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Sample records for comprehensive primary particulate

  1. A comprehensive particulate matter monitoring system and dosimetry-based ambient particulate matter standards.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yousheng

    2006-04-01

    A numerical particulate matter (PM) measurement model is developed to characterize and evaluate PM sampling methods. Simulations are conducted using the model to evaluate currently widely used PM samplers, including Federal Reference Method (FRM) samplers. The simulations show that current PM samplers are very vulnerable to both changes in measurement target (i.e., natural variability of particle size distribution) and the sampler's design, manufacturing, and operating conditions, potentially resulting in significant errors in the monitoring data. The numerical model is used in conjunction with two types of commercially available PM monitoring devices to form a Comprehensive Particulate Matter Monitoring System (CPMMS). The first type of device can be any mass-based PM monitor with a well-defined sampling efficiency curve. The second type of device is one capable of measuring particle size distribution with a reasonably good relative accuracy between size categories but not necessarily accurate in measuring absolute mass concentrations. This study shows that CPMMS can produce much higher quality PM monitoring data than the current PM samplers under the same conditions. In addition, unlike past and current PM monitoring data such as total suspended particulates, coarse PM (PM10), fine PM (PM2.5), etc., the CPMMS monitoring data will survive changes in PM regulatory definition. A new concept, dosimetry-based PM metrics and standards, is proposed to define ambient PM level based on the deposition fraction of particles in the human respiratory tract. The dosimetry-based PM metrics is more meaningful because it correlates the ambient PM level with the portion that can be deposited in the respiratory tract without an arbitrary cutoff particle diameter. CPMMS makes dosimetry-based PM metrics and standards feasible.

  2. 76 FR 61103 - Medicare Program; Comprehensive Primary Care Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Comprehensive Primary Care... announces a solicitation for health care payer organizations to participate in the Comprehensive Primary Care initiative (CPC), a multipayer model designed to improve primary care. DATES: Letter of...

  3. Trends in primary particulate matter emissions from Canadian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pattey, Elizabeth; Qiu, Guowang

    2012-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) has long been recognized as an air pollutant due to its adverse health and environmental impacts. As emission of PM from agricultural operations is an emerging air quality issue, the Agricultural Particulate Matter Emissions Indicator (APMEI) has been developed to estimate the primary PM contribution to the atmosphere from agricultural operations on Census years and to assess the impact of practices adopted to mitigate these emissions at the soil landscape polygon scale as part of the agri-environmental indicator report series produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. In the APMEI, PM emissions from animal feeding operations, wind erosion, land preparation, crop harvest, fertilizer and chemical application, grain handling, and pollen were calculated and compared for the Census years of 1981-2006. In this study, we present the results for PM10 and PM2.5, which exclude chemical application and pollen sources as they only contribute to total suspended particles. In 2006, PM emissions from agricultural operations were estimated to be 652.6 kt for PM10 and 158.1 kt for PM2.5. PM emissions from wind erosion and land preparation account for most of PM emissions from agricultural operations in Canada, contributing 82% of PM10 and 76% of PM2.5 in 2006. Results from the APMEI show a strong reduction in PM emissions from agricultural operations between 1981 and 2006, with a decrease of 40% (442.8 kt) for PM10 and 47% (137.7 kt) for PM2.5. This emission reduction is mainly attributed to the adoption of conservation tillage and no-till practices and the reduction in the area of summer fallow land.

  4. Primary mucosal melanomas: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Mihajlovic, Marija; Vlajkovic, Slobodan; Jovanovic, Predrag; Stefanovic, Vladisav

    2012-01-01

    Primary mucosal melanomas arise from melanocytes located in mucosal membranes lining respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tract. Although a majority of mucosal melanomas originate from the mucosa of the nasal cavity and accessory sinuses, oral cavity, anorectum, vulva and vagina, they can arise in almost any part of mucosal membranes. Most of mucosal melanomas occur in occult sites, which together with the lack of early and specific signs contribute to late diagnosis, and poor prognosis. Because of their rareness the knowledge about their pathogenesis and risk factors is insufficient, and also there are not well established protocols for staging and treatment of mucosal melanomas. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, with trends toward more conservative treatment since radical surgery did not show an advantage for survival. Radiotherapy can provide better local control in some locations, but did not show improvement in survival. There is no effective systemic therapy for these aggressive tumors. Compared with cutaneous and ocular melanoma, mucosal melanomas have lowest percent of five-year survival. Recently revealed molecular changes underlying mucosal melanomas offer new hope for development of more effective systemic therapy for mucosal melanomas. Herein we presented a comprehensive review of various locations of primary melanoma along mucosal membranes, their epidemiological and clinical features, and treatment options. We also gave a short comparison of some characteristics of cutaneous and mucosal melanomas. PMID:23071856

  5. Spatially resolved intake fraction estimates for primary and secondary particulate matter in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamancusa, Carmen; Parvez, Fatema; Wagstrom, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    This study uses intake fraction, the fraction of emissions that are inhaled from a given source, to quantify how emissions from different regions proportionally contribute to human exposure to both primary and secondary particulate matter species. The intake fraction for secondary species is defined using the common atomic constituents between precursor species and products, allowing estimates to include both primary and secondary species. The Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) in the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) regional air quality model is used to calculate the intake fraction for twenty-five source regions throughout the contiguous United States over four seasons. The calculations use spatially explicit emissions and population density to more accurately capture the variation in intake fraction between regions. The spatially explicit emissions allow for the calculation of spatial trends and variations within the intake fraction. More specifically it allows for the calculation of the amount of intake that occurs within a given distance of the emissions source or source region. Based on the results sulfate inhalation occurs over larger distances than other particulate matter species. For most regions, a substantial fraction (>75%) of the inhalation occurs within 50 km for all seasons, demonstrating that efforts to reduce emissions will have the largest health impact on the local community. Furthermore the distance over which 75% of the inhalation occurs increases by 20% for all species during the winter and a larger percentage of pollutants emitted during the winter are inhaled relative to pollutants emitted during other seasons. This demonstrates that emission reductions during the winter will have a greater impact on health than reductions during other seasons.

  6. A New Priority: Comprehension Intervention in the Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in primary classrooms who are emphasizing high-level comprehension of complex texts are seeing young children hit comprehension thresholds that were previously only visible among older readers. However, most primary level reading interventions focus on word recognition skills or reading increasingly difficult leveled texts. This article…

  7. Diagnostic Air Quality Model Evaluation of Source-Specific Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004–February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate...

  8. Teaching primary health care: a comprehensive approach.

    PubMed

    Smith, R A; Mehra, S; Devereaux, M O; Rich, J

    1988-01-01

    The MEDEX Primary Health Care Series, an integrated training system for everyone in primary care (PHC), was published in 1983. It is now used in over 70 countries and has demonstrated its value in the developing world. The Series lays considerable emphasis on the crucial link between the performance of health workers and the management support with which they are provided. It was the result of 10 years of development and field testing. The Series is so widely employed because its development involved health centers and health workers associated in PHC programs in Guyana, Lesotho, Micronesia, Pakistan, and Thailand. It also addresses everyday problems and provides pragmatic solutions which PHC programs can apply. Attention is given to the development of skills in health workers, using a competency-based methodology, in contrast to the concentration on knowledge acquition found in more conventional training programs. Training activities are detailed for as little as 15 minutes at a time in courses lasting 6-15 months. Dialogic methods are used for the more peripheral workers who may not be literate. Management is given systematic, practical treatment. The Series advocates disease prevention and health promotion and helps to train health workers to diagnose an treat the most common clinical problems. It can be used to strengthen existing programs or to start new ones. It has a consistent formant, facilitating local adaption. Any part of the Series can be copied or reproduced for noncommercial purposes without persmission from the publisher. The Series is based on the realistic and pragmatic organization of health care delivery systems found in most countries and places great importance on the use of health center presonnel to orientate and link resources at the center to needs at the periphery. Nurses, the health center person at the middle level of the PHC, often fulfills the role of trainer and supervisor of the community health worker. The diagnostic, curative and

  9. ON LINE MEASUREMENT OF PRIMARY FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Dale R. Tree

    1999-09-01

    The measurement of fine particulate in pulverized coal flames has several applications of importance. These include but are not limited to: (1) The detection of fine particulate in the effluent for pollution control; (2) The detection of soot and fuel burnout in real time within a boiler; and (3) The quantification of soot within coal flame for improved understanding of pulverized coal flame heat transfer and soot modeling. A method has been investigated using two-color extinction along a line of sight within the flame which provides a continuous real-time measurement of the soot concentration. The method uses two inexpensive HeNe lasers and simple light detectors. The results of testing the method on a pilot scale 0.2 MW pulverized coal reactor demonstrate the method is working well in a qualitative sense and an error analysis performed on the uncertainty of the assumed values demonstrates the method to be accurate to within {+-} 30%. Additional experiments designed to quantify the measurement more accurately are ongoing. Measurements at the end of the reactor just prior to the exit showed soot could not be detected until the overall equivalence ratio became greater than 1.0. The detection limit for the method was estimated to be 1 x 10{sup -8} soot volume fraction. Peak soot concentration was found to approach a level of 0.88 x 10{sup -6} at the sootiest condition. The method was used to obtain an axial profile of soot concentration aligned with the down-fired pulverized coal flame for three different flame swirls of 0, 0.5 and 1.5 and an overall equivalence ratio of 1.2. The axial measurements showed the soot concentration to increase initially and level off to a constant maximum value. At 0.5 swirl the soot volume fraction increased more rapidly near the burner and both the 0.5 and 1.5 swirl cases showed that soot had reached a maximum by 0.9 m, but the 0 swirl soot concentration was still increasing. Previous measurements of species and velocity in the reactor

  10. SEASONAL EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON HUMAN PRIMARY AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SEASONAL EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON HUMAN PRIMARY AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Exposure of humans to PM results in increased mortality and morbidity. Recent toxicology studies have shown a number of pathophysiological pulmonary and car...

  11. Determination of the Turkish Primary Students' Views about the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Haluk; Kenan, Osman

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine 4th, 5th, and 6th grade Turkish primary students' conceptions about the particulate nature of matter via a test. The test consists of 36 items related to the changes of microscopic properties of solid, liquid and gas matters during phase changing, cooling, heating and pressing of them. The sample of the study…

  12. Comprehensive primary health care under neo-liberalism in Australia.

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Sanders, David; Labonté, Ronald; Lawless, Angela; Javanparast, Sara

    2016-11-01

    This paper applies a critical analysis of the impact of neo-liberal driven management reform to examine changes in Australian primary health care (PHC) services over five years. The implementation of comprehensive approaches to primary health care (PHC) in seven services: five state-managed and two non-government organisations (NGOs) was tracked from 2009 to 2014. Two questions are addressed: 1) How did the ability of Australian PHC services to implement comprehensive PHC change over the period 2009-2014? 2) To what extent is the ability of the PHC services to implement comprehensive PHC shaped by neo-liberal health sector reform processes? The study reports on detailed tracking and observations of the changes and in-depth interviews with 63 health service managers and practitioners, and regional and central health executives. The documented changes were: in the state-managed services (although not the NGOs) less comprehensive service coverage and more focus on clinical services and integration with hospitals and much less development activity including community development, advocacy, intersectoral collaboration and attention to the social determinants. These changes were found to be associated with practices typical of neo-liberal health sector reform: considerable uncertainty, more directive managerial control, budget reductions and competitive tendering and an emphasis on outputs rather than health outcomes. We conclude that a focus on clinical service provision, while highly compatible with neo-liberal reforms, will not on its own produce the shifts in population disease patterns that would be required to reduce demand for health services and promote health. Comprehensive PHC is much better suited to that task.

  13. Primary and Comprehensive Stroke Centers: History, Value and Certification Criteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the United States (US) stroke care has undergone a remarkable transformation in the past decades at several levels. At the clinical level, randomized trials have paved the way for many new stroke preventives, and recently, several new mechanical clot retrieval devices for acute stroke treatment have been cleared for use in practice by the US Federal Drug Administration. Furthermore, in the mid 1990s we witnessed regulatory approval of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for administration in acute ischemic stroke. In the domain of organization of medical care and delivery of health services, stroke has transitioned from a disease dominated by neurologic consultation services only to one managed by vascular neurologists in geographical stroke units, stroke teams and care pathways, primary stroke center certification according to The Joint Commission, and most recently comprehensive stroke center designation under the aegis of The Joint Commission. Many organizations in the US have been involved to enhance stroke care. To name a few, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association, Brain Attack Coalition, and National Stroke Association have been on the forefront of this movement. Additionally, governmental initiatives by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and legislative initiatives such as the Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Registry program have paved the way to focus on stroke prevention, acute treatment and quality improvement. In this invited review, we discuss a brief history of organized stroke care in the United States, evidence to support the value of primary and comprehensive stroke centers, and the certification criteria and process to become a primary or comprehensive stroke center. PMID:24324943

  14. Severe particulate pollution from deposition practices of primary materials of cement plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtidis, Konstantinos; Rapsomanikis, Spyridon; Zerefos, Christos; Georgoulias, Aristeidis; Pavlidou, Eleni

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of ambient particulates sampled at a residential area near a cement manufacturing plant in Greece, showed total aerosol mass in the sampled air 1.3-30.4 mg/m3 and PM10 concentrations 0.04-3 mg/m3. These concentrations are very high and seriously exceed air quality standards. Morphological examination and elemental analysis of air samples and primary materials with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) showed that ambient particulates shared appearance features and had similar elemental synthesis to clinker and fly ash, showing heavy impacts on the ambient aerosol load from the cement plant practice of open deposition of primary materials. Satellite-derived AOD over the area during the period 2000-2010 shows extended spatial impact, while satellite overpass data indicate a 33% decrease in AOD over this period, possibly due to changing production and primary material deposition practices. Although the sampling was performed more than one decade ago in Greece, environmental legislation and its reinforcement practices at that time in Greece are similar to current ones in many parts of the world. The global increase in cement production, especially in south-east Asia, make these measurements particularly relevant.

  15. Severe particulate pollution from the deposition practices of the primary materials of a cement plant.

    PubMed

    Kourtidis, K; Rapsomanikis, S; Zerefos, C; Georgoulias, A K; Pavlidou, E

    2014-01-01

    Global cement production has increased twofold during the last decade. This increase has been accompanied by the installation of many new plants, especially in Southeast Asia. Although various aspects of pollution related to cement production have been reported, the impact of primary material deposition practices on ambient air quality has not yet been studied. In this study, we show that deposition practices can have a very serious impact on levels of ambient aerosols, far larger than other cement production-related impacts. Analyses of ambient particulates sampled near a cement plant show 1.3-30.4 mg/m(3) total suspended particulates in the air and concentrations of particles with a diameter of 10 μm or less at 0.04-3 mg/m(3). These concentrations are very high and seriously exceed air quality standards. We unequivocally attribute these levels to outdoor deposition of cement primary materials, especially clinker, using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We also used satellite-derived aerosol optical depth maps over the area of study to estimate the extent of the spatial impact. The satellite data indicate a 33% decrease in aerosol optical depth during a 10-year period, possibly due to changing primary material deposition practices. Although the in situ sampling was performed in one location, primary materials used in cement production are common in all parts of the world and have not changed significantly over the last decades. Hence, the results reported here demonstrate the dominant impact of deposition practices on aerosol levels near cement plants.

  16. Exposure to ambient ultrafine particulate matter alters the expression of genes in primary human neurons.

    PubMed

    Solaimani, Parrisa; Saffari, Arian; Sioutas, Constantinos; Bondy, Stephen C; Campbell, Arezoo

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been associated with the onset of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, but the mechanism of toxicity remains unclear. To gain insight into this neurotoxicity, this study sought to examine global gene expression changes caused by exposure to ambient ultrafine PM. Microarray analysis was performed on primary human neurons derived from fetal brain tissue after a 24h exposure to 20μg/mL of ambient ultrafine particles. We found a majority of the changes in noncoding RNAs, which are involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression, and thereby could impact the expression of several other protein coding gene targets. Although neurons from biologically different lot numbers were used, we found a significant increase in the expression of metallothionein 1A and 1F in all samples after exposure to particulate matter as confirmed by quantitative PCR. These metallothionein 1 proteins are responsible for neuroprotection after exposure to environmental insult but prolonged induction can be toxic. Epidemiological studies have reported that in utero exposure to ultrafine PM not only leads to neurodevelopmental and behavioral abnormalities, but may also predispose the progeny to neurodegenerative disease later in life by genetic imprinting. Our results pinpoint some of the PM-induced genetic changes that may underlie these findings.

  17. Trends in Concentrations of Atmospheric Gaseous and Particulate Species at the Look Rock, TN NCORE Air Quality Station and Their Relation to Primary Emissions Reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, R. L.; Mueller, S. F.; Bairai, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Air quality parameters, measured at Look Rock, TN, since 1980, were expanded by National Park Service (NPS) as an IMPROVE network station and again in 1999-2007 by Tennessee Valley Authority as part of efforts to determine the effects of reductions in EGU emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides on air quality at the site. Designated as a non-urban, NCORE-equivalent station in 2010, routine continuous monitoring of aerosol mass, sulfate, and black carbon, and primary and secondary gases at the site as well as additional measurements during a series of intensive research studies at the site have produced an extensive body to air quality data on background levels of species relevant to air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone and fine particulate matter which is unique comprehensive for a high-altitude site in the southeastern U.S.A. Analysis of the temporal trends in these data (1999-present)is being conducted in conjunction with and support of 2013 Southern Atmosphere Studies at Look Rock and other southeastern U.S. locations. Key findings from analysis of temporal trends at Look Rock include the observation that primary pollutant levels have consistently tracked the emissions reductions from EGUs and other primary sources in the region, but reductions in secondary pollutants such as particulate sulfate and ozone have been less than proportional. Organic carbonaceous material (OM) remains a major contributor to fine particulate mass at the site, and a large portion (65-85%) of OM derives from modern carbon, based on 14C measurements. Important parameters affecting fine mass and ozone levels also include the specific diurnal meteorology at this ridge-top site, its location in a largely mixed-deciduous forest, and the presence of primary sources of precursors at distances of 50-500 km from the site in all directions.

  18. Primary particulate emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from idling diesel vehicle exhaust in China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Hu, Qihou; Liu, Tengyu; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Yanli; Song, Wei; Sun, Yele; Bi, Xinhui; Yu, Jianzhen; Yang, Weiqiang; Huang, Xinyu; Zhang, Zhou; Huang, Zhonghui; He, Quanfu; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; George, Christian

    2017-03-26

    In China diesel vehicles dominate the primary emission of particulate matters from on-road vehicles, and they might also contribute substantially to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). In this study tailpipe exhaust of three typical in-use diesel vehicles under warm idling conditions was introduced directly into an indoor smog chamber with a 30m(3) Teflon reactor to characterize primary emissions and SOA formation during photo-oxidation. The emission factors of primary organic aerosol (POA) and black carbon (BC) for the three types of Chinese diesel vehicles ranged 0.18-0.91 and 0.15-0.51gkg-fuel(-1), respectively; and the SOA production factors ranged 0.50-1.8gkg-fuel(-1) and SOA/POA ratios ranged 0.7-3.7 with an average of 2.2. The fuel-based POA emission factors and SOA production factors from this study for idling diesel vehicle exhaust were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in previous studies for idling gasoline vehicle exhaust. The emission factors for total particle numbers were 0.65-4.0×10(15)particleskg-fuel(-1), and particles with diameters less than 50nm dominated in total particle numbers. Traditional C2-C12 precursor non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) could only explain less than 3% of the SOA formed during aging and contribution from other precursors including intermediate volatile organic compounds (IVOC) needs further investigation.

  19. Diagnostic air quality model evaluation of source-specific primary and secondary fine particulate carbon.

    PubMed

    Napelenok, Sergey L; Simon, Heather; Bhave, Prakash V; Pye, Havala O T; Pouliot, George A; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Schauer, James J

    2014-01-01

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004-February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate the results of a numerical air quality model. Previous analyses of these measurements demonstrated excellent mass closure for the variety of contributing sources. In this study, a carbon-apportionment version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was used to track primary organic and elemental carbon emissions from 15 independent sources such as mobile sources and biomass burning in addition to four precursor-specific classes of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) originating from isoprene, terpenes, aromatics, and sesquiterpenes. Conversion of the source-resolved model output into organic tracer concentrations yielded a total of 2416 data pairs for comparison with observations. While emission source contributions to the total model bias varied by season and measurement location, the largest absolute bias of -0.55 μgC/m(3) was attributed to insufficient isoprene SOA in the summertime CMAQ simulation. Biomass combustion was responsible for the second largest summertime model bias (-0.46 μgC/m(3) on average). Several instances of compensating errors were also evident; model underpredictions in some sectors were masked by overpredictions in others.

  20. Source contributions and regional transport of primary particulate matter in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianlin; Wu, Li; Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Chang, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Yang, Fumo; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-12-01

    A source-oriented CMAQ was applied to determine source sector/region contributions to primary particulate matter (PPM) in China. Four months were simulated with emissions grouped to eight regions and six sectors. Predicted elemental carbon (EC), primary organic carbon (POC), and PPM concentrations and source contributions agree with measurements and have significant spatiotemporal variations. Residential is a major contributor to spring/winter EC (50-80%), POC (60%-90%), and PPM (30-70%). For summer/fall, industrial contributes 30-50% for EC/POC and 40-60% for PPM. Transportation is more important for EC (20-30%) than POC/PPM (<5%). Open burning is important in summer/fall of Guangzhou and Chongqing. Dust contributes to 1/3-1/2 in spring/fall of Beijing, Xi'an and Chongqing. Based on sector-region combination, local residential/transportation and residential/industrial from Heibei are major contributors to spring PPM in Beijing. In summer/fall, local industrial is the largest. In winter, residential/industrial from local and Hebei account for >90% in Beijing.

  1. Reading Comprehension and Autism in the Primary General Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Neal Nghia; Leytham, Patrick; Schaefer Whitby, Peggy; Gelfer, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a critical building block for effective early literacy development. Many students with autism spectrum disorder demonstrate difficulties in reading comprehension. These difficulties may be attributed to deficits in Theory of Mind, Weak Central Coherence, and Executive Functioning. Given the rise in the number of students…

  2. Secondary organic aerosol formation exceeds primary particulate matter emissions for light-duty gasoline vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; May, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Lipsky, E. M.; Donahue, N. M.; Gutierrez, A.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2013-09-01

    The effects of photochemical aging on emissions from 15 light-duty gasoline vehicles were investigated using a smog chamber to probe the critical link between the tailpipe and ambient atmosphere. The vehicles were recruited from the California in-use fleet; they represent a wide range of model years (1987 to 2011), vehicle types and emission control technologies. Each vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer using the unified cycle. Dilute emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and then photochemically aged under urban-like conditions. For every vehicle, substantial secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation occurred during cold-start tests, with the emissions from some vehicles generating as much as 6 times the amount of SOA as primary particulate matter after three hours of oxidation inside the chamber at typical atmospheric oxidant levels. Therefore, the contribution of light duty gasoline vehicle exhaust to ambient PM levels is likely dominated by secondary PM production (SOA and nitrate). Emissions from hot-start tests formed about a factor of 3-7 less SOA than cold-start tests. Therefore, catalyst warm-up appears to be an important factor in controlling SOA precursor emissions. The mass of SOA generated by photo-oxidizing exhaust from newer (LEV1 and LEV2) vehicles was only modestly lower (38%) than that formed from exhaust emitted by older (pre-LEV) vehicles, despite much larger reductions in non-methane organic gas emissions. These data suggest that a complex and non-linear relationship exists between organic gas emissions and SOA formation, which is not surprising since SOA precursors are only one component of the exhaust. Except for the oldest (pre-LEV) vehicles, the SOA production could not be fully explained by the measured oxidation of speciated (traditional) SOA precursors. Over the time scale of these experiments, the mixture of organic vapors emitted by newer vehicles appear to be more efficient (higher yielding) in producing SOA than

  3. Final report for measurement of primary particulate matter emissions from light-duty motor vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Norbeck, J. M.; Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the results of a particulate emissions study conducted at the University of California, Riverside, College of Engineering-Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) from September of 1996 to August of 1997. The goal of this program was to expand the database of particulate emissions measurements from motor vehicles to include larger numbers of representative in-use vehicles. This work was co-sponsored by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC), the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and was part of a larger study of particulate emissions being conducted in several states under sponsorship by CRC. For this work, FTP particulate mass emission rates were determined for gasoline and diesel vehicles, along with the fractions of particulates below 2.5 and 10 microns aerodynamic diameter. A total of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel-fueled vehicles were tested as part of the program.

  4. A comprehensive study of the characterization of particulate matter emissions from a Delmarva broiler poultry operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Shannon E.

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from agricultural practices, including those from animal feeding operations (AFO's) have become an increasingly important topic, and has generated considerable interest from local and state agencies, as well as, the local community over the past decade. Because of growth in population, and an increase in commercial and residential development within close proximity to these operations, which house a large number of animals in confinement, and because of a better understanding of the effects of exposure to airborne contaminants on health, this has lead to an increase in concerns and a demand for more research to be conducted on PM from AFO's. Particulate matter generated within, and emitted from, AFO's can carry with it various components including metals and microorganisms that can negatively affect health. This research was conducted in order to verify if PM from a broiler poultry operation on Delmarva has the potential to become a health concern. The first step was to determine concentrations of two size segregated fractions of PM from indoor and outdoor sampling sites over four seasonal periods, early summer (ES), late summer (LS), Fall (F), and Winter (W). Both PM10 and PM2.5 were collected because of their classification from the Environmental Protection Agency as having the ability to cause significant health effects with short-term exposure. Next, temporal and spatial characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on PM concentrations over the four seasonal periods. Following this, the chemical composition and morphology of PM10 and PM2.5 generated from the broiler poultry operation was investigated. Finally, further detailed information was obtained on arsenic speciation and oxidation state in PM to investigate toxicity. Arsenic use in the poultry industry has been occurring for a number of decades, and is most frequently administered in the organic form. However, studies have shown that these organo

  5. Secondary organic aerosol formation exceeds primary particulate matter emissions for light-duty gasoline vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. D.; Presto, A. A.; May, A. A.; Nguyen, N. T.; Lipsky, E. M.; Donahue, N. M.; Gutierrez, A.; Zhang, M.; Maddox, C.; Rieger, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Maldonado, H.; Maricq, M. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2014-05-01

    The effects of photochemical aging on emissions from 15 light-duty gasoline vehicles were investigated using a smog chamber to probe the critical link between the tailpipe and ambient atmosphere. The vehicles were recruited from the California in-use fleet; they represent a wide range of model years (1987 to 2011), vehicle types and emission control technologies. Each vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer using the unified cycle. Dilute emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and then photochemically aged under urban-like conditions. For every vehicle, substantial secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation occurred during cold-start tests, with the emissions from some vehicles generating as much as 6 times the amount of SOA as primary particulate matter (PM) after 3 h of oxidation inside the chamber at typical atmospheric oxidant levels (and 5 times the amount of SOA as primary PM after 5 × 106 molecules cm-3 h of OH exposure). Therefore, the contribution of light-duty gasoline vehicle exhaust to ambient PM levels is likely dominated by secondary PM production (SOA and nitrate). Emissions from hot-start tests formed about a factor of 3-7 less SOA than cold-start tests. Therefore, catalyst warm-up appears to be an important factor in controlling SOA precursor emissions. The mass of SOA generated by photooxidizing exhaust from newer (LEV2) vehicles was a factor of 3 lower than that formed from exhaust emitted by older (pre-LEV) vehicles, despite much larger reductions (a factor of 11-15) in nonmethane organic gas emissions. These data suggest that a complex and nonlinear relationship exists between organic gas emissions and SOA formation, which is not surprising since SOA precursors are only one component of the exhaust. Except for the oldest (pre-LEV) vehicles, the SOA production could not be fully explained by the measured oxidation of speciated (traditional) SOA precursors. Over the timescale of these experiments, the mixture of organic vapors

  6. Comprehension of humor in primary agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Brown, Warren S; Paul, Lynn K; Symington, Melissa; Dietrich, Rosalind

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) can, in some cases, perform normally on standardized intelligence tests. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that individuals with ACC and normal IQ scores have deficits in domains of fluid and social intelligence. Anecdotal reports from families suggest diminished appreciation of the subtleties of social interactions, and deficits in the comprehension of jokes and stories. In this research, both the cartoon and narrative joke subtests of a humor test (developed by Brownell et al. [Brownell, H., Michel, D., Powelson, J., & Gardner, H. (1983). Surprise but not coherence: sensitivity to verbal humor in right-hemisphere patients. Brain and language, 18(1), 20-27] and Bihrle et al. [Bihrle, A. M., Brownell, H. H., Powelson, J. A., & Gardner, H. (1986). Comprehension of humorous and non-humorous materials by left and right brain-damaged patients. Brain and Cognition, 5(4), 399-411]) were given to 16 adults with complete ACC (all with IQs>80) and 31 controls of similar age and IQ. Individuals with ACC performed worse than controls on the narrative joke subtest (p<.025) when VIQ was controlled. However, on the cartoon subtest the two groups were not significantly different. Covarying age, forms of IQ, narrative memory, set-switching, and literal language comprehension did not substantially alter the group difference. However, covarying comprehension of nonliteral language and proverbs eliminated the difference, suggesting a common origin for the comprehension of jokes, nonliteral language, and proverbs, most likely related to capacity for understanding second-order meanings.

  7. Electrochemical disinfection of Escherichia coli in the presence and absence of primary sludge particulates.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaofei; Quicksall, Andrew N; Blake, Allison B; Talley, Jeffrey W

    2013-09-01

    Electrochemical (EC) residual disinfection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the presence and absence of primary sludge particulates (PSPs) was studied. The kinetics followed a first-order rate law. When PSPs were absent, the EC residual disinfection rate coefficient (k) increased linearly with EC pretreatment energy (EC, 0-0.63 kWh/m(3)). However, with 143 mg PSPs/L, k first increased linearly with EC (0-0.28 kWh/m(3)) and then decreased linearly with EC (0.28-0.42 kWh/m(3)). H2O2 was detected during EC pretreatment in PSPs-free samples and the H2O2 concentration (CH) increased with EC (0-0.83 kWh/m(3)) linearly. Chloride was detected in PSPs aqueous samples (143 mg PSPs/L) and its concentration (CC) changed during EC pretreatment: initially, a decrease of CC was observed when EC increased from 0 to 0.28 kWh/m(3), followed by an increase of CC when EC increased 0.28-0.42 kWh/m(3). In both cases, k correlated to the initial post-EC chloride concentration (CCI) in an inverse linear relationship. This two-stage change of CC and k was caused by a combination of two reactions: anodic oxidation of chloride and the reaction of chloramines with excess chlorine. This paper explains the mechanisms underlying EC residual disinfection in the presence and absence of PSPs, and proposes a feasible strategy for EC disinfection when PSPs are present, an approach that could be useful in the treatment of combined sewage overflow (CSO).

  8. Primary School Text Comprehension Predicts Mathematical Word Problem-Solving Skills in Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björn, Piia Maria; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the extent to which primary school text comprehension predicts mathematical word problem-solving skills in secondary school among Finnish students. The participants were 224 fourth graders (9-10 years old at the baseline). The children's text-reading fluency, text comprehension and basic calculation…

  9. Comprehensive analysis of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice: effects of ambient existing particulate matters.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Koike, Eiko; Takano, Hirohisa

    2010-11-01

    Pulmonary exposure of rodents to porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) induces lesions that morphologically resemble human panacinar emphysema. However, there has been little work on the comprehensive analysis of this model. The present study was designed to extensively examine the biological effects of PPE on inflammation, cell damage, emphysematous change, and cholinergic reactivity in the lungs of mice. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the disease model. Intratracheal administration of PPE induced (1) proinflammatory response in the lungs that was characterized by significant infiltration of leukocytes such as macrophages, eosinophils, and lymphocytes and an increased level of interleukin-1β in lung homogenates, (2) lung cell damage, indicated by higher levels of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase in lung homogenates, (3) emphysema-related morphological changes including airspace enlargement and progressive destruction of alveolar wall structures, and (4) airway responsiveness to methacholine in the context of the compliance value of the respiratory system in a dose-dependent manner showing an overall trend. A single intratracheal administration of DEP did not significantly facilitate the hallmark of the disease. This is the first study to extensively analyze PPE-induced lung emphysema in mice with evaluation of the effects of DEP. Furthermore, this bioassay may be applied to future investigations that evaluate new therapeutic agents or risk factors for pulmonary emphysema.

  10. Primary Care Dentistry in Brazil: From Prevention to Comprehensive Care.

    PubMed

    Neves, Matheus; Giordani, Jessye Melgarejo do Amaral; Ferla, Alcindo Antônio; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between sociodemographic characteristics, health care indicators, work process characteristics, and the performance of preventive dental procedures by oral health care teams (OHCTs) assessed during the first phase of the PMAQ in Brazil. A census of 10 334 primary OHCTs was conducted. The outcome included topical application of fluoride, application of sealants, detection of oral lesions, and monitoring of suspected or confirmed cases of oral cancer. The multilevel Poisson regression model was used to obtain crude and adjusted prevalence ratios. The performance of preventive dental procedures was 29.46% (3044/10 334; 95% confidence interval, 28.57-30.33), which was considered low.

  11. The immunogenetics of primary biliary cirrhosis: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Webb, G J; Siminovitch, K A; Hirschfield, G M

    2015-11-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a classic autoimmune liver disease, is characterised by a progressive T cell predominant lymphocytic cholangitis, and a serologic pattern of reactivity in the form of specific anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA). CD4+ T cells are particularly implicated by PBC's cytokine signature, the presence of CD4+ T cells specific to mitochondrial auto-antigens, the expression of MHC II on injured biliary epithelial cells, and PBC's coincidence with other similar T cell mediated autoimmune conditions. CD4+ T cells are also central to current animal models of PBC, and their transfer typically also transfers disease. The importance of genetic risk to developing PBC is evidenced by a much higher concordance rate in monozygotic than dizygotic twins, increased AMA rates in asymptomatic relatives, and disproportionate rates of disease in siblings of PBC patients, PBC family members and certain genetically defined populations. Recently, high-throughput genetic studies have greatly expanded our understanding of the gene variants underpinning risk for PBC development, so linking genetics and immunology. Here we summarize genetic association data that has emerged from large scale genome-wide association studies and discuss the evidence for the potential functional significance of the individual genes and pathways identified; we particularly highlight associations in the IL-12-STAT4-Th1 pathway. HLA associations and epigenetic effects are specifically considered and individual variants are linked to clinical phenotypes where data exist. We also consider why there is a gap between calculated genetic risk and clinical data: so-called missing heritability, and how immunogenetic observations are being translated to novel therapies. Ultimately whilst genetic risk factors will only account for a proportion of disease risk, ongoing efforts to refine associations and understand biologic links to disease pathways are hoped to drive more rational therapy for

  12. Trends in concentrations of atmospheric gaseous and particulate species in rural eastern Tennessee as related to primary emission reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, R. L.; Bairai, S. T.; Mueller, S. F.

    2015-09-01

    Air quality measurements at Look Rock, Tennessee - on the western edge of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park - were begun in 1980 and expanded during the 1980s to a National Park Service (NPS) IMPROVE network station. Measurements were expanded again by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA, 1999-2007) to examine the effects of electric generating unit (EGU) emission reductions of SO2 and NOx on air quality at the station. Analysis of temporal trends (1999-2013) has been conducted at the site in collaboration with activities related to the 2013 Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) at Look Rock and other southeastern US locations. Key findings from these trend studies include the observation that primary pollutant levels have consistently tracked emission reductions from EGUs and other primary sources in the region, but reductions in secondary pollutants such as particulate sulfate and, specifically, ozone have been smaller compared to reductions in primary emissions. Organic carbonaceous material (OM) remains a major contributor (30-40 % in the period 2009-2013) to fine particulate mass at the site, as confirmed by ACSM measurements at the site in 2013. A large portion (65-85 %) of carbon in OM derives from modern carbon sources based on 14C measurements. Important parameters affecting ozone levels, fine mass, and visibility also include the specific diurnal meteorology at this ridge-top site, its location in a predominantly mixed-deciduous forest, and the presence of primary sources of precursors at distances of 50-500 km from the site in all directions.

  13. Trends in concentrations of atmospheric gaseous and particulate species in rural eastern Tennessee as related to primary emissions reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, R. L.; Bairai, S. T.; Mueller, S. F.

    2015-05-01

    Air quality measurements at Look Rock, Tennessee - on the western edge of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park - were begun in 1980 and expanded during the 1980s to a National Park Service (NPS) IMPROVE network station. Measurements were expanded again by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA, 1999-2007) to examine the effects of electric generating unit (EGU) emission reductions of SO2 and NOx on air quality at the station. Analysis of temporal trends (1999-2013) has been conducted at the site in collaboration with activities related to the 2013 Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) at Look Rock and other southeastern US locations. Key findings from these trend studies include the observation that primary pollutant levels have consistently tracked emissions reductions from EGUs and other primary sources in the region but reductions in secondary pollutants such as particulate sulfate and, specifically, ozone have been smaller compared to reductions in primary emissions. Organic carbonaceous material (OM) remains a major contributor (30-40% in the period 2009-2013) to fine particulate mass at the site, as confirmed by ACSM measurements at the site in 2013. A large portion (65-85%) of carbon in OM derives from modern carbon sources based on 14C measurements. Important parameters affecting ozone levels, fine mass and visibility also include the specific diurnal meteorology at this ridge-top site, its location in a predominantly mixed-deciduous forest, and the presence of primary sources of precursors at distances of 50-500 km from the site in all directions.

  14. Uncertainty in health risks due to anthropogenic primary fine particulate matter from different source types in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tainio, M.; Tuomisto, J. T.; Pekkanen, J.; Karvosenoja, N.; Kupiainen, K.; Porvari, P.; Sofiev, M.; Karppinen, A.; Kangas, L.; Kukkonen, J.

    2010-06-01

    The emission-exposure and exposure-response (toxicity) relationships are different for different emission source categories of anthropogenic primary fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). These variations have a potentially crucial importance in the integrated assessment, when determining cost-effective abatement strategies. We studied the importance of these variations by conducting a sensitivity analysis for an integrated assessment model. The model was developed to estimate the adverse health effects to the Finnish population attributable to primary PM 2.5 emissions from the whole of Europe. The primary PM 2.5 emissions in the whole of Europe and in more detail in Finland were evaluated using the inventory of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) and the Finnish Regional Emission Scenario model (FRES), respectively. The emission-exposure relationships for different primary PM 2.5 emission source categories in Finland have been previously evaluated and these values incorporated as intake fractions into the integrated assessment model. The primary PM 2.5 exposure-response functions and toxicity differences for the pollution originating from different source categories were estimated in an expert elicitation study performed by six European experts on air pollution health effects. The primary PM 2.5 emissions from Finnish and other European sources were estimated for the population of Finland in 2000 to be responsible for 209 (mean, 95% confidence interval 6-739) and 357 (mean, 95% CI 8-1482) premature deaths, respectively. The inclusion of emission-exposure and toxicity variation into the model increased the predicted relative importance of traffic related primary PM 2.5 emissions and correspondingly, decreased the predicted relative importance of other emission source categories. We conclude that the variations of emission-exposure relationship and toxicity between various source categories had significant impacts for the assessment on premature

  15. Nuclear reactors using fine-particulate fuel for primary power in space

    SciTech Connect

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Usher, J.L.; Horn, F.L.

    1982-01-01

    Large future power requirements in space, include power beaming to earth, airplanes, and solar-powered satellites in eclipse; industrial processing; and space colonies. The Rotating Bed Nuclear Reactor (RBR) and Fixed Bed Reactor (FBR) are multi-megawatt power systems which are light, compact and suited to operation in space. Both are cavity reactors, with an annular fuel region (e.g., a bed of 500 ..mu.. HTGR fuel particulates made of UC with ceramic coating) surrounded by a reflector that moderates fast neutrons from the /sup 235/U fuel. A porous metal drum holds the fuel. In the RBR, rotation of the drum allows the particulate fuel bed to fluidize as cooling gas passes through. In the FBR, an inner porous carbon drum holds the packed fuel bed, which is not fluidized. The RBR and FBR have many important features for space nuclear power: very high power density (up to thousands of MW(th)/m/sup 3/ of fuel); very small size and weight, excellent thermal shock and fatigue resistance; short start/stop times (sec); high gas outlet temperatures (to 3000/sup 0/K), good neutron economy, low critical mass; and simple/reliable construction.

  16. Need for Comprehensive Women's Health Continuing Medical Education among Primary Care Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwolek, Deborah S.; Donnelly, Michael B.; Carr, Ellen; Sloan, David A.; Haist, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Women's health topics of interest for continuing medical education were identified by 91 primary care physicians. Most felt that more knowledge of these topics would reduce the number of referrals to specialists. A more comprehensive, rather than reproductive, perspective of women's health was called for. (SK)

  17. Systematic Tracking of Malaysian Primary School Students' ESL Reading Comprehension Performance to Facilitate Instructional Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to systematically track and benchmark upper primary school students' ESL reading comprehension ability and subsequently generate data at the micro and macro levels according to individual achievement, school location, gender and ethnicity at the school, district, state and national levels. The main intention of this…

  18. The effects of nutrient additions on particulate and dissolved primary production in surface waters of three Mediterranean eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagaria, A.; Psarra, S.; Lefèvre, D.; van Wambeke, F.; Courties, C.; Pujo-Pay, M.; Oriol, L.; Tanaka, T.; Christaki, U.

    2010-12-01

    The effects of additions of nitrogen (+N), phosphorus (+P), alone and in combination, were assessed during three microcosm experiments performed with surface waters of three anticyclonic eddies, located in the Western, Central and Eastern Mediterranean. We examined the effects of nutrient additions on rates of dissolved and particulate primary production and on metabolic rates of the osmotrophic community (phytoplankton and heterotrophic prokaryotes). The experiments were performed in June/July 2008 during the BOUM (Biogeochemistry from the Oligotrophic to the Ultra-oligotrophic Mediterranean) cruise. In all three experiments, particulate primary production was significantly stimulated by the additions of nitrogen (+N, +NP) while no effect was observed with the addition of phosphorus alone. Percent extracellular release (PER) showed an inverse relation with total primary production (PPtotal), displaying the lowest values (4-8%) in the +NP treatment. Among the three treatments, the +NP had the strongest effect on the community metabolic rates leading to positive net community production values (NCP>0). These changes of NCP were mainly due to enhanced gross community production (GCP) rather than lower respiration rates (CR). In +NP treatments autotrophic production (whether expressed as GCP or PPtotal) was high enough to fulfil the carbon requirements of the heterotrophic prokaryotes, with phytoplankton and heterotrophic prokaryote production positively correlated. Addition of nitrogen alone (+N) had a smaller effect on community production, resulting in metabolically balanced systems (NCP≍0). Finally, heterotrophic conditions persisted in the +P treatment at the central and eastern stations, and gross production was not sufficient to supply bacterial carbon demand, evidence of a decoupling of phytoplankton production and consumption by heterotrophic prokaryotes.

  19. The Wernicke conundrum and the anatomy of language comprehension in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily J

    2015-08-01

    Wernicke's aphasia is characterized by severe word and sentence comprehension impairments. The location of the underlying lesion site, known as Wernicke's area, remains controversial. Questions related to this controversy were addressed in 72 patients with primary progressive aphasia who collectively displayed a wide spectrum of cortical atrophy sites and language impairment patterns. Clinico-anatomical correlations were explored at the individual and group levels. These analyses showed that neuronal loss in temporoparietal areas, traditionally included within Wernicke's area, leave single word comprehension intact and cause inconsistent impairments of sentence comprehension. The most severe sentence comprehension impairments were associated with a heterogeneous set of cortical atrophy sites variably encompassing temporoparietal components of Wernicke's area, Broca's area, and dorsal premotor cortex. Severe comprehension impairments for single words, on the other hand, were invariably associated with peak atrophy sites in the left temporal pole and adjacent anterior temporal cortex, a pattern of atrophy that left sentence comprehension intact. These results show that the neural substrates of word and sentence comprehension are dissociable and that a circumscribed cortical area equally critical for word and sentence comprehension is unlikely to exist anywhere in the cerebral cortex. Reports of combined word and sentence comprehension impairments in Wernicke's aphasia come almost exclusively from patients with cerebrovascular accidents where brain damage extends into subcortical white matter. The syndrome of Wernicke's aphasia is thus likely to reflect damage not only to the cerebral cortex but also to underlying axonal pathways, leading to strategic cortico-cortical disconnections within the language network. The results of this investigation further reinforce the conclusion that the left anterior temporal lobe, a region ignored by classic aphasiology, needs to be

  20. Reading Comprehension: A Computerized Intervention with Primary-age Poor Readers.

    PubMed

    Horne, Joanna Kathryn

    2017-01-09

    The current study investigates the effectiveness of a computerized reading comprehension programme on the reading accuracy, reading comprehension and reading rate of primary-age poor readers. There is little published literature relating to computerized reading interventions in UK primary schools, and no previous studies have investigated the Comprehension Booster programme. Thirty-eight children (26 boys and 12 girls; aged 6:7 to 11:0) from two schools in East Yorkshire, UK, took part. Half of the participants (the intervention group) undertook the Comprehension Booster programme for a 6-week period, whilst the other half (the control group) continued with their usual teaching. Significant effects of the intervention were found, with increases in reading accuracy and reading comprehension for the intervention group. It is concluded that computerized reading programmes can be effective in improving reading skills, and these are particularly useful for pupils with reading difficulties in disadvantaged areas, where resources are limited and family support in reading is lower. However, such programmes are not a replacement for good teaching, and regular monitoring of children with reading difficulties is required. Further research is necessary to compare the programme used here to other conventional and computerized intervention programmes, using a larger sample. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Bidirectional Relations between Text Reading Prosody and Reading Comprehension in the Upper Primary School Grades: A Longitudinal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and from reading comprehension to text reading prosody…

  2. DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN RAT TRACHAEL EPITHELIAL (RTE) CELLS IN RESPONSE TO COMBUSTION-SOURCE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND VANADIUM (V) A PRIMARY METAL CONSTITUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differential gene expression profiles in rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells in response to combustion-source particulate matter (PM) and vanadium (V) a primary metal constituent
    Srikanth S. Nadadur, Janice A. Dye and Daniel L. Costa, US EPA, ORD, NHEERL (ETD, Pulmonary Toxico...

  3. Analysis and discussion on formation and control of primary particulate matter generated from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianyi; Ren, Xudan

    2014-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) has been becoming the principal urban pollutant in many major cities in China, and even all over the world. It is reported that the coal combustion process is one of the main sources of PM in the atmosphere. Therefore, an investigation of formation and emission of fine primary PM in coal combustion was conducted. First, the sources and classification of coal-fired primary PM were discussed; then their formation pathways during the coal combustion process were analyzed in detail. Accordingly, the emission control methods for fine particles generated from coal-fired power plants were put forward, and were classified as precombustion control, in-combustion control, and postcombustion control. Precombustion control refers to the processes for improving the coal quality before combustion, such as coal type selection and coal preparation. In-combustion control means to take measures for adjusting the combustion conditions and injection of additives during the combustion process to abate the formation of PM. Postcombustion control is the way that the fine PM are aggregated into larger ones by some agglomeration approaches and subsequently are removed by dust removal devices, or some high-performance modifications of conventional particle emission control devices (PECDs) can be taken for capturing fine particles. Finally, some general management suggestions are given for reducing fine PM emission in coal-fired power plants. Implications: The analysis and discussions of coal properties and its combustion process are critical to recognizing the formation and emission of the fine primary PM in combustion. The measures of precombustion, in-combustion, and postcombustion control based on the analysis and discussions are favorable for abating the PM emission. Practically, some measures of implementation do need the support of national policies, even needing to sacrifice economy to gain environmental profit, but this is the very time to execute these, and

  4. Dinitrogen fixation and dissolved organic nitrogen fueled primary production and particulate export during the VAHINE mesocosm experiment (New Caledonia lagoon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelot, H.; Moutin, T.; L'Helguen, S.; Leblanc, K.; Hélias, S.; Grosso, O.; Leblond, N.; Charrière, B.; Bonnet, S.

    2015-07-01

    In the oligotrophic ocean characterized by nitrate (NO3-) depletion in surface waters, dinitrogen (N2) fixation and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) can represent significant nitrogen (N) sources for the ecosystem. In this study, we deployed large in situ mesocosms in New Caledonia in order to investigate (1) the contribution of N2 fixation and DON use to primary production (PP) and particle export and (2) the fate of the freshly produced particulate organic N (PON), i.e., whether it is preferentially accumulated and recycled in the water column or exported out of the system. The mesocosms were fertilized with phosphate (PO43-) in order to prevent phosphorus (P) limitation and promote N2 fixation. The diazotrophic community was dominated by diatom-diazotroph associations (DDAs) during the first part of the experiment for 10 days (P1) followed by the unicellular N2-fixing cyanobacteria UCYN-C for the last 9 days (P2) of the experiment. N2 fixation rates averaged 9.8 ± 4.0 and 27.7 ± 8.6 nmol L-1 d-1 during P1 and P2, respectively. NO3- concentrations (< 0.04 μmol L-1) in the mesocosms were a negligible source of N, indicating that N2 fixation was the main driver of new production throughout the experiment. The contribution of N2 fixation to PP was not significantly different (p > 0.05) during P1 (9.0 ± 3.3 %) and P2 (12.6 ± 6.1 %). However, the e ratio that quantifies the efficiency of a system to export particulate organic carbon (POCexport) compared to PP (e ratio = POCexport/PP) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) during P2 (39.7 ± 24.9 %) than during P1 (23.9 ± 20.2 %), indicating that the production sustained by UCYN-C was more efficient at promoting C export than the production sustained by DDAs. During P1, PON was stable and the total amount of N provided by N2 fixation (0.10 ± 0.02 μmol L-1) was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from the total amount of PON exported (0.10 ± 0.04 μmol L-1), suggesting a rapid and probably direct export of the

  5. Dinitrogen fixation and dissolved organic nitrogen fueled primary production and particulate export during the VAHINE mesocosms experiment (New Caledonia lagoon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelot, H.; Moutin, T.; L'Helguen, S.; Leblanc, K.; Hélias, S.; Grosso, O.; Leblond, N.; Charrière, B.; Bonnet, S.

    2015-03-01

    In the oligotrophic ocean characterized by nitrate (NO3-) depletion in surface waters, dinitrogen (N2) fixation and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) can represent significant nitrogen (N) sources for the ecosystem. Here we deployed in New Caledonia large in situ mesocosms in order to investigate (1) the contribution of N2 fixation and DON use to primary production (PP) and particle export and (2) the fate of the freshly produced particulate organic N (PON) i.e. whether it is preferentially accumulated and recycled in the water column or exported out of the system. The mesocosms were fertilized with phosphate (P) in order to prevent P-limitation and promote N2 fixation. The diazotrophic community was dominated by diatoms-diazotrophs associations (DDAs) during the first part of the experiment for 10 days (P1) followed by the unicellular N2-fixing cyanobacteria UCYN-C the 9 last days (P2) of the experiment. N2 fixation rates averaged 9.8 ± 4.0 and 27.7 ± 8.6 nM d-1 during P1 and P2, respectively. NO3- concentrations (< 40 nM) in the mesocosms were a negligible source of N indicating that N2 fixation was the main driver of new production all along the experiment. The contribution of v fixation to PP was not significantly different (p > 0.05) during P1 (9.0 ± 3.3%) and P2 (12.6 ± 6.1%). However, the e ratio that quantifies the efficiency of a system to export particulate organic carbon (POCexport) compared to PP (e ratio = POCexport/PP) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) during P2 (39.7 ± 24.9%) than during P1 (23.9 ± 20.2%) indicating that the production sustained by UCYN-C was more efficient at promoting C export than the production sustained by DDAs. During P1, PON was stable and the total amount of N provided by N2 fixation (0.10 ± 0.02 μM) was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from the total amount of PON exported (0.10 ± 0.04 μM), suggesting a rapid and probably direct export of the recently fixed N2 by the DDAs. During P2, both PON concentrations

  6. Comprehensive monitoring of the occurrence of 22 drugs of abuse and transformation products in airborne particulate matter in the city of Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Nicola; Postigo, Cristina; López de Alda, Miren; Viana, Mar; Rodríguez, Aureli; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Barceló, Damià

    2015-11-01

    In recent years monitoring the presence of psychotropic compounds in wastewater has been proposed as a tool to estimate community drug use. Measurement of drugs of abuse (DAs) in airborne particulate is currently being explored as an additional tool to evaluate drug use patterns in time and space, and identify potential emission sources. In this study, we comprehensively monitor the occurrence of 22 licit and illicit DAs and transformation products, belonging to 6 different chemical groups, in airborne particulate matter (PM10) in the city of Barcelona. In order to study spatial and temporal variations, samples were collected from 12 different selected locations on one weekday (Wednesday) and one weekend day (Saturday), during five consecutive weeks. A previously developed analytical methodology, based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination, was adapted for analysis of the target compounds with satisfactory performance, ensuring reliability of results. Among the investigated compounds, cannabinol (CBN), cocaine (COC), and methamphetamine (MA) were found to be the most ubiquitous and abundant compounds in PM10 with concentrations ranging from 0.7pg/m(3) (MA) to 6020pg/m(3) (CBN). Significant differences in total DA concentrations in PM10 were observed across sampling days and locations. DA emissions were identified in highly densely populated areas, where popular commercial and nightlife zones are located. Psychoactive effects due to inhalation of measured concentrations are probably negligible; however, potential health effects due to chronic exposure have not been explored yet.

  7. Comprehensive Operative Note Templates for Primary and Revision Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Electricwala, Ali J.; Amanatullah, Derek F.; Narkbunnam, Rapeepat I.; Huddleston, James I.; Maloney, William J.; Goodman, Stuart B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adequate preoperative planning is the first and most crucial step in the successful completion of a revision total joint arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the availability, adequacy and accuracy of operative notes of primary surgeries in patients requiring subsequent revision and to construct comprehensive templates of minimum necessary information required in the operative notes to further simplify re-operations, if they should become necessary. Methods: The operative notes of 144 patients (80 revision THA’s and 64 revision TKA’s) who underwent revision total joint arthroplasty at Stanford Hospital and Clinics in the year 2013 were reviewed. We assessed the availability of operative notes and implant stickers prior to revision total joint arthroplasty. The availability of implant details within the operative notes was assessed against the available surgical stickers for adequacy and accuracy. Statistical comparisons were made using the Fischer-exact test and a P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The primary operative note was available in 68 of 144 revisions (47%), 39 of 80 revision THAs (49%) and 29 of 66 revision TKAs (44%, p = 0.619). Primary implant stickers were available in 46 of 144 revisions (32%), 26 of 80 revision THAs (32%) and 20 of 66 revision TKAs (30%, p = 0.859). Utilizing the operative notes and implant stickers combined identified accurate primary implant details in only 40 of the 80 revision THAs (50%) and 34 of all 66 revision TKAs (52%, p = 0.870). Conclusion: Operative notes are often unavailable or fail to provide the necessary information required which makes planning and execution of revision hip and knee athroplasty difficult. This emphasizes the need for enhancing the quality of operative notes and records of patient information. Based on this information, we provide comprehensive operative note templates for primary and revision total hip and knee

  8. Effectiveness of Mitigation Measures in Reducing Future Primary Particulate Matter Emissions from On-Road Vehicle Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Fang; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

    2014-12-16

    This work evaluates the effectiveness of on-road primary particulate matter emission reductions that can be achieved by long-term vehicle scrappage and retrofit measures on regional and global levels. Scenario analysis shows that scrappage can provide significant emission reductions as soon as the measures begin, whereas retrofit provides greater emission reductions in later years, when more advanced technologies become available in most regions. Reductions are compared with a baseline that already accounts for implementation of clean vehicle standards. The greatest global emission reductions from a scrappage program occur 5 to 10 years after its introduction and can reach as much as 70%. The greatest reductions with retrofit occur around 2030 and range from 16-31%. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate how uncertainties in the composition of the vehicle fleet affect predicted reductions. Scrappage and retrofit reduce global emissions by 22-60% and 15-31%, respectively, within 95% confidence intervals, under a midrange scenario in the year 2030. The simulations provide guidance about which strategies are most effective for specific regions. Retrofit is preferable for high-income regions. For regions where early emission standards are in place, scrappage is suggested, followed by retrofit after more advanced emission standards are introduced. The early implementation of advanced emission standards is recommended for Western and Eastern Africa

  9. Characterization of particulate and vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of primary schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krugly, Edvinas; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Sidaraviciute, Ruta; Ciuzas, Darius; Prasauskas, Tadas; Kauneliene, Violeta; Stasiulaitiene, Inga; Kliucininkas, Linas

    2014-01-01

    The indoor air of schools is considered as one of the most important factors affecting the health of children. The aim of the presented research was to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor and outdoor air of schools. The sampling campaign was conducted during the heating season of 2011/2012. Five primary schools from various urban settings in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. 150 daily samples of particulate and vapor phases were collected during the sampling period. The ultrasonic extractions followed by the gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GS/MS) analyses were used for the determination of PAHs. The concentration of total PAHs in the PM2.5 fraction ranged from 20.3 to 131.1 ng m-3, while total suspended particles (TSP) fraction contained from 19.9 to 80.3 ng m-3 of total PAHs. The vapor phase concentration of PAHs ranged from 67.2 to 372.5 ng m-3. The most abundant PAH in both phases was naphthalene. In order to define sources of indoor and outdoor PAHs several source apportionment methods were applied. The analysis revealed that emissions from motor vehicles and fuel burning for heating purposes were the major sources of PAHs in the city of Kaunas.

  10. Effects of primary sludge particulate (PSP) entrapment on ultrasonic (20 kHz) disinfection of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaofei; Talley, Jeffrey W; Liu, Guojing; Larson, Steve L

    2011-05-01

    The role of primary sludge particulates (PSPs) in ultrasonic disinfection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was investigated. Entrapment of E. coli by PSP was directly observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) after E. coli and PSP were incubated together in water for 24 h at 35 °C. Entrapment coefficient was proposed for the first time to reflect the ability of PSP to entrap E. coli and was estimated as 1.4 × 10(3) CFU/mg PSP under our experimental conditions. Ultrasonication (20 kHz) of different E. coli-PSPs solutions showed that the entrapped E. coli cells were protected by PSP from ultrasonication and the unentrapped cells were not. However, the protection of entrapped E. coli cells gradually decreased as ultrasonication proceeded, suggesting the ability of power ultrasonication to deprotect the entrapped E. coli cells. SEM studies suggested a two-step mechanism for ultrasonic (20 kHz) disinfection of entrapped E. coli: breakdown of the protective PSP refugia and disinfection of the exposed E. coli cells. This research will enable more informed decisions about disinfection of aqueous samples where porous PSP are present.

  11. Coupling of Sinking Biogenic Particulate Fluxes and Primary Production in the Euphotic Zone of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes-Herrera, E.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Thunell, R.; Hollander, D.; Astor, Y.; Varela, R.; Soto, I.; Lorenzoni, L.

    2007-12-01

    Only 1% of the organic matter produced in the upper ocean by photosynthesis reaches depths below 1500 m due to dissolution and microbial degradation. Recent work shows that the vertical flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) is strongly correlated with the settling flux of minerals like calcium carbonate, opal and lithogenic material. These act as ballast and also provide physical protection against degradation of POC. Results from the CARIACO (Carbon Retention in a Colored Ocean) time series program support this hypothesis. For over ten years, CARIACO has been studying the connections between primary production (PP) and the biogeochemical features of sinking particles in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, with moored sediment traps that collect settling matter at five depths between 125 and 1300 m on a bi-weekly basis. The geomorphology of the basin restricts deep water ventilation, leading to anoxia below 250 m. Although the Cariaco Basin exhibits strong seasonal production cycles related to wind-driven upwelling, the flux of biogenic matter at all depths below the oxic-anoxic interface is not significantly correlated to primary production. In order to understand the flux of particles in the upper 100 m of the water column, deployments of drifting sediment traps in the Cariaco Basin were carried out from March to July 2007, collecting settling material at 50 and 100 m. The hypothesis is that the flux of sinking material through the euphotic zone may be less affected by decomposition and dissolution than material reaching the deep moored traps. Initial results show significant differences in POC, PON and carbonate flux rates between 50 and 100 m. They also exhibit significant differences in the flux rates of these components between upwelling vs. relaxation periods, suggesting potential connections among seasonal changes in surface chlorophyll a concentrations, plankton community structure, and the vertical export of biogenic materials. We describe results from this

  12. Learning from Alma Ata: the medical home and comprehensive primary health care.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) recently has received much attention in health systems literature. The PCMH holds considerable promise for improving health outcomes and re-establishing a role for family medicine in a fragmented health care system. Despite its philosophical approach to comprehensive health care reform, the PCMH fails to offer concrete recommendations to address the social determinants of health, which include health and social policy. Political engagement to promote health is part of both primary health care and specifically family medicine's history; the absence of practical, adaptable ways to implement this engagement may undermine the PCMH's ultimate goals of improving individual and population health.

  13. An Evaluation of Two Approaches for Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies in the Primary Years Using Science Information Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Smith, John A.; Fawson, Parker C.

    2005-01-01

    There are few research studies on the effects of teaching comprehension strategies to young children in the primary grades. Using a Dominant-Less Dominant Mixed Model design employing both qualitative and quantitative data collection, we evaluated two approaches for teaching comprehension strategies to 7- and 8-year-old children in four…

  14. Bidirectional Relations between Text Reading Prosody and Reading Comprehension in the Upper Primary School Grades: A Longitudinal Perspective.

    PubMed

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J; Groen, Margriet A; Verhoeven, Ludo

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared three theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and from reading comprehension to text reading prosody and a bidirectional relation between text reading prosody and reading comprehension. Further, we controlled for autoregressive effects and included decoding efficiency as a measure of general reading skill. Participants were 99 Dutch children, followed longitudinally, from fourth- to sixth-grade. Structural equation modeling showed that the bidirectional relation provided the best fitting model. In fifth-grade, text reading prosody was related to prior decoding and reading comprehension, whereas in sixth-grade, reading comprehension was related to prior text reading prosody. As such, the results suggest that the relation between text reading prosody and reading comprehension is reciprocal, but dependent on grade level.

  15. Particulate and dissolved primary production along a pronounced hydrographic and trophic gradient (Turkish Straits System-NE Aegean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagaria, A.; Psarra, S.; Gogou, A.; Tuğrul, S.; Christaki, U.

    2013-06-01

    The rates of particulate (PPp) and dissolved primary production (PPd) were estimated along a trajectory of variable environmental regimes formed in a narrow shelf area, following the course of Black Sea water masses (BSW) passing through the Turkish Straits System (TSS) into the NE Aegean Sea (BS-AS outflow). Seven stations in total were sampled, covering a transect from the eastern edge of the Marmara Sea basin to the NE Aegean Sea, during two consecutive cruises performed in October 2008 within the framework of the EU SESAME project. Along the BS-AS outflow, depth-integrated over the surface BSW layer PPp decreased considerably from 91 to < 16 mg C m- 2 h- 1 whereas PPd increased from 3 to 10 mg C m- 2 h- 1. As a consequence, the relative importance of PPd over total production (percentage extracellular release, PER) increased from 6% (± 3% sd) in the Marmara Sea to 37% (± 4% sd) in the NE Aegean Sea. Total chlorophyll a concentration gradually decreased and phytoplankton community size-structure was modified, with pico-phytoplankton, that originally represented 35% (± 9% sd) in the Marmara Sea, gradually becoming dominant in the NE Aegean (77% ± 2% sd), substituting large nano- and micro-phytoplankton cells (> 5 μm). This study showed that PER increased along a gradient from mesotrophy to oligotrophy, probably due to nutrient deficiency constraining phytoplankton growth and was closely related to phytoplankton size-structure. In the oligotrophic NE Aegean Sea, phytoplankton exudation was a significant source of dissolved organic carbon for heterotrophic prokaryotes.

  16. Using Primary Language Support via Computer to Improve Reading Comprehension Skills of First-Grade English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Cathi Draper; Filler, John; Higgins, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Through this exploratory study the authors investigated the effects of primary language support delivered via computer on the English reading comprehension skills of English language learners. Participants were 28 First-grade students identified as Limited English Proficient. The primary language of all participants was Spanish. Students were…

  17. A comprehensive medical education program response to rural primary care needs.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Michael; Hunsaker, Matthew; Sweet, Kimberly; MacDowell, Martin; Meurer, Mark

    2008-10-01

    This article presents the characteristics and results of the Rural Medical Education (RMED) Program which addresses medical workforce needs focused on reducing rural health disparities. The program is comprehensive in implementing a system of recruitment of candidates from rural backgrounds, offering a rural-focused curriculum, and instituting evaluative components to track outcomes. Distinctive program features include a Recruitment and Retention Committee of rural community members; special rural-focused topics and events during the first three years of undergraduate medical education; and a required fourth-year, 16-week rural preceptorship through which students work with primary care physicians and conduct community-oriented primary care projects. Since 1993, 216 students have matriculated. More than three quarters of candidates interviewed received offers into the program (overall acceptance rate of 75%). Comparisons between RMED and all other students on composite MCAT scores and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Part 1 scores show a slightly lower MCAT average for RMED students, but USMLE scores are equal to those of non-RMED students. To date, 159 students have graduated, with 76% entering primary care residencies; 103 are currently in practice, with 64.4% in primary care practice in small towns and/or rural communities. RMED Program outcomes compare favorably with those of other rural medical education programs. RMED can serve as a model at many levels, including recruitment, collaboration, curriculum, and retention. Future challenges for program development and disparity reduction include recruiting students from the growing number of rural minority populations, expanding the number of program slots, and integrating the program with other health professions to address the needs of rural populations.

  18. A Comprehensive Medical Education Program Response to Rural Primary Care Needs

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Michael; Hunsaker, Matthew; Sweet, Kimberly; MacDowell, Martin; Meurer, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the characteristics and results of the Rural Medical Education (RMED) Program which addresses medical workforce needs focused on reducing rural health disparities. The program is comprehensive in implementing a system of recruitment of candidates from rural backgrounds, offering a rural-focused curriculum, and instituting evaluative components to track outcomes. Distinctive program features include a Recruitment and Retention Committee of rural community members; special rural-focused topics and events during the first three years of undergraduate medical education; and a required fourth-year, 16-week rural preceptorship through which students work with primary care physicians and conduct community-oriented primary care projects. Since 1993, 216 students have matriculated. More than three quarters of candidates interviewed received offers into the program (overall acceptance rate of 75%). Comparisons between RMED and all other students on composite MCAT scores and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Part 1 scores show a slightly lower MCAT average for RMED students, but USMLE scores are equal to those of non-RMED students. To date, 159 students have graduated, with 76% entering primary care residencies; 103 are currently in practice, with 64.4% in primary care practice in small towns and/or rural communities. RMED Program outcomes compare favorably with those of other rural medical education programs. RMED can serve as a model at many levels, including recruitment, collaboration, curriculum, and retention. Future challenges for program development and disparity reduction include recruiting students from the growing number of rural minority populations, expanding the number of program slots, and integrating the program with other health professions to address the needs of rural populations. PMID:18820528

  19. Neural Mechanisms of Object Naming and Word Comprehension in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Robert S.; Paller, Ken A.; Rogalksi, Emily J.; Mesulam, M. Marsel

    2012-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative syndrome that causes a gradual atrophy of the left hemisphere language network, leading to impairments of object naming (anomia) and word comprehension. In 33 human subjects with PPA, object naming and word comprehension were explored with N400 potentials elicited by picture-word or picture-picture matching tasks. Two mechanisms of impairment were identified. In one group of patients, where the object name could be recognized but not retrieved during verbal naming, N400s in picture-word trials were also abnormal, revealing an associative basis for retrieval anomia. In these patients, a putative pre-phonological signal (i.e. lemma) evoked by the object picture appears to have become too weak to elicit retrieval, but not necessarily too weak to support the informationally less taxing process of recognition. A second group of PPA patients showed more severe naming deficits - the object name was neither verbalized nor recognized. Furthermore, nouns of the same category (but not those of other object categories) could not be identified as mismatches. This blurring of intra- but not inter-category differentiation of word meaning was correlated with anterior temporal atrophy, predominantly in the left hemisphere, especially along the superior temporal gyrus. Although not part of the classic language network, this area appears critical for proceeding from generic to specific levels of word comprehension and object naming. N400 abnormalities emerged for lexical (picture-word) but not non-verbal (picture-picture) associations, supporting a dual-route rather than amodal organization of object concepts. PMID:22492040

  20. Assessment of toxic potential of primary and secondary particulates/aerosols from biodiesel vis-à-vis mineral diesel fuelled engine.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Gupta, Tarun; Dixit, Neelabh; Shukla, Pravesh Chandra

    2013-05-01

    Toxicity of engine out emissions from primary and secondary aerosols has been a major cause of concern for human health and environmental impact. This study aims to evaluate comparative toxicity of nanoparticles emitted from a modern common rail direct injection engine (CRDI) fuelled with biodiesel blend (B20) vis-à-vis mineral diesel. The toxicity and potential health hazards of exhaust particles were assessed using various parameters such as nanoparticle size and number distribution, surface area distribution, elemental and organic carbon content and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed onto the particle surfaces, followed by toxic equivalent factor assessment. It was found that biodiesel particulate toxicity was considerably lower in comparison to mineral diesel.

  1. Primary motor cortex functionally contributes to language comprehension: An online rTMS study.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Nikola; Feurra, Matteo; Shpektor, Anna; Myachykov, Andriy; Shtyrov, Yury

    2017-02-01

    Among various questions pertinent to grounding human cognitive functions in a neurobiological substrate, the association between language and motor brain structures is a particularly debated one in neuroscience and psychology. While many studies support a broadly distributed model of language and semantics grounded, among other things, in the general modality-specific systems, theories disagree as to whether motor and sensory cortex activity observed during language processing is functional or epiphenomenal. Here, we assessed the role of motor areas in linguistic processing by investigating the responses of 28 healthy volunteers to different word types in semantic and lexical decision tasks, following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of primary motor cortex. We found that early rTMS (delivered within 200ms of word onset) produces a left-lateralised and meaning-specific change in reaction speed, slowing down behavioural responses to action-related words, and facilitating abstract words - an effect present only during semantic, but not lexical, decision. We interpret these data in light of action-perception theory of language, bolstering the claim that motor cortical areas play a functional role in language comprehension.

  2. A Metacognitive Program for Improving the Word Identification and Reading Comprehension Skills of Upper Primary Poor Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Merle E.; Robinson, Gregory L.

    This paper reports on a series of three studies designed to assess the effectiveness of a metacognitive approach to teaching word identification and reading comprehension skills to upper primary poor readers, and to investigate effective methods for implementing the metacognitive program in the regular classroom. To improve word identification…

  3. The role of the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex in action verb comprehension: evidence from Granger causality analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua

    2012-08-01

    Although numerous studies find the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex are involved in action language comprehension, so far the nature of these motor effects is still in controversy. Some researchers suggest that the motor effects reflect that the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex make functional contributions to the semantic access of action verbs, while other authors argue that the motor effects are caused by comprehension. In the current study, we used Granger causality analysis to investigate the roles of the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex in processing of manual-action verbs. Regions of interest were selected in the primary motor cortex (M1) and the premotor cortex based on a hand motion task, and in the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (lexical semantic area) based on the reading task effect. We found that (1) the left posterior middle temporal gyrus had a causal influence on the left M1; and (2) the left posterior middle temporal gyrus and the left premotor cortex had bidirectional causal relations. These results suggest that the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex play different roles in manual verb comprehension. The premotor cortex may be involved in motor simulation that contributes to action language processing, while the primary motor cortex may be engaged in a processing stage influenced by the meaning access of manual-action verbs. Further investigation combining effective connectivity analysis and technique with high temporal resolution is necessary for better clarification of the roles of the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex in action language comprehension.

  4. Is the Alma Ata vision of comprehensive primary health care viable? Findings from an international project

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Ronald; Sanders, David; Packer, Corinne; Schaay, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    Background The 4-year (2007–2011) Revitalizing Health for All international research program (http://www.globalhealthequity.ca/projects/proj_revitalizing/index.shtml) supported 20 research teams located in 15 low- and middle-income countries to explore the strengths and weaknesses of comprehensive primary health care (CPHC) initiatives at their local or national levels. Teams were organized in a triad comprised of a senior researcher, a new researcher, and a ‘research user’ from government, health services, or other organizations with the authority or capacity to apply the research findings. Multiple regional and global team capacity-enhancement meetings were organized to refine methods and to discuss and assess cross-case findings. Objective Most research projects used mixed methods, incorporating analyses of qualitative data (interviews and focus groups), secondary data, and key policy and program documents. Some incorporated historical case study analyses, and a few undertook new surveys. The synthesis of findings in this report was derived through qualitative analysis of final project reports undertaken by three different reviewers. Results Evidence of comprehensiveness (defined in this research program as efforts to improve equity in access, community empowerment and participation, social and environmental health determinants, and intersectoral action) was found in many of the cases. Conclusions Despite the important contextual differences amongst the different country studies, the similarity of many of their findings, often generated using mixed methods, attests to certain transferable health systems characteristics to create and sustain CPHC practices. These include:  Well-trained and supported community health workers (CHWs) able to work effectively with marginalized communities Effective mechanisms for community participation, both informal (through participation in projects and programs, and meaningful consultation) and formal (though program

  5. The Impact of Gender, Socioeconomic Status and Home Language on Primary School Children's Reading Comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal.

    PubMed

    Völkel, Gabriela; Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul

    2016-03-15

    The current study constituted part of a larger, longitudinal, South African-based study, namely, The Road and Aircraft Noise Exposure on Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH-South Africa). In the context of a multicultural South Africa and varying demographic variables thereof, this study sought to investigate and describe the effects of gender, socioeconomic status and home language on primary school children's reading comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal. In total, 834 learners across 5 public schools in the KwaZulu-Natal province participated in the study. A biographical questionnaire was used to obtain biographical data relevant to this study, and the Suffolk Reading Scale 2 (SRS2) was used to obtain reading comprehension scores. The findings revealed that there was no statistical difference between males and females on reading comprehension scores. In terms of socioeconomic status (SES), learners from a low socioeconomic background performed significantly better than those from a high socioeconomic background. English as a First Language (EL1) speakers had a higher mean reading comprehension score than speakers who spoke English as an Additional Language (EAL). Reading comprehension is indeed affected by a variety of variables, most notably that of language proficiency. The tool to measure reading comprehension needs to be standardized and administered in more than one language, which will ensure increased reliability and validity of reading comprehension scores.

  6. Comprehensive Lipidome Profiling of Isogenic Primary and Metastatic Colon Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Fhaner, Cassie J.; Liu, Sichang; Ji, Hong; Simpson, Richard J.; Reid, Gavin E.

    2012-01-01

    A ‘shotgun’ lipidomics strategy consisting of sequential functional group selective chemical modification reactions coupled with high-resolution / accurate mass spectrometry and ‘targeted’ tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis has been developed and applied toward the comprehensive identification, characterization and quantitative analysis of changes in relative abundances of >600 individual glycerophospholipid, glycerolipid, sphingolipid and sterol lipids between a primary colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line, SW480, and its isogenic lymph node metastasized derivative, SW620. Selective chemical derivatization of glycerophosphoethanolamine and glycerophosphoserine lipids using a ‘fixed charge’ sulfonium ion containing, d6-S,S′-dimethylthiobutanoylhydroxysuccinimide ester (d6-DMBNHS) reagent was used to eliminate the possibility of isobaric mass overlap of these species with the precursor ions of all other lipids in the crude extracts, thereby enabling their unambiguous assignment, while subsequent selective mild acid hydrolysis of plasmenyl (vinyl-ether) containing lipids using formic acid enabled these species to be readily differentiated from isobaric mass plasmanyl (alkyl-ether) containing lipids. Using this approach, statistically significant differences in the abundances of numerous lipid species previously identified as being associated with cancer progression, or that play known roles as mediators in a range of physiological and pathological processes, were observed between the SW480 and SW620 cells. Most notably, these included increased plasmanylcholine and triglyceride lipid levels, decreased plasmenylethanolamine lipids, decreased C-16 containing sphingomyelin and ceramide lipid levels, and a dramatic increase in the abundances of total cholesterol ester and triglyceride lipids in the SW620 cells compared to those in the SW480 cells. PMID:23039336

  7. Student Comprehension of Primary Literature is Aided by Companion Assignments Emphasizing Pattern Recognition and Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Sarah; Winterman, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Primary literature is our main mode of communication in the sciences. As such, it is important for our undergraduates in the discipline to learn how to read primary literature. Incorporating primary literature into undergraduate science courses is often difficult because students are unprepared to comprehend primary articles. Learning to read and…

  8. The Role of Structured Cooperative Learning Groups for Enhancing Chinese Primary Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yin-Kum

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two types of cooperative learning groups used in reciprocal teaching (RT) classes (i.e. high-structured vs. low-structured groups) for enhancing students' reading comprehension. The participants were 235 Hong Kong Chinese Grade 6 students in nine classes. Reading comprehension tests and…

  9. Effects of an Inconsistency-Detection Training Aimed at Improving Comprehension Monitoring in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassenburg, Stephanie I.; Bos, Lisanne T.; de Koning, Björn B.; van der Schoot, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Grounded within the situation model framework, this study investigated the effectiveness of a reading comprehension strategy training aimed at improving children's comprehension monitoring strategies. Sixty-four third and fourth graders received a 4-week training targeted at situation model updating, evaluative and self-regulatory strategies, and…

  10. Reading Comprehension and Working Memory's Executive Processes: An Intervention Study in Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Madruga, Juan A.; Elosua, Maria Rosa; Gil, Laura; Gomez-Veiga, Isabel; Vila, Jose Oscar; Orjales, Isabel; Contreras, Antonio; Rodriguez, Raquel; Melero, Maria Angeles; Duque, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a highly demanding task that involves the simultaneous process of extracting and constructing meaning in which working memory's executive processes play a crucial role. In this article, a training program on working memory's executive processes to improve reading comprehension is presented and empirically tested in two…

  11. Oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest are induced in primary fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells exposed to fine particulate matter from cooking oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Yan-Yan; Cao, Ji-Yu; Tao, Fang-Biao; Zhu, Xiao-Xia; Yao, Ci-Jiang; Chen, Dao-Jun; Che, Zhen; Zhao, Qi-Hong; Wen, Long-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate a linkage between morbidity and mortality and particulate matter (PM), particularly fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that can readily penetrate into the lungs and are therefore more likely to increase the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the compositions of cooking oil fume (COF)-derived PM2.5, which is the major source of indoor pollution in China. Furthermore, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest induced by COF-derived PM2.5 in primary fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells (AEC II cells) were also detected. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a radical scavenger, was used to identify the role of oxidative stress in the abovementioned processes. Our results suggested that compositions of COF-derived PM2.5 are obviously different to PM2.5 derived from other sources, and COF-derived PM2.5 led to cell death, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and G0/G1 cell arrest in primary fetal AEC II cells. Furthermore, the results also showed that COF-derived PM2.5 induced apoptosis through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway, which is indicated by the increased expression of ER stress-related apoptotic markers, namely GRP78 and caspase-12. Besides, the induction of oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest was reversed by pretreatment with NAC. These findings strongly suggested that COF-derived PM2.5-induced toxicity in primary fetal AEC II cells is mediated by increased oxidative stress, accompanied by ER stress which results in apoptosis.

  12. Nuclei-mode particulate emissions and their response to fuel sulfur content and primary dilution during transient operations of old and modern diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Gerald; Vasys, Victoria N; Kittelson, David B

    2007-09-15

    The effects of fuel sulfur content and primary dilution on PM number emissions were investigated during transient operations of an old and a modern diesel engine. Emissions were also studied during steady-state operations in order to confirm consistency with previous findings. Testing methods were concurrent with those implemented by the EPA to regulate PM mass emissions, including the use of the Federal Transient Testing Procedure-Heavy Duty cycle to simulate transient conditions and the use of a Critical Flow Venturi-Constant Volume System to provide primary dilution. Steady-state results were found to be consistent with previous studies in that nuclei-mode particulate emissions were largely reduced when lower-sulfur content fuel was used in the newer engine, while the nuclei-mode PM emissions from the older engine were much less affected by fuel sulfur content. The transient results, however, show that the total number of nuclei-mode PM emissions from both engines increases with fuel sulfur content, although this effect is only seen under the higher primary dilution ratios with the older engine. Transient results further show that higher primary dilution ratios increase total nuclei-mode PM number emissions in both engines.

  13. Interleukin-6 via sputum induction as biomarker of inflammation for indoor particulate matter among primary school children in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nazariah, S S N; Juliana, Jalaludin; Abdah, M A

    2013-04-14

    In the last few years, air within homes have been indicates by various and emerging body as more serious polluted than those outdoor. Prevalence of respiratory inflammation among school children aged 8 and 10 years old attending national primary schools in urban and rural area were conducted in Klang Valley. Two population studies drawn from the questionnaires were used to investigate the association between indoor particulate matter (PM2.5 & PM10) in a home environment and respiratory implication through the understanding of biological responses. Approximately 430 healthy school children of Standard 2 and Standard 5 were selected. Indication of respiratory symptoms using adaptation questionnaire from American Thoracic Society (1978). Sputum sample collection taken for biological analysis. IL-6 then was analyse by using ELISA techniques. Indoor PM2.5 and PM10 were measured using Dust Trak Aerosol Monitor. The mean concentration of PM2.5 (45.38 µg/m3) and PM10 (80.07 µg/m3) in urban home environment is significantly higher compared to those in rural residential area (p=0.001). Similar trend also shows by the prevalence of respiratory symptom. Association were found with PM2.5 and PM10 with the level of IL-6 among school children. A greater exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 are associated with higher expression of IL-6 level suggesting that the concentration of indoor particulate in urban density area significantly influence the health of children.

  14. Reading and Language Comprehension: What Is Going On in Scotland's Primary Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythman, Marion

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to theoretical aspects of teaching and learning reading, and the Scottish culture is viewed as providing a strong, positive framework for acquisition of reading and comprehension skills. (Author/DS)

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study of Fluency and Reading Comprehension in Spanish Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The importance of prosodic elements is recognised in most definitions of fluency. Although speed and accuracy have been typically considered the constituents of reading fluency, prosody is emerging as an additional component. The relevance of prosody in comprehension is increasingly recognised in the latest studies. The purpose of this research is…

  16. Reading with Meaning: Teaching Comprehension in the Primary Grades. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    In the second edition of "Reading with Meaning," Debbie Miller shares her new thinking about comprehension strategy instruction, the gradual release of responsibility instructional model, and planning for student engagement and independence. It has been ten years since the first edition, in which Debbie chronicled a year in her own classroom.…

  17. Testing a Comprehensive Model for Measuring Problem Solving and Problem Posing Skills of Primary Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charalambous, Charalambos; Kyriakides, Leonidas; Philippou, George

    2003-01-01

    The study reported in this paper is an attempt to develop a comprehensive model of measuring problem solving and posing (PSP) skills based on Marshall's schema theory (ST). A battery of tests on PSP skills was administered to 5th and 6th grade Cypriot students (n=2519). The Rasch model was used and a scale was created for the battery of tests and…

  18. Understanding integrated care: a comprehensive conceptual framework based on the integrative functions of primary care

    PubMed Central

    Valentijn, Pim P.; Schepman, Sanneke M.; Opheij, Wilfrid; Bruijnzeels, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Primary care has a central role in integrating care within a health system. However, conceptual ambiguity regarding integrated care hampers a systematic understanding. This paper proposes a conceptual framework that combines the concepts of primary care and integrated care, in order to understand the complexity of integrated care. Methods The search method involved a combination of electronic database searches, hand searches of reference lists (snowball method) and contacting researchers in the field. The process of synthesizing the literature was iterative, to relate the concepts of primary care and integrated care. First, we identified the general principles of primary care and integrated care. Second, we connected the dimensions of integrated care and the principles of primary care. Finally, to improve content validity we held several meetings with researchers in the field to develop and refine our conceptual framework. Results The conceptual framework combines the functions of primary care with the dimensions of integrated care. Person-focused and population-based care serve as guiding principles for achieving integration across the care continuum. Integration plays complementary roles on the micro (clinical integration), meso (professional and organisational integration) and macro (system integration) level. Functional and normative integration ensure connectivity between the levels. Discussion The presented conceptual framework is a first step to achieve a better understanding of the inter-relationships among the dimensions of integrated care from a primary care perspective. PMID:23687482

  19. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter during a 2001 summer intensive study at the CMU Supersite and NETL Pittsburgh site.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Delbert J; Mangelson, Nolan F; Anderson, Richard R; Martello, Donald V; Pekney, Natalie J; Davidson, Cliff I; Modey, William K

    2007-10-01

    Gaseous and particulate pollutant concentrations associated with five samples per day collected during a July 2001 summer intensive study at the Pittsburgh Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Supersite were used to apportion fine particulate matter (PM2.5) into primary and secondary contributions using PMF2. Input to the PMF2 analysis included the concentrations of PM2.5 nonvolatile and semivolatile organic material, elemental carbon (EC), ammonium sulfate, trace element components, gas-phase organic material, and NO(x), NO2, and O3 concentrations. A total of 10 factors were identified. These factors are associated with emissions from various sources and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. In addition, four secondary sources were identified, three of which were associated with secondary products of local emissions and were dominated by organic material and one of which was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the CMU site from the west and southwest. The three largest contributors to PM2.5 were secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) from the west and southwest (49%), secondary material formed during midday photochemical processes (24%), and gasoline combustion emissions (11%). The other seven sources accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5. Results obtained at the CMU site were comparable to results previously reported at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), located approximately 18 km south of downtown Pittsburgh. The major contributor at both sites was material transported from the west and southwest. Some difference in nearby sources could be attributed to meteorology as evaluated by HYSPLIT model back-trajectory calculations. These findings are consistent with the majority of the secondary ammonium sulfate in the Pittsburgh area being the result of contributions from distant transport, and thus decoupled from local

  20. Delivery of gender-sensitive comprehensive primary care to women veterans: implications for VA Patient Aligned Care Teams.

    PubMed

    Yano, Elizabeth M; Haskell, Sally; Hayes, Patricia

    2014-07-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VA) has undertaken a major initiative to transform primary care delivery through implementation of Patient Aligned Care Teams (PACTs). Based on the patient-centered medical home concept, PACTs aim to improve access, continuity, coordination, and comprehensiveness using team-based care that is patient driven and patient centered. However, how PACT principles should be applied to meet the needs of special populations, including women veterans, is not entirely clear. While historical differences in military participation meant women veterans were rarely seen in VA healthcare settings, they now represent the fastest growing segment of new VA users. They also have complex healthcare needs, adding gender-specific services and other needs to the spectrum of services that the VA must deliver. These trends are changing the VA landscape, introducing challenges to how VA care is organized, how VA providers need to be trained, and how VA considers implementation of new initiatives, such as PACT. We briefly describe the evolution of VA primary care delivery for women veterans, review VA policy for delivering gender-sensitive comprehensive primary care for women, and discuss the challenges that women veterans' needs pose in the context of PACT implementation. We conclude with recommendations for addressing some of these challenges moving forward.

  1. From empower to Green Dot : successful strategies and lessons learned in developing comprehensive sexual violence primary prevention programming.

    PubMed

    Cook-Craig, Patricia G; Millspaugh, Phyllis H; Recktenwald, Eileen A; Kelly, Natalie C; Hegge, Lea M; Coker, Ann L; Pletcher, Tisha S

    2014-10-01

    This case study describes Kentucky's partnership with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) EMPOWER (Enhancing and Making Programs Work to End Rape) program to enhance the mission and services of existing rape crisis centers to include comprehensive primary prevention programming to reduce rates of sexual violence perpetration. The planning process and the successful implementation of a statewide, 5-year, randomized control trial study of a bystander prevention program (Green Dot), and its evaluation are described. Lessons learned in generating new questions, seeking funding, building relationships and capacity, and disseminating knowledge are presented.

  2. Utilizing Nonfiction Texts to Enhance Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary in Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Karen E.; Rausch, Casey M.; McCarty, Tiffany G.; Montgomery, Sarah E.; Rule, Audrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Many primary grade students are not afforded nonfiction-rich opportunities, with fiction comprising the majority of books read aloud in classrooms. With the Common Core Standards recommending that half of the texts made available to students be nonfiction, educators are increasing their use of informational text. The present study explored the…

  3. The coexistence of Sjögren's syndrome and primary biliary cirrhosis: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Zhang, Weici; Li, Baosen; Zou, Zhengsheng; Selmi, Carlo; Gershwin, M Eric

    2015-06-01

    Organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases share numerous features and often coexist in the same patient. Autoimmune cholangitis/primary biliary cirrhosis and Sjogren syndrome represent paradigmatic examples of the common grounds of different autoimmunity phenotypes based on similarities in clinical manifestations and immunopathogenesis. In fact, primary biliary cirrhosis and Sjogren's syndrome have both been coined as an autoimmune epithelitis in which apoptosis may be in both cases the key element to explain the organ-specific immune-mediated injury against the biliary and exocrine gland epithelia, respectively. Further, growing evidence supports in both diseases the view that B cells, T cytotoxic cells, and T helper cells are involved in chronic inflammation, likely via the altered expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The presence of estrogen receptors on the biliary and exocrine gland epithelia has been advocated as a key to the female predominance encountered in primary biliary cirrhosis and Sjogren's syndrome. Sadly, despite available data, therapeutic approaches remain largely unsatisfactory and recent studies with mechanistic approaches (as in the case of B cell depletion with rituximab) have been of partial benefit only. Future studies should focus on new molecular tools (single-cell transcriptomics, microRNA, epigenetics) to provide unique insights into common mechanisms.

  4. Semi-coke briquettes: towards reducing emissions of primary PM2.5, particulate carbon, and carbon monoxide from household coal combustion in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Jiang, Jingkun; Duan, Lei; Ge, Su; Zhang, Qi; Deng, Jianguo; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Direct household use of unprocessed raw coals for cooking and heating without any air pollution control device has caused serious indoor and outdoor environment problems by emitting particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. This study examined household emission reduction by switching from unprocessed bituminous and anthracite coals to processed semi-coke briquettes. Two typical stoves were used to test emission characteristics when burning 20 raw coal samples commonly used in residential heating activities and 15 semi-coke briquette samples which were made from bituminous coals by industrial carbonization treatment. The carbonization treatment removes volatile compounds from raw coals which are the major precursors for PM formation and carbon emission. The average emission factors of primary PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and carbon monoxide for the tested semi-coke briquettes are much lower than those of the tested raw coals. Based on the current coal consumption data in China, switching to semi-coke briquettes can reduce average emission factors of these species by about 92%, 98%, 91%, and 34%, respectively. Additionally, semi-coke briquette has relatively lower price and higher burnout ratio. The replacement of raw coals with semi-coke briquettes is a feasible path to reduce pollution emissions from household activities.

  5. Semi-coke briquettes: towards reducing emissions of primary PM2.5, particulate carbon, and carbon monoxide from household coal combustion in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Jiang, Jingkun; Duan, Lei; Ge, Su; Zhang, Qi; Deng, Jianguo; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Direct household use of unprocessed raw coals for cooking and heating without any air pollution control device has caused serious indoor and outdoor environment problems by emitting particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. This study examined household emission reduction by switching from unprocessed bituminous and anthracite coals to processed semi-coke briquettes. Two typical stoves were used to test emission characteristics when burning 20 raw coal samples commonly used in residential heating activities and 15 semi-coke briquette samples which were made from bituminous coals by industrial carbonization treatment. The carbonization treatment removes volatile compounds from raw coals which are the major precursors for PM formation and carbon emission. The average emission factors of primary PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and carbon monoxide for the tested semi-coke briquettes are much lower than those of the tested raw coals. Based on the current coal consumption data in China, switching to semi-coke briquettes can reduce average emission factors of these species by about 92%, 98%, 91%, and 34%, respectively. Additionally, semi-coke briquette has relatively lower price and higher burnout ratio. The replacement of raw coals with semi-coke briquettes is a feasible path to reduce pollution emissions from household activities. PMID:26782059

  6. Benefits of Decreased Mortality Risk from Reductions in Primary Mobile Source Fine Particulate Matter: A Limited Data Approach for Urban Areas Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Greco, Susan L; Belova, Anna; Huang, Jin

    2016-09-01

    We developed an approach to estimate the public health benefits resulting from transportation projects or environmental actions that reduce mobile source fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) in select urban areas worldwide when input data are limited or when a rapid order-of-magnitude assessment is needed. For a given reduction in direct PM2.5 emissions, we can use this approach to quantify (1) the subsequent reduction in ambient primary PM2.5 concentration in the urban area; (2) the public health benefits associated with mortality risk reductions, measured in terms of avoided premature deaths; and (3) the economic value of the reduced mortality risk. To illustrate our approach, we estimated the impact of a 100-metric-ton reduction in primary PM2.5 mobile source emissions in the year 2010 for 42 large, global cities. Our estimates of public health benefits and their economic value varied by city, as did the sensitivity to key assumptions and inputs. The estimated number of premature deaths avoided per 100-metric-ton reduction in PM2.5 emissions ranged from 12 to 202. City-level variability in these estimates was driven by the magnitude of the reduction in ambient PM2.5 concentration, the size of the urban population, and the baseline PM2.5 concentration. The economic value of mortality risk reductions per 100-metric-ton reduction in PM2.5 emissions ranged from $2 million to $328 million in 2010 U.S. dollars. Income per capita was the most important driver of the variability in the economic values across countries.

  7. Recent advances in transplantation for primary immune deficiency diseases: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    de la Morena, M Teresa; Nelson, Robert P

    2014-04-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a curative therapeutic option for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a group of diseases which otherwise carry life expectancies that are of limited duration and quality. Survival following HCT for SCID has improved from approximately 23 to 91 % over the last 40 years. Success with SCID prompted efforts to apply HCT to the therapeutic challenge of well over 20 molecularly defined primary immune deficiency diseases (PID). Such success is due to both early recognition of PIDs and advances in the field of transplantation. Such advances include high-resolution HLA DNA donor-recipient matching, expansion of donor sources, better tolerated conditioning, new antibiotics, and wider availability. International collaborative efforts have provided patients and caregivers information that permit better treatment decisions now, and direct clinicians and investigators to ensure progress in the future. Pioneers in screening for SCID have taken steps to correct the fundamental challenge to successful treatment, which is the rapid discovery and characterization of cases and offering the transplant option to an affected child early in life; blood spot testing for T and B cell receptor quantification is now available to a growing fraction of newborns. Organizations including the Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium in the USA, The European Society for Primary Immunodeficiency, the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium, the United States Immunodeficiency Network, the Immune Deficiency Foundation, and the Jeffrey Modell Foundation are contributing mightily to increase awareness and standardize optimal utilization to the benefit of patients. This review will update the allergist-immunologist concerning disease presentations, indications for transplantation, methodologies, conditioning regimens, and clinical outcomes for patients with PID for which timely HCT is

  8. The relationship between sun protection policies and practices in schools with primary-age students: the role of school demographics, policy comprehensiveness and SunSmart membership.

    PubMed

    Dono, J; Ettridge, K A; Sharplin, G R; Wilson, C J

    2014-02-01

    Schools can implement evidence-based sun protection policies that guide practices to help protect children from harmful sun exposure. This national study assessed the relationship between the existence and comprehensiveness of written policies and the comprehensiveness of sun protection practices. The impact of school demographics on the strength of the relationship was also examined, as was the possibility that 'SunSmart' membership would have an additional impact on practices, beyond having any formal policy. In 2011-12, staff members of 1573 schools catering to primary-age students completed a self-administered survey about sun protection policies and practices (response rate of 57%). Results showed that schools with a written policy had more comprehensive practices than schools without a written policy. The relationship between having a written policy and sun protection practices was stronger for remote schools compared with metropolitan and regional schools, and for schools catering to both primary and secondary students compared with primary students only. In addition, policy comprehensiveness was associated with practice comprehensiveness, and SunSmart membership was indirectly related to practice comprehensiveness via policy comprehensiveness. These results indicate that written policies relate to practice comprehensiveness, but the strength of the association can vary according to the characteristics of the organization.

  9. Impact evaluation of a health promotion-focused organisational development strategy on a health service's capacity to deliver comprehensive primary health care.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michelle; Taylor, Jane; O'Hara, Lily

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive primary health care approach is required to address complex health issues and reduce inequities. However, there has been limited uptake of this approach by health services nationally or internationally. Reorienting health services towards becoming more health promoting provides a mechanism to support the delivery of comprehensive primary health care. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a health promotion-focused organisational development strategy on the capacity of a primary health care service to deliver comprehensive primary health care. A questionnaire and semistructured individual interviews were used to collect quantitative and qualitative impact evaluation data, respectively, from 13 health service staff across three time points with regard to 37 indicators of organisational capacity. There were significant increases in mean scores for 31 indicators, with effect sizes ranging from moderate to nearly perfect. A range of key enablers and barriers to support the delivery of comprehensive primary health care was identified. In conclusion, an organisational development strategy to reorient health services towards becoming more health promoting may increase the capacity to deliver comprehensive primary health care.

  10. A comprehensive study of smoking in primary school children in Hong Kong: implications for prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, J; Hedley, A J; Lam, T H; Betson, C L; Wong, C M

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with smoking behaviour in primary school children in Hong Kong. DESIGN: A cross sectional survey in which both children and parents completed questionnaires. The main outcome measure was the smoking status of the children; and risk factors (knowledge of and attitude to smoking and demographic and socioeconomic background) were identified as predictors of ever/never smoking. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Altogether 9598 primary school children, aged 8-13 years, and attending 27 schools from two districts in Hong Kong participated. MAIN RESULTS: The prevalence of ever-smoking was 12% (1119)-15% (760) in boys and 7% (359) in girls. It ranged from 3% in 8 year old girls to 52% in 13 year old boys. The factors associated with ever-smoking included the following: being a boy (adjusted odds ratio 2.21; 95% confidence interval 1.89, 2.59), increasing age per year (1.48; 1.40, 1.57), living in Kwai Tsing district (1.29; 1.10, 1.50), having one or more smokers at home (2.07; 1.78, 2.39), and having a father who was not working (1.41; 1.19, 1.67). Children who were ever-smokers had both seen and approved of their friends' smoking (8.79; 5.33, 14.50), had a more positive attitude towards smoking (3.35; 2.21, 5.09), and were more successful in recognising cigarette brand names and logos (1.67; 1.42, 1.96), but they lacked confidence (1.78; 1.32, 2.39). CONCLUSIONS: The influences on child smoking are multifactorial and programmes in Hong Kong are falling to curb them. The control of these risk factors must be incorporated in the smoking prevention policy of Hong Kong and supported by future enforced legislation. PMID:9229051

  11. Epigenetics and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: a Comprehensive Review and Implications for Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yu-Qing; Ma, Hong-Di; Lian, Zhe-Xiong

    2016-06-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that develops based upon the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified dozens of predisposing variants including HLA, IL12A, and CTLA4 but have been disappointed in identifying a "smoking gun." These discoveries highlight the importance of the genetic background involved in immunological dysregulation. Although concordance rate of PBC in monozygotic (MZ) twins is among the highest reported in autoimmune disorders, incomplete disease concordance in twins associated with differentially expressed genes has been demonstrated. However, little is understood about how environmental aspects contribute to the disease and why middle-aged women are more susceptible. As a result, epigenetic factors, which convert signals indicating environmental changes into dynamic and heritable alterations of transcriptional potential, are getting increased attention by researchers in both basic and clinical studies. Among epigenetic mechanisms, the instability and skewed gene expression in the X chromosome may account for the female preponderance in PBC. In addition, transcriptional regulation of histone modification and DNA methylation underscores potential involvement in disease pathogenesis. High-throughput techniques are being used to identify epigenetic regulators. In this review, we attempt to outline recent progress regarding epigenetics in PBC and other autoimmune diseases.

  12. Study of primary biological aerosols to characterize their diversity in particulate matter over the Indian tropical region: assessment for climatic and health impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyamvada R, H.; Muthalagu, A.; R, R.; Verma, R. S.; Philip, L.; Desprès, V.; Poeschl, U.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAPs) are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and can influence the biosphere, climate, and public health (Després et al., 2012).To study the importance of the PBAPs, it is important to have an understanding about their origin, seasonal abundance and diversity. The study of PBAPs over the Indian tropical region becomes important as it hosts ~ 18% of the world population and has a distinct climate with a systematic and cyclic monsoon season which is different from the continental climates in Europe and America. In this study, the PBAPs were characterized by the application of molecular genetic techniques involving DNA extraction, PCR amplifications, cloning and DNA sequencing. In addition, characterization of the fungal source emissions was performed to better understand the diversity, abundance, and relative contribution of the fungal aerosols. For the present study, DNA analysis was performed on a one-year air filter set of PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 mm) covering three distinct meteorological seasons, i.e. summer, monsoon, and winter. The results from DNA analysis revealed the presence of bacteria and fungi in the filter samples. The fungal source characterization performed by the DNA analysis revealed the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota to be 96:4, which is consistent with previously reported studies from airborne fungal communities in the European continental boundary layer air (Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al., 2009). In the study region, the highest species richness was found to be present in the family Agaricaceae (25.3%) followed by Polyporaceae (15.3%) and Marasmiaceae (10.81%). Agaricaceae, Polyporaceae and Psathyrellaceae were dominant families in the study region and the families like Clavariaceae, Nectriaceae, Phanerochaetachae, Pleurotaceae and Strophariaceae were found to be rare. The results will next be compared with the diversity and types of the fungi found in ambient PM10. More details will be presented.

  13. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes.

  14. Multivariate analysis of mainstream tobacco smoke particulate phase by headspace solid-phase micro extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Brokl, Michał; Bishop, Louise; Wright, Christopher G; Liu, Chuan; McAdam, Kevin; Focant, Jean-François

    2014-11-28

    A method involving headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) was developed and applied to evaluate profiles of volatile compounds present in mainstream tobacco smoke particulate matter trapped on glass fiber filters. Six SPME fibers were tested for the extraction capacities toward selected compounds, showing the best results for the polyacrylate fiber. The optimization of the extraction conditions was carried out using multivariate response surface methodology. Two cigarette types differing in a filter design were analyzed using optimized conditions. A template was built in order to generate comprehensive chemical information, which conceded obtaining consistent information across 24 chromatograms. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed a clear differentiation of the studied cigarette types. Fisher ratio analysis allowed identification of compounds responsible for the chemical differences between the cigarette samples. Of the selected 143 most important ones, 134 analytes were reduced by the active carbon filter, while for nine, classical cellulose acetate filter was more efficient.

  15. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake a comprehensive program... Investigating and Controlling Nontraditional Particulate Matter Emissions Task Completion date Scheduled...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake a comprehensive program... Investigating and Controlling Nontraditional Particulate Matter Emissions Task Completion date Scheduled...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake a comprehensive program... Investigating and Controlling Nontraditional Particulate Matter Emissions Task Completion date Scheduled...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake a comprehensive program... Investigating and Controlling Nontraditional Particulate Matter Emissions Task Completion date Scheduled...

  19. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Parotid Gland: A Case Report and a Comprehensive Review of a Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Cerrillo, Javier; Moreno García del Real, Carmen; Díez, Juan J.; Alonso-Gordoa, Teresa; Pulido, Enrique Grande

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of malignancies from cells derived from the neural crest with neuroendocrine differentiation. Despite the differences in the site of origin, nomenclature, biological behavior, and functional status, NETs share certain ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features. NETs are relative rare tumors with an annual incidence of 5.76 new cases per 100.000 inhabitants and they usually appear in the gastrointestinal tract or in the pulmonary system. Head and neck NETs are uncommon with limited information regarding frequency, most of them showing small cell carcinoma features. NETs that arise from the salivary glands are exceedingly rare. Regardless of their low frequency, it is imperative to accurately differentiate these tumors from the much more common squamous cell carcinomas and from metastasis from another primary tumor due to the completely different therapeutic approaches and prognosis. The diagnosis is based on the recognition of the typical neuroendocrine architecture and immunohistochemical staining and on an exhaustive work-up. Hereby, we report a case of a moderately differentiated NET of the parotid gland that was treated with a complete parotidectomy. We summarize the clues that led to the final diagnosis and major strategies that were employed to manage the patient. We also perform a comprehensive review of the scarce available literature on this topic. PMID:27610258

  20. Cognitive and Affective Contributions of the Literature Circles Method on the Acquisition of Reading Habits and Comprehension Skills in Primary Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Suleyman; Yuksel, Arzu

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of literature circles on fourth grade primary students' reading habits and comprehension skills and collected the opinions of students and teachers about the method. In this study, quantitative (pre-test and post-test designs) and qualitative (case study) methods were employed together. The study was…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of the Role of Reading Motivation in Primary Students' Reading Comprehension: Implications for a Less Simple View of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Kelly B.; Marshall, Timothy R.; Wray, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Although substantial research indicates motivation contributes significant variance to reading comprehension in upper elementary students, research with students in primary grades has focused, instead, on the relation of motivation to word reading. Assessment of reading motivation in 68 first and second graders indicated word and nonword reading…

  2. The Impact of Gender, Socioeconomic Status and Home Language on Primary School Children’s Reading Comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal

    PubMed Central

    Völkel, Gabriela; Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The current study constituted part of a larger, longitudinal, South African-based study, namely, The Road and Aircraft Noise Exposure on Children’s Cognition and Health (RANCH—South Africa). In the context of a multicultural South Africa and varying demographic variables thereof, this study sought to investigate and describe the effects of gender, socioeconomic status and home language on primary school children’s reading comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal. In total, 834 learners across 5 public schools in the KwaZulu-Natal province participated in the study. A biographical questionnaire was used to obtain biographical data relevant to this study, and the Suffolk Reading Scale 2 (SRS2) was used to obtain reading comprehension scores. The findings revealed that there was no statistical difference between males and females on reading comprehension scores. In terms of socioeconomic status (SES), learners from a low socioeconomic background performed significantly better than those from a high socioeconomic background. English as a First Language (EL1) speakers had a higher mean reading comprehension score than speakers who spoke English as an Additional Language (EAL). Reading comprehension is indeed affected by a variety of variables, most notably that of language proficiency. The tool to measure reading comprehension needs to be standardized and administered in more than one language, which will ensure increased reliability and validity of reading comprehension scores. PMID:26999169

  3. Screening, diagnosis, treatment, and management of hepatitis C: a novel, comprehensive, online resource center for primary care providers and specialists.

    PubMed

    Lebovics, Edward; Czobor, Klara

    2014-11-01

    Current initiatives focusing on hepatitis C (HCV) screening and diagnosis, together with the advent of oral interferon (IFN)-free treatment regimens have prompted Elsevier Multimedia Publishing and the American Journal of Medicine (AJM) to develop a novel, comprehensive, online Resource Center dedicated to providing both primary care providers and specialists with the latest information on the screening, diagnosis, treatment, and management of HCV. To date, only 25% of infected patients have been diagnosed and only 5% cured. With the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the US Prevention Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation of one-time screening for all individuals born between 1945 and 1965, and the availability of safe and effective therapy, it is anticipated that primary care providers and community practices will become increasingly responsible for the screening, diagnosis, and management of infected patients, as well as providing access to care by specialists when needed. The AJM Hepatitis C Resource Center site will have two major channels; one channel tailored to specifically address the needs of internal medicine physicians and other primary care providers, and one channel tailored to address the needs of specialists including hepatologists, gastroenterologists, and infectious disease specialists. Systematic surveys of these clinician audiences are being conducted by Elsevier to assess educational gaps, and ensure that the content of each channel of the Resource Center satisfies the needs of the intended audiences. In a recent Elsevier survey of primary care physicians (PCPs) who had screened and/or participated in the care of patients with HCV within 6 months of participating in the survey, 60% of PCPs stated that they were not very confident or only somewhat confident about screening patients for chronic HCV infection. A recent Elsevier survey of specialists revealed low levels of satisfaction with the treatment options available in

  4. Monitoring of atmospheric gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in South African platinum mines utilising portable denuder sampling with analysis by thermal desorption-comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, G; Rohwer, E R; Naudé, Y; Forbes, P B C

    2015-02-06

    Concentrations of diesel particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in platinum mine environments are likely to be higher than in ambient air due to the use of diesel machinery in confined environments. Airborne PAHs may be present in gaseous or particle phases each of which has different human health impacts due to their ultimate fate in the body. Here we report on the simultaneous sampling of both phases of airborne PAHs for the first time in underground platinum mines in South Africa, which was made possible by employing small, portable denuder sampling devices consisting of two polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) multi-channel traps connected in series separated by a quartz fibre filter, which only require small, battery operated portable personal sampling pumps for air sampling. Thermal desorption coupled with comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC×GC-TofMS) was used to analyse denuder samples taken in three different platinum mines. The samples from a range of underground environments revealed that PAHs were predominantly found in the gas phase with naphthalene and mono-methylated naphthalene derivatives being detected at the highest concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 18 μg m(-3). The particle bound PAHs were found in the highest concentrations at the idling load haul dump vehicle exhausts with a dominance of fluoranthene and pyrene. Particle associated PAH concentrations ranged from 0.47 to 260 ng m(-3) and included benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and benzo[ghi]perylene. This work highlights the need to characterise both phases in order to assess occupational exposure to PAHs in this challenging sampling environment.

  5. To What Extent Does Hong Kong Primary School Students' Chinese Reading Comprehension Benefit from After-School Private Tuition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Shek Kam

    2014-01-01

    The reading attainment of the 3,875 primary 4 Hong Kong primary school students participating in the 2011 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study ranked first among 49 countries and regions surveyed worldwide. Analysis of the association between (a) participating students' reading attainment and (b) responses to questionnaires completed…

  6. Characterisation of ship diesel primary particulate matter at the molecular level by means of ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled to laser desorption ionisation--comparison of feed fuel, filter extracts and direct particle measurements.

    PubMed

    Rüger, Christopher P; Sklorz, Martin; Schwemer, Theo; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    In this study, positive-mode laser desorption-ionisation ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LDI-FT-ICR-MS) was applied to study combustion aerosol samples obtained from a ship diesel engine as well as the feed fuel, used to operate the engine. Furthermore, particulate matter was sampled from the exhaust tube using an impactor and analysed directly from the impaction foil without sample treatment. From the high percentage of shared sum formula as well as similarities in the chemical spread of aerosol and heavy fuel oil, results indicate that the primary aerosol mainly consists of survived, unburned species from the feed fuel. The effect of pyrosynthesis could be observed and was slightly more pronounced for the CH-class compared to other compound classes, but in summary not dominant. Alkylation pattern as well as the aromaticity distribution, using the double bond equivalent, revealed a shift towards lower alkylation state for the aerosol. The alkylation pattern of the most dominant series revealed a higher correlation between different aerosol samples than between aerosol and feed samples. This was confirmed by cluster analysis. Overall, this study shows that LDI-FT-ICR-MS can be successfully applied for the analysis of combustion aerosol at the molecular level and that sum formula information can be used to identify chemical differences between aerosol and fuel as well as between different size fractions of the particulate matter.

  7. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  8. Effectively Communicating Colorectal Cancer Screening Information to Primary Care Providers: Application for State, Tribe or Territory Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Jennifer; Vanderpool, Robin; McClung, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patients are more likely to be screened for colorectal cancer if it is recommended by a health care provider. Therefore, it is imperative that providers have access to the latest screening guidelines. Purpose: This practice-based project sought to identify Kentucky primary care providers' preferred sources and methods of receiving…

  9. Preliminary Results of a Comprehensive Approach to Prevent Antisocial Behaviour in Preschool and Primary School Pupils in Luxembourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petermann, Franz; Natzke, Heike

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the preliminary short- and middle-term impact of a nation-wide, school-based prevention initiative on antisocial behaviour of preschool and primary school pupils in Luxembourg. Seventeen preschool and reception classes (n = 183) were assigned to intervention and comparison conditions. The intervention included…

  10. The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 3. Results: person centred care, comprehensive and holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Van Royen, Paul; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri E J H; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2010-06-01

    The recently published 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. In a first article, background, objectives, and methodology were discussed. In a second article, the results for the two core competencies 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' were presented. This article reflects on the three core competencies, which deal with person related aspects of GP/FM, i.e. 'person centred care', 'comprehensive approach' and 'holistic approach'. Though there is an important body of opinion papers and (non-systematic) reviews, all person related aspects remain poorly defined and researched. Validated instruments to measure these competencies are lacking. Concerning patient-centredness, most research examined patient and doctor preferences and experiences. Studies on comprehensiveness mostly focus on prevention/care of specific diseases. For all domains, there has been limited research conducted on its implications or outcomes.

  11. Psychosocial Risk Factors, Interventions, and Comorbidity in Patients with Non-Specific Low Back Pain in Primary Care: Need for Comprehensive and Patient-Centered Care.

    PubMed

    Ramond-Roquin, Aline; Bouton, Céline; Bègue, Cyril; Petit, Audrey; Roquelaure, Yves; Huez, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Non-specific low back pain (LBP) affects many people and has major socio-economic consequences. Traditional therapeutic strategies, mainly focused on biomechanical factors, have had moderate and short-term impact. Certain psychosocial factors have been linked to poor prognosis of LBP and they are increasingly considered as promising targets for management of LBP. Primary health care providers (HCPs) are involved in most of the management of people with LBP and they are skilled in providing comprehensive care, including consideration of psychosocial dimensions. This review aims to discuss three pieces of recent research focusing on psychosocial issues in LBP patients in primary care. In the first systematic review, the patients' or HCPs' overall judgment about the likely evolution of LBP was the factor most strongly linked to poor outcome, with predictive validity similar to that of multidimensional scales. This result may be explained by the implicit aggregation of many prognostic factors underlying this judgment and suggests the relevance of considering the patients from biopsychosocial and longitudinal points of view. The second review showed that most of the interventions targeting psychosocial factors in LBP in primary care have to date focused on the cognitive-behavioral factors, resulting in little impact. It is unlikely that any intervention focusing on a single factor would ever fit the needs of most patients; interventions targeting determinants from several fields (mainly psychosocial, biomechanical, and occupational) may be more relevant. Should multiple stakeholders be involved in such interventions, enhanced interprofessional collaboration would be critical to ensure the delivery of coordinated care. Finally, in the third study, the prevalence of psychosocial comorbidity in chronic LBP patients was not found to be significantly higher than in other patients consulting in primary care. Rather than specifically screening for psychosocial conditions, this

  12. Psychosocial Risk Factors, Interventions, and Comorbidity in Patients with Non-Specific Low Back Pain in Primary Care: Need for Comprehensive and Patient-Centered Care

    PubMed Central

    Ramond-Roquin, Aline; Bouton, Céline; Bègue, Cyril; Petit, Audrey; Roquelaure, Yves; Huez, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Non-specific low back pain (LBP) affects many people and has major socio-economic consequences. Traditional therapeutic strategies, mainly focused on biomechanical factors, have had moderate and short-term impact. Certain psychosocial factors have been linked to poor prognosis of LBP and they are increasingly considered as promising targets for management of LBP. Primary health care providers (HCPs) are involved in most of the management of people with LBP and they are skilled in providing comprehensive care, including consideration of psychosocial dimensions. This review aims to discuss three pieces of recent research focusing on psychosocial issues in LBP patients in primary care. In the first systematic review, the patients’ or HCPs’ overall judgment about the likely evolution of LBP was the factor most strongly linked to poor outcome, with predictive validity similar to that of multidimensional scales. This result may be explained by the implicit aggregation of many prognostic factors underlying this judgment and suggests the relevance of considering the patients from biopsychosocial and longitudinal points of view. The second review showed that most of the interventions targeting psychosocial factors in LBP in primary care have to date focused on the cognitive-behavioral factors, resulting in little impact. It is unlikely that any intervention focusing on a single factor would ever fit the needs of most patients; interventions targeting determinants from several fields (mainly psychosocial, biomechanical, and occupational) may be more relevant. Should multiple stakeholders be involved in such interventions, enhanced interprofessional collaboration would be critical to ensure the delivery of coordinated care. Finally, in the third study, the prevalence of psychosocial comorbidity in chronic LBP patients was not found to be significantly higher than in other patients consulting in primary care. Rather than specifically screening for psychosocial conditions

  13. Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

  14. Clinicopathologic and genetic features of primary bronchopulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma: the MD Anderson Cancer Center experience and comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Salem, Alireza; Bell, Diana; Sepesi, Boris; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; El-Naggar, Adel; Moran, Cesar A; Kalhor, Neda

    2017-03-25

    Primary bronchopulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (BPMEC) is a rare tumor. The fusion protein MECT1-MAML2 has been implicated as a causative genetic event in salivary and BPMECs. Several studies have shown the impact of MECT1-MAML2 on the diagnosis and prognosis of salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma; however, few studies have been published regarding MECT1-MAML2 in the context of primary BPMEC. We describe the clinicopathologic, genetic, and outcome data of 16 patients with BPMEC. Clinicopathologic features were recorded from the electronic medical records. All tumors were reviewed by two expert pulmonary pathologists and graded according to previously established criteria. The presence of MECT1-MAML2 was evaluated with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue. Patients included 9 women and 7 men with a median age of 50 years (range, 7 to 82 years). Tumors exhibited low (n = 14, 88%), and high (n = 2, 12%) grade histologic features. Eight of nine tested tumors (89%) were positive for MECT1-MAML2. The median follow-up time was 40.8 months (range, 1.8-120). Median overall survival for patients with high-grade tumors was 12 months, which was significantly (p = 0.002) shorter than that for patients with low-grade tumors (survival undefined). We also provide a comprehensive review of literature of cases of primary bronchopulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma and summarize our findings in this context. MECT1-MAML2 fusion transcript is a driver genetic event in the pathogenesis of primary BPMEC. Histologic grade continues to play a pivotal role in the survival of patients with primary bronchopulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

  15. A Study on Reading Comprehension Skills of Primary School 5th Grade Students--Learning Basic Reading and Writing Skills through Phonics-Based Sentence Method or Decoding Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusdemir Kayiran, Bilge; Karabay, Aysegul

    2012-01-01

    This research aims at investigating the influence of two methods implemented in primary reading and writing teaching programs--phonics-based sentence method and decoding (analysis) method--on primary school 5th grade students' reading comprehension achievement. Also, the study considers the relationship between socio-economic status and reading…

  16. Controlled trial of a collaborative primary care team model for patients with diabetes and depression: Rationale and design for a comprehensive evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background When depression accompanies diabetes, it complicates treatment, portends worse outcomes and increases health care costs. A collaborative care case-management model, previously tested in an urban managed care organization in the US, achieved significant reduction of depressive symptoms, improved diabetes disease control and patient-reported outcomes, and saved money. While impressive, these findings need to be replicated and extended to other healthcare settings. Our objective is to comprehensively evaluate a collaborative care model for comorbid depression and type 2 diabetes within a Canadian primary care setting. Methods/design We initiated the TeamCare model in four Primary Care Networks in Northern Alberta. The intervention involves a nurse care manager guiding patient-centered care with family physicians and consultant physician specialists to monitor progress and develop tailored care plans. Patients eligible for the intervention will be identified using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as a screen for depressive symptoms. Care managers will then guide patients through three phases: 1) improving depressive symptoms, 2) improving blood glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol, and 3) improving lifestyle behaviors. We will employ the RE-AIM framework for a comprehensive and mixed-methods approach to our evaluation. Effectiveness will be assessed using a controlled “on-off” trial design, whereby eligible patients would be alternately enrolled in the TeamCare intervention or usual care on a monthly basis. All patients will be assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Our primary analyses will be based on changes in two outcomes: depressive symptoms, and a multivariable, scaled marginal model for the combined outcome of global disease control (i.e., A1c, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol). Our planned enrolment of 168 patients will provide greater than 80% power to observe clinically important improvements in all measured outcomes. Direct

  17. Improving the integration of palliative care in a comprehensive oncology center: increasing primary care referrals to palliative care.

    PubMed

    Hydeman, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Confronted with the complexities inherent in delivering palliative care, effective collaboration with referring staff becomes vital. Based on the evaluation of the physical and psychosocial concerns of patients, the goal of palliative care is to craft interventions that maintain quality of life in the face of increasing symptoms and deteriorating functional status. The project's goal was to increase the appropriateness of referrals to palliative care by the primary services in the hospital. The aim was to achieve this by developing a process to assess patient functioning in critical psychosocial and functional areas, and providing this data to referring medical staff to educate them on the contribution of palliative care to symptom control and patient quality of life. The findings show that referrals to palliative care have increased over 100% from a broader range of services since initiating this project. Assessment data has been collected on 165 patients and outcomes are discussed.

  18. Towards a comprehensive view of the primary structure of venom proteins from the parasitoid wasp Pimpla hypochondriaca.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Neil M; Conyers, Christine; Keen, Jeff; MacNicoll, Alan; Smith, Ian; Audsley, Neil; Weaver, Robert

    2004-06-01

    Venom from the parasitoid wasp Pimpla hypochondriaca has potent in vivo activity against insect haemocytes and disrupts host immune responses. Using hybridisation techniques, and more recently random sequence analysis, we had previously identified cDNAs encoding 10 venom proteins from this wasp and deduced their primary structures. We have now extended the random sequence analysis and discovered a further nine cDNAs encoding proteins with predicted signal sequences. The mature proteins were calculated to have masses of between 4 and 22 kDa. Post-signal sequence residues predicted from the cDNAs matched those derived by Edman degradation from venom proteins separated using gel filtration and reverse phase chromatography, confirming that the cloned cDNAs encode proteins which are secreted into the venom sac. Proteins containing at least six cysteine residues were abundant and seven of these cysteine-rich venom proteins, cvp1-7, were identified. The sequences of some of these proteins were similar, or contained similar cysteine arrangements, to Kunitz type protease inhibitors, pacifastin, the trypsin inhibitor domain protein family, atracotoxin and omega-conotoxin, respectively, which occur in a diverse range of animals including spiders, molluscs, humans and grasshoppers. Two small venom proteins, svp1 and svp2, as well as cvp7 did not have similar sequences to proteins in the GenBank protein database suggesting they may be highly specialised venom components. The random sequencing approach has provided a rapid means of determining the primary structure of the majority of Pimpla hypochondriaca venom proteins.

  19. Source contributions to primary and secondary inorganic particulate matter during a severe wintertime PM2.5 pollution episode in Xi'an, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dexiang; Hu, Jianlin; Xu, Yong; Lv, Di; Xie, Xiaoyang; Kleeman, Michael; Xing, Jia; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2014-11-01

    Average PM2.5 concentrations of ˜250 μg m-3 and peak concentrations of ˜500 μg m-3 were observed in Xi'an, the largest city in Northwest China during an extreme event in January 2013. The source-oriented versions of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with anthropogenic emissions from Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) were used to study the source contributions of six different source categories including energy production, industries, transportation, residential activities, “other” (agriculture, biomass, waste burning, and biogenic sources), and windblown dust to primary and secondary inorganic PM2.5 (nitrate and sulfate) during this episode. The model generally captured the variation and magnitude of PM2.5 concentrations at monitoring sites. The monthly average concentration of the predicted PM2.5 in Xi'an was >200 μg m-3, comparing favorably with the measurement of ˜250 μg m-3. Predicted concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), organic aerosol (OA), sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were 6, 35, 18, 22, and 12 μg m-3, respectively. Chemically unresolved PM2.5 components (PM2.5 Other) were ˜80 μg m-3. Industries and residential activities dominated EC, organic carbon (OC) and PM2.5 Other, contributing 85%, 95%, and 83%, respectively. Energy production (mainly coal combustion) was the dominating source for secondary nitrate, contributing 46%. Other local and upwind sources were also important, contributing 43% and 11% of total nitrate, respectively. Primary sulfate was ˜10 μg m-3 in vicinity surrounding point sources. Secondary sulfate from upwind sources was also important with concentrations of ˜4-5 μg m-3. Secondary sulfate formed by SO2 emitted from local sources was dominated by energy production. Based on the contributions of different sources to primary components and secondary nitrate and sulfate, the contributions of different sources to PM2.5 total mass in Xi'an during the extremely polluted months

  20. A comprehensive evaluation of food fortification with folic acid for the primary prevention of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiliang; West, Roy; Randell, Edward; Longerich, Linda; O'connor, Kathleen Steel; Scott, Helen; Crowley, Marian; Lam, Angeline; Prabhakaran, Victor; McCourt, Catherine

    2004-09-27

    BACKGROUND: Periconceptional use of vitamin supplements containing folic acid reduces the risk of a neural tube defect (NTD). In November 1998, food fortification with folic acid was mandated in Canada, as a public health strategy to increase the folic acid intake of all women of childbearing age. We undertook a comprehensive population based study in Newfoundland to assess the benefits and possible adverse effects of this intervention. METHODS: This study was carried out in women aged 19-44 years and in seniors from November 1997 to March 1998, and from November 2000 to March 2001. The evaluation was comprised of four components: I) Determination of rates of NTDs; II) Dietary assessment; III) Blood analysis; IV) Assessment of knowledge and use of folic acid supplements. RESULTS: The annual rates of NTDs in Newfoundland varied greatly between 1976 and 1997, with a mean rate of 3.40 per 1,000 births. There was no significant change in the average rates between 1991-93 and 1994-97 (relative risk [RR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76-1.34). The rates of NTDs fell by 78% (95% CI 65%-86%) after the implementation of folic acid fortification, from an average of 4.36 per 1,000 births during 1991-1997 to 0.96 per 1,000 births during 1998-2001 (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.14-0.35). The average dietary intake of folic acid due to fortification was 70 μg/day in women aged 19-44 years and 74 μg/day in seniors. There were significant increases in serum and RBC folate levels for women and seniors after mandatory fortification. Among seniors, there were no significant changes in indices typical of vitamin B12 deficiencies, and no evidence of improved folate status masking haematological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency. The proportion of women aged 19-44 years taking a vitamin supplement containing folic acid increased from 17% to 28%. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, mandatory food fortification in Canada should continue at the current levels. Public education

  1. Evolution of particulate sulfate and nitrate along the Asian dust pathway: Secondary transformation and primary pollutants via long-range transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiongzhen; Zhuang, Guoshun; Huang, Kan; Liu, Tingna; Lin, Yanfen; Deng, Congrui; Fu, Qingyan; Fu, Joshua S.; Chen, Jiakuan; Zhang, Wenjie; Yiming, Mijiti

    2016-03-01

    Both PM2.5 and TSP over Yulin, a rural site near the Asian dust source region, were collected from 2007 to 2009. Characteristics, sources, and formation mechanisms of sulfate and nitrate were investigated. SO42 - displayed a distinct seasonal variation with the highest average concentration observed in summer when SO42 - accounted for an average of 14.1% and 13.7% of the PM2.5 and PMcoarse mass concentrations, respectively. Ambient temperature and relative humidity were two important factors influencing the formation processes of SO42 - and NO3-. In summer, the high concentrations of SO42 - in PM2.5 were probably from the gas phase oxidation of SO2, while the low concentrations of NO3- in PM2.5 were attributed to the high temperature that was not favorable for the formation of NH4NO3. In spring, autumn, and winter, SO42 - and NO3- were significantly enhanced in those days with high relative humidity, implying that in-cloud/aqueous processing dominated the formations of SO42 - and NO3-. Different from PM2.5 in which NH4+ acted as the dominant neutralizer for acids, alkaline species such as Ca2 + and Mg2 + played an important role in the formation of sulfate and nitrate salts in coarse particles throughout the whole year. During the dust event days, SO42 - in coarse particles significantly increased, while black carbon and NO3- largely decreased, suggesting that the primary mineral dust could be one of the major sources of SO42 -. By comparing the mass ratio of SO42 -/3/S in the dust aerosols of Yulin with different dust source regions (i.e., Taklimakan Desert and Gobi Desert) and the application of air mass backward trajectory analysis, it was found the long-range transported dust from the Taklimakan Desert, which was rich in primary sulfate due to its paleo-ocean characteristics, was a non-negligible source of SO42 - over Yulin. In spring and winter, the prevailing northerlies and northwesterlies promoted chemical interaction between alkaline mineral dust and acid

  2. Concentration dependent effects of tobacco particulates from different types of cigarettes on expression of drug metabolizing proteins, and benzo(a)pyrene metabolism in primary normal human oral epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Peter G.; Zhao, Zhong-Lin; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Fleisher, Kenneth E.; Gordon, Terry; Guttenplan, Joseph B.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of tobacco smoke (TS) to modulate phase I and II enzymes and affect metabolism of tobacco carcinogens is likely an important factor in its carcinogenicity. For the first time several types of TS particulates (TSP) were compared in different primary cultured human oral epithelial cells (NOE) for their abilities to affect metabolism of the tobacco carcinogen, (BaP) to genotoxic products, and expression of drug metabolizing enzymes. TSP from, reference filtered (2RF4), mentholated (MS), reference unfiltered, (IR3), ultra low tar (UL), and cigarettes that primarily heat tobacco (ECL) were tested. Cells pretreated with TSP concentrations of 0.2 – 10 µg/ml generally showed increased rates of BaP metabolism; those treated with TSP concentrations above 10 µg/ml showed decreased rates. Effects of TSPs were similar when expressed on a weight basis. Weights of TSP/cigarette varied in the order: MS ≈ IR3 > 2RF4 > ECL > UL. All TSPs induced the phase I proteins, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and 1B1 (CYP1B1), phase II proteins, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1), and microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST1), and additionally, hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 2 (HSD17B2), as assessed by qRT-PCR. The pattern of gene induction at probable physiological levels favored activation over detoxification. PMID:21722697

  3. Concentration dependent effects of tobacco particulates from different types of cigarettes on expression of drug metabolizing proteins, and benzo(a)pyrene metabolism in primary normal human oral epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Peter G; Zhao, Zhong-Lin; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Fleisher, Kenneth E; Gordon, Terry; Guttenplan, Joseph B

    2011-09-01

    The ability of tobacco smoke (TS) to modulate phase I and II enzymes and affect metabolism of tobacco carcinogens is likely an important factor in its carcinogenicity. For the first time several types of TS particulates (TSP) were compared in different primary cultured human oral epithelial cells (NOE) for their abilities to affect metabolism of the tobacco carcinogen, (BaP) to genotoxic products, and expression of drug metabolizing enzymes. TSP from, reference filtered (2RF4), mentholated (MS), reference unfiltered, (IR3), ultra low tar (UL), and cigarettes that primarily heat tobacco (ECL) were tested. Cells pretreated with TSP concentrations of 0.2-10 μg/ml generally showed increased rates of BaP metabolism; those treated with TSP concentrations above 10 μg/ml showed decreased rates. Effects of TSPs were similar when expressed on a weight basis. Weights of TSP/cigarette varied in the order: MS≈IR3>2RF4>ECL>UL. All TSPs induced the phase I proteins, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and 1B1 (CYP1B1), phase II proteins, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1), and microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST1), and additionally, hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 2 (HSD17B2), as assessed by qRT-PCR. The pattern of gene induction at probable physiological levels favored activation over detoxification.

  4. Fucosyltransferase 2: a genetic risk factor for primary sclerosing cholangitis and Crohn's disease--a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Maroni, Luca; van de Graaf, Stan F J; Hohenester, Simon D; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Beuers, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    Fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) mediates the inclusion of fucose in sugar moieties of glycoproteins and glycolipids. ABO blood group antigens and host-microbe interactions are influenced by FUT2 activity. About 20 % of the population has a "non-secretor" status caused by inactivating variants of FUT2 on both alleles. The non-sense mutation G428A and the missense mutation A385T are responsible for the vast majority of the non-secretor status in Caucasians, Africans, and Asians, respectively. Non-secretor individuals do not secrete fucose-positive antigens and lack fucosylation in epithelia. They also appear to be protected against a number of infectious diseases, such as Norovirus and Rotavirus infections. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified inactivating variants at the FUT2 locus to be associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), Crohn's disease (CD), and biochemical markers of biliary damage. These associations are intriguing given the important roles of fucosylated glycans in host-microbe interactions and membrane stability. Non-secretors have a reduced fecal content of Bifidobacteria. The intestinal bacterial composition of CD patients resembles the one of non-secretors, with an increase in Firmicutes and decreases in Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Non-secretor individuals lack fucosylated glycans at the surface of biliary epithelium and display a different bacterial composition of bile compared to secretors. Notably, an intact biliary epithelial glycocalix is relevant for a stable 'biliary HCO3 (-) umbrella' to protect against toxic effects of hydrophobic bile salt monomers. Here, the biology of FUT2 will be discussed as well as hypotheses to explain the role of FUT2 in the pathophysiology of PSC and Crohn's disease.

  5. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis unravels the existence of crucial genes regulating primary metabolism during adventitious root formation in Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed

    Ahkami, Amirhossein; Scholz, Uwe; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Strickert, Marc; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Druege, Uwe; Reinhardt, Didier; Nouri, Eva; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-01-01

    To identify specific genes determining the initiation and formation of adventitious roots (AR), a microarray-based transcriptome analysis in the stem base of the cuttings of Petunia hybrida (line W115) was conducted. A microarray carrying 24,816 unique, non-redundant annotated sequences was hybridized to probes derived from different stages of AR formation. After exclusion of wound-responsive and root-regulated genes, 1,354 of them were identified which were significantly and specifically induced during various phases of AR formation. Based on a recent physiological model distinguishing three metabolic phases in AR formation, the present paper focuses on the response of genes related to particular metabolic pathways. Key genes involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism such as those mediating apoplastic sucrose unloading were induced at the early sink establishment phase of AR formation. Transcriptome changes also pointed to a possible role of trehalose metabolism and SnRK1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1- related protein kinase) in sugar sensing during this early step of AR formation. Symplastic sucrose unloading and nucleotide biosynthesis were the major processes induced during the later recovery and maintenance phases. Moreover, transcripts involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation were up-regulated during different phases of AR formation. In addition to metabolic pathways, the analysis revealed the activation of cell division at the two later phases and in particular the induction of G1-specific genes in the maintenance phase. Furthermore, results point towards a specific demand for certain mineral nutrients starting in the recovery phase.

  6. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis Unravels the Existence of Crucial Genes Regulating Primary Metabolism during Adventitious Root Formation in Petunia hybrida

    PubMed Central

    Ahkami, Amirhossein; Scholz, Uwe; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Strickert, Marc; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Druege, Uwe; Reinhardt, Didier; Nouri, Eva; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-01-01

    To identify specific genes determining the initiation and formation of adventitious roots (AR), a microarray-based transcriptome analysis in the stem base of the cuttings of Petunia hybrida (line W115) was conducted. A microarray carrying 24,816 unique, non-redundant annotated sequences was hybridized to probes derived from different stages of AR formation. After exclusion of wound-responsive and root-regulated genes, 1,354 of them were identified which were significantly and specifically induced during various phases of AR formation. Based on a recent physiological model distinguishing three metabolic phases in AR formation, the present paper focuses on the response of genes related to particular metabolic pathways. Key genes involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism such as those mediating apoplastic sucrose unloading were induced at the early sink establishment phase of AR formation. Transcriptome changes also pointed to a possible role of trehalose metabolism and SnRK1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1- related protein kinase) in sugar sensing during this early step of AR formation. Symplastic sucrose unloading and nucleotide biosynthesis were the major processes induced during the later recovery and maintenance phases. Moreover, transcripts involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation were up-regulated during different phases of AR formation. In addition to metabolic pathways, the analysis revealed the activation of cell division at the two later phases and in particular the induction of G1-specific genes in the maintenance phase. Furthermore, results point towards a specific demand for certain mineral nutrients starting in the recovery phase. PMID:24978694

  7. Diesel particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsen, F.I. )

    1988-01-01

    Diesel particulates, because of their chemical composition and extremely small size, have raised health and welfare issues. Health experts have expressed concern that they contribute to or aggravate chronic lung diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema, and there is the lingering issue about the potential cancer risk from exposure to diesel particulate. Diesel particulates impair visibility, soil buildings, contribute to structural damage through corrosion and give off a pungent odor. Diesel trucks, buses and cars together are such a significant and growing source of particulate emissions. Such vehicles emit 30 to 70 times more particulate matter than gasoline vehicles equipped with catalytic converters. Diesel engines currently power the majority of larger trucks and buses. EPA predicted that, if left uncontrolled, diesel particulate from motor vehicles would increase significantly. Diesel particulate emissions from motor vehicles are particularly troublesome because they frequently are emitted directly into the breathing zone where we work and recreate. The U.S. Congress recognized the risks posed by diesel particulate and as part of the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments established specific, technology-forcing requirements for controlling these emissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1980 established particulate standards for automobiles and light trucks and in 1985, heavy trucks and buses. California, concerned that EPA standards would not adequately protect its citizens, adopted its own set of standards for passenger cars and light trucks. This paper discusses emerging technologies proposed to address the problem.

  8. Comprehensive proteome analysis of fresh frozen and optimal cutting temperature (OCT) embedded primary non-small cell lung carcinoma by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Sakashita, Shingo; Taylor, Paul; Tsao, Ming S; Moran, Michael F

    2015-06-15

    Clinical tissue samples provide valuable information for understanding human diseases. One major type of clinical tissue sample that is amenable to various kinds of analysis is fresh frozen and optimal cutting temperature (OCT)-embedded primary patient tissue. Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have been widely applied to study human proteomes by using clinical specimens. However, polymeric compounds such as OCT can interfere with MS analyses. Here we present methods that enable the preparation and analysis of fresh frozen and OCT embedded primary tissue samples by LC-MS/MS. A scraping method was first introduced to reduce the heterogeneity of OCT-embedded non-small cell lung carcinoma tumor sections. OCT compound was reproducibly removed by a series of washing steps involving ethanol and water prior to trypsin digestion. In data-dependent acquisition mode, optimized dynamic exclusion duration settings were established to maximize peptide identifications. These sample preparation conditions and MS parameter settings should be utilized or carefully adjusted in order to achieve optimal comprehensive proteome characterization starting from fresh frozen and OCT embedded clinical tissue specimens.

  9. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  10. Pitch based foam with particulate

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

  11. Particulate matter fugitive dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Topics covered in this conference include: Review of EPA's cost/benefit analysis for additional regulation of surface coal mines; Particulate monitoring on the Kilauea East Rift, Hawaii, and The MEDUSA sampling system: case histories in the measurement of particulate matter with wide spectrum analysis.

  12. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  13. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2001-07-01

    This is the third quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others. During the third project quarter, the new SRI air monitoring shelter and additional instruments were installed at the site. Details include: Installation of Radiance Research M903 Nephelometer; Installation of SRI air monitoring shelter at North Birmingham Site; Relocation of instruments from SEARCH shelter to SRI shelter; Installation of Rupprecht & Patashnick 8400 Sulfate Monitor; Assembly and initial laboratory testing for particulate sulfate monitor of Harvard design; Efficiency testing of particle sizing instrument package at SRI lab; Preparation for the Eastern Supersite July measurement intensive program; and Continued monitoring with TEOM and particle sizing instruments.

  14. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new national monitoring network for the measurement of fine particular matter (PM2.5) is currently under development. A primary goal of this network is to collect monitoring data in residential communities for the evaluation of compliance with particulate air quality standards...

  15. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  16. Hyphenation of a EC / OC thermal-optical carbon analyzer to photo ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: a new off-line aerosol mass spectrometric approach for characterization of primary and secondary particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diab, J.; Streibel, T.; Cavalli, F.; Lee, S. C.; Saathoff, H.; Mamakos, T.; Chow, J. C.; Chen, L.-W. A.; Watson, J. G.; Sippula, O.; Zimmermann, R.

    2015-01-01

    Source apportionment and exposure of primary and secondary aerosols remains a challenging research field. In particular, the organic composition of primary particles and the formation mechanism of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) warrant further investigations. Progress in this field is strongly connected to the development of novel analytical techniques. In this study an off-line aerosol mass spectrometric technique based on filter samples, a hyphenated thermal/optical analyzer-photo ionization time of flight mass spectrometer (PI-TOFMS) system, was developed. The approach extends the capability of the widely used PM carbon analysis (for elemental/organic carbon (EC / OC)) by enabling the investigation of evolved gaseous species with soft and selective (resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization, REMPI) and non-selective photo ionization (single photon ionization, SPI) techniques. SPI was tuned to be medium soft to achieve comparability with results obtained by electron ionization (EI) aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Different PM samples including wood combustion emission samples, smog chamber samples from the reaction of ozone with different SOA precursors, and ambient samples taken at Ispra, Italy in winter as well as in summer were tested. The EC / OC-PI-TOFMS technique increases the understanding of the processes during the thermal/optical analysis and identifies marker substances for the source apportionment. Composition of oligomeric or polymeric species present in PM can be investigated by the analysis of the thermally breakdown products. In case of wood combustion, in addition to the well-known markers at m/z ratios of 60 and 73, two new characteristic masses (m/z 70 and 98) have been revealed as potentially linked to biomass burning. All four masses were also the dominant signals in an ambient sample taken in winter time in Ispra, Italy, confirming the finding that wood burning for residential heating is a major source for particulate matter (PM) in

  17. Hyphenation of a EC / OC thermal-optical carbon analyzer to photo-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: an off-line aerosol mass spectrometric approach for characterization of primary and secondary particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diab, J.; Streibel, T.; Cavalli, F.; Lee, S. C.; Saathoff, H.; Mamakos, A.; Chow, J. C.; Chen, L.-W. A.; Watson, J. G.; Sippula, O.; Zimmermann, R.

    2015-08-01

    Source apportionment and characterization of primary and secondary aerosols remains a challenging research field. In particular, the organic composition of primary particles and the formation mechanism of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) warrant further investigations. Progress in this field is strongly connected to the development of novel analytical techniques. In this study an off-line aerosol mass spectrometric technique based on filter samples, a hyphenated thermal-optical analyzer photo-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PI-TOFMS) system, was developed. The approach extends the capability of the widely used particulate matter (PM) carbon analysis (for elemental / organic carbon, EC / OC) by enabling the investigation of evolved gaseous species with soft and selective (resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization, REMPI) and non-selective photo-ionization (single-photon ionization, SPI) techniques. SPI was tuned to be medium soft to achieve comparability with results obtained by the electron ionization aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Different PM samples including wood combustion emission samples, smog chamber samples from the reaction of ozone with different SOA precursors, and ambient samples taken at Ispra, Italy, in winter as well as in summer were tested. The EC / OC-PI-TOFMS technique increases the understanding of the processes during thermal-optical analysis and identifies marker substances for the source apportionment. Composition of oligomeric or polymeric species present in PM can be investigated by the analysis of the thermal breakdown products. In the case of wood combustion, in addition to the well-known markers at m/z ratios of 60 and 73, two new characteristic masses (m/z 70 and 98) have been revealed as potentially linked to biomass burning. All four masses were also the dominant signals in an ambient sample taken in winter time in Ispra, Italy, confirming the finding that wood burning for residential heating is a major source of PM

  18. High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ru-Jin; Zhang, Yanlin; Bozzetti, Carlo; Ho, Kin-Fai; Cao, Jun-Ji; Han, Yongming; Daellenbach, Kaspar R.; Slowik, Jay G.; Platt, Stephen M.; Canonaco, Francesco; Zotter, Peter; Wolf, Robert; Pieber, Simone M.; Bruns, Emily A.; Crippa, Monica; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Schwikowski, Margit; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; An, Zhisheng; Szidat, Sönke; Baltensperger, Urs; Haddad, Imad El; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2014-10-01

    Rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries has led to an increase in air pollution, along a similar trajectory to that previously experienced by the developed nations. In China, particulate pollution is a serious environmental problem that is influencing air quality, regional and global climates, and human health. In response to the extremely severe and persistent haze pollution experienced by about 800 million people during the first quarter of 2013 (refs 4, 5), the Chinese State Council announced its aim to reduce concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometres) by up to 25 per cent relative to 2012 levels by 2017 (ref. 6). Such efforts however require elucidation of the factors governing the abundance and composition of PM2.5, which remain poorly constrained in China. Here we combine a comprehensive set of novel and state-of-the-art offline analytical approaches and statistical techniques to investigate the chemical nature and sources of particulate matter at urban locations in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Xi'an during January 2013. We find that the severe haze pollution event was driven to a large extent by secondary aerosol formation, which contributed 30-77 per cent and 44-71 per cent (average for all four cities) of PM2.5 and of organic aerosol, respectively. On average, the contribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) are found to be of similar importance (SOA/SIA ratios range from 0.6 to 1.4). Our results suggest that, in addition to mitigating primary particulate emissions, reducing the emissions of secondary aerosol precursors from, for example, fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning is likely to be important for controlling China's PM2.5 levels and for reducing the environmental, economic and health impacts resulting from particulate pollution.

  19. High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ru-Jin; Zhang, Yanlin; Bozzetti, Carlo; Ho, Kin-Fai; Cao, Jun-Ji; Han, Yongming; Daellenbach, Kaspar R; Slowik, Jay G; Platt, Stephen M; Canonaco, Francesco; Zotter, Peter; Wolf, Robert; Pieber, Simone M; Bruns, Emily A; Crippa, Monica; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Schwikowski, Margit; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; An, Zhisheng; Szidat, Sönke; Baltensperger, Urs; El Haddad, Imad; Prévôt, André S H

    2014-10-09

    Rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries has led to an increase in air pollution, along a similar trajectory to that previously experienced by the developed nations. In China, particulate pollution is a serious environmental problem that is influencing air quality, regional and global climates, and human health. In response to the extremely severe and persistent haze pollution experienced by about 800 million people during the first quarter of 2013 (refs 4, 5), the Chinese State Council announced its aim to reduce concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometres) by up to 25 per cent relative to 2012 levels by 2017 (ref. 6). Such efforts however require elucidation of the factors governing the abundance and composition of PM2.5, which remain poorly constrained in China. Here we combine a comprehensive set of novel and state-of-the-art offline analytical approaches and statistical techniques to investigate the chemical nature and sources of particulate matter at urban locations in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Xi'an during January 2013. We find that the severe haze pollution event was driven to a large extent by secondary aerosol formation, which contributed 30-77 per cent and 44-71 per cent (average for all four cities) of PM2.5 and of organic aerosol, respectively. On average, the contribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) are found to be of similar importance (SOA/SIA ratios range from 0.6 to 1.4). Our results suggest that, in addition to mitigating primary particulate emissions, reducing the emissions of secondary aerosol precursors from, for example, fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning is likely to be important for controlling China's PM2.5 levels and for reducing the environmental, economic and health impacts resulting from particulate pollution.

  20. Does the Component Processes Task Assess Text-Based Inferences Important for Reading Comprehension? A Path Analysis in Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Wassenburg, Stephanie I.; de Koning, Björn B.; de Vries, Meinou H.; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Using a component processes task (CPT) that differentiates between higher-level cognitive processes of reading comprehension provides important advantages over commonly used general reading comprehension assessments. The present study contributes to further development of the CPT by evaluating the relative contributions of its components (text memory, text inferencing, and knowledge integration) and working memory to general reading comprehension within a single study using path analyses. Participants were 173 third- and fourth-grade children. As hypothesized, knowledge integration was the only component of the CPT that directly contributed to reading comprehension, indicating that the text-inferencing component did not assess inferential processes related to reading comprehension. Working memory was a significant predictor of reading comprehension over and above the component processes. Future research should focus on finding ways to ensure that the text-inferencing component taps into processes important for reading comprehension. PMID:27378989

  1. Does the Component Processes Task Assess Text-Based Inferences Important for Reading Comprehension? A Path Analysis in Primary School Children.

    PubMed

    Wassenburg, Stephanie I; de Koning, Björn B; de Vries, Meinou H; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Using a component processes task (CPT) that differentiates between higher-level cognitive processes of reading comprehension provides important advantages over commonly used general reading comprehension assessments. The present study contributes to further development of the CPT by evaluating the relative contributions of its components (text memory, text inferencing, and knowledge integration) and working memory to general reading comprehension within a single study using path analyses. Participants were 173 third- and fourth-grade children. As hypothesized, knowledge integration was the only component of the CPT that directly contributed to reading comprehension, indicating that the text-inferencing component did not assess inferential processes related to reading comprehension. Working memory was a significant predictor of reading comprehension over and above the component processes. Future research should focus on finding ways to ensure that the text-inferencing component taps into processes important for reading comprehension.

  2. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    A flexible whip suspended in a hopper is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  3. Modeling of Particulate Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    coagulation oxidation.... carbonization 14 Modeling Particulate Emissions Soot Formation Kinetics 2 1016 1 ]HC[kdt dS = Inception: Dimerization of...simulated with peak size for surface growth Sectional Conservation Equation 16 Modeling Particulate Emissions Soot Kinetics Based on OH, O2 and...and empirical tuning to NOx, CO emissionsFuel-spray shear layer Recirculation zones Quench zones Burn-out zones Full set of reaction kinetics and

  4. PRODUCTION OF SHEET FROM PARTICULATE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Blainey, A.

    1959-05-12

    A process is presented for forming coherent sheet material from particulate material such as granular or powdered metal, granular or powdered oxide, slurries, pastes, and plastic mixes which cohere under pressure. The primary object is to avoid the use of expensive and/ or short lived pressing tools, that is, dies and specially profiled rolls, and so to reduce the cost of the product and to prcvide in a simple manner for the making of the product in a variety of shapes or sizes. The sheet material is formed when the particulate material is laterally confined in a boundary material deformable in all lateral directions under axial pressure and then axially compressing the layer of particulate material together with the boundary material.

  5. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  6. New Comprehensive Cytogenetic Scoring System for Primary Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) and Oligoblastic Acute Myeloid Leukemia After MDS Derived From an International Database Merge

    PubMed Central

    Schanz, Julie; Tüchler, Heinz; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Luño, Elisa; Cervera, José; Granada, Isabel; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Slovak, Marilyn L.; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Steidl, Christian; Fonatsch, Christa; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Valent, Peter; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Aul, Carlo; Lübbert, Michael; Stauder, Reinhard; Krieger, Otto; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Faderl, Stefan; Pierce, Sherry; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Bennett, John M.; Greenberg, Peter; Germing, Ulrich; Haase, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The karyotype is a strong independent prognostic factor in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Since the implementation of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) in 1997, knowledge concerning the prognostic impact of abnormalities has increased substantially. The present study proposes a new and comprehensive cytogenetic scoring system based on an international data collection of 2,902 patients. Patients and Methods Patients were included from the German-Austrian MDS Study Group (n = 1,193), the International MDS Risk Analysis Workshop (n = 816), the Spanish Hematological Cytogenetics Working Group (n = 849), and the International Working Group on MDS Cytogenetics (n = 44) databases. Patients with primary MDS and oligoblastic acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after MDS treated with supportive care only were evaluated for overall survival (OS) and AML evolution. Internal validation by bootstrap analysis and external validation in an independent patient cohort were performed to confirm the results. Results In total, 19 cytogenetic categories were defined, providing clear prognostic classification in 91% of all patients. The abnormalities were classified into five prognostic subgroups (P < .001): very good (median OS, 61 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.5; n = 81); good (49 months; HR, 1.0 [reference category]; n = 1,809); intermediate (26 months; HR, 1.6; n = 529); poor (16 months; HR, 2.6; n = 148); and very poor (6 months; HR, 4.2; n = 187). The internal and external validations confirmed the results of the score. Conclusion In conclusion, these data should contribute to the ongoing efforts to update the IPSS by refining the cytogenetic risk categories. PMID:22331955

  7. Comprehensive coronary risk determination in primary prevention: an imaging and clinical based definition combining computed tomographic coronary artery calcium score and national cholesterol education program risk score.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Khurram; Vasamreddy, Chandra; Blumenthal, Roger S; Rumberger, John A

    2006-06-16

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and a major cause of morbidity. Coronary heart disease (CHD) accounts for nearly half of all CVD deaths. Currently estimation of risk in primary prevention is based on the Framingham risk equations, which inputs traditional risk factors and is helpful in predicting the development of CHD in asymptomatic individuals. However many individuals suffer events in the absence of established risk factors for atherosclerosis and broad based population risk estimations may have little precision when applied to a given individual. To meet the challenge of CHD risk assessment, several tools have been developed to identify atherosclerotic disease in its preclinical stages. This paper aims to incorporate information from coronary artery calcification (CAC) scoring from a computed tomographic "heartscan" (using Electron Beam Tomography (EBT) as the validated prototype) along with current Framingham risk profiling in order to refine risk on an absolute scale by combining imaging and clinical data to affect a more comprehensive calculation of absolute risk in a given individual. For CAC scores above the 75th percentile but <90th percentile, 10 years is added to chronological age, and for CAC scores above the 90th percentile, 20 years is added to current chronological age. Among those in whom a positive CAC score is the norm such as older individuals (men> or =55 years, women> or =65 years) a CAC = 0 will result in an age point score corresponding to the age-group whose median CAC score is zero i.e., 40-44 years for men and 55-59 years for women. The utilization of CAC scores allows the inclusion of sub-clinical disease definition into the context of modifiable risk factors as well as identifies high-risk individuals requiring aggressive treatment.

  8. Developing a Universal Reading Comprehension Intervention for Mainstream Primary Schools within Areas of Social Deprivation for Children with and without Language-Learning Impairment: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Elspeth; Boyle, James; Ellis, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some children in areas of social deprivation in Scotland have lower reading attainment than neighbouring children in less deprived areas, and some of these also have lower spoken language comprehension skills than expected by assessment norms. There is a need to develop effective reading comprehension interventions that fit easily into…

  9. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

    1999-11-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

  10. Void/particulate detector

    DOEpatents

    Claytor, Thomas N.; Karplus, Henry B.

    1985-01-01

    Voids and particulates are detected in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe by a detector which includes three transducers spaced about the pipe. A first transducer at a first location on the pipe transmits an ultrasonic signal into the stream. A second transducer detects the through-transmission of the signal at a second location and a third transducer at a third location upstream from the first location detects the back-scattering of the signal from any voids or particulates. To differentiate between voids and particulates a fourth transducer is positioned at a fourth location which is also upstream from the first location. The back-scattered signals are normalized with the through-transmission signal to minimize temperature fluctuations.

  11. Microwave regenerated particulate trap

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, A.C. Jr.; Yonushonis, T.M.; Haberkamp, W.C.; Mako, F.; Len, L.K,; Silberglitt, R.; Ahmed, I.

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that a fibrous particulate filter can extract particulate matter from the diesel exhaust. However, additional engineering efforts remains to achieve the design target of 90%. It has also be shown that with minor modifications magnetrons produced for home ovens can endure a simulated diesel operating environment. Much work remains to develop a robust product ready to complete extensive engine testing and evaluation. These efforts include: (1) additional environmental testing of magnetrons; (2) vibration testing of the filter in the housing; (3) evaluating alternative methods/designs to seal the center bore; and (4) determining the optimum coating thickness that provides sufficient structural integrity while maintaining rapid heating rates.

  12. Thermal conductivity of particulate materials: A summary of measurements taken at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fountain, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Thermal conductivity measurements of particulate materials in vacuum are presented in summary. Particulate basalt and soda lime glass beads of various size ranges were used as samples. The differentiated line heat source method was used for the measurements. A comprehensive table is shown giving all pertinent experimental conditions. Least-squares curve fits to the data are presented.

  13. Modeling of particulate production in the SIRENS plasma disruption simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, J. P.; Merrill, B. J.; Petti, D. A.; Bourham, M. A.; Gilligan, J. G.

    2001-03-01

    Modeling of the complex interplay among plasma physics, fluid mechanics, and aerosol dynamics is critical to providing a detailed understanding of the mechanisms responsible for particulate production from plasma-surface interaction in fusion devices. Plasma/fluid and aerosol models developed for analysis of disruption simulation experiments in the SIRENS high heat flux facility integrate the necessary mechanisms of plasma-material interaction, plasma and fluid flow, and particulate generation and transport. The model successfully predicts the size distribution of primary particulate generated in SIRENS disruption-induced material mobilization experiments.

  14. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1984-06-27

    A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  15. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.

    1986-01-01

    A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  16. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  17. Analysis of microsize particulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, M. B.; Farlow, N. H.; Ferry, G. V.

    1972-01-01

    Unique methods for analyzing individual particles ranging in size from 0.01 to 1000 micrometers have been developed for investigation of nature of cosmic dust. Methods are applicable to particulate aerosols and contaminants characteristically encountered in studies of air pollution and in experiments designed to abate pollution.

  18. Organic particulate matter formation at varying relative humidity using surrogate secondary and primary organic compounds with activity corrections in the condensed phase obtained using a method based on the Wilson equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, E. I.; Pankow, J. F.

    2010-06-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere is currently often modeled using a multiple lumped "two-product" (N·2p) approach. The N·2p approach neglects: 1) variation of activity coefficient (ζi) values and mean molecular weight MW in the particulate matter (PM) phase; 2) water uptake into the PM; and 3) the possibility of phase separation in the PM. This study considers these effects by adopting an (N·2p)ζpMW,ζ approach (θ is a phase index). Specific chemical structures are assigned to 25 lumped SOA compounds and to 15 representative primary organic aerosol (POA) compounds to allow calculation of ζi and MW values. The SOA structure assignments are based on chamber-derived 2p gas/particle partition coefficient values coupled with known effects of structure on vapor pressure pL,io (atm). To facilitate adoption of the (N·2p)ζpMW,θ approach in large-scale models, this study also develops CP-Wilson.1 (Chang-Pankow-Wilson.1), a group-contribution ζi-prediction method that is more computationally economical than the UNIFAC model of Fredenslund et al. (1975). Group parameter values required by CP-Wilson.1 are obtained by fitting ζi values to predictions from UNIFAC. The (N·2p)ζpMW,θ approach is applied (using CP-Wilson.1) to several real α-pinene/O3 chamber cases for high reacted hydrocarbon levels (ΔHC≈400 to 1000 μg m-3) when relative humidity (RH) ≍50%. Good agreement between the chamber and predicted results is obtained using both the (N·2p)ζpMW,θ and N·2p approaches, indicating relatively small water effects under these conditions. However, for a hypothetical α-pinene/O3 case at ΔHC=30 μg m-3 and

  19. CPMs: A Kinesthetic Comprehension Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Cathy Collins; Parris, Sheri R.; Whiteley, Cinnamon S.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a study to determine whether primary grade students can learn comprehension processes via hand motions to portray these mental processes. Comprehension Process Motions (CPMs) were designed to provide students with a way to make abstract comprehension processes more consciously accessible and also to give teachers a way to…

  20. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF PARTICULATE MATTER FOR SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article we present results from a 2-year comprehensive exposure assessment study that examined the particulate matter (PM) exposures and health effects in 108 individuals with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and as...

  1. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  2. Improving Language-Focused Comprehension Instruction in Primary-Grade Classrooms: Impacts of the "Let's Know!" Experimental Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Laura M.; Pratt, Amy; Logan, Jessica; Gray, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study was designed to test the impacts of a curriculum supplement, "Let's Know!", on the quantity and quality of language-focused comprehension instruction in pre-kindergarten to third grade classrooms. Sixty classrooms (12 per each of pre-K to grade 3) were enrolled in the study, with 40 teachers assigned to…

  3. Primary Prevention Efforts: How Do We Implement and Monitor the Tier 1 Component of Our Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered (CI3T) Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Magill, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors clarify the role of the leadership team, providing a rationale for one integrated team to examine academic, social, and behavioral programming, with careful attention to including all key stakeholders. Next, the authors discuss the procedures for teaching all key stakeholders the comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered…

  4. Regenerable particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Stuecker, John N.; Cesarano, III, Joseph; Miller, James E.

    2009-05-05

    A method of making a three-dimensional lattice structure, such as a filter used to remove particulates from a gas stream, where the physical lattice structure is designed utilizing software simulation from pre-defined mass transfer and flow characteristics and the designed lattice structure is fabricated using a free-form fabrication manufacturing technique, where the periodic lattice structure is comprised of individual geometric elements.

  5. Fluidizing a mixture of particulate coal and char

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.

    1979-08-07

    Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

  6. "One for All and All for One": Assessing the Implementation of One Comprehensive School-Wide Discipline Program in a Primary School in Southwest Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Linda T.

    2009-01-01

    In schools across America, school safety and student discipline remain primary concerns for all stakeholders in the education process. Researchers and educators suggest that implementing a school-wide discipline plan tailored to meet the needs of a particular school setting is one solution to the complex behavior management problem. The limited…

  7. Particulate Concentration Levels in Chinatown, Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Yeung, A.; Yu, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    Chinatown is located near the center of the busy business district of downtown Oakland, California. It is one of the most inhabited and congested areas in the City of Oakland, averaging 4,000 vehicles and 3,000 pedestrians per hour at a key intersection in the center of the neighborhood. Particles produced by automobiles and construction can settle into the bronchi of lungs and induce asthma attacks, irritate cardiovascular tissue, and possibly lead to lung cancer and death. Particulate pollution is a serious problem that is estimated to cause between 20,000 and 50,000 deaths per year in the US alone. Hence, evaluation of the air quality of the Chinatown neighborhood is important, because it helps to address issues that are of great concern to residents of the area. The primary goal of our project was to measure particulate concentration levels at various intersections in Oakland's Chinatown to determine if the air quality met U.S. EPA standards, and to take note of any trends that may occur over a period of months. We were primarily concerned with particles that are 2.5 micrometers diameter and smaller, as smaller particles are easily inhaled and directly affect the respiratory system. We were interested in identifying any intersections that may have had significantly higher levels than other intersections. Using a map of Chinatown, we chose 12 intersections and made measurements at these points over the course of six months, beginning in February and ending in July of 2007. Particulate matter measurements were made using a FLUKE 893 Particle Counter. Measurements recorded on the first day of our study, February 4, 2007, which was the day of an annual street festival, yielded the highest values for particulate matter concentration in our dataset. This was followed by a significant drop in concentration the following week, and then a gradual increase of concentration as the months progressed. No one location yielded values significantly higher than any other, and

  8. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

  9. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60.172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary...

  10. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60.172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary...

  11. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60.172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary...

  12. Applying the RE-AIM framework to the Alberta's Caring for Diabetes Project: a protocol for a comprehensive evaluation of primary care quality improvement interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wozniak, Lisa; Rees, Sandra; Soprovich, Allison; Al Sayah, Fatima; Johnson, Steven T; Majumdar, Sumit R; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes represents a major public health and health system burden. As part of the Alberta's Caring for Diabetes (ABCD) Project, two quality-improvement interventions are being piloted in four Primary Care Networks in Alberta. Gaps between health research, policy and practice have been documented and the need to evaluate the impact of public health interventions in real-world settings to inform decision-making and clinical practice is paramount. In this article, we describe the application of the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the interventions beyond effectiveness. Methods and analysis Two quality-improvement interventions were implemented, based on previously proven effective models of care and are directed at improving the physical and mental health of patients with type-2 diabetes. Our goal is to adapt and apply the RE-AIM framework, using a mixed-methods approach, to understand the impact of the interventions to inform policy and clinical decision-making. We present the proposed measures, data sources and data management and analysis strategies used to evaluate the interventions by RE-AIM dimension. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval for the ABCD Project has been granted from the Health Research Ethics Board (HREB #PRO00012663) at the University of Alberta. The RE-AIM framework will be used to structure our dissemination activities by dimension. Results It will be presented at relevant conferences and prepared for publication in peer-reviewed journals. Various products, such as presentations, briefing reports and webinars, will be developed to inform key stakeholders of the findings. Presentation of findings by RE-AIM dimension will facilitate discussion regarding the public health impact of the two interventions within the primary care context of Alberta and lessons learned to be used in programme planning and care delivery for patients with type-2 diabetes. It will also promote the application of evaluation models to better assess the impact

  13. Particulate erosion mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veerabhadrarao, P.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Particulate damage and erosion of ductile metals are today plaguing design and field engineers in diverse fields of engineering and technology. It was found that too many models and theories were proposed leading to much speculation from debris analysis and failure mechanism postulations. Most theories of solid particle erosion are based on material removal models which do not fully represent the actual physical processes of material removal. The various mechanisms proposed thus far are: melting, low-cycle fatigue, extrusion, delamination, shear localization, adhesive material transfer, etc. The experimental data on different materials highlighting the observed failure modes of the deformation and cutting wear processes using optical and scanning electron microscopy are presented. The most important mechanisms proved from the experimental observations of the specimens exposed to both spherical and angular particles are addressed, and the validity of the earlier theories discussed. Both the initial stages of damage and advanced stages of erosion were studied to gain a fundamental understanding of the process.

  14. Pressure driven particulate flows

    SciTech Connect

    Ingher, M.S.; Mondy, L.A.

    1996-03-01

    Numerical simulations of pressure-driven particulate Stokes flows are performed in cylindrical and rectangular conduits using a parallel boundary element code. Spherical particles are randomly placed in the conduits and a pressure drop between the ends of the conduits is imposed by the boundary conditions to induce a Poiseuille-like flow field. The instantaneous velocities of the particles are then calculated, as well as the additional pressure drop necessary to maintain a constant flow rate. Because the results depend on the spatial distribution of the particles, several random configurations of particles are examined for each case. Depending on two different interpretations of the numerical results, the solid phase can be represented as either leading or lagging the fluid phase. Both of the analyses and interpretations are presented.

  15. Time-resolved characterization of primary particle emissions and secondary particle formation from a modern gasoline passenger car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karjalainen, Panu; Timonen, Hilkka; Saukko, Erkka; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Saarikoski, Sanna; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Murtonen, Timo; Bloss, Matthew; Dal Maso, Miikka; Simonen, Pauli; Ahlberg, Erik; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Brune, William Henry; Hillamo, Risto; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2016-07-01

    Changes in vehicle emission reduction technologies significantly affect traffic-related emissions in urban areas. In many densely populated areas the amount of traffic is increasing, keeping the emission level high or even increasing. To understand the health effects of traffic-related emissions, both primary (direct) particulate emission and secondary particle formation (from gaseous precursors in the exhaust emissions) need to be characterized. In this study, we used a comprehensive set of measurements to characterize both primary and secondary particulate emissions of a Euro 5 level gasoline passenger car. Our aerosol particle study covers the whole process chain in emission formation, from the tailpipe to the atmosphere, and also takes into account differences in driving patterns. We observed that, in mass terms, the amount of secondary particles was 13 times higher than the amount of primary particles. The formation, composition, number and mass of secondary particles was significantly affected by driving patterns and engine conditions. The highest gaseous and particulate emissions were observed at the beginning of the test cycle when the performance of the engine and the catalyst was below optimal. The key parameter for secondary particle formation was the amount of gaseous hydrocarbons in primary emissions; however, also the primary particle population had an influence.

  16. A Comprehensive Review of Contemporary Role of Local Treatment of the Primary Tumor and/or the Metastases in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2014-01-01

    To provide an overview of the currently available literature regarding local control of primary tumor and oligometastases in metastatic prostate cancer and salvage lymph node dissection of clinical lymph node relapse after curative treatment of prostate cancer. Evidence Acquisition. A systematic literature search was conducted in 2014 to identify abstracts, original articles, review articles, research articles, and editorials relevant to the local control in metastatic prostate cancer. Evidence Synthesis. Local control of primary tumor in metastatic prostate cancer remains experimental with low level of evidence. The concept is supported by a growing body of genetic and molecular research as well as analogy with other cancers. There is only one retrospective observational population based study showing prolonged survival. To eradicate oligometastases, several options exist with excellent local control rates. Stereotactic body radiotherapy is safe, well tolerated, and efficacious treatment for lymph node and bone lesions. Both biochemical and clinical progression are slowed down with a median time to initiate ADT of 2 years. Salvage lymph node dissection is feasible in patients with clinical lymph node relapse after local curable treatment. Conclusion. Despite encouraging oncologic midterm results, a complete cure remains elusive in metastatic prostate cancer patients. Further advances in imaging are crucial in order to rapidly evolve beyond the proof of concept. PMID:25485280

  17. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong; Smith, Leah J; Holmes, Amie L; Zheng, Tongzhang; Pierce Wise, John

    2016-05-01

    Cobalt is a toxic metal used in various industrial applications leading to adverse lung effects by inhalation. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells, especially normal lung epithelial cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in normal primary human lung epithelial cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble and particulate cobalt induced similar cytotoxicity while soluble cobalt was more genotoxic than particulate cobalt. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung epithelial cells.

  18. Magnetic characterization of airborne particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Doh, S.; Yu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Burning fossil fuels from vehicles, domestics, industries and power plants in the large urban or industrial areas emit significant quantity of anthropogenic particulates which become a potential threat to human health. Here, we present temporal variability of particulate pollution associated with compositional differences, using magnetic measurements and electron microscopic observations. Six different grain-sizes of airborne particulates have been collected by filtering from 10 precipitation events in Seoul, Korea from February 2009 to June 2009. Magnetic concentration proxies show relatively better (R2 >0.6) and poorer correlations (R2 <0.3) with the masses of samples filtered by >0.45 μm and <0.45 μm sizes, respectively, suggesting the usefulness of magnetic characterization for the >0.45 μm particulates. Temporally, magnetic concentrations are higher in the cold season than the warm season. In particular, a significant increase of magnetic concentration is observed in 3 μm and 1 μm filters after the Chinese wind-blown dust events, indicating additional influx of fine-grained anthropogenic particulates into Seoul. Microscopic observations identify that increase of magnetic concentration is highly linked with the frequent occurrence of combustion derived particulates (i.e., carbon and/or sulfur mixed particles) than natural alumino-silicates. Overall, the present study demonstrates that magnetic measurements efficiently reflect the concentration of particulates produced from fossil-fuel combustion among the airborne particles from various sources.

  19. Fine particulates over South Asia: Review and meta-analysis of PM2.5 source apportionment through receptor model.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nandita; Murari, Vishnu; Kumar, Manish; Barman, S C; Banerjee, Tirthankar

    2017-04-01

    Fine particulates (PM2.5) constitute dominant proportion of airborne particulates and have been often associated with human health disorders, changes in regional climate, hydrological cycle and more recently to food security. Intrinsic properties of particulates are direct function of sources. This initiates the necessity of conducting a comprehensive review on PM2.5 sources over South Asia which in turn may be valuable to develop strategies for emission control. Particulate source apportionment (SA) through receptor models is one of the existing tool to quantify contribution of particulate sources. Review of 51 SA studies were performed of which 48 (94%) were appeared within a span of 2007-2016. Almost half of SA studies (55%) were found concentrated over few typical urban stations (Delhi, Dhaka, Mumbai, Agra and Lahore). Due to lack of local particulate source profile and emission inventory, positive matrix factorization and principal component analysis (62% of studies) were the primary choices, followed by chemical mass balance (CMB, 18%). Metallic species were most regularly used as source tracers while use of organic molecular markers and gas-to-particle conversion were minimum. Among all the SA sites, vehicular emissions (mean ± sd: 37 ± 20%) emerged as most dominating PM2.5 source followed by industrial emissions (23 ± 16%), secondary aerosols (22 ± 12%) and natural sources (20 ± 15%). Vehicular emissions (39 ± 24%) also identified as dominating source for highly polluted sites (PM2.5>100 μgm(-3), n = 15) while site specific influence of either or in combination of industrial, secondary aerosols and natural sources were recognized. Source specific trends were considerably varied in terms of region and seasonality. Both natural and industrial sources were most influential over Pakistan and Afghanistan while over Indo-Gangetic plain, vehicular, natural and industrial emissions appeared dominant. Influence of vehicular emission was found

  20. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  1. Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-07-12

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

  2. Detailed gas and diesel vehicle emissions: PTR-MS measurements of real-time VOC profiles and comprehensive characterization of primary emissions for IVOC, SVOC, and LVOC by gas chromatography with vacuum ultra-violet ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, G.; Frodin, B.; Zhao, Y.; Franklin, J. P.; Cross, E. S.; Saleh, R.; Saliba, G.; Lambe, A. T.; Sardar, S.; Maldonado, H.; Russell, L. M.; Kroll, J. H.; Robinson, A. L.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past fifteen years US vehicle emissions standards have dramatically improved, with the goal of reducing urban air pollution. Recent studies demonstrate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) to be the dominant contributor to urban organic aerosol, but controversy remains regarding the contributions of different vehicle types to SOA. Increased potency for SOA formation from non methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) from newer vehicles that meet tighter emission standards has also been observed. Both speciation and temporal resolution of vehicular emissions are critical for predicting SOA formation. The relative importance of diesel and gasoline emissions to SOA formation depends critically on speciation. Experiments were conducted at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit Laboratory to better understand SOA formation for low, ultra-low, super ultra-low and partial zero emission vehicles (LEV, ULEV, SULEV, PZEV). Exhaust was sampled on filters and adsorbent tubes to measure intermediate-, semi-, and low-volatility NMHC (IVOC, SVOC, LVOC). A proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) measured volatile organics (VOC) emissions with high time-resolution. Analysis of filters and adsorbent tubes using gas chromatography with vacuum-ultra-violet ionization mass spectrometry provided unprecedented characterization of emissions according to degree of branching, number of cyclic rings, aromaticity, and molecular weight. ULEV vehicles show the composition distributions of primary particulate emissions peak for compounds in the SVOC range. PZEV vehicle emissions peak in the IVOC range. Diesel vehicles have up to ten times higher emissions than gasoline vehicles; their distributions have significant IVOC levels and peak in the SVOC/LVOC range. Our measurements are used to predict potential SOA formation by vehicle standard class and the relative SOA formation for diesel and gasoline vehicles. PTR-MS measurement show VOC emissions after cold start occur almost entirely

  3. Measurement of vehicle particulate emissions.

    PubMed Central

    Beltzer, M

    1975-01-01

    A constant volume sampler (CVS) compatible auto exhaust particulate sampling system has been built which samples exhaust isokinetically at constant temperature. This system yields internally consistent results and is capable of frequent and convenient operation. PMID:50931

  4. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  5. Should patients with abnormal liver function tests in primary care be tested for chronic viral hepatitis: cost minimisation analysis based on a comprehensively tested cohort

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Liver function tests (LFTs) are ordered in large numbers in primary care, and the Birmingham and Lambeth Liver Evaluation Testing Strategies (BALLETS) study was set up to assess their usefulness in patients with no pre-existing or self-evident liver disease. All patients were tested for chronic viral hepatitis thereby providing an opportunity to compare various strategies for detection of this serious treatable disease. Methods This study uses data from the BALLETS cohort to compare various testing strategies for viral hepatitis in patients who had received an abnormal LFT result. The aim was to inform a strategy for identification of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. We used a cost-minimisation analysis to define a base case and then calculated the incremental cost per case detected to inform a strategy that could guide testing for chronic viral hepatitis. Results Of the 1,236 study patients with an abnormal LFT, 13 had chronic viral hepatitis (nine hepatitis B and four hepatitis C). The strategy advocated by the current guidelines (repeating the LFT with a view to testing for specific disease if it remained abnormal) was less efficient (more expensive per case detected) than a simple policy of testing all patients for viral hepatitis without repeating LFTs. A more selective strategy of viral testing all patients for viral hepatitis if they were born in countries where viral hepatitis was prevalent provided high efficiency with little loss of sensitivity. A notably high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (greater than twice the upper limit of normal) on the initial ALT test had high predictive value, but was insensitive, missing half the cases of viral infection. Conclusions Based on this analysis and on widely accepted clinical principles, a "fast and frugal" heuristic was produced to guide general practitioners with respect to diagnosing cases of viral hepatitis in asymptomatic patients with abnormal LFTs. It recommends testing all patients

  6. Primary prevention of coronary heart disease: integration of new data, evolving views, revised goals, and role of rosuvastatin in management. A comprehensive survey.

    PubMed

    Kones, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A recent explosion in the amount of cardiovascular risk and incipient, undetected subclinical cardiovascular pathology has swept across the globe. Nearly 70% of adult Americans are overweight or obese; the prevalence of visceral obesity stands at 53% and continues to rise. At any one time, 55% of the population is on a weight-loss diet, and almost all fail. Fewer than 15% of adults or children exercise sufficiently, and over 60% engage in no vigorous activity. Among adults, 11%-13% have diabetes, 34% have hypertension, 36% have prehypertension, 36% have prediabetes, 12% have both prediabetes and prehypertension, and 15% of the population with either diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia are undiagnosed. About one-third of the adult population, and 80% of the obese, have fatty livers. With 34% of children overweight or obese, prevalence having doubled in just a few years, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and fatty livers in children are at their highest levels ever. Half of adults have at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Not even 1% of the population attains ideal cardiovascular health. Despite falling coronary death rates for decades, coronary heart disease (CHD) death rates in US women 35 to 54 years of age may now be increasing because of the obesity epidemic. Up to 65% of patients do not have their conventional risk biomarkers under control. Only 30% of high risk patients with CHD achieve aggressive low density lipoprotein (LDL) targets. Of those patients with multiple risk factors, fewer than 10% have all of them adequately controlled. Even when patients are titrated to evidence-based targets, about 70% of cardiac events remain unaddressed. Undertreatment is also common. About two-thirds of high risk primary care patients are not taking needed medications for dyslipidemia. Poor patient adherence, typically below 50%, adds further difficulty. Hence, after all such fractional reductions are multiplied, only a modest portion of total

  7. Primary prevention of coronary heart disease: integration of new data, evolving views, revised goals, and role of rosuvastatin in management. A comprehensive survey

    PubMed Central

    Kones, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A recent explosion in the amount of cardiovascular risk and incipient, undetected subclinical cardiovascular pathology has swept across the globe. Nearly 70% of adult Americans are overweight or obese; the prevalence of visceral obesity stands at 53% and continues to rise. At any one time, 55% of the population is on a weight-loss diet, and almost all fail. Fewer than 15% of adults or children exercise sufficiently, and over 60% engage in no vigorous activity. Among adults, 11%–13% have diabetes, 34% have hypertension, 36% have prehypertension, 36% have prediabetes, 12% have both prediabetes and prehypertension, and 15% of the population with either diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia are undiagnosed. About one-third of the adult population, and 80% of the obese, have fatty livers. With 34% of children overweight or obese, prevalence having doubled in just a few years, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and fatty livers in children are at their highest levels ever. Half of adults have at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Not even 1% of the population attains ideal cardiovascular health. Despite falling coronary death rates for decades, coronary heart disease (CHD) death rates in US women 35 to 54 years of age may now be increasing because of the obesity epidemic. Up to 65% of patients do not have their conventional risk biomarkers under control. Only 30% of high risk patients with CHD achieve aggressive low density lipoprotein (LDL) targets. Of those patients with multiple risk factors, fewer than 10% have all of them adequately controlled. Even when patients are titrated to evidence-based targets, about 70% of cardiac events remain unaddressed. Undertreatment is also common. About two-thirds of high risk primary care patients are not taking needed medications for dyslipidemia. Poor patient adherence, typically below 50%, adds further difficulty. Hence, after all such fractional reductions are multiplied, only a modest portion of total

  8. Comprehension Clinchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcell, Barclay

    2006-01-01

    This author, an academic achievement teacher for second and third grade reading and math at Theodore Roosevelt Elementary School in Park Ridge, Illinois, contends that since fluency is such a measurable skill, over-emphasizing decoding and de-emphasizing comprehension results in short-changing students. In this article, she shares several reading…

  9. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Brown, David B.

    2010-02-02

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  10. Time-resolved characterization of primary and secondary particle emissions of a modern gasoline passenger car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karjalainen, P.; Timonen, H.; Saukko, E.; Kuuluvainen, H.; Saarikoski, S.; Aakko-Saksa, P.; Murtonen, T.; Dal Maso, M.; Ahlberg, E.; Svenningsson, B.; Brune, W. H.; Hillamo, R.; Keskinen, J.; Rönkkö, T.

    2015-11-01

    Changes in traffic systems and vehicle emission reduction technologies significantly affect traffic-related emissions in urban areas. In many densely populated areas the amount of traffic is increasing, keeping the emission level high or even increasing. To understand the health effects of traffic related emissions, both primary and secondary particles that are formed in the atmosphere from gaseous exhaust emissions need to be characterized. In this study we used a comprehensive set of measurements to characterize both primary and secondary particulate emissions of a modern gasoline passenger car. Our aerosol particle study covers the whole process chain in emission formation, from the engine to the atmosphere, and takes into account also differences in driving patterns. We observed that in mass terms, the amount of secondary particles was 13 times higher than the amount of primary particles. The formation, composition, number, and mass of secondary particles was significantly affected by driving patterns and engine conditions. The highest gaseous and particulate emissions were observed at the beginning of the test cycle when the performance of the engine and the catalyst was below optimal. The key parameter for secondary particle formation was the amount of gaseous hydrocarbons in primary emissions; however, also the primary particle population had an influence. Thus, in order to enhance human health and wellbeing in urban areas, our study strongly indicates that in future legislation, special attention should be directed into the reduction of gaseous hydrocarbons.

  11. Optical properties of particulate emissions from on-road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japar, Steven M.; Szkarlat, Ann Cuneo; Gorse, Robert A.

    The light absorbing and light scattering properties of on-road vehicle exhaust particulate were determined as a function of traffic composition at the Allegheny Tunnel on the Pennsylvania Turnpike during August-September 1979. This study was one part of a comprehensive experiment aimed at the chemical and physical characterization of vehicle exhaust particulate. Paniculate light absorption was determined by the integrating plate method, while light scattering was measured with an integrating nephelometer. Mass-specific optical coefficients (at 500.0 nm) have been derived from regressions of the optical and mass emissions data against traffic composition. For diesel vehicles (predominantly heavy-duty, but also including diesel passenger vehicles) the absorption coefficient, b' abs/ M', was found to be 5.13 ± 0.28 m2g-1, while the light scattering coefficient, b' scat/ M', was 1.99 ± 0.07 m2g-1. Diesel vehicle emissions were responsible for greater than 90% of the light extinction in the tunnel, although diesels accounted for only 23% of the vehicle miles travelled. Estimates for b' abs/ M' and b' scat/ M' for particulate from gasoline-powered vehicles were 8 ± 16 m2g-1and 6 ± 10 m2g-1, respectively, while the analogous values for ambient particulate were babs/ M< 1 m2g-1andbscat/ M = 5.0 ± 1.0 m2g-1.

  12. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are numerous uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. the large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  13. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boiler Houses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which currently comprises over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low- capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  14. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    Environmental cleanup and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are numerous uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  15. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  16. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  17. Source Testing for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVorkin, Howard

    Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline covers procedures for the testing of particulate matter. These are: (1) basic requirements, (2) information required, (3) collection of samples, (4) processing of samples, (5)…

  18. MODELING PARTICULATE CHARGING IN ESPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In electrostatic precipitators there is a strong interaction between the particulate space charge and the operating voltage and current of an electrical section. Calculating either the space charge or the operating point when the other is fixed is not difficult, but calculating b...

  19. Particulate emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), including open beef cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and poultry facilities, can emit large amounts of particulate matter, including TSP (total suspended particulates), PM10 (particulate matter with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 mm or less) a...

  20. Source apportionment of PM10 mass and particulate carbon in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bong Mann; Park, Jin-Soo; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Hyunjae; Jeon, Haeun; Cho, Chaeyoon; Kim, Ji-Hyoung; Hong, Seungkyu; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico K.; Park, Rokjin J.; Hong, Jihyung; Yoon, Soon-Chang

    2015-12-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal is a bowl-shaped urban basin in the Himalayan foothills with a serious problem of fine particulate air pollution that impacts local health and impairs visibility. Particulate carbon concentrations have reached severe levels that threaten the health of 3.5 million local residents. Moreover, snow and ice on the Himalayan mountains are melting as a result of additional warming due to particulate carbon, especially high black carbon concentrations. To date, the sources of the Valley's particulate carbon and the impacts of different sources on particulate carbon concentrations are not well understood. Thus, before an effective control strategy can be developed, these particulate carbon sources must be identified and quantified. Our study has found that the four primary sources of particulate carbon in the Kathmandu Valley during winter are brick kilns, motor vehicles, fugitive soil dust, and biomass/garbage burning. Their source contributions are quantified using a recently developed new multivariate receptor model SMP. In contrast to other highly polluted areas such as China, secondary contribution is almost negligible in Kathmandu Valley. Brick kilns (40%), motor vehicles (37%) and biomass/garbage burning (22%) have been identified as the major sources of elemental carbon (black carbon) in the Kathmandu Valley during winter, while motor vehicles (47%), biomass/garbage burning (32%), and soil dust (13%) have been identified as the most important sources of organic carbon. Our research indicates that controlling emissions from motor vehicles, brick kilns, biomass/garbage burning, and soil dust is essential for the mitigation of the particulate carbon that threatens public health, impairs visibility, and influences climate warming within and downwind from the Kathmandu Valley. In addition, this paper suggests several useful particulate carbon mitigation methods that can be applied to Kathmandu Valley and other areas in South Asia with

  1. Polarization signatures of airborne particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2013-07-01

    Exploratory research has been conducted with the aim of completely determining the polarization signatures of selected particulates as a function of wavelength. This may lead to a better understanding of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and such materials, perhaps leading to the point detection of bio-aerosols present in the atmosphere. To this end, a polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection (with good spectral resolution from 300 to 1100 nm) has been developed. The polarization properties of Bacillus subtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) are compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust, and soot. Differentiating features in the polarization signatures of these samples have been identified, thus demonstrating the potential applicability of this technique for the detection of bio-aerosol in the ambient atmosphere.

  2. Material Instabilities in Particulate Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Following is a brief summary of a theoretical investigation of material (or constitutive) instability associated with shear induced particle migration in dense particulate suspensions or granular media. It is shown that one can obtain a fairly general linear-stability analysis, including the effects of shear-induced anisotropy in the base flow as well as Reynolds dilatancy. A criterion is presented here for simple shearing instability in the absence of inertia and dilatancy.

  3. Particulate gravity currents on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltham, Dave; Pickering, Kevin T.; Bray, Veronica J.

    2008-02-01

    Canali are moderately sinuous channels, typically a few kilometers wide and hundreds of kilometers long, that occur principally on the plains of Venus. Plausible hypotheses for their formation include the following: open channels cut by exotic, low-viscosity lavas; roofed-over basaltic lava channels; or water on a cooler, wetter ancient Venus. Although it is accepted that a fluid cut these channels, none of these hypotheses are entirely satisfactory. It is therefore prudent to investigate other explanations. A particulate gravity current is a rapidly moving, sediment-laden flow that moves downslope as a result of its high density compared to the ambient fluid. This high density is produced by suspension of dense particles in a lower-density fluid. As these flows are largely driven by slope, rather than by momentum, they are potentially capable of traveling great distances, producing extensive channel systems. We apply this process to Venus, exploring its channel-forming potential via mathematical modeling and morphological comparison of submarine channels on Earth to canali on Venus. Results of our modeling show that atmospheric particulate gravity currents are physically and geologically plausible on Venus. The potential of this process to form channels of great length is such that particulate gravity currents can be considered as an alternate explanation for canali genesis.

  4. On the importance of listening comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Adlof, Suzanne M.; Alonzo, Crystle

    2015-01-01

    The simple view of reading highlights the importance of two primary components which account for individual differences in reading comprehension across development: word recognition (i.e., decoding) and listening comprehension. While assessments and interventions for decoding have been the focus of pedagogy in the past several decades, the importance of listening comprehension has received less attention. This paper reviews evidence showing that listening comprehension becomes the dominating influence on reading comprehension starting even in the elementary grades. It also highlights a growing number of children who fail to develop adequate reading comprehension skills, primarily due to deficient listening comprehension skills: poor comprehenders. Finally it discusses key language influences on listening comprehension for consideration during assessment and treatment of reading disabilities. PMID:24833426

  5. On the importance of listening comprehension.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Tiffany P; Adlof, Suzanne M; Alonzo, Crystle N

    2014-06-01

    The simple view of reading highlights the importance of two primary components which account for individual differences in reading comprehension across development: word recognition (i.e., decoding) and listening comprehension. While assessments and interventions for decoding have been the focus of pedagogy in the past several decades, the importance of listening comprehension has received less attention. This paper reviews evidence showing that listening comprehension becomes the dominating influence on reading comprehension starting even in the elementary grades. It also highlights a growing number of children who fail to develop adequate reading comprehension skills, primarily due to deficient listening comprehension skills (i.e., poor comprehenders). Finally we discuss key language influences on listening comprehension for consideration during assessment and treatment of reading disabilities.

  6. High Diversity of Fungi in Air Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Despres, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Fungal spores account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, hardly known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (< 3 µm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. References: Després, V.R., J.F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M.O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes, Biogeosciences, 4, 1127-1141, 2007. Elbert, W., P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 4569-4588, 2007. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J. Despres, V.R., Pöschl, U.: High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, submitted, 2008.

  7. Origin of particulate matter and gaseous precursors in the Paris Megacity: Results from intensive campaigns, long term measurements and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekmann, Matthias; Petetin, Hervé; Zhang, Qijie; Prevot, André S. H.; Sciare, Jean; Gros, Valérie; Ghersi, Véronique; Rosso, Amandine; Crippa, Monica; Zotter, Peter; Freutel, Fredericke; Poulain, Laurent; Freney, Evelyne; Sellegri, Karine; Drewnick, Frank; Borbon, Agnès; Wiedensohler, Aflred; Pandis, Spyros N.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainties on the origin of primary and secondary particulate matter and its gaseous precursors in megacities is still large and needs to be reduced. A detailed characterization of air quality in Paris (France), a megacity of more than 10 million inhabitants, during two one month intensive campaigns (MEGAPOLI) and from additional one year observations (PARTICULATE and FRANCIPOL), revealed that about 70% of the fine particulate matter (PM) at urban background is transported on average into the megacity from upwind regions. While advection of sulfate is well documented for other megacities, there was a surprisingly high contribution from long-range transport for both nitrate and organic aerosol. The data set of urban local and advected PM concentrations in the Paris area were used for a thorough evaluation of the CHIMERE model and revealed error compensation for the local and advected components of organic matter and nitrate. During spring time, CHIMERE simulations overestimate the sensitivity of ammonium nitrate peaks to NH3, because (i) they underestimate the urban background NH3 levels, probably due to neglecting enhanced NH3 emissions for larger temperatures, and because they overestimate HNO3. However, from an ensemble of mobile Max-DOAS NO2 column and airborne NOy measurements around Paris, no clear sign on a NOx emission bias in the TNO-Airparif data set was made evident. The origin of organic PM was investigated by a comprehensive analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), radiocarbon and tracer measurements during two intensive campaigns. Primary fossil fuel combustion emissions contributed less than 20% in winter and 40% in summer to carbonaceous fine PM, unexpectedly little for a megacity. Cooking activities and, during winter, residential wood burning are the major primary organic PM sources. This analysis suggests that the major part of secondary organic aerosol is of modern origin, i.e. from biogenic precursors and from wood burning. Implementation

  8. Copper-dependent inflammation and nuclear factor-kappaB activation by particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, T; Ghio, A J; Reed, W; Samet, J; Zagorski, J; Quay, J; Carter, J; Dailey, L; Hoidal, J R; Devlin, R B

    1998-09-01

    Particulate air pollution causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the chemical determinants responsible for its biologic effects are not understood. We studied the effect of total suspended particulates collected in Provo, Utah, an area where an increase in respiratory symptoms in relation to levels of particulate pollution has been well documented. Provo particulates caused cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-dependent inflammation of rat lungs. Provo particulates stimulated interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 production, increased IL-8 messenger RNA (mRNA) and enhanced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in cultured BEAS-2B cells, and stimulated IL-8 secretion in primary cultures of human bronchial epithelium. Cytokine secretion was preceded by activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and was reduced by treatment of cultures with superoxide dismutase, deferoxamine, or N-acetylcysteine. These biologic effects were replicated by culturing BEAS cells with quantities of Cu2+ found in Provo extract. IL-8 secretion by BEAS cells could be modified by addition of normal constituents of airway lining fluid to the culture medium. Mucin significantly reduced IL-8 secretion, and ceruloplasmin significantly increased IL-8 secretion and activation of NF-kappaB. These findings suggest that copper ions may cause some of the biologic effects of inhaled particulate air pollution in the Provo region of the United States, and may provide an explanation for the sensitivity of asthmatic individuals to Provo particulates that has been observed in epidemiologic studies.

  9. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a DC arc melter.

    PubMed

    Overcamp, Thomas J; Speer, Matthew P; Griner, Stewart J; Cash, Douglas M

    2003-01-01

    Tests treating soils contaminated with metal compounds and radionuclide surrogates were conducted in a DC arc melter. The soil melted, and glassy or ceramic waste forms with a separate metal phase were produced. Tests were run in the melter plenum with either air or N2 purge gases. In addition to nitrogen, the primary emissions of gases were CO2, CO, oxygen, methane, and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)). Although the gas flow through the melter was low, the particulate concentrations ranged from 32 to 145 g/m3. Cerium, a nonradioactive surrogate for plutonium and uranium, was not enriched in the particulate matter (PM). The PM was enriched in cesium and highly enriched in lead.

  10. Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and

  11. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted. Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions. Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  12. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-03-07

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  13. Health effects of carbon-containing particulate matter: focus on sources and recent research program results.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Annette; McDonald, Jacob

    2016-02-01

    Air pollution is a complex mixture of gas-, vapor-, and particulate-phase materials comprised of inorganic and organic species. Many of these components have been associated with adverse health effects in epidemiological and toxicological studies, including a broad spectrum of carbonaceous atmospheric components. This paper reviews recent literature on the health impacts of organic aerosols, with a focus on specific sources of organic material; it is not intended to be a comprehensive review of all the available literature. Specific emission sources reviewed include engine emissions, wood/biomass combustion emissions, biogenic emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), resuspended road dust, tire and brake wear, and cooking emissions. In addition, recent findings from large toxicological and epidemiological research programs are reviewed in the context of organic PM, including SPHERES, NPACT, NERC, ACES, and TERESA. A review of the extant literature suggests that there are clear health impacts from emissions containing carbon-containing PM, but difficulty remains in apportioning responses to certain groupings of carbonaceous materials, such as organic and elemental carbon, condensed and gas phases, and primary and secondary material. More focused epidemiological and toxicological studies, including increased characterization of organic materials, would increase understanding of this issue.

  14. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung fibroblast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leah J.; Holmes, Amie L.; Kandpal, Sanjeev Kumar; Mason, Michael D.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-08-01

    Cobalt exposure is increasing as cobalt demand rises worldwide due to its use in enhancing rechargeable battery efficiency, super-alloys, and magnetic products. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in human lung cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble cobalt was more cytotoxic than particulate cobalt while particulate and soluble cobalt induced similar levels of genotoxicity. However, soluble cobalt induced cell cycle arrest indicated by the lack of metaphases at much lower intracellular cobalt concentrations compared to cobalt oxide. Accordingly, we investigated the role of particle internalization in cobalt oxide-induced toxicity and found that particle-cell contact was necessary to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity after cobalt exposure. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung fibroblasts, and solubility plays a key role in cobalt-induced lung toxicity. - Highlights: • Particulate and soluble cobalt are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung cells. • Soluble cobalt induces more cytotoxicity compared to particulate cobalt. • Soluble and particulate cobalt induce similar levels of genotoxicity. • Particle-cell contact is required for particulate cobalt-induced toxicity.

  15. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-03-30

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  16. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  17. Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

    2013-07-16

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  18. Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

    2010-06-29

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  19. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, J. Richard

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  20. Powder and particulate production of metallic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    Developments of particulate metallurgy of alloyed materials where the final products is a fully dense body are discussed. Particulates are defined as powders, flakes, foils, silvers, ribbons and strip. Because rapid solidification is an important factor in particulate metallurgy, all of the particulates must have at least one dimension which is very fine, sometimes as fine as 10 to 50 microns, but move typically up to several hundred microns, provided that the dimension permits a minimum solidification rate of at least 100 K/s.

  1. Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

    2014-07-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  2. Particulate Emissions from Gas Turbine Engines. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    with ferrocene additive) Particulate mass emissions from a J79-GE-IOB engine A-48 to A-64 Particulate mass emissions from a J52-P-6B engine A-65 to A...J79-CE-8D engine 4-9 1 with ferrocene additive (Summary of Files 34 through 45) 6 Particulate emissions from the ,J/7-G;E8f) engine 4 - 0l with... ferrocene additive (Summary of Files 46 and 47) 7 Particulate emissions from the J79-GE-8D engine 4-1i with ferrocene additive (Summary of Files 34 through

  3. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-01-26

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  4. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-11-08

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  5. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

  6. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF PRIMARY CARBONACEOUS AEROSOL USING THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A substantial fraction of fine particulate matter (PM) across the United States is composed of carbon, which may be either emitted in particulate form (i.e., primary) or formed in the atmosphere through gas-to-particle conversion processes (i.e., secondary). Primary carbonaceous...

  7. Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley Williamson

    2003-05-31

    This final project report presents experimental details, results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October, 2001-September, 2002 study period.The host site for these measurement activities is the North Birmingham PM monitoring station by the Jefferson County Health Department in Birmingham, AL.The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. During the course of the project, measurement intercomparison data were developed for these instruments and several complementary measurements at the site. The report details the instrument set and operating procedures and describes the resulting data. Report subsections present an overview summary of the data, followed by detailed description of the systematic time behavior of PM{sub 2.5} and other specific particulate size fractions. Specific subsections are included for particle size distribution, light scattering, and particle sulfate data. The final subsection addresses application of the measurements to the practical questions of fine PM generation and transport, source attribution, and PM{sub 2.5} management strategies.

  8. PARTICULATE MATTER, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary disorders. Clinical and experimental studies have historically focused on the cardiopulmonary effects of PM. However, since PM particles carry numerous biocontaminants that are capable of triggering free radical production and cytokine release, the possibility that PM may affect organs systems sensitive to oxidative stress must be considered. Four independent studies that summarize the neurochemical and neuropathological changes found in the brains of PM exposed animals are described here. These were recently presented at two 2007 symposia sponsored by the Society of Toxicology (Charlotte, NC) and the International Neurotoxicology Association (Monterey, CA). Particulates are covered with biocontaminants (e.g., endotoxins, mold, pollen) which convey free radical activity that can damage the lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins of target cells on contact and stimulate inflammatory cytokine release. Although, the historical focus of PM toxicity has been cardiopulmonary targets, it is now appreciated that inhaled nano-size (<100 nm) particles quickly exit the lungs and enter the circulation where they distribute to various organ systems (l.e., liver, kidneys, testes, lymph nodes) (Takenaka et aI

  9. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  10. Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates.

    PubMed

    Balducci, C; Nervegna, G; Cecinato, A

    2009-05-08

    The determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), cannabidiol (CND) and cannabinol (CNB), primary active components in cannabis preparation, was carried out on airborne particulates by applying a specific procedure consisting of soot extraction by ultrasonic bath, purification by solvent partitioning, derivatization with N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide, and separation/detection through gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure was found suitable for measuring the three psychotropic substances at concentrations ranging from ca. 0.001 to ca. 5.0 ng cm(-3) of air, with recoveries always higher than 82%, accuracy >7.3% and precision >90%. Application of the procedure performed on field in Rome and Bari, Italy, demonstrated that all three compounds contaminate the air in Italian cities whereas in Algiers, Algeria, only cannabinol, the most stable in the atmosphere, exceeded the limit of quantification of the method. The relative percentages of the three cannabinoids in general reproduced those typical of the Cannabis sativa plant and were very different from those found in human blood, urine and sweat.

  11. Chemical tracers of particulate emissions from commercial shipping.

    PubMed

    Viana, Mar; Amato, Fulvio; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Moreno, Teresa; Dos Santos, Saúl García; Herce, María Dolores; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía

    2009-10-01

    Despite the increase of commercial shipping around the world, data are yet relatively scarce on the contribution of these emissions to ambient air particulates. One of the reasons is the complexity in the detection and estimation of shipping contributions to ambient particulates in harbor and urban environments, given the similarity with tracers of other combustion sources. This study aimed to identify specific tracers of shipping emissions in a Mediterranean city with an important harbor (Melilla, Spain). Results showed that for 24 h PM10 and PM2.5 samples, valid tracers of commercial shipping emissions were ratios of V/Ni = 4-5 and V/EC < 2, whereas V/EC > 8 excluded the influence of shipping emissions. Other ratios (V/ S, La/Ce, Zn/Ni, Pb/Zn, OC/EC) and tracers (Pb, Zn) were also tested but did not correlate with this source. Due to the changing composition of diesel fuels, tracers in the Mediterranean Sea may not be representative in other regions of the world and vice versa. The contribution of shipping emissions to ambient particulate matter (PM) urban background levels was quantified by positive matrix factorization (PMF), resulting in 2% and 4% of mean annual PM10 levels (0.8 microg/m3 primary particles and 1.7 microg/m3 secondary particles, with 20% uncertainty) and 14% of mean annual PM2.5 levels (2.6 microg/m3).

  12. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J [Grand Forks, ND; Zhuang, Ye [Grand Forks, ND; Almlie, Jay C [East Grand Forks, MN

    2012-01-10

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  13. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  14. ENGINEERED PARTICULATES FOR CO-FIRING OF DIVERSE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph J. McCarthy; Kunal Jain; Hongming Li; Deliang Shi

    2004-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a novel methodology for the formation of engineered particulates of energy-relevant material. Specifically, we aim to control interparticle cohesion in such a way as to generate macro-particles or agglomerates of several differing types of primary particles in specific proportions such that they would be of utility for co-firing applications. In Phase I of this project, we used a combination of experimentation and simulation to validate theoretically derived mixing/segregation rules for cohesive granular materials in static systems, flowing systems, and gas-solid systems.

  15. Electrically heated particulate filter propagation support methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-06-07

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A propagation module estimates a propagation status of the combustion of the particulate matter based on a combustion temperature. A temperature adjustment module controls the combustion temperature by selectively increasing a temperature of exhaust that passes through the particulate filter.

  16. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  17. Source apportionment of airborne particulates through receptor modeling: Indian scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Tirthankar; Murari, Vishnu; Kumar, Manish; Raju, M. P.

    2015-10-01

    Airborne particulate chemistry mostly governed by associated sources and apportionment of specific sources is extremely essential to delineate explicit control strategies. The present submission initially deals with the publications (1980s-2010s) of Indian origin which report regional heterogeneities of particulate concentrations with reference to associated species. Such meta-analyses clearly indicate the presence of reservoir of both primary and secondary aerosols in different geographical regions. Further, identification of specific signatory molecules for individual source category was also evaluated in terms of their scientific merit and repeatability. Source signatures mostly resemble international profile while, in selected cases lack appropriateness. In India, source apportionment (SA) of airborne particulates was initiated way back in 1985 through factor analysis, however, principal component analysis (PCA) shares a major proportion of applications (34%) followed by enrichment factor (EF, 27%), chemical mass balance (CMB, 15%) and positive matrix factorization (PMF, 9%). Mainstream SA analyses identify earth crust and road dust resuspensions (traced by Al, Ca, Fe, Na and Mg) as a principal source (6-73%) followed by vehicular emissions (traced by Fe, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Mn, Ba and Zn; 5-65%), industrial emissions (traced by Co, Cr, Zn, V, Ni, Mn, Cd; 0-60%), fuel combustion (traced by K, NH4+, SO4-, As, Te, S, Mn; 4-42%), marine aerosols (traced by Na, Mg, K; 0-15%) and biomass/refuse burning (traced by Cd, V, K, Cr, As, TC, Na, K, NH4+, NO3-, OC; 1-42%). In most of the cases, temporal variations of individual source contribution for a specific geographic region exhibit radical heterogeneity possibly due to unscientific orientation of individual tracers for specific source and well exaggerated by methodological weakness, inappropriate sample size, implications of secondary aerosols and inadequate emission inventories. Conclusively, a number of challenging

  18. 40 CFR 52.2276 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... on the primary crusher and on the secondary crusher and screens, meeting the requirements of Appendix... crusher and shall not emit particulate matter in excess of 0.03 grains per standard cubic foot from the exhaust stack of the fabric filter on its secondary crusher and screens....

  19. 40 CFR 52.2276 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... on the primary crusher and on the secondary crusher and screens, meeting the requirements of Appendix... crusher and shall not emit particulate matter in excess of 0.03 grains per standard cubic foot from the exhaust stack of the fabric filter on its secondary crusher and screens....

  20. 40 CFR 52.2276 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... on the primary crusher and on the secondary crusher and screens, meeting the requirements of Appendix... crusher and shall not emit particulate matter in excess of 0.03 grains per standard cubic foot from the exhaust stack of the fabric filter on its secondary crusher and screens....

  1. 40 CFR 52.2276 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... on the primary crusher and on the secondary crusher and screens, meeting the requirements of Appendix... crusher and shall not emit particulate matter in excess of 0.03 grains per standard cubic foot from the exhaust stack of the fabric filter on its secondary crusher and screens....

  2. 40 CFR 52.2276 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... on the primary crusher and on the secondary crusher and screens, meeting the requirements of Appendix... crusher and shall not emit particulate matter in excess of 0.03 grains per standard cubic foot from the exhaust stack of the fabric filter on its secondary crusher and screens....

  3. INDIVIDUAL PARTICLE ANALYSIS OF INDOOR, OUTDOOR, AND COMMUNITY SAMPLES FROM THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) recently conducted the 1998 Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly. The primary goal of that study was to establish the relationship between outdoor PM concentrations and actual h...

  4. INDIVIDUAL PARTICLE ANALYSIS OF PERSONAL SAMPLES FROM THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) recently conducted the 1998 Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly. The primary goal of that study was to establish the relationship between outdoor PM concentrations and actual h...

  5. THE RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY: PM MASS CONCENTRATION RELATIONSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recently performed the Research Triangle Park Particulate Matter Panel Study. This was a one-year investigation of PM and related co-pollutants involving participants living within the RTP area of North Carolina. Primary goals were t...

  6. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  7. Methods for Coating Particulate Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  8. Ice particulates in the mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesworth, E. T.; Hale, L. C.

    1974-01-01

    The observations of noctilucent clouds, the measurements of hydrated and of large immobile ions, and the light-scattering layer detected by the OGO-6 satellite suggest the presence of particulates, probably ice, in the mesosphere. The correlation between temperature and positive ion conductivity where the vapor pressure over ice becomes greater than atmospheric pressure in the stratopause region indicates the presence of ice crystals throughout the mesosphere over a wide range of latitudes during all seasons. Between one and ten billion ice crystals per cubic meter of order 10 nanometers in diameter can dominate ionization loss processes in the mesosphere, and can explain a variety of experimental observations, including observed solar angle dependence and seasonal variability of electron density.

  9. Leachable particulate iron in the Columbia River, estuary, and near-field plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippiatt, Sherry M.; Brown, Matthew T.; Lohan, Maeve C.; Berger, Carolyn J. M.; Bruland, Kenneth W.

    2010-03-01

    This study examines the distribution of leachable particulate iron (Fe) in the Columbia River, estuary, and near-field plume. Surface samples were collected during late spring and summer of 2004-2006 as part of four River Influence on Shelf Ecosystems (RISE) cruises. Tidal amplitude and river flow are the primary factors influencing the estuary leachable particulate Fe concentrations, with greater values during high flow and/or spring tides. Near the mouth of the estuary, leachable particulate Fe [defined as the particulate Fe solubilized with a 25% acetic acid (pH 2) leach containing a weak reducing agent to reduce Fe oxyhydroxides and a short heating step to access intracellular Fe] averaged 770 nM during either spring tide or high flow, compared to 320 nM during neap tide, low flow conditions. In the near-field Columbia River plume, elevated leachable particulate Fe concentrations occur during spring tides and/or higher river flow, with resuspended shelf sediment as an additional source to the plume during periods of coastal upwelling and spring tides. Near-field plume concentrations of leachable particulate Fe (at a salinity of 20) averaged 660 nM during either spring tide or high flow, compared to 300 nM during neap tide, low flow conditions. Regardless of tidal amplitude and river flow, leachable particulate Fe concentrations in both the river/estuary and near-field plume are consistently one to two orders of magnitude greater than dissolved Fe concentrations. The Columbia River is an important source of reactive Fe to the productive coastal waters off Oregon and Washington, and leachable particulate Fe is available for solubilization following biological drawdown of the dissolved phase. Elevated leachable Fe concentrations allow coastal waters influenced by the Columbia River plume to remain Fe-replete and support phytoplankton production during the spring and summer seasons.

  10. Sizes, graphitic structures and fractal geometry of light-duty diesel engine particulates.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K. O.; Zhu, J.; Ciatti, S.; Choi, M. Y.; Energy Systems; Drexel Univ.

    2003-01-01

    The particulate matter of a light-duty diesel engine was characterized in its morphology, sizes, internal microstructures, and fractal geometry. A thermophoretic sampling system was employed to collect particulates directly from the exhaust manifold of a 1.7-liter turbocharged common-rail direct-injection diesel engine. The particulate samples collected at various engine-operating conditions were then analyzed by using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an image processing/data acquisition system. Results showed that mean primary particle diameters (dp), and radii of gyration (Rg), ranged from 19.4 nm to 32.5 nm and 77.4 nm to 134.1 nm, respectively, through the entire engine-operating conditions of 675 rpm (idling) to 4000 rpm and 0% to 100% loads. It was also revealed that the other important parameters sensitive to the particulate formation, such as exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) rate, equivalence ratio, and temperature, affected particle sizes significantly. Bigger primary particles were measured at higher EGR rates, higher equivalence ratios (fuel-rich), and lower exhaust temperatures. Fractal dimensions (D{sup f}) were measured at a range of 1.5 - 1.7, which are smaller than those measured for heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engine particulates in our previous study. This finding implies that the light-duty diesel engine used in this study produces more stretched chain-like shape particles, while the heavy-duty diesel engine emits more spherical particles. The microstructures of diesel particulates were observed at high TEM magnifications and further analyzed by a Raman spectroscope. Raman spectra revealed an atomic structure of the particulates produced at high engine loads, which is similar to that of typical graphite.

  11. Time Scales in Particulate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Duan

    2013-06-01

    While there are many interests of studying interactions of individual particles, macroscopic collective behavior of particles are our main interest in many practical applications. In this talk, I will give a brief overview of the multiscale methods connecting the physics at individual particles to macroscopic quantities and averaged equations. The emphasis will be on dense dissipative particulate systems, such as powders. Unlike conservative particle systems, such as molecular systems, in a dissipative particle system the concept of thermodynamic equilibrium is not very useful unless in very special cases, because the only true thermodynamically equilibrium state in these systems is the state in which nothing moves. Other than idealized simple systems, mesoscale structures are common and important in many practical systems, especially in dissipative systems. Spatial correlations of these mesoscale structures, such as force chains in dense granular system, particle clusters and streamers in fluidized beds have received some recent attentions, partly because they can be visualized. This talk will emphasize the effects of time correlations related to the mesoscale structures. To consider time correlations and history information of the system, I will introduce the mathematical foundation of the Liouville equation, its applicability and limitations. I will derive the generalized Liouville equations for particulate systems with and without interstitial fluids, and then use them to study averaged transport equations and related closures. Interactions among the time scale of particle interactions, the time scale of the mesocale structures, and the time scale of the physical problem as represented by strain rate will be discussed. The effect of these interactions on the closure relations will be illustrated. I will also discuss possible numerical methods of solving the averaged equations, and multiscale numerical algorithms bridging the particle level calculations to

  12. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses.

    SciTech Connect

    Hucko, R.E.

    1997-01-20

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these

  13. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses.

    SciTech Connect

    Hucko, R.E.

    1997-04-30

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these

  14. Discontinuous deformation analysis of particulate media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Patricia Ann

    Many geotechnical engineering problems involve the localization of deformations along distinct shear planes, such as the response of a layer of soil to displacement along an underlying bedrock fault. Understanding the process of deformation localization and the propagation of shear zones to the surface would aid in the siting of structures near faults, and in developing mitigation techniques. Discrete numerical methods are especially suited to this type of problem, because the discontinuous nature of soil and the kinematics of soil deformation are modeled directly. This research involves the development and validation of Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA), a type of discrete numerical method, as a tool capable of modeling realistic soil behavior, thus providing the foundation for its application to complex soil mechanics problems, such as earthquake fault rupture propagation. First, a review of the two primary types of discrete numerical modeling, the Distinct Element Method (DEM) and DDA is presented along with a discussion of the key aspects of modeling particulate materials with these methods. Next, several extensions to the numerical program Discontinuous Deformation Analysis for Disks (DDAD), implemented during the process of developing DDAD as a tool for modeling particulate materials, were implemented. A flexible, stress-controlled boundary was incorporated, allows simulation of geotechnical biaxial shear tests that are commonly performed on specimens of granular soils. Using this boundary, the stress-strain and volumetric responses of simulated assemblies of particles were investigated. A new type of particle, the disk cluster, was developed and implemented. A disk cluster is a group of circular disks permanently attached to form a single particle. Disk clusters more accurately represent the nonspherical shape of particulate materials, minimize the problem of excessive rotation that occurs with perfectly circular elements, and retain the simplicity of

  15. Comprehensibility maximization and humanly comprehensible representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Ryotaro

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new information-theoretic method to measure the comprehensibility of network configurations in competitive learning. Comprehensibility is supposed to be measured by information contained in components in competitive networks. Thus, the increase in information corresponds to the increase in comprehensibility of network configurations. One of the most important characteristics of the method is that parameters can be explicitly determined so as to produce a state where the different types of comprehensibility can be mutually increased. We applied the method to two problems, namely an artificial data set and the ionosphere data from the well-known machine learning database. In both problems, we showed that improved performance could be obtained in terms of all types of comprehensibility and quantization errors. For the topographic errors, we found that updating connection weights prevented them from increasing. Then, the optimal values of comprehensibility could be explicitly determined, and clearer class boundaries were generated.

  16. The Effect of Text Types on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ayfer

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this study is to determine the effect of narrative and informative text types on Reading Comprehension levels of Primary Education 4th and 5th grade students. Application was fulfilled in 2011-2012 academic year with 134 students in a primary education school in Province Kirsehir. Reading comprehension tests prepared according to text types…

  17. Increasing Reading Comprehension through the Use of Guided Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tina; O'Leary, Deborah; Schuler, Katherine; Wright, Leon

    This report describes a process for increasing primary students' reading comprehension skills through the use of a guided reading program. The targeted population consisted of primary students in a northwest suburban area of a large city in the Midwest. The problems of poor reading comprehension scores were documented through the use of the…

  18. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Cancer.gov

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  19. Diesel particulate emission control without engine modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Filowitz, M.S.; Vataru, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an ashless, fuel supplement which was found to typically reduce diesel particulate emissions by over 30% while significantly improving fuel economy and power output without any modifications to existing diesel engines or fuels. The treating cost is an order of magnitude less than the estimated cost of reducing aromatic content at the refinery to achieve particulate reductions. The particulate reduction is virtually all from the carbon (soot) fraction. The reduced soot formation translates into less abrasives and less soot-loading stress on the engine oil. Diesel tests conducted are also discussed.

  20. Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

  1. Particulate contamination spectrometer. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Boyd, B. A.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A laser particulate spectrometer (LPS) system was developed to measure the size and speed distributions of particulate (dusts, aerosols, ice particles, etc.) contaminants. Detection of the particulates was achieved by means of light scattering and extinction effects using a single laser beam to cover a size range of 0.8 to 275 microns diameter and a speed range of 0.2 to 20 meter/second. The LPS system was designed to operate in the high vacuum environment of a space simulation chamber with cold shroud temperatures ranging from 77 to 300 K.

  2. Organic speciation of size-segregated atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Raphael

    Particle size and composition are key factors controlling the impacts of particulate matter (PM) on human health and the environment. A comprehensive method to characterize size-segregated PM organic content was developed, and evaluated during two field campaigns. Size-segregated particles were collected using a cascade impactor (Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor) and a PM2.5 large volume sampler. A series of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were solvent extracted and quantified using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Large volume injections were performed using a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) inlet to lower detection limits. The developed analysis method was evaluated during the 2001 and 2002 Intercomparison Exercise Program on Organic Contaminants in PM2.5 Air Particulate Matter led by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Ambient samples were collected in May 2002 as part of the Tampa Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) in Florida, USA and in July and August 2004 as part of the New England Air Quality Study - Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (NEAQS - ITCT) in New Hampshire, USA. Morphology of the collected particles was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Smaller particles (one micrometer or less) appeared to consist of solid cores surrounded by a liquid layer which is consistent with combustion particles and also possibly with particles formed and/or coated by secondary material like sulfate, nitrate and secondary organic aerosols. Source apportionment studies demonstrated the importance of stationary sources on the organic particulate matter observed at these two rural sites. Coal burning and biomass burning were found to be responsible for a large part of the observed PAHs during the field campaigns. Most of the measured PAHs were concentrated in particles smaller than one micrometer and linked to combustion sources

  3. Composition and oxidation state of sulfur in atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Amelia F.; Vine, David J.; King, Laura E.; Oakes, Michelle; Weber, Rodney J.; Huey, Lewis Gregory; Russell, Armistead G.; Ingall, Ellery D.

    2016-10-01

    The chemical and physical speciation of atmospheric sulfur was investigated in ambient aerosol samples using a combination of sulfur near-edge x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (S-NEXFS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy. These techniques were used to determine the composition and oxidation state of sulfur in common primary emission sources and ambient particulate matter collected from the greater Atlanta area. Ambient particulate matter samples contained two oxidation states: S0 and S+VI. Ninety-five percent of the individual aerosol particles (> 1 µm) analyzed contain S0. Linear combination fitting revealed that S+VI in ambient aerosol was dominated by ammonium sulfate as well as metal sulfates. The finding of metal sulfates provides further evidence for acidic reactions that solubilize metals, such as iron, during atmospheric transport. Emission sources, including biomass burning, coal fly ash, gasoline, diesel, volcanic ash, and aerosolized Atlanta soil, and the commercially available bacterium Bacillus subtilis, contained only S+VI. A commercially available Azotobacter vinelandii sample contained approximately equal proportions of S0 and S+VI. S0 in individual aerosol particles most likely originates from primary emission sources, such as aerosolized bacteria or incomplete combustion.

  4. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  5. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  6. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  7. Comprehension of Discourse Markers and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    According to many research findings, the presence of discourse markers (DMs) enhances readers' comprehension of the texts they read. However, there is a paucity of research on the relationship between knowledge of DMs and reading comprehension (RC) and the present study explores the relationship between them. Knowledge of DMs is measured through…

  8. PARTICULATE MATTER, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  9. Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  10. OPEN PATH OPTICAL SENSING OF PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the concepts behind recent developments in optical remote sensing (ORS) and the results from experiments. Airborne fugitive and fine particulate matter (PM) from various sources contribute to exceedances of state and federal PM and visibility standards. Recent...

  11. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Particulate Matter The Basics We’ve ...

  12. MTCI acoustic agglomeration particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Chandran, R.R.; Mansour, M.N.; Scaroni, A.W.; Koopmann, G.H.; Loth, J.L.

    1994-10-01

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate pulse combination induced acoustic enhancement of coal ash agglomeration and sulfur capture at conditions typical of direct coal-fired turbines and PFBC hot gas cleanup. MTCI has developed an advanced compact pulse combustor island for direct coal-firing in combustion gas turbines. This combustor island comprises a coal-fired pulse combustor, a combined ash agglomeration and sulfur capture chamber (CAASCC), and a hot cyclone. In the MTCI proprietary approach, the pulse combustion-induced high intensity sound waves improve sulfur capture efficiency and ash agglomeration. The resulting agglomerates allow the use of commercial cyclones and achieve very high particulate collection efficiency. In the MTCI proprietary approach, sorbent particles are injected into a gas stream subjected to an intense acoustic field. The acoustic field serves to improve sulfur capture efficiency by enhancing both gas film and intra-particle mass transfer rates. In addition, the sorbent particles act as dynamic filter foci, providing a high density of stagnant agglomerating centers for trapping the finer entrained (in the oscillating flow field) fly ash fractions. A team has been formed with MTCI as the prime contractor and Penn State University and West Virginia University as subcontractors to MTCI. MTCI is focusing on hardware development and system demonstration, PSU is investigating and modeling acoustic agglomeration and sulfur capture, and WVU is studying aerovalve fluid dynamics. Results are presented from all three studies.

  13. The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists, regulators, legislators, and segments of industry and the lay public are attempting to understand and respond to epidemiology findings of associations between measures of modern particulate air pollutants (PM) and adverse health outcomes in urban dwellers. The associations have been interpreted to imply that tens of thousands of Americans are killed annually by small daily increments in PM. These epidemiology studies and their interpretations have been challenged, although it is accepted that high concentrations of air pollutants have claimed many lives in the past. Although reproducible and statistically significant, the relative risks associated with modern PM are very small and confounded by many factors. Neither toxicology studies nor human clinical investigations have identified the components and/or characteristics of PM that might be causing the health-effect associations. Currently, a massive worldwide research effort is under way in an attempt to identify whom might be harmed and by what substances and mechanisms. Finding the answers is important, because control measures have the potential not only to be costly but also to limit the availability of goods and services that are important to public health. PMID:19330148

  14. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the January-March, 2002 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. Some instrumental issues were noted with the upgrade of the APS model 3320 are described in the report, as well as preliminary performance indications for the upgraded instrument. During the quarter preliminary data analysis and modeling studies were conducted to test the potential of the North Birmingham site data for source attribution analyses. Our initial assessment has continued to be optimistic in this regard due to the location of the site relative to several important classes of local and midrange emission sources. We anticipate that these analyses will provide good separations of the effects of major source classes and spatial source clusters, and will provide useful information relevant to PM{sub 2.5} implementation strategies.

  15. New ESP additive controls particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.; Baldrey, K.E.; Bustard, C.J.; Martin, C.E.; Dharmarajan, N.N.

    1997-06-01

    This article reports that a conditioning agent enhanced precipitator performance after plant switched to low-sulfur coal. Firing low-sulfur coal at a power plant designed for medium- or high-sulfur coal will impact the downstream particulate control device. Since the performance of an electro-static precipitator (ESP) is a strong function of the sulfur content in the coal, switching to a low-sulfur coal will severely impact collection efficiency. Particle resistivity is the dominant parameter affecting the performance of an ESP. When the resistivity is too high, the ESP must be increased in size by a factor of two to three, resulting in proportionally increased capital and operating costs. Fly ash from low-sulfur coal is known to have a typical resistivity one or two orders of magnitude above that for ideal collection efficiency in a well-designed ESP. Therefore, when a utility burning a medium- or high-sulfur coal switches to a low-sulfur coal, the increase in particle resistivity resulting from the reduced SO{sub 3} concentration will lead to severe problems in the ESP. There have been many instances where utilities have switched from a high- to a low-sulfur coal, and the problems caused by the increased resistivity have had such a devastating effect on the performance of the ESP that emissions have increased by a factor of 10.

  16. Particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragent, B.; Esposito, L. W.; Tomasko, M. G.; Marov, M. IA.; Shari, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents a summary of the data currently available (June 1984) describing the planet-enshrouding particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere. A description and discussion of the state of knowledge of the Venus clouds and hazes precedes the tables and plots. The tabular material includes a precis of upper haze and cloud-top properties, parameters for model-size distributions for particles and particulate layers, and columnar masses and mass loadings.

  17. HONO and its potential source particulate nitrite at an urban site in North China during the cold season.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liwei; Wen, Liang; Xu, Caihong; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Xinfeng; Yang, Lingxiao; Wang, Wenxing; Yang, Xue; Sui, Xiao; Yao, Lan; Zhang, Qingzhu

    2015-12-15

    Characteristics and transformation of nitrous acid (HONO) and particulate nitrite were investigated with high time-resolution field measurements at an urban site in Ji'nan, China from Nov. 2013 to Jan. 2014. During the sampling period, averages of 0.35ppbv HONO and 2.08μgm(-3) fine particulate nitrite were observed. HONO and particulate nitrite exhibited similar diurnal variation patterns but differed in the time at which concentration peaks and valleys occurred. Elevated nocturnal HONO concentration peaks were mainly associated with primary emissions from vehicle exhaust and secondary formation via heterogeneous reactions of NO2. In fresh air masses dominated by vehicle emissions, the average HONO/NOx ratio was 0.58%. The nocturnal heterogeneous reactions of NO2 contributed to about half of the elevated HONO concentration peaks, with the conversion rates in the range of 0.05% to 0.96%h(-1). Meanwhile, a large amount of particulate nitrite, which greatly exceeded the concentration of the gas-phase HONO, was also produced through the heterogeneous reactions of NO2. The large yields of particulate nitrite were facilitated by abundant ammonia and particulate cations in urban Ji'nan. Notably, in the daytime, particulate nitrite acted as a potential source of HONO, especially in conditions of low humidity and acidic aerosols, which possibly has subsequent effects on photochemistry in the boundary layer.

  18. [The primary healthcare centres].

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Antonio; Maciocco, Gavino

    2014-04-01

    The central attributes of primary care are: first contact (accessibility), longitudinality (person- focused preventive and curative care overtime), patient-oriented comprehensiveness and coordination (including navigation towards secondary and tertiary care). Besides taking care of the needs of the individuals, primary health care teams are also looking at the community, especially when addressing social determinants of health. The rationale for the benefits for primary care for health has been found in: 1) greater access to needed services; 2) better quality of care; 3) a greater focus on prevention; 4) early management of health problems; 5) organizing and delivering high quality care for chronic non-communicable diseases. This paper describes the role of primary healthcare centres in strengthening community primary services and in reducing health inequalities. Furthemore, the experiences of Regional Health Services from Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna are discussed, with a brief overview of the literature.

  19. Particulate emissions from construction activities.

    PubMed

    Muleski, Gregory E; Cowherd, Chatten; Kinsey, John S

    2005-06-01

    Although it has long been recognized that road and building construction activity constitutes an important source of particulate matter (PM) emissions throughout the United States, until recently only limited research has been directed to its characterization. This paper presents the results of PM10 and PM2.5 (particles < or = 10 microm and < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter, respectively) emission factor development from the onsite testing of component operations at actual construction sites during the period 1998-2001. Much of the testing effort was directed at earthmoving operations with scrapers, because earthmoving is the most important contributor of PM emissions across the construction industry. Other sources tested were truck loading and dumping of crushed rock and mud and dirt carryout from construction site access points onto adjacent public paved roads. Also tested were the effects of watering for control of scraper travel routes and the use of paved and graveled aprons at construction site access points for reducing mud and dirt carryout. The PM10 emissions from earthmoving were found to be up to an order of magnitude greater than predicted by AP-42 emission factors drawn from other industries. As expected, the observed PM2.5:PM10 emission factor ratios reflected the relative importance of the vehicle exhaust and the resuspended dust components of each type of construction activity. An unexpected finding was that PM2.5 emissions from mud and dirt carryout were much less than anticipated. Finally, the control efficiency of watering of scraper travel routes was found to closely follow a bilinear moisture model.

  20. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Leah J; Holmes, Amie L; Kandpal, Sanjeev Kumar; Mason, Michael D; Zheng, Tongzhang; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-08-01

    Cobalt exposure is increasing as cobalt demand rises worldwide due to its use in enhancing rechargeable battery efficiency, super-alloys, and magnetic products. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in human lung cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble cobalt was more cytotoxic than particulate cobalt while particulate and soluble cobalt induced similar levels of genotoxicity. However, soluble cobalt induced cell cycle arrest indicated by the lack of metaphases at much lower intracellular cobalt concentrations compared to cobalt oxide. Accordingly, we investigated the role of particle internalization in cobalt oxide-induced toxicity and found that particle-cell contact was necessary to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity after cobalt exposure. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung fibroblasts, and solubility plays a key role in cobalt-induced lung toxicity.

  1. Accumulation of cadmium from the dissolved and particulate phases by the freshwater mussel, Elliptio complanata

    SciTech Connect

    Yankovich, T.

    1995-12-31

    The primary objective of the current study was to quantify cadmium accumulation by Elliptio complanata from suspended particulates relative to the dissolved phase. Results obtained from this study suggest that particle physico-chemical properties and their associated cadmium concentrations may play a role in cadmium bioaccumulation by E. complanata. This accumulation of cadmium is due to direct uptake from the particulate phase and/or accumulation of dissolved cadmium which has leached off particles. The importance of the particulate phase in cadmium uptake is related to the type of particle to which mussels are exposed. No significant cadmium bioaccumulation was observed when mussels consumed Cd-contaminated kaolinite or illite clay particles. Significant uptake was observed by mussels exposed to Cd-contaminated montmorillonite clay particles at high bound cadmium levels; however, the dissolved phase accounted for all observed Cd accumulation, suggesting that equilibrium partitioning into the aqueous phase represented the key route of cadmium uptake from clay particles. Cadmium uptake did not occur when mussels were exposed to natural sediment particles containing low organic carbon concentrations, but significant bioaccumulation was observed when mussels consumed Cd-contaminated sediments with relatively high organic carbon contents. Dissolved cadmium concentrations present in sediment suspensions with low and high organic carbon contents were similar, suggesting that the particulate phase was the source of cadmium uptake. These results indicate that particle processing and selective feeding behaviors by filter-feeding bivalves may play a key role in determining the relative importance of dissolved and particulate phases in cadmium bioaccumulation.

  2. Comprehension Before Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garman, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    Examines Frank Smith's analysis of the reading process with respect to comprehension, specifically, his assertion that during the reading process, comprehension of meaning precedes word identification. Discusses the implications of Smith's analysis for the teaching of reading. (JM)

  3. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  4. Evaluation of Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Forecasts during the MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, C.; Kim, S.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.

    2015-12-01

    We report forecasting model performance analysis results of Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) simulation evaluated with flight measurements during Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul (MAPS-Seoul) field campaign. The primary focus of this study is two-fold: (1) the air quality forecasting model performance for O3, PM10/2.5 and their precursors over the Yellow Sea to measure the model's ability to account for the transport process and (2) the utilization of modeled source-receptor relationship to understand the root of systematic model under-prediction for PM10 and PM2.5 forecasts. MAPS-Seoul, conducted in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) in the summer of 2015, was an integrated research program covering ground monitoring and aloft measurement with aircrafts. To support this field campaign, air quality forecasting was performed with Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) - Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) - CAMx modeling framework. WRF model simulations initialized with National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecasting System (NOAA/NCEP-GFS) were prepared for daily meteorological forecasts. Emission inventories used in this study are Model Inter-Comparison Study-Asia (MICS-Asia) 2010 for Asia and Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) 2010 for South Korea. Simulated PM10 concentrations were evaluated with observed PM10 concentrations at ground monitoring sites of the AirKorea network in SMA. During the campaign period, average simulated PM10 concentrations showed significant underprediction, over 30% (~35 ㎍/㎥) lower than those observed at sites. To examine source-receptor relationship as a way to identify the cause of underprediction, we ran CAMx with Particulate matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT). The air quality forecasting model is based on the with 27-km horizontal grid resolution over Northeast Asia.

  5. Comprehension of Connected Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosberg, Ludwig; Shima, Fred

    A rationale was developed for researching reading comprehension based on information gain. Previous definitions of comprehension which were reviewed included operational vs. nonoperational and skills vs. processes. Comprehension was viewed as an informational processing event which includes a constellation of cognitive and learning processes. Two…

  6. Comprehensions and Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, Alexander H.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that second-language reading comprehension and its assessment can be usefully divided into two aspects: (1) comprehensions (different levels of comprehension the reader adopts to suit different purposes of reading); and (2) interpretations (different readings of the same text resulting from different background knowledge or preoccupations…

  7. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Thaury, Claire; Mineau, Jean-Luc; Gaubicher, Bertrand

    2010-08-01

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration.

  8. Making the Comprehensive High School Comprehensive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midjaas, Carl Larsen

    1975-01-01

    Three occupational labs (child care, graphic arts, and food service) are featured as examples of vocational facilities in a new comprehensive high school in Troy, Michigan. The article stresses the planning that went into the project's development. (BP)

  9. Gaseous and particulate emissions from prescribed burning in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangil; Baumann, Karsten; Schauer, James J; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Naeher, Luke P; Meinardi, Simone; Blake, Donald R; Edgerton, Eric S; Russell, Armistead G; Clements, Mark

    2005-12-01

    Prescribed burning is a significant source of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the southeastern United States. However, limited data exist on the emission characteristics from this source. Various organic and inorganic compounds both in the gas and particle phase were measured in the emissions of prescribed burnings conducted at two pine-dominated forest areas in Georgia. The measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM2.5 allowed the determination of emission factors for the flaming and smoldering stages of prescribed burnings. The VOC emission factors from smoldering were distinctly higher than those from flaming except for ethene, ethyne, and organic nitrate compounds. VOC emission factors show that emissions of certain aromatic compounds and terpenes such as alpha and beta-pinenes, which are important precursors for secondary organic aerosol (SOA), are much higher from active prescribed burnings than from fireplace wood and laboratory open burning studies. Levoglucosan is the major particulate organic compound (POC) emitted for all these studies, though its emission relative to total organic carbon (mg/g OC) differs significantly. Furthermore, cholesterol, an important fingerprint for meat cooking, was observed only in our in situ study indicating a significant release from the soil and soil organisms during open burning. Source apportionment of ambient primary fine particulate OC measured at two urban receptor locations 20-25 km downwind yields 74 +/- 11% during and immediately after the burns using our new in situ profile. In comparison with the previous source profile from laboratory simulations, however, this OC contribution is on average 27 +/- 5% lower.

  10. Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

  11. "Smoke": Characterization Of Smoke Particulate For Spacecraft Fire Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Mulholland, George W.; Yang, Jiann; Cleary, Thomas G.; Yuan, Zeng-Guang

    2003-01-01

    The "Smoke" experiment is a flight definition investigation that seeks to increase our understanding of spacecraft fire detection through measurements of particulate size distributions of preignition smokes from typical spacecraft materials. Owing to the catastrophic risk posed by even a very small fire in a spacecraft, the design goal for spacecraft fire detection is to detect the fire as quickly as possible, preferably in the preignition phase before a real flaming fire has developed. Consequently the target smoke for detection is typically not soot (typical of established hydrocarbon fires) but instead, pyrolysis products, and recondensed polymer particles. At the same time, false alarms are extremely costly as the crew and the ground team must respond quickly to every alarm. The U.S. Space Shuttle (STS: Space Transportation System) and the International Space Station (ISS) both use smoke detection as the primary means of fire detection. These two systems were designed in the absence of any data concerning low-gravity smoke particle (and background dust) size distributions. The STS system uses an ionization detector coupled with a sampling pump and the ISS system is a forward light scattering detector operating in the near IR. These two systems have significantly different sensitivities with the ionization detector being most sensitive (on a mass concentration basis) to smaller particulate and the light scattering detector being most sensitive to particulate that is larger than 1 micron. Since any smoke detection system has inherent size sensitivity characteristics, proper design of future smoke detection systems will require an understanding of the background and alarm particle size distributions that can be expected in a space environment.

  12. Amenorrhea - primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... of periods - primary Images Primary amenorrhea Normal uterine anatomy (cut section) Absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  13. Urban particulate matter pollution: a tale of five cities.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Spyros N; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Florou, Kalliopi; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Hasa, Erion; Presto, Albert A

    2016-07-18

    Five case studies (Athens and Paris in Europe, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles in the United States, and Mexico City in Central America) are used to gain insights into the changing levels, sources, and role of atmospheric chemical processes in air quality in large urban areas as they develop technologically. Fine particulate matter is the focus of our analysis. In all cases reductions of emissions by industrial and transportation sources have resulted in significant improvements in air quality during the last few decades. However, these changes have resulted in the increasing importance of secondary particulate matter (PM) which dominates over primary in most cases. At the same time, long range transport of secondary PM from sources located hundreds of kilometres from the cities is becoming a bigger contributor to the urban PM levels in all seasons. "Non-traditional" sources including cooking, and residential and agricultural biomass burning contribute an increasing fraction of the now reduced fine PM levels. Atmospheric chemistry is found to change the chemical signatures of a number of these sources relatively fast both during the day and night, complicating the corresponding source apportionment.

  14. A Lagrangian particle method for the simulation of dense particulate flows

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, M.J.; Baillergeau, D.A.J.; O`Rourke, P.J.

    1994-06-01

    A new approach to the simulation of multi-phase dense particulate flows has been developed based on taking the best of Eulerian/Eulerian and Eulerian/Lagrangian formulations. This new approach uses a modern Particle-In-Cell method that has been extended to multi-phase flows. The method was accurate mappings from Lagrangian particles to and from Eulerian space so that continuum intergranular stress formulations can be incorporated in the modeling. The result is a new model that can handle particulate loading ranging from dense to dilute, a distribution of particle sizes, and a range of particulate materials. This paper describes the new method and results from a one-dimensional implementation. The Lagrangian particulate formulation is well suited for a massively parallel environment, with a coupled high speed calculation of the underlying Eulerian gas phase governing equations. The new simulation method has important applications in Fluidized Bed Combustion, Catalytic Cracking processes and many other granular flows. Extension of the method to two- and three-dimensional flows with parallel computation means that we can offer a comprehensive methodology for dense granular flows.

  15. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material

    DOEpatents

    Utz, Bruce R.; Cugini, Anthony V.

    1992-01-01

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  16. Thermogravimetric analysis of diesel particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapuerta, M.; Ballesteros, R.; Rodríguez-Fernández, J.

    2007-03-01

    The regulated level of diesel particulate mass for 2008 light-duty diesel on-road engines will be 0.005 g km-1 in Europe. Measurements by weighing and analysis of this low level of particulate mass based on chemical extraction are costly, time consuming and hazardous because of the use of organic solvents, potentially carcinogenic. An alternative to this analysis is proposed here: a thermal mass analyser that measures the volatile fraction (VOF) as well as the soot fraction of the particulate matter (PM) collected on a cleaned fibre glass filter. This paper evaluates this new thermal mass measurement (TGA) as a possible alternative to the conventional chemical extraction method, and presents the results obtained with both methods when testing a diesel engine fuelled with a reference diesel fuel (REF), a pure biodiesel fuel (B100) and two blends with 30% and 70% v/v biodiesel (B30 and B70, respectively).

  17. Non-thermal Aftertreatment of Particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.E.

    2000-08-20

    Modern diesel passenger vehicles employing common rail, high speed direct injection engines are capable of matching the drivability of gasoline powered vehicles with the additional benefit of providing high torque at low engine speed [1]. The diesel engine also offers considerable fuel economy and CO2 emissions advantages. However, future emissions standards [2,3] present a significant challenge for the diesel engine, as its lean exhaust precludes the use of aftertreatment strategies employing 3- way catalytic converters, which operate under stoichiometric conditions. In recent years significant developments by diesel engine manufacturers have greatly reduced emissions of both particulates (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [4,5]. However to achieve compliance with future legislative limits it has been suggested that an integrated approach involving a combination of engine modifications and aftertreatment technology [1] will be required. A relatively new approach to exhaust aftertreatment is the application of non-thermal plasma (NTP) or plasma catalyst hybrid systems. These have the potential for treatment of both NOx and PM emissions [6- 8]. The primary focus of recent plasma aftertreatment studies [9-12] has concentrated on the removal of NOx. It has been shown that by combining plasmas with catalysts it is possible to chemically reduce NOx. The most common approach is to use a 2- stage system relying upon the plasma oxidation of hydrocarbons to promote NO to NO2 conversion as a precursor to NO2 reduction over a catalyst. However, relatively little work has yet been published on the oxidation of PM by plasma [ 8,13]. Previous investigations [8] have reported that a suitably designed NTP reactor containing a packing material designed to filter and retain PM can effect the oxidation of PM in diesel exhausts at low temperatures. It has been suggested that the retained PM competes with hydrocarbons for O, and possibly OH, radicals. This is an important consideration

  18. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  19. Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

  20. Much ado about dioxides and particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, F.P.

    1980-02-01

    Technical feature: The effect of carbon dioxide on climate is uncertain, and recent high CO2 levels may not persist. Worldwide warming trends since 1840 are outlined. There is no conclusive evidence that increased burning of fossil fuels has had or will have any ill effect on the climate. While there has been a slight increase in the CO2 content of the atmosphere, the oxidation of humus and bogs rather than fossil fuels seems to be the main source of increased atmospheric CO2 and particulates. Increased plant growth and adsorption of CO2 and particulates by the oceans will maintain an even balance in the atmosphere. (17 references, 2 tables)

  1. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  2. Microstructure development in particulate ceramic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.J.; Wara, N.M.; Francis, L.F.; Velamakanni, B.V.

    1994-12-31

    Microstructure development in particulate coatings is influenced by the particle-particle interactions and additional mechanisms, such as reaction and phase separation, which are driven by compositional changes in a coating during deposition and drying. The effect of agglomeration rate on microstructure uniformity and pore content is demonstrated using coatings produced from aqueous alumina dispersions. The addition of cellulose acetate and acetone to the alumina dispersion leads to phase separation and a coating with large cylindrical pores. The formation of particles by reactions during deposition is also discussed. The pore content of particulate titania coatings prepared in this way can be varied from 30 to 60% by changing the coating conditions.

  3. [Suspended particulates and lung health].

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns

    2004-01-01

    Based on several severe air pollution episodes, a temporal correlation between high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and SO2 pollution and acute increases in respiratory and cardiopulmonary mortality had been established in Vienna for the 1970's. After air pollution had decreased in Austria in the 1980's--as documented by data on SO2, and total suspended particles (TSP)--no such associations between day-to-day changes of SO2 and TSP and mortality have been documented any more, however, traffic related pollutants like fine particles and NO2 remained a problem. Therefore, short term effects of PM on lung function, morbidity and mortality were investigated in Vienna, Linz, Graz and a rural control area. Long-term exposure and chronic disease--even more important for public health--were studied in repeated cross-sectional, a mixed longitudinal and a birth cohort study on school children in the city of Linz. Lung function growth was found impaired from long-term exposure to air pollutants and improved in districts where ambient air pollution had decreased. Where only TSP and SO2 had decreased, no continuous improvement of small airway function was found and end-expiratory flow rates stayed impaired where NO2-reduction from technical improvements of cars and industry was counterbalanced by increase of motorized (diesel) traffic. Remaining acute effects of ambient air pollution in 2001 from PM, NO2 and co-pollutants found in a time series study also show that continuing efforts are necessary. Active surface of particles inhaled several hours to days before spirometry was found related to short-term reductions in forced vital capacity-FVC (p<0.01), forced expiratory volume in one second-FEV1 (p<0.01) and maximal expiratory flow rate at 50% of vital capacity-MEF50 (p<0.05). In pupils with asthma or previous airway obstruction 4-week-diaries proved that the following symptoms increased with acute exposure to higher active surface of particles: wheezing (p<0

  4. Particulate endocytosis mediates biological responses of human mesenchymal stem cells to titanium wear debris.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Chukwuka C; Haleem-Smith, Hana; Laqueriere, Patrice; Manner, Paul A; Tuan, Rocky S

    2006-03-01

    Continual loading and articulation cycles undergone by metallic (e.g., titanium) alloy arthroplasty prostheses lead to liberation of a large number of metallic debris particulates, which have long been implicated as a primary cause of periprosthetic osteolysis and postarthroplasty aseptic implant loosening. Long-term stability of total joint replacement prostheses relies on proper integration between implant biomaterial and osseous tissue, and factors that interfere with this integration are likely to cause osteolysis. Because multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) located adjacent to the implant have an osteoprogenitor function and are critical contributors to osseous tissue integrity, when their functions or activities are compromised, osteolysis will most likely occur. To date, it is not certain or sufficiently confirmed whether MSCs endocytose titanium particles, and if so, whether particulate endocytosis has any effect on cellular responses to wear debris. This study seeks to clarify the phenomenon of titanium endocytosis by human MSCs (hMSCs), and investigates the influence of endocytosis on their activities. hMSCs incubated with commercially pure titanium particles exhibited internalized particles, as observed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, with time-dependent reduction in the number of extracellular particles. Particulate endocytosis was associated with reduced rates of cellular proliferation and cell-substrate adhesion, suppressed osteogenic differentiation, and increased rate of apoptosis. These cellular effects of exposure to titanium particles were reduced when endocytosis was inhibited by treatment with cytochalasin D, and no significant effect was seen when hMSCs were treated only with conditioned medium obtained from particulate-treated cells. These findings strongly suggest that the biological responses of hMSCs to wear debris are triggered primarily by the direct endocytosis of titanium particulates, and

  5. Developing Reading Comprehension with Moving Image Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine, Fiona; Shields, Robin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a small-scale exploratory study that investigated how moving-image narratives might enable children to develop transferable reading comprehension strategies. Using short, animated, narrative films, 28 primary-aged children engaged in a 10-week programme that included the explicit instruction of comprehension…

  6. Developing Reading Comprehension through Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-Drummond, Sylvia; Mazón, Nancy; Littleton, Karen; Vélez, Maricela

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores the development and promotion of reading comprehension in primary school students, in the context of the implementation of an educational programme called "Learning Together" (LT). The programme, which centred on collaborative learning activities, was designed to promote oral and written communication in…

  7. Promoting Reading Comprehension in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Dixie D.; Heafner, Tina L.

    2004-01-01

    Many authors suggest that there is a coming crisis in U.S. middle and secondary schools (Moje, Young, Readence, & Moore, 2000). This crisis comes in the form of reading difficulties. While many primary schools have emphasized word recognition and decoding, decoding does not guarantee comprehension. The result is that many students who can read…

  8. Cue-Dependent Interference in Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Julie A.; McElree, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The role of interference as a primary determinant of forgetting in memory has long been accepted, however its role as a contributor to poor comprehension is just beginning to be understood. The current paper reports two studies, in which speed-accuracy tradeoff and eye-tracking methodologies were used with the same materials to provide converging…

  9. Using Image Analysis to Build Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sarah Drake; Swope, John

    2010-01-01

    Content area reading remains a primary concern of history educators. In order to better prepare students for encounters with text, the authors propose the use of two image analysis strategies tied with a historical theme to heighten student interest in historical content and provide a basis for improved reading comprehension.

  10. Characterization of the Particulate Emissions from the BP ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Opportunistic particle samples were gathered from the sail of a tethered aerostat during at-sea plume sampling of the purposely-burned surface oil during the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. Particles were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), metals, and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Emission factors were calculated using previous sampling values of background-adjusted CO2 and particulate matter (PM)-bound C. The mean of five thermal-optical analyses indicated that the burned crude oil particulate matter was 93% carbon (w/w) with the predominance being refractory elemental carbon (82% w/w) on average. PAHs accounted for roughly 60 ug/g of the PM mass or 4.5 mg/kg oil burned, at least an order of magnitude less than earlier laboratory based studies. Microscopy indicates that the soot from the in situ oil burns is distinct from more common soot by its aggregate size, primary particle size, and nanostructure within the primary particles. The PCDD/PCDF concentration of the PM was 1.5 to 3.3 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/kg PM sampled, about 10-fold lower than from a previous dedicated gas/solid sample, indicating loss of small particle-bound and more volatile PCDD/PCDF congeners through the aerostat sail. This work presents an analysis of smoke particles opportunistically caught during the in situ surface oil burns during the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon di

  11. Role of particulate metals in heterogenous secondary sulfate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Andrea L.; Buzcu-Guven, Birnur; Fraser, Matthew P.; Kulkarni, Pranav; Chellam, Shankararaman

    2013-08-01

    A series of field sampling and controlled laboratory experiments were undertaken to quantify the role of trace metals found in ambient fine particulate matter and metal-rich primary sources in the heterogenous catalytic conversion of SO2 gas into sulfate particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere. Analysis produced source profiles of three primary source materials, fluidized-bed catalytic cracking catalyst, coal-fired combustion fly ash, and paved road dust, featuring 33 elements including rare earth metals, which are not commonly reported in the literature. Subsequently three sets of experiments were conducted exposing 1) source materials, 2) ambient PM, and 3) ambient PM augmented with approximately an equal amount of source material to SO2 gas and measuring sulfate formation. Source material experiments revealed that the greatest extent of reaction was on the surface of coal fly ash with sulfate formation of 19 ± 5 mg sulfate g-1 material. Ambient fine particulate matter (PM) experiments showed sulfate formation ranging from negligible amounts to 180 ± 10 mg sulfate g-1 PM. It was much more difficult to quantify the sulfate formation on ambient filters augmented with the source materials. In these experiments, sulfate formation ranged from negligible amounts to 40 ± 8 mg sulfate g-1 of particles (ambient + augmented material). These three sets of experiments shows that heterogenous sulfate formation is often negligible but, under some conditions can contribute 10% or more to the total sulfate concentrations when exposed to high SO2 concentrations such as those found in plumes. Factor analysis of the source material experiments grouped metals into two categories, crustal components and anthropogenically emitted metals representative of catalyst material, with the former showing the strongest correlation with sulfate formation. Subsequent analysis of data collected from the ambient PM experiments showed a much weaker correlation of sulfate formation with the

  12. Compositional Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter in Fairbanks, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nattinger, K.; Simpson, W. R.; Huff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fairbanks, AK experiences extreme pollution episodes that result in winter violations of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards. This poses a significant health risk for the inhabitants of the area. These high levels result from trapping of pollution in a very shallow boundary layer due to local meteorology, but the role of primary (direct emission) of particulate matter versus secondary production (in the atmosphere) of particulate matter is not understood. Analysis of the PM2.5 composition is being conducted to provide insight into sources, trends, and chemistry. Methods are developed to convert carbon data from IMPROVE (post-2009 analysis method) to NIOSH (pre-2009 method) utilizing blank subtraction, sampler bias adjustment, and inter-method correlations from co-located samples. By converting all carbon measurements to a consistent basis, long-term trends can be analyzed. The approach shows excellent mass closure between PM2.5 mass reconstructed from constituents and gravimetric-analyzed mass. This approach could be utilized in other US locations where the carbon analysis methods also changed. Results include organic and inorganic fractional mass percentages, analyzed over an eight-year period for two testing sites in Fairbanks and two in the nearby city of North Pole. We focus on the wintertime (Nov—Feb) period when most air quality violations occur and find that the particles consist primarily of organic carbon, with smaller percentages of sulfate, elemental carbon, ammonium, and nitrate. The Fairbanks area PM2.5 organic carbon / elemental carbon partitioning matches the source profile of wood smoke. North Pole and Fairbanks PM2.5 have significant compositional differences, with North Pole having a larger percentage of organic matter. Mass loadings in SO42-, NO3-, and total PM2.5 mass correlate with temperature. Multi-year temporal trends show little if any change with a strong effect from temperature. Insights from this

  13. 76 FR 5270 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... particulates can cause heart and lung disease. Particulate matter also aggravates asthma. Airborne particulate... more for fine particulates. WPC states that it would be difficult for sources to limit PM 2.5...

  14. THE RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY: MODELING AMBIENT SOURCE CONTRIBUTION TO PERSONAL AND RESIDENTIAL PM MASS CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study represented a one-year investigation of personal, residential and ambient PM mass concentrations across distances as large as 70 km in central North Carolina. One of the primary goals of this effort was to est...

  15. Using Satellite Aerosol Retrievals to Monitor Surface Particulate Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chu, D. Allen; Mattoo, Shana; Holben, Brent N.; Schafer, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    The MODIS and MISR aerosol products were designed nearly two decades ago for the purpose of climate applications. Since launch of Terra in 1999, these two sensors have provided global, quantitative information about column-integrated aerosol properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD) and relative aerosol type parameters (such as Angstrom exponent). Although primarily designed for climate, the air quality (AQ) community quickly recognized that passive satellite products could be used for particulate air quality monitoring and forecasting. However, AOD and particulate matter (PM) concentrations have different units, and represent aerosol conditions in different layers of the atmosphere. Also, due to low visible contrast over brighter surface conditions, satellite-derived aerosol retrievals tend to have larger uncertainty in urban or populated regions. Nonetheless, the AQ community has made significant progress in relating column-integrated AOD at ambient relative humidity (RH) to surface PM concentrations at dried RH. Knowledge of aerosol optical and microphysical properties, ambient meteorological conditions, and especially vertical profile, are critical for physically relating AOD and PM. To make urban-scale maps of PM, we also must account for spatial variability. Since surface PM may vary on a finer spatial scale than the resolution of standard MODIS (10 km) and MISR (17km) products, we test higher-resolution versions of MODIS (3km) and MISR (1km research mode) retrievals. The recent (July 2011) DISCOVER-AQ campaign in the mid-Atlantic offers a comprehensive network of sun photometers (DRAGON) and other data that we use for validating the higher resolution satellite data. In the future, we expect that the wealth of aircraft and ground-based measurements, collected during DISCOVER-AQ, will help us quantitatively link remote sensed and ground-based measurements in the urban region.

  16. Miniature Sensors for Airborne Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our group is working to design a small,lightweight, low-cost real-time particulate matter(PM) sensor to enable better monitoring of PMconcentrations in air, with the goal of informingpolicymakers and regulators to provide betterpublic health. The sensor reads the massconcentratio...

  17. Atmospheric particulate measurements in Norfolk, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storey, R. W., Jr.; Sentell, R. J.; Woods, D. C.; Smith, J. R.; Harris, F. S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Characterization of atmospheric particulates was conducted at a site near the center of Norfolk, Virginia. Air quality was measured in terms of atmospheric mass loading, particle size distribution, and particulate elemental composition for a period of 2 weeks. The objectives of this study were (1) to establish a mean level of air quality and deviations about this mean, (2) to ascertain diurnal changes or special events in air quality, and (3) to evaluate instrumentation and sampling schedules. Simultaneous measurements were made with the following instruments: a quartz crystal microbalance particulate monitor, a light-scattering multirange particle counter, a high-volume air sampler, and polycarbonate membrane filters. To assess the impact of meteorological conditions on air quality variations, continuous data on temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction were recorded. Particulate elemental composition was obtained from neutron activation and scanning electron microscopy analyses of polycarbonate membrane filter samples. The measured average mass loading agrees reasonably well with the mass loadings determined by the Virginia State Air Pollution Control Board. There are consistent diurnal increases in atmospheric mass loading in the early morning and a sample time resolution of 1/2 hour seems necessary to detect most of the significant events.

  18. Particulate control system for biomass firing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Easom, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Wysk, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    The new particulate control equipment, the so-called Core Separator, overcomes most of the limitations inherent in conventional particulate control systems and can be effectively adapted for biomass applications. The Core Separator is a mechanical collector; however, this technology overcomes the performance limitation inherent in cyclones by performing the tasks of separation and collection in two separate components. The separation process is less affected by secondary flows and is much more efficient than the collection process. Also, the components of the system are arranged in such a way that the separation process determines the system efficiency. As a result, particulate emission rates downstream of this system are one fourth of those from the most efficient cyclones. This technology has been demonstrated through commercial unit installations in the U.S. and abroad. It has been used for industrial separations including coal fly ash, minerals, and chemical recovery applications. It is considered a lower-cost alternative to fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators, albeit one that can meet or exceed regulations for particulate emissions. Development of this technology has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, and Electric Power Research Institute.

  19. REINVENTING PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent epidemiologic studies of modern air pollution show statistically significant relationships between fluctuations of daily non-trauma mortality and fluctuations of daily ambient particulate matter (PM) levels at low concentrations. A review of historic smoke-fog (smog)episo...

  20. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  1. Holographic Investigation of Solid Propellant Particulates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Science and Engineering Ii ABSTRACT This investigation completed the development process to establish a technique to obtain holographic recordings of...13 C. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUE --------------------------------- 20 0. DISCUSSION...conditions (pressure, etc.) to the behavior of the particulates within the propellant port and through the nozzle. Four experimental techniques are being

  2. Thermal conductivity measurements of particulate materials under Martian conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presley, M. A.; Christensen, P. R.

    1993-01-01

    The mean particle diameter of surficial units on Mars has been approximated by applying thermal inertia determinations from the Mariner 9 Infrared Radiometer and the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper data together with thermal conductivity measurement. Several studies have used this approximation to characterize surficial units and infer their nature and possible origin. Such interpretations are possible because previous measurements of the thermal conductivity of particulate materials have shown that particle size significantly affects thermal conductivity under martian atmospheric pressures. The transfer of thermal energy due to collisions of gas molecules is the predominant mechanism of thermal conductivity in porous systems for gas pressures above about 0.01 torr. At martian atmospheric pressures the mean free path of the gas molecules becomes greater than the effective distance over which conduction takes place between the particles. Gas particles are then more likely to collide with the solid particles than they are with each other. The average heat transfer distance between particles, which is related to particle size, shape and packing, thus determines how fast heat will flow through a particulate material.The derived one-to-one correspondence of thermal inertia to mean particle diameter implies a certain homogeneity in the materials analyzed. Yet the samples used were often characterized by fairly wide ranges of particle sizes with little information about the possible distribution of sizes within those ranges. Interpretation of thermal inertia data is further limited by the lack of data on other effects on the interparticle spacing relative to particle size, such as particle shape, bimodal or polymodal mixtures of grain sizes and formation of salt cements between grains. To address these limitations and to provide a more comprehensive set of thermal conductivities vs. particle size a linear heat source apparatus, similar to that of Cremers, was assembled to

  3. Source apportionment of particulate matter in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moenster, J.; Glasius, M.; Nielsen, O. J.; Bilde, M.; Jensen, F. P.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention over the last decade as an important component of air pollution, particularly due to its health effects on the exposed population. Typically the mass of particles with diameters smaller that 10 μm (PM10) has been used in large cohort studies to estimate health effects such as increase in hospitalization rate, asthma attacks and premature deaths. Particles smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ultra fine particles have been used in various epidemiological studies and correlations between exposure to fine and ultra fine particles and health effects have been found. Limits of acceptable concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and some carcinogenic species have been made, and it is important to find the origin of the particulate matter to prevent exceeds of these limits. This can be done by measuring particle mass, organic/inorganic fractions of particles, the chemical components and other relevant factors, and then use receptor modeling for source apportionment of the particulate matter. We have done measurements at street level and urban background in Copenhagen, Denmark, to determine the origin of different sizes of particulate matter and the toxic organic compounds connected to these particles. We also did measurements in a small village with less traffic and more residential wood combustion for a comparison between traffic and wood combustion generated pollution. Our results show a significant amount of particulate matter coming from non local sources and are dominated by long-range transported inorganic salts. The amount of these is highly depended on the wind direction and thus on the origin of the wind plume. The origin of the carcinogenic organic compound benzo(a)pyrene was found to be local combustion sources. To prevent events of high particulate matter concentration in Copenhagen, Denmark, a reduction of emission from the local traffic will only lead to a minor effect, since the majority of the

  4. Development of Particulates and Aerosols Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Rivera, Monica

    2005-01-01

    During the past year several accomplishments were made for both the Particulate Matter Characterization and Measurement System, (PMCMS) and PAGEMS projects. The PAGEMS focus is to measure particulate emissions as a function of combustor parameters such as inlet temperature, inlet pressure and fuel air ratio. These measurements are used to evaluate combustor performance in hopes of correlating particulate emissions with engine conditions. These measurements have taken place at in-house NASA combustor facilities and off-site facilities. Ths work is unique because particulate measurements at high- pressure conditions are not commonly made. Some calibration of the PAGEMS instrumentation was done as well as minor modifications to the PAGEMS plumbing setup. These led to measurement improvements. The instrumentation and measurement process for PAGEMS was assessed and new instruments such as a thermodenuder, thermal mass flow meters and a cyclone separator were purchased to improve the PAGEMS instrumentation and measurement process. A worksheet was created to simulate varying inlet conditions to the DMA. This worksheet allows the user to assess the error in the measurements when certain conditions exist. Two technical papers were written with the PAGEMS team for the EXCAVATE field project. A paper was also reviewed for an in house publication. Also data was processed and analyzed for another field project (PAX) and will be part of a third PAGEMS paper. Accomplishments were also made with the PMCMS project. The calibration of the radial differential mobility analyzer, (RDMA) in the particle sizing system in the PMCMS was completed and provided satisfactory results. The voltages used for the RDMA depending on the particle of interest were corrected. The measurement capability of the PMCMS was increased by replacing the MetOne CPC with a TSI CPC. Lastly, assistance was provided to three college summer students with calibration of their particulate equipment and Monica Rivera

  5. Electrically heated particulate filter preparation methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-01-31

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a fuel control module that controls injection of fuel into exhaust that passes through the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration after the fuel has been injected into the exhaust.

  6. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  7. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  8. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  9. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  10. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  11. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  13. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  14. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based on... fine particulate matter (PM2.5) nonattainment area has attained the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 national...

  15. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  17. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard...

  18. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  19. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  20. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based on... fine particulate matter (PM2.5) nonattainment area has attained the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 national...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  2. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  3. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  4. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  6. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  7. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  9. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  10. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for attainment and maintenance of the secondary standards for particulate matter in...

  11. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  13. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  14. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  15. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  16. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  17. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  18. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  19. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  20. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  1. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  2. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  3. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  4. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  5. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  6. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  7. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  8. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for attainment and maintenance of the secondary standards for particulate matter in...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  10. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  11. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  12. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  13. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  14. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  15. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  16. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  17. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for attainment and maintenance of the secondary standards for particulate matter in...

  18. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 28507, May 15, 2013. (a) The requirements of... the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Region....

  19. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  20. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  1. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  2. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  3. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  4. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  5. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  6. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  7. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  9. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

  10. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  11. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  12. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  13. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) (b) EPA approves the PM-10 attainment demonstration for the...-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE fine particulate matter (PM2.5) nonattainment area has attained the 2006 24-hour...

  15. Spectrum of Physics Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasiak, W.; Godlewska, M.; Rosiek, R.; Wcislo, D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured…

  16. The Roots of Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy; Padak, Nancy; Newton, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Wide vocabulary knowledge is associated with proficiency in reading comprehension and scores on tests involving comprehension. Yet assessments show that U.S. students at various grade levels have demonstrated no improvement in their vocabulary knowledge since 2009. Literacy expert Timothy Rasinski and colleagues argue that students need improved…

  17. Comprehension Processes in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition"…

  18. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important…

  19. Scaffolding Reading Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Ashraf Atta Mohamed Safein

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates whether English language teachers use scaffolding strategies for developing their students' reading comprehension skills or just for assessing their comprehension. It also tries to demonstrate whether teachers are aware of these strategies or they use them as a matter of habit. A questionnaire as well as structured…

  20. Processes in Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Grayce A.

    This examination of the processes in reading comprehension is divided into seven categories. "Theoretical Foundations" reviews some of the research conducted by Bruner, Piaget, and Bloom in the areas of cognition or comprehension processes of young children. "Development of a Spiraling Reading Curriculum" examines a spiraling taxonomy of reading…

  1. Review of the state-of-the-art of exhaust particulate filter technology in internal combustion engines.

    PubMed

    Guan, Bin; Zhan, Reggie; Lin, He; Huang, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    The increasingly stringent emission regulations, such as US 2010, Tier 2 Bin 5 and beyond, off-road Tier 4 final, and Euro V/5 for particulate matter (PM) reduction applications, will mandate the use of the diesel particulate filters (DPFs) technology, which is proven to be the only way that can effectively control the particulate emissions. This paper covers a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art DPF technologies, including the advanced filter substrate materials, the novel catalyst formulations, the highly sophisticated regeneration control strategies, the DPF uncontrolled regenerations and their control methodologies, the DPF soot loading prediction, and the soot sensor for the PM on-board diagnostics (OBD) legislations. Furthermore, the progress of the highly optimized hybrid approaches, which involves the integration of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) + (DPF, NOx reduction catalyst), the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on DPF, as well as DPF in the high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop systems, is well discussed. Besides, the impacts of the quality of fuel and lubricant on the DPF performance and the maintenance and retrofit of DPF are fully elaborated. Meanwhile, the high efficiency gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology is being required to effectively reduce the PM and particulate number (PN) emissions from the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to comply with the future increasingly stricter emissions regulations.

  2. Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is PRIMARY HYPERPARATH YROIDIS M? The body’s parathyroid glands—four pea-sized glands in the neck—produce parathyroid hormone (PTH). Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a condition ...

  3. Primary thrombocythemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... as myeloproliferative disorders. Others include: Chronic myelogenous leukemia Polycythemia vera Primary myelofibrosis This disorder is most common ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 68. Tefferi A. Polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytoemia, and primary myelofibrosis. In: Goldman ...

  4. Primary Aldosteronism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Endocrinology Find an Endocrinologist Value of an Endocrinologist Learn About Clinical Trials Keep Your Body in Balance › Primary Aldosteronism Fact Sheet Primary Aldosteronism March 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Paul Stewart, MD, FRCP William Young, ...

  5. The Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Particulate and Soluble Cobalt in Human Urothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Speer, Rachel M; The, Therry; Xie, Hong; Liou, Louis; Adam, Rosalyn M; Wise, John Pierce

    2017-03-21

    Cobalt use is increasing particularly due to its use as one of the primary metals in cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) metal-on-metal prosthetics. CoCrMo is a high-strength, wear-resistant alloy with reduced risk for prosthetic loosening and device fracture. More than 500,000 people receive hip implants each year in the USA which puts them at potential risk for exposure to metal ions and particles released by the prosthetic implants. Data show cobalt ions released from prosthetics reach the bloodstream and accumulate in the bladder. As patients with failed hip implants show increased urinary and blood cobalt levels, no studies have considered the effects of cobalt on human urothelial cells. Accordingly, we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of particulate and soluble cobalt in urothelial cells. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ions. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found, when compared to particulate cobalt, soluble cobalt was more cytotoxic, but induced similar levels of genotoxicity. Interestingly, at similar intracellular cobalt ion concentrations, soluble cobalt induced cell cycle arrest indicated by a lack of metaphases not observed after particulate cobalt treatment. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human urothelial cells and solubility may play a key role in cobalt-induced toxicity.

  6. Statistical analysis of particulate concentration from electrode erosion of gas discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei; Liu, Yunlong; Wang, Lei; Jin, Dazhi; Tan, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    In discharge processes, electrode erosion is inevitable and may be a primary cause of gap failure. Features generated from electrode erosion, such as particulates and pits, would lead to field distortion and self-breakdown failure, in essence. To quantitatively clarify how these features of erosion are generated as the discharge shot accumulates, this paper introduces a statistical method to analyze particulate concentration in the eroded surface. Based on experimental data from laser confocal microscopy, this method could extract and process the profile of the electrode surface after different discharge shots. Statistical results indicate that conditioning effects have been found in the first 100 shots, where the discharge arc plays a role to polish more prominently, rather than ablate, the electrode surface. After this period, electrode erosion could be found to be increasingly heavier and the number of particulates and pits increases rapidly. The proportion function of the particulates height or pits depth can be fitted by power distribution and the correlations between the two function coefficients a, b and discharge shots number n are roughly linear, positive and negative, respectively.

  7. A Small Angle Scattering Sensor System for the Characterization of Combustion Generated Particulate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feikema, Douglas A.; Kim, W.; Sivathanu, Yudaya

    2007-01-01

    One of the critical issues for the US space program is fire safety of the space station and future launch vehicles. A detailed understanding of the scattering signatures of particulate is essential for the development of a false alarm free fire detection system. This paper describes advanced optical instrumentation developed and applied for fire detection. The system is being designed to determine four important physical properties of disperse fractal aggregates and particulates including size distribution, number density, refractive indices, and fractal dimension. Combustion generated particulate are the primary detection target; however, in order to discriminate from other particulate, non-combustion generated particles should also be characterized. The angular scattering signature is measured and analyzed using two photon optical laser scattering. The Rayleigh-Debye-Gans (R-D-G) scattering theory for disperse fractal aggregates is utilized. The system consists of a pulsed laser module, detection module and data acquisition system and software to analyze the signals. The theory and applications are described.

  8. Dynamics of the Particulate Organic Carbon in the southern Baltic Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Maciejewska, A.; Kuliński, K.; Pempkowiak, J.

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a one-dimensional Particulate Organic Carbon Dynamic Model 1D-POCD. The particulate organic carbon concentration is determined as the sum of phytoplankton, zooplankton and dead organic matter (detritus) concentrations. Mathematically, the pelagic variables of 1D-POCD model are described by a second-order partial differential equation of the diffusion type with biogeochemical sources and sinks. The temporal changes in the phytoplankton biomass are caused by primary production, respiration, mortality, grazing by zooplankton and sinking. The zooplankton biomass is affected by ingestion, excretion, respiration, fecal production, mortality, and carnivorous grazing. The changes in the pelagic detritus concentration are determined by input of: dead phytoplankton and zooplankton, natural mortality of predators, fecal pellets, and sinks: sedimentation, zooplankton grazing and decomposition. The 1D-POCD model was used to simulate the seasonal dynamics of particulate organic carbon fluxes in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep, Bornholm Deep and Gotland Deep). The results of the simulations were compared with the mean concentrations of particulate organic carbon recorded in situ at station situated at the Gdańsk Deep. Generally good agreement between the measured and modeled POC concentration was obtained.

  9. Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fine Particulate Matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Rául G. E.; Leiva Guzmán, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002–2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m3) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m3) for fine particulate matter. PMID:24587753

  10. Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter in Venice air.

    PubMed

    Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Morabito, Elisa; Toscano, Giuseppa; Donateo, Antonio; Cesari, Daniela; Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Harbours are important hubs for economic growth in both tourism and commercial activities. They are also an environmental burden being a source of atmospheric pollution often localized near cities and industrial complexes. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbour activities to atmospheric pollutant concentration in the Venice lagoon. The impact of ship traffic was quantified on various pollutants that are not directly included in the current European legislation for shipping emission reduction: (i) gaseous and particulate PAHs; (ii) metals in PM10; and (iii) PM10 and PM2.5. All contributions were correlated with the tonnage of ships during the sampling periods and results were used to evaluate the impact of the European Directive 2005/33/EC on air quality in Venice comparing measurements taken before and after the application of the Directive (year 2010). The outcomes suggest that legislation on ship traffic, which focused on the issue of the emissions of sulphur oxides, could be an efficient method also to reduce the impact of shipping on primary particulate matter concentration; on the other hand, we did not observe a significant reduction in the contribution of ship traffic and harbour activities to particulate PAHs and metals. Graphical abstract Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter and evaluation of the effect of an European Directive on air quality in Venice.

  11. How Graphic Novels Support Reading Comprehension Strategy Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenna, Beverley

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored the relationship between comprehension strategies and graphic novels in one Grade 4 classroom, utilising children as informants. The primary research questions related to children's applications of metacognitive reading comprehension strategies as well as the potential for graphic novels to support the…

  12. A Study of Comprehension of Compressed Deaf Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisenborn, Ray E.; Olson, Jack R.

    The primary purposes of this research were to discover any differences between deaf and normal speech compressed 15 or 30 percent related to level of comprehension test, sex of speaker, and form of test, and to learn whether there was a relationship between percent of compression and degree of comprehension. The subjects--219 undergraduates at…

  13. Comprehensive modeling of a liquid rocket combustion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, P.-Y.; Fisher, S.; Chang, Y. M.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical model for the simulation of detailed three-phase combustion flows inside a liquid rocket combustion chamber is presented. The three phases involved are: a multispecies gaseous phase, an incompressible liquid phase, and a particulate droplet phase. The gas and liquid phases are continuum described in an Eulerian fashion. A two-phase solution capability for these continuum media is obtained through a marriage of the Implicit Continuous Eulerian (ICE) technique and the fractional Volume of Fluid (VOF) free surface description method. On the other hand, the particulate phase is given a discrete treatment and described in a Lagrangian fashion. All three phases are hence treated rigorously. Semi-empirical physical models are used to describe all interphase coupling terms as well as the chemistry among gaseous components. Sample calculations using the model are given. The results show promising application to truly comprehensive modeling of complex liquid-fueled engine systems.

  14. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory.

  15. Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the after-treatment of automotive exhaust particulates and marine diesel exhaust NOx

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, R; Beech, P; Gillespie, R; Guy, C; Jones,S; Liddell, T; Morgan, R; Shawcross, J; Weeks, D; Hughes, D; Oesterle, J; Eberspdcher,

    2003-08-24

    The trend in environmental legislation is such that primary engine modifications will not be sufficient to meet all future emissions requirements and exhaust aftertreatment technologies will need to be employed. One potential solution that is well placed to meet those requirements is non-thermal plasma technology. This paper will describe our work with some of our partners in the development of a plasma based diesel particulate filter (DPF) and plasma assisted catalytic reduction (PACR) for NOx removal. This paper describes the development of non-thermal plasma technology for the aftertreatment of particulates from a passenger car engine and NOx from a marine diesel exhaust application.

  16. Laser-matter coupling mechanisms governing particulate-induced damage on optical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, M. J.; Feigenbaum, E.; Demos, S. G.; Raman, R. N.; Qiu, S. R.; Shen, N.; Harris, C.; Negres, R. A.; Norton, M.; Cross, D.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive study of laser-induced damage associated with particulate damage on optical surfaces is presented. Contaminant-driven damage on silica windows and multilayer dielectrics is observed to range from shallow pitting to more classical fracture-type damage, depending on particle-substrate material combination, as well as laser pulse characteristics. Ejection dynamics is studied in terms of plasma emission spectroscopy and pump-probe shadowgraphy. Our data is used to assess the momentum coupling between incident energy and the ejected plasma, which dominates the laser-particle-substrate interaction. Beam propagation analysis is also presented to characterize the impact of contaminant-driven surface pitting on optical performance.

  17. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  18. Face crack reduction strategy for particulate filters

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-01-31

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion. A control module initiates combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater and selectively adjusts oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter. A method comprises providing a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion; initiating combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater; selectively adjusting oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter.

  19. Atmospheric particulate analysis using angular light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, M. Z.

    1980-01-01

    Using the light scattering matrix elements measured by a polar nephelometer, a procedure for estimating the characteristics of atmospheric particulates was developed. A theoretical library data set of scattering matrices derived from Mie theory was tabulated for a range of values of the size parameter and refractive index typical of atmospheric particles. Integration over the size parameter yielded the scattering matrix elements for a variety of hypothesized particulate size distributions. A least squares curve fitting technique was used to find a best fit from the library data for the experimental measurements. This was used as a first guess for a nonlinear iterative inversion of the size distributions. A real index of 1.50 and an imaginary index of -0.005 are representative of the smoothed inversion results for the near ground level atmospheric aerosol in Tucson.

  20. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  1. Characterization of iron in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, F. V. F.; Ardisson, J. D.; Rodrigues, P. C. H.; Brito, W.; Macedo, W. A. A.; Jacomino, V. M. F.

    2014-01-01

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area.

  2. Sensor Technologies for Particulate Detection and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.

    2008-01-01

    Planned Lunar missions have resulted in renewed attention to problems attributable to fine particulates. While the difficulties experienced during the sequence of Apollo missions did not prove critical in all cases, the comparatively long duration of impending missions may present a different situation. This situation creates the need for a spectrum of particulate sensing technologies. From a fundamental perspective, an improved understanding of the properties of the dust fraction is required. Described here is laboratory-based reference instrumentation for the measurement of fundamental particle size distribution (PSD) functions from 2.5 nanometers to 20 micrometers. Concomitant efforts for separating samples into fractional size bins are also presented. A requirement also exists for developing mission compatible sensors. Examples include provisions for air quality monitoring in spacecraft and remote habitation modules. Required sensor attributes such as low mass, volume, and power consumption, autonomy of operation, and extended reliability cannot be accommodated by existing technologies.

  3. Apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination includes a tool for collecting a contamination sample from a target surface, a mask having an opening of known area formed therein for defining the target surface, and a flexible connector connecting the tool to the mask. The tool includes a body portion having a large diameter section defining a surface and a small diameter section extending from the large diameter section. A particulate collector is removably mounted on the surface of the large diameter section for collecting the contaminants. The tool further includes a spindle extending from the small diameter section and a spool slidingly mounted on the spindle. A spring is disposed between the small diameter section and the spool for biasing the spool away from the small diameter section. An indicator is provided on the spindle so as to be revealed when the spool is pressed downward to compress the spring.

  4. Glints from particulate media and wavy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovoi, Anatoli; Konoshonkin, Alexander; Kolokolova, Ludmilla

    2012-12-01

    Glints are bright light spots created by particulate media like cirrus clouds, glaciers, and wavy water surfaces. They are seen around the specular reflection angle. In this paper, the glints from such scattering/reflecting media are described in a unified manner through the probability density for facet tilts. Various kinds of these probability densities for wavy surfaces are defined and classified. The concept of the differential scattering cross section (DSCS) for rough surfaces instead of the conventional bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is introduced for characterization of the glints. The simple equations connecting the DSCS and the probability densities for facet tilts are derived. It is shown that the glints from particulate media and wavy surface are very similar at small incidence angles and they are significantly different at slant incidence.

  5. Lidar measurements of airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangkun; Philbrick, C. Russell

    2003-03-01

    Raman lidar techniques have been used in remote sensing to measure the aerosol optical extinction in the lower atmosphere, as well as water vapor, temperature and ozone profiles. Knowledge of aerosol optical properties assumes special importance in the wake of studies strongly correlating airborne particulate matter with adverse health effects. Optical extinction depends upon the concentration, composition, and size distribution of the particulate matter. Optical extinction from lidar returns provide information on particle size and density. The influence of relative humidity upon the growth and size of aerosols, particularly the sulfate aerosols along the northeast US region, has been investigated using a Raman lidar during several field measurement campaigns. A particle size distribution model is being developed and verified based on the experimental results. Optical extinction measurements from lidar in the NARSTO-NE-OPS program in Philadelphia PA, during summer of 1999 and 2001, have been analyzed and compared with other measurements such as PM sampling and particle size measurements.

  6. Particulate contaminant relocation during shuttle ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    The dislodgement, venting, and redeposition of particles on a surface in the shuttle bay by the vibroacoustic, gravitational, and aerodynamic forces present during shuttle ascent have been investigated. The particles of different sizes which are displaced, vented, and redistributed have been calculated; and an estimate of the increased number of particles on certain surfaces and the decrease on others has been indicated. The average sizes, velocities, and length of time for certain particles to leave the bay following initial shuttle doors opening and thermal tests have been calculated based on indirect data obtained during several shuttle flights. Suggestions for future measurements and observations to characterize the particulate environment and the techniques to limit the in-orbit particulate contamination of surfaces and environment have been offered.

  7. Shock Wave Structure in Particulate Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauls, Michael; Ravichandran, Guruswami

    2015-06-01

    Shock wave experiments are conducted on a particulate composite consisting of a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix reinforced by glass beads. Such a composite with an impedance mismatch of 4.3 closely mimics heterogeneous solids of interest such as concrete and energetic materials. The composite samples are prepared using a compression molding process. The structure and particle velocity rise times of the shocks are examined using forward ballistic experiments. Reverse ballistic experiments are used to track how the interface density influences velocity overshoot above the steady state particle velocity. The effects of particle size (0.1 to 1 mm) and volume fraction of glass beads (30-40%) on the structure of the leading shock wave are investigated. It is observed that the rise time increases with increasing particle size and scales linearly for the range of particle sizes considered here. Results from numerical simulations using CTH are compared with experimental results to gain insights into wave propagation in heterogeneous particulate composites.

  8. Clarifying Linguistic Comprehension in the Simple View of Reading: The Influence of Word-, Sentence-, and Discourse-Level Linguistic Skills on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Julie Kay

    2012-01-01

    There are a high number of students who struggle with reading comprehension beyond the primary grades and understanding the skills involved in successful reading comprehension continues to be a topic of investigation. The Simple View of Reading (SVR) is a viable theory of reading that suggests reading comprehension results from developing skills…

  9. Comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Wendell B.; Austin, Edward E.

    1988-01-01

    The development and application of comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods in the field of rotorcraft technology are described. These large scale analyses and the resulting computer programs are intended to treat the complex aeromechanical phenomena that describe the behavior of rotorcraft. They may be used to predict rotor aerodynamics, acoustic, performance, stability and control, handling qualities, loads and vibrations, structures, dynamics, and aeroelastic stability characteristics for a variety of applications including research, preliminary and detail design, and evaluation and treatment of field problems. The principal comprehensive methods developed or under development in recent years and generally available to the rotorcraft community because of US Army Aviation Research and Technology Activity (ARTA) sponsorship of all or part of the software systems are the Rotorcraft Flight Simulation (C81), Dynamic System Coupler (DYSCO), Coupled Rotor/Airframe Vibration Analysis Program (SIMVIB), Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD), General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP), and Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System (2GCHAS).

  10. Spectrum of physics comprehension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasiak, W.; Godlewska, M.; Rosiek, R.; Wcislo, D.

    2012-05-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured during a physics lecture on a prearranged scale of 1-10 with the use of a personal response system designed for the purpose of this experiment. Through the use of this tool, we obtained about 2000 computer records of students' declared comprehension of a 45 min lecture, which we named ‘the spectrum of comprehension’. In this paper, we present and analyse the correlation between students' declared comprehension of the content presented in the lecture and their final learning results.

  11. PARTICULATE MATTER NAAQS RISK AND EXPOSURE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The PM REA assesses human exposure and health risks for particulate matter. To provide a quantitative assessment of PM exposures and health risks as one of the key information inputs to the Administrator in order to make an informed decision regarding the PM NAAQS. A tiered risk/exposure assessment will be conducted as part of the PM NAAQS review and will be peer reviewed by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) of EPA’s Science Advisory Board.

  12. Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2014-03-18

    A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

  13. Aromatic Radicals-Acetylene Particulate Matter Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    atmosphere1. In addition to acute respiratory problems, long-term effects include lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases , as studied by Pope at al...problems such as ischemic heart disease , fatal arrhythmia, and congestive heart failure4,5. Strategies to reduce fine particulate matter (PM...acetylene reaction have been made by Fahr and Stein15, who deduced an Arrhenius expression in a 4 temperature range between 1000 and 1330 K in

  14. Particulate Air Pollution in Lanzhou China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Pollution and Control in Lanzhou (APCL), supported jointly by Gansu Province and the Chinese Academy of Sciences and carried out from 1999 to 2001 (Chu et...capital of Gansu Province, Lanzhou suffers greatly from the dust storms (Wang et al., 1999; Ding et al., 2001). The particulate pollution in Lanzhou has...31, 2000 to January 1, 2001, dusts float in the sky for 7 days (January 1–5, 2001) (Ding et Table 13 Dust storm statistics in Gansu Province from

  15. Self-Cleaning Particulate Prefilter Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Olivia; Lalwani, San-jiv; Sharma, Anjal

    2012-01-01

    A long-term space mission requires efficient air revitalization performance to sustain the crew. Prefilter and particulate air filter media are susceptible to rapid fouling that adversely affects their performance and can lead to catastrophic failure of the air revitalization system, which may result in mission failure. For a long-term voyage, it is impractical to carry replacement particulate prefilter and filter modules due to the usual limitations in size, volume, and weight. The only solution to this problem is to reagentlessly regenerate prefilter and filter media in place. A method was developed to modify the particulate prefilter media to allow them to regenerate reagentlessly, and in place, by the application of modest thermocycled transverse or reversed airflows. The innovation may allow NASA to close the breathing air loop more efficiently, thereby sustaining the vision for manned space exploration missions of the future. A novel, self-cleaning coatings technology was developed for air filter media surfaces that allows reagentless in-place regeneration of the surface. The technology grafts thermoresponsive and nonspecific adhesion minimizing polymer nanolayer brush coatings from the prefilter media. These polymer nanolayer brush architectures can be triggered to contract and expand to generate a "pushing-off" force by the simple application of modestly thermocycled (i.e. cycling from ambient cabin temperature to 40 C) air streams. The nonspecific adhesion-minimizing properties of the coatings do not allow the particulate foulants to adhere strongly to the filter media, and thermocycled air streams applied to the media allow easy detachment and in-place regeneration of the media with minimal impact in system downtime or astronaut involvement in overseeing the process.

  16. Cometary particulate analyzer design definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utterback, N. G.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for remotely determining the relative abundance of elements contained in cometary particulates collected by a spacecraft was conducted with very encouraging results. The technique utilizes a short high intensity burst of laser radiation to vaporize and ionize collected particulate material. Ions extracted from this laser-produced plasma are analyzed in a time of flight mass spectrometer to yield an atomic mass spectrum representative of the relative abundance of elements in the particulates. A prototype analyzer system was designed, constructed, and tested. Results show that: (1) energy-time focus performs as predicted in improving resolution; (2) power densities sufficient to produce usable ionization efficiencies can be obtained; (3) complex alloys such as stainless steel can be analyzed; and (4) a tiny, simple and reliable laser used in the demonstration easily meets spacecraft power and mass limitations. A mass resolution of 150 was experimentally demonstrated at mass 108, and an analytical extrapolation predicts a resolution sufficient to separate masses 250 and 251.

  17. Differential spectroscopic imaging of particulate explosives residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Hô, Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    We present experimental results showing transmission and reflection imaging of approximately 100 μg quantities of particulate explosives residue using a commercial uncooled microbolometer infrared camera and CO II laser differential wavelength illumination. Fine particulates may be generated during bomb-making activities and these particulates can tenaciously adhere to packing material, as well as to the clothing or skin of the bomb maker and could be detectable during transportation. A rapid screening method that detects this residue can serve as a first-line screening method in conjunction with more sensitive, but invasive, approaches. Explosives exhibit absorption features in the mid-infrared molecular fingerprint region that spans 3 to 15 μm, which can be probed with many high-brightness sources such as fixed wavelength and tunable quantum cascade lasers, CO II, CO, and OPO lasers. Commercial uncooled microbolometer cameras typically have detection sensitivity from 7.5 to 13 μm, spanning an absorption region for explosives detection with adequate signal-to-noise ratio. By illuminating a target on and off its absorption wavelengths, ratio images of suspected residue can be obtained without any sample preparation or cooperation and contact with the target. Our proof-of-principle experiment employed tunable CO II lasers, with a tuning range from 9.2 to 10.6 μm, overlapping minor absorption features of RDX and Tetryl.

  18. Role of Alternative Fuels on Particulate Matter (PM) Characteristics and Influence of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Mohammed A; Herreros, Jose M; Martos, Francisco J; Tsolakis, Athanasios

    2015-10-06

    The influence of a platinum:palladium (Pt:Pd)-based diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) on the engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions morphology and structure from the combustion of alternative fuels (including alcohol-diesel blends and rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) biodiesel) was studied. PM size distribution was measured using a scanning mobility particulate spectrometer (SMPS), and the PM morphology and microstructure (including size distribution, fractal geometry, and number of primary particles) was obtained using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is concluded that the DOC does not modify the size or the microstructural parameters of the primary particulates that make up the soot agglomerates. The PM reduction seen in the DOC is due to the trapping effect, and oxidation of the PM's volatile components. The DOC performance in reducing gaseous (e.g., carbon monoxide (CO) and unburnt hydrocarbons (HCs)) and PM emissions at low exhaust temperatures was improved from the combustion of alternative fuels due to the reduced level of engine-out pollutants.

  19. An automatic method for the determination of carcinogenic 1-nitropyrene in extracts from automobile exhaust particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Murahashi, Tsuyoshi; Tsuruga, Fumiko; Sasaki, Sousuke

    2003-11-01

    An automatic method for the determination of carcinogenic 1-nitropyrene in extracts from automobile exhaust particulate matter has been developed. Organic matter was extracted from particulate matter and the extract was concentrated. Then the extract was injected into a two-dimensional (2D) high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) with a fluorescence detection system. To improve the sensitivity a large sample volume (300 microl) was applied to the HPLC system using the double on-column focusing technique. To achieve full automation and high selectivity a reduction column packed with platinum black was introduced after the 2D HPLC system using a C18 column as the primary column and a pentabromobenzyl column as the secondary column. This HPLC system could determine 0.01-3,000 ng ml(-1) of 1-nitropyrene in an extract from diesel and gasoline exhaust particulate matter at 40 min intervals.

  20. Comprehensive Glossary of Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlands, Tracy; Stone, Craig; Meyer, Richard

    2001-10-01

    We have developed a comprehensive glossary of terms covering the broad fields of nuclear and related areas of science. The glossary has been constructed with two sections. A primary section consists of over 6,000 terms covering the fields of nuclear and high energy physics, nuclear chemistry, radiochemistry, health physics, astrophysics, materials science, analytical science, environmental science, nuclear medicine, nuclear engineering, nuclear instrumentation, nuclear weapons, and nuclear safeguards. Approximately 1,500 terms of specific focus on military and nuclear weapons testing define the second section. The glossary is currently larger than many published glossaries and dictionaries covering the entire field of physics. Glossary terms have been defined using an extensive collection of current and historical publications. Historical texts extend back into the 1800's, the early days of atomic physics. The glossary has been developed both as a software application and as a hard copy document.

  1. High-Fidelity Micromechanics Model Enhanced for Multiphase Particulate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    This 3-year effort involves the development of a comprehensive micromechanics model and a related computer code, capable of accurately estimating both the average response and the local stress and strain fields in the individual phases, assuming both elastic and inelastic behavior. During the first year (fiscal year 2001) of the investigation, a version of the model called the High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells (HFGMC) was successfully completed for the thermo-inelastic response of continuously reinforced multiphased materials with arbitrary periodic microstructures (refs. 1 and 2). The model s excellent predictive capability for both the macroscopic response and the microlevel stress and strain fields was demonstrated through comparison with exact analytical and finite element solutions. This year, HFGMC was further extended in two technologically significant ways. The first enhancement entailed the incorporation of fiber/matrix debonding capability into the two-dimensional version of HFGMC for modeling the response of unidirectionally reinforced composites such as titanium matrix composites, which exhibit poor fiber/matrix bond. Comparison with experimental data validated the model s predictive capability. The second enhancement entailed further generalization of HFGMC to three dimensions to enable modeling the response of particulate-reinforced (discontinuous) composites in the elastic material behavior domain. Next year, the three-dimensional version will be generalized to encompass inelastic effects due to plasticity, viscoplasticity, and damage, as well as coupled electromagnetothermomechanical (including piezoelectric) effects.

  2. Polymeric-based particulate systems for delivery of therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Chen, Shuqing

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric-based particulate systems have been intensively developed to increase the short biological half-life and prevent enzymatic degradation of therapeutic proteins. These techniques demonstrate the useful characteristics for the delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides to the targeted site of application and prevent the interaction of encapsulated drug with the normal cells. In this article, we have described the in depth of different pharmaceutical-based techniques that are currently being practiced for efficient delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides. A comprehensive English literature was searched using different electronic search databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, google scholar and library search. Different search terms and advanced search were made by combining all the search fields in abstract, keywords and/or titles. Findings of various studies that have been discussed in this article clearly indicate that polymeric-based techniques can significantly increase the therapeutic potentials of incorporated proteins with no known toxic effects. These techniques have shown to maintain the stability and retain biological activity of protein therapeutics. Hence it can be suggested that pharmaceutical-based techniques are promising drug carriers for efficient delivery of therapeutic proteins.

  3. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  4. Medicinal marijuana: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Gurley, R J; Aranow, R; Katz, M

    1998-01-01

    Considerable controversy exists regarding the role of marijuana as a therapeutic agent; however, many practitioners are taught very little about existing marijuana data. The authors therefore undertook a comprehensive literature review of the topic. References were identified using textbooks, review and opinion articles, and a primary literature review in MEDLINE. Sources were included in this review based primarily on the quality of the data. Some data exists that lends credence to many of the claims about marijuana's properties. In general, however, the body of literature about marijuana is extremely poor in quality. Marijuana and/or its components may help alleviate suffering in patients with a variety of serious illnesses. Health care providers can best minimize short term adverse consequences and drug interactions for terminally ill patients by having a thorough understanding of the pharmacology of marijuana, potential adverse reactions, infection risks, and drug interactions (along with on-going monitoring of the patient). For chronic conditions, the significance and risk of short and long term adverse effects must be weighed against the desired benefit. Patients who are best suited to medicinal marijuana will be those who will gain substantial benefit to offset these risks, and who have failed a well-documented, compliant and comprehensive approach to standard therapies.

  5. Comprehensive approach to sarcopenia treatment.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Sakuma, Kunihiro

    2014-05-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with a risk of adverse outcomes such as physical disability, poor quality of life, and death. Primary sarcopenia is considered to be age-related when no other cause is evident, other than ageing itself. Secondary sarcopenia should be considered when one or more other causes are evident, such as activity-, disease-, or nutrition-related sarcopenia. In this narrative review that focused on human studies, we summarize the pharmaceutical therapies (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estrogen, growth hormone, ghrelin, vitamin D, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and eicosapentaenoic acid) and nonpharmaceutical therapies (resistance training, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking) for counteracting primary sarcopenia. Testosterone and growth hormone improve muscle mass and muscle strength, but have several side effects. Although there are some intriguing pharmaceutical therapies to combat sarcopenia, resistance training combined with supplements containing amino acids are the most effective for preventing and treating age-related muscle wasting and weakness. The etiology of sarcopenia in the elderly is multi-factorial. Patients with disuse syndrome and deconditioning often complicate the diagnosis, of not only activity-related sarcopenia, but also age-, disease-, and nutrition-related sarcopenia. In these cases a comprehensive approach to sarcopenia treatment should include pharmaceutical therapies for age-related sarcopenia and comorbid chronic diseases, resistance training, early ambulation, nutrition management, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking. The effect of pharmaceutical therapies for sarcopenia can be enhanced by this comprehensive approach. Future research on pharmaceutical therapies for counteracting sarcopenia should consider non-pharmaceutical therapies and also the causes of sarcopenia.

  6. Radio Frequency Sensing of Particulate Matter Accumulation on a Gasoline Particulate Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, James; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Sappok, Alex; Ragaller, Paul; Bromberg, Leslie

    2016-10-30

    Filter Sensing Technology’s radio frequency (RF) sensor for particulate filter on-board diagnostics (OBD) was studied on a lean gasoline engine at the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The response of the RF sensor to particulate matter (PM) or “soot” accumulation on the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) installed in the engine exhaust was evaluated. In addition, end plugs of the GPF were purposely removed, and subsequent changes to the RF sensor measured soot loading on the GPF were characterized. Results from the study showed that the RF sensor can accurately measure soot accumulation on a GPF; furthermore, the predicted decreased soot accumulation due to plug removal was detected by the RF sensor. Overall, the studies were short and preliminary in nature; however, clearly, the RF sensor demonstrated the capability of measuring GPF soot loading at a level suitable for use in lean gasoline engine emission control OBD and control.

  7. Synthetic polyacrylate polymers as particulate intranasal vaccine delivery systems for the induction of mucosal immune response.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Mehfuz; Simerska, Pavla; Toth, Istvan

    2010-04-01

    The nasal route as a site of vaccine delivery for both local and systemic effect is currently of considerable interest. The administration of vaccines to mucosal surfaces such as the nasopharynx associated lymphoid tissues confers many advantages since the nasal mucosa is a primary site through which most inhaled antigens are encountered. However, the success of intranasally delivered mucosal vaccines is limited by lack of effective vaccine formulations or delivery systems suitable for use in humans. This review provides a brief overview of the mucosal immune system at the nasal surface, enhancement techniques for induction of mucosal immune response after intranasal administration of particulate systems and an explanation of the inherent properties of polyacrylate polymer-based particulate systems that may facilitate mucosal immune responses.

  8. Elucidating the mechanisms of nickel compound uptake: A review of particulate and nano-nickel endocytosis and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Costa, Max

    2012-04-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a worldwide pollutant and contaminant that humans are exposed to through various avenues resulting in multiple toxic responses — most alarming is its clear carcinogenic nature. A variety of particulate Ni compounds persist in the environment and can be distinguished by characteristics such as solubility, structure, and surface charge. These characteristics influence cellular uptake and toxicity. Some particulate forms of Ni are carcinogenic and are directly and rapidly endocytized by cells. A series of studies conducted in the 1980s observed this process, and we have reanalyzed the results of these studies to help elucidate the molecular mechanism of particulate Ni uptake. Originally the process of uptake observed was described as phagocytosis, however in the context of recent research we hypothesize that the process is macropinocytosis and/or clathrin mediated endocytosis. Primary considerations in determining the route of uptake here include calcium dependence, particle size, and inhibition through temperature and pharmacological approaches. Particle characteristics that influenced uptake include size, charge, surface characteristics, and structure. This discussion is relevant in the context of nanoparticle studies and the emerging interest in nano-nickel (nano-Ni), where toxicity assessments require a clear understanding of the parameters of particulate uptake and where establishment of such parameters is often obscured through inconsistencies across experimental systems. In this regard, this review aims to carefully document one system (particulate nickel compound uptake) and characterize its properties.

  9. Elucidating the mechanisms of nickel compound uptake: A review of particulate and nano-nickel endocytosis and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Costa, Max

    2012-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a worldwide pollutant and contaminant that humans are exposed to through various avenues resulting in multiple toxic responses - most alarming is its clear carcinogenic nature. A variety of particulate Ni compounds persist in the environment and can be distinguished by characteristics such as solubility, structure, and surface charge. These characteristics influence cellular uptake and toxicity. Some particulate forms of Ni are carcinogenic and are directly and rapidly endocytized by cells. A series of studies conducted in the 1980’s observed this process, and we have reanalyzed the results of these studies to help elucidate the molecular mechanism of particulate Ni uptake. Originally the process of uptake observed was described as phagocytosis, however in the context of recent research we hypothesize that the process is macropinocytosis and/or clathrin mediated endocytosis. Primary considerations in determining the route of uptake here include calcium dependence, particle size, and inhibition through temperature and pharmacological approaches. Particle characteristics that influenced uptake include size, charge, surface characteristics, and structure. This discussion is relevant in the context of nanoparticle studies and the emerging interest in nano-nickel (nano-Ni), where toxicity assessments require a clear understanding of the parameters of particulate uptake and where establishment of such parameters is often obscured through inconsistencies across experimental systems. In this regard, this review aims to carefully document one system (particulate nickel compound uptake) and characterize its properties. PMID:22206756

  10. Methods and apparatus for handling or treating particulate material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  11. Source apportionment of particulate matter in Chinese megacities: the implication for emission control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ru-Jin; Elser, Miriam; Wang, Qiyuan Wang; Bozzetti, Carlo; Wolf, Robert; Wang, Yichen; Ni, Haiyan; Wang, Meng; Ho, Kin-Fai; Han, Yongming; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Canonaco, Francesco; Slowik, Jay; El Haddad, Imad; Baltensperger, Urs; Cao, Junji; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2015-04-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries has led to an increase in air pollution, along a similar trajectory to that previously experienced by the developed nations. In China, particulate pollution is a serious environmental problem that is influencing air quality, regional and global climates, and human health. A quantitative understanding of these effects has proven extremely challenging due to spatial and temporal variability in the sources of aerosols and their precursors, the complexity of particle composition, and uncertainties associated with the atmospheric aging of existing particles (Pöschl 2005; Hallquist et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2014). Nowadays the average PM2.5 concentrations in China are approximately one to two orders of magnitude higher than those observed in urban areas in the US and European countries (Cao 2012). This has forced the Chinese government to announce its first national environmental standard for PM2.5 in 2012 and to make highly ambitious plans for emission control. The Chinese aim to reduce the PM2.5 concentrations by up to 25% of the 2012 levels by 2017, backed by 277 billion investments from the central government. To achieve this ambitious aim, a better understanding of the aerosol composition, sources, and atmospheric processing is required. In this study, we present the results from intensive field measurement campaigns carried out in Chinese megacities in 2013/2014. The sources of PM2.5 and the organic aerosol (OA) were investigated by applying the multi-linear engine (ME-2) receptor model (Canonaco et al., 2013) to a comprehensive dataset. Primary sources including vehicle emissions, biomass burning, coal burning, and dust-related emissions were identified and quantified. The contributions from secondary aerosol formation processes to total PM2.5 mass and OA mass were evaluated. Detailed results will be presented and discussed. References Cao, J. J. (2012) J. Earth Environ., 3, 1030

  12. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  13. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  14. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  15. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  16. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  17. Shielded regeneration heating element for a particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-01-04

    An exhaust system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A catalyst substrate or a flow converter is disposed upstream from said heating element. The catalyst substrate oxidizes the exhaust prior to reception by the heating element. The flow converter converts turbulent exhaust flow to laminar exhaust flow prior to reception by the heating element.

  18. Managing particulates in cell therapy: Guidance for best practice.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Dominic; Stanton, Jean; Powers, Donald; Karnieli, Ohad; Nahum, Sagi; Abraham, Eytan; Parisse, Jean-Sebastien; Oh, Steve

    2016-09-01

    The intent of this article is to provide guidance and recommendations to cell therapy product sponsors (including developers and manufacturers) and their suppliers in the cell therapy industry regarding particulate source, testing, monitoring and methods for control. This information is intended to help all parties characterize the processes that generate particulates, understand product impact and provide recommendations to control particulates generated during manufacturing of cell therapy products.

  19. Diesel particulate filter regeneration via resistive surface heating

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-10-08

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine; and a grid of electrically resistive material that is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and that selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  20. Support for comprehensive reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.; Rombach, H. D.

    1991-01-01

    Reuse of products, processes, and other knowledge will be the key to enable the software industry to achieve the dramatic improvement in productivity and quality required to satisfy the anticipated growing demands. Although experience shows that certain kinds of reuse can be successful, general success has been elusive. A software life-cycle technology which allows comprehensive reuse of all kinds of software-related experience could provide the means to achieving the desired order-of-magnitude improvements. A comprehensive framework of models, model-based characterization schemes, and support mechanisms for better understanding, evaluating, planning, and supporting all aspects of reuse are introduced.

  1. Atmospheric particulate absorption and black carbon measurement.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, J D; Douglass, R E; Garvey, D M

    1999-04-20

    It is convenient to measure the optical attenuation A of the combination of a layer of atmospheric particulate matter and the quartz fiber filter on which it has been collected. The problem of relating A to the absorption and scattering coefficients k and s of the particulate matter itself is treated as a problem in diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using the KubelkaMunk theory. The results show that although, in general, A is a nonlinear function strongly dependent on both s and k, for a limited range of s and sample thickness d, A can be a practically linear function of k. Fortunately, this range includes that common to atmospheric particulate samples. Furthermore, it is shown that if the filter's reflectance is sufficiently high, A can be nearly independent of s. This is in agreement with experimental and, for the limiting case when the substrate filter reflectance is unity, theoretical results obtained by other researchers. Use of such measurements of A as a means of determining the black carbon mass loading C on a filter is also investigated. It is shown that when the black carbon mass fraction f(c) is high, as it is for samples collected in large urban areas, A is a predictable and practically linear function of C. However, when f(c) is low, as it is for many rural locations, then the slope of the function A(C) is strongly dependent on f(c), leading to possible overestimates of C. This problem can be alleviated by making the measurement of A at near-infrared wavelengths rather than in the visible spectrum.

  2. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected...

  3. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-02-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  4. Particulate filtration for sorbent-based H2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hassel, Bart A.; Karra, Jagadeswara R.

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed for sizing the particulate filter that can be used inside a sorption-based onboard hydrogen storage system for light-duty vehicles. The method is based on a trade-off between the pressure drop across the particulate filter (during the fill of the H2 storage tank or during its discharge while driving) and the effect of this pressure drop on the usable amount of H2 gas from the H2 storage system. The permeability and filtration efficiency of the particulate filters (in the absence and presence of MOF-5 particulates) was quantified in this study, with an emphasis on meeting DOE's H2 purity requirements.

  5. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart; Sun, Chenxi; Lapuerta, Magin; Agudelo, John

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEM imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.

  6. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; ...

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEMmore » imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.« less

  7. Source apportionment of gaseous and particulate PAHs from traffic emission using tunnel measurements in Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Siyao; Lohmann, Rainer; Yu, Na; Zhang, Chenkai; Gao, Yi; Zhao, Jianfu; Ma, Limin

    2015-04-01

    Understanding sources and contributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs from traffic-related pollution can provide valuable information for alleviating air contamination from traffic in urban areas. On-road sampling campaigns were comprehensively conducted during 2011-2012 in an urban tunnel of Shanghai, China. 2-3 rings PAHs were abundant in the tunnel's gas and particle phases. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs were statistically described; several were significantly different between the gas and particle phases. Principal component analysis (PCA), positive matrix factorization (PMF), bivariate correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) were applied to apportion sources of gaseous and particulate PAHs in the tunnel. Main sources of the gaseous PAHs included evaporative emission of fuel, high-temperature and low-temperature combustion of fuel, accounting for 50-51%, 30-36% and 13-20%, respectively. Unburned fuel particles (56.4-78.3%), high-temperature combustion of fuel (9.5-26.1%) and gas-to-particle condensation (12.2-17.5%) were major contributors to the particulate PAHs. The result reflected, to a large extent, PAH emissions from the urban traffic of Shanghai. Improving fuel efficiency of local vehicles will greatly reduce contribution of traffic emission to atmospheric PAHs in urban areas. Source apportionment of PM10 mass was also performed based on the organic component data. The results showed that high-temperature combustion of fuel and gas-to-particle condensation contributed to 15-18% and 7-8% of PM10 mass, respectively, but 55-57% of the particle mass was left unexplained. Although the results from the PCA and PMF models were comparable, the PMF method is recommended for source apportionment of PAHs in real traffic conditions. In addition, the combination of multivariate statistical method and bivariate correlation analysis is a useful tool to comprehensively assess sources of PAHs.

  8. Particulate deposition from turbulent parallel streams

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Kwan H.; Chung, Paul M.

    1981-02-01

    A theory is developed for particulate deposition rate on surfaces from turbulent gas streams. The three characteristic times, the particle equilibration time, the turbulent fluctuation time, and the particle residence time, control the deposition mode. The larger particles reach the wall across the laminar sublayer because of the momentum imparted to them by the turbulence velocity of the fluid. The smaller particles, on the other hand, diffuse to the wall by thermophoresis which depends on the temperature gradient. The computed results of the theory for pipe flow are compared with the available experimental data and satisfactory agreement is shown.

  9. Flight prototype regenerative particulate filter system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, D. C.; Garber, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The effort to design, fabricate, and test a flight prototype Filter Regeneration Unit used to regenerate (clean) fluid particulate filter elements is reported. The design of the filter regeneration unit and the results of tests performed in both one-gravity and zero-gravity are discussed. The filter regeneration unit uses a backflush/jet impingement method of regenerating fluid filter elements that is highly efficient. A vortex particle separator and particle trap were designed for zero-gravity use, and the zero-gravity test results are discussed. The filter regeneration unit was designed for both inflight maintenance and ground refurbishment use on space shuttle and future space missions.

  10. Polarimetric discrimination of atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk; Gregory, Don

    2012-06-01

    A polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection from 300 to 1100 nm has been constructed and tested. Exploratory research has been conducted which may lead to the standoff detection of bio-aerosols in the atmosphere. The polarization properties of bsubtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) have been compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust and soot (all sampled onto microscope slides) and differentiating features have been identified. The application of this technique for the discrimination of bio-aerosol from background clutter has been demonstrated.

  11. Electrically heated particulate filter with reduced stress

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.

    2013-03-05

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter comprising an inlet for receiving exhaust gas. A zoned heater is arranged in the inlet and comprises a resistive heater comprising N zones, where N is an integer greater than one. Each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates others of the N zones.

  12. 75 FR 17865 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ...; Particulate Matter Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY... updates were made to the particulate matter standards by adding fine particulate standards and revoking the state's course particulate standards. EPA revised its particulate matter standards in October...

  13. Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2004-11-23

    A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

  14. The Effect of Viewing Order of Macroscopic and Particulate Visualizations on Students' Particulate Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Vickie M.; Lane, Sarah M.; Gilbreath, Travis; Tasker, Roy; Ashkenazi, Guy; Williamson, Kenneth C.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    A prior study showed that students best make predictions about the outcome of opening a valve between two flasks containing a fluid or vacuum when they view both a demonstration video and a particulate animation, but the study showed no influence from the order in which these visualizations were used. The purpose of this current research was to…

  15. Polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS]: comprehensive management in primary care.

    PubMed

    Samraj, George P N; Kuritzky, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common premenopausal endocrino-metabolic disorder. In addition to hyperandrogenism, menstrual abnormalities, ovulatory disturbances and infertility, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and obesity may eventuate in long-term cardiovascular consequences.

  16. Cognitive Correlates of Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Phillips, Beth

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to understand cognitive foundations of oral language comprehension (i.e., listening comprehension), we examined how inhibitory control, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring are uniquely related to listening comprehension over and above vocabulary and age. A total of 156 children in kindergarten and first grade from…

  17. Speciation of volatile organic compound emissions for regional air quality modeling of particulate matter and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, P. A.; Moran, M. D.; Scholtz, M. T.; Taylor, A.

    2003-01-01

    A new classification scheme for the speciation of organic compound emissions for use in air quality models is described. The scheme uses 81 organic compound classes to preserve both net gas-phase reactivity and particulate matter (PM) formation potential. Chemical structure, vapor pressure, hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity, freezing point/boiling point, and solubility data were used to create the 81 compound classes. Volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile organic compounds are included. The new classification scheme has been used in conjunction with the Canadian Emissions Processing System (CEPS) to process 1990 gas-phase and particle-phase organic compound emissions data for summer and winter conditions for a domain covering much of eastern North America. A simple postprocessing model was used to analyze the speciated organic emissions in terms of both gas-phase reactivity and potential to form organic PM. Previously unresolved compound classes that may have a significant impact on ozone formation include biogenic high-reactivity esters and internal C6-8 alkene-alcohols and anthropogenic ethanol and propanol. Organic radical production associated with anthropogenic organic compound emissions may be 1 or more orders of magnitude more important than biogenic-associated production in northern United States and Canadian cities, and a factor of 3 more important in southern U.S. cities. Previously unresolved organic compound classes such as low vapour pressure PAHs, anthropogenic diacids, dialkyl phthalates, and high carbon number alkanes may have a significant impact on organic particle formation. Primary organic particles (poorly characterized in national emissions databases) dominate total organic particle concentrations, followed by secondary formation and primary gas-particle partitioning. The influence of the assumed initial aerosol water concentration on subsequent thermodynamic calculations suggests that hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds may form external

  18. Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... D blood test. This test is recommended because vitamin D deficiency is common in people with primary hyperparathyroidism. How ... bone density measurements every 1 to 2 years. Vitamin D deficiency should be corrected if present. Patients who are ...

  19. COMPREHENSIVE JUNIOR COLLEGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NIKITAS, CHRISTUS M.; AND OTHERS

    TO MEET THE STATE'S HIGHER EDUCATION NEEDS, THE NEW HAMPSHIRE JUNIOR COLLEGE COMMISSION DEVELOPED A PLAN OF (1) GRADUAL AND SELECTIVE CONVERSION OF THE STATE'S TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS TO COMPREHENSIVE JUNIOR COLLEGES, (2) SELECTIVE ADDITION OF 2-YEAR PROGRAMS AT THE STATE COLLEGES AND INSTITUTES, AND (3) ESTABLISHMENT OF A STATE…

  20. COMMUNICATION AND COMPREHENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRENAMAN, J.M.

    A SERIES OF BRITISH IMPACT STUDIES DEALT WITH ADULT AUDIENCE CHARACTERISTICS (COMPREHENSION, KNOWLEDGE, INTERESTS, ATTITUDES) AND FACTORS WITHIN THE MEDIUM THAT MAKE FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION. FIVE DIFFERENT TYPES OF SUBJECT MATTER WERE PRESENTED TO MATCHED SAMPLES OF THE GENERAL PUBLIC BY MEANS OF RADIO, TELEVISION, AND PRINTED ARTICLES. THE…

  1. Cinnarizine: Comprehensive Profile.

    PubMed

    Haress, Nadia G

    2015-01-01

    Cinnarizine is a piperazine derivative with antihistaminic, antiserotonergic, antidopaminergic, and calcium channel-blocking activities. A comprehensive profile was performed on cinnarizine including its description and the different methods of analysis. The 1H NMR and 13C one- and two-dimensional NMR methods were used. In addition, infrared and mass spectral analyses were performed which all confirmed the structure of cinnarizine.

  2. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... McPherson RA, Pincus MR. Disease/organ panels. McPherson RA, ... . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:appendix 7.

  3. Comprehensive Trail Making Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is designed to be used in neuropsychological assessment for the purposes of detecting effects of brain defects and deficits and in tracking progress in rehabilitation. More specific purposes include the detection of frontal lobe deficits, problems with psychomotor speed, visual search and sequencing,…

  4. Designing a Comprehensive Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, T. L.

    1970-01-01

    A comprehensive rural "agribusiness industry" curriculum might include: (1) The World of Work (Grade 7 or 8), (2) Vocational Orientation (Grade 9), (3) Basic Agriculture and Industry (Grade 10), (4) Specialized Agribusiness Industry (Grade 11), and (5) Advanced Agribusiness Industry (Grade 12). (DM)

  5. Imagery and Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Rose

    If people can evoke mental images when listening to a story, they can extend the process by turning words on a printed page into speech and evoke images for the "speech on the page." This is an exercise for reading comprehension that does not come naturally but can be worked on deliberately. A few moments of self-observation, when…

  6. The Comprehensive Health Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Iowa Community Coll. District, Davenport.

    This report contains information from a fall 1991 health occupations assessment of 1,021 health-related employers in Eastern Iowa and the Illinois Quad Cities area. Twelve chapters present comprehensive results of all surveys; results of 10 labor market survey instruments developed for chiropractic offices, dentists' offices, emergency medical…

  7. Assessing Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Janette K.

    2004-01-01

    Generally, experts agree on what good readers do to comprehend text--they connect new text with past experiences, interpret, evaluate, synthesize, and consider alternative interpretations. Yet, traditional measures of reading comprehension only provide a general indicator of how well a student understands text. They do not provide information…

  8. Comprehension Strategy Gloves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Gayle

    2002-01-01

    Describes the idea of creating a glove for each of the comprehension strategies for use with different text structures. Notes that the gloves serve as a multisensory approach by providing visual clues through icons on each finger and the palm. Discusses three different gloves: the prereading glove, the narrative text structure glove, and the…

  9. Math Sense: Comprehensive Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Cathy Fillmore

    This book features a comprehensive review of the Math Sense series and is designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include whole numbers;…

  10. Writing for Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Randy; Pearman, Cathy; Hail, Cindy; Hurst, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Many educators continue to treat reading and writing as separate subjects. In response to this observation, the authors offer four research-based writing strategies that teachers can use to improve student reading comprehension through writing. The writing strategies--"About/Point", "Cubing", "Four Square Graphic Organizer", and "Read," "Respond",…

  11. Learning with Text in the Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaume, Andrea M.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a rationale for learning-with-text experiences for primary-grade children; lists 10 general approaches to foster primary-grade content area reading; and offers a sample lesson incorporating these approaches that promotes comprehension of text and content matter. Suggests that trade books, textbooks, realistic fiction, and other print…

  12. Websites for Primary Sources and Civics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rulli, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This article features a list of websites for primary sources and civics education. The World Wide Web has become an excellent source for facsimiles, images, and transcriptions of primary sources. As it would be impossible to provide a comprehensive list of all the sites, this annotated list highlights selective sites that provide access to…

  13. Healthcare is primary.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raman

    2015-01-01

    India is undergoing a rapid transformation in terms of governance, administrative reforms, newer policy develoment, and social movements. India is also considered one of the most vibrant economies in the world. The current discourse in public space is dominated by issues such as economic development, security, corruption free governance, gender equity, and women safety. Healthcare though remains a pressing need of population; seems to have taken a backseat. In the era of decreasing subsidies and cautious investment in social sectors, the 2(nd) National Conference on Family Medicine and Primary Care 2015 (FMPC) brought a focus on "healthcare" in India. The theme of this conference was "Healthcare is Primary." The conference participants discussed on the theme of why healthcare should be a national priority and why strong primary care should remain at the center of healthcare delivery system. The experts recommended that India needs to strengthen the "general health system" instead of focusing on disease based vertical programs. Public health system should have capacity and skill pool to be able to deliver person centered comprehensive health services to the community. Proactive implementation of policies towards human resource in health is the need of the hour. As the draft National Health Policy 2015 is being debated, "family medicine" (academic primary care), the unfinished agenda of National Health Policy 2002, remains a priority area of implementation.

  14. Rheological properties of asphalts with particulate additives

    SciTech Connect

    Shashidhar, N.; Chollar, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Superpave asphalt binder specifications are performance-based specifications for purchasing asphalt binders for the construction of roads. This means that the asphalt is characterized by fundamental material (rheological) properties that relate to the distress modes of the pavements. The distress modes addressed are primarily rutting, fatigue cracking and low temperature cracking. For example, G*/sin({delta}) is designed to predict the rutting potential of pavements, where G* is the magnitude of the complex shear modulus and 6 is the phase angle. The binder for a road that is situated in a certain climatic zone requires the binder to have a minimum G*/sin({delta}) of 2200 Pa at the highest consecutive 7-day average pavement temperature the road had experienced. Implicit in such a performance based specification is that the fundamental property, G*/sin({delta}), of the binder correlates with rutting potential of the pavement regardless of the nature of the binder. In other words, the specification is transparent to the fact that the binder can simply be an asphalt, or an asphalt modified by polymers, particulates and other materials that can form a two-phase mixture. This paper discusses the asphalt-particulate system.

  15. Particulate distribution function evolution for ejecta transport

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerberg, James Edward; Plohr, Bradley J

    2010-01-01

    The time evolution of the ejecta distribution function in a gas is discussed in the context of the recent experiments of W. Buttler and M. Zellner for well characterized Sn surfaces. Evolution equations are derived for the particulate distribution function when the dominant gas-particle interaction in is particulate drag. In the approximation of separability of the distribution function in velocity and size, the solution for the time dependent distribution function is a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind whose kernel is expressible in terms of the vacuum time dependent velocity distribution function measured with piezo probes or Asay foils. The solution of this equation in principle gives the size distribution function. We discuss the solution of this equation and the results of the Buttler - Zellner experiments. These suggest that correlations in velocity and size are necessary for a complete description of the transport dala. The solutions presented also represent an analytic test problem for the calculated distribution function in ejecta transport implementations.

  16. Analysis of particulates on tape lift samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moision, Robert M.; Chaney, John A.; Panetta, Chris J.; Liu, De-Ling

    2014-09-01

    Particle counts on tape lift samples taken from a hardware surface exceeded threshold requirements in six successive tests despite repeated cleaning of the surface. Subsequent analysis of the particle size distributions of the failed tests revealed that the handling and processing of the tape lift samples may have played a role in the test failures. In order to explore plausible causes for the observed size distribution anomalies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to perform chemical analysis on collected particulates. SEM/EDX identified Na and S containing particles on the hardware samples in a size range identified as being responsible for the test failures. ToF-SIMS was employed to further examine the Na and S containing particulates and identified the molecular signature of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates, a common surfactant used in industrial detergent. The root cause investigation suggests that the tape lift test failures originated from detergent residue left behind on the glass slides used to mount and transport the tape following sampling and not from the hardware surface.

  17. Instability and Turbulence of Propagating Particulate Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandar, S.

    2015-11-01

    Propagation of particle-laden fluid into an ambient is a common fluid mechanical process that can be observed in many industrial and environmental applications. Sedimentation fronts, volcanic plumes, dust storms, powder snow avalanches, submarine turbidity currents, explosive powder dispersal and supernovae offer fascinating examples of advancing particulate fronts. The propagating interface can undergo Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz and double-diffusive instabilities and result in the formation of lobes and clefts, spikes and bubbles, and particulate fingers. The interplay between suspended particles and turbulence is often complex due to interaction of competing mechanisms. In problems such as turbidity currents, turbulence controls sediment concentration through resuspension and settling of particles at the bed. Also, turbulent entrainment at the propagating front is observed to be influenced by the sediments. Stable stratification due to suspended sediment concentration can damp and even kill turbulence. This complex turbulence-sediment interaction offers possible explanation for massive sediment deposits observed in nature. The talk will also address challenges and recent advancements in the modeling and simulation of such particle-laden turbulent flows.

  18. Global ocean particulate organic carbon flux merged with satellite parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouw, Colleen B.; Barnett, Audrey; McKinley, Galen A.; Gloege, Lucas; Pilcher, Darren

    2016-10-01

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) flux estimated from POC concentration observations from sediment traps and 234Th are compiled across the global ocean. The compilation includes six time series locations: CARIACO, K2, OSP, BATS, OFP, and HOT. Efficiency of the biological pump of carbon to the deep ocean depends largely on biologically mediated export of carbon from the surface ocean and its remineralization with depth; thus biologically related parameters able to be estimated from satellite observations were merged at the POC observation sites. Satellite parameters include net primary production, percent microplankton, sea surface temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm, euphotic zone depth, and climatological mixed layer depth. Of the observations across the globe, 85 % are concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere with 44 % of the data record overlapping the satellite record. Time series sites accounted for 36 % of the data, while 71 % of the data are measured at ≥ 500 m with the most common deployment depths between 1000 and 1500 m. This data set is valuable for investigations of CO2 drawdown, carbon export, remineralization, and sequestration. The compiled data can be freely accessed at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.855600.

  19. 42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that contain adequate oxygen to support life. (b) Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators are... includes oil-based liquid particulates. (c) Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...

  20. 75 FR 30710 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter Standards; Withdrawal of Direct Final Rule AGENCY... matter standards by adding fine particulate standards and revoking the state's course particulate standards. The State of Wisconsin submitted this revision as a modification to the State Implementation...