 2011, diagnosed with a chronic, nonhealing, superficial, corneal ulcer and treated with superficial keratectomy (SK) were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were superficial corneal ulceration, no cellular infiltration via slit-lamp biomicroscopy, no microorganisms evident on corneal cytology, and acquisition of samples for aerobic bacterial and common fungal cultures. Corneal tissue samples were evaluated histopathologically for the presence or absence of a nonadherent epithelial 'lip', epithelial dysmaturity, intraepithelial inflammatory cells, an acellular hyaline zone in the anterior stroma, and stromal inflammatory cells, fibrosis and vascularization. In the majority of analyzed samples, epithelial cells adjacent to the ulcerated site showed nonadherence to the basement membrane and dysmaturity. Intraepithelial inflammatory cell infiltration was uncommon. Histopathological features of an anterior stromal hyaline zone, intrastromal inflammation, fibrosis and vascularization were variably present. The most consistent histopathological characteristics of equine chronic, nonhealing, superficial, corneal ulcers include epithelial nonadherence, epithelial dysmaturity and mild to moderate stromal inflammation; however, one set of histopathological characteristics does not definitively define this syndrome in horses. Additionally, the anterior stromal acellular hyaline zone commonly cited in canine spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects (SCCED) is not a consistent finding in equine corneas. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  20. The liver in heart failure: a biopsy and explant series of the histopathologic and laboratory findings with a particular focus on pre-cardiac transplant evaluation.

    PubMed

    Louie, Christine Y; Pham, Michael X; Daugherty, Tami J; Kambham, Neeraja; Higgins, John P T

    2015-07-01

    The pathologic liver changes in chronic heart failure have been characterized mostly based on autopsy series and include sinusoidal dilation and congestion progressing to pericellular fibrosis, bridging fibrosis, and ultimately to cardiac cirrhosis or sclerosis. Liver biopsies are commonly obtained as part of the work up before heart transplantation in patients with longstanding right heart failure, particularly if ascites, abnormal liver function tests or abnormal abdominal imaging are noted as part of the pre-transplant evaluation. In these cases, the liver biopsy findings may be used to further risk stratify patients for isolated heart or combined heart and liver transplantation. Thus, it is important to be able to correlate the histologic changes with post-transplant outcomes. We report the pathologic and clinical findings in liver explants from six patients who underwent combined heart-liver transplantation. We also report preoperative liver biopsy findings from 21 patients who underwent heart transplantation without simultaneous liver transplantation. We staged the changes related to chronic passive congestion as follows: stage 0-no fibrosis; stage I-pericellular fibrosis; stage II-bridging fibrosis; and stage III-regenerative nodules. Nineteen biopsies showed fibrosis with bridging fibrosis in 13 and regenerative nodules in 6. Fifteen patients were alive at 1 year post transplant. Only three patients had a post-operative course that was characterized by signs and symptoms of chronic liver disease. Pre-transplant liver biopsies from these patients all showed at least stage II fibrosis. These patients survived for 3, 6, and 10 months after cardiac transplant. The presence of bridging fibrosis was not significantly associated with post-operative survival (P=0.336) or post-operative liver failure (P=0.257). We conclude that patients with bridging fibrosis may still be considered viable candidates for isolated heart transplantation. Because the pattern of

  1. Base rates, multiple indicators, and comprehensive forensic evaluations: why sexualized behavior still counts in assessments of child sexual abuse allegations.

    PubMed

    Everson, Mark D; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the diagnostic value of sexualized behavior, including the claim that when population base rates for abuse are properly taken into account, the diagnostic value of sexualized behavior is insignificant. This article also identifies a best practice comprehensive evaluation model with a methodology that is effective in mitigating such concerns.

  2. A Comprehensive and Systematic Model of User Evaluation of Web Search Engines: II. An Evaluation by Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Louise T.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an application of a model of user evaluation of four major Web search engines (Alta Vista, Excite, Infoseek, and Lycos) by undergraduates. Evaluation was based on 16 performance measures representing five evaluation criteria-relevance, efficiency, utility, user satisfaction, and connectivity. Content analysis of verbal data identified a…

  3. A Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Principal Evaluation Systems: A Tool to Assist in the Development of Principal Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Matthew; Hansen, Ulcca Joshni; Wraight, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Across the country, states and districts are designing principal evaluation systems as a means of improving leadership, learning, and school performance. Principal evaluation systems hold potential for supporting leaders' learning and sense of accountability for instructional excellence and student performance. Principal evaluation is also an…

  4. 42 CFR 493.1219 - Condition: Histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Histopathology. 493.1219 Section 493....1219 Condition: Histopathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Histopathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, § 493.1273...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1219 - Condition: Histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Histopathology. 493.1219 Section 493....1219 Condition: Histopathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Histopathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, § 493.1273...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1219 - Condition: Histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Histopathology. 493.1219 Section 493....1219 Condition: Histopathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Histopathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, § 493.1273...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1219 - Condition: Histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Histopathology. 493.1219 Section 493....1219 Condition: Histopathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Histopathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, § 493.1273...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1219 - Condition: Histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Histopathology. 493.1219 Section 493....1219 Condition: Histopathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Histopathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, § 493.1273...

  9. Histopathologic variation between liver lobes in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kemp, S D; Zimmerman, K L; Panciera, D L; Monroe, W E; Leib, M S

    2015-01-01

    Biopsy of the liver evaluates a small portion of tissue, with inferences made to the entire organ. The method and number of biopsies obtained are tempered by consideration of the risks and benefits. Recommendations often include biopsy of more than one liver lobe, although the consistency of histopathology among lobes in dogs is unknown. To describe the distribution of histopathologic abnormalities between liver lobes. We hypothesized that discordant results would be evenly distributed among all liver lobes. Seventy dogs undergoing necropsy. Prospective study. Liver samples were obtained from all lobes. A primary diagnosis was assigned to each liver sample based on the predominant histopathologic abnormality. In this population of dogs, biopsy of at least 2 liver lobes identified the predominant histologic abnormality in 98.6% of the cases. Ten (14%) of the dogs had ≤ 3 lobes in agreement and could not be assigned a predominant diagnosis. The same diagnosis was present in 6/6 lobes in 39 (56.5%) dogs, 5/6 lobes in 10 (14.5%) dogs, 4/6 lobes in 10 (14.5%) dogs, 3/6 lobes in 7 (10.1%) dogs, and 2/6 in 3 (4.3%) dogs. The number of discordant results did not differ between the liver lobes. The likelihood of obtaining a sample that is reflective of the predominant histologic abnormality in the liver is increased when multiple liver lobes are biopsied. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. From Implementation to Outcomes to Impacts: Designing a Comprehensive Program Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebby, S.

    2015-12-01

    Funders are often interested in learning about the impact of program activities, yet before the impacts are determined, educational evaluations should first examine program implementation and outcomes. Implementation evaluation examines how and the extent to which program activities are delivered as intended, including the extent to which activities reached the targeted participants. Outcome evaluation is comprised of a systematic examination of the effects that a program has on program participants, such as changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors. In this presentation, presenters will share insights on evaluating the implementation, outcomes, and impacts associated with an online science curriculum for K-2 students. The science curriculum was designed to provide students with access to science concepts and skills in an interactive and innovative environment, and teachers with embedded, aligned, and on-demand professional development. One of the most important—and challenging—steps in this evaluation was to select outcomes that were well-defined, measurable, and aligned to program activities, as well as relevant to program stakeholders. An additional challenge was to measure implementation given limited access to the classroom environment. This presentation will include a discussion of the process evaluators used to select appropriate implementation indicators and outcomes (teacher and student), design an evaluation approach, and craft data collection instruments. Although examples provided are specific to the K-2 science intervention, the best practices discussed are pertinent to all program and event evaluations. Impact evaluation goes beyond implementation and outcome evaluation to inform whether a program is working or not. It requires a comparison group to inform what outcomes would have been in the absence of the intervention. As such, this presentation will also include a discussion of impacts, including how impacts are defined

  11. A Comprehensive Model for Developing and Evaluating Study Abroad Programs in Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Syntia Dinora

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a model to guide the process of designing and evaluating study abroad programs, addressing particular stages and influential factors. The main purpose of the model is to serve as a basic structure for those who want to develop their own program or evaluate previous cultural immersion experiences. The model is based on the…

  12. Chronic toxicity of nonylphenol and ethinylestradiol: haematological and histopathological effects in juvenile Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, J; Spieser, O H; Bauer, C; Ferling, H; Mallow, U; Kalbfus, W; Negele, R D

    2000-11-01

    In recent ecotoxicological research, there is an increasing concern about alkylphenolic industrial chemicals, such as nonylphenol (NP), because of their estrogenic properties. Data on the general fish toxicity of these wide spread aquatic pollutants are scarce. In order to evaluate sublethal toxic effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, juvenile Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to NP concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 microg NP/l over a 70-day period. Classical toxicological endpoints, such as various haematological parameters and histopathological alterations were investigated. In a comprehensive protocol, besides NP-induced effects also alterations due to a treatment with the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2) were evaluated. After both the NP-exposure as well as the EE2-treatment, the predominant haematological finding was a severe anaemia. Histopathological alterations in the kidney, the liver and the spleen occurred exclusively after treatment with EE2, whereas NP-exposed fish did not show any tissue lesions. Depending on the haematological parameter examined, a NOEC between 1 and 5 microg NP/l could be established. From the present findings, it is assumed, that under field conditions, the NP-induced, general toxic effects, might outbalance the relatively weak estrogenic effects of this compound and possibly might disturb ecologically relevant processes such as fish reproduction.

  13. Effects of 17 beta-estradiol exposure on Xenopus laevis gonadal histopathology.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jeffrey C; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner; Springer, Timothy A; Holden, Larry R; Krueger, Henry O; Hosmer, Alan J

    2010-05-01

    The natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol (E2) is a potential environmental contaminant commonly employed as a positive control substance in bioassays involving estrogenic effects. The aquatic anuran Xenopus laevis is a frequent subject of reproductive endocrine disruptor research; however, histopathological investigations have tended to be less than comprehensive. Consequently, a study was designed to characterize gross and microscopic changes in the gonads of X. laevis as a result of E2 exposure. Additional goals of this study, which consisted of three separate experiments, included the standardization of diagnostic terminology and criteria, the validation of statistical methodology, and the establishment of a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) for E2 as defined by an approximately 50% conversion of presumptive genotypic males to phenotypic females. In the first experiment, frogs were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 0.2, 1.5, or 6.0 microg/L E2. From these experimental results and those of a subsequent range finding trial, the EC50 for E2 was determined to be approximately 0.2 microg/L. This E2 concentration was utilized in the other two experiments, which were performed at different facilities to confirm the reproducibility of results. Experiments were conducted according to Good Laboratory Practice guidelines, and the histopathologic evaluations were peer reviewed by an independent pathologist. Among the three trials, the histopathological findings that were strongly associated with E2-exposure (p<0.001 to 0.0001) included an increase in the proportion of phenotypic females, mixed sex, dilated testis tubules, dividing gonocytes in the testis, and dilated ovarian cavities in phenotypic ovaries. A comparison of the gross and microscopic evaluations suggested that some morphologic changes in the gonads may potentially be missed if studies rely entirely on macroscopic assessment.

  14. Evaluation of a comprehensive AIDS education curriculum in Hungary – the role of good educators1

    PubMed Central

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Molnár, Andrea; Morse, Dale L.; DeHovitz, Jack; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Számadó, Szabolcs

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate a school-based AIDS education programme in Eastern Europe. Four evaluation segments were undertaken: process and outcome evaluations of the training of AIDS educators and of the educational activities for students. While most AIDS education curricula focus on the content of the education, our findings demonstrate that other aspects — including the characteristics of those educators who appear to be most effective, the way in which education is affected by teachers’ attitudes, and the cultural implications of transferring programmes from one country to another – also need to be considered, especially in international environments. PMID:12234556

  15. Design and rationale of the comprehensive evaluation of risk factors in older patients with AMI (SILVER-AMI) study.

    PubMed

    Dodson, John A; Geda, Mary; Krumholz, Harlan M; Lorenze, Nancy; Murphy, Terrence E; Allore, Heather G; Charpentier, Peter; Tsang, Sui W; Acampora, Denise; Tinetti, Mary E; Gill, Thomas M; Chaudhry, Sarwat I

    2014-11-05

    While older adults (age 75 and over) represent a large and growing proportion of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), they have traditionally been under-represented in cardiovascular studies. Although chronological age confers an increased risk for adverse outcomes, our current understanding of the heterogeneity of this risk is limited. The Comprehensive Evaluation of Risk Factors in Older Patients with AMI (SILVER-AMI) study was designed to address this gap in knowledge by evaluating risk factors (including geriatric impairments, such as muscle weakness and cognitive impairments) for hospital readmission, mortality, and health status decline among older adults hospitalized for AMI. SILVER-AMI is a prospective cohort study that is enrolling 3000 older adults hospitalized for AMI from a recruitment network of approximately 70 community and academic hospitals across the United States. Participants undergo a comprehensive in-hospital assessment that includes clinical characteristics, geriatric impairments, and health status measures. Detailed medical record abstraction complements the assessment with diagnostic study results, in-hospital procedures, and medications. Participants are subsequently followed for six months to determine hospital readmission, mortality, and health status decline. Multivariable regression will be used to develop risk models for these three outcomes. SILVER-AMI will fill critical gaps in our understanding of AMI in older patients. By incorporating geriatric impairments into our understanding of post-AMI outcomes, we aim to create a more personalized assessment of risk and identify potential targets for interventions. NCT01755052 .

  16. The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Second Year Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    This report discusses the progress of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) evaluation and presents a brief summary of the main findings of the seven distinct topical reports that have been completed for 2007-08--the second year of the evaluation. Those seven specialized reports build on the five reports that were released in 2008 and are:…

  17. The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Baseline Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program and the author's plan for evaluating it over a five year period. It also presents a brief summary of the main findings of the four distinct topical reports that the author and his colleagues have completed for 2006-07--the baseline year of the evaluation. Those four…

  18. Forging a Strategic and Comprehensive Approach to Evaluation within Public and Nonprofit Organizations: Integrating Measurement and Analytics within Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomer, Kathryn; Brass, Clinton T.

    2016-01-01

    The "performance movement" has been a subject of enthusiasm and frustration for evaluators. Performance measurement, data analytics, and program evaluation have been treated as different tasks, and those addressing them speak their own languages in their own circles. We suggest that situating performance measurement and data analytics…

  19. Forging a Strategic and Comprehensive Approach to Evaluation within Public and Nonprofit Organizations: Integrating Measurement and Analytics within Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomer, Kathryn; Brass, Clinton T.

    2016-01-01

    The "performance movement" has been a subject of enthusiasm and frustration for evaluators. Performance measurement, data analytics, and program evaluation have been treated as different tasks, and those addressing them speak their own languages in their own circles. We suggest that situating performance measurement and data analytics…

  20. Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA level 1 and level 2-cognitive evaluation preparation and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Maholtz, Danielle E; Erickson, Michael J; Cymet, Tyler

    2015-04-01

    The Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA (COMLEX-USA) assesses the competence of osteopathic physicians in training. It is designed to protect the public by setting minimum competence standards. All osteopathic medical students must pass COMLEX-USA Level 1, Level 2-Cognitive Evaluation, and Level 2-Performance Evaluation before being allowed to graduate from an osteopathic medical school. Residency training programs use COMLEX-USA scores as a major factor in deciding whom they will interview and admit into their programs. In addition, colleges of osteopathic medicine use student COMLEX-USA scores as an external assessment of their success in educating students. Because COMLEX-USA is a high-stakes examination series, it is important to understand predictive factors for performance. The authors review the literature on the relationship between COMLEX-USA scores and correlated student variables. Results from the Council on Osteopathic Student Government Presidents' survey on students' preparation methods and performance are also provided.

  1. Cutaneous calciphylaxis: a retrospective histopathologic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mochel, Mark C; Arakaki, Ryan Y; Wang, Guilin; Kroshinsky, Daniela; Hoang, Mai P

    2013-07-01

    Calciphylaxis is a rare and life-threatening disease characterized by cutaneous necrosis and vascular calcification. Often, skin biopsy specimens are not diagnostic because of the limited depth of the specimen, biopsy site, and clinical stage. To better understand the utility of various histologic features in rendering the diagnosis of calciphylaxis and to compare von Kossa versus Alizarin red stains in the detection of calcium deposits, we retrospectively analyzed the histologic features and histochemical stain findings of 56 skin biopsies from 27 consecutive patients seen at Massachusetts General Hospital from October 2002 to April 2012, with confirmed diagnosis of calciphylaxis and compared with that of 19 skin biopsies from 17 patients with other disease processes. All forms of vascular calcification and vascular thrombosis were significantly associated with cutaneous calciphylaxis. Perieccrine calcium deposition, highly specific to calciphylaxis, was the only form of calcium deposition noted in 4 (7%) skin biopsies from patients with calciphylaxis. Although the staining appears to be comparable, the deposits seen on Alizarin red appeared larger and were birefringent. Although subtle, perieccrine calcification may aid in the diagnosis of calciphylaxis in settings where typical vascular and extravascular calcification are not identified. Performing both von Kossa and Alizarin red stains might increase the detection of calcium deposit.

  2. Comprehensive RNA-Seq profiling to evaluate lactating sheep mammary gland transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Vega, Aroa; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Klopp, Christophe; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Arranz, Juan-José

    2016-07-05

    RNA-Seq enables the generation of extensive transcriptome information providing the capability to characterize transcripts (including alternative isoforms and polymorphism), to quantify expression and to identify differential regulation in a single experiment. Our aim in this study was to take advantage of using RNA-Seq high-throughput technology to provide a comprehensive transcriptome profiling of the sheep lactating mammary gland. Eight ewes of two dairy sheep breeds with differences in milk production traits were used in this experiment (four Churra and four Assaf ewes). Milk samples from these animals were collected on days 10, 50, 120 and 150 after lambing to cover the various physiological stages of the mammary gland across the complete lactation. RNA samples were extracted from milk somatic cells. The RNA-Seq dataset was generated using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer. The information reported here will be useful to understand the biology of lactation in sheep, providing also an opportunity to characterize their different patterns on milk production aptitude.

  3. Comprehensive RNA-Seq profiling to evaluate lactating sheep mammary gland transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Vega, Aroa; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Klopp, Christophe; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Arranz, Juan-José

    2016-01-01

    RNA-Seq enables the generation of extensive transcriptome information providing the capability to characterize transcripts (including alternative isoforms and polymorphism), to quantify expression and to identify differential regulation in a single experiment. Our aim in this study was to take advantage of using RNA-Seq high-throughput technology to provide a comprehensive transcriptome profiling of the sheep lactating mammary gland. Eight ewes of two dairy sheep breeds with differences in milk production traits were used in this experiment (four Churra and four Assaf ewes). Milk samples from these animals were collected on days 10, 50, 120 and 150 after lambing to cover the various physiological stages of the mammary gland across the complete lactation. RNA samples were extracted from milk somatic cells. The RNA-Seq dataset was generated using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer. The information reported here will be useful to understand the biology of lactation in sheep, providing also an opportunity to characterize their different patterns on milk production aptitude. PMID:27377755

  4. Evaluation of the comprehensiveness and reliability of the chromium composition of foods in the literature ☆

    PubMed Central

    Thor, Mayly Y.; Harnack, Lisa; King, Denise; Jasthi, Bhaskarani; Pettit, Janet

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1960s, trivalent chromium Cr3+ became recognized as an essential trace element due to its potential metabolic and cardiovascular benefits. No comprehensive chromium database currently exists; thus a thorough review of the literature was conducted to examine the availability and reliability of chromium data for foods. A number of key issues were identified that challenge the feasibility of adding chromium to a food and nutrient database. Foremost, dietary chromium data reported in the literature prior to 1980 cannot be relied on because of problematic analytical issues before that time. Next, paucity of data emerged as an issue that could impede database completeness. Finally, large variation in reported chromium content of foods may render disputable representative chromium values. This variation has been speculated to originate from differences in growing and particularly processing foods. Furthermore, contamination of chromium from laboratory equipment and/or materials is possible and also believed to contribute to the variation observed in reported values. As a result, database developers must carefully consider the availability and reliability of information on the chromium composition of foods when deciding whether to incorporate chromium into or exclude it from a nutrient database. PMID:23066174

  5. Developing a comprehensive database management system for organization and evaluation of mammography datasets.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yirong; Rubin, Daniel L; Woods, Ryan W; Elezaby, Mai; Burnside, Elizabeth S

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to design and develop a comprehensive mammography database system (CMDB) to collect clinical datasets for outcome assessment and development of decision support tools. A Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant CMDB was created to store multi-relational datasets of demographic risk factors and mammogram results using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. The CMDB collected both biopsy pathology outcomes, in a breast pathology lexicon compiled by extending BI-RADS, and our institutional breast cancer registry. The audit results derived from the CMDB were in accordance with Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) audits and national benchmarks. The CMDB has managed the challenges of multi-level organization demanded by the complexity of mammography practice and lexicon development in pathology. We foresee that the CMDB will be useful for efficient quality assurance audits and development of decision support tools to improve breast cancer diagnosis. Our procedure of developing the CMDB provides a framework to build a detailed data repository for breast imaging quality control and research, which has the potential to augment existing resources.

  6. Developing a Comprehensive Database Management System for Organization and Evaluation of Mammography Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yirong; Rubin, Daniel L; Woods, Ryan W; Elezaby, Mai; Burnside, Elizabeth S

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to design and develop a comprehensive mammography database system (CMDB) to collect clinical datasets for outcome assessment and development of decision support tools. A Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant CMDB was created to store multi-relational datasets of demographic risk factors and mammogram results using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. The CMDB collected both biopsy pathology outcomes, in a breast pathology lexicon compiled by extending BI-RADS, and our institutional breast cancer registry. The audit results derived from the CMDB were in accordance with Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) audits and national benchmarks. The CMDB has managed the challenges of multi-level organization demanded by the complexity of mammography practice and lexicon development in pathology. We foresee that the CMDB will be useful for efficient quality assurance audits and development of decision support tools to improve breast cancer diagnosis. Our procedure of developing the CMDB provides a framework to build a detailed data repository for breast imaging quality control and research, which has the potential to augment existing resources. PMID:25368510

  7. PROPER: comprehensive power evaluation for differential expression using RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Chi; Wu, Zhijin

    2015-01-15

    RNA-seq has become a routine technique in differential expression (DE) identification. Scientists face a number of experimental design decisions, including the sample size. The power for detecting differential expression is affected by several factors, including the fraction of DE genes, distribution of the magnitude of DE, distribution of gene expression level, sequencing coverage and the choice of type I error control. The complexity and flexibility of RNA-seq experiments, the high-throughput nature of transcriptome-wide expression measurements and the unique characteristics of RNA-seq data make the power assessment particularly challenging. We propose prospective power assessment instead of a direct sample size calculation by making assumptions on all of these factors. Our power assessment tool includes two components: (i) a semi-parametric simulation that generates data based on actual RNA-seq experiments with flexible choices on baseline expressions, biological variations and patterns of DE; and (ii) a power assessment component that provides a comprehensive view of power. We introduce the concepts of stratified power and false discovery cost, and demonstrate the usefulness of our method in experimental design (such as sample size and sequencing depth), as well as analysis plan (gene filtering). The proposed method is implemented in a freely available R software package PROPER. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Evaluation of a Social Marketing Campaign to Support Mexico City's Comprehensive Smoke-Free Law

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liling; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Alday, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to assess the level of awareness and impact of a social marketing campaign to promote Mexico City's 2008 comprehensive smoke-free law. Methods. Four months after the smoke-free law was implemented but before the campaign launch, we collected data from a population-based, random sample of 961 inhabitants of Mexico City. We analyzed data from 786 respondents who completed follow-up at the end of the campaign to determine campaign exposure and the association between campaign exposure and changes in campaign-targeted knowledge and attitudes. Results. Recall of any of the 5 campaign materials was 69%, with a uniform distribution of exposure to 1, 2, and 3 or more campaign materials (25%, 25%, and 19%, respectively). Exposure to a greater number of campaign materials was associated in a monotonic relation with campaign-targeted knowledge of ammonia and arsenic in cigarette smoke. In models assessing support for, perceived benefits of, and perceived right to smoke-free places, campaign exposure accounted for a positive change in half of the indicators within each of these domains. Conclusions. Social marketing campaigns can reinforce knowledge and attitudes that favor smoke-free laws, thereby helping to establish smoke-free norms. PMID:21164097

  9. A comprehensive method for evaluating precision of transfer alignment on a moving base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hongliang; Xu, Bo; Liu, Dezheng

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we propose the use of the Degree of Alignment (DOA) in engineering applications for evaluating the precision of and identifying the transfer alignment on a moving base. First, we derive the statistical formula on the basis of estimations. Next, we design a scheme for evaluating the transfer alignment on a moving base, for which the attitude error cannot be directly measured. Then, we build a mathematic estimation model and discuss Fixed Point Smoothing (FPS), Returns to Scale (RTS), Inverted Sequence Recursive Estimation (ISRE), and Kalman filter estimation methods, which can be used when evaluating alignment accuracy. Our theoretical calculations and simulated analyses show that the DOA reflects not only the alignment time and accuracy but also differences in the maneuver schemes, and is suitable for use as an integrated evaluation index. Furthermore, all four of these algorithms can be used to identify the transfer alignment and evaluate its accuracy. We recommend RTS in particular for engineering applications. Generalized DOAs should be calculated according to the tactical requirements.

  10. Surveillance strategies for Classical Swine Fever in wild boar – a comprehensive evaluation study to ensure powerful surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Katja; Peyre, Marisa; Staubach, Christoph; Schauer, Birgit; Schulz, Jana; Calba, Clémentine; Häsler, Barbara; Conraths, Franz J.

    2017-01-01

    Surveillance of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) should not only focus on livestock, but must also include wild boar. To prevent disease transmission into commercial pig herds, it is therefore vital to have knowledge about the disease status in wild boar. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of alternative surveillance strategies for Classical Swine Fever (CSF) in wild boar and compared them with the currently implemented conventional approach. The evaluation protocol was designed using the EVA tool, a decision support tool to help in the development of an economic and epidemiological evaluation protocol for surveillance. To evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance strategies, we investigated their sensitivity and timeliness. Acceptability was analysed and finally, the cost-effectiveness of the surveillance strategies was determined. We developed 69 surveillance strategies for comparative evaluation between the existing approach and the novel proposed strategies. Sampling only within sub-adults resulted in a better acceptability and timeliness than the currently implemented strategy. Strategies that were completely based on passive surveillance performance did not achieve the desired detection probability of 95%. In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that risk-based approaches can be an option to design more effective CSF surveillance strategies in wild boar. PMID:28266576

  11. Surveillance strategies for Classical Swine Fever in wild boar - a comprehensive evaluation study to ensure powerful surveillance.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Katja; Peyre, Marisa; Staubach, Christoph; Schauer, Birgit; Schulz, Jana; Calba, Clémentine; Häsler, Barbara; Conraths, Franz J

    2017-03-07

    Surveillance of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) should not only focus on livestock, but must also include wild boar. To prevent disease transmission into commercial pig herds, it is therefore vital to have knowledge about the disease status in wild boar. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of alternative surveillance strategies for Classical Swine Fever (CSF) in wild boar and compared them with the currently implemented conventional approach. The evaluation protocol was designed using the EVA tool, a decision support tool to help in the development of an economic and epidemiological evaluation protocol for surveillance. To evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance strategies, we investigated their sensitivity and timeliness. Acceptability was analysed and finally, the cost-effectiveness of the surveillance strategies was determined. We developed 69 surveillance strategies for comparative evaluation between the existing approach and the novel proposed strategies. Sampling only within sub-adults resulted in a better acceptability and timeliness than the currently implemented strategy. Strategies that were completely based on passive surveillance performance did not achieve the desired detection probability of 95%. In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that risk-based approaches can be an option to design more effective CSF surveillance strategies in wild boar.

  12. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Rural Information Poverty in China - - Case Study of Hebei Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guizhen; Wang, Shuanjun; Li, Yaqing; Wang, Huijun

    Information poverty is a new form of poverty in information society. With the growing information-gap between urban and rural areas, information poverty is prevailing in the vast rural areas in China. It is largely restricted the new rural construction and the social harmonious development of villages and towns and must be resolved. The evaluation of rural information poverty is the premise to resolve it. In order to estimate the problem, index system of rural informatization evaluation of Hebei province was designed by means of Delphi. Then, according to the survey of farmers' information demand, AHP and FCE were used to estimate rural information poverty of Hebei province. The purpose of this study is to provide a new operational approach in evaluating or solving rural information poverty and constructing rural informatization in China.

  13. Comprehensive Framework for Evaluating e-Learning Systems: Using BSC Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momeni, Mansor; Jamporazmey, Mona; Mehrafrouz, Mohsen; Bahadori, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    The development of information and communication technology (ICT) is changing the way in which people work, communicate and learn. Recently developing and implementing e-learning solutions have increased dramatically. According to heavily investing in this area, it is essential to evaluate its different aspects and understand measures, which…

  14. Comprehensive Framework for Evaluating e-Learning Systems: Using BSC Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momeni, Mansor; Jamporazmey, Mona; Mehrafrouz, Mohsen; Bahadori, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    The development of information and communication technology (ICT) is changing the way in which people work, communicate and learn. Recently developing and implementing e-learning solutions have increased dramatically. According to heavily investing in this area, it is essential to evaluate its different aspects and understand measures, which…

  15. Comprehensive High School Bilingual Program. ESEA Title VII. Final Evaluation Report, 1979-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Evaluation.

    This is an evaluation report of a Title VII Bilingual Program conducted at five New York City High Schools in 1979-80. The report contains a program description and information on the schools' demographic context and student characteristics. Instructional components of the program discussed include: (1) student placement, programming, and…

  16. Comprehensive Evaluation Criteria for English Learning Websites Using Expert Validity Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Chan, Chia-Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a set of evaluation criteria for English learning websites. These criteria can assist English teachers/web designers in designing effective websites for their English courses and can also guide English learners in screening for appropriate and reliable websites to use in increasing their English ability. To fulfill our…

  17. Assessing Scientific Reasoning: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Item Features That Affect Item Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiller, Jurik; Hartmann, Stefan; Mathesius, Sabrina; Straube, Philipp; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Nordmeier, Volkhard; Krüger, Dirk; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the criterion-related test score interpretation of a text-based assessment of scientific reasoning competencies in higher education by evaluating factors which systematically affect item difficulty. To provide evidence about the specific demands which test items of various difficulty make on pre-service…

  18. Assessing Scientific Reasoning: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Item Features That Affect Item Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiller, Jurik; Hartmann, Stefan; Mathesius, Sabrina; Straube, Philipp; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Nordmeier, Volkhard; Krüger, Dirk; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the criterion-related test score interpretation of a text-based assessment of scientific reasoning competencies in higher education by evaluating factors which systematically affect item difficulty. To provide evidence about the specific demands which test items of various difficulty make on pre-service…

  19. Neurological evaluation of the selection stage of metaphor comprehension in individuals with and without autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, Brea; Volden, Joanne; Cribben, Ivor; Cummine, Jacqueline

    2017-10-11

    Because of their difficulties with figurative language in conversation, it is commonly thought that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not understand figurative meaning. However, recent research indicates that individuals with and without ASD are similar in the first two stages of metaphor comprehension, up to and including successful generation of the figurative meaning. In the current study, we used a sentence decision task to evaluate the subsequent stage of metaphor comprehension, the selection stage, which requires suppression/inhibition of the unintended meaning as part of selecting the intended meaning. fMRI activation and functional connectivity were used to compare the selection stage of metaphor comprehension between high-functioning individuals with ASD and carefully matched controls. Cortical and subcortical regions of interest were selected based on the basal-ganglia model of cognitive control. Compared to controls, individuals with ASD recruited greater activation in regions related to verbal memory (thalamus), semantic associations (medial temporal gyrus), and basic visual processing (middle occipital gyrus). Functional connectivity analysis revealed fewer overall connections and cortical-subcortical connections in the ASD group compared to controls. There was a novel finding of maintenance of subcortical-subcortical connectivity in the ASD group, specific to the selection condition, despite differences in cortically involved connections. Reduced cortical-subcortical connectivity in the ASD group compared to controls may reflect a more global impairment in cognitive control pathways, while consistent subcortical-subcortical connectivity may reflect systemic inflexibility or preserved subcortical function and dissociation between subcortical and cortical systems. Further investigation is required. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hanford Site storm water comprehensive site compliance evaluation report for the reporting period July 1, 1996 through June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, C.J.

    1997-09-18

    On September 9, 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued General Permit No. WA-R-00-OOOF, Authorization to Discharge Under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity to the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). RL submitted a Notice of Intent to comply with this permit to EPA in conformance with the General Permit requirements on October 1, 1992. On February 14, 1994, EPA issued a Storm Water General Permit Coverage Notice and assigned WA-R-00-Al7F as the Hanford Site`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) storm water permit number. The Hanford Site Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) (WHC 1996a) was certified by J. E Rasmussen, Director Environmental Assurance, RL, on September 24, 1996, in compliance with Part IV.B(i) of the General Permit. As required by General Permit No. WA-R-00-OOOF (WA-R-00-Al7F), Section IV, Part D, Section 4.c, an annual report must be developed by RL and retained on site to verify that the requirements listed in the General Permit are being implemented. The previous Hanford Site Storm Plater Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation Report (WHC 1996b) addressed the period from July 1995 through June 1996. This document fulfills the requirement to prepare an annual report and contains the results of inspections of the storm water outfalls listed in the SWPPP (WHC 1996a). This report also describes the methods used to conduct the 1100 Storm Plater Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation (SWCSCE) as required in Part IV, Section D.4.c in the General Permit; summarizes the results of the compliance evaluation; and documents significant leaks and spills. The reporting year for this SWCSCE report is July 1, 1996 through June 30, 1997.

  1. Recent developments and comprehensive evaluations of a GPU-based Monte Carlo package for proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Qin, Nan; Botas, Pablo; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Schuemann, Jan; Tian, Zhen; Jiang, Steve B; Paganetti, Harald; Jia, Xun

    2016-10-03

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is commonly considered as the most accurate dose calculation method for proton therapy. Aiming at achieving fast MC dose calculations for clinical applications, we have previously developed a graphics-processing unit (GPU)-based MC tool, gPMC. In this paper, we report our recent updates on gPMC in terms of its accuracy, portability, and functionality, as well as comprehensive tests on this tool. The new version, gPMC v2.0, was developed under the OpenCL environment to enable portability across different computational platforms. Physics models of nuclear interactions were refined to improve calculation accuracy. Scoring functions of gPMC were expanded to enable tallying particle fluence, dose deposited by different particle types, and dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LETd). A multiple counter approach was employed to improve efficiency by reducing the frequency of memory writing conflict at scoring. For dose calculation, accuracy improvements over gPMC v1.0 were observed in both water phantom cases and a patient case. For a prostate cancer case planned using high-energy proton beams, dose discrepancies in beam entrance and target region seen in gPMC v1.0 with respect to the gold standard tool for proton Monte Carlo simulations (TOPAS) results were substantially reduced and gamma test passing rate (1%/1 mm) was improved from 82.7%-93.1%. The average relative difference in LETd between gPMC and TOPAS was 1.7%. The average relative differences in the dose deposited by primary, secondary, and other heavier particles were within 2.3%, 0.4%, and 0.2%. Depending on source proton energy and phantom complexity, it took 8-17 s on an AMD Radeon R9 290x GPU to simulate [Formula: see text] source protons, achieving less than [Formula: see text] average statistical uncertainty. As the beam size was reduced from 10  ×  10 cm(2) to 1  ×  1 cm(2), the time on scoring was only increased by 4.8% with eight counters, in

  2. Recent developments and comprehensive evaluations of a GPU-based Monte Carlo package for proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Nan; Botas, Pablo; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Schuemann, Jan; Tian, Zhen; Jiang, Steve B.; Paganetti, Harald; Jia, Xun

    2016-10-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is commonly considered as the most accurate dose calculation method for proton therapy. Aiming at achieving fast MC dose calculations for clinical applications, we have previously developed a graphics-processing unit (GPU)-based MC tool, gPMC. In this paper, we report our recent updates on gPMC in terms of its accuracy, portability, and functionality, as well as comprehensive tests on this tool. The new version, gPMC v2.0, was developed under the OpenCL environment to enable portability across different computational platforms. Physics models of nuclear interactions were refined to improve calculation accuracy. Scoring functions of gPMC were expanded to enable tallying particle fluence, dose deposited by different particle types, and dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LETd). A multiple counter approach was employed to improve efficiency by reducing the frequency of memory writing conflict at scoring. For dose calculation, accuracy improvements over gPMC v1.0 were observed in both water phantom cases and a patient case. For a prostate cancer case planned using high-energy proton beams, dose discrepancies in beam entrance and target region seen in gPMC v1.0 with respect to the gold standard tool for proton Monte Carlo simulations (TOPAS) results were substantially reduced and gamma test passing rate (1%/1 mm) was improved from 82.7%-93.1%. The average relative difference in LETd between gPMC and TOPAS was 1.7%. The average relative differences in the dose deposited by primary, secondary, and other heavier particles were within 2.3%, 0.4%, and 0.2%. Depending on source proton energy and phantom complexity, it took 8-17 s on an AMD Radeon R9 290x GPU to simulate {{10}7} source protons, achieving less than 1% average statistical uncertainty. As the beam size was reduced from 10  ×  10 cm2 to 1  ×  1 cm2, the time on scoring was only increased by 4.8% with eight counters, in contrast to a 40% increase using only

  3. Evaluation for coastal reclamation feasibility using a comprehensive hydrodynamic framework: A case study in Haizhou Bay.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lan; He, Jia; Ai, Junyong; Sun, Xiang; Bian, Fangyuan; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2015-11-15

    Coastal reclamation (CR) is a prevailing approach to solve the contradiction between the land shortage and the growing demand of living space for human beings. In general, environmental impact assessment (EIA) focuses on evaluating the feasibility of individual coastal reclamation project (CRP). However, few studies have investigated the cumulative effect of multiple CRPs on surrounding environment. In this study, an integrated framework based on coastal hydrodynamics was established, and then applied to the feasibility evaluation of multiple CRPs for future coastal management in Haizhou Bay, China. The results indicated that three out of five reclamation projects were feasible and the remaining two were forbidden in the study area, whereas EIA approves of all the CRPs. It provides a scientific reference for effective management of coastal reclamation and future environmental impact researches when new CRPs are proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of a Virtual Citizen Science Facility: A Comprehensive Mixed-Methods Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracey, G.

    2014-07-01

    The CosmoQuest Virtual Citizen Science Facility allows the public to participate in scientific research, learning opportunities, and community activities. Evaluation efforts include an online survey of users' attitudes about and use of the CosmoQuest website and their motivations for participation. Pre/post-participation assessments examine learning of science content. Along with these quantitative assessments we seek a deeper level of understanding through qualitative methods. Formative and summative evaluations use semi-structured interviews and open-ended survey questions. Participant responses are analyzed using an iterative process of open coding, allowing patterns to emerge inductively from the data. Triangulation of data increases the validity of findings. This approach gives a more rigorous look at the motivations, behaviors, and learning of participants, and a more complete and in-depth understanding of project impact.

  5. Diverse approaches to the health economic evaluation of bariatric surgery: a comprehensive systematic review.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J A; Venn, A; Neil, A; Hensher, M; Sharman, M; Palmer, A J

    2016-09-01

    Health economic evaluations inform healthcare resource allocation decisions for treatment options for obesity including bariatric/metabolic surgery. As an important advance on existing systematic reviews, we aimed to capture, summarize and synthesize a diverse range of economic evaluations on bariatric surgery. Studies were identified by electronic screening of all major biomedical/economic databases. Studies included if they reported any quantified health economic cost and/or consequence with a measure of effect for any type of bariatric surgery from 1995 to September 2015. Study screening, data extraction and synthesis followed international guidelines for systematic reviews. Six thousand one hundred eighty-seven studies were initially identified. After two levels of screening, 77 studies representing 17 countries (56% USA) were included. Despite study heterogeneity, common themes emerged, and important gaps were identified. Most studies adopted the healthcare system/third-party payer perspective; reported costs were generally healthcare resource use (inpatient/shorter-term outpatient). Out-of-pocket costs to individuals, family members (travel time, caregiving) and indirect costs due to lost productivity were largely ignored. Costs due to reoperations/complications were not included in one-third of studies. Body-contouring surgery included in only 14%. One study evaluated long-term waitlisted patients. Surgery was cost-effective/cost-saving for severely obese with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Study quality was inconsistent. There is a need for studies that assume a broader societal perspective (including out-of-pocket costs, costs to family and productivity losses) and longer-term costs (capture reoperations/complications, waiting, body contouring), and consequences (health-related quality-of-life). Full economic evaluation underpinned by reporting standards should inform prioritization of patients (e.g. type 2 diabetes mellitus with body mass index 30 to 34.9

  6. Comprehensive presurgical functional MRI language evaluation in adult patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Holland, Scott K; Jacola, Lisa M; Lindsell, Christopher; Privitera, Michael D; Szaflarski, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has the potential to replace the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP) in presurgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy. In this study, we compared fMRI verb generation (VG) and semantic decision/tone decision (SDTD) tasks and the IAP in their ability to localize language functions in patients with epilepsy undergoing presurgical evaluation. We enrolled 50 healthy controls to establish normal language activation patterns for VG and SDTD tasks at 3 or 4 T, and to design language regions of interest (ROIs) that were later applied to 38 patients with epilepsy (28 of 38 also underwent the IAP). We calculated laterality indices (LIs) for each task for each subject based on the ROIs, and we used general linear modeling to analyze the fMRI data. All healthy and epileptic subjects activated language areas with both fMRI tasks. We found significant correlations in language lateralization between the fMRI tasks (r=0.495, P<0.001) and between VG and IAP (r=0.652, P<0.001) and SDTD and IAP (r=0.735, P<0.001). The differences in LIs between SDTD and VG tasks were small and not affected by age, gender, epilepsy status, handedness, or performance. SDTD and VG tasks combined explained approximately 58.4% in the variability of the IAP/language. In the general linear modeling, only the SDTD task significantly contributed to the determination of language lateralization in patients with epilepsy undergoing presurgical evaluation. Results indicate a moderate convergent validity between both fMRI language tasks and between IAP and fMRI tasks. The results of this study indicate that either of these fMRI tasks can be used for language lateralization in patients with epilepsy undergoing presurgical evaluation, but that the SDTD task is likely to provide more information regarding language lateralization than the VG task.

  7. [Comprehensive evaluation of palatability for commercial medicine by taste sensing system].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    The bitterness of 10 basic medicines was evaluated using a multichannel taste sensor (Intelligent Sensor Technology). Three variables were obtained from the taste sensor data: sensor output (S), the change of membrane potential caused by adsorption, corresponding to aftertaste (C), and the ratio C/S. These variables were used to predict an estimated bitterness score in multiple regression analysis. There was correlation between the bitterness score predicted by the taste sensor and the score obtained by human gustatory sensation. The method showed quantitative predictability for the evaluation of bitterness. Secondly, bitterness intensities of eight H1-antihistamines were assessed by comparing the Euclidean distances between the drug and water using taste sensing system Astree II (α-MOS). Two sensors were ultimately selected as best suited to bitterness evaluation, and the data obtained from the two sensors depicted the actual taste map of the eight drugs. Also the bitterness masking efficiency of epinastine hydrochloride with acesulfame potassium was successfully predicted. Finally, Vesicare(®) tablets, whose main component is solifenacin succinate, are known to be extremely bitter. Recently, Vesicare(®) orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs), which contain a salting-out taste-masking system, have appeared on the market. To evaluate the effect of crushing on the bitterness of the tablets, Vesicare(®) ODTs and conventional Vesicare(®) tablets (CTs) were crushed either heavily or lightly. The bitterness scores of sample solutions were predicted using taste sensor. The lightly crushed ODT was predicted to be less bitter than CT. When tablets must be crushed, it is strongly recommended that ODT be crushed gently.

  8. Comprehensive evaluation of the changing drought characteristics in Bundelkhand region of Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, T.; Jaiswal, R. K.; Nayak, P. C.; Ghosh, N. C.

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of meteorological and hydrological drought characteristics including the dry spell analysis for planning of supplemental irrigation has been carried out for Bearma basin in Bundelkhand region of Central India. The Bundelkhand region has been under a spell of recurrent droughts. In the last decade, widespread droughts were felt during 2002-2003 and 2007-2008. The drought frequency varies between 1 in 3 years in Rehli and Deori and 1 in 5 years in Hatta. Rehli and Deori blocks falling in Sagar district have been identified to be drought prone. The meteorological drought characteristics evaluated by standardized precipitation index (SPI) indicated that drought severity has increased greatly with the drought intensity varying between -1.22 in Deori and -0.97 in Rehli. The streamflow drought characteristics have been evaluated using streamflow drought index (SDI), whereas the groundwater drought characteristics evaluated by groundwater drought index (GDI). The maximum groundwater drought intensity is observed in Rehli (-0.44). Two critical dry spells (CDS) of 14-18 days invariably occur during the principal rainy months of July and August, for which provision of life-saving supplementary irrigation is essential for the rain-fed agriculture. A drought management plan (DMP) has been developed, based on basin relevant drought indicators and drought triggers, designed and fined tuned to actual drought conditions in the basin. Based on the supply and demand scenario during droughts, an appropriate drought response plan linked to prevailing drought levels has been developed, to effectively manage the scarce water resources during persistent drought scenario. Results of the study are quite promising and the concept of DMP can be replicated to other basins in the region taking into account the basin relevant indicators as necessary.

  9. Commissioning and comprehensive evaluation of the ArcCHECK cylindrical diode array for VMAT pretreatment delivery QA.

    PubMed

    Chaswal, Vibha; Weldon, Michael; Gupta, Nilendu; Chakravarti, Arnab; Rong, Yi

    2014-07-08

    We present commissioning and comprehensive evaluation for ArcCHECK as a QA equipment for volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), using the 6 MV photon beam with and without the flattening filter, and the SNC patient software (version 6.2). In addition to commissioning involving absolute dose calibration, array calibration, and PMMA density verification, ArcCHECK was evaluated for its response dependency on linac dose rate, instantaneous dose rate, radiation field size, beam angle, and couch insertion. Scatter dose characterization, consistency and symmetry of response, and dosimetry accuracy evaluation for fixed aperture arcs and clinical VMAT patient plans were also investigated. All the evaluation tests were performed with the central plug inserted and the homogeneous PMMA density value. Results of gamma analysis demonstrated an overall agreement between ArcCHECK-measured and TPS-calculated reference doses. The diode based field size dependency was found to be within 0.5% of the reference. The dose rate-based dependency was well within 1% of the TPS reference, and the angular dependency was found to be ± 3% of the reference, as tested for BEV angles, for both beams. Dosimetry of fixed arcs, using both narrow and wide field widths, resulted in clinically acceptable global gamma passing rates on the 3%/3mm level and 10% threshold. Dosimetry of narrow arcs showed an improvement over published literature. The clinical VMAT cases demonstrated high level of dosimetry accuracy in gamma passing rates.

  10. Evaluating school and parent reports of the national student achievement testing system (SIMCE) in Chile: access, comprehension, and use.

    PubMed

    Taut, Sandy; Cortés, Flavio; Sebastian, Christian; Preiss, David

    2009-05-01

    This evaluation examined school and parent reports of the national student achievement testing system (SIMCE) in Chile regarding three dimensions: access, comprehension, and use. We conducted phone surveys with a representative sample of directors (N=375), teachers (N=1145) and parents (N=625), and we collected more in-depth data through interviews and focus groups in 16 of these schools. The results indicate that access to the reports is not an obstacle to use for school actors, but it is for parents. While summative ratings of the reports in terms of their clarity and utility were generally very positive, the actual recall and interpretation of even basic information (assessed through case scenarios) was incorrect for a majority of teachers and parents, and reported uses of the information were both intended and unintended in nature. We also found some statistically significant differences regarding comprehension and use among subgroups of our sample. Our findings are especially relevant given the expectations attached to the use of the reports for school improvement on the one hand, and parents' behavior as critical consumers of education on the other hand.

  11. Comprehensive evaluation of ecological security in mining area based on PSR-ANP-GRAY.

    PubMed

    He, Gang; Yu, Baohua; Li, Shuzhou; Zhu, Yanna

    2017-09-06

    With the large exploitation of mineral resources, a series of problems have appeared in the ecological environment of the mining area. Therefore, evaluating the ecological security of mining area is of great significance to promote its healthy development. In this paper, the evaluation index system of ecological security in mining area was constructed from three dimensions of nature, society and economy, combined with Pressure-State-Response framework model. Then network analytic hierarchy process and GRAY relational analysis method were used to evaluate the ecological security of the region, and the weighted correlation degree of ecological security was calculated through the index data of a coal mine from 2012 to 2016 in China. The results show that the ecological security in the coal mine area is on the rise as a whole, though it alternatively rose and dropped from 2012 to 2016. Among them, the ecological security of the study mining area is at the general security level from 2012 to 2015, and at a relatively safe level in 2016. It shows that the ecological environment of the study mining area can basically meet the requirement of the survival and development of the enterprises.

  12. Preoperative evaluation and comprehensive risk assessment for children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lewanda, Amy Feldman; Matisoff, Andrew; Revenis, Mary; Harahsheh, Ashraf; Futterman, Craig; Nino, Gustavo; Greenberg, Jay; Myseros, John S; Rosenbaum, Kenneth N; Summar, Marshall

    2016-04-01

    Down syndrome is a common chromosome disorder affecting all body systems. This creates unique physiologic concerns that can affect safety during anesthesia and surgery. Little consensus exists, however, on the best way to evaluate children with Down syndrome in preparation for surgery. We review a number of salient topics affecting these children in the perioperative period, including cervical spine instability, cardiovascular abnormalities, pulmonary hypertension, upper airway obstruction, hematologic disturbances, prematurity, low birth weight, and the use of supplements and alternative therapies. Recommendations include obtaining a complete blood count to detect an increased risk for bleeding or stroke, and cardiology evaluation to identify patients with pulmonary hypertension, as well as undiagnosed or residual heart disease. Pediatric cardiac anesthesiologists and intensivists should be involved as needed. The potential for cervical spine instability should be considered, and the anesthesiologist may wish to have several options available both for the medications and equipment used. The child's family should always be asked if he or she is on any nutritional supplements, as some products marketed to families may have secondary effects such as inhibition of platelet function. Using this evaluation in presurgical planning will allow physicians to better consider the individual circumstances for their patients with Down syndrome. Our goal was to optimize patient safety by choosing the most appropriate setting and perioperative personnel, and to mitigate those risk factors amenable to intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Pathogenesis and histopathology of pertussis: implications for immunization.

    PubMed

    Cherry, James D; Paddock, Christopher D

    2014-09-01

    Pertussis is a unique infectious disease in that it can be severe and fatal but occurs without fever and other evidence of an inflammatory illness. The authors with others have studied the histopathology of fatal pertussis and also the unique characteristics of severe pertussis in young infants. Histopathologic observations from approximately 100 years ago, and from recent evaluation, indicate that the histopathologic changes of the upper respiratory tract of patients with fatal pertussis are often relatively normal unless there is a secondary bacterial infection. Bordetella pertussis contains many protein antigens and perhaps a polysaccharide capsule which contribute to the infectious process. However, only two of these antigens contribute to clinical illness. These antigens are pertussis toxin and the yet to be identified 'cough toxin'. The authors speculate as to the nature of the 'cough toxin' and discuss the implications of their observations and concepts for the future control of pertussis.

  14. Evaluating Early Childhood Educators: Prekindergarten through Third Grade. Supplement to the "Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Educator Evaluation Systems"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martella, Jana; Connors-Tadros, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood educators play a critical role in preparing students for success later in their school experience. The instructional techniques, emotional supports, and assessment approaches for early childhood settings are different from classroom settings in later grades. How can states and districts develop evaluation systems that are tuned to…

  15. Toward a More Comprehensive Approach to Evaluating Teaching Effectiveness: Supplementing Student Evaluations of Teaching with Pre-Post Learning Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Ahlering, Robert F.; Brill, Flannery M.

    2007-01-01

    The use of student evaluations of teaching (SETs) to assess teaching effectiveness remains controversial. Without clear guidelines regarding how to best document effective teaching, faculty members may wonder how to convincingly demonstrate teaching effectiveness in preparation for promotion and tenure review. Based on a study that examined the…

  16. Components of Critical Decision Making and ABSITE Assessment: Toward a More Comprehensive Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Satish; Satish, Usha; Foster, Tina; Streufert, Siegfried; Dewan, Mantosh; Krummel, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Accurate assessment of resident competency is a fundamental requisite to assure the training of physicians is adequate. In surgical disciplines, structured tests as well as ongoing evaluation by faculty are used for evaluating resident competency. Although structured tests evaluate content knowledge, faculty ratings are a better measure of how that knowledge is applied to real-world problems. In this study, we sought to explore the performance of surgical residents in a simulation exercise (strategic management simulations [SMS]) as an objective surrogate of real-world performance. Methods Forty surgical residents participated in the SMS simulation that entailed decision making in a real-world−oriented task situation. The task requirements enable the assessment of decision making along several parameters of thinking under both crisis and noncrisis situations. Performance attributes include “simpler” measures of competency (activity level), intermediate categories (information management and emergency responses) to complex measures (breadth of approach and strategy). Scores obtained in the SMS were compared with the scores obtained on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE). Results The data were intercorrelated and subjected to a multiple regression analysis with ABSITE as the dependent variable and simulation scores as independent variables. Using a 1-tail test analysis, only 3 simulation variables correlated with performance on ABSITE at the .01 level (ie, basic activity, focused activity, task orientation). Other simulation variables showed no meaningful relationships to ABSITE scores at all. Conclusions The more complex real-world−oriented decision-making parameters on SMS did not correlate with ABSITE scores. We believe that techniques such as the SMS, which focus on critical thinking, complement assessment of medical knowledge using ABSITE. The SMS technique provides an accurate measure of real-world performance and

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of attitude and orbit estimation using real earth magnetic field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack

    1997-01-01

    A single, augmented extended Kalman filter (EKF) which simultaneously and autonomously estimates spacecraft attitude and orbit was developed and tested with simulated and real magnetometer and rate data. Since the earth's magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is accurately known, the differences between the computed and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft's orbit, are a function of orbit and attitude errors. These differences can be used to estimate the orbit and attitude. The test results of the EKF with magnetometer and gyro data from three NASA satellites are presented and evaluated.

  18. Integration of healthcare and financial information: Evaluation in a public hospital using a comprehensive approach.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Pérez, Bernabé; Escobar-Rodríguez, Tomás; Bartual-Sopena, Lourdes

    2016-12-01

    Public healthcare organisations are moving towards the use of new technologies to automate and improve their internal processes in order to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their use of resources. The aim of this research is to tackle the systematic evaluation of an experience of integrating information in a healthcare organisation, paying attention to the implications that this entails. The results show that the integration of the information in the hospital results in higher levels of quality. This study contributes a vision of interrelated work, in which tasks are shared and aims are jointly established.

  19. A comprehensive evaluation of factors that influence the spin polarization of electrons emitted from bulk GaAs photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Poelker, Matt; Peng, Xincun; Zhang, Shukui; Stutzman, Marcy

    2017-07-01

    The degree of polarization of photoemitted electrons extracted from bulk unstrained GaAs photocathodes is usually considerably less than the theoretical maximum value of 50%, as a result of depolarization mechanisms that originate within the photocathode material and at the vacuum surface interface. This paper provides a comprehensive review of depolarization mechanisms and presents a systematic experimental evaluation of polarization sensitivities to temperature, dopant density, quantum efficiency, and crystal orientation. The highest measured polarization was ˜50%, consistent with the maximum theoretical value, obtained from a photocathode sample with relatively low dopant concentration and cooled to 77 K. In general, measurements indicate electron spin polarization can be enhanced at the expense of photoelectron yield (or quantum efficiency).

  20. A comprehensive evaluation of factors that influence the spin polarization of electrons emitted from bulk GaAs photocathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Wei; Poelker, Matt; Peng, Xincun; ...

    2017-07-19

    Here, the degree of polarization of photoemitted electrons extracted from bulk unstrained GaAs photocathodes is usually considerably less than the theoretical maximum value of 50%, as a result of depolarization mechanisms that originate within the photocathode material and at the vacuum surface interface. This paper provides a comprehensive review of depolarization mechanisms and presents a systematic experimental evaluation of polarization sensitivities to temperature, dopant density, quantum efficiency, and crystal orientation. The highest measured polarization was similar to 50%, consistent with the maximum theoretical value, obtained from a photocathode sample with relatively low dopant concentration and cooled to 77 K. Inmore » general, measurements indicate electron spin polarization can be enhanced at the expense of photoelectron yield (or quantum efficiency).« less