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Sample records for comprehensive serologic study

  1. A Comprehensive Entomological, Serological and Molecular Study of 2013 Dengue Outbreak of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Jehangir; Khan, Inamullah; Amin, Ibne

    2016-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan. Methods Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500) of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools. Results The 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum) and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum). The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth). About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%), tires (20% & 18%) and discarded containers (10% & 6%). Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26%) by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%). The maximum infection was observed in the age group of <15 (40%) followed by 15–45 (35%) and >45 (25%) years and was

  2. Serological and bacteriological study of swine brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lord, V R; Cherwonogrodzky, J W; Marcano, M J; Melendez, G

    1997-01-01

    A serological and bacteriological study was performed with sera taken from 2,228 swine from six states in Venezuela. None of the animals were vaccinated against brucellosis, and the prevalence of the disease varied from 5 to 89% on farms located in these states. Our studies indicated that the animals could be categorized into four groups depending on the degree of reactivity in serological tests. Brucella suis biovar 1 was isolated from the lymph nodes, spleens, and semen samples of seropositive animals and identified by oxidative metabolic techniques. B. suis could not be isolated from tissues of seronegative swine even from farms with cases of the disease (detected by serology). Results suggest that, although the immunodiffusion assay using Brucella melitensis B115 polysaccharide B or B. abortus 1119-3 O-polysaccharide could be useful in the detection of active infections, it is perhaps not as sensitive as some of the other standard serological tests used in this study for the detection of swine brucellosis. PMID:8968931

  3. Serological and bacteriological study of swine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Lord, V R; Cherwonogrodzky, J W; Marcano, M J; Melendez, G

    1997-01-01

    A serological and bacteriological study was performed with sera taken from 2,228 swine from six states in Venezuela. None of the animals were vaccinated against brucellosis, and the prevalence of the disease varied from 5 to 89% on farms located in these states. Our studies indicated that the animals could be categorized into four groups depending on the degree of reactivity in serological tests. Brucella suis biovar 1 was isolated from the lymph nodes, spleens, and semen samples of seropositive animals and identified by oxidative metabolic techniques. B. suis could not be isolated from tissues of seronegative swine even from farms with cases of the disease (detected by serology). Results suggest that, although the immunodiffusion assay using Brucella melitensis B115 polysaccharide B or B. abortus 1119-3 O-polysaccharide could be useful in the detection of active infections, it is perhaps not as sensitive as some of the other standard serological tests used in this study for the detection of swine brucellosis.

  4. Systematic Review of Measles and Rubella Serology Studies.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Odahowski, Cassie L

    2016-07-01

    Serological tests provide information about individual immunity from historical infection or immunization. Cross-sectional serological studies provide data about the age- and sex-specific immunity levels for individuals in the studied population, and these data can provide a point of comparison for the results of transmission models. In the context of developing an integrated model for measles and rubella transmission, we reviewed the existing measles and rubella literature to identify the results of national serological studies that provided cross-sectional estimates of population immunity at the time of data collection. We systematically searched PubMed, the Science Citation Index, and references we identified from relevant articles published in English. We extracted serological data for comparison to transmission model outputs. For rubella, serological studies of women of child-bearing age provide information about the potential risks of infants born with congenital rubella syndrome. Serological studies also document the loss of maternal antibodies, which occurs at different rates for the different viruses and according to the nature of the induced immunity (i.e., infection or vaccine). The serological evidence remains limited for some areas, with studies from developed countries representing a disproportionate part of the evidence. The collection and review of serological evidence can help program managers identify immunity gaps in the population, which may help them better understand the characteristics of individuals within their populations who may participate in transmission and manage risks. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. [The serological properties of saprophytic corynebacteria studied by immunoenzyme analysis].

    PubMed

    Mikhal'skiĭ, L A; Nogina, T M; Furtat, I M

    1997-01-01

    The degree of serological similarity of saprophytic corynebacteria have been studied using immunoassay ELISA analysis, that is seven collection strains, belonging to Corynebacterium glutamicum (3 strains), C. ammoniagenes (1 strain), C. vitarumen (1 strain), C. variabilis (2 strains) and three industrial strains-lysine producers. Intact and heated bacteria cells have been used as antigens. It has been shown that industrial strain C. glutamicum 22L and collection strains C. glutamicum IMV AC-715, IMV AC-714, IMV AC-733 have the highest degree of serological relationship. C. vitarumen IMV AC-718, C variabilis IMV AC-716 as well as Corynebacterium sp. E531 and VNIIgenetics 90 are close to them according to their serological properties. C. ammoniagenes IMV AC-732 and C. variabilis IMV AC-717 strains have the lowest degree of similarity with other saprophytic corynebacteria which have been studied.

  6. [Study on serological cross-reactivity of six pathogenic phleboviruses].

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Quan-Fu; Li, Chuan; Liang, Mi-Fang; Li, De-Xin

    2014-07-01

    This article aimed to study the antigenicity of nucleocapsid proteins (NPs) in six pathogenic phleboviruses and to provide theoretical evidence for the development of serological diagnostic reagents. NPs of six pathogenic phleboviruses were expressed and purified using a prokaryotic expression system and rabbits were immunized with individual recombinant NPs. Cross-reactions among NPs and rabbit sera were determined by both indirect ELISA and Western blotting analyses, and the sera titer was determined by indirect ELISA. Furthermore, sera from SFTS patients were also detected by each recombinant NP as a coating antigen using indirect ELISA. The cross-reactions and the sera titer were subsequently determined. Both the concentration and purity of recombinant NPs of six pathogenic phleboviruses met the standards for immunization and detection. The results of indirect ELISA and Western blotting showed that each anti-phlebovirus NP rabbit immune serum had potential serological cross-reactivity with the other five virus NP antigens. Furthermore, the sera from SFTS patients also had cross-reactivity with the other five NP antigens to a certain extent. Our preliminary study evaluated the antigenicity and immune reactivity of six pathogenic phleboviruses NPs and laid the foundation for the development of diagnostic reagents.

  7. [Serological study of rickettsia infections in Niamey, Niger].

    PubMed

    Julvez, J; Michault, A; Kerdelhue, C

    1997-01-01

    Rickettsioses is a possible alternative to presumptive diagnosis of malaria. A serologic study was carried out in 1994 to determine the prevalence of rickettsioses in children under 5 years of age from three different areas of Niamey, Niger. Indirect immunofluorescent assays using the micromethod were performed with antigens for Rickettsia conori, Rickettsia mooseri, and Coxiella burneti. Results were read from a positive threshold of 1/160 up to 1/640. Out of a randomized population of 177 children 35 were positive for at least one antigen: 17.5% for Rickettsia conori, 15.8% for Rickettsia mooseri, and 9.6% for Coxiella burneti. The incidence of positivity for Rickettsia mooseri and Coxiella burneti. was significantly higher in an area where contact between people and animals was particularly close. This high rate of positivity is in agreement with previous reports in other countries in West Africa and suggests that close contact between man and rickettsiae is common. Although dogs carry ticks in Niger, direct contact with Rickettsia conori is probably the most mode of transmission. Rodents like Cricetomys gambianus and Rattus norvegicus carry Rickettsia mooseri and goats and sheep which are often kept in the courtyards of buildings carry Coxiella burneti. The recently identified species Rickettsia africae could be transmitted by other vectors such as cattle ticks.

  8. Serological study of brucellosis in Argentine Creole sheep.

    PubMed

    López, Gustavo E; Peña, Sabrina; Escobar, Gabriela I; Hasan, Déborah B; Lucero, Nidia E

    2018-01-05

    Ovine cattle was introduced into America during the Spanish conquest with the second journey of Columbus to the Antilles and was disseminated throughout the region. In 1587, sheep were introduced into Argentina, later developing into the "Creole" breed. We selected 486 animals from different Argentine provinces with the aim of determining the serological status of brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis and Brucella ovis. For the detection of antibodies against smooth Brucella spp., the Rose Bengal test (RBT) was performed as screening test while the serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2 mercapto-ethanol (2ME) were run as a confirmatory technique. Moreover, for the detection of antibodies against rough Brucella spp., we used the rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) for screening and an indirect ELISA (IELISA) as confirmatory assay. This study showed that the total positive percentage of brucellosis due to B. ovis was 2.9%. Excluding the animals mixed with the Suffolk breed; seropositivity would be 0.6%. All animals tested negative for brucellosis caused by B. melitensis. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Serologic studies of acute respiratory infections in military personnel.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, A. S.

    1975-01-01

    The advantages, disadvantages, and uses of serological epidemiology are discussed in relation to acute respiratory infections in military personnel. The prevalence of antibody reflects both current and past experience with respiratory agents and is a measure of susceptinility. Incidence data calculated by testing two serial serum samples, on entry and discharge from the service, has indicated high influenza and mycoplasma pneumoniae rates in South American recruits and low rates of adenovirus and parainfluenza infections. Serologic analysis of reinfection rates showed high protection against influenza infections at HI antibody levels of over 1:40, against adenovirus infections at neutralizing titers of 1:5, and against M. pneumoniae infections at TRI antibody levels over 1:8. Antibody responses persisting at least 7 mo following immunization were demonstrated in 70% of 428 vaccinated young adults for A2 antigen and 20% for influenza B antigen. No relation of ABO blood groups to respiratory infection was found. The lack of myxovirus infections in four Polaris submarines is presented. PMID:169640

  10. Prospective Study of Serologic Tests for Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Steere, Allen C.; McHugh, Gail; Damle, Nitin; Sikand, Vijay K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Tests to determine serum antibody levels—the 2-tier sonicate immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot method or the IgG of the variable major protein-like sequence-expressed (VlsE) sixth invariant region (C6) peptide ELISA method—are the major tests available for support of the diagnosis of Lyme disease. However, these tests have not been assessed prospectively. Methods We used these tests prospectively to determine serologic responses in 134 patients with various manifestations of Lyme disease, 89 patients with other illnesses (with or without a history of Lyme disease), and 136 healthy subjects from areas of endemicity and areas in which the infection was not endemic. Results With 2-tier tests and the C6 peptide ELISA, only approximately one-third of 76 patients with erythema migrans had results that were positive for IgM or IgG seroreactivity with Borrelia burgdorferi in acute-phase samples. During convalescence, 3–4 weeks later, almost two-thirds of patients had seroreactivity with the spirochete B. burgdorferi. The frequencies of seroreactivity were significantly greater among patients with spirochetal dissemination than they were among those who lacked evidence of disseminated disease. Of the 44 patients with Lyme disease who had neurologic, heart, or joint involvement, all had positive C6 peptide ELISA results, 42 had IgG responses with 2-tier tests, and 2 patients with facial palsy had only IgM responses. However, among the control groups, the IgG Western blot was slightly more specific than the C6 peptide ELISA. The differences between the 2 test systems (2-tier testing and C6 peptide ELISA) with respect to sensitivity and specificity were not statistically significant. Conclusions Except in patients with erythema migrans, both test systems were sensitive for support of the diagnosis of Lyme disease. However, with current methods, 2-tier testing was associated with

  11. Syphilis serology in pregnancy: an eight-year study (2005-2012) in a large teaching maternity hospital in Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    McGettrick, Padraig; Ferguson, Wendy; Jackson, Valerie; Eogan, Maeve; Lawless, Mairead; Ciprike, Vaneta; Varughese, Alan; Coulter-Smith, Sam; Lambert, John S

    2016-03-01

    All cases of positive syphilis serology detected in antenatal and peripartum screening in a large teaching maternity hospital in inner city Dublin, Ireland over an eight-year period (2005-2012 inclusive) were reviewed and included in our study. Demographic, antenatal registration, laboratory (including co-infections), partner serology, treatment and delivery data were recorded in our database. Infant follow-up, treatment and outcome data were also collected. During this period, 194 women had positive syphilis serology, of which 182 completed their pregnancies at the institution. This accounts for 0.28% of the total number of women completing their pregnancies during this time (N = 66038); 79 had no previous diagnosis of infection. There was one case of re-infection during pregnancy. Thirty-two women were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. There was one case suggestive of congenital syphilis infection. Our study is a comprehensive analysis of the diagnosis, management and clinical outcomes of women testing positive for syphilis infection in pregnancy. It reveals the relatively high prevalence of syphilis infection in the population utilising the maternity services in north inner-city Dublin. It re-enforces the importance of continued active surveillance to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with maternal syphilis infection. It also highlights the importance of strategies such as re-testing high-risk groups and definitive screening of spouse serology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. First international external quality assessment study on molecular and serological methods for yellow fever diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Cristina; Escadafal, Camille; Rumer, Leonid; Méndez, Jairo A; García, Paquita; Sall, Amadou A; Teichmann, Anette; Donoso-Mantke, Oliver; Niedrig, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    We describe an external quality assurance (EQA) study designed to assess the efficiency and accurateness of molecular and serological methods used by expert laboratories performing YF diagnosis. For molecular diagnosis evaluation, a panel was prepared of 14 human plasma samples containing specific RNA of different YFV strains (YFV-17D, YFV South American strain [Brazil], YFV IvoryC1999 strain), and specificity samples containing other flaviviruses and negative controls. For the serological panel, 13 human plasma samples with anti-YFV-specific antibodies against different strains of YFV (YFV-17D strain, YFV IvoryC1999 strain, and YFV Brazilian strain), as well as specificity and negative controls, were included. Thirty-six laboratories from Europe, the Americas, Middle East, and Africa participated in these EQA activities. Only 16% of the analyses reported met all evaluation criteria with optimal performance. Serial dilutions of YFV-17D showed that in general the methodologies reported provided a suitable sensitivity. Failures were mainly due to the inability to detect wild-type strains or the presence of false positives. Performance in the serological diagnosis varied, mainly depending on the methodology used. Anti-YFV IgM detection was not performed in 16% of the reports using IIF or ELISA techniques, although it is preferable for the diagnosis of YFV acute infections. A good sensitivity profile was achieved in general; however, in the detection of IgM antibodies a lack of sensitivity of anti-YFV antibodies against the vaccine strain 17D was observed, and of the anti-YFV IgG antibodies against a West African strain. Neutralization assays showed a very good performance; however, the unexpected presence of false positives underlined the need of improving the running protocols. This EQA provides information on each laboratory's efficacy of RT-PCR and serological YFV diagnosis techniques. The results indicate the need for improving serological and molecular diagnosis

  13. First International External Quality Assessment Study on Molecular and Serological Methods for Yellow Fever Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, Cristina; Escadafal, Camille; Rumer, Leonid; Méndez, Jairo A.; García, Paquita; Sall, Amadou A.; Teichmann, Anette; Donoso-Mantke, Oliver; Niedrig, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Objective We describe an external quality assurance (EQA) study designed to assess the efficiency and accurateness of molecular and serological methods used by expert laboratories performing YF diagnosis. Study Design For molecular diagnosis evaluation, a panel was prepared of 14 human plasma samples containing specific RNA of different YFV strains (YFV-17D, YFV South American strain [Brazil], YFV IvoryC1999 strain), and specificity samples containing other flaviviruses and negative controls. For the serological panel, 13 human plasma samples with anti-YFV-specific antibodies against different strains of YFV (YFV-17D strain, YFV IvoryC1999 strain, and YFV Brazilian strain), as well as specificity and negative controls, were included. Results Thirty-six laboratories from Europe, the Americas, Middle East, and Africa participated in these EQA activities. Only 16% of the analyses reported met all evaluation criteria with optimal performance. Serial dilutions of YFV-17D showed that in general the methodologies reported provided a suitable sensitivity. Failures were mainly due to the inability to detect wild-type strains or the presence of false positives. Performance in the serological diagnosis varied, mainly depending on the methodology used. Anti-YFV IgM detection was not performed in 16% of the reports using IIF or ELISA techniques, although it is preferable for the diagnosis of YFV acute infections. A good sensitivity profile was achieved in general; however, in the detection of IgM antibodies a lack of sensitivity of anti-YFV antibodies against the vaccine strain 17D was observed, and of the anti-YFV IgG antibodies against a West African strain. Neutralization assays showed a very good performance; however, the unexpected presence of false positives underlined the need of improving the running protocols. Conclusion This EQA provides information on each laboratory's efficacy of RT-PCR and serological YFV diagnosis techniques. The results indicate the need for

  14. [Hepatitis B case grouping serological study among six chinese families in Almeria, Spain].

    PubMed

    Barroso García, Pilar; Lucerna Méndez, M Angeles; Adrián Monforte, Estrella; Parrón Carreño, Tesifón

    2004-01-01

    Following the detection of two cases of members of 6 Chinese families having tested positive for the hepatitis B virus, a study of those living in these families was begun for the purpose of knowing the spread of the infection within the family environment of the cases detected. Descriptive study. Population under study: 24 members of six Chinese families. Age, sex, serological diagnosis, risk factors, healthcare-related attitude. Clinical records, serological data, epidemiological survey and immunization cards. A family focus was employed and the genogram used. Distribution Binomial spread for calculating probability of occurrence of the process to be studied. A total of 14 males (58.3%) and 10 females (41.7%) ranking from 1 to 54 years of age were studied. The age group having the largest number of subjects studied was the age 21-30 group (37.5%). Twelve chronic hepatitis B infections were recorded (50%). No relationship was found to exist with the risk factors studied in the epidemiological survey conducted. The probability of this number of chronic hepatitis cases occurring was 0.066 x 10(-6). It was concluded that the prevalence of infection found was probable due to intra-family transmission. Given the low probability of occurrence of a process of this type, the case grouping found is considered to be high.

  15. Serological Studies of Types A, B, and E Botulinal Toxins by Passive Hemagglutination and Bentonite Flocculation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, H. M.; Brenner, K.; Angelotti, R.; Hall, H. E.

    1966-01-01

    Johnson, H. M. (Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Cincinnati, Ohio), K. Brenner, R. Angelotti, and H. E. Hall. Serological studies of types A, B, and E botulinal toxins by passive hemagglutination and bentonite flocculation. J. Bacteriol. 91:967–974. 1966.—Formalinized sheep red blood cells (SRBC), sensitized with types A, B, and E botulinal toxoids and toxins by bis-diazotized benzidine (BDB), were tested against A, B, and E antitoxins prepared in horses and rabbits. Type B antitoxin cross-reacted with A toxoid SRBC, but the reciprocal cross-reaction was not observed. E toxin SRBC were specifically agglutinated by E antitoxin. Flocculation of antigen-sensitized bentonite particles was less sensitive in titration of antitoxin than hemagglutination. Also, reciprocal cross-reactions were observed between types A and B antitoxins. Cross-reactions in both serological tests were eliminated by titration of antitoxins in the presence of the heterologous antigens, with no inhibitory effect on the homologous antitoxins. Generally, equine antitoxins were less suitable for agglutinations, especially of antigen-sensitized bentonite particles. Types A, B, and E antitoxins were specifically inhibited by 43, 39, and 245 mouse ld50 of their respective homologous toxins in the hemagglutination-inhibition test. A, B, and E antitoxins were specifically inhibited by 500, 950, and 1,500 mouse ld50 of their respective homologous toxins in bentonite flocculation inhibitions. Formalinized SRBC sensitized with rabbit types A and B antitoxins by BDB were respectively clumped by as little as 0.75 to 1.3 mouse ld50 of A toxin and 2.3 ld50 of B toxin, whereas bentonite particles sensitized by the same antitoxins were specifically clumped by 150 ld50 of A toxin and 630 ld50 of B toxin. E antitoxin sensitization of SRBC or bentonite particles was not successful. Evidence is presented that indicates that the serological procedures are applicable to the detection of botulinal toxins

  16. InterSCOPE Study: Associations Between Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Human Papillomavirus Serological Markers

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Sam; Urban, Margaret I.; Taylor, Philip R.; Abnet, Christian C.; Boffetta, Paolo; O’Connell, Dianne L.; Whiteman, David C.; Brennan, Paul; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pawlita, Michael; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Waterboer, Tim; Webb, Penelope M.; Green, Adèle C.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Zaridze, David; Holcatova, Ivana; Mates, Dana; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Ferro, Gilles; Janout, Vladimir; Curado, Maria Paula; Menezes, Ana Maria; Koifman, Sergio; Islami, Farhad; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Hu, Nan; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Gao, Ying; Ding, Ti; Kamangar, Farin

    2012-01-01

    Background The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the causation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is unclear. We examined the associations between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and 28 centrally measured HPV serological markers in serum from six existing case–control studies conducted in regions with differing background risks of esophageal cancer. Methods We used centralized multiplex serology to test serum samples from 1561 case subjects and 2502 control subjects from six case–control studies for antibodies to the major HPV capsid protein (L1) and/or the early proteins E6 and/or E7 of eight high-risk, two low-risk, and four cutaneous HPV types. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption, and other potential confounders. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using either a linear mixed-effects approach or a joint fixed-effects approach. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results We found statistically significant associations between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and antibodies to E6 for HPV16 (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.09 to 3.29, P = .023) and HPV6 (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.51 to 4.25, P < .001) but not for other tested HPV types. There were no statistically significant associations between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and antibodies to E7 for any of the tested HPV types. Simultaneous seropositivity for HPV16 E6 and E7 was rare (four case subjects, two control subjects; OR = 5.57, 95% CI = 0.90 to 34.35; P = .064). We also found statistically significant associations between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and capsid antibodies for the high-risk mucosal type HPV33 L1 (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.69; P = .047) and the low-risk mucosal types HPV6 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.42; P = .010) and HPV11 (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.56, P = .0036). Conclusions We found

  17. Serological diagnosis of bovine neosporosis: a comparative study of commercially available ELISA tests.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-García, Gema; García-Culebras, Alicia; Gutiérrez-Expósito, Daniel; Navarro-Lozano, Vanesa; Pastor-Fernández, Iván; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2013-11-15

    Bovine neosporosis control programs are currently based on herd management and serodiagnosis because effective treatments and vaccines are unavailable. Although a wide variety of serological tools have been developed, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are the most commonly commercialized tests. Partial comparative studies have been performed in the past, and the panel of available ELISAs has notably changed in the last few years. Therefore, diagnostic laboratories are requesting updated information about the performance of these tests. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare all of the commercially available ELISAs (n=10) by evaluating their performance and to re-standardize them based on TG-ROC analyses when necessary. For this purpose, a well-characterized serum panel from experimentally and naturally infected bovines and non-infected bovines (n=458) was used. Two different definitions of gold standard were considered: (i) the result of the majority of tests and (ii) pre-test information based on epidemiological, clinical and serological data. Most of the tests displayed high sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) values when both gold standard criteria were considered. Furthermore, all the tests showed near perfect agreement, with the exception of the pair-wise comparisons that included the VMRD and SVANOVIR. The best-adjusted ELISAs were the HIPRA-CIVTEST, IDVET, BIOVET and IDEXX Rum (Se and Sp>95%). After the TG-ROC analyses, higher Se and Sp values were obtained for the BIO-X, LSI Bov, LSI Rum and IDEXX Bov, though the increases were more significant for the SVANOVIR and VMRD. The Kappa values also increased with the new adjusted cut-offs. This is the first study that offers updated performance evaluations of commercially available ELISAs. Such analyses are essential for diagnostic laboratories and are valuable to the companies that develop and distribute these tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Serological surveillance studies confirm the Rift Valley fever virus free status in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Park, Jee-Yong; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Cho, Yun-Sang; Choi, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Ji-Youn; Cho, In-Soo; Yoo, Han-Sang

    2015-10-01

    Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease of domestic ruminants. This disease causes abortions in pregnant animals, and it has a high mortality rate in newborn animals. Recently, a Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) outbreak in the Arabian Peninsula increased its potential spread to new regions worldwide. In non-endemic or disease-free countries, early detection and surveillance are important for preventing the introduction of RVFV. In this study, a serological surveillance was conducted to detect antibodies against RVFV. A total of 2382 serum samples from goats and cattle were randomly collected from nine areas in South Korea from 2011 to 2013. These samples were tested for antibodies against RVFV, using commercial ELISA kits. None of the goats and cattle were positive for antibodies against RVFV. This finding suggests that this disease is not present in South Korea, and furthermore presents the evidence of the RVFV-free status of this country.

  19. [The results of serological studies in different foci of tropical and tertiary malaria].

    PubMed

    Suleĭmanov, G D; Doan, Kh N; Le, T T; Chan, B; Chan, T U

    1991-01-01

    Attempt was made to determine the value of serologic indices of malaria surveys. Following uniformed methodological and technical approaches 3 foci of P. vivax and 6 foci of P. falciparum malaria were surveyed in different endemic zones of Vietnam and the USSR. It was shown that the most objective criteria for a foci classification is its serologic mean geometric titre. The latter in its turn directly depends of transmission longevity in a foci.

  20. Detection of Celiac Disease and Lymphocytic Enteropathy by Parallel Serology and Histopathology in a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Marjorie M.; Murray, Joseph A.; Ronkainen, Jukka; Aro, Pertti; Storskrubb, Tom; D’Amato, Mauro; Lahr, Brian; Talley, Nicholas J.; Agreus, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Although serological analysis is used in diagnosis of celiac disease, histopathology is considered most reliable. We performed a prospective study to determine the clinical, pathological and serological spectrum of celiac disease in a general population (Kalixanda study). Methods A random sample of an adult general population (n=1000) was analyzed by upper endoscopy, duodenal biopsy, and serological analysis of tissue transglutaminase (tTg) levels; endomysial antibody (EMA) levels were analyzed in samples that were tTg+. The cutoff values for diagnosis of celiac disease were villous atrophy with 40 intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs)/100 enterocytes (ECs). Results Samples from 33 subjects were tTg+ and 16 were EMA+. Histological analysis identified 7/1000 subjects (0.7%) with celiac disease; all were tTg+ and 6/7 were EMA+. Another 26 subjects were tTg+ (7/26 EMA+). This was addressed by a second quantitative pathology study, (nested case-control design) using a threshold of 25 IELS/100 ECs. In this analysis, all 13 samples that were tTg+ and EMA+ had ≥25 IELs/100ECs. In total, 16 subjects (1.6%) had serological and histological evidence of gluten-sensitive enteropathy. IELs were quantified in duodenal biopsy samples from seronegative individuals (n=500); 19 (3.8%) had >25 IELs and lymphocytic duodenosis (LD). Conclusions Measurement of ≥25 IELs/100 ECs correlated with serological indicators of celiac disease; a higher IEL threshold could miss 50% of cases. Quantification of tTg is a sensitive test for celiac disease; diagnosis can be confirmed by observation of ≥25 IELs/100ECs in duodenal biopsies. Lymphocytic enteropathy (celiac disease and LD) is common in the population (5.4%). PMID:20398668

  1. Serological study of the lymphochoriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in an inner city of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Riera, Laura; Castillo, Ernesto; Del Carmen Saavedra, María; Priotto, José; Sottosanti, Josefa; Polop, Jaime; Ambrosio, Ana María

    2005-06-01

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is the prototype of the family Arenaviridae and is associated with the natural reservoir, Mus domesticus (Md). It causes meningitis and a flu-like illness characterized by malaise, myalgia, retrorbital headache, and photophobia. This study presents the data obtained in a rodent and human serological study during 6 years (1998-2003) in the city of Rio Cuarto, Argentina. Antibodies anti-LCMV were sought by ELISA in rodents and humans. LCMV was found only in Md species in 9.4% of animals. The results also show some seasonal, no significant variations in the prevalence of the infection. Distribution of positive mice was not modified significantly by trapping sites, sex, or age of the animals. The prevalence of LCMV positive urban residents was found to be consistently low (1-3.6%) along the study period, with overage prevalence of 3.3% and values in males (4.6%) significantly higher than in females (2.6%) (P < 0.05). Seven of 432 pregnant women were found to be LCMV positive, but the absence of LCMV antibodies in the newborns demonstrated that the mothers were infected before pregnancy. This study is the first evidence on endemic LCMV in an Argentine city located outside the endemic area of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) and described the need to study other areas and increase awareness of this viral infection. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. [Usefulness of serological studies for the early diagnosis of Lyme disease in Primary Health Care Centres].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-López, María Esther; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díaz, Pablo; Díez-Morrondo, Carolina; Pego-Reigosa, Robustiano; Coira-Nieto, Amparo

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of an early diagnosis of Lyme disease (LD) in Primary Health Care Centres (PHCC) using the ELISA test as serological screening technique. A retrospective study (2006-2013) was performed in order to determine the anti-Borrelia seropositivity in 2,842 people at risk of having LD. The possible relationship between the environment and the area of residence with anti-Borrelia seropositivity was also studied according to the origin of the specimens (PHCC/Hospital). Overall, 15.2% of samples were positive to Borrelia spp. Seropositivity was significantly higher in samples sent by PHCC doctors than those sent by Hospital doctors. Seropositivity was significantly higher in rural than in urban populations and in those who live in mountainous or flat areas. The percentage of seropositivity has increased over the years. The role of the PHCC doctor is essential for achieving an early diagnosis of Lyme disease, as a higher percentage of seropositives was detected in samples submitted from PHCC. Furthermore, most early localised LD patients were diagnosed in PHCC, avoiding the appearance of sequelae. Therefore, detection of Borrelia specific antibodies using an ELISA assay is a useful screening test for patients at risk of LD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus Among University Students: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Objective The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18–39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university between September 2004 and March 2006. Participants received HSV-2 antibody testing by Focus ELISA and Western Blot assays and completed a questionnaire that addressed psychological functioning. Twenty-eight participants completed the questionnaire again at a 3-month follow-up visit. Results The study revealed (1) low test-reliability in the student population, (2) that positive test results may cause a decline in psychological well-being, and (3) that substantial resources are required to support students with positive HSV-2 results. Conclusions Test performance, psychological impact, and availability of resources for counseling students with positive diagnoses should be considered before implementing HSV testing programs. PMID:18980884

  4. A serological study of Dirofilaria immitis in feral cats in Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, C; Chikweto, A; Mofya, S; Lanum, L; Flynn, P; Burnett, J P; Doherty, D; Sharma, R N

    2010-12-01

    A study to determine the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis was carried out in feral cats in Grenada. Of the 137 feral cats tested for circulating antibodies (IgG; lateral-flow immunoassay) and circulating antigens (Ag; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), 8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-12.5%) were antibody positive and 5.1% (95% CI 1.4-8.8%) were antigen positive. No significant difference between cats aged>1 to 4 years and cats less than 1 year of age was found (P>0.05, χ²). There was also no significant difference (P>0.05, χ²) between male and female cats. Dirofilaria immitis prevalence is relatively high in the feral cat population of Grenada. Evidence of D. immitis infection in feral cats coupled with the endemic nature of heartworm disease in dogs in Grenada leads us to suggest the introduction of heartworm prophylaxis in cats. To the authors' knowledge, this serological evidence of heartworm infection in feral cats in Grenada is the first report from the Caribbean region.

  5. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

  6. Serological Studies of Neurologic Helminthic Infections in Rural Areas of Southwest Cameroon: Toxocariasis, Cysticercosis and Paragonimiasis

    PubMed Central

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Kouojip-Mabou, Alida; Nganou, Christ Nadège; Saijo, Yasuaki; Knapp, Jenny; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Ito, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Background Both epilepsy and paragonimiasis had been known to be endemic in Southwest Cameroon. A total of 188 people (168 and 20 with and without symptoms confirmed by clinicians, respectively, 84.6% under 20 years old) were selected on a voluntary basis. Among 14 people (8.3%) with history of epilepsy, only one suffered from paragonimiasis. Therefore, we challenged to check antibody responses to highly specific diagnostic recombinant antigens for two other helminthic diseases, cysticercosis and toxocariasis, expected to be involved in neurological diseases. Soil-transmitted helminthic infections were also examined. Methodology/Principal Findings Fecal samples were collected exclusively from the 168 people. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms were found from 56 (33.3%), 72 (42.8%), and 19 (11.3%) persons, respectively. Serology revealed that 61 (36.3%), 25 (14.9%) and 2 (1.2%) of 168 persons showed specific antibody responses to toxocariasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis, respectively. By contrast, 20 people without any symptoms as well as additional 20 people from Japan showed no antibody responses. Among the 14 persons with epilepsy, 5 persons were seropositive to the antigen specific to Toxocara, and one of them was simultaneously positive to the antigens of Paragonimus. The fact that 2 children with no history of epilepsy were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis strongly suggests that serological survey for cysticercosis in children is expected to be useful for early detection of asymptomatic cysticercosis in endemic areas. Conclusions/Significance Among persons surveyed, toxocariasis was more common than paragonimiasis, but cysticercosis was very rare. However, the fact that 2 children were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis was very important, since it strongly suggests that serology for cysticercosis is useful and feasible for detection of asymptomatic cysticercotic children in endemic areas for the early

  7. External quality assessment studies for laboratory performance of molecular and serological diagnosis of Chikungunya virus infection.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Sonja; Patel, Pranav; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Teichmann, Anette; Zeller, Herve; Niedrig, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Since the re-emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Reunion in 2005 and the recent outbreak in the Caribbean islands with an expansion to the Americas the CHIK diagnostic became very important. We evaluate the performance of laboratories regarding molecular and serological diagnostic of CHIK worldwide. A panel of 12 samples for molecular and 13 samples for serology were provided to 60 laboratories in 40 countries for evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of molecular and serology testing. The panel for molecular diagnostic testing was analysed by 56 laboratories returning 60 data sets of results whereas the 56 and 60 data sets were returned for IgG and IgM diagnostic from the participating laboratories. Twenty-three from 60 data sets performed optimal, 7 acceptable and 30 sets of results require improvement. From 50 data sets only one laboratory shows an optimal performance for IgM detection, followed by 9 data sets with acceptable and the rest need for improvement. From 46 IgG serology data sets 20 provide an optimal, 2 an acceptable and 24 require improvement performance. The evaluation of some of the diagnostic performances allows linking the quality of results to the in-house methods or commercial assays used. The external quality assurance for CHIK diagnostics provides a good overview on the laboratory performance regarding sensitivity and specificity for the molecular and serology diagnostic required for the quick and reliable analysis of suspected CHIK patients. Nearly half of the laboratories have to improve their diagnostic profile to achieve a better performance. Copyright © 2016 Z. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Idiom and Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levorato, M. Chiara; Roch, Maja; Nesi, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The relation between text and idiom comprehension in children with poor text comprehension skills was investigated longitudinally. In the first phase of the study, six-year-old first graders with different levels of text comprehension were compared in an idiom and sentence comprehension task. Text comprehension was shown to be more closely related…

  9. A Serological Biopsy Using Five Stomach-Specific Circulating Biomarkers for Gastric Cancer Risk Assessment: A Multi-Phase Study.

    PubMed

    Tu, Huakang; Sun, Liping; Dong, Xiao; Gong, Yuehua; Xu, Qian; Jing, Jingjing; Bostick, Roberd M; Wu, Xifeng; Yuan, Yuan

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to assess a serological biopsy using five stomach-specific circulating biomarkers-pepsinogen I (PGI), PGII, PGI/II ratio, anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibody, and gastrin-17 (G-17)-for identifying high-risk individuals and predicting risk of developing gastric cancer (GC). Among 12,112 participants with prospective follow-up from an ongoing population-based screening program using both serology and gastroscopy in China, we conducted a multi-phase study involving a cross-sectional analysis, a follow-up analysis, and an integrative risk prediction modeling analysis. In the cross-sectional analysis, the five biomarkers (especially PGII, the PGI/II ratio, and H. pylori sero-positivity) were associated with the presence of precancerous gastric lesions or GC at enrollment. In the follow-up analysis, low PGI levels and PGI/II ratios were associated with higher risk of developing GC, and both low (<0.5 pmol/l) and high (>4.7 pmol/l) G-17 levels were associated with higher risk of developing GC, suggesting a J-shaped association. In the risk prediction modeling analysis, the five biomarkers combined yielded a C statistic of 0.803 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.789-0.816) and improved prediction beyond traditional risk factors (C statistic from 0.580 to 0.811, P<0.001) for identifying precancerous lesions at enrollment, and higher serological biopsy scores based on the five biomarkers at enrollment were associated with higher risk of developing GC during follow-up (P for trend <0.001). A serological biopsy composed of the five stomach-specific circulating biomarkers could be used to identify high-risk individuals for further diagnostic gastroscopy, and to stratify individuals' risk of developing GC and thus to guide targeted screening and precision prevention.

  10. Studies on the serological relationships between avian pox, sheep pox, goat pox and vaccinia viruses

    PubMed Central

    Uppal, P. K.; Nilakantan, P. R.

    1970-01-01

    By using neutralization, complement fixation and immunogel-diffusion tests, it has been demonstrated that cross-reactions occur between various avian pox viruses and between sheep pox and goat pox viruses. No such reactions were demonstrated between avian pox viruses and vaccinia virus or between avian pox and sheep pox and goat pox viruses. Furthermore, no serological relationship was demonstrable between vaccinia virus and sheep pox and goat pox viruses. PMID:4989854

  11. Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody titers and cardiac calcifications: a cross-sectional serological-echocardiographic correlative study.

    PubMed

    Atar, Shaul; Tolstrup, Kirsten; Cercek, Bojan; Siegel, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae has previously been associated with higher prevalence of valvular and cardiac calcifications. To investigate a possible association of seropositivity for C. pneumoniae and the presence of cardiac calcifications (mitral annular or aortic root calcification, and aortic valve sclerosis). We retrospectively analyzed serological data (immunoglobulin G TWAR antibodies) from the AZACS trial (Azithromycin in Acute Coronary Syndromes), and correlated the serological findings according to titer levels with the presence of cardiac calcifications as detected by transthoracic echocardiography. In 271 patients, age 69 +/- 13 years, who underwent both serological and echocardiographic evaluation, we found no significant association between the "calcification sum score" (on a scale of 0-3) in seropositive compared to seronegative patients (1.56 +/- 1.15 vs.1.35 +/- 1.15, respectively, P = 0.26). The median calcification sum score was 1 (interquartile range 0-3) for the seronegative group, and 2 (interquartile range 0-3) for the seropositive group (P = 0.2757). In addition, we did not find a significant correlation of any of the individual sites of cardiac calcification and C. pneumoniae seropositivity. Our findings suggest that past C. pneumoniae infection may not be associated with the pathogenesis of valvular and cardiac calcifications.

  12. Helicobacter pylori serological biomarkers of gastric cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control Study.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Nerea; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Michel, Angelika; Romero, Beatriz; Lope, Virginia; Pawlita, Michael; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Moreno, Victor; Martín, Vicente; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Castilla, Jesús; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Santibáñez, Miguel; Peiró, Rosana; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Navarro, Carmen; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Del Campo, Rosa; Waterboer, Tim; Aragonés, Nuria

    2017-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the main risk factors for non-cardia gastric cancer. However, only a minority of infected persons develop the disease. This study aims at identifying H. pylori related serological biomarkers of risk for gastric cancer. Incident gastric cancer cases and population controls (age, sex and region frequency-matched) from the MCC-Spain multicase-control Study were included. Seroreactivities against 16H. pylori proteins were determined using multiplex serology. Infection was defined as seropositivity against≥4 proteins. Relation of serological results to non-cardia and cardia gastric cancer was assessed using multivariable mixed logistic regression and principal components analysis. Seroprevalence was 88% among 2071 controls, 95% among 202 non-cardia gastric cancer cases (OR=1.9 (95% CI: 1.0-3.6)) and 85% among 62 cardia cancer cases (OR=0.5 (95% CI: 0.3-1.1)). In infected subjects, seropositivity for UreA, HP231, NapA and Cagδ was associated with lower non-cardia gastric cancer risk, while seropositivity for CagA and VacA was associated with higher risk. Seropositivity for CagA and seronegativity for Cagδ maintained the association after additional adjustment by serostatus of significant proteins. We identified two antibody reactivity patterns: the "virulent-pattern", related to a threefold higher risk of non-cardia gastric cancer and the "non-virulent pattern", related to a 60% decreased risk (4th vs. first quartile). In our population, people seropositive for H. pylori were characterized by two patterns of antibody reactivity against H. pylori proteins: 1) Combined high seroreactivity against several proteins, associated with a lower non-cardia gastric cancer risk, and 2) High seroreactivity against CagA and VacA, associated with an increased risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Age-related changes in serological susceptibility patterns to measles: results from a seroepidemiological study in Dongguan, China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yongzhen; Wang, Dong; Lin, Weiyan; Tang, Hao; Chen, Shaoli; Ni, Jindong

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of IgG measles antibodies in Dongguan residents (irrespective of vaccination status), to analyze the changes in age-related serological susceptibility patterns. A total of 1960 residents aged 0-60 years and 315 mother-infant pairs were studied. Serum IgG antibodies against measles virus were measured by ELISA. The overall seroprevalence was 93.4% in the general population in Dongguan, China. In subgroups aged 1-29 years who were likely vaccinated, there was a declining trend of seropositivity with age from 98.6% at 1-4 years to 85.7% at 20-29 years (P<0.0001). Seroprevalence were near or>95% in the older population (30-39 years and ≥ 40 years) who had not been immunized against measles. Age and sex were independent factors associated with seropositivity. Seroprevalence in pregnant women and their newborns was 87.0% and 84.1%, respectively. Our results suggest that the waning vaccine-induced immunity may be the main cause of increased serological susceptibility in young adults and young infants. An additional vaccination strategy that targets young adults is important for elimination of measles.

  14. Comprehensive Serology Based on a Peptide ELISA to Assess the Prevalence of Closely Related Equine Herpesviruses in Zoo and Wild Animals.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawad, Azza; Hermes, Robert; Damiani, Armando; Lamglait, Benjamin; Czirják, Gábor Á; East, Marion; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Wenker, Christian; Kasem, Samy; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Alex D

    2015-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders. Members of the Equidae, Rhinocerotidae and Bovidae were serologically positive for EHV-1 and EHV-9. The prevalence of EHV-1 in the sampled wild zebra populations was significantly higher than in zoos suggesting captivity may reduce exposure to EHV-1. Furthermore, the seroprevalence for EHV-1 was significantly higher than for EHV-9 in zebras. In contrast, EHV-9 antibody prevalence was high in captive and wild African rhinoceros species suggesting that they may serve as a reservoir or natural host for EHV-9. Thus, EHV-1 and EHV-9 have a broad host range favoring African herbivores and may have acquired novel natural hosts in ecosystems where wild equids are common and are in close contact with other perissodactyls.

  15. Comprehensive Serology Based on a Peptide ELISA to Assess the Prevalence of Closely Related Equine Herpesviruses in Zoo and Wild Animals

    PubMed Central

    Abdelgawad, Azza; Hermes, Robert; Damiani, Armando; Lamglait, Benjamin; Czirják, Gábor Á.; East, Marion; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Wenker, Christian; Kasem, Samy; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2015-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders. Members of the Equidae, Rhinocerotidae and Bovidae were serologically positive for EHV-1 and EHV-9. The prevalence of EHV-1 in the sampled wild zebra populations was significantly higher than in zoos suggesting captivity may reduce exposure to EHV-1. Furthermore, the seroprevalence for EHV-1 was significantly higher than for EHV-9 in zebras. In contrast, EHV-9 antibody prevalence was high in captive and wild African rhinoceros species suggesting that they may serve as a reservoir or natural host for EHV-9. Thus, EHV-1 and EHV-9 have a broad host range favoring African herbivores and may have acquired novel natural hosts in ecosystems where wild equids are common and are in close contact with other perissodactyls. PMID:26378452

  16. Factors associated with syphilis infection: a comprehensive analysis based on a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y; Li, S-L; Lin, H-L; Lin, Z-F; Zhu, X-Z; Fan, J-Y; Gao, K; Zhang, H-L; Lin, L-R; Liu, L-L; Tong, M-L; Niu, J-J; Yang, T-C

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate factors that influence the likelihood of syphilis infection from risk-taking behaviours and medical conditions. A retrospective case-control study was conducted by enrolling 664 syphilis inpatients (excluding 11 congenital syphilis patients) and 800 sex- and age-matched controls. Medical histories, clinical data and patient interview data were collected and subjected to logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of syphilis in the study population was 3·9% (675/17,304). By univariate analysis, syphilis infection was associated with migration between cities, marital status, smoking, reproductive history, hypertension, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (P < 0·05). A high rate of syphilis-HBV co-infection was observed in HIV-negative patients and further research revealed an association between syphilis and specific HBV serological reactivity. Syphilis was also associated with the frequency, duration and status of tobacco use. Multivariate analysis indicated that syphilis infection was independently associated with migration between cities [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1·368, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·048-1·785], current smoking (aOR 1·607, 95% CI 1·177-2·195), elevated BUN (aOR 1·782, 95% CI 1·188-2·673) and some serological patterns of HBV infection. To prevent the spread of infectious diseases, inpatients and blood donors should be tested for HIV, syphilis, HBV and HCV simultaneously.

  17. Contribution of a multiplex serological test for the preoperative diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    de Seynes, Camille; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Dutronc, Hervé; Ribes, Clément; Crémer, Paul; Dubois, Véronique; Fabre, Thierry; Dupon, Michel; Dauchy, Frédéric-Antoine

    2018-03-22

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a severe complication of orthopaedic surgery. Preoperative diagnosis, although sometimes difficult, is key to choose the relevant treatment. We conducted a prospective study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic performance of a multiplex serological test for the pre-operative diagnosis of PJI. Blood samples were collected between 1 July 2016 and 31 July 2017 among patients referred for suspected PJI that occurred at least six weeks prior. Infection diagnosis was confirmed using intraoperative bacteriological cultures during prosthetic exchange. Seventy-one patients were included, with a median age of 73 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 66-81) and 40 (56%) were male. Twenty-six patients had aseptic loosening and 45 patients had PJI. Among the latter, median time since the last surgery was 96 weeks (IQR: 20-324). Intraoperative cultures found Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp or both in 39, 5 and 1 patients, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 81.8, 95.4, 97.3 and 72.4%, respectively, for all patients and 87.5, 93.5, 94.6 and 85.3%, respectively, for staphylococcal infections. Patients with false negative (FN) results had a significantly lower blood lymphocyte count (p = .045). Multiplex serological test performed well among patients with chronic staphylococcal prosthetic infection. This approach could contribute to PJI diagnosis especially in patients for whom the pre-operative analysis of joint fluid is not informative.

  18. 78 FR 61844 - North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... Comprehensive Study AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... in the preparation of the North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (Hurricane Sandy). The USACE is... Comprehensive Study authorized under the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act, Public Law 113-2 are to (1) provide...

  19. Prediction in Language Comprehension beyond Specific Words: An ERP Study on Sentence Comprehension in Polish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szewczyk, Jakub M.; Schriefers, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several ERP studies have shown that the human language comprehension system anticipates words that are highly likely continuations of a given text. However, it remains an open issue whether the language comprehension system can also make predictions that go beyond a specific word. Here, we address the question of whether readers predict…

  20. A comprehensive study on urban true orthorectification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, G.; Chen, W.; Kelmelis, J.A.; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2005-01-01

    To provide some advanced technical bases (algorithms and procedures) and experience needed for national large-scale digital orthophoto generation and revision of the Standards for National Large-Scale City Digital Orthophoto in the National Digital Orthophoto Program (NDOP), this paper presents a comprehensive study on theories, algorithms, and methods of large-scale urban orthoimage generation. The procedures of orthorectification for digital terrain model (DTM)-based and digital building model (DBM)-based orthoimage generation and their mergence for true orthoimage generation are discussed in detail. A method of compensating for building occlusions using photogrammetric geometry is developed. The data structure needed to model urban buildings for accurately generating urban orthoimages is presented. Shadow detection and removal, the optimization of seamline for automatic mosaic, and the radiometric balance of neighbor images are discussed. Street visibility analysis, including the relationship between flight height, building height, street width, and relative location of the street to the imaging center, is analyzed for complete true orthoimage generation. The experimental results demonstrated that our method can effectively and correctly orthorectify the displacements caused by terrain and buildings in urban large-scale aerial images. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  1. Antibodies against canine parvovirus of wolves of Minnesota: A serologic study from 1975 through 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goyal, S.M.; Mech, L.D.; Rademacher, R.A.; Khan, M.A.; Seal, U.S.

    1986-01-01

    Serum samples (n = 137) from 47 wild wolves (Canis lupus; 21 pups and 26 adults) were evaluated from 1975 to 1985 for antibodies against canine parvovirus, using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. In addition, several blood samples (n = 35) from 14 of these wolves (6 pups and 8 adults) were evaluated simultaneously for erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, and for hemoglobin and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. Sixty-nine (50%) of the serum samples (35 wolves) had HI titers of greater than or equal to 256, whereas 68 (50%) of the samples (16 wolves) had HI titers of less than or equal to 128. Significant differences in the geometric mean titers were not found between pups and adults or between males and females. Of the 47 wolves evaluated, 12 (25%) developed a greater than or equal to fourfold increase in antibody titers during the 11-year period, with 2 wolves developing serologic conversions in 1976. The data indicate that canine parvovirus may have begun infecting wolves before or at the same time that it began infecting the dog population in the United States.

  2. Using serological studies to reconstruct the history of bluetongue epidemic in French cattle under successive vaccination campaigns.

    PubMed

    Courtejoie, Noémie; Salje, Henrik; Durand, Benoît; Zanella, Gina; Cauchemez, Simon

    2018-05-17

    Bluetongue virus is a vector-borne pathogen affecting ruminants that has caused major epidemics in France. Reconstructing the history of bluetongue in French cattle under control strategies such as vaccination has been hampered by the high level of sub-clinical infection, incomplete case data and poor understanding of vaccine uptake over time and space. To tackle these challenges, we used three age-structured serological surveys carried out in cattle (N = 22,342) from ten administrative subdivisions called departments. We fitted catalytic models within a Bayesian MCMC framework to reconstruct the force of seroconversion from infection or vaccination, and the population-level susceptibility per semester between 2007 and 2016. In the departments of the study area, we estimated that 36% of cattle had been infected prior to vaccine rollout that became compulsory from July 2008. The last outbreak case was notified in December 2009, at which time 83% of the animals were seropositive, under the cumulative effect of vaccination and infection. The probability of seroconversion per semester dropped below 10% after 2010 when vaccination became optional. Vaccine uptake was smaller during the 2012 campaign than during the one in 2011, with strong regional contrasts. Eighty four percent of cattle were susceptible when bluetongue re-emerged in 2015. Thus, serological surveys can be used to estimate vaccine uptake and the magnitude of infection, the relative effect of which can sometimes be inferred using prior knowledge on reported incidence and vaccination dates. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A developmental study of proverb comprehension.

    PubMed

    Resnick, D A

    1982-09-01

    Growth in proverb comprehension was hypothesized to result from the gradual emergence of cognitive abilities reflected in a sequence of increasingly complex abilities: story matching, transfer of relations, desymbolization, proverb matching, and paraphrase. Items for these abilities for each of 10 proverbs of two structural types were administered in three test sessions to 438 students in grades three to seven. An analogy subtest was used to measure general intelligence. ANOVA yielded significant main effects for grade, tasks, and proverbs (all p's less than .01). A significant task x proverb interaction (p less than .01) revealed the difficulty of precise control over the language of the items. Proverb structure had no measurable impact on difficulty. Analogy score was a significant factor in performance (p less than .01) but not as potent as age (p less than .01). The sequential order of abilities received only weak confirmation, though tasks did correlate among themselves with medium strength (r's = .50-.70). Individual interviews added a qualitative dimension to the findings. The suitability of cognitive hierarchical models for proverb comprehension was questioned.

  4. An inter-laboratory comparative study of serological tools employed in the diagnosis of Besnoitia besnoiti infection in bovines.

    PubMed

    García-Lunar, P; Ortega-Mora, L M; Schares, G; Gollnick, N S; Jacquiet, P; Grisez, C; Prevot, F; Frey, C F; Gottstein, B; Alvarez-García, G

    2013-02-01

    Bovine besnoitiosis is considered an emerging chronic and debilitating disease in Europe. Many infections remain subclinical, and the only sign of disease is the presence of parasitic cysts in the sclera and conjunctiva. Serological tests are useful for detecting asymptomatic cattle/sub-clinical infections for control purposes, as there are no effective drugs or vaccines. For this purpose, diagnostic tools need to be further standardized. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the serological tests available in Europe in a multi-centred study. A coded panel of 241 well-characterized sera from infected and non-infected bovines was provided by all participants (SALUVET-Madrid, FLI-Wusterhausen, ENV-Toulouse, IPB-Berne). The tests evaluated were as follows: an in-house ELISA, three commercial ELISAs (INGEZIM BES 12.BES.K1 INGENASA, PrioCHECK Besnoitia Ab V2.0, ID Screen Besnoitia indirect IDVET), two IFATs and seven Western blot tests (tachyzoite and bradyzoite extracts under reducing and non-reducing conditions). Two different definitions of a gold standard were used: (i) the result of the majority of tests ('Majority of tests') and (ii) the majority of test results plus pre-test information based on clinical signs ('Majority of tests plus pre-test info'). Relative to the gold standard 'Majority of tests', almost 100% sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) were obtained with SALUVET-Madrid and FLI-Wusterhausen tachyzoite- and bradyzoite-based Western blot tests under non-reducing conditions. On the ELISAs, PrioCHECK Besnoitia Ab V2.0 showed 100% Se and 98.8% Sp, whereas ID Screen Besnoitia indirect IDVET showed 97.2% Se and 100% Sp. The in-house ELISA and INGEZIM BES 12.BES.K1 INGENASA showed 97.3% and 97.2% Se; and 94.6% and 93.0% Sp, respectively. IFAT FLI-Wusterhausen performed better than IFAT SALUVET-Madrid, with 100% Se and 95.4% Sp. Relative to the gold standard 'Majority of test plus pre-test info', Sp significantly decreased; this result was expected

  5. Serological studies on the infection of dogs in Ontario with Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease

    PubMed Central

    Artsob, Harvey; Barker, Ian K.; Fister, Richard; Sephton, Gregory; Dick, Daryl; Lynch, John A.; Key, Doug

    1993-01-01

    A serological study was undertaken to determine whether dogs in Ontario are being exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease. This study consisted of a survey of randomly selected dogs and testing of diagnostic submissions from candidate Lyme disease cases. The survey of 1,095 dogs, bled between January 1988 and August 1989, revealed a total of 65 (5.9%) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reactors, of which 22 had immuno-fluorescent antibody assay (IFA) titers ≥1:32. All but one of the IFA-positive and 10 of the ELISA-positive, IFA-negative sera were further tested by western blot. Eight western blot positive and three equivocal reactors were obtained. Three of the eight confirmed reactors had visited areas known to be endemic for Lyme disease, leaving five reactors that might have been infected in previously undocumented areas for B. burgdorferi activity in Ontario. Diagnostic submissions of sera from 223 dogs were received between August 1987 and February 1992. Test results revealed 21 (9.4%) IFA reactors, of which only six had significant titers (≥1:256) and were reactive by an immunodot Borrelia test. All six dogs had travelled to known Lyme endemic areas. Based on results obtained from this study, it seems likely that the agent of Lyme disease is not widespread in Ontario. PMID:17424284

  6. Two years of surveillance of influenza a virus infection in a swine herd. Results of virological, serological and pathological studies.

    PubMed

    Cappuccio, Javier; Dibarbora, Marina; Lozada, Inés; Quiroga, Alejandra; Olivera, Valeria; Dángelo, Marta; Pérez, Estefanía; Barrales, Hernán; Perfumo, Carlos; Pereda, Ariel; Pérez, Daniel R

    2017-02-01

    Swine farms provide a dynamic environment for the evolution of influenza A viruses (IAVs). The present report shows the results of a surveillance effort of IAV infection in one commercial swine farm in Argentina. Two cross-sectional serological and virological studies (n=480) were carried out in 2011 and 2012. Virus shedding was detected in nasal samples from pigs from ages 7, 21 and 42-days old. More than 90% of sows and gilts but less than 40% of 21-days old piglets had antibodies against IAV. In addition, IAV was detected in 8/17 nasal swabs and 10/15 lung samples taken from necropsied pigs. A subset of these samples was further processed for virus isolation resulting in 6 viruses of the H1N2 subtype (δ2 cluster). Pathological studies revealed an association between suppurative bronchopneumonia and necrotizing bronchiolitis with IAV positive samples. Statistical analyses showed that the degree of lesions in bronchi, bronchiole, and alveoli was higher in lungs positive to IAV. The results of this study depict the relevance of continuing long-term active surveillance of IAV in swine populations to establish IAV evolution relevant to swine and humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Study : volume 1 : executive summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-08-01

    This report presents results of a comprehensive examination of issues surrounding current Federal truck size : and weight (TS&W) limits and potential impacts of changes to those limits. This is the first comprehensive : TS&W study by the Department s...

  8. [Development and evaluation of a serological protocol of fluorescence polarization for the preliminary study of Brucella spp antibodies in humans].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Villalobos, Alfredo; Urdaneta-Fernández, Margelys; Rubio-Fuenmayor, Elí; Molero-Saras, Gladys; Luzardo-Charris, Carlos; Corona-Mengual, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    In order to show the development and scope of a serological analysis method based on fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) from a drop of blood obtained by the capillary technique, a Brucella antibody assay was performed on a group of 321 high-risk workers. The results were compared with data from the analysis of blood serum by FPA and a competitive enzyme immunoassay (ELISA-c). The number of concordance was 318 (99.06%), and discordant 3 (0.93%), which were negative in serum by fluorescence polarization (FPAs) and ELISA-c, but positive with capillary FPA (FPAc). The comparative results FPAc were: sensitivity 100%; specificity: 99.05%; positive predictive value 66.67%; negative predictive value 100.0%; false positive rate: 0.95%; false negative rate: 0%; accuracy: 98.0%; odds ratio: 203.00. The youden J for both FPA methods was 0.667. The identification was considered reliable and the correlation of both procedures, FPA and ELISA-c, was no statistically different (P > 0.05%), which allows to highly recommend the study implementation of human brucellosis with capillary blood as a preliminary method.

  9. Virological and serological study of human infection with swine influenza A H1N1 virus in China.

    PubMed

    Zu, Rongqiang; Dong, Libo; Qi, Xian; Wang, Dayan; Zou, Shumei; Bai, Tian; Li, Ming; Li, Xiaodan; Zhao, Xiang; Xu, Cuiling; Huo, Xiang; Xiang, Nijuan; Yang, Shuai; Li, Zi; Xu, Zhen; Wang, Hua; Shu, Yuelong

    2013-11-01

    Pigs are considered to be "mixing vessels" for the emergence of influenza viruses with pandemic potential. 2009 Pandemic Influenza H1N1 further proved this hypothesis, and raised the needs for risk assessment of human cases caused by swine influenza virus. A field investigation was conducted after a case identified with infection of European avian-like swine influenza H1N1 virus. The diagnosis was confirmed by real-time PCR, virus isolation, whole genome sequencing and serological assays. Samples from local pigs and close contacts were tested to identify the source of infection and route of transmission. The virus from the index case was similar to viruses circulating in the local pigs. The case's grandfather was asymptomatic with sero-conversion. A total of 42.8% of swine sera were positive for European avian-like swine H1N1. This study highlighted the importance of performing surveillance on swine influenza to monitor new virus emergence in humans. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comprehensive Serological Analysis of Two Successive Heterologous Vaccines against H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus in Exotic Birds in Zoos▿

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Alert, Júlia; Fernández-Bellon, Hugo; Busquets, Núria; Alcántara, Gabriel; Delclaux, María; Pizarro, Bienvenido; Sánchez, Celia; Sánchez, Azucena; Majó, Natàlia; Darji, Ayub

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, European Commission directive 2005/744/EC allowed controlled vaccination against avian influenza (AI) virus of valuable avian species housed in zoos. In 2006, 15 Spanish zoos and wildlife centers began a vaccination program with a commercial inactivated H5N9 vaccine. Between November 2007 and May 2008, birds from 10 of these centers were vaccinated again with a commercial inactivated H5N3 vaccine. During these campaigns, pre- and postvaccination samples from different bird orders were taken to study the response against AI virus H5 vaccines. Sera prior to vaccinations with both vaccines were examined for the presence of total antibodies against influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) by a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Humoral responses to vaccination were evaluated using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. In some taxonomic orders, both vaccines elicited comparatively high titers of HI antibodies against H5. Interestingly, some orders, such as Psittaciformes, which did not develop HI antibodies to either vaccine formulation when used alone, triggered notable HI antibody production, albeit in low HI titers, when primed with H5N9 and during subsequent boosting with the H5N3 vaccine. Vaccination with successive heterologous vaccines may represent the best alternative to widely protect valuable and/or endangered bird species against highly pathogenic AI virus infection. PMID:21430124

  11. Comprehensive serological analysis of two successive heterologous vaccines against H5N1 avian influenza virus in exotic birds in zoos.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Alert, Júlia; Fernández-Bellon, Hugo; Busquets, Núria; Alcántara, Gabriel; Delclaux, María; Pizarro, Bienvenido; Sánchez, Celia; Sánchez, Azucena; Majó, Natàlia; Darji, Ayub

    2011-05-01

    In 2005, European Commission directive 2005/744/EC allowed controlled vaccination against avian influenza (AI) virus of valuable avian species housed in zoos. In 2006, 15 Spanish zoos and wildlife centers began a vaccination program with a commercial inactivated H5N9 vaccine. Between November 2007 and May 2008, birds from 10 of these centers were vaccinated again with a commercial inactivated H5N3 vaccine. During these campaigns, pre- and postvaccination samples from different bird orders were taken to study the response against AI virus H5 vaccines. Sera prior to vaccinations with both vaccines were examined for the presence of total antibodies against influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) by a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Humoral responses to vaccination were evaluated using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. In some taxonomic orders, both vaccines elicited comparatively high titers of HI antibodies against H5. Interestingly, some orders, such as Psittaciformes, which did not develop HI antibodies to either vaccine formulation when used alone, triggered notable HI antibody production, albeit in low HI titers, when primed with H5N9 and during subsequent boosting with the H5N3 vaccine. Vaccination with successive heterologous vaccines may represent the best alternative to widely protect valuable and/or endangered bird species against highly pathogenic AI virus infection.

  12. A cross-sectional serological study of cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis and echinococcosis in HIV-1 infected people in Beira, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Noormahomed, Emilia Virginia; Nhacupe, Noémia; Mascaró-Lazcano, Carmen; Mauaie, Manuel Natane; Buene, Titos; Funzamo, Carlos Abel; Benson, Constance Ann

    2014-09-01

    Helminthic infections are highly endemic in Mozambique, due to limited access to healthcare and resources for disease prevention. Data on the subclinical prevalence of these diseases are scarce due to the fact that an immunological and imaging diagnosis is not often available in endemic areas. We conducted a cross-sectional study on HIV1(+) patients from Beira city in order to determine the seroprevalence of cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis and echinoccocosis and its possible interaction with HIV infection. Patients (601) were voluntarily recruited at the Ponta Gea Health Center and their demographic and clinical data were recorded (including CD4(+) cell count and antiretroviral regimen). Mean age was 39.7 years, 378 (62.9%) were women and 223 (37.1%) were men. Four hundred seventy-five (475) patients (79%) were already on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 90 started therapy after being enrolled in the study. For serological testing we used a Multiplex Western Blot IgG from LDBIO Diagnostics. The overall seroprevalence was 10.2% for cysticercosis, 23% for schistosomiasis, 7.3% for toxocariasis and 17.3% for echinococcosis. Neither age nor the CD4(+) count were significantly associated with the seroprevalence of the helminths studied. However, patients with CD4(+) between 200-500/µl had a higher seroprevalence to all helminths than those with less than 200/µl cells/and those with more than 500 cells/µl. Female gender was significantly associated with cysticercosis and schistosomiasis, and being in HAART with toxocariasis. Headache was significantly associated with cysticercosis and toxocariasis. There was no association between epilepsy and seropositivity to any of the parasites. The study concluded that a clear understanding of the prevalence and manifestations of these coinfections, how best to diagnose subclinical cases, and how to manage diseases with concomitant antiretroviral therapy is needed.

  13. A Cross-sectional Serological Study of Cysticercosis, Schistosomiasis, Toxocariasis and Echinococcosis in HIV-1 Infected People in Beira, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Noormahomed, Emilia Virginia; Nhacupe, Noémia; Mascaró-Lazcano, Carmen; Mauaie, Manuel Natane; Buene, Titos; Funzamo, Carlos Abel; Benson, Constance Ann

    2014-01-01

    Background Helminthic infections are highly endemic in Mozambique, due to limited access to healthcare and resources for disease prevention. Data on the subclinical prevalence of these diseases are scarce due to the fact that an immunological and imaging diagnosis is not often available in endemic areas. We conducted a cross-sectional study on HIV1+ patients from Beira city in order to determine the seroprevalence of cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis and echinoccocosis and its possible interaction with HIV infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Patients (601) were voluntarily recruited at the Ponta Gea Health Center and their demographic and clinical data were recorded (including CD4+ cell count and antiretroviral regimen). Mean age was 39.7 years, 378 (62.9%) were women and 223 (37.1%) were men. Four hundred seventy-five (475) patients (79%) were already on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 90 started therapy after being enrolled in the study. For serological testing we used a Multiplex Western Blot IgG from LDBIO Diagnostics. The overall seroprevalence was 10.2% for cysticercosis, 23% for schistosomiasis, 7.3% for toxocariasis and 17.3% for echinococcosis. Conclusions/Significance Neither age nor the CD4+ count were significantly associated with the seroprevalence of the helminths studied. However, patients with CD4+ between 200–500/µl had a higher seroprevalence to all helminths than those with less than 200/µl cells/and those with more than 500 cells/µl. Female gender was significantly associated with cysticercosis and schistosomiasis, and being in HAART with toxocariasis. Headache was significantly associated with cysticercosis and toxocariasis. There was no association between epilepsy and seropositivity to any of the parasites. The study concluded that a clear understanding of the prevalence and manifestations of these coinfections, how best to diagnose subclinical cases, and how to manage diseases with concomitant

  14. Avian influenza in Latin America: A systematic review of serological and molecular studies from 2000-2015

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza or bird flu is a highly contagious acute viral disease that can occur in epidemics and cross-border forms in poultry and wild birds. The characteristics of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) allow the emergence of new viral variants, some with zoonotic and pandemic potential. AIVs have been identified in Latin America; however, there is a lack of understanding of these viruses at the regional level. We performed a systematic literature review on serological or molecular evidence of AIVs circulation in Latin America. Methods were designed based on the PRISMA and STROME guidelines. Only peer-reviewed studies published between 2000 to 2015 and data was analysed based on country, viral subtype, avian species, and phylogenetic origins. From 271 studies initially found only twenty-six met our inclusion criteria. Evidence of AIVs infection was found in most Latin American countries, with Mexico as the country with the largest number of conducted studies and reported cases during the period analysed, followed by Chile and Argentina. Most of the AIVs were early reported through surveillance systems and at least 14 different subtypes of influenza viruses were reported in birds, and the presence of both low (92.9%) and high (7.1%) pathogenic AIVs was shown in Latin America. Of the reported AIVs in Latin America, 43.7% belong to migratory birds, 28.1% to local wild birds, and 28.1% to poultry. The migratory bird population mainly comprises families belonging to the orders Anseriformes and Charadriformes. We highlight the importance of epidemiological surveillance systems and the possible role of different migratory birds in the transmission of AIVs within the Americas. Our findings demonstrate the limited information on AIVs in Latin America and highlight the need of more studies on AIVs at the regional level, particularly those focused on identifying the endemic subtypes in regional wild birds. PMID:28632771

  15. [Comparative studies of serological typing and HLA-A, B antigen genotyping with PCR using sequence-specific primers].

    PubMed

    Wu, Da-lin; Ling, Han-xin; Tang, Hao

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of PCR with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) for HLA-I genotyping and analyze the causes of the errors occurring in the genotyping. DNA samples and were obtained from 34 clinical patients, and serological typing with monoclonal antibody (mAb) and HLA-A and, B antigen genotyping with PCR-SSP were performed. HLA-A and, B alleles were successfully typed in 34 clinical samples by mAb and PCR-SSP. No false positive or false negative results were found, and the erroneous and missed diagnosis rates were obviously higher in serological detection, being 23.5% for HLA-A and 26.5% for HLA-B. Error or confusion was more likely to occur in the antigens of A2 and A68, A32 and A33, B5, B60 and B61. DNA typing for HLA-I class (A, B antigens) by PCR-SSP has high resolution, high specificity, and good reproducibility, which is more suitable for clinical application than serological typing. PCR-SSP may accurately detect the alleles that are easily missed or mistaken in serological typing.

  16. Comprehensive embryo testing. Experts' opinions regarding future directions: an expert panel study on comprehensive embryo testing.

    PubMed

    Hens, Kristien; Dondorp, Wybo J; Geraedts, Joep P M; de Wert, Guido M

    2013-05-01

    four Western Europe countries. As willingness to participate in this study may be connected with expectations regarding the pace and direction of future developments, selection bias cannot be excluded. The introduction of comprehensive screening techniques in embryo testing calls for further ethical reflection that is grounded in empirical work. Specifically, there is a need for studies querying the opinions of infertile couples undergoing IVF/PGS regarding the desirability of embryo screening beyond aneuploidy. This research was supported by the CSG, Centre for Society and Life Sciences (project number: 70.1.074). The authors declare no conflict of interest. N/A.

  17. A serologic study of dengue in northwest Ethiopia: Suggesting preventive and control measures.

    PubMed

    Ferede, Getachew; Tiruneh, Moges; Abate, Ebba; Wondimeneh, Yitayih; Damtie, Demekech; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Howe, Rawleigh; Aseffa, Abraham; Tessema, Belay

    2018-05-01

    Dengue is one of the most serious and rapidly spreading arboviral diseases in the world. Despite many acute febrile illnesses in Ethiopia, the burden of illness due to dengue in the country is largely unknown. Thus, the present study aimed to provide the first baseline data on seroprevalence and associated risk factors of dengue virus (DENV) infection in the country. A cross-sectional study of febrile patients who were visiting Metema and Humera hospitals in Northwest Ethiopia from March 2016 to May 2017 was conducted. Blood samples were collected from each participant and serum samples were separated and tested for IgM and IgG antibodies against DENV infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Risk factors associated with the prevalence of anti-DENV antibodies were tested using logistic regression analysis. Of the 600 samples tested, the overall seroprevalence against DENV infection was 33.3%, while the seroprevalence by the study area was 40% in Metema and 27.5% in Humera. The overall prevalence of IgM and IgG antibodies against DENV infection was 19% and 21% respectively. Of these, 6.7% were positive for both IgM and IgG antibodies. Residence and occupational status were significantly associated with the prevalence of anti-DENV IgM seropositivity and anti-DENV IgM-/G+serostatus. The seasonal variation was significantly associated with the prevalence of anti-DENV IgM but not with anti-DENV IgM-/G+serostatus. The prevalence of anti-DENV IgM-/G+serostatus was significantly higher in Metema than Humera. High prevalence of anti-DENV IgM seropositivity was found in the summer and spring, with a peak in the month of August. The presence of uncovered water either indoor or outdoor and lack of mosquito net use was identified as risk factors for DENV infection. These findings provide the preliminary data on seroprevalence and associated risk factors of DENV infection in the country. The presence of antibodies against DENV infection indicates dengue as one of

  18. [Serological study of leptospirosis in equids, camelids and bovids from Djibouti].

    PubMed

    Roqueplo, C; Davoust, B; Mulot, B; Lafrance, B; Kodjo, A

    2011-10-01

    Sera obtained from 31 domestic and feral animals in Djibouti were assayed for leptospiral antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test. Antibodies were detected in 26 samples (84%), corresponding to 116 positive reactions. The most common antigen serogroups were Icterohaemorrhagiae and Australis. The highest titre was recorded for serovar Munchen (1:1280) in sera from Somalian wild asses and goats. This study shows a broad dispersion and high prevalence of the different Leptospira serogroups tested. High biodiversity has been previously reported in tropical countries and is thought to be linked to the wide range of reservoir mammals. Additional study will be needed to identify the reservoirs of the different serogroups in this part of Africa.

  19. Molecular epidemiological and serological studies of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in Thailand cattle.

    PubMed

    Lee, EunJung; Kim, Eun-Ju; Ratthanophart, Jadsada; Vitoonpong, Ratchaneekorn; Kim, Bo-Hye; Cho, In-Soo; Song, Jae-Young; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Shin, Yeun-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    BLV is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leucosis. BLV has negative effects on animal health and causes economic losses worldwide. However, epidemiological studies on BLV are relatively unknown in many parts of Asian countries. Thus, this study sought to explore BLV infections in cattle in Thailand to determine the extent of the geographic distribution of BLV and to measure its prevalence rates. For this study, 744 cattle from 11 farms in 9 provinces of Thailand were screened in 2013 and 2014 by ELISA and nested PCR. Of those cattle, 41 BLVs were genetically characterized using 188 BLV gp51 env gene sequences available in GenBank. The BLV prevalence in Thailand was high, ranging from 5.3% to 87.8%, as determined by PCR and 11.0% to 100% as determined by ELISA, according to geographical region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Thailand BLVs belonged to genotypes 1 and 6 and a new genotype 10, which are sporadically observed across Thailand with a prevalence of 31.7%, 19.5%, and 48.8%, respectively. A significant number of amino acid substitutions were also found in the gp51 sequences, of which unique changes in genotype 10 have not been reported previously. Briefly, the majority of substitutions were confined to CD4+/CD8+ T-cell epitopes, neutralizing domains, and E-D-A epitopes. Those observations indicate that BLV infections in Thailand cattle are prevalent and that the geographic distribution of BLV is dynamic, with a high level of genetic diversity. This distribution implies a long-term BLV infection in cattle populations and the movement of infected cattle. In sum, this study suggests that intensive surveillance and effective prevention strategies are required to determine the prevalence of BLV in Thailand and control continuous infections with BLVs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum Interleukin-6 as a Serologic Marker of Chronic Periapical Lesions: A Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdolsamadi, Hamid Reza; Vahedi, Mohammad; Esmaeili, Farzad; Nazari, Shahrzad; Abdollahzadeh, Shermin

    2008-01-01

    Background and aims Chronic periapical disease with pulpal origin is an inflammatory condition caused by bacterial infection. Chronic infection could affect general health by increasing the production of cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) that probably play a role in pathogenesis of pulpal and periapical diseases. The aim of the present study was a comparative evaluation of the level of serum IL 6 in patients with periapical lesions and healthy controls. Materials and methods This analytical case-control study included 40 patients with chronic peri-apical lesions and 40 individuals without any oral diseases. All of the participants were in good general health. After obtaining an informed consent, clinical and radiographic examinations were carried out and blood samples were collected. Serum IL-6 was measured using ELISA. Data were analyzed using t-test by SPSS 14.0 computer software. Results Serum IL-6 concentration was significantly higher in test group compared to the controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that IL-6 produced in periapical lesions may serve as a marker of pathologic inflammatory activities in chronic periapical lesions. PMID:23289057

  1. Readers Theatre plus Comprehension and Word Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Stokes, Faida; Rasinski, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Readers Theatre has been used to introduce critical issues, promote fluency among English learners and non-English learners, teach vocabulary, and integrate content in the classroom. Previous studies of Readers Theatre application have demonstrated an increase in student reading fluency, motivation, and confidence. The focus of this systemic…

  2. New daily persistent headache: clinical and serological characteristics in a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Meineri, P; Torre, E; Rota, E; Grasso, E

    2004-10-01

    We present a retrospective clinical study of 18 cases of new daily persistent headache (NDPH), a rare chronic headache, included in the fourth chapter of the II IHS classification; the pathophysiology of NDPH is unknown but a link with viral infections (especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)) has been suggested. Comparing our series with the other two published until now, we did not find any particular difference, as regards to clinical aspects. However, our laboratory tests show a recent herpes simplex virus infection in 42% and cytomegalovirus in 11% of cases; moreover we could not find any EBV infection. Our data suggest that viruses other than EBV can play a role in NDPH.

  3. Serological study of the incidence and prevalence of antibodies to bovine leukemia virus in aged sera.

    PubMed Central

    Hugh-Jones, M E; Moorhouse, P; Seger, C L

    1984-01-01

    Ninety-seven sera collected from 21 animals that had been repeatedly sampled more than 17 years before and stored at -18 degrees C were tested for bovine leukemia virus antibodies using the agar gel immunodiffusion test. The prevalences for the different ages matched current prevalences in the same herd. The consistency of these results over a prolonged period suggests the validity of long-term retrospective seroepidemiological studies of this disease. Because the original titers could not be determined and some indications of a possible loss of activity, the results must be interpreted with a measure of caution. PMID:6095978

  4. Molecular and serological studies on the Rift Valley fever outbreak in Mauritania in 2010.

    PubMed

    Jäckel, S; Eiden, M; El Mamy, B O; Isselmou, K; Vina-Rodriguez, A; Doumbia, B; Groschup, M H

    2013-11-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a vector-borne RNA virus affecting humans, livestock and wildlife. In October/November 2010, after a period of unusually heavy rainfall, a Rift Valley fever outbreak occurred in northern Mauritania causing clinical cases in cattle, sheep, goats and camels, 21 of which were of lethal outcome. The aim of this study was to obtain further information on the continuation of RVF virus activity and spread in animal species in Mauritania after this outbreak. We therefore tested sera from small ruminants, cattle and camels for the presence of viral RNA and antibodies against RVFV. These sera were collected in different parts of the country from December 2010 to February 2011 and tested with three different ELISAs and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The results show a high seroprevalence of RVFV IgM and IgG antibodies of about 57% in all animals investigated. Moreover, in four camel sera, viral RNA was detected emphasizing the important role camels played during the latest RVF outbreak in Mauritania. The study demonstrates the continuous spread of RVFV in Mauritania after initial emergence and highlights the potential role of small ruminants and camels in virus dissemination. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. A serological study of Leishmania infantum in dogs of Khorasan Razavi province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sabzevari, S; Razmi, G R; Naghibi, A; Khoshnegah, J

    2013-10-01

    Leishmania infantum is the principal agent of visceral leishmaniosis (kala-azar) in all areas of Iran. The disease is endemic in Fars, Ardabil, East Azerbaijan and Bushehr provinces while it is sporadic in other parts of the country. Dog as a member of canidae family is the main animal reservoir host of kala-azar. The present study was carried out to determine the sero-prevalence of canine leishmaniosis in Mashhad, the capital city of Khorasan Razavi Province, in the north east of Iran. Two-hundred and nine dogs in two different classes including stray and sheepdogs were selected for this cross-sectional study. The blood samples were collected and tested by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies. The results showed that 16/209 (7.6 %) of blood samples were positive. The sero-prevalence rates in stray and sheepdogs were 11/94 (11.7 %) and 5/115 (4.3 %), respectively (p < 0.05). Based on the results obtained, it is concluded that visceral leishmaniosis is distributed among dogs of this area, also sero-prevalence of canine leishmaniosis in stray dogs higher than sheepdogs.

  6. A serological study of canine herpesvirus-1 infection in a population of breeding bitches in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV1) causes a fatal hemorrhagic disease in neonatal puppies and is associated with infertility in female dogs. This study was conducted to assess the status of CHV1 infection in bitches in proestrus or estrus and to investigate possible risk factors by a detailed questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from healthy bitches (n = 193) not vaccinated against CHV1, aged one year or older and admitted for estrus control to the Canine Reproductive Clinical Unit, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science. The serum samples were analysed by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and serum titers were recorded as the reciprocal value of the highest dilution producing specific cell staining. Results Altogether, 85.5% of the dogs had CHV1 titers ≥ 80 and were classified as positive. Mean age for dogs included in the study was 4.2 years (95% CI 4.0-4.5), and there was no difference in age between seronegative dogs vs seropositive dogs. When grouping the seropositive dogs into three categories according to the magnitude of the titer, a total of 38.8% of the bitches displayed a weakly positive titer of 80, 44.8% had moderately positive titers of 160 or 320 and 16.4% of the dogs fell into the strongly positive category with titer of ≥640. No association was demonstrated when comparing CHV1 antibody titers to fertility parameters such as previous matings, pregnancies, whelpings, puppies born or condition of puppies. Further, there was no difference in seroprevalence between bitches that had been abroad for a period of time and dogs only living within a Norwegian environment. Samples from dogs collected in summer and fall displayed moderate to high antibody titers indicating recent infection with CHV1. Season, previous birth, and participation in competitions/shows explained 67-78% of the variation in antibody titer. Conclusions This study demonstrates that CHV1 infection is common in breeding bitches in the eastern part of Norway

  7. A SEROLOGICAL AND ELECTROPHORETIC STUDY OF DIPHTHERIA ANTISERA IRRADIATED WITH STERILIZING DOSES OF $gamma$-RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaulen, D.R.; Chakhava, O.V.

    1958-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on the antitoxic, anaphylactic, and electrophoretic properties of diphtheria antisera were studied at the various doses used for sterilization. Both crude and purified diphtheria antitoxic antisera were used. Irradiations were carried out with a cobalt-60 source with a total power of 5 kc. The dosage rate was 600 r/min. Data are tabulated. The results demonstrate considerable changes in the properties of antisera taking place as a result of exposure to large doses of gamma radiation. In all experiments a regular fall in the antitoxin titre was demonstrated. A greater destruction of antitoxin was observed in themore » crude antiserum than in the purified. Possible reaction mechanisms involved are discussed. (C.H.)« less

  8. A correlative study of ultrasound with serology in an area in China co-endemic for human alveolar and cystic echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y R; Craig, P S; Ito, A; Vuitton, D A; Giraudoux, P; Sun, T; Williams, G M; Huang, Z; Li, Z; Wang, Y; Teng, J; Li, Y; Huang, L; Wen, H; Jones, M K; McManus, D P

    2007-05-01

    We correlated ultrasound (US) imaging classifications for human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE) with serology (ELISA and immunoblotting (IB) incorporating native and recombinant/purified echinococcal antigens) in community surveys (2001-2003) and follow-up (2002 and 2003) of US-confirmed cases in Ningxia, China. One hundred and seventy-one cases (96 with AE, 75 with CE) were identified; of these, US classification and serological data were obtained for 142 and 112 cases, respectively. Seropositive-rates increased in CE patients with highly viable unilocular cyst lesions (Types CL, CE 1 or CE 2) to degenerating primary lesions (CE 3), but then decreased in subjects with inactive (CE 4) or dead (CE 5) cysts. In contrast, there was a constant increase in seropositivity from the early (P1, P2) to the advanced stages (P3, P4) with AE cases. For US-confirmed cases, follow-up by US combined with serology is invaluable for studying the clinical progression of echinococcosis and for detecting recurrent cysts or reinfection post-treatment.

  9. Prevalence, serologic and genetic studies of high expressers of the blood group A antigen on platelets*

    PubMed Central

    Sant’Anna Gomes, B M; Estalote, A C; Palatnik, M; Pimenta, G; Pereira, B de B; do Nascimento, E M

    2010-01-01

    Objective/Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the distribution of the platelet blood group A antigenicity in Euro-Brazilians (EUBs) and Afro-Brazilians (AFBs). Background: A small but significant proportion of individuals express high levels of A or B antigen on their platelets corresponding to the erythrocyte ABO group. The mechanism of increased antigen expression has not been elucidated. Material/Methods: A cohort of 241 blood group A donors was analysed by flow cytometry. Although mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) is a typical continuous variable, platelets were screened and divided into two categories: low expressers (LEs) and high expressers (HEs). A three-generation family was investigated looking for an inheritance mechanism. Results: The prevalence of the HE platelet phenotype among group A1 donors was 2%. The mean of MFI on platelets of A1 subgroup of EUBs differs from that of AFBs (P = 0·0115), whereas the frequency of the HE phenotype was similar between them (P = 0·5251). A significant difference was found between sexes (P = 0·0039). Whereas the serum glycosyltransferase from HE family members converted significantly more H antigen on group O erythrocytes into A antigens compared with that in LE serum, their ABO, FUT1 and FUT2 genes were consensus. The theoretically favourable, transcriptionally four-repeat ABO enhancer was not observed. Conclusion: The occurrence of HE in several members suggests familial aggregation. Indeed, in repeated measures, stability of the MFI values is suggesting an inherited condition. Factors outside the ABO locus might be responsible for the HE phenotype. Whether the real mechanism of inheritance is either of a polygenic or of a discrete Mendelian nature remains to be elucidated. PMID:20553427

  10. Course of Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi Infection after Treatment Based on Parasitological and Serological Tests: A Systematic Review of Follow-Up Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sguassero, Yanina; Cuesta, Cristina B.; Roberts, Karen N.; Hicks, Elizabeth; Comandé, Daniel; Ciapponi, Agustín; Sosa-Estani, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). It is endemic in Latin American countries outside the Caribbean. The current criterion for cure in the chronic phase of the disease is the negativization of at least two serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF) and indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The serological evolution of treated subjects with chronic T. cruzi infection is variable. Treatment failure is indicated by a positive parasitological and/or molecular test (persistence of parasitemia). Objectives To summarize the pattern of response to treatment of parasitological, molecular and serological tests performed during the follow-up of subjects with chronic T. cruzi infection. Methods Electronic searches in relevant databases and screening of citations of potentially eligible articles were accomplished. Organizations focusing on neglected infectious diseases were asked for help in identifying relevant studies. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and cohort studies involving adults and children with chronic infection who received trypanocidal treatment (benznidazole or nifurtimox) and were followed over time. The assessment of risk of bias was performed separately for each study design. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool and the guidelines developed by Hayden et al. were used. Two reviewers extracted all data independently. A third review author was consulted in case of discordant opinion. Additional analyses were defined in ad-hoc basis. Scatter plots for percentage of positive parasitological and molecular tests and for negative serological tests were developed by using the lowess curve technique. Heterogeneity was measured by I2. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO, an international prospective register of systematic review protocols (Registration Number CRD42012002162). Results Out of 2,136 citations

  11. Course of Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi Infection after Treatment Based on Parasitological and Serological Tests: A Systematic Review of Follow-Up Studies.

    PubMed

    Sguassero, Yanina; Cuesta, Cristina B; Roberts, Karen N; Hicks, Elizabeth; Comandé, Daniel; Ciapponi, Agustín; Sosa-Estani, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). It is endemic in Latin American countries outside the Caribbean. The current criterion for cure in the chronic phase of the disease is the negativization of at least two serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF) and indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The serological evolution of treated subjects with chronic T. cruzi infection is variable. Treatment failure is indicated by a positive parasitological and/or molecular test (persistence of parasitemia). To summarize the pattern of response to treatment of parasitological, molecular and serological tests performed during the follow-up of subjects with chronic T. cruzi infection. Electronic searches in relevant databases and screening of citations of potentially eligible articles were accomplished. Organizations focusing on neglected infectious diseases were asked for help in identifying relevant studies. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and cohort studies involving adults and children with chronic infection who received trypanocidal treatment (benznidazole or nifurtimox) and were followed over time. The assessment of risk of bias was performed separately for each study design. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool and the guidelines developed by Hayden et al. were used. Two reviewers extracted all data independently. A third review author was consulted in case of discordant opinion. Additional analyses were defined in ad-hoc basis. Scatter plots for percentage of positive parasitological and molecular tests and for negative serological tests were developed by using the lowess curve technique. Heterogeneity was measured by I2. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO, an international prospective register of systematic review protocols (Registration Number CRD42012002162). Out of 2,136 citations screened, 54 studies (six RCTs and 48

  12. Prevalence of positive coeliac disease serology and HLA risk genotypes in a multiethnic population of adults in Canada: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jamnik, Joseph; Villa, Christopher R; Dhir, Sirbarinder Bryn; Jenkins, David J A; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Coeliac disease (CD) is a complex autoimmune disorder with known genetic risk factors. Approximately 1% of individuals of European ancestry have CD, but the prevalence among different ethnicities living in Canada remains unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of positive CD serology in a population of Canadian adults living in Toronto, and to determine whether the prevalence of CD seropositivity and predisposing human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2/DQ8 risk genotypes differ between major ethnocultural groups. Design Cross-sectional screening study of participants from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health and the Toronto Healthy Diet studies. Setting University campus and households across Toronto, Canada. Participants: free-living Adults (n=2832) of diverse ethnocultural backgrounds. Main outcome measures Prevalence of positive CD serology was determined by screening for antitissue transglutaminase antibodies in individuals with predisposing HLA-DQ2/DQ8 genotypes. HLA genotypes were determined using six single nucleotide polymorphisms in the HLA gene region. Results Of the 2832 individuals screened, a total of 25 (0.88%; 95% CI 0.57% to 1.30%) were determined to have positive CD serology. The majority of seropositive CD cases were undiagnosed (87%). Prevalence was highest among Caucasians (1.48%; 95% CI 0.93% to 2.23%), and similar in those of ‘Other’ (0.74%; 95% CI 0.09% to 2.63%) or ‘Unknown’ (0.43; 95% CI 0.01% to 2.36%) ethnicity. No cases of positive CD serology were identified among East Asian or South Asian individuals. East Asians had a lower prevalence of HLA risk genotypes than Caucasians and South Asians (p<0.005). Conclusions The prevalence of positive CD serology among Canadian adults living in Toronto is likely ~1%, with 87% of cases being undiagnosed. These findings suggest the need for better screening in high genetic risk groups. Trial registration number NCT00516620; Post-results.

  13. Neural mechanisms of discourse comprehension: a human lesion study

    PubMed Central

    Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Discourse comprehension is a hallmark of human social behaviour and refers to the act of interpreting a written or spoken message by constructing mental representations that integrate incoming language with prior knowledge and experience. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 145) that investigates the neural mechanisms underlying discourse comprehension (measured by the Discourse Comprehension Test) and systematically examine its relation to a broad range of psychological factors, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores obtained from these factors were submitted to voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to elucidate their neural substrates. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory and extraversion reliably predict individual differences in discourse comprehension: higher working memory scores and lower extraversion levels predict better discourse comprehension performance. Lesion mapping results indicated that these convergent variables depend on a shared network of frontal and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The observed findings motivate an integrative framework for understanding the neural foundations of discourse comprehension, suggesting that core elements of discourse processing emerge from a distributed network of brain regions that support specific competencies for executive and social function. PMID:24293267

  14. Improving Reading Comprehension and Social Studies Knowledge in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Greg; Wanzek, Jeanne; Stillman-Spisak, Stephanie J.; Solis, Michael; Simmons, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the efficacy of a content acquisition and reading comprehension treatment implemented by eighth-grade social studies teachers. Using a within-teacher design, the eighth-grade teachers' social studies classes were randomly assigned to treatment or comparison conditions. Teachers (n = 5) taught the same instructional…

  15. Follow-up study on reading comprehension in Down's syndrome: the role of reading skills and listening comprehension.

    PubMed

    Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena; Levorato, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    According to the 'Simple View of Reading', reading comprehension requires some abilities such as reading skill and listening comprehension. Individuals with Down's syndrome show relative strengths in reading skills, mainly in word recognition, where they attain a reading age of about 7-8 years. Compared with word recognition, their reading comprehension is usually delayed by at least 6 months. Poor reading comprehension is paralleled by weak listening comprehension. It is claimed that poor listening comprehension might constrain the development of reading comprehension and, therefore, be a cause for the asynchrony between reading skills and reading comprehension. A follow-up study was carried out in order to analyse the improvements in reading skills, listening and reading text comprehension, and to support the hypothesis of a causal relationship between listening and reading comprehension. Ten children and adolescents with Down's syndrome, aged between 11 years 3 months and 19 years 10 months, were assessed twice over a one-year period as to their reading skills, listening and reading text comprehension. Three main findings emerged: (1) reading skills, on the one hand, and comprehension (both listening and reading), on the other hand, are independent; (2) reading comprehension development is determined mainly by listening comprehension, which in the present study proved to be very poor; and (3) an improvement after a one-year period, even though limited, occurred for all examined abilities except for listening comprehension. The results are discussed in the light of the theoretical framework of the 'Simple View of Reading' and of their relevance for practical and educational issues. © 2011 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  16. Serological and clinical surveillance studies to validate reported foot-and-mouth disease free status in Tsirang district of Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Dukpa, Kinzang; Robertson, Ian D; Ellis, Trevor M

    2012-04-01

    Serological and clinical studies were conducted between March 2009 and August 2010 to validate the foot-and-mouth disease free status of Tsirang district of Bhutan as determined by the country's passive surveillance system. Randomised (first survey) and targeted (third survey) samplings, with subsequent follow-up samplings (second and fourth), were conducted on FMD-susceptible animals to detect the disease at a design prevalence of 25% and 20% at the individual animal-level and village-level, respectively. Sera from cattle, goats, pigs, and sheep were tested for the presence of non-structural protein (NSP) antibodies using two commercial (PrioCHECK(®) FMDV NS and CHEKIT(®)-FMD-3ABC-bo-ov) and one in-house NSP kit (c-ELISA, AAHL, Australia). The overall seropositivity (all species) at the animal-level was 3% (95% CI: 1.7, 4.8) and 3.5% (95% CI: 2.1, 5.4), for the randomised and targeted surveys, respectively. Except for one goat from the first survey, none of the small ruminants and pigs had NSP antibodies. The seropositives from the first and targeted surveys were distributed among 13 and 16 of 20 villages sampled, respectively. All repeat testing from the initial seropositive animals and their herd mates, for both the first and third surveys, were negative in the NSP tests 6-8 months later. Using the hypergeometric exact probability formula for two-stage analyses, the results enabled rejection of the null hypothesis and supported conclusion that the population was free from disease at the minimum expected prevalence of 20% at the 95.53% and 99.46% confidence levels, for the randomised and targeted surveys, respectively. Clinical surveillance also showed absence of disease or clinical signs suggestive of FMD. The few seropositives were likely to be false positives due to factors such as imperfect specificities of the tests and possible NSP-residues in the vaccines. The study has paved the way for initiation of zoning approaches for the progressive control of FMD

  17. Serologic response to Epstein-Barr virus antigens in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Esen, Bahar Artım; Yılmaz, Gülden; Uzun, Sami; Ozdamar, Melda; Aksözek, Alper; Kamalı, Sevil; Türkoğlu, Salih; Gül, Ahmet; Ocal, Lale; Aral, Orhan; Inanç, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed a link between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. We sought to determine the features of serologic response to EBV in SLE patients and whether this response differs from those of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) patients as well as healthy individuals. Sera from 198 consecutive SLE patients have been tested to detect IgG antibodies to EA/D, EBNA-1, VCA P18 and for comparison, cytomegalovirus (CMV) using commercially available ELISA kits (Trinity Biotech, USA). Forty-six SSc patients and 38 PAPS patients were enrolled as diseased control groups and sixty-five individuals as healthy controls. Significantly more SLE (54%, P = 0.001, OR 5.77, 95% CI 2.8-11.6), SSc (41.3%, P = 0.005, OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-8.2) and PAPS sera (36.8%, P = 0.023, OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.14-7.22) reacted against EA/D than healthy controls (16.9%). The mean age of anti-EA/D-positive SLE patients was significantly higher, and their disease duration was longer compared to anti-EA/D-negative SLE patients (41 ± 14 vs. 33.8 ± 10.8 years, P < 0.001 and 100 ± 73 vs. 71 ± 62 months, P = 0.003). In SLE patients, EA/D reactivity was associated with Raynaud's phenomenon and the presence of any anti-ENA antibodies. Although it did not reach a statistical significance, anti-EBNA-1 reactivity was slightly lower in patients with SLE. The frequency of anti-CMV Ig G positivity was found significantly higher in SLE patients (100%) when compared to patients with SSc (95.7%), PAPS (94.7%) and healthy controls (95.4%) (P = 0.035, P = 0.025 and P = 0.015 respectively). Our results support the proposed link between EBV and SLE. The finding that SSc and PAPS patients also have increased frequency of anti-EA/D response has revealed that this immune interaction may not be unique to patients with SLE, and there may be a common mechanism involving EBV in these autoimmune diseases.

  18. Serological diagnosis of brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K; Yu, W L

    2010-01-01

    To present a review and to describe the most widely used laboratory tests for serology diagnosis of brucellosis along with their pros and cons. Review the recent literature on brucellosis serology diagnostic tests. The choice of the testing strategy depends on the prevailing brucellosis epidemiological situation and the goal of testing. The 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of brucellosis is isolation and identification of the causative bacterium, a member of Brucella sp. Isolation of Brucella sp. requires high security laboratory facilities (biological containment level 3), highly skilled personnel, an extended turnaround time for results and it is considered a hazardous procedure. Hence brucellosis is generally diagnosed by detection of an elevated level of antibody in serum or other body fluid. This is a presumptive diagnosis as other microorganisms and perhaps environmental factors can also cause increased antibody levels. A large number of serological tests for brucellosis have been devised over the 100+ years since its initial isolation, starting with a simple agglutination test and progressing to sophisticated primary binding assays available today. However, no test devised to date is 100% accurate so generally serological diagnosis consists of testing sera by several tests, usually a screening test of high sensitivity, followed by a confirmatory test of high specificity.

  19. 75 FR 9488 - Basel Comprehensive Quantitative Impact Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Basel Comprehensive Quantitative Impact... Quantitative Impact Study. OMB Number: 1550-0NEW. Form Numbers: N/A. Regulation requirement: 12 CFR Part 567... Basel II Capital Accord, the Basel Committee will conduct a quantitative impact study (QIS) to assess...

  20. Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Study : summary report, phase 1

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-03-01

    This is the Summary Report of Phase I of the Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight (TS&W) Study announced by the Federal Highway Administrator in June 1994. It summarizes 13 working papers prepared during Phase I. Phase I--Synthesis of TS&W Studies and...

  1. Comprehensive Stuttering Treatment for Adolescents: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Craig E

    2018-01-09

    This article will focus on a hypothetical case study to highlight comprehensive assessment and treatment for adolescent children who stutter. Assessment and treatment are laid out with a literature review utilizing the components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model. Specific assessment and treatment strategies and approaches are discussed. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model can help guide clinicians through the assessment and treatment process to ensure that all areas of stuttering are considered. Comprehensive assessment and treatment helps clinicians address all relevant elements of a stuttering disorder, rather than focusing exclusively on reducing speech disruptions.

  2. Student Achievement Outcomes Comprehensive School Reform: A Canadian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Sibbald, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a third-party study of the student achievement effects of Struggling Schools, a user-generated approach to Comprehensive School Reform (CSR). The design was a quasiexperimental, pre-post matched sample (N = 180) with school as unit of analysis, drawing on 3 years of achievement data from standardized external assessments.…

  3. Ciclo Basico Polivalente (Basic Comprehensive Courses of Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boletin del Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This article discusses the creation of comprehensive secondary schools in Argentina to meet the diversified goals of the population in any given geographical region. The plan described here provides for the creation of several basic-study cycles within one school so that students may pursue courses in commercial, technical, and academic fields.…

  4. The CPT Reading Comprehension Test: A Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoli, Anthony R.; Raymond, Lanette A.; Coffey, Cheryl A.; Bosco, Diane M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a study done at Suffolk County Community College (New York) that assessed the validity of the College Board's Computerized Placement Test in Reading Comprehension (CPT-R) by comparing test results of 1,154 freshmen with the results of the Degree of Power Reading Test. Results confirmed the CPT-R's reliability in identifying basic…

  5. A Study of Young Children's Comprehension of Metaphorical Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerbin, William

    A study was conducted to examine some of the cognitive and linguistic factors that influence metaphor comprehension in young children. Presupposing that (1) the similarities between the topic and the vehicle in a metaphor comprise the metaphor's ground, (2) salience is the degree of prominence of a characteristic in relation to a concept, and (3)…

  6. Teaching Comprehension and Study Strategies through Modeling and Thinking Aloud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Sherrie L.; Kirby, Kate

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on three ideas pertaining to modeling and thinking aloud, presents examples of how the processes can be applied to teaching both text comprehension and study strategies to college developmental readers, and discusses reasons for using modeling and thinking aloud in the classroom. (FL)

  7. Comprehensive Stuttering Treatment or Adolescents: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Craig E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This article will focus on a hypothetical case study to highlight comprehensive assessment and treatment for adolescent children who stutter. Method: Assessment and treatment are laid out with a literature review utilizing the components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model. Specific assessment…

  8. Phonological Awareness and Speech Comprehensibility: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatagiri, H. S.; Levis, John M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether differences in phonological awareness were related to differences in speech comprehensibility. Seventeen adults who learned English as a foreign language (EFL) in academic settings completed 14 tests of phonological awareness that measured their explicit knowledge of English phonological structures, and three tests of…

  9. Serological and Molecular Biological Studies of Parvovirus B19, Coxsackie B Viruses, and Adenoviruses as Potential Cardiotropic Viruses in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Stefka Kr; Angelova, Svetla G; Stoyanova, Asya P; Georgieva, Irina L; Nikolaeva-Glomb, Lubomira K; Mihneva, Zafira G; Korsun, Neli St

    2016-12-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the heart (myocarditis, pericarditis) are commonly caused by viruses. Among the human cardiotropic viruses, parvovirus B19, Coxsackie B viruses, and adenoviruses play a leading role. The aim of the present study was to determine the presumptive causative role of parvovirus B19, Coxsackie B viruses, and adenoviruses in the development of myocarditis, pericarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy by demonstrating the presence of specific antiviral antibodies or viral DNA in patients' serum samples. We tested serum samples collected between 2010 and 2014 from 235 patients with myocarditis (n=108), pericarditis (n=79), myopericarditis (n=19), dilated cardiomyopathy (n=7), and fever of unknown origin accompanied by cardiac complaints (n=22). The mean age of patients with the standard deviation was 33 ± 18 years. Serological and molecular methods (ELISA for specific IgM/IgG antibodies to parvovirus B19 and IgM antibodies to Coxsackie B viruses and adenoviruses, and PCR for detection of parvovirus B19 in serum samples, respectively) were used in the study. Of all tested 235 serum samples, in 60 (25.5%) positive results for at least one of the three tested viruses were detected. Forty out of these 235 serum samples (17%) were Coxsackie B virus IgM positive. They were found in 17% (18/108) of the patients with myocarditis, in 15% (12/79) of those with pericarditis, in 16% (3/19) of those with myopericarditis and in 32% (7/22) in those with fever of unknown origin. The 63 Coxsackie B virus IgM negative patient's serum samples were tested by ELISA for presence of adenovirus IgM antibodies. Such were found in 4 patients with pericarditis and in 2 patients with fever of unknown origin. Every IgM negative sample (n=189) for Coxsackie B and adenovirus was further tested by ELISA for parvovirus B19 IgM/IgG antibodies. B19-IgM antibodies were detected in 14 patients (7.4%). The percentages for B19-IgM antibodies was 8% (7/90), 5% (3/63) and 31% (4/13) in the

  10. 75 FR 45641 - Guidance for Industry on Label Comprehension Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...] Guidance for Industry on Label Comprehension Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products; Availability AGENCY... announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Label Comprehension Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products.'' The guidance provides recommendations on the design of label comprehension...

  11. [Evaluation of modern epizootic activity of natural tularemia foci in Voronezh region using immune-serological and molecular-genetic study of main carriers of the disease].

    PubMed

    Meshcheriakova, I S; Trankvilevskiĭ, D V; Kvasov, D A; Mikhaĭlova, T V; Kormilitsina, M I; Demidova, T N; Stepkin, Iu I; Zhukov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of monitoring and prognosis of epidemic manifestations of natural foci of tularemia on the territory of Voronezh region using immune-serological and molecular-genetic study of main carriers of the disease. 539 small mammals captured during summer period of 2011 in 4 districts of North-Eastern part of Voronezh region were studied. Animal organs were studied by serologic (search for Francisella tularensis antigens) and molecular-biologic (detection of F. tularensis DNA) methods. Tularemia antigen was detected using passive hemagglutination reaction (PHAR) with erythrocytic tularemia immunoglobulin diagnosticum. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied for detection of tularemia causative agent DNA. Complex study revealed epizootic activity of natural foci of tularemia in the examined territory. F. tularensis antigen and/or DNA were detected in 82 objects (15.2%). Use of RT-PCR allowed to additionally detect samples with relatively low content of F. tularensis DNA substrate, when antigen was not detected in samples. High sensitivity and specificity of the RT-PCR was ensured by inclusion of specific probes (tu14-PR2 and ISFTu2P). The results obtained give evidence on functioning and epizootic activity of natural foci of tularemia in Voronezh region that requires constant monitoring of the territory and prophylaxis measures, first of all vaccination of risk groups by live tularemia vaccine.

  12. Comprehensive Study of Acute Effects and Recovery After Concussion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    1 AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0561 TITLE: Comprehensive Study of Acute Effects and Recovery After Concussion PRINCIPAL... Concussion 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael McCrea, PhD, ABPP 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Professor & Director of Brain Injury Research...course of 3 years, the project is progressing on schedule. We baseline tested 545 football athletes from July 13, 2015 to Aug 21, 2015. We enrolled

  13. Predicting individual differences in reading comprehension: a twin study

    PubMed Central

    Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; DeThorne, Laura S.; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap among phonological decoding, word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension was primarily due to genetic influences. Shared environmental influences accounted for associations among word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Independent of phonological decoding and word recognition, there was a separate genetic link between listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension and a specific shared environmental link between vocabulary and reading comprehension. There were no residual genetic or environmental influences on reading comprehension. The findings provide evidence for a genetic basis to the “Simple View” of reading. PMID:20814768

  14. Serological characterization of black-pigmented Bacteroides endodontalis.

    PubMed Central

    van Winkelhoff, A J; Kippuw, N; de Graaff, J

    1986-01-01

    Serological studies on the black-pigmented Bacteroides species B. endodontalis revealed three serotypes based on capsular determinants. A common antigen (O-antigen) could be demonstrated after decapsulation. Weak cross-reactivity was found with B. asaccharolyticus, but not with B. gingivalis. Similarity between the serology of Enterobacteriaceae and black-pigmented Bacteroides spp. is discussed. PMID:3949388

  15. Serological diagnosis of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Besnoitiosis is an emerging infectious disease of donkeys in the United States for which there are currently no serologic methods of diagnosis. A study was performed to evaluate physical examination findings and three serologic assays for the detection of B. bennetti infection in donkeys. A prospect...

  16. Salmonella enterica subclinical infection: bacteriological, serological, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and antimicrobial resistance profiles--longitudinal study in a three-site farrow-to-finish farm.

    PubMed

    Vigo, German B; Cappuccio, Javier A; Piñeyro, Pablo E; Salve, Angela; Machuca, Mariana A; Quiroga, Maria A; Moredo, Fabiana; Giacoboni, Gabriel; Cancer, Jose L; Caffer, Ines G; Binsztein, Norma; Pichel, Mariana; Perfumo, Carlos J

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this surveillance was to study both Salmonella spp. shedding patterns and the time course of serological response in farrow-to-finish reared pigs from a subclinically infected farm. Antimicrobial resistance profile, molecular subtyping, and the relationship among the isolates were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A farrow-to-finish farm of 6000 sows, with a history of Salmonella Typhimurium septicemia, was selected. A longitudinal bacteriological and serological study was conducted in 25 sows before farrowing (M/S1) and in 50 offspring at 21 (M/S2), 35 (M/S3), 65 (M/S4), 86 (M/S5), 128 (M/S6), and 165 (M/S7) days of age. Serum antibodies were tested using Herdcheck((R)) Swine Salmonella antibody test kit (Idexx Laboratories, ME). Bacteria were isolated from pooled fecal samples. Suspected isolates were confirmed by conventional biochemical assays, and those identified as Salmonella spp. were serotyped. A variation between seropositive percentages and positive fecal samples was observed. Serologically positive pigs decreased from S1 to S4, and subsequently increased from S4 to S7. The percentages of fecal positive culture increased from M1 to M3, and then declined in M4, increased in M5, and were negative in M6 and M7. In the study three serovars, Salmonella 3,10:e,h:-, Salmonella Muenster, and Salmonella Bovismorbificans, were identified with low pathogenicity for swine. Three multidrug resistance strains (one belonged to Salmonella 3,10:e,h:- and two belonged to Salmonella Muenster) were found. PFGE results showed three different but closely related patterns among the 13 isolates of Salmonella Bovismorbificans, and two patterns for the three Salmonella Muenster and Salmonella 3,10:e,h:- isolates. This longitudinal study established critical points of Salmonella spp. infection in the farm and the production stages, where appropriate control measures must be taken. PFGE showed clonal relationships in each serovar. Antibiotic

  17. Salmonella enterica Subclinical Infection: Bacteriological, Serological, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles—Longitudinal Study in a Three-Site Farrow-to-Finish Farm

    PubMed Central

    Vigo, German B.; Cappuccio, Javier A.; Salve, Angela; Machuca, Mariana A.; Quiroga, Maria A.; Moredo, Fabiana; Giacoboni, Gabriel; Cancer, Jose L.; Caffer, Ines G.; Binsztein, Norma; Pichel, Mariana; Perfumo, Carlos J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this surveillance was to study both Salmonella spp. shedding patterns and the time course of serological response in farrow-to-finish reared pigs from a subclinically infected farm. Antimicrobial resistance profile, molecular subtyping, and the relationship among the isolates were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A farrow-to-finish farm of 6000 sows, with a history of Salmonella Typhimurium septicemia, was selected. A longitudinal bacteriological and serological study was conducted in 25 sows before farrowing (M/S1) and in 50 offspring at 21 (M/S2), 35 (M/S3), 65 (M/S4), 86 (M/S5), 128 (M/S6), and 165 (M/S7) days of age. Serum antibodies were tested using Herdcheck® Swine Salmonella antibody test kit (Idexx Laboratories, ME). Bacteria were isolated from pooled fecal samples. Suspected isolates were confirmed by conventional biochemical assays, and those identified as Salmonella spp. were serotyped. A variation between seropositive percentages and positive fecal samples was observed. Serologically positive pigs decreased from S1 to S4, and subsequently increased from S4 to S7. The percentages of fecal positive culture increased from M1 to M3, and then declined in M4, increased in M5, and were negative in M6 and M7. In the study three serovars, Salmonella 3,10:e,h:-, Salmonella Muenster, and Salmonella Bovismorbificans, were identified with low pathogenicity for swine. Three multidrug resistance strains (one belonged to Salmonella 3,10:e,h:- and two belonged to Salmonella Muenster) were found. PFGE results showed three different but closely related patterns among the 13 isolates of Salmonella Bovismorbificans, and two patterns for the three Salmonella Muenster and Salmonella 3,10:e,h:- isolates. This longitudinal study established critical points of Salmonella spp. infection in the farm and the production stages, where appropriate control measures must be taken. PFGE showed clonal relationships in each serovar. Antibiotic

  18. Serological and virological profile of chronic HBV infected women at reproductive age in Greece. A two-year single center study.

    PubMed

    Elefsiniotis, Ioannis S; Glynou, Irene; Brokalaki, Hero; Magaziotou, Ioanna; Pantazis, Konstantinos D; Fotiou, Aikaterini; Liosis, George; Kada, Helen; Saroglou, George

    2007-06-01

    Seroprevalence of HBsAg in 26,746 women at reproductive age in Greece and evaluation of HBeAg/anti-HBe serological status as well as serum HBV-DNA levels in a subgroup of HBsAg(+) women at labor. Serological markers were detected using enzyme immunoassays. Serum HBV-DNA was calculated using a sensitive quantitative PCR assay, with a lower limit of quantification of 200 copies/ml. Overall, 1.53% of women were HBsAg(+) and the majority of them (64.96%) were Albanian. Among Albanian women the mean prevalence of HBsAg was 4.9%, 5.57% among Asian women, and 1.29% among women from Eastern European countries. The prevalence of HBsAg among African (0.29%) and Greek women (0.57%) was very low and significantly lower in comparison with the mean value of the studied population. Only 2.67% of HBsAg(+) women were HBeAg(+). Of a subgroup of women in labor with available serum samples 28.6% had undetectable levels of viremia (<200 copies/ml) and 15.9% had extremely low levels of viral replication (<400 copies/ml). Only 12.7% of pregnant women evaluated at labor exhibited extremely high serum HBV-DNA levels (>10,000,000 copies/ml) whereas 42.8% of them exhibited HBV-DNA levels between 1500 and 40,000 copies/ml. The overall prevalence of HBsAg is relatively low among women at reproductive age in Greece but is higher among specific ethnic populations (Asian, Albanian). The HBeAg(-)/antiHBe(+) serological status is a finding observed in the vast majority of HBsAg(+) women of our study population, and a significant percentage of them (approximately 44.5%) exhibit extremely low or even undetectable levels of viral replication at labor, suggesting possibly that only a proportion of HBsAg(+) women in Greece exhibit an extremely high risk of vertical transmission of the infection.

  19. Serological Response in RT-PCR Confirmed H1N1-2009 Influenza A by Hemagglutination Inhibition and Virus Neutralization Assays: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mark I.; Barr, Ian G.; Koh, Gerald C. H.; Lee, Vernon J.; Lee, Caroline P. S.; Shaw, Robert; Lin, Cui; Yap, Jonathan; Cook, Alex R.; Tan, Boon Huan; Loh, Jin Phang; Barkham, Timothy; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Lin, Raymond T. P.; Leo, Yee-Sin

    2010-01-01

    Background We describe the serological response following H1N1-2009 influenza A infections confirmed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Methodology and Principal Findings The study included patients admitted to hospital, subjects of a seroepidemiologic cohort study, and participants identified from outbreak studies in Singapore. Baseline (first available blood sample) and follow-up blood samples were analyzed for antibody titers to H1N1-2009 and recently circulating seasonal influenza A virus strains by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus micro-neutralization (VM) assays. 267 samples from 118 cases of H1N1-2009 were analyzed. Geometric mean titers by HI peaked at 123 (95% confidence interval, CI 43-356) between days 30 to 39. The chance of observing seroconversion (four-fold or greater increase of antibodies) was maximized when restricting analysis to 45 participants with baseline sera collected within 5 days of onset and follow-up sera collected 15 or more days after onset; for these participants, 82% and 89% seroconverted to A/California/7/2009 H1N1 by HI and VM respectively. A four-fold or greater increase in cross-reactive antibody titers to seasonal A/Brisbane/59/2007 H1N1, A/Brisbane/10/2007 H3N2 and A/Wisconsin/15/2009 H3N2 occurred in 20%, 18% and 16% of participants respectively. Conclusions and Significance Appropriately timed paired serology detects 80–90% RT-PCR confirmed H1N1-2009; Antibodies from infection with H1N1-2009 cross-reacted with seasonal influenza viruses. PMID:20814575

  20. Co-sensitization and cross-reactivity between related and unrelated food allergens in dogs - a serological study.

    PubMed

    Bexley, Jennifer; Nuttall, Timothy J; Hammerberg, Bruce; Halliwell, Richard E

    2017-02-01

    Knowledge of cross-reactivity between foods is useful so that potentially cross-reactive allergens can be avoided in diet trials. To evaluate allergenic cross-reactivity in related foods. Sera from 469 dogs with suspected adverse food reactions. An IgE-based serological assay using 19 food allergens was performed in 469 dogs. Pairwise comparisons were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) for each food pair, with significance at P < 0.0002 by Holm-Bonferroni correction, both in all 469 dogs and in the 261 of 469 dogs with at least one positive reaction. One-way ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc tests (significance at P < 0.05) were used to test for differences between mean logE ORs in different food groups. Inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed to assess allergenic cross-reactivity between beef, lamb and cow's milk. Significant associations were observed between both related and unrelated food pairs. Associations were, however, more frequent and stronger among related than unrelated foods. In all 469 dogs, 38 of 43 related food pairs were significantly associated [mean (SD) logE OR 3.4 (0.9)] compared with 79 of 128 unrelated pairs [2.7 (1.0)], P < 0.0002. In positive dogs, 32 of 43 related pairs were significantly associated [2.7 [1.0)] compared with 49 of 128 unrelated pairs [1.8 (1.0)], P < 0.0002. Inhibition ELISAs confirmed the presence of cross-reactive IgE-binding epitopes in beef, lamb and cow's milk. The results suggest that related and potentially cross-reactive foods should be avoided in elimination diets. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. [Study on the characteristics of serology and sexual behavior among drug users at the HIV sentinel surveillance sites in 2012].

    PubMed

    Ge, Lin; Cui, Yan; Wang, Lu; Li, Dongmin; Guo, Wei; Ding, Zhengwei; Wang, Lan

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the serological results and sexual behavior among different types of drug users (DUS) at the HIV sentinel surveillance sites. Sentinel surveillance programs were conducted between April and June annually. DUS were those involved in custodes, living at the communities and those attending the methadone maintenance treatment clinics but with positive urine tests one month before blood sampling collected and questionnaire survey started. 116 279 drug abusers were included in the analysis. The prevalence rates of HIV, Syphilis and HCV among traditional drug (heroin, etc.)users were 5.0%, 4.4% and 49.4%, while the prevalence rates of new narcotic (meth, etc.) users were 0.5%, 4.6%, 15.2%, respectively. The prevalence rates of HIV, syphilis among traditional drug uses were higher than the new narcotic users (P < 0.01). The proportion of sexual behavior in last month and the proportion of sexual behavior with casual and commercial sexual partners were 46.3%, 87.2% and 28.1% among the new narcotic users, respectively, which were higher than those among traditional drug users (40.7% , 82.8% and 22.2%). The proportion of using condom in last sexual contact with casual sexual partner was 33.3% among the new narcotic users which was less than traditional drug users (36.2%). The proportion of condom use in the last commercial sexual contact was 65.1% which was higher than those traditional drug users (62.9%). The proportion of never using condom with casual and commercial sexual partners in the past year was 43.2% and 19.0% among the traditional drug users, which were higher than those among new narcotic users (41.3%, 15.3%). Compared with the traditional drug abusers, the sexual behavior of new narcotic users seemed more active, less engaging in condom use but with higher risk of HIV transmission through sexual contact.

  2. Serological diagnosis of neurobrucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Sousa, A; Torres, C; Campello, M G; Garcia, C; Parras, F; Cercenado, E; Baquero, F

    1990-01-01

    The presence of antibodies was determined in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid in six patients with neurobrucellosis using the Rose Bengal test, the microdilution agglutination test, and the Coombs' test. Four of the patients were followed up for more than three months. The Rose Bengal test and the microagglutination test were positive in cerebrospinal fluid in five of the six cases at some stage. The Coombs' test was positive in cerebrospinal fluid in every patient and in one was the only positive serological test. Cerebrospinal fluid positivity is not excluded by low titres or negative results of antibodies in the serum for any of the three methods. A Coombs' test or some equivalent must always be made on the cerebrospinal fluid to diagnose neurobrucellosis. PMID:2312754

  3. The Prevalence and Endemic Nature of Dengue Infections in Guangdong, South China: An Epidemiological, Serological, and Etiological Study from 2005–2011

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ru-ning; Lin, Jin-yan; Li, Lin-hui; Ke, Chang-wen; He, Jian-feng; Zhong, Hao-jie; Zhou, Hui-qiong; Peng, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Fen; Liang, Wen-jia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Frequent outbreaks of dengue are considered to be associated with an increased risk for endemicity of the disease. The occurrence of a large number of indigenous dengue cases in consecutive years indicates the possibility of a changing dengue epidemic pattern in Guangdong, China. Methods To have a clear understanding of the current dengue epidemic, a retrospective study of epidemiological profile, serological response, and virological features of dengue infections from 2005–2011 was conducted. Case data were collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Network. Serum samples were collected and prepared for serological verification and etiological confirmation. Incidence, temporal and spatial distribution, and the clinical manifestation of dengue infections were analyzed. Pearson's Chi-Square test was used to compare incidences between different age groups. A seroprevalence survey was implemented in local healthy inhabitants to obtain the overall positive rate for the specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody against dengue virus (DENV). Results The overall annual incidence rate was 1.87/100000. A significant difference was found in age-specific incidence (Pearson's Chi-Square value 498.008, P<0.001). Children under 5 years of age had the lowest incidence of 0.28/100000. The vast majority of cases presented with a mild manifestation typical to dengue fever. The overall seroprevalence of dengue IgG antibody in local populations was 2.43% (range 0.28%–5.42%). DENV-1 was the predominant serotype in circulation through the years, while all 4 serotypes were identified in indigenous patients from different outbreak localities since 2009. Conclusions A gradual change in the epidemic pattern of dengue infection has been observed in recent years in Guangdong. With the endemic nature of dengue infections, the transition from a monotypic to a multitypic circulation of dengue virus in the last several years will have an important bearing on

  4. Serological study of the 2009 pandemic due to influenza A H1N1 in the metropolitan French population.

    PubMed

    Delangue, J; Salez, N; Ninove, L; Kieffer, A; Zandotti, C; Seston, M; Lina, B; Nougairede, A; Charrel, R; Flahault, A; de Lamballerie, X

    2012-02-01

    We looked for evidence of antibodies to the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic virus in panels of sera from individuals living in metropolitan France, obtained either before, during or after the epidemic, using standard haemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization tests. The difference between seroprevalence values measured in post- and pre-epidemic panels was used as an estimate of seroconversion rate in different age groups (23.4% (0-24 years, age-group 0); 16.5% (25-34); 7.9% (35-44); 7.2% (45-54); 1.6% (55-64); and 3.1% (>65)), confirming that the distribution of cases in different age groups was similar to that of the seasonal H1N1 virus. During the pre-pandemic period low-titre cross-reactive antibodies were present in a large proportion of the population (presumably acquired against seasonal H1N1) whereas cross-reactive antibodies were detected in individuals over the age of 65 years with significantly higher prevalence and serological titres (presumably acquired previously against Spanish flu-related H1N1 strains). Clinical data and analysis of post-pandemic seroprevalence showed that few of these latter patients were infected by the influenza virus during the epidemic. In contrast, the majority of both clinical cases and seroconversions were recorded in the 0-24 age group and a global inverse relationship between prevalence of antibodies to pH1N1 in the pre-pandemic period and rate of seroconversion was observed amongst age groups. Our results emphasize the complex relationships involved in antigenic reactivity to pandemic and seasonal H1N1 viral antigens; hence the difficulty in distinguishing between low-titre specific and cross-reactive antibodies, establishing precise seroprevalence numbers and fully understanding the relationship between previous immunity to seasonal viruses and protection against the novel variant. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  5. Whole-body vibration exposure: a comprehensive field study.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, N; Willems, B; Goldsheyder, D

    1994-12-01

    A comprehensive field study investigated whole-body vibration exposure levels experienced by the train operators of a large metropolitan subway system. The purposes of the study were to measure mechanical vibrations transmitted to the seated train operators, to calculate daily whole-body vibration exposure levels, and to compare these levels with maximum acceptable exposure levels recommended by the international standard on whole-body vibration (ISO 2631). The study also sought to identify factors that may influence mechanical vibrations transmitted to the operators and quantify their effects on the measured vibration levels. The study was carried out by dividing the subway system into subway lines, each line into southbound and northbound directions, and each direction into station-to-station observations. Triaxial measurements were made on all subway lines and for all car types used in the system. For each line, at least two round trips of data were collected. Time-weighted averages of the two sets of data were used for final presentation. A total of 48 round trips were made and more than 100 hours of vibration data was collected and analyzed. All phases of the study were carried out in accordance with the procedures outlined in ISO 2631. It was determined that 6 out of 20 subway lines had vibration levels higher than daily exposure limits recommended by ISO 2631. It was also determined that train speed was the most significant factor influencing vibration exposure levels.

  6. A Methodology for Studying the Relationship between Comprehension and Second Language Development in a Comprehension-Based ESL Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paribakht, T. Sima; Wesche, Marjorie Bingham

    A study investigated the role of comprehension of meaningful language input in young adults' second language learning, focusing on: (1) what kinds of measurement instruments and procedures can be used in tracking student gains in specific aspects of target language proficiency; (2) development of a reliable self-report scale capturing different…

  7. Reading Comprehension and Tolerance against Comprehension Ambiguities: An Empirical Study of Iranian GFL-Learners in Communicative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haghani, Nader; Bahmannejad, Fereshteh

    2018-01-01

    The present study examines the influence of ambiguity tolerance on the performance of Iranian GFL-learners (Note 1) at level B1 in the processing of gap-filling-text tests. It is assumed that learners with more tolerance of ambiguity achieve better results in the reading comprehension or in the contextual guessing of the omitted words. 34 GFL…

  8. Structural studies on lipopolysaccharides of serologically non-typable strains of Helicobacter pylori, AF1 and 007, expressing Lewis antigenic determinants.

    PubMed

    Knirel, Y A; Kocharova, N A; Hynes, S O; Widmalm, G; Andersen, L P; Jansson, P E; Moran, A P

    1999-11-01

    In contrast to other Helicobacter pylori strains, which have serologically detectable Lewis(x)+ (Le(x)) and Lewis(y)++ (++Le(y)) antigenic determinants in the O-specific polysaccharide chains of the lipopolysaccharides, H. pylori AF1 and 007 were non-typable with anti-Le(x) and anti-Le(y) antibodies. The carbohydrate portions of the lipopolysaccharides were liberated by mild acid hydrolysis and subsequently studied by sugar and methylation analyses, 1H-NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Compared with each other, and with lipopolysaccharides of strains studied previously, the lipopolysaccharides of both AF1 and 007 showed similarities, but also differences, in the structures of the core region and O-specific polysaccharide chains. The O-specific polysaccharide chains of both strains consisted of a short or long polyfucosylated poly-N-acetyl-beta-lactosamine chains, which were distinguished from those of other strains by a high degree of fucosylation producing a polymeric Le(x)chain terminating with Le(x) or Le(y) units:[sequence: see text] where n = 0 or 1 in strain AF1 and 0 in strain 007, m = 0-2, 6-7 in strain AF1 and m = 0-2, 6-7 or approximately 40 in strain 007, the medium-size species being predominant. Therefore, compared with other strains, the lack of reactivity of lipopolysaccharide of H. pylori AF1 and 007 with anti-Le(x) and anti-Le(y) may reflect the presence of a polymeric Le(x) chain and has important implications for serological and pathogenesis studies. As the substitution pattern of a D-glycero-D-manno-heptose residue in the outer core varied in the two strains, and an extended DD-heptan chain was present in some lipopolysaccharide species but not in others, this region was less conservative than the inner core region. The inner core L-glycero-D-manno-heptose region of both strains carried a 2-aminoethyl phosphate group, rather than a phosphate group, as reported previously for other H. pylori strains.

  9. More About Less: A Study of Language Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, David S.

    1973-01-01

    Research supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation; reports results of experiments in general cognitive development of children tested for their comprehension of the words more'' and less'' (RS)

  10. Longitudinal study of dogs living in an area of Spain highly endemic for leishmaniasis by serologic analysis and the leishmanin skin test.

    PubMed

    Solano-Gallego, Laia; Llull, Joan; Ramis, Antonio; Fernández-Bellon, Hugo; Rodríguez, Alhelí; Ferrer, Lluís; Alberola, Jordi

    2005-06-01

    The literature contains few longitudinal studies that have assessed areas endemic for canine leishmaniasis and over the same time interval Leishmania-specific cellular and humoral immunity in healthy dogs. Fourteen dogs, three mixed breed and 11 Ibizian hounds, living in an area of Spain that was highly endemic for leishmaniasis were followed-up over a three-year period by serologic analysis and the leishmanin skin test (LST). All but one of these dogs remained clinically healthy during the study period. Seroconversion was observed in four dogs. The three mixed breed dogs had a negative reaction in the LST in the first and third years. The general trend in the Ibizian hounds was an increase in the diameter of the LST reaction at both the 48- and 72-hour readings in the third year. This study demonstrates that in addition to an increase in Leishmania-specific humoral immune response in Ibizian hounds, a parallel increase in cellular immune response was observed.

  11. Connecting Primary Health Care: A Comprehensive Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudloo, Mehran; Abolhassani, Farid; Lotfibakhshaiesh, Nasrin

    2016-07-01

    The collection of data within the primary health care facilities in Iran is essentially paper-based. It is focused on family's health, monitoring of non-infectious and infectious diseases. Clearly due to the paper-based nature of the tasks, timely decision making at most can be difficult if not impossible. As part of an on-going electronic health record implementation project at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, for the first time in the region, based on a comprehensive pilot project, four urban healthcare facilities are connected to their headquarters and beyond, covering all aspects of primary health care, for the last four years. Without delving into the technical aspects of its software engineering processes, the progress of the implementation is reported, selection of summarized data is presented, and experience gained thus far are discussed. Four years passed and if time is any important reason to go by, then it is safe to accept that the software architecture and electronic health record structural model implemented are robust and yet extensible. Aims and duration of a pilot study should be clearly defined prior to start and managed till its completion. Resistance to change and particularly to information technology, apart from its technical aspects, is also based on human factors.

  12. Syntactic Comprehension in Reading and Listening: A Study with French Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalis, Severine; Leuwers, Christel; Hilton, Heather

    2013-01-01

    This study examined syntactic comprehension in French children with dyslexia in both listening and reading. In the first syntactic comprehension task, a partial version of the Epreuve de Comprehension syntaxico-semantique (ECOSSE test; French adaptation of Bishop's test for receptive grammar test) children with dyslexia performed at a lower level…

  13. The Reading Comprehension Strategies of Second Language Learners: A Spanish-English Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta Caballero, Karen Anelice

    2012-01-01

    Reading comprehension of school-aged students is an important topic of research; however, research on the reading comprehension of adult foreign/second language learners whose first language is English is limited, especially studies investigating the reading comprehension strategies that readers of different proficiency levels use when they…

  14. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: A longitudinal study from grade one to two

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children’s reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first- and second-grade students. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade one, but not in grade two after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade two, but not in grade one, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in grade one whereas in grade two, silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency. PMID:22726256

  15. Comprehensive classification test of scapular dyskinesis: A reliability study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsun-Shun; Huang, Han-Yi; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Lin, Jiu-Jenq

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of scapular dyskinesis (SD) is of clinical interest, as SD is believed to be related to shoulder pathology. However, no clinical assessment with sufficient reliability to identify SD and provide treatment strategies is available. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of the comprehensive SD classification method. Cross-sectional reliability study. Sixty subjects with unilateral shoulder pain were evaluated by two independent physiotherapists with a visual-based palpation method. SD was classified as single abnormal scapular pattern [inferior angle (pattern I), medial border (pattern II), superior border of scapula prominence or abnormal scapulohumeral rhythm (pattern III)], a mixture of the above abnormal scapular patterns, or normal pattern (pattern IV). The assessment of SD was evaluated as subjects performed bilateral arm raising/lowering movements with a weighted load in the scapular plane. Percentage of agreement and kappa coefficients were calculated to determine reliability. Agreement between the 2 independent physiotherapists was 83% (50/60, 6 subjects as pattern III and 44 subjects as pattern IV) in the raising phase and 68% (41/60, 5 subjects as pattern I, 12 subjects as pattern II, 12 subjects as pattern IV, 12 subjects as mixed patterns I and II) in the lowering phase. The kappa coefficients were 0.49-0.64. We concluded that the visual-based palpation classification method for SD had moderate to substantial inter-rater reliability. The appearance of different types of SD was more pronounced in the lowering phase than in the raising phase of arm movements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A comprehensive study of benzene concentrations and emissions in Houston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Markus; Eichler, Philipp; Berk Knighton, W.; Estes, Mark; Crawford, James H.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin

    2014-05-01

    The Houston Metropolitan Area (Greater Houston) has a population of over 6 million people, it ranks among the three fastest growing metropolises in the developed world and population growth scenarios predict it to reach megacity status in the coming two to four decades. Greater Houston is home to the largest petrochemical-manufacturing complex in the world with important consequences for the environment in the region. Direct and fugitive emissions of hydrocarbons adversely affect Houston's air quality which has been subject to intense studies over the past two decades. In 2013, NASA conducted the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign in support of developing a satellite-based capability to assess Houston's air quality in the future. Amongst other measurements, airborne, mobile ground-based and stationary ground-based measurements of benzene were carried out. Benzene is a carcinogenic air toxic with strict exposure regulations in the U.S. and in Europe. We have used the obtained comprehensive dataset to map benzene concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area, locate and identify point sources, compare industrial and traffic emissions and put them in relation to previous measurements and emission inventories. The obtained data will allow a better assessment of health risks associated with benzene exposure in a large metropolitan area that includes both traffic and industrial benzene sources. This work was funded by BMVIT / FFG-ALR in the frame of the Austrian Space Application Programme (ASAP 8, project 833451). PE was funded through the PIMMS ITN (EU-FP7, agreement number 287382). Additional resources were provided through NASA's Earth Venture program (EV-1) and the NASA Postdoctoral Program (NPP). We want to thank Scott Herndon and Aerodyne Research for their support.

  17. Factors affecting the serological testing of cadaveric donor cornea.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anuradha; Mittal, Garima; Bahadur, Harsh

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serological profile of the eye donors and to study the influence of various factors on serological test results. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted, and data of 509 donors were reviewed from the records of eye bank from December 2012 to June 2017. Various details of donors analyzed included the age, sex of the donor, cause of death, source of tissue, time since blood collection after death, macroscopic appearance of blood sample, and details of discarded tissues. Serological examination of blood was performed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL), and serology reports reactive or nonreactive were analyzed. Among the 509 donors, 295 (58%) were male, and 420 (82.50%) belonged to age group ≥60 years. Most donors (354, 69.5%) died due to cardiac arrest. Macroscopically, sera were normal in the majority of 488 (95.9%) cases. Among 509 donors, 475 (93.3%) were nonreactive, 12 (2.4%) donors were found to be reactive to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and 1 (0.2%) was reactive to HCV, but no donor serology was reactive to HIV or VDRL. Twenty-one (4.12%) donors' sera were not fit for serological testing. Among all donors, 475 (93.32%) donors were accepted and 34 (6.67%) were rejected or discarded on the basis of serological testing. Cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influenced the serological results in a highly significant manner (P = 0.00). Acceptance or rejection of the donor was significantly influenced by the serological results of the donor (P = 0.00). The seroprevalence among eye donor for HBsAg and HCV was 12 (2.4%) and 1 (0.2%), respectively. Factors such as cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influence the serological results. Time since blood collection or sampling will not show any impact on viral serological results if postmortem sampling will be done in < 10 hours(h) after death

  18. Study of State Arts Agencies: A Comprehensive Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Research Center of the Arts, Inc., New York,. NY.

    A comprehensive analysis of state arts agencies in the 50 states and in the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa is presented. Data were collected from interviews with agency directors and agency reports as of fiscal year 1974. The report is organized into eight chapters. Chapter 1 examines budget…

  19. A comparative study of clinical manifestations, haematological and serological responses after experimental infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in two Norwegian sheep breeds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been questioned if the old native Norwegian sheep breed, Old Norse Sheep (also called Norwegian Feral Sheep), normally distributed on coastal areas where ticks are abundant, is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds due to a continuously high selection pressure on pasture. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis in an experimental infection study. Methods Five-months-old lambs of two Norwegian sheep breeds, Norwegian White (NW) sheep and Old Norse (ON) sheep, were experimentally infected with a 16S rRNA genetic variant of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (similar to GenBank accession number M73220). The experiment was repeated for two subsequent years, 2008 and 2009, with the use of 16 lambs of each breed annually. Ten lambs of each breed were inoculated intravenously each year with 0.4 ml A. phagocytophilum-infected blood containing approximately 0.5 × 106 infected neutrophils/ml. Six lambs of each breed were used as uninfected controls. Half of the primary inoculated lambs in each breed were re-challenged with the same infectious dose at nine (2008) and twelve (2009) weeks after the first challenge. The clinical, haematological and serological responses to A. phagocytophilum infection were compared in the two sheep breeds. Results The present study indicates a difference in fever response and infection rate between breeds of Norwegian sheep after experimental infection with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusion Although clinical response seems to be less in ON-lambs compared to NW-lambs, further studies including more animals are needed to evaluate if the ON-breed is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds. PMID:21314927

  20. Serological Relationships Among Feline Caliciviruses

    PubMed Central

    Povey, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A total of 46 strains of feline calicivirus isolates from the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, and New Zealand were used in an investigation of their serological relationships based on the serum neutralization test. Although demonstrable antigenic variation exists between these isolates, it is shown that significant in vitro cross-activity exists between all these isolates to greater or lesser extent. All isolates tested may be regarded as serological variants of a single serotype of feline calicivirus. It is postulated that this relationship would provide for considerable cross-protection during successive exposures of cats to various feline caliciviruses. PMID:4435957

  1. Effective serological and molecular screening of deceased tissue donors.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, A D; Newham, J A; Gillan, H L

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive and effective screening programme is essential to support the banking of tissues from deceased donors. However, the overall quality of the samples obtained from deceased donors, quantity and condition, is often not ideal, and this may lead to problems in achieving accurate and reliable results. Additionally a significant percentage of referrals are still rejected upon receipt as unsuitable for screening. We are actively involved in improving the overall quality of deceased donor screening outcomes, and have specifically evaluated and validated both serological and molecular assays for this purpose, as well as developing a specific screening strategy to minimise the specificity issues associated with serological screening. Here we review the nature and effectiveness of the deceased donor screening programme implemented by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), the organisation with overall responsibility for the supply of tissue products within England. Deceased donor screening data, serological and molecular, from August 2007 until May 2012 have been collated and analysed. Of 10,225 samples referred for serology screening, 5.5 % were reported as reactive; of 2,862 samples referred for molecular screening, 0.1 % were reported as reactive/inhibitory. Overall 20 % of the serological and 100 % of the molecular screen reactivity was confirmed as reflecting true infection. The use of a sequential serology screening algorithm has resulted in a marked reduction of tissues lost unnecessarily due to non-specific screen reactivity. The approach taken by NHSBT has resulted in the development of an effective and specific approach to the screening of deceased tissue donors.

  2. Serological markers are associated with disease course in ulcerative colitis. A study in an unselected population-based cohort followed for 10 years.

    PubMed

    Høie, Ole; Aamodt, Geir; Vermeire, Severine; Bernklev, Tomm; Odes, Selwyn; Wolters, Frank L; Riis, Lene; Politi, Patrizia; Tsianos, Epameinondas V; Butrón, Mercedes; Stockbrügger, Reinhold W; Munkholm, Pia; Vatn, Morten; Moum, Bjørn

    2008-06-01

    Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA) and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA) have been proposed as markers for diagnosis and for subtyping of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of p-ANCA and ASCA with a 10-year disease outcome in terms of cumulative rate of colectomy and relapse in a population-based European inception cohort of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Serum samples from 432 consenting patients were analysed for p-ANCA and ASCA. The results were compared with the cumulative colectomy rate, relapsing disease and total number of relapses. We used multiple regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, residence, disease extent at diagnosis, smoking, familial IBD and drug treatment to study the relationship between serological values and disease course. The relapse rate was higher in the p-ANCA-positive patients: 82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 75-89%) compared with 67% (CI 62-72%, p=0.011) in the p-ANCA-negative patients. The risk of relapsing disease course was higher by a factor of 1.4 (CI 1.1-1.8, p=0.009) for p-ANCA-positive patients than for p-ANCA-negative patients, and the corresponding relative risk (RR) for the total number of relapses was 1.9 (CI 1.7-2.1, p<0.001). In ASCA-positive patients RR for the total number of relapses was 1.8 (CI 1.5-2.1, p<0.001). No significant association with colectomy rate was found for the presence of either p-ANCA or ASCA. UC patients positive for p-ANCA and possibly for ASCA may have a more unfavourable long-term disease outcome in terms of relapse than UC patients without these markers.

  3. [Self-esteem and giftedness: a Rorschach Comprehensive System study].

    PubMed

    Kostogianni, N; Andronikof, A

    2014-02-01

    According to empirical literature, low self-esteem is highly correlated to behavioural and emotional problems in gifted children and adolescents. Since self-esteem is an indicator of social and emotional adjustment, it would be interesting to better understand the meaning of this construct, as it is evaluated explicitly with the use of self-report questionnaires. In order to explore the psychological processes underlying the explicit self-esteem, we studied the relation of a self-report questionnaire and an indirect measure of self and interpersonal perception using the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS). The participants were 93 children, aged between 9 and 15 years old, with an IQ≥130. They were attending regular classes (no curriculum difference). Self-esteem was evaluated using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI). We used the Rorschach CS measures of self and interpersonal perception. The results showed no significant correlation between self-esteem and high IQ. A negative correlation between self-esteem evaluated on the SEI and the Rorschach Vista responses was found, which reflected self-critical introspection and painful self-appraisal. Then a positive correlation was observed between self-esteem and reflection answers on the Rorschach (Fr+rF>0), which are related to narcissistic-like features of personality. We also found a positive correlation between self-esteem and the Rorschach egocentricity index (EGO), which provides an estimate of self-concern. Finally, the strongest correlation was found between self-esteem and the dominance of good over poor human representations (GHR>PHR), which reveals effective interpersonal behaviour. The psychological processes which seem to be related to low self-esteem in gifted children and adolescents are maladaptive interpersonal behaviours, painful experience of introspection focusing on perceived negative aspects of the self, absence of narcissistic-like features of the personality and low self-concern. These

  4. QRAC-the-Code: a comprehension monitoring strategy for middle school social studies textbooks.

    PubMed

    Berkeley, Sheri; Riccomini, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Requirements for reading and ascertaining information from text increase as students advance through the educational system, especially in content-rich classes; hence, monitoring comprehension is especially important. However, this is a particularly challenging skill for many students who struggle with reading comprehension, including students with learning disabilities. A randomized pre-post experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a comprehension monitoring strategy (QRAC-the-Code) for improving the reading comprehension of 323 students in grades 6 and 7 in inclusive social studies classes. Findings indicated that both general education students and students with learning disabilities who were taught a simple comprehension monitoring strategy improved their comprehension of textbook content compared to students who read independently and noted important points. In addition, students in the comprehension monitoring condition reported using more reading strategies after the intervention. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  5. Training students in serologic reaction grading increased perceptions of self-efficacy and ability to recognize serologic reactions but decreased grading accuracy.

    PubMed

    Perry, Holly; Henry, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    The ability to recognize and grade serologic reactions in manual techniques remains an important skill both for reference laboratories and in disaster-relocated laboratory services. Developing skills in recognizing and grading serologic reactions is limited to some extent by the range of samples available. Twenty-six students studying transfusion science were presented with blinded grading panels consisting of mixes of natural cells and kodecytes (natural cells modified with synthetic blood group antigens) representing a range of serologic grades. Results from 15-minute exercises over 17 contact weeks were assessed to determine if training with grading panels would have an impact on the ability of students to recognize and correctly grade serologic reactions. Twenty-one clinically active practitioners also took part in a single analysis. Grading exercises found that the use of kodecytes and natural negative cells were able to identify deficiencies in both students' and practitioners' ability to recognize negative and grade serologic reactions. The seventeen 15-minute exercises undertaken with students revealed that although there was some improvement in performance in recognizing positive and negative serologic reactions there was also a degradation in ability to accurately grade. Self-assessment showed a major improvement in students' self-efficacy. The use of serologic grading panels created with kodecytes was suitable as a tool to recognize and monitor serologic grading abilities. Evidence suggests that for both students and practitioners to gain and sustain competency in serologic reaction recognition and grading, they will require ongoing training and monitoring of competence. © 2015 AABB.

  6. Effects of Studying to Music and Post-Study Relaxation on Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etaugh, Claire; Ptasnik, Patricia

    1982-01-01

    Twenty female and 20 male college students studied a passage in quiet surroundings or while listening to preferred music and then either relaxed or read unrelated material. Reading comprehension of the passage was facilitated by silent study for subjects who seldom listen to music and by poststudy relaxation. (Author)

  7. Co-infection with Helicobacter pylori and Epstein-Barr virus in benign upper digestive diseases: An endoscopic and serologic pilot study.

    PubMed

    Buzás, György M; Konderák, Judith

    2016-06-01

    Some gastric cancers are Epstein-Barr virus associated. To assess the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and viral co-infection in benign upper digestive diseases. One hundred and four outpatients were included in a prospective endoscopic-serologic study. Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M and viral capsid antigen titres were assayed with an ELISA test. Helicobacter pylori was determined by the modified Giemsa stain and by IgG-chemiluminescence. The overall prevalence of Helicobacter pylori was 56.7%. Duodenal ulcer patients were infected in 72.5 % of the cases, with the prevalence being 33.3% in functional dyspepsia (p = 0.0008) and 25.8% in reflux patients (p = 0.0001). Epstein-Barr virus IgG was detected in 70.1% of the whole group, 75% of duodenal ulcer patients, 51.2% of functional dyspepsia patients (p = 0.04) and 51.6% of the reflux disease cases (p = 0.04). Co-infection with both agents was detected in 60% of duodenal ulcer patients, 18.1% of functional dyspepsia (p = 0.00014) and 12.9% of reflux disease patients (p = 0.00012). Anti-viral IgG titre displayed a 31.7 ± 3.0 cut-off index in duodenal ulcer, 20.5 ± 3.5 in functional dyspepsia (p = 0.01) and 21.4 ± 3.6 in reflux cases (p = 0.03). Both Helicobacter pylori and Epstein-Barr virus, and co-infection with these agents, were significantly more prevalent in duodenal ulcer patients than in dyspeptic/reflux patients.

  8. Treatment and serological studies of an Italian case of penicilliosis marneffei contracted in Thailand by a drug addict infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Viviani, M A; Tortorano, A M; Rizzardini, G; Quirino, T; Kaufman, L; Padhye, A A; Ajello, L

    1993-01-01

    A case of disseminated penicilliosis marneffei, the first to be diagnosed in Italy, is described in a male HIV-positive drug addict. The patient had visited Thailand several times in the two years prior to his hospitalization. The presenting signs were fever, productive cough, facial skin papules and pustules, nodules on both thumbs and oropharyngeal candidiasis. Penicillium marneffei was isolated from a series of blood specimens with the lysis centrifugation procedure. Septate, yeast-like cells were observed in histological sections of the nodules and sputum smears. The patient was treated for 6 weeks with amphotericin B (total dosage 1,400 mg) and flucytosine (150 mg/kg/die) for the first 3 weeks. Prompt clinical improvement and sterilization of all biological specimens were attained. Itraconazole was administered as maintenance therapy (400 mg/die for the first month and 200 mg afterward). During the follow-up period, no relapse was observed. The patient, however, did succumb to a variety of non-mycotic infections and died nine months after start of therapy. At autopsy, P. marneffei was not detected in his tissues. Serological studies were performed with a micro-immunodiffusion procedure using a mycelial culture filtrate antigen of P. marneffei. Sera taken early in the course of the disease gave positive antibody reactions. Whereas sera taken 3-5 months following therapy were negative. All known cases of penicilliosis marneffei in bamboo rats and in humans among the inhabitants and visitors to the endemic areas of P. marneffei in South East Asia and Indonesia are summarized.

  9. Case–control study of Epstein–Barr virus and Helicobacter pylori serology in Latin American patients with gastric disease.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Mondragón, M G; Torres, J; Flores-Luna, L; Camorlinga-Ponce, M; Carreón-Talavera, R; Gomez-Delgado, A; Kasamatsu, E; Fuentes-Pananá, E M

    2015-06-09

    Chronic tissue damage induced by Helicobacter pylori (HP)-driven inflammation is considered the main risk of gastric carcinoma (GC). Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection has also been associated with GC. In this study, we aim to address the role of EBV in inflammatory GC precursor lesions and its added risk to HP infection. Antibodies against EBV, HP and the bacterial virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 525 Mexican and Paraguayan patients with gastric disease. Gastric samples were characterised according to the updated Sydney classification and associations were estimated between antibody responses and severity of both tissue damage and inflammation. We found significant associations (odd ratios and trends) between EBV and HP copositivity and premalignant lesions and intestinal-type GC. The EBV and HP coinfection was also significantly associated with increased infiltration of immune cells. No association was found between EBV and the less inflammation-driven diffuse-type GC. Our study suggests that EBV co-participates with HP to induce severe inflammation, increasing the risk of progression to intestinal-type GC.

  10. Molecular (ticks) and serological (humans) study of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the Iberian Peninsula, 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Palomar, Ana M; Portillo, Aránzazu; Santibáñez, Sonia; García-Álvarez, Lara; Muñoz-Sanz, Agustín; Márquez, Francisco J; Romero, Lourdes; Eiros, José M; Oteo, José A

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral disease, mainly transmitted through tick bite, of great importance in Public Health. In Spain, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was detected for the first time in 2010 in Hyalomma lusitanicum ticks collected from deer in Cáceres. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CCHFV in ticks from Cáceres, and from other Spanish areas, and to evaluate the presence of antibodies against the virus in individuals exposed to tick bites. A total of 2053 ticks (1333 Hyalomma marginatum, 680 H. lusitanicum and 40 Rhipicephalus bursa) were analyzed using molecular biology techniques (PCR) for CCHFV detection. The determination of specific IgG antibodies against CCHFV in 228 serum samples from humans with regular contact with ticks (at risk of acquiring the infection) was performed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The CCHFV was not amplified in ticks, nor were antibodies against the virus found in the serum samples analyzed. The absence of the CCHFV in the ticks studied and the lack of antibodies against the virus in individuals exposed to tick bites would seem to suggest a low risk of acquisition of human infection by CCHFV in Spain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  11. Comprehensive Renewable Energy Feasibility Study for Sealaska Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Lynette; John Wade: Larry Coupe

    2006-06-30

    The purposes of this project were: (1) to conduct a comprehensive feasibility study to determine the potential sustainability of wind and/or small hydroelectric power plants on Southeast Alaska native village lands, and (2) to provide the villages with an understanding of the requirements, costs, and benefits of developing and operating wind or small hydroelectric power plants. The program was sponsored by the Tribal Energy program, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy. The Contractor was Sealaska Corporation, the Regional Native Corporation for Southeast Alaska that includes 12 village/urban corporations. Most villages are isolated from any centralmore » electric transmission and use diesel-electric systems for power generation, making them prime candidates for deploying renewable energy sources. Wind Energy - A database was assembled for all of the candidate sites in SE Alaska, including location, demographics, electricity supply and demand, existing and planned transmission interties with central generation, topographical maps, macro wind data, and contact personnel. Field trips were conducted at the five candidate villages that were deemed most likely to have viable wind resources. Meetings were held with local village and utility leaders and the requirements, costs, and benefits of having local renewable energy facilities were discussed. Two sites were selected for anemometry based on their needs and the probability of having viable wind resources – Yakutat and Hoonah. Anemometry was installed at both sites and at least one year of wind resource data was collected from the sites. This data was compared to long-term data from the closest weather stations. Reports were prepared by meteorologist John Wade that contains the details of the measured wind resources and energy production projections. Preliminary financial analysis of hypothetical wind power stations were prepared to gauge the economic viability of installing

  12. Factors associated with the growing-finishing performances of swine herds: an exploratory study on serological and herd level indicators.

    PubMed

    Fablet, C; Rose, N; Grasland, B; Robert, N; Lewandowski, E; Gosselin, M

    2018-01-01

    Growing and finishing performances of pigs strongly influence farm efficiency and profitability. The performances of the pigs rely on the herd health status and also on several non-infectious factors. Many recommendations for the improvement of the technical performances of a herd are based on the results of studies assessing the effect of one or a limited number of infections or environmental factors. Few studies investigated jointly the influence of both type of factors on swine herd performances. This work aimed at identifying infectious and non-infectious factors associated with the growing and finishing performances of 41 French swine herds. Two groups of herds were identified using a clustering analysis: a cluster of 24 herds with the highest technical performance values (mean average daily gain = 781.1 g/day +/- 26.3; mean feed conversion ratio = 2.5 kg/kg +/- 0.1; mean mortality rate = 4.1% +/- 0.9; and mean carcass slaughter weight = 121.2 kg +/- 5.2) and a cluster of 17 herds with the lowest performance values (mean average daily gain =715.8 g/day +/- 26.5; mean feed conversion ratio = 2.6 kg/kg +/- 0.1; mean mortality rate = 6.8% +/- 2.0; and mean carcass slaughter weight = 117.7 kg +/- 3.6). Multiple correspondence analysis was used to identify factors associated with the level of technical performance. Infection with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and the porcine circovirus type 2 were infectious factors associated with the cluster having the lowest performance values. This cluster also featured farrow-to-finish type herds, a short interval between successive batches of pigs (≤3 weeks) and mixing of pigs from different batches in the growing or/and finishing steps. Inconsistency between nursery and fattening building management was another factor associated with the low-performance cluster. The odds of a herd showing low growing-finishing performance was significantly

  13. Anti-Epstein-Barr virus antibodies as serological markers of multiple sclerosis: a prospective study among United States military personnel

    PubMed Central

    Munger, K. L.; Levin, L. I.; O’Reilly, E. J.; Falk, K. I.; Ascherio, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Elevated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody titers are risk factors for MS, but the strength and consistency this association are not well characterized. Objectives To determine whether this association is confounded by vitamin D or modified by gender or race, and the usefulness of EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) antibodies as a marker for MS. Methods We conducted a prospective study among US military personnel. Antibody titers against EBV antigens were measured in serum samples from 222 individuals who developed MS and 444 age, sex, and race/ethnicity matched controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks. Results MS risk increased with increasing titers of anti-EBNA complex (p<10−9) and anti-EBNA-1 (p=5.8E-9) titers. MS risk was 36-fold higher among individuals with anti-EBNA complex IgG titers ≥320 than among those with titers <20 (95%CI:9.6-136), and 8-fold higher among those with anti-EBNA-1 ≥320 than among those with anti-EBNA-1 <20 (95%CI:2.6-23). These associations were consistent across gender and race/ethnicity groups and independent from 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Areas under the ROC curves were 0.67 for EBNA complex and 0.65 for EBNA-1. Conclusions Serum titers of pre-onset anti-EBNA antibodies are strong, robust markers of MS risk and could be useful in an MS risk score. PMID:21685232

  14. A Comparative Histopathology, Serology and Molecular Study, on Experimental Ocular Toxocariasis by Toxocara cati in Mongolian Gerbils and Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zibaei, Mohammad; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Karamian, Mehdi; Uga, Shoji; Oryan, Ahmad; Jahadi-Hosseini, Seyed Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three in-house diagnostic tests, that is, histopathology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for the diagnosis after experimental infection with Toxocara cati. Twenty Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats were divided into ten groups (n = 2/group). Toxocara cati infections were established in Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats by administering doses of 240 and 2500 embryonated Toxocara cati eggs by gavage, respectively. Tissue sections were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin and observed under the light microscope. Sera and vitreous fluid collected from separate infected groups were tested against Toxocara cati antigens, for 92 days postinfection. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks, and aqueous fluids belong to the animals. The histopathology test gave negative results among the groups of animals examined between 5 and 92 days postinfection. The ELISA results showed that anti-Toxocara antibodies have risen between 7 and 61 days postinfection in sera and vitreous fluid in the animals infected, respectively. Analysis of PCR products revealed positive band (660 bp) in the orbital tissue infected Mongolian gerbils at 5 days postinfection. Of the three evaluated methods, the PCR could be recommended for scientific and laboratory diagnoses of toxocariasis in experimentally infected animals. PMID:24069585

  15. A comparative histopathology, serology and molecular study, on experimental ocular toxocariasis by Toxocara cati in Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Zibaei, Mohammad; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Karamian, Mehdi; Uga, Shoji; Oryan, Ahmad; Jahadi-Hosseini, Seyed Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three in-house diagnostic tests, that is, histopathology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for the diagnosis after experimental infection with Toxocara cati. Twenty Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats were divided into ten groups (n = 2/group). Toxocara cati infections were established in Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats by administering doses of 240 and 2500 embryonated Toxocara cati eggs by gavage, respectively. Tissue sections were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin and observed under the light microscope. Sera and vitreous fluid collected from separate infected groups were tested against Toxocara cati antigens, for 92 days postinfection. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks, and aqueous fluids belong to the animals. The histopathology test gave negative results among the groups of animals examined between 5 and 92 days postinfection. The ELISA results showed that anti-Toxocara antibodies have risen between 7 and 61 days postinfection in sera and vitreous fluid in the animals infected, respectively. Analysis of PCR products revealed positive band (660 bp) in the orbital tissue infected Mongolian gerbils at 5 days postinfection. Of the three evaluated methods, the PCR could be recommended for scientific and laboratory diagnoses of toxocariasis in experimentally infected animals.

  16. Prevalence of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies among adults in Singapore: a national serological study to identify most susceptible population groups.

    PubMed

    Ang, L W; James, L; Goh, K T

    2016-03-01

    In view of waning antitoxin titres over time after the last vaccine dose against diphtheria and tetanus, we determined the immunity levels in adults to identify most susceptible groups for protection in Singapore. Our study involved residual sera from 3293 adults aged 18-79 who had participated in a national health survey in 2010. IgG antibody levels were determined using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 92.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.1-92.9%) had at least basic protection against diphtheria (antibody levels ≥0.01 IU/ml), while 71.4% (95% CI: 69.8-72.9%) had at least short-term protection against tetanus (antibody levels >0.1 IU/ml). The seroprevalence declined significantly with age for both diseases; the drop was most marked in the 50- to 59-year age group for diphtheria and 60- to 69-year age group for tetanus. There was a significant difference in seroprevalence by residency for diphtheria (92.8% among Singapore citizens versus 87.1% among permanent residents; P = 0.001). The seroprevalence for tetanus was significantly higher among males (83.2%) than females (62.4%) (P < 0.0005). It may be of value to consider additional vaccination efforts to protect older adults at higher risk for exposure against diphtheria and tetanus, particularly those travelling to areas where diphtheria is endemic or epidemic. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A Comparative Serological Study of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by CLIA and ELISA Methods in Chalus City Iran.

    PubMed

    Elahian Firouz, Zahra; Kaboosi, Hami; Faghih Nasiri, Abdolreza; Tabatabaie, Seyed Saleh; Golhasani-Keshtan, Farideh; Zaboli, Fatemeh

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis is the most common disease in humans and animals (zoonosis) caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The disease is usually appeared as asymptomatic in immunocompromised individuals but its most common symptom is lymphadenopathy. Shortly before or during the first trimester of pregnancy, this disease can be transferred to the fetus and cause serious infection in the fetus. In late pregnancy (third trimester), the complications of this infection is very low or unsigned. Due to the absence of non-specific clinical symptoms or slight infection in pregnant women, prenatal diagnosis is often impossible. Since no research compared these two methods, we decided to compare these methods and determine which method works better for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. In this study, 50 pregnant women who referred to the Chalus Health Center laboratory were included and the blood samples were tested for presence of IgG and IgM antibodies of Toxoplasma gondii by both ELISA and Chemiluminescence methods. Of the 50 samples tested by the ELISA method, 26 samples (52%) were positive for IgG . No samples were positive for IgM. Of the 50 samples tested by the Chemiluminescence method, 28 samples (56%) were positive for IgG. No samples were positive for IgM. A significant relationship between the age of the youngest child and the infection rate was seen. No significant correlation between age, number of individuals in the household, number of children, location, type of construction, consumption of greens, the way of greens and meat consumption, drug use, history of stillbirth and infection levels was seen.

  18. Serological Response of Patients with Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09-Associated Pneumonia: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Angkasekwinai, Nasikarn; Kaewnapha, Bualan; Waywa, Duangdao; Werarak, Peerawong; Tongsai, Sasima; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Siritantikorn, Sontana

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the dynamics or magnitude of antibody response in patients with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09-associated pneumonia. We described and compared the antibody response to influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 in patients with and without pneumonia. Methods We collected serum samples and determined antibody titers by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (mNT) assays from patients with RT-PCR confirmed influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus at baseline, 1, 2 and 6 months after onset of illness. Results Fifty-nine patients were enrolled, 45 (76.3%) were between 15 and 60 years of age, 49 (83.1%) were hospitalized and 25 (42.4%) had complications with pneumonia. Ninety-four percent of patients had HI titers ≥ 1: 40 and 90% had mNT titers ≥ 1: 160 at 2 months after illness. Geometric mean titers (GMT) of HI and mNT increased significantly (p<0.001) between baseline and months 1 or 2, then declined significantly (p<0.001) at month 6 by the HI assay, but dropped to an insignificant level (p=0.24) by the mNT assay. The mNT-GMT was at least twice as high as corresponding HI antibodies over a 6 month period. The GMT of HI and mNT in those with pneumonia (1 mo) peaked earlier than that of those without pneumonia (2 mo). When adjusted by age and gender, those with pneumonia had a higher HI-GMT than those without pneumonia at 1 month (264 vs. 117, p=0.007), 2 months (212 vs. 159, p=0.013), and 6 months (160 vs. 82, p=0.018). Conclusions The patients recovered from influenza A (H1N1) pdm09-associated pneumonia, clearly developed an earlier and more robust antibody response until 6 months after onset of illness. The results in our study are useful to determine an appropriate donor and timing to obtain convalescent plasma for adjunctive treatment of seriously ill patients with pandemic H1N1 influenza. PMID:24312299

  19. The Effect of Stories for Thinking on Reading and Listening Comprehension: A Case Study in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tok, Sükran; Mazl, Aysegül

    2015-01-01

    This study has been conducted in order to examine the effects of the stories for thinking on 5th graders' reading comprehension and listening comprehension. A pretest-post test control group quasi-experimental design was used in the study. The sample of the etstudy was composed of 74 5th graders attending public elementary schools. The data have…

  20. Reciprocal Teaching and Emotional Intelligence: A Study of Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izadi, Mehri; Nowrouzi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring the effect of reciprocal reading strategies instruction on reading comprehension of EFL learners. Emotional intelligence, another variable of interest, was assessed to indicate whether it plays a role in learners' comprehension. In a pre- and post-test study, forty-two learners went through a reciprocal reading…

  1. Supporting Social Studies Reading Comprehension with an Electronic Pop-Up Dictionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Sara Winstead; Gosky, Ross

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated how middle school students' comprehension was impacted by reading social studies texts online with a pop-up dictionary function for every word in the text. A quantitative counterbalance design was used to determine how 129 middle school students' reading comprehension test scores for the pop-up dictionary reading differed…

  2. Antibody persistence and serological protection among seasonal 2007 influenza A(H1N1) infected subjects: Results from the FLUREC cohort study.

    PubMed

    Delabre, Rosemary Markovic; Salez, Nicolas; Lemaitre, Magali; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Carrat, Fabrice

    2015-12-08

    Haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titer is a correlate of protection against influenza; its persistence after infection or vaccination is important to determining susceptibility to subsequent infection. Few studies, however, have reported longitudinal data regarding the magnitude and duration of HI protection following natural seasonal influenza A infection. Using French influenza cohort study data collected from 2008 to 2010, we investigated persistence of serological protection among subjects according to influenza-like illness (ILI) and laboratory-confirmed seasonal 2007 influenza A(H1N1) infection status at inclusion in 2008 (ILI-A(H1N1) positive, ILI-A(H1N1) negative, or no-ILI). Antibody titers against seasonal 2007 A(H1N1) were determined using the HI technique for sera. Regression models for interval-censored data were used to estimate geometric mean titers (GMT) for HI assays. A logistic regression model adjusted for age group (subjects <30, 30-50 and >50 years old) was used to quantify the association between HI titer and protection against infection. Based on 310 total subjects, influenza A(H1N1) infection was confirmed in 39 of 115 ILI subjects at inclusion. GMT associated with 50% probability of protection among ILI subjects decreased with age group (subjects <30 yo: GMT of 40.8 was associated with 50% [95CI: 29.3%; 70.7%] probability of protection, subjects 30-50 yo: 26.8 [95CI: 34.4%; 65.6%] and subjects >50 yo: 8.9 [95CI: 15.3%; 84.7%]). GMT declined after the first annual study visit among ILI-A(H1N1) positive subjects but remained higher compared to inclusion at the 2010 study visit (41.5 [95CI: 34.8; 49.5], p=0.0157). GMT remained stable among ILI-A(H1N1) negative subjects (p=0.7502), but decreased among no-ILI subjects (p<0.0001). Our results confirm the positive relationship between HI titer and probability of protection among naturally infected subjects, and provides evidence that protection associated with HI titer varies with age

  3. A predictive study of reading comprehension in third-grade Spanish students.

    PubMed

    López-Escribano, Carmen; Elosúa de Juan, María Rosa; Gómez-Veiga, Isabel; García-Madruga, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The study of the contribution of language and cognitive skills to reading comprehension is an important goal of current reading research. However, reading comprehension is not easily assessed by a single instrument, as different comprehension tests vary in the type of tasks used and in the cognitive demands required. This study examines the contribution of basic language and cognitive skills (decoding, word recognition, reading speed, verbal and nonverbal intelligence and working memory) to reading comprehension, assessed by two tests utilizing various tasks that require different skill sets in third-grade Spanish-speaking students. Linguistic and cognitive abilities predicted reading comprehension. A measure of reading speed (the reading time of pseudo-words) was the best predictor of reading comprehension when assessed by the PROLEC-R test. However, measures of word recognition (the orthographic choice task) and verbal working memory were the best predictors of reading comprehension when assessed by means of the DARC test. These results show, on the one hand, that reading speed and word recognition are better predictors of Spanish language comprehension than reading accuracy. On the other, the reading comprehension test applied here serves as a critical variable when analyzing and interpreting results regarding this topic.

  4. An exploratory study of older adults' comprehension of printed cancer information: is readability a key factor?

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2007-01-01

    Printed cancer information often is written at or beyond high school reading levels, despite lower average literacy abilities of the public. The objectives of this exploratory study were twofold: (1) to evaluate older adults' comprehension of breast (BC), prostate (PC), and colorectal (CC) cancer information; and (2) to determine if comprehension of BC, PC, and CC information varies according to text readability. Comprehension of printed cancer resources was evaluated with 44 community-dwelling older adults using the Cloze procedure and recall questions. Participants' comprehension scores were compared with Simple Measure of Gobbledegook (SMOG) readability scores (comprehension of cancer information as measured by Cloze (.86 +/- .01) and recall (.71 +/- .02). For CC information written at grade 13, however, a significant negative correlation between readability and Cloze comprehension was found (r(s) = -.44, SE = .17, p = .019), indicating poorer participant comprehension at higher readability levels. Comprehension of BC or PC information did not vary by readability level. Though readability plays a role in older adults' understanding of cancer information, cancer type and content are also important factors that influence comprehension. Use of plain language is recommended for CC resources.

  5. Narrative Comprehension and Production in Children with SLI: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Olmos, Joan Guardia; MacWhinney, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5;8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5;6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and…

  6. Lexical Competence and Reading Comprehension: A Pilot Study with Heritage Language Learners of Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velásquez, Edna

    2016-01-01

    The basic questions that guide this study are: (a) what percentage of vocabulary from a passage would a Spanish learner need to know to demonstrate "adequate" (a score of 70 out of 100) comprehension of it? And, (b) what type of curve would best describe the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension? Fifty-three…

  7. Sentence Integration Processes: An ERP Study of Chinese Sentence Comprehension with Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chin Lung; Perfetti, Charles A.; Liu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    In an event-related potentials (ERPs) study, we examined the comprehension of different types of Chinese (Mandarin) relative clauses (object vs. subject-extracted) to test the universality and language specificity of sentence comprehension processes. Because Chinese lacks morphosyntactic cues to sentence constituent relations, it allows a test of…

  8. Effects of Audiovisual Media on L2 Listening Comprehension: A Preliminary Study in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Shannon R.; Sturm, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether integrating online audiovisual materials into the listening instruction of L2 French learners would have a measurable impact on their listening comprehension development. Students from two intact sections of second-semester French were tested on their listening comprehension before and…

  9. Serology in Finfish for Diagnosis, Surveillance, and Research: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Diana; Peeler, Edmund J; Laurin, Emilie; Gardner, Ian A; Whittington, Richard J

    2017-03-01

    Historically, serological tests for finfish diseases have been underused when compared with their use in terrestrial animal health. For years the nonspecific immune response in fish was judged to make serology unreliable and inferior to the direct measurement of agent analytes. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications that reported on the development, validation, or application of serological tests for finfish diseases. A total of 168 articles met the screening criteria; most of them were focused on salmonid pathogens (e.g., Aeromonas spp. and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus). Before the 1980s, most publications reported the use of agglutination tests, but our review indicates that enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has more recently become the dominant serological test. The main application of serological tests has been in the assessment of vaccine efficacy, with few applications for surveillance or demonstration of freedom from disease, despite the advantages of serological tests over direct detection at the population level. Nonlethal sampling, low cost, and postinfection persistence of antibodies make serological assays the test of choice in surveillance, especially of valuable broodstock. However, their adoption has been constrained by poor characterization and validation. The number of publications in our review reporting diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serological tests in finfish was small (n = 7). Foreseeing a wider use of serological tests in the future for diagnostic end purposes, we offer recommendations for mitigating deficiencies in the development and evaluation of serological tests, including optimization, control of nonspecific reactions, informed cutoff points, diagnostic accuracy, and serological baseline studies. Achieving these goals will facilitate greater international recognition of serological testing in programs supporting aquatic animal health. Received March 21, 2016; accepted September 24, 2016.

  10. New evidence on tick-borne rickettsioses in the Altai region of Russia using primary lesions, serum and blood clots of molecular and serological study.

    PubMed

    Granitov, Vladimir; Shpynov, Stanislav; Beshlebova, Olga; Arsenjeva, Irina; Dedkov, Vladimir; Safonova, Marina; Stukolova, Olga; Pantjukhina, Anna; Tarasevich, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne rickettsioses (TBRs) have similar clinical symptoms and can give serological cross-reaction. We firstly found that in the natural foci of North Asian tick typhus (NATT) in the Altai region of Russia, TBRs can be caused by two Rickettsia species: Rickettsia sibirica subsp. sibirica (causative agent of NATT) and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis. Rickettsial DNA was detected in primary lesions, serum samples and blood clots using real-time PCR. Therefore, each case of TBRs should be verified by using molecular typing. TBR caused by R. sibirica subsp. sibirica - NATT dominates on the territory of Altai region. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental Relations Between Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Change Score Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first grade students (N = 316, mean age = 7.05 at first test) through fourth grade to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension to test for the presence of leading and lagging influences. Univariate models indicated growth in vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension was determined by two parts: constant yearly change and change proportional to the previous level of the variable. Bivariate models indicated previous levels of vocabulary knowledge acted as leading indicators of reading comprehension growth, but the reverse relation was not found. Implications for theories of developmental relations between vocabulary and reading comprehension are discussed. PMID:25201552

  12. Toward a Comprehensive Framework of Study Abroad Intentions and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Lakshmi; de Jong, Pieter; Schnusenberg, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Increased activity by U.S. students to study abroad has invited several studies that have investigated the reasons for U.S. students to study abroad. Literature in the context of study abroad choices has been fragmented, with each study presenting an ad-hoc set of factors the author/s deem as important or that have been shown to be important in…

  13. Coastal Studies in a Comprehensive Summer Field Geology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Barry; Jones, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a college geology course that incorporates a coastal segment. Field studies are done on Plum Island and include examining beaches, dune fields, and an adjacent marsh and spit. Topics include sedimentation, coastal geomorphology, botanical effects, and coastal studies methodology. (MA)

  14. Comprehension and Recall of Television's Computerized Image: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallinos, Nikos; Chartrand, Sylvie

    This exploratory study of the effects of the new visual communications media imagery (e.g., video games, digital television, and computer graphics) on the visual perception process is designed to provide a theoretical framework for research, introduce appropriate research instruments for such study, and experiment with the application of biometric…

  15. Theory of mind in emerging reading comprehension: A longitudinal study of early indirect and direct effects.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Lynette; Slade, Lance; Powell, Daisy; Levy, Joseph P

    2017-12-01

    The relation between children's theory of mind (ToM) and emerging reading comprehension was investigated in a longitudinal study over 2.5years. A total of 80 children were tested for ToM, decoding, language skills, and executive function (EF) at Time 1 (mean age=3;10 [years;months]). At Time 2 (mean age=6;03), children's word reading efficiency, language skills, and reading comprehension were measured. Mediation analysis showed that ToM at Time 1, when children were around 4years old, indirectly predicted Time 2 reading comprehension, when children were 6years old, via language ability after controlling for age, nonverbal ability, decoding, EF, and earlier language ability. Importantly, ToM at 4years also directly predicted reading comprehension 2.5years later at 6years. This is the first longitudinal study to show a direct contribution of ToM to reading comprehension in typical development. Findings are discussed in terms of the simple view of reading (SVR); ToM not only supports reading comprehension indirectly by facilitating language but also contributes to it directly over and above the SVR. The potential role of metacognition is considered when accounting for the direct contribution of early ToM to later reading comprehension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Paracoccidioidomycosis manifesting as oral lesions: clinical, cytological and serological investigation.

    PubMed

    Sposto, M R; Mendes-Giannini, M J; Moraes, R A; Branco, F C; Scully, C

    1994-02-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis) is a systemic mycosis which can be associated with oral lesions. This study on a group of 14 patients showed oral lesions mainly on the gingival or alveolar mucosa, with pulmonary involvement detectable on chest radiography in most. Microscopic detection of the fungus on a direct smear showed positive results in all 14 patients. Serological investigations including immunodiffusion, counterimmunoelectrophoresis and immunoblot were also positive in 100% of cases. The results suggest that direct smear together with serology may obviate the need for lesional biopsy for the diagnosis of oral paracoccidioidomycosis.

  17. Comprehensive study to reduce pedestrian crashes in Florida : [summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-12-01

    Pedestrian crashes are a major safety : concern in Florida, with about one in : every ve traf c fatalities involving a : pedestrian. Recently, researchers at : Florida International University studied : ways to improve pedestrian safety on : F...

  18. A comprehensive study on pavement edge line implementation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-04-01

    The previous 2011 study Safety Improvement from Edge Lines on Rural Two-Lane Highways analyzed the crash data of : three years before and one year after edge line implementation by using the latest safety analysis statistical method. It : concl...

  19. Comprehensive Study of Intercity Bus Service in Nebraska

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1988-03-01

    This study is prompted by the proposed abandonment of regular-route intercity : bus service across northern Nebraska. The current route, which is operated by : Black Hills Stage Lines, provides service from Omaha through Norfolk and Chadron : to Rapi...

  20. 78 FR 36753 - North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... landscape system, considering future sea-level rise and climate change scenarios. In addition, the... management and climate change and sea-level rise considerations. Additional information and a study area map...

  1. Exploring the Co-development of Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Little, Callie W.; Hart, Sara A.; Quinn, Jamie M.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Taylor, Jeanette; Schatschneider, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores the co-development of two related but separate reading skills, reading fluency and reading comprehension, across grades 1–4. A bivariate biometric dual change score model was applied to longitudinal data collected from 1784 twin pairs between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Grade 1 skills were influenced by highly overlapping genetic and environmental factors. Growth in both skills was influenced by highly overlapping shared environmental factors. Cross-lagged parameters indicated bidirectional effects, with stronger effects from fluency to comprehension change than from comprehension to fluency change. PMID:27859016

  2. A pilot study to assess oral health literacy by comparing a word recognition and comprehension tool.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khadija; Ruby, Brendan; Goldblatt, Ruth S; Schensul, Jean J; Reisine, Susan

    2014-11-18

    Oral health literacy is important to oral health outcomes. Very little has been established on comparing word recognition to comprehension in oral health literacy especially in older adults. Our goal was to compare methods to measure oral health literacy in older adults by using the Rapid Estimate of Literacy in Dentistry (REALD-30) tool including word recognition and comprehension and by assessing comprehension of a brochure about dry mouth. 75 males and 75 females were recruited from the University of Connecticut Dental practice. Participants were English speakers and at least 50 years of age. They were asked to read the REALD-30 words out loud (word recognition) and then define them (comprehension). Each correctly-pronounced and defined word was scored 1 for total REALD-30 word recognition and REALD-30 comprehension scores of 0-30. Participants then read the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research brochure "Dry Mouth" and answered three questions defining dry mouth, causes and treatment. Participants also completed a survey on dental behavior. Participants scored higher on REALD-30 word recognition with a mean of 22.98 (SD = 5.1) compared to REALD-30 comprehension with a mean of 16.1 (SD = 4.3). The mean score on the brochure comprehension was 5.1 of a possible total of 7 (SD = 1.6). Pearson correlations demonstrated significant associations among the three measures. Multivariate regression showed that females and those with higher education had significantly higher scores on REALD-30 word-recognition, and dry mouth brochure questions. Being white was significantly related to higher REALD-30 recognition and comprehension scores but not to the scores on the brochure. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of using the REALD-30 and a brochure to assess literacy in a University setting among older adults. Participants had higher scores on the word recognition than on comprehension agreeing with other studies that recognition does

  3. Developing a Comprehensive Housing Strategy: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsters, Tim; Bliss, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    In the current highly competitive higher education market in North America, many colleges have identified the importance of upgrading their existing residential housing facilities as part of their strategy to attract and retain students. The case study discussed in this article describes the successful planning process used by Perkins+Will and…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of ESL Learners' Fluency and Comprehensibility Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.; Thomson, Ron I.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal mixed-methods study compared the oral fluency of well-educated adult immigrants from Mandarin and Slavic language backgrounds (16 per group) enrolled in introductory English as a second language (ESL) classes. Speech samples were collected over a 2-year period, together with estimates of weekly English use. We also conducted…

  5. Women's Studies Sourcebook: A Comprehensive, Classified Bibliography of Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Judith D., Comp.

    Over 1,000 entries are presented in this bibliography of resources about women. Subject categories include the following: abortion; academia; art; biography; black women; business, banking, and economics; crime; day care; education; employment; health; history; Jewish women; lesbianism; literary works; medicine; music; national studies; police…

  6. Impact of Vaccination History on Serological Testing in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Michaël; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Paquet, Caroline; Laferrière, Céline; Gosselin-Brisson, Anne; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Martel-Laferrière, Valérie

    2018-04-01

    Serological testing guidelines for vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in pregnant women are heterogeneous. It is unclear how vaccination history influences health care workers' (HCWs) attitudes about testing. The aim of this study was to describe current practices in screening for rubella, hepatitis B, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in pregnant women in the province of Québec. In 2015, an electronic survey was distributed to HCWs who followed the case of at least one pregnant woman in the previous year and who could be contacted by email by their professional association. A total of 363 of 1084 (33%) participants were included in the analysis: general practitioners (57%), obstetrician-gynaecologists (20%), midwives (41%), and nurse practitioners (31%). For rubella, 48% of participants inquired about vaccination status, and of these, 98% offered serological testing for unvaccinated women versus 44% for vaccinated women. Similarly, of the 48% of participants who asked about hepatitis B vaccination status before offering testing, 96% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antigen, 28% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antibody, and 1% ordered no serological testing to unvaccinated women versus 72%, 46%, and 8%, respectively, for vaccinated women. Among the 81% of respondents who discussed VZV during prenatal care, 13% ordered serological testing if patients had a history of VZV infection, 87% if the VZV history was uncertain, and 19% if patients had a positive history of vaccination. Asking about vaccination status influences HCWs' attitudes about serological testing for rubella, hepatitis B, and VZV. In the context of increasing vaccination coverage in women of child-bearing age, it is important to clarify the impact of vaccination status in serological screening guidelines in pregnant women. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comprehension of Co-Speech Gestures in Aphasic Patients: An Eye Movement Study.

    PubMed

    Eggenberger, Noëmi; Preisig, Basil C; Schumacher, Rahel; Hopfner, Simone; Vanbellingen, Tim; Nyffeler, Thomas; Gutbrod, Klemens; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M

    2016-01-01

    Co-speech gestures are omnipresent and a crucial element of human interaction by facilitating language comprehension. However, it is unclear whether gestures also support language comprehension in aphasic patients. Using visual exploration behavior analysis, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of congruence between speech and co-speech gestures on comprehension in terms of accuracy in a decision task. Twenty aphasic patients and 30 healthy controls watched videos in which speech was either combined with meaningless (baseline condition), congruent, or incongruent gestures. Comprehension was assessed with a decision task, while remote eye-tracking allowed analysis of visual exploration. In aphasic patients, the incongruent condition resulted in a significant decrease of accuracy, while the congruent condition led to a significant increase in accuracy compared to baseline accuracy. In the control group, the incongruent condition resulted in a decrease in accuracy, while the congruent condition did not significantly increase the accuracy. Visual exploration analysis showed that patients fixated significantly less on the face and tended to fixate more on the gesturing hands compared to controls. Co-speech gestures play an important role for aphasic patients as they modulate comprehension. Incongruent gestures evoke significant interference and deteriorate patients' comprehension. In contrast, congruent gestures enhance comprehension in aphasic patients, which might be valuable for clinical and therapeutic purposes.

  8. Comprehension of Co-Speech Gestures in Aphasic Patients: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Eggenberger, Noëmi; Preisig, Basil C.; Schumacher, Rahel; Hopfner, Simone; Vanbellingen, Tim; Nyffeler, Thomas; Gutbrod, Klemens; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Co-speech gestures are omnipresent and a crucial element of human interaction by facilitating language comprehension. However, it is unclear whether gestures also support language comprehension in aphasic patients. Using visual exploration behavior analysis, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of congruence between speech and co-speech gestures on comprehension in terms of accuracy in a decision task. Method Twenty aphasic patients and 30 healthy controls watched videos in which speech was either combined with meaningless (baseline condition), congruent, or incongruent gestures. Comprehension was assessed with a decision task, while remote eye-tracking allowed analysis of visual exploration. Results In aphasic patients, the incongruent condition resulted in a significant decrease of accuracy, while the congruent condition led to a significant increase in accuracy compared to baseline accuracy. In the control group, the incongruent condition resulted in a decrease in accuracy, while the congruent condition did not significantly increase the accuracy. Visual exploration analysis showed that patients fixated significantly less on the face and tended to fixate more on the gesturing hands compared to controls. Conclusion Co-speech gestures play an important role for aphasic patients as they modulate comprehension. Incongruent gestures evoke significant interference and deteriorate patients’ comprehension. In contrast, congruent gestures enhance comprehension in aphasic patients, which might be valuable for clinical and therapeutic purposes. PMID:26735917

  9. Comprehensive study of beam focusing by crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandale, W.; Arduini, G.; Cerutti, F.; Garattini, M.; Gilardoni, S.; Masi, A.; Mirarchi, D.; Montesano, S.; Petrucci, S.; Redaelli, S.; Rossi, R.; Breton, D.; Burmistrov, L.; Dubos, S.; Maalmi, J.; Natochii, A.; Puill, V.; Stocchi, A.; Sukhonos, D.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Romagnoni, M.; Murtas, F.; Addesa, F.; Cavoto, G.; Iacoangeli, F.; Galluccio, F.; Afonin, A. G.; Bulgakov, M. K.; Chesnokov, Yu. A.; Durum, A. A.; Maisheev, V. A.; Sandomirskiy, Yu. E.; Yanovich, A. A.; Kolomiets, A. A.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Taratin, A. M.; Smirnov, G. I.; Denisov, A. S.; Gavrikov, Yu. A.; Ivanov, Yu. M.; Lapina, L. P.; Malyarenko, L. G.; Skorobogatov, V. V.; Auzinger, G.; James, T.; Hall, G.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is devoted to an experimental study of focusing and defocusing positively charged particle beams with the help of specially bent single crystals. Four crystals have been fabricated for this purpose. The studies have been performed at the CERN SPS in 400 GeV /c proton and 180 GeV /c pion beams. The results of measurements of beam envelopes are presented. The rms size of the horizontal profile at the focus was 5-8 times smaller than at the exit of the crystals. The measured focal lengths were 4-21 m. The results of measurements are in good agreement with calculations. Possible applications of focusing crystals in present and future high energy accelerators are discussed.

  10. Comprehensive Study of Acute Effects and Recovery After Concussion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    dimensional research model, this study integrates biomechanical, clinical, neurobiological, and neuroradiological markers of mTBI, with the ultimate goal...assessing balance, neurocognition, symptoms, and psychological health, which will be correlated with data from the Head Impact Telemetry system (HITS...been achieved with regard to an advanced platform and “pipeline” for MRI data processing, quality control and integration . Ongoing collaboration with

  11. Comprehensive Study of Plasma-Wall Sheath Transport Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-10

    environment, a Langmuir probe and a Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA). The Langmuir probe could be considered the seminal plasma diagnostic, and a large...plasma-sheath interface. Electric field is normalized by Te/LD (LD is the Debye length) and velocity is normalized by the Bohm speed. Figure 14...studying the interaction of the near-wall plasma sheath with a magnetic field , and modeled the plasma sheath of the GT thick-sheath (~10mm) plasma

  12. Comprehensive Flood Plain Studies Using Spatial Data Management Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    Hydrologic Engineer- ing Center computer programs that forecast urban storm water quality and dynamic in- stream water quality response to waste...determination. Water Quality The water quality analysis planned for the pilot study includes urban storm water quality forecasting and in-streamn...analysis is performed under the direction of Tony Thomas. Chief, Research Branch, by Jess Abbott for storm water quality analysis, R. G. Willey for

  13. Role of forensic dentistry for dental practitioners: A comprehensive study

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Vanita; Desai, Veena; Pundir, Siddharth; Dixit, Sudhanshu; Chandraker, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of present study is to analyze assess the awareness about forensic odontology among dental practitioners in center part of India. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 100 dental practitioners in Bhilai-Durg and data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Results: About 30% of dental practitioners not maintain dental records in their clinic, 70% maintained dental records. Nearly, 60% dental practitioners use the appropriate method for diagnosis, while rest are not. Sixty-five percent dental practitioners know the accurate and sensitive way of identify individuals. Thirty percent dental practitioner did not know the significance of bite-mark patterns of the teeth, about 75% dental practitioners did not aware that they could testify as an expert witness in the court of law. Only 15% dental practitioners have formal training in collecting, evaluating, and presenting dental evidence. Seventy-five percent dental practitioners not confident to deal with forensic cases. Conclusions: Our study revealed inadequate knowledge, lack of awareness about forensic odontology, among dental practitioners in Chhattisgarh. PMID:29263619

  14. The Videofluorographic Swallowing Study in Rheumatologic Diseases: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Di Piazza, Ambra; Costanzo, Massimo; Scopelliti, Laura; Salvaggi, Francesco; Cupido, Francesco; Salerno, Sergio; Lo Casto, Antonio; Midiri, Massimo; Lo Re, Giuseppe; Lagalla, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune connective tissue diseases are a heterogeneous group of pathologies that affect about 10% of world population with chronic evolution in 20%–80%. Inflammation in autoimmune diseases may lead to serious damage to other organs including the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal tract involvement in these patients may also due to both a direct action of antibodies against organs and pharmacological therapies. Dysphagia is one of the most important symptom, and it is caused by failure of the swallowing function and may lead to aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, dehydration, weight loss, and airway obstruction. The videofluorographic swallowing study is a key diagnostic tool in the detection of swallowing disorders, allowing to make an early diagnosis and to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal and pulmonary complications. This technique helps to identify both functional and structural anomalies of the anatomic chain involved in swallowing function. The aim of this review is to systematically analyze the basis of the pathological involvement of the swallowing function for each rheumatological disease and to show the main features of the videofluorographic study that may be encountered in these patients. PMID:28706536

  15. A comprehensive review of metal-induced cellular transformation studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiao Yi; Costa, Max

    2017-09-15

    In vitro transformation assays not only serve practical purposes in screening for potential carcinogenic substances in food, drug, and cosmetic industries, but more importantly, they provide a means of understanding the critical biological processes behind in vivo cancer development. In resemblance to cancer cells in vivo, successfully transformed cells display loss of contact inhibition, gain of anchorage independent growth, resistant to proper cell cycle regulation such as apoptosis, faster proliferation rate, potential for cellular invasion, and ability to form tumors in experimental animals. Cells purposely transformed using metal exposures enable researchers to examine molecular changes, dissect various stages of tumor formation, and ultimately elucidate metal induced cancer mode of action. For practical purposes, this review specifically focuses on studies incorporating As-, Cd-, Cr-, and Ni-induced cell transformation. Through investigating and comparing an extensive list of studies using various methods of metal-induced transformation, this review serves to bridge an information gap and provide a guide for avoiding procedural discrepancies as well as maximizing experimental efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A comprehensive study on maxillofacial trauma conducted in Yamunanagar, India

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Rishi; Sharma, Parveen; Garg, Amandeep; Dhillon, Guneet

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Background: The Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, D.A.V [C] Dental College and Hospital, Yamuna Nagar, Haryana, India conducted a study on patients with maxillofacial fractures in a time span of seven years (2003-2010). The purpose of this study was to evaluate their aetiology, incidence, patterns and different modalities employed for management. Methods: In this study, 740 patients with 1054 fractures were evaluated clinically and radiographically, based on which closed reduction and open reduction was undertaken. Review of patient records included: Age, sex, time, mechanism and etiology of injury, history of bleeding, unconsciousness and prior first aid, type of vehicle and use of preventive measures, type of fracture and treatment modalities. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for highest number of fractures predominantly occurring in the age group of 21-30 years (38.3%)1,2. Males incurred more fractures with a male female ratio of 4.2: 1.Mandible was the most commonly fractured bone with parasymphysis being the commonest affected site.76.66% patients had associated head injury and 15.68 % had history of unconsciousness. Open reduction and internal fixation was the preferred modality for mandible whereas the mid face fractures were treated more often by closed methods. Conclusions: Injuries occurred more commonly in 20 – 40 age range with road traffic accident being the major etiological factor. Majority of the patients were driving two wheelers and most were under the effect of alcohol. Most of the injuries occurred during night and road traffic accidents (71.89%) were found to be the major etiological factor. Out of 532 road traffic accidents, 490 patients (66.2%) were on two wheelers, among whom 49(10%) were wearing helmet. In the mandible, fractures occurred most commonly in the parasymphyseal region (224, 30.2%), and out of the 314 fractures of the middle third showed, 155 (49.4%) ZMC. OPG was the most commonly advised X

  17. Clinical Utility of Serologic Testing for Celiac Disease in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    on a GFD. Since IgA measurement is the standard for the serologic celiac disease tests, false negatives may occur in IgA-deficient individuals. Incidence and Prevalence of Celiac Disease The incidence and prevalence of celiac disease in the general population and in subjects with symptoms consistent with or at higher risk of celiac disease based on systematic reviews published in 2004 and 2009 are summarized below. Incidence of Celiac Disease in the General Population Adults or mixed population: 1 to 17/100,000/year Children: 2 to 51/100,000/year In one of the studies, a stratified analysis showed that there was a higher incidence of celiac disease in younger children compared to older children, i.e., 51 cases/100,000/year in 0 to 2 year-olds, 33/100,000/year in 2 to 5 year-olds, and 10/100,000/year in children 5 to 15 years old. Prevalence of Celiac Disease in the General Population The prevalence of celiac disease reported in population-based studies identified in the 2004 systematic review varied between 0.14% and 1.87% (median: 0.47%, interquartile range: 0.25%, 0.71%). According to the authors of the review, the prevalence did not vary by age group, i.e., adults and children. Prevalence of Celiac Disease in High Risk Subjects Type 1 diabetes (adults and children): 1 to 11% Autoimmune thyroid disease: 2.9 to 3.3% First degree relatives of patients with celiac disease: 2 to 20% Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Subjects with Symptoms Consistent with the Disease The prevalence of celiac disease in subjects with symptoms consistent with the disease varied widely among studies, i.e., 1.5% to 50% in adult studies, and 1.1% to 17% in pediatric studies. Differences in prevalence may be related to the referral pattern as the authors of a systematic review noted that the prevalence tended to be higher in studies whose population originated from tertiary referral centres compared to general practice. Research Questions What is the sensitivity and specificity of serologic

  18. No Serologic Evidence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection Among Camel Farmers Exposed to Highly Seropositive Camel Herds: A Household Linked Study, Kenya, 2013.

    PubMed

    Munyua, Peninah; Corman, Victor Max; Bitek, Austine; Osoro, Eric; Meyer, Benjamin; Müller, Marcel A; Lattwein, Erik; Thumbi, S M; Murithi, Rees; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Drosten, Christian; Njenga, M Kariuki

    2017-06-01

    AbstractHigh seroprevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) among camels has been reported in Kenya and other countries in Africa. To date, the only report of MERS-CoV seropositivity among humans in Kenya is of two livestock keepers with no known contact with camels. We assessed whether persons exposed to seropositive camels at household level had serological evidence of infection. In 2013, 760 human and 879 camel sera were collected from 275 and 85 households respectively in Marsabit County. Data on human and animal demographics and type of contact with camels were collected. Human and camel sera were tested for anti-MERS-CoV IgG using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Human samples were confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with seropositivity. The median age of persons sampled was 30 years (range: 5-90) and 50% were males. A quarter (197/760) of the participants reported having had contact with camels defined as milking, feeding, watering, slaughtering, or herding. Of the human sera, 18 (2.4%) were positive on ELISA but negative by PRNT. Of the camel sera, 791 (90%) were positive on ELISA. On univariate analysis, higher prevalence was observed in female and older camels over 4 years of age ( P < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, only age remained significantly associated with increased odds of seropositivity. Despite high seroprevalence among camels, there was no serological confirmation of MERS-CoV infection among camel pastoralists in Marsabit County. The high seropositivity suggests that MERS-CoV or other closely related virus continues to circulate in camels and highlights ongoing potential for animal-to-human transmission.

  19. Comprehensive Study of the Model Mercury-Based Cuprate Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Greven, Martin

    This is the Final Report on DE-SC0006858, which opened 15 August 2011 and closed 14 August 2017. The Principal Investigator is Martin Greven, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 555455 (email: greven@umn.edu). The Administrative Point of Contact is Patricia Jondahl, phone: 612-624-5599, email: awards@umn.edu. The DOE Program is the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Program manager is Dr. P. Thiyagarajan, Neutron Scattering SC-22.2/ Germantown Bldg. (email: Thiyagarajan@science.doe.gov). The chief activity was the crystal growth, characterization, neutron and X-ray scattering study of the mercury-based cuprates, arguably the most desirable high-Tc superconductors for experimental study due to theirmore » record values of Tc and their relatively simple crystal structures. It is thought that the unusual magnetic and charge degrees of freedom of the copper-oxygen sheets that form the fundamental building block of all cuprate superconductors give rise to the high Tc and to many other unusual properties exhibited by the class of quantum materials. Neutron scattering experiments were performed to reveal the nature of the magnetic degrees of freedom of the copper-oxygen sheets, whereas X-ray scattering experiments and complementary charge-transport experiments were performed to reveal the nature of the charge degrees of freedom. In addition, collaborations were initiated with experts in the use of complementary experimental techniques. The primary products are (i) scientific articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, (ii) scientific presentations at national and international conferences, and (iii) education of postdoctoral researchers, PhD graduate students and undergraduate researchers by providing a research experience in crystal growth, characterization and scattering. Twenty scientific papers were published in peer-reviewed journals, thirty-one invited talks were presented at national or international conferences

  20. Effects of text cohesion on comprehension and retention of colorectal cancer screening information: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Rawl, Susan M

    2012-01-01

    Increasing readability of written cancer prevention information is a fundamental step to increasing awareness and knowledge of cancer screening. Instead of readability formulas, the present study focused on text cohesion, which is the degree to which the text content ties together. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of text cohesion on reading times, comprehension, and retention of colorectal cancer prevention information. English-speaking adults (50 years of age or older) were recruited from local communities. Participants were randomly assigned to read colorectal cancer prevention subtopics presented at 2 levels of text cohesion: from higher cohesion to lower cohesion, or vice versa. Reading times, word recognition, text comprehension, and recall were assessed after reading. Two weeks later, text comprehension and recall were reassessed. Forty-two adults completed the study, but five were lost to follow up. Higher text cohesion showed a significant effect on reading times and text comprehension but not on word recognition and recall. The effect of text cohesion was not found on text comprehension and recall after 2 weeks. Increasing text cohesion facilitates reading speed and comprehension of colorectal cancer prevention information. Further research on the effect of text cohesion is warranted.

  1. Big Data in HEP: A comprehensive use case study

    SciTech Connect

    Gutsche, Oliver; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elmer, Peter

    Experimental Particle Physics has been at the forefront of analyzing the worlds largest datasets for decades. The HEP community was the first to develop suitable software and computing tools for this task. In recent times, new toolkits and systems collectively called Big Data technologies have emerged to support the analysis of Petabyte and Exabyte datasets in industry. While the principles of data analysis in HEP have not changed (filtering and transforming experiment-specific data formats), these new technologies use different approaches and promise a fresh look at analysis of very large datasets and could potentially reduce the time-to-physics with increased interactivity.more » In this talk, we present an active LHC Run 2 analysis, searching for dark matter with the CMS detector, as a testbed for Big Data technologies. We directly compare the traditional NTuple-based analysis with an equivalent analysis using Apache Spark on the Hadoop ecosystem and beyond. In both cases, we start the analysis with the official experiment data formats and produce publication physics plots. Lastly, we will discuss advantages and disadvantages of each approach and give an outlook on further studies needed.« less

  2. Big Data in HEP: A comprehensive use case study

    DOE PAGES

    Gutsche, Oliver; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elmer, Peter; ...

    2017-11-23

    Experimental Particle Physics has been at the forefront of analyzing the worlds largest datasets for decades. The HEP community was the first to develop suitable software and computing tools for this task. In recent times, new toolkits and systems collectively called Big Data technologies have emerged to support the analysis of Petabyte and Exabyte datasets in industry. While the principles of data analysis in HEP have not changed (filtering and transforming experiment-specific data formats), these new technologies use different approaches and promise a fresh look at analysis of very large datasets and could potentially reduce the time-to-physics with increased interactivity.more » In this talk, we present an active LHC Run 2 analysis, searching for dark matter with the CMS detector, as a testbed for Big Data technologies. We directly compare the traditional NTuple-based analysis with an equivalent analysis using Apache Spark on the Hadoop ecosystem and beyond. In both cases, we start the analysis with the official experiment data formats and produce publication physics plots. Lastly, we will discuss advantages and disadvantages of each approach and give an outlook on further studies needed.« less

  3. Big Data in HEP: A comprehensive use case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsche, Oliver; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elmer, Peter; Jayatilaka, Bo; Kowalkowski, Jim; Pivarski, Jim; Sehrish, Saba; Mantilla Surez, Cristina; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tran, Nhan

    2017-10-01

    Experimental Particle Physics has been at the forefront of analyzing the worlds largest datasets for decades. The HEP community was the first to develop suitable software and computing tools for this task. In recent times, new toolkits and systems collectively called Big Data technologies have emerged to support the analysis of Petabyte and Exabyte datasets in industry. While the principles of data analysis in HEP have not changed (filtering and transforming experiment-specific data formats), these new technologies use different approaches and promise a fresh look at analysis of very large datasets and could potentially reduce the time-to-physics with increased interactivity. In this talk, we present an active LHC Run 2 analysis, searching for dark matter with the CMS detector, as a testbed for Big Data technologies. We directly compare the traditional NTuple-based analysis with an equivalent analysis using Apache Spark on the Hadoop ecosystem and beyond. In both cases, we start the analysis with the official experiment data formats and produce publication physics plots. We will discuss advantages and disadvantages of each approach and give an outlook on further studies needed.

  4. Performance Demands in Softball Pitching: A Comprehensive Muscle Fatigue Study.

    PubMed

    Corben, Jeffrey S; Cerrone, Sara A; Soviero, Julie E; Kwiecien, Susan Y; Nicholas, Stephen J; McHugh, Malachy P

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring pitch count is standard practice in minor league baseball but not in softball because of the perception that fast-pitch softball pitching is a less stressful motion. To examine muscle fatigue after fast-pitch softball performances to provide an assessment of performance demand. Descriptive laboratory study. Bilateral strength measurements (handheld dynamometer) were made on 19 female softball pitchers (mean age [±SD], 15.2 ± 1.2 years) before and after pitching a game (mean number of pitches, 99 ± 21; mean innings pitched, 5 ± 1). A total of 20 tests were performed on the dominant and nondominant sides: forearm (grip, wrist flexion/extension, pronation/supination, elbow flexion/extension), shoulder (flexion, abduction/adduction, external/internal rotation, empty can test), scapula (middle/lower trapezius, rhomboid), and hip (hip flexion/extension, abduction/adduction). Fatigue (percentage strength loss) was categorized based on bilateral versus unilateral presentation using paired t tests: bilateral symmetric (significant on dominant and nondominant and not different between sides), bilateral asymmetric (significant on dominant and nondominant but significantly greater on dominant), unilateral asymmetric (significant on dominant only and significantly greater than nondominant), or unilateral equivocal (significant on dominant only but not different from nondominant). Bilateral symmetric fatigue was evident for all hip (dominant, 19.3%; nondominant, 15.2%) and scapular tests (dominant, 19.2%; nondominant, 19.3%). In general, shoulder tests exhibited bilateral asymmetric fatigue (dominant, 16.9%; nondominant, 11.6%). Forearm tests were more variable, with bilateral symmetric fatigue in the elbow flexors (dominant, 22.5%; nondominant, 19.2%), and wrist flexors (dominant, 21.6%; nondominant, 19.0%), bilateral asymmetric fatigue in the supinators (dominant, 21.8%; nondominant, 15.5%), unilateral asymmetric fatigue in the elbow extensors (dominant, 22

  5. Malaria transmission rates estimated from serological data.

    PubMed Central

    Burattini, M. N.; Massad, E.; Coutinho, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model was used to estimate malaria transmission rates based on serological data. The model is minimally stochastic and assumes an age-dependent force of infection for malaria. The transmission rates estimated were applied to a simple compartmental model in order to mimic the malaria transmission. The model has shown a good retrieving capacity for serological and parasite prevalence data. PMID:8270011

  6. A Study on the Comprehensive and Integrated Workplace Safety and Health Services in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chia, Sin Eng; Wah, Lim John; Khim, Judy Sng Gek; Yoong, Joanne; Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Seng, Chia Kee

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of comprehensiveness and integration of workplace safety and health (WSH) services (safety, occupational health, and well-being) in Singapore. Thirty workplaces from five different sectors comprising more than 28,000 workers were assessed using three custom-developed tools. One quarter of the workplaces have applied the principles of comprehensive and integrated WSH. Among those that managed WSH comprehensively, workers were 4.4 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.33 to 8.25) more likely to be proud to work for their company, 7.4 times (95% CI, 3.96 to 13.90) more likely to be satisfied with their current job, and 1.7 times (95% CI, 1.21 to 2.32) more likely to balance the demands of work and home. There is a need to enhance awareness and education on comprehensive and integrated WSH in Singapore companies.

  7. Issues and considerations in the use of serologic biomarkers for classifying vaccination history in household surveys.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Adam; Lee, Chung-Won; Dietz, Vance

    2014-09-03

    Accurate estimates of vaccination coverage are crucial for assessing routine immunization program performance. Community based household surveys are frequently used to assess coverage within a country. In household surveys to assess routine immunization coverage, a child's vaccination history is classified on the basis of observation of the immunization card, parental recall of receipt of vaccination, or both; each of these methods has been shown to commonly be inaccurate. The use of serologic data as a biomarker of vaccination history is a potential additional approach to improve accuracy in classifying vaccination history. However, potential challenges, including the accuracy of serologic methods in classifying vaccination history, varying vaccine types and dosing schedules, and logistical and financial implications must be considered. We provide historic and scientific context for the potential use of serologic data to assess vaccination history and discuss in detail key areas of importance for consideration in the context of using serologic data for classifying vaccination history in household surveys. Further studies are needed to directly evaluate the performance of serologic data compared with use of immunization cards or parental recall for classification of vaccination history in household surveys, as well assess the impact of age at the time of sample collection on serologic titers, the predictive value of serology to identify a fully vaccinated child for multi-dose vaccines, and the cost impact and logistical issues on outcomes associated with different types of biological samples for serologic testing. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Comprehensive Renewable Energy Feasibility Study for the Makah Indian Tribe

    SciTech Connect

    RobertLynette; John Wade; Larry Coupe

    The purpose of this project was to determine the technical feasibility, economic viability, and potential impacts of installing and operating a wind power station and/or small hydroelectric generation plants on the Makah reservation. The long-term objective is to supply all or a portion of Tribe's electricity from local, renewable energy sources in order to reduce costs, provide local employment, and reduce power outages. An additional objective was for the Tribe to gain an understanding of the requirements, costs, and benefits of developing and operating such plants on the reservation. The Makah Indian Reservation, with a total land area of forty-sevenmore » square miles, is located on the northwestern tip of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State. Four major watersheds drain the main Reservation areas and the average rainfall is over one hundred inches per year. The reservation's west side borders the Pacific Ocean, but mostly consists of rugged mountainous terrain between 500 and 1,900 feet in elevation. Approximately 1,200 tribal members live on the Reservation and there is an additional non-Indian residential population of about 300. Electric power is provided by the Clallam County PUD. The annual usage on the reservation is approximately 16,700 mWh. Project Work Wind Energy--Two anemometer suites of equipment were installed on the reservation and operated for a more than a year. An off-site reference station was identified and used to project long-term wind resource characteristics at the two stations. Transmission resources were identified and analyzed. A preliminary financial analysis of a hypothetical wind power station was prepared and used to gauge the economic viability of installation of a multi-megawatt wind power station. Small Hydroelectric--Two potential sites for micro/small-hydro were identified by analysis of previous water resource studies, topographical maps, and conversations with knowledgeable Makah personnel. Field trips were conducted

  9. Improving Middle-School Students' Knowledge and Comprehension in Social Studies: A Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Fall, Anna-Mária; Stillman-Spisak, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to replicate findings that demonstrated impact on students' reading comprehension and social studies content learning. Using a randomized control trial, intervention, and outcome measures, this study was replicated in 85 8th-grade social studies classes with 19 teachers. Teachers were provided professional development on…

  10. The Characteristics of Faculty in Comprehensive Institutions: New England Comprehensive Universities Academic Labor Market Study. Working Paper #10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youn, Ted I. K.

    This paper compares the characteristics of faculty in comprehensive institutions of higher education with those of faculty in other college and university categories. The paper summarizes demographic features, working conditions, satisfaction and participation in academic work organizations, mobility and careers, and attitudes and orientations…

  11. Brain activation for reading and listening comprehension: An fMRI study of modality effects and individual differences in language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A.; Tomitch, Lêda M. B.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2010-01-01

    The study compared the brain activation patterns associated with the comprehension of written and spoken Portuguese sentences. An fMRI study measured brain activity while participants read and listened to sentences about general world knowledge. Participants had to decide if the sentences were true or false. To mirror the transient nature of spoken sentences, visual input was presented in rapid serial visual presentation format. The results showed a common core of amodal left inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri activation, as well as modality specific brain activation associated with listening and reading comprehension. Reading comprehension was associated with more left-lateralized activation and with left inferior occipital cortex (including fusiform gyrus) activation. Listening comprehension was associated with extensive bilateral temporal cortex activation and more overall activation of the whole cortex. Results also showed individual differences in brain activation for reading comprehension. Readers with lower working memory capacity showed more activation of right-hemisphere areas (spillover of activation) and more activation in the prefrontal cortex, potentially associated with more demand placed on executive control processes. Readers with higher working memory capacity showed more activation in a frontal-posterior network of areas (left angular and precentral gyri, and right inferior frontal gyrus). The activation of this network may be associated with phonological rehearsal of linguistic information when reading text presented in rapid serial visual format. The study demonstrates the modality fingerprints for language comprehension and indicates how low- and high working memory capacity readers deal with reading text presented in serial format. PMID:21526132

  12. A comprehensive intervention following the clinical pathway of eating and swallowing disorder in the elderly with dementia: historically controlled study.

    PubMed

    Arahata, Masahisa; Oura, Makoto; Tomiyama, Yuka; Morikawa, Naoe; Fujii, Hatsue; Minani, Shinji; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2017-07-14

    Eating problems in patients with advanced dementia are strongly associated with their deteriorating survival. Food and drink intake in people with dementia may be supported by specific interventions, but the effectiveness of such interventions is backed by almost no evidence. However, comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) might potentially clarify the etiology of decreased oral intake in people with dementia; thus improving their clinical outcomes. This study was a single-arm, non-randomized trial that included historically controlled patients for comparison. We defined elderly patients with both severely decreased oral intake depending on artificial hydration and/or nutrition (AHN) and dementia as "Eating and Swallowing Disorder of the Elderly with Dementia (ESDED)". In the intervention group, participants received CGA through the original clinical pathway with multidisciplinary interventions. This was followed by individualized therapeutic interventions according to assessment of the etiology of their eating problems. During the intervention period (between 1st April 2013 and 31st March 2015), 102 cases of ESDED were enrolled in the study and 90 patients had completed receiving CGA. Conversely, 124 ESDED patient controls were selected from the same hospital enrolled during the historical period (between 1st April 2011 and 31st March 2012). Most participants in both groups were bedridden with severe cognitive impairment. For the intervention group, an average of 4.3 interventional strategies was recommended per participant after CGA. Serological tests, diagnostic imaging and other diagnostic examinations were much more frequently performed in the intervention group. Recovery rate from ESDED in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the historical group (51% v.s. 34%, respectively, P = 0.02). The 1-year AHN-free survival in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the historical group (28% v.s. 15%, respectively, P

  13. The Impact of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs on L2 Listening Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubillos, Jorge H.; Chieffo, Lisa; Fan, Chunbo

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of a five-week intermediate Spanish course on the listening comprehension ability of 48 participants in short-term study abroad programs, and compares these groups with 92 peers enrolled in a similar course on the home campus. While both on-campus and study abroad groups experienced similar gains in listening…

  14. Improving Reading Comprehension and Social Studies Knowledge among Middle School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Fall, Ana-Mari

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the efficacy of a content knowledge and reading comprehension treatment implemented by eighth-grade general education social studies teachers among students with disabilities included in the classes. Data on students with disabilities across 2 years of study were combined for the analysis presented here. Students in…

  15. A Case Study of the Impact of Guided Reading Groups in Second Grade on Comprehension Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorent Deegan, Chanin E.

    2010-01-01

    This study combined both qualitative and quantitative research to determine the impact of instructional practices on comprehension improvement in second grade Guided Reading groups. Four second grade teachers and their 73 students ages seven through eight years old participated in this study. Additionally, the study examined the effects of Guided…

  16. 78 FR 76888 - MAP-21 Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... Weight Limits Study Materials AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...) Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study, which were referenced in a notice published on November 29... commenting additional time to submit comments while maintaining the schedule required to deliver this study...

  17. Proverb comprehension in context: a developmental study with children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nippold, M A; Martin, S A; Erskine, B J

    1988-03-01

    Although previous studies have reported that proverb comprehension remains quite literal before adolescence, the results of the present study indicated that fourth graders performed well on a proverb comprehension task involving contextual information and a written multiple choice format. It was also found that performance on the proverb task steadily improved at least through the eighth grade and was significantly correlated to performance on a perceptual analogical reasoning task. The study contributes to the small but growing body of information concerning language development during the preadolescent and adolescent years and may have some important implications for the assessment of youngsters of this age range who have comprehension deficits that are troublesome, yet difficult to document.

  18. Getting the Joke: Insight during Humor Comprehension - Evidence from an fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fang; Hou, Yuling; Zhu, Wenfeng; Dietrich, Arne; Zhang, Qinglin; Yang, Wenjing; Chen, Qunlin; Sun, Jiangzhou; Jiang, Qiu; Cao, Guikang

    2017-01-01

    As a high-level cognitive activity, humor comprehension requires incongruity detection and incongruity resolution, which then elicits an insight moment. The purpose of the study was to explore the neural basis of humor comprehension, particularly the moment of insight, by using both characters and language-free cartoons in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. The results showed that insight involving jokes elicited greater activation in language and semantic-related brain regions as well as a variety of additional regions, such as the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), the superior temporal gyrus (STG), the temporoparietal junctions (TPJ), the hippocampus and visual areas. These findings indicate that the MTG might play a role in incongruity detection, while the SFG, IFG and the TPJ might be involved in incongruity detection. The passive insight event elicited by jokes appears to be mediated by a limited number of brain areas. Our study showed that the brain regions associated with humor comprehension were not affected by the type of stimuli and that humor and insight shared common brain areas. These results indicate that one experiences a feeling of insight during humor comprehension, which contributes to the understanding of humor comprehension.

  19. Getting the Joke: Insight during Humor Comprehension – Evidence from an fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fang; Hou, Yuling; Zhu, Wenfeng; Dietrich, Arne; Zhang, Qinglin; Yang, Wenjing; Chen, Qunlin; Sun, Jiangzhou; Jiang, Qiu; Cao, Guikang

    2017-01-01

    As a high-level cognitive activity, humor comprehension requires incongruity detection and incongruity resolution, which then elicits an insight moment. The purpose of the study was to explore the neural basis of humor comprehension, particularly the moment of insight, by using both characters and language-free cartoons in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. The results showed that insight involving jokes elicited greater activation in language and semantic-related brain regions as well as a variety of additional regions, such as the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), the superior temporal gyrus (STG), the temporoparietal junctions (TPJ), the hippocampus and visual areas. These findings indicate that the MTG might play a role in incongruity detection, while the SFG, IFG and the TPJ might be involved in incongruity detection. The passive insight event elicited by jokes appears to be mediated by a limited number of brain areas. Our study showed that the brain regions associated with humor comprehension were not affected by the type of stimuli and that humor and insight shared common brain areas. These results indicate that one experiences a feeling of insight during humor comprehension, which contributes to the understanding of humor comprehension. PMID:29093693

  20. Serological study of Human Fasciolosis in Patients Referring to the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran during 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Aryaeipour, Mojgan; Kia, Eshrat Beigom; Heidari, Zahra; Sayyad Talaie, Zahra; Rokni, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease of livestock and human caused by Fasciola species. Here in, the results of serological evaluation of fascioliasis in people referring to the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 2008-2014 are presented. Demographic characterizations, symptoms and eosinophil rate were registered for every patient. Using somatic antigen of Fasciola, ELISA was performed and the results were analyzed. Data of questioners were analyzed as well. Among 206 applicants, 24.8% were seropositive for fascioliasis, included 21% female and 28.3% male. Mean range of age of patients was between 13 to 67 yr. The highest rate of seropositivity was found among 20-30 yr old patients. Most of the patients had hypereosinophilia. All patients had history of eating raw vegetables, or drinking unsafe water. Patients were referring from different provinces of Iran, including Gilan, Mazandaran, Tehran, Ardabil, Khuzestan, Lorestan, North Khorasan, Kermanshah, Azerbaijan, Fars, Kordestan, Hamedan and Markazi. During recent years, variety of provinces in Iran, where patients with fascioliasis are referred, has been increased. Patients coming from Gilan and Mazandaran provinces were referred early after the onset of their symptoms. Most probably, physicians in Gilan and Mazandaran are more alert on fascioliasis than other provinces. Previous wrong diagnosis was more common among patients referring from other provinces than Gilan and Mazandaran provinces.

  1. Molecular and serological study of rickettsial infection in humans, and in wild and farm animals, in the province of Burgos, Spain.

    PubMed

    Lledó, Lourdes; Domínguez-Peñafiel, Gerardo; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Gegúndez, Isabel; González, Rosario; Saz, José Vicente

    2014-06-01

    Limited information is available on the presence of rickettsial infection in humans and animal reservoirs in Spain. Exposure to spotted fever group rickettsia in healthy humans and in farm and wild animals in the Province of Burgos, Spain, was examined by serological methods. Rickettsial DNA was also sought by PCR in animal samples. Of 102 human serum samples examined by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA), 5.88% were positive for antibodies against Rickettsia conorii (titers 1/128-1/512). Significant differences were detected in human seroprevalence with respect to age. In further IFAs, 102 out of 375 (27.2%) serum samples from the wild animals reacted with R. conorii antigens (titers 1/64-1/1024); 32 out of 281 (11.38%) samples from farm animals were also positive for R. conorii (titers 1/64-1/2048). The prevalence detected among total wild animals was significantly higher than among total farm animals. No rickettsial DNA was found by PCR in any farm or wild animal sample.

  2. An Exploratory Study of NNES Graduate Students' Reading Comprehension of English Journal Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kate Tzu-Ching

    2017-01-01

    The academic success of non-native English speaker (NNES) graduate students greatly relies on their ability to read and comprehend English journal articles (EJA). The purpose of this study was to identify NNES graduate students' comprehension difficulties and reading strategies when reading EJA. In addition, the study explored how the relationship…

  3. Storybook Read-Alouds to Enhance Students' Comprehension Skills in ESL Classrooms: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, Ainon; Saufi, Maizatulliza Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of using storybooks during read-alouds to develop children's comprehension skills as well as in understanding the story has been widely studied. The reading aloud strategy has also been proven through numerous researches to be the most highly recommended activity for encouraging language and literacy. The study identified the…

  4. Findings across Practitioner Training Studies in Special Education: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Matthew E.; Cannella-Malone, Helen I.; Seaman, Rachel L.; Andzik, Natalie R.; Schaefer, John M.; Page, E. Justin; Barczak, Mary A.; Dueker, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Existing reviews address important questions about subsets of practitioner training studies in special education but leave important questions about the broader literature unanswered. In this comprehensive review, we identified 118 peer-reviewed single-case-design studies in which researchers tested the efficacy of practitioner training on…

  5. Findings across Practitioner Training Studies in Special Education: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Matthew E.; Cannella-Malone, Helen I.; Seaman, Rachel L.; Andzik, Natalie R.; Schaefer, John M.; Page, E. Justin; Barczak, Mary A.; Dueker, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Existing reviews answer important questions about subsets of practitioner training studies in special education, but leave important questions about the broader literature unanswered. In this comprehensive review, we identified 118 peer-reviewed single-case design studies in which researchers tested the efficacy of practitioner training on…

  6. Comprehension-Based versus Production-Based Grammar Instruction: A Meta-Analysis of Comparative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shintani, Natsuko; Li, Shaofeng; Ellis, Rod

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a meta-analysis of studies that investigated the relative effectiveness of comprehension-based instruction (CBI) and production-based instruction (PBI). The meta-analysis only included studies that featured a direct comparison of CBI and PBI in order to ensure methodological and statistical robustness. A total of 35 research…

  7. A Study of the Sustained Effects of Comprehensive School Reform Programs in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, William; Baugh, Carnell; Sheffer, Jim

    2005-01-01

    The general purpose of this study is to present post-funding Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) data to address the more lasting features of CSR programs, their relation to the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and support of its requirements, and the impact of CSR on student achievement. For the schools included in this study, many of the components…

  8. Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content through Text in High School Social Studies Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon; Kent, Shawn C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content Through Text intervention implemented with 11th-grade students enrolled in U.S. History classes. Using a within-teacher randomized design, the study was conducted in 41 classes (23 treatment classes) with 14 teachers providing the…

  9. A Case Study of the Partnership Schools Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Joyce L.

    2005-01-01

    This case study reports the feasibility of the Partnership Schools Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) model for school improvement in a Title I elementary school. Interviews were conducted and documents were collected for 3 years to study whether and how the school implemented key policy attributes--specificity, consistency, authority, power, and…

  10. The SQ3R Study Technique Enhances Comprehension of an Introductory Psychology Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastain, Garvin; Thurber, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of the SQ3R study technique in enhancing comprehension of material in an introductory psychology textbook. Finds significantly better performance on tests of recall or conceptual items for students using SQ3R than for those using individual study methods. (RS)

  11. The Use of Graphic Organizers To Improve Comprehension of Learning Disabled Students in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Carole S.

    This study examined the effectiveness of two approaches to enhancing the reading comprehension of learning disabled students in the social studies content area. An approach using the graphic organizer in the form of visual displays was compared to the traditional method in which students were presented content through lecture, text, and linear…

  12. A Qualitative Study of Facilitators and Barriers Related to Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose M.; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Barclay, Chris; Mattison, Amira; Tan, Sim Yin; Sabnis, Sujay; Brundage, Amber; Marshall, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the majority of school psychologists' time continues to be dedicated to SPED related activities. Despite ongoing calls for school psychologists to expand their roles, why many practitioners do not deliver more comprehensive services is not well understood. This qualitative study investigated facilitators of and…

  13. Report on Legislative and Funding Recommendations, DoDDS Comprehensive Study [of Dependents Schools].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Ted; LeBlanc, Linda

    The final volume of a comprehensive study of the Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS), this report consists of a brief background description of the DoDDS system, followed by 10 legislative and funding recommendations based on the findings of the study: (1) increase funding in fiscal year 1984 and beyond to accommodate anticipated…

  14. A Correlation Study between EFL Strategic Listening and Listening Comprehension Skills among Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Iman Abdul-Reheem; Amin, Magdy Mohammad; Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the correlation between EFL students strategic listening and their listening comprehension skills. Eighty secondary school students participated in this study. Participants' strategic listening was measured by a Strategic Listening Interview (SLI), a Strategic Listening Questionnaire (SLQ) and a…

  15. Involvement of the right hemisphere in reading comprehension: a DTI study

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Wang, Yingying; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    The Simple View of reading emphasizes the critical role of two factors in normal reading skills: word recognition and reading comprehension. The current study aims to identify the anatomical support for aspects of reading performance that fall within these two components. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained from Diffusion Tensor images in twenty-one typical adolescents and young adults using the Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) method. We focused on the Arcuate Fasciculus (AF) and Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus (ILF) as fiber tracts that connect regions already implicated in the distributed cortical network for reading. Our results demonstrate dissociation between word-level and narrative-level reading skills: the FA values for both left and right ILF were correlated with measures of word reading, while only the left ILF correlated with reading comprehension scores. FA in the AF, however, correlated only with reading comprehension scores, bilaterally. Correlations with the right AF were particularly robust, emphasizing the contribution of the right hemisphere, especially the frontal lobe, to reading comprehension performance on the particular passage comprehension test used in this study. The anatomical dissociation between these reading skills is supported by the Simple View theory and may shed light on why these two skills dissociate in those with reading disorders. PMID:24909792

  16. Examining Associations Among ADHD, Homework Behavior, and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Little, Callie W; Hart, Sara A; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2016-07-01

    Previous literature has indicated an important association between reading comprehension and both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and homework habits. This investigation sought to extend previous knowledge by providing information about how ADHD and homework behavior (i.e., completing homework regularly) may jointly influence reading comprehension. Using a genetically sensitive design, this study examined the genetic and environmental influences on and between ADHD, homework behavior and reading comprehension. Participants for this study included 691 twin pairs (351 monozygotic, 340 same-sex dizygotic) from the Florida Twin Project on Behavior and Environment (FTP-BE) and 2647 twin pairs (865 monozygotic, 1782 dizygotic) from the larger Florida Twin Project on Reading (FTP-R) in Grades 3 through 7. Three separate models, each representing a different definition of ADHD (full ADHD, inattention only, and hyperactivity/impulsivity only), showed similar patterns of results; therefore, results of the full ADHD model are discussed. Overlapping genetic influences were found between ADHD, homework behavior, and reading comprehension, but no shared environmental influences among all three. However, shared environmental influences overlapped between homework behavior and reading comprehension. Although the sources of this environmental overlap are unknown, these results have implications for improving homework practices and their subsequent influence on literacy skills through homework environments. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  17. Serology of Paracoccidioidomycosis Due to Paracoccidioides lutzii

    PubMed Central

    Gegembauer, Gregory; Araujo, Leticia Mendes; Pereira, Edy Firmina; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda; Hahn, Rosane Christine; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2014-01-01

    Paracoccidioides lutzii is a new agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) and has its epicenter localized to the Central-West region of Brazil. Serological diagnosis of PCM caused by P. lutzii has not been established. This study aimed to develop new antigenic preparations from P. lutzii and to apply them in serological techniques to improve the diagnosis of PCM due to P. lutzii. Paracoccidioides lutzii exoantigens, cell free antigen (CFA), and a TCA-precipitated antigen were evaluated in immunodiffusion (ID) tests using a total of 89 patient sera from the Central-West region of Brazil. Seventy-two sera were defined as reactive for P. brasiliensis using traditional antigens (AgPbB339 and gp43). Non-reactive sera for traditional antigens (n = 17) were tested with different P. lutzii preparations and P. lutzii CFA showed 100% reactivity. ELISA was found to be a very useful test to titer anti-P. lutzii antibodies using P. lutzii-CFA preparations. Sera from patients with PCM due to P. lutzii presented with higher antibody titers than PCM due to P. brasiliensis and heterologous sera. In western blot, sera from patients with PCM due to P. lutzii were able to recognize antigenic molecules from the P. lutzii-CFA antigen, but sera from patients with PCM due to P. brasiliensis could not recognize any P. lutzii molecules. Due to the facility of preparing P. lutzii CFA antigens we recommend its use in immunodiffusion tests for the diagnosis of PCM due to P. lutzii. ELISA and western blot can be used as complementary tests. PMID:25032829

  18. Serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and standardization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Han, Yanxi; Li, Jinming

    2016-10-01

    Humans can be infected by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which causes toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic disease. Although the infection is generally asymptomatic for most adults, severe complications may occur in some individuals, especially women in early pregnancy. Serologic diagnosis is used as a routine practice to determine the immune status for infection by T. gondii. In this review, we attempt to provide an overview of the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, including diagnostic strategy, current problems in detection with specific antibodies, and the standardization of T. gondii serological detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural Mechanism Underling Comprehension of Narrative Speech and Its Heritability: Study in a Large Population.

    PubMed

    Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2017-09-01

    Comprehension of narratives constitutes a fundamental part of our everyday life experience. Although the neural mechanism of auditory narrative comprehension has been investigated in some studies, the neural correlates underlying this mechanism and its heritability remain poorly understood. We investigated comprehension of naturalistic speech in a large, healthy adult population (n = 429; 176/253 M/F; 22-36 years of age) consisting of 192 twin pairs (49 monozygotic and 47 dizygotic pairs) and 237 of their siblings. We used high quality functional MRI datasets from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) in which a story-based paradigm was utilized for the auditory narrative comprehension. Our results revealed that narrative comprehension was associated with activations of the classical language regions including superior temporal gyrus (STG), middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in both hemispheres, though STG and MTG were activated symmetrically and activation in IFG were left-lateralized. Our results further showed that the narrative comprehension was associated with activations in areas beyond the classical language regions, e.g. medial superior frontal gyrus (SFGmed), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and supplementary motor area (SMA). Of subcortical structures, only the hippocampus was involved. The results of heritability analysis revealed that the oral reading recognition and picture vocabulary comprehension were significantly heritable (h 2  > 0.56, p < 10 - 13 ). In addition, the extent of activation of five areas in the left hemisphere, i.e. STG, IFG pars opercularis, SFGmed, SMA, and precuneus, and one area in the right hemisphere, i.e. MFG, were significantly heritable (h 2  > 0.33, p < 0.0004). The current study, to the best of our knowledge, is the first to investigate auditory narrative comprehension and its heritability in a large healthy population. Referring to the excellent quality of the HCP data, our

  20. [Managing comprehensive care: a case study in a health district in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

    2016-03-01

    This study analyzed management of comprehensive care in a health district in Bahia State, Brazil, at the political, institutional, organizational, and healthcare practice levels and the challenges for establishing coordinated care between municipalities. The information sources were semi-structured interviews with administrators, focal groups with healthcare professionals and users, institutional documents, and observations. A comprehensive and critical analysis was produced with dialectical hermeneutics as the reference. The results show that the Inter-Administrators Regional Commission was the main regional governance strategy. There is a fragmentation between various points and lack of communications linkage in the network. Private interests and partisan political interference overlook the formally agreed-upon flows and create parallel circuits, turning the right to health into currency for trading favors. Such issues hinder coordination of comprehensive care in the inter-municipal network.

  1. Comprehension of metaphors and idioms in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Papagno, C

    2001-07-01

    Language in patients with Alzheimer's disease has been extensively studied, with the exception of non-literal language comprehension. However, in our speech, we often make use of expressions, which are not necessarily interpreted on a literal ground. Comprehension of metaphors and idioms was examined in 39 patients with probable early Alzheimer's disease. The results showed that the decline of figurative language is not an early symptom of dementia and can occur independently from the impairment of propositional language. It was also found that metaphors and idioms differ as far as the predominant kind of error is concerned.

  2. Role of type-specific herpes simplex virus-1 and 2 serology as a diagnostic modality in patients with clinically suspected genital herpes: A comparative study in Indian population from a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Vrushali; Bhalla, Preena

    2016-01-01

    Type-specific serology (TSS) test for herpes simplex virus (HSV) have been used as a research tool in seroepidemiological studies for some years. However, TSS as a diagnostic modality for diagnosis of current episode of genital herpes is not well documented. To measure the seroprevalence of type-specific HSV Type 1 (HSV-1) and Type 2 (HSV-2) IgG antibodies in cases provisionally diagnosed as primary and recurrent genital herpes and to evaluate the role of TSS as a diagnostic modality for diagnosis of genital herpes versus polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A cross-sectional study was performed over a period of 10 months in which 44 adult patients with clinically suspected genital herpes were recruited. An in-house glycoprotein G gene base PCR was performed directly from the genital lesion specimen for simultaneous detection and typing of HSV. TSS was performed to detect IgG antibody against HSV-1 and 2 in all patients using commercially available kits, and the results were compared. Seroprevalence of HSV-1 IgG was 43% among primary and 65% among recurrent genital herpes cases (P = 0.22). Whereas that of HSV-2 IgG was found to be 14% and 83% in respective patient group (P = 0.0001). When compared to PCR results HSV-1 IgG detection in both primary and recurrent genital herpes diagnosis had poor specificity, positive predictive value, and sensitivity. Whereas, HSV-2 serology had a sensitivity of 13.33% and 73.33% in primary and recurrent genital herpes and specificity of 83.33% and 85.71%, respectively. HSV-2 IgG detection helps in strengthening the diagnosis of recurrent HSV-2 disease, whereas the absence of HSV-2 IgG antibody helps in excluding genital herpes as a likely cause of recurrent genital ulceration. However, detection of HSV-1 IgG antibody may not be useful for diagnosis in patients of genital ulcer disease.

  3. Neural circuit of verbal humor comprehension in schizophrenia - an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Przemysław; Wyczesany, Miroslaw; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Daren, Artur; Cepuch, Kamil; Błądziński, Piotr; Cechnicki, Andrzej; Marek, Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit problems with understanding the figurative meaning of language. This study evaluates neural correlates of diminished humor comprehension observed in schizophrenia. The study included chronic schizophrenia (SCH) outpatients (n = 20), and sex, age and education level matched healthy controls (n = 20). The fMRI punchline based humor comprehension task consisted of 60 stories of which 20 had funny, 20 nonsensical and 20 neutral (not funny) punchlines. After the punchlines were presented, the participants were asked to indicate whether the story was comprehensible and how funny it was. Three contrasts were analyzed in both groups reflecting stages of humor processing: abstract vs neutral stories - incongruity detection; funny vs abstract - incongruity resolution and elaboration; and funny vs neutral - complete humor processing. Additionally, parametric modulation analysis was performed using both subjective ratings separately. Between-group comparisons revealed that the SCH subjects had attenuated activation in the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (BA 41) in case of irresolvable incongruity processing of nonsensical puns; in the left dorsomedial middle and superior frontal gyri (BA 8/9) in case of incongruity resolution and elaboration processing of funny puns; and in the interhemispheric dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24) in case of complete processing of funny puns. Additionally, during comprehensibility ratings the SCH group showed a suppressed activity in the left dorsomedial middle and superior frontal gyri (BA 8/9) and revealed weaker activation during funniness ratings in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24). Interestingly, these differences in the SCH group were accompanied behaviorally by a protraction of time in both types of rating responses and by indicating funny punchlines less comprehensible. Summarizing, our results indicate neural substrates of humor comprehension processing

  4. Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems Braille Reading Assessment: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…

  5. A Study of the Relationship between Physical Skills and Achievement in Listening Comprehension, Mathematics, and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Josey; Jones, Robbie

    To determine if a relationship existed between physical skills and achievement in reading, mathematics, and listening comprehension of fifth-grade students, a study evaluated 334 fifth-graders in Starkville, Mississippi, on 20 physical fitness, motor fitness, and sports skills, as well as the Stanford Achievement Tests. The physical skills test…

  6. A Study of Reading Comprehension in Older Children Using Selected Korean Bible Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jae Woo

    2014-01-01

    Problem: The problem of this study was to determine the difference in Bible comprehension scores among gender-based groups of older children using selected passages from three Bible translations: the Children's Bible, the Easy Bible, and the New Revised Korean Bible. Procedures: A total of 288 older children in three churches (Beautiful Baptist…

  7. Identifying Mechanisms of Teaching Practices: A Study in Swedish Comprehensive Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichenberg, Olof

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify the mechanisms behind the occurrence of teaching practices of seatwork and recitation across lessons. The study is based on an analysis of 74 video recorded lessons from 4 school classes in Swedish comprehensive schools during 2013. Firstly, the results suggest that teaching practices such as seatwork…

  8. The Acquisition of Pronouns by French Children: A Parallel Study of Production and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesiger, Pascal; Zesiger, Laurence Chillier; Arabatzi, Marina; Baranzini, Lara; Cronel-Ohayon, Stephany; Franck, Julie; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans; Hamann, Cornelia; Rizzi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    This study examines syntactic and morphological aspects of the production and comprehension of pronouns by 99 typically developing French-speaking children aged 3 years, 5 months to 6 years, 5 months. A fine structural analysis of subject, object, and reflexive clitics suggests that whereas the object clitic chain crosses the subject chain, the…

  9. Developmental Relations between Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Change Score Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, M[subscript age] = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and…

  10. COMPREHENSIVE VOCATIONALLY ORIENTED PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR ADOLESCENT DELINQUENT BOYS--A FOLLOW-UP STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MASSIMO, JOSEPH L.; SHORE, MILTON F.

    THIS ARTICLE REPORTED A 2- AND 3-YEAR FOLLOWUP STUDY OF 20 DELINQUENT MALE DROPOUTS, HALF OF WHOM RECEIVED 10 MONTHS OF A COMPREHENSIVE, VOCATIONALLY ORIENTED PSYCHOTHERAPY PROGRAM, HALF OF WHOM DID NOT. METROPOLITAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS AND THEMATIC STORIES WERE USED IN ASSESSMENTS. A SHORT INTERVIEW OBTAINED DATA ON JOB HISTORY, LEGAL AND MARITAL…

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study of Fluency and Reading Comprehension in Spanish Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The importance of prosodic elements is recognised in most definitions of fluency. Although speed and accuracy have been typically considered the constituents of reading fluency, prosody is emerging as an additional component. The relevance of prosody in comprehension is increasingly recognised in the latest studies. The purpose of this research is…

  12. Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury: A Comprehensive Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Daniel; And Others

    This document reports a comprehensive followup study to describe postservice life status of former vocational rehabilitation clients and to develop an empirical index of postservice adjustment to spinal cord injury. Significant findings, conclusions, and implications are found at the beginning. The introduction section summarizes followup studies…

  13. Deaf Education Teacher Preparation: A Phenomenological Case Study of a Graduate Program with a Comprehensive Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engler, Karen S.; MacGregor, Cynthia J.

    2018-01-01

    At a time when deaf education teacher preparation programs are declining in number, little is known about their actual effectiveness. A phenomenological case study of a graduate-level comprehensive deaf education teacher preparation program at a midwestern university explored empowered and enabled learning of teacher candidates using the Missouri…

  14. Development of Comprehensibility and Its Linguistic Correlates: A Longitudinal Study of Video-Mediated Telecollaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Yuka; Saito, Kazuyo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether 30 learners of Japanese in the United States who engaged in a semester-long video-based eTandem course made gains in global language comprehensibility, that is, ease of understanding (Derwing & Munro, 2009), and what linguistic correlates contributed to these gains. Speech excerpts from Week 2 and 8 of tandem…

  15. Metaphor Comprehension in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Case Studies of Two High-Functioning Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melogno, Sergio; D'Ardia, Caterina; Pinto, Maria Antonietta; Levi, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    This article presents case studies on metaphor comprehension in two boys with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder, aged 9;1 (9 years, 1 month) and 8;11. The participants were assessed twice, before and after an intervention program aimed at improving their social skills. The focus of the article is on the specific patterns exhibited by…

  16. Combined Application of Study Design and Case-Based Learning Comprehensive Model in Epidemiology Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Xiuquan; Zhou, Yanna; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Tao; Nie, Chan; Shi, Shangpeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to conduct the SD-CBL (study design with the case based learning, SD-CBL) in Epidemiology teaching and evaluate its effect. Students from five classes were recruited, and a combined comprehensive teaching model of SD-CBL was used in the "Injury Epidemiology" chapter, while other chapters in "Epidemiology"…

  17. Case Study of an Institutionalized Urban Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Sarah A.; Rukavina, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    This single case study (Yin, 2009) compares an established urban physical education/ sport/physical activity program with two models: Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program/CSPAP (AAHPERD, 2013; CDC, 2013); and Lawson's propositions (2005) for sport, exercise and physical education for empowerment and community development to determine…

  18. Comprehensive Needs Study of Individuals with the most Severe Handicaps. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban Inst., Washington, DC.

    The summary of the comprehensive needs study of individuals with the most severe handicaps presents major findings regarding definitions, incidence, needs, and current services for the severely handicapped. It is explained that information was gathered through data file analysis, client surveys, a review of the literature, and constituency impact…

  19. Exploring the Co-Development of Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Callie W.; Hart, Sara A.; Quinn, Jamie M.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Taylor, Jeanette; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the co-development of two related but separate reading skills, reading fluency and reading comprehension, across Grades 1-4. A bivariate biometric dual change score model was applied to longitudinal data collected from 1,784 twin pairs between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Grade 1 skills were influenced by highly overlapping…

  20. The Effects of CLIL on Oral Comprehension and Production: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez Cañado, María Luisa; Lancaster, Nina Karen

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of a longitudinal case study to gauge the impact of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) on two of the least researched language skills: oral comprehension and production. It worked with 24 students in the fourth grade of Compulsory Secondary Education in a public school in Andalusia (southern Spain)…

  1. The Effect of Internet Usage on Technology Comprehension of Physics Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzel, Hatice

    2011-01-01

    Rapid technological enhancements and changes necessitate people who can understand the relation between science and technology and perceive as well as comment on technological enhancements. The aim of the present study was to determine physics students comprehension of the operation principles of wired telephone, mobile phone, and latest medical…

  2. Enhancing Reading Comprehension among Students with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Randomized Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roux, Catherine; Dion, Eric; Barrette, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Reading with comprehension is a challenge for students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Unfortunately, research has little to offer to teachers trying to help these students. The present study pilots a new intervention targeting vocabulary, main idea identification, anaphoric relations, and text structure. Students (N = 13, M…

  3. Comprehensive Environmental Assessment and U.S. EPA Nanomaterial Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    These case studies are not completed risk assessments but are structured around an approach known as comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA), which combines a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm (Davis, J.M., J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 7:402-9, 2007). ...

  4. Executive Function, Self-Regulated Learning, and Reading Comprehension: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirino, Paul T.; Miciak, Jeremy; Gerst, Elyssa; Barnes, Marcia A.; Vaughn, Sharon; Child, Amanda; Huston-Warren, Emily

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the extent to which training that emphasizes the process of executive function (EF) and self-regulated learning (SRL) would result in increased reading comprehension; we also evaluated interrelationships of EF, SRL, and reading. We report an experiment (N = 75 fourth graders) that contrasted two…

  5. Report of the Comprehensive Study of the Department of Defense Dependents Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Ted; And Others

    As part of the 1978 amendments to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, a comprehensive study of the Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS) was mandated by the 96th Congress. The objectives were to determine the educational quality of DoDDS, the relation of student progress to expectations, the availability of resources and…

  6. Correlates of lower comprehension of informed consent among participants enrolled in a cohort study in Pune, India.

    PubMed

    Joglekar, Neelam S; Deshpande, Swapna S; Sahay, Seema; Ghate, Manisha V; Bollinger, Robert C; Mehendale, Sanjay M

    2013-03-01

    Optimum comprehension of informed consent by research participants is essential yet challenging. This study explored correlates of lower comprehension of informed consent among 1334 participants of a cohort study aimed at estimating HIV incidence in Pune, India. As part of the informed consent process, a structured comprehension tool was administered to study participants. Participants scoring ≥90% were categorised into the 'optimal comprehension group', whilst those scoring 80-89% were categorised into the 'lower comprehension group'. Data were analysed to identify sociodemographic and behavioural correlates of lower consent comprehension. The mean ± SD comprehension score was 94.4 ± 5.00%. Information pertaining to study-related risks was not comprehended by 61.7% of participants. HIV-negative men (adjusted OR [AOR] = 4.36, 95% CI 1.71-11.05) or HIV-negative women (AOR = 13.54, 95% CI 6.42-28.55), illiteracy (AOR= 1.65, 95% CI 1.19-2.30), those with a history of multiple partners (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.12-2.66) and those never using condoms (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.01-1.82) were more likely to have lower consent comprehension. We recommend exploration of domains of lower consent comprehension using a validated consent comprehension tool. Improved education in these specific domains would optimise consent comprehension among research participants.

  7. Correlates of lower comprehension of informed consent among participants enrolled in a cohort study in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Joglekar, Neelam S.; Deshpande, Swapna S.; Sahay, Seema; Ghate, Manisha V.; Bollinger, Robert C.; Mehendale, Sanjay M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Optimum comprehension of informed consent by research participants is essential yet challenging. This study explored correlates of lower comprehension of informed consent among 1334 participants of a cohort study aimed at estimating HIV incidence in Pune, India. Methods As part of the informed consent process, a structured comprehension tool was administered to study participants. Participants scoring ≥90% were categorised into the ‘optimal comprehension group’, whilst those scoring 80–89% were categorised into the ‘lower comprehension group’. Data were analysed to identify sociodemographic and behavioural correlates of lower consent comprehension. Results The mean ± SD comprehension score was 94.4 ± 5.00%. Information pertaining to study-related risks was not comprehended by 61.7% of participants. HIV-negative men (adjusted OR [AOR] = 4.36, 95% CI 1.71–11.05) or HIV-negative women (AOR = 13.54, 95% CI 6.42–28.55), illiteracy (AOR= 1.65, 95% CI 1.19–2.30), those with a history of multiple partners (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.12–2.66) and those never using condoms (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.01–1.82) were more likely to have lower consent comprehension. Conclusions We recommend exploration of domains of lower consent comprehension using a validated consent comprehension tool. Improved education in these specific domains would optimise consent comprehension among research participants. PMID:24029848

  8. Training in rapid auditory processing ameliorates auditory comprehension in aphasic patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Szelag, Elzbieta; Lewandowska, Monika; Wolak, Tomasz; Seniow, Joanna; Poniatowska, Renata; Pöppel, Ernst; Szymaszek, Aneta

    2014-03-15

    Experimental studies have often reported close associations between rapid auditory processing and language competency. The present study was aimed at improving auditory comprehension in aphasic patients following specific training in the perception of temporal order (TO) of events. We tested 18 aphasic patients showing both comprehension and TO perception deficits. Auditory comprehension was assessed by the Token Test, phonemic awareness and Voice-Onset-Time Test. The TO perception was assessed using auditory Temporal-Order-Threshold, defined as the shortest interval between two consecutive stimuli, necessary to report correctly their before-after relation. Aphasic patients participated in eight 45-minute sessions of either specific temporal training (TT, n=11) aimed to improve sequencing abilities, or control non-temporal training (NT, n=7) focussed on volume discrimination. The TT yielded improved TO perception; moreover, a transfer of improvement was observed from the time domain to the language domain, which was untrained during the training. The NT did not improve either the TO perception or comprehension in any language test. These results are in agreement with previous literature studies which proved ameliorated language competency following the TT in language-learning-impaired or dyslexic children. Our results indicated for the first time such benefits also in aphasic patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive and Personality Components Underlying Spoken Idiom Comprehension in Context. An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Cacciari, Cristina; Corrardini, Paola; Ferlazzo, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    In this exploratory study, we investigated whether and to what extent individual differences in cognitive and personality variables are associated with spoken idiom comprehension in context. Language unimpaired participants were enrolled in a cross-modal lexical decision study in which semantically ambiguous Italian idioms (i.e., strings with both a literal and an idiomatic interpretation as, for instance, break the ice ), predictable or unpredictable before the string offset, were embedded in idiom-biasing contexts. To explore the contributions of different cognitive and personality components, participants also completed a series of tests respectively assessing general speed, inhibitory control, short-term and working memory, cognitive flexibility, crystallized and fluid intelligence, and personality. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that online idiom comprehension was associated with the participants' working memory, inhibitory control and crystallized verbal intelligence, an association modulated by idiom type. Also personality-related variables (State Anxiety and Openness to Experience) were associated with idiom comprehension, although in marginally significant ways. These results contribute to the renewed interest on how individual variability modulates language comprehension, and for the first time document contributions of individual variability on lexicalized, high frequency multi-word expressions as idioms adding new knowledge to the existing evidence on metaphor and sarcasm.

  10. Evidence for bilateral involvement in idiom comprehension: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zempleni, Monika-Zita; Haverkort, Marco; Renken, Remco; A Stowe, Laurie

    2007-02-01

    The goal of the current study was to identify the neural substrate of idiom comprehension using fMRI. Idioms are familiar, fixed expressions whose meaning is not dependent on the literal interpretation of the component words. We presented literally plausible idioms in a sentence forcing a figurative or a literal interpretation and contrasted them with sentences containing idioms for which no literal interpretation was available and with unambiguously literal sentences. The major finding of the current study is that figurative comprehension in the case of both ambiguous and unambiguous idioms is supported by bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left middle temporal gyrus. The right middle temporal gyrus is also involved, but seems to exclusively process the ambiguous idioms. Therefore, our data suggest a bilateral neural network underlying figurative comprehension, as opposed to the exclusive participation of the right hemisphere. The data also provide evidence against proposed models of idiom comprehension in which literal processing is by-passed, since figurative processing demanded more resources than literal processing in the language network.

  11. Cognitive and Personality Components Underlying Spoken Idiom Comprehension in Context. An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Cacciari, Cristina; Corrardini, Paola; Ferlazzo, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    In this exploratory study, we investigated whether and to what extent individual differences in cognitive and personality variables are associated with spoken idiom comprehension in context. Language unimpaired participants were enrolled in a cross-modal lexical decision study in which semantically ambiguous Italian idioms (i.e., strings with both a literal and an idiomatic interpretation as, for instance, break the ice), predictable or unpredictable before the string offset, were embedded in idiom-biasing contexts. To explore the contributions of different cognitive and personality components, participants also completed a series of tests respectively assessing general speed, inhibitory control, short-term and working memory, cognitive flexibility, crystallized and fluid intelligence, and personality. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that online idiom comprehension was associated with the participants' working memory, inhibitory control and crystallized verbal intelligence, an association modulated by idiom type. Also personality-related variables (State Anxiety and Openness to Experience) were associated with idiom comprehension, although in marginally significant ways. These results contribute to the renewed interest on how individual variability modulates language comprehension, and for the first time document contributions of individual variability on lexicalized, high frequency multi-word expressions as idioms adding new knowledge to the existing evidence on metaphor and sarcasm. PMID:29765350

  12. The Effect of the Cherry Hill Study Skills Program on Eighth Grade Students' Reading Comprehension and Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Marilyn Tierney

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of the "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" on eighth grade students' reading comprehension and study skills. The "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" is a process oriented course dealing with the sequential development of nine specific skills deemed essential to the retrieval and retention of information…

  13. The Comprehension of Familiar and Novel Metaphoric Meanings in Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Alexander M; Felsenheimer, Anne K; Langohr, Karin; Klupp, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Miscomprehension of nonliteral ("figurative") language like metaphors, proverbs, idioms, and ironic expressions by patients with schizophrenia is a phenomenon mentioned already in historical psychiatric descriptions. However, it was only recently that studies did differentiate between novel and conventional metaphors, a factor that is known to influence the difficulty of comprehension in healthy subjects. Further, familiarity with stimuli is an important factor for comprehension, which was not recommended in utmost previous studies. In this study, 23 patients with DSM IV schizophrenia and 19 healthy control subjects performed a newly-developed German metaphor comprehension test with three types of stimuli: novel metaphors, conventional German metaphors, and meaningless statements. During the test procedure, participants indicated familiarity with the stimulus and then matched the meaning with one out of four given alternatives. Familiarity rankings did not significantly differ between patients and control subjects. However, on descriptive level, there was a tendency for healthy controls to be more familiar with conventional metaphors than schizophrenic patients. Further, comprehension of conventional and novel metaphors differed significantly between the groups, with higher performance in healthy controls. Considering only those metaphors that had been ranked as familiar, patients only revealed significant lower performance opposed to controls regarding novel metaphors, while they did not differ in conventional metaphors. Taken together, the results indicate that patients with schizophrenia might show an altered way of comprehension in novel metaphors, leading to more misunderstandings. However, their previously reported impairments in conventional metaphors might rather be due to a lack of familiarity with the stimuli-making conventional metaphors to novel metaphors in the individual case.

  14. The Comprehension of Familiar and Novel Metaphoric Meanings in Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Alexander M.; Felsenheimer, Anne K.; Langohr, Karin; Klupp, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Miscomprehension of nonliteral (“figurative”) language like metaphors, proverbs, idioms, and ironic expressions by patients with schizophrenia is a phenomenon mentioned already in historical psychiatric descriptions. However, it was only recently that studies did differentiate between novel and conventional metaphors, a factor that is known to influence the difficulty of comprehension in healthy subjects. Further, familiarity with stimuli is an important factor for comprehension, which was not recommended in utmost previous studies. In this study, 23 patients with DSM IV schizophrenia and 19 healthy control subjects performed a newly-developed German metaphor comprehension test with three types of stimuli: novel metaphors, conventional German metaphors, and meaningless statements. During the test procedure, participants indicated familiarity with the stimulus and then matched the meaning with one out of four given alternatives. Familiarity rankings did not significantly differ between patients and control subjects. However, on descriptive level, there was a tendency for healthy controls to be more familiar with conventional metaphors than schizophrenic patients. Further, comprehension of conventional and novel metaphors differed significantly between the groups, with higher performance in healthy controls. Considering only those metaphors that had been ranked as familiar, patients only revealed significant lower performance opposed to controls regarding novel metaphors, while they did not differ in conventional metaphors. Taken together, the results indicate that patients with schizophrenia might show an altered way of comprehension in novel metaphors, leading to more misunderstandings. However, their previously reported impairments in conventional metaphors might rather be due to a lack of familiarity with the stimuli—making conventional metaphors to novel metaphors in the individual case. PMID:29354082

  15. Collagen fragment biomarkers as serological biomarkers of lean body mass – a biomarker pilot study from the DAHANCA25B cohort and matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Nedergaard, Anders; Dalgas, Ulrik; Primdahl, Hanne; Johansen, Jørgen; Overgaard, Jens; Overgaard, Kristian; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Lønbro, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Loss of muscle mass and function is an important complication to ageing and a range of pathologies, including, but not restricted to, cancer, organ failures, and sepsis. A number of interventions have been proposed ranging from exercise to anabolic pharmacological therapy, with varying success. Easily applicable serological biomarkers of lean and/or muscle mass and change therein would benefit monitoring of muscle mass during muscle atrophy as well as during recovery. We set out to validate if novel peptide biomarkers derived from Collagen III and VI were markers of lean body mass (LBM) or change therein in head and neck cancer patients in the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group(DAHANCA) 25B cohort subjected to resistance training as well as in an age-matched and gender-matched control group. Methods Blood samples and dual X-ray absorptiometry data were measured at baseline, after 12 and 24 weeks in 41 HNSCC subjects of the DAHANCA 25B cohort of subjects recovering from neck and head cancer (stages provided in Table 1), and at baseline only in 21 healthy age-matched and gender-matched controls. Serum from blood was analyzed for the ProC3, IC6, and C6M peptide biomarkers and LBM were derived from the dual X-ray absorptiometry scans. Results We were not able to show any correlation between biomarkers and LBM or C6M and anabolic response to exercise in recovering head and neck cancer patients. However, we did find that the biomarkers IC6, IC6/C6M, and ProC3 are biomarkers of LBM in the control group subjects (R2/P of 0.249/0.035, 0.416/0.007 and 0.178 and P = 0.057, respectively), Conclusion In conclusion, the IC6, ProC3, and IC6/C6M biomarkers are indeed biomarkers of LBM in healthy individuals of both genders, but not in HNSCC patients. PMID:26673155

  16. Vaccine Efficacy Against a New Avian Influenza (H9N2) Field Isolate from the Middle East (Serology and Challenge Studies).

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Amareen, Shadi

    2016-05-01

    Avian influenza subtype H9N2 is endemic in many countries in the Middle East. The reported prevalence of infection was variable between countries and ranged from 28.7% in Tunisia to 71% in Jordan. Several commercial killed whole-virus vaccine products are used as monovalent or bivalent mixed with Newcastle disease virus. Recently, we have noticed that many of the vaccinated broiler flocks did not show a production advantage over nonvaccinated flocks in the field. A new avian influenza field virus (H9N2) was isolated from these vaccinated and infected broiler flocks in 2013. This virus had 89.1% similarity of its hemagglutinin (HA) gene to the classical virus used for manufacturing the classical vaccine. Inactivated autogenous vaccine was manufactured from this new field isolate to investigate its serological response and protection in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) and breeder-male chickens compared to the classical vaccine. Oropharyngeal virus shedding of vaccinated breeder-male chickens was evaluated at 3, 9, 10, and 14 days postchallenge (DPC). Percentage of chickens shedding the virus at 3 DPC was 64%, 50%, and 64% in the classical vaccine group, autogenous vaccine group, and the control challenged group, respectively. At 7 DPC percentage of virus shedding was 42%, 7%, and 64% in the classical vaccine group, autogenous vaccine group, and the control challenged group, respectively. At 10 DPC only 9% of classical vaccine group was shedding the virus and there was no virus shedding in any of the groups at 14 DPC. There was statistical significance difference (P < 0.05) in shedding only at 7 DPC between the autogenous vaccine group and the other two groups. At 42 days of age (14 DPC), average body weight was 2.720, 2.745, 2.290, and 2.760 kg for the classical vaccine group, autogenous vaccine group, control challenged group, and control unchallenged group, respectively. Only the control challenged group had significantly (P < 0.05) lower average body weight. In

  17. Temporal and spatial patterns of serologic responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in a region of declining malaria transmission in southern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tamaki; Chishimba, Sandra; Shields, Timothy; Hamapumbu, Harry; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Thuma, Philip E; Glass, Gregory; Moss, William J

    2012-12-31

    Critical to sustaining progress in malaria control is comprehensive surveillance to identify outbreaks and prevent resurgence. Serologic responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens can serve as a marker of recent transmission and serosurveillance may be feasible on a large scale. Satellite images were used to construct a sampling frame for the random selection of households enrolled in prospective longitudinal and cross-sectional surveys in two study areas in Southern Province, Zambia, one in 2007 and the other in 2008 and 2009. Blood was collected and stored as dried spots from participating household members. A malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was used to diagnose malaria. An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to detect IgG antibodies to asexual stage P. falciparum whole parasite lysate using serum eluted from dried blood spots. The expected mean annual increase in optical density (OD) value for individuals with a documented prior history of recent malaria was determined using mixed models. SatScan was used to determine the spatial clustering of households with individuals with serological evidence of recent malaria, and these households were plotted on a malaria risk map. RDT positivity differed markedly between the study areas and years: 28% of participants for whom serologic data were available were RDT positive in the 2007 study area, compared to 8.1% and 1.4% in the 2008 and 2009 study area, respectively. Baseline antibody levels were measured in 234 participants between April and July 2007, 435 participants between February and December 2008, and 855 participants between January and December 2009. As expected, the proportion of seropositive individuals increased with age in each year. In a subset of participants followed longitudinally, RDT positivity at the prior visit was positively correlated with an increase in EIA OD values after adjusting for age in 2007 (0.261, p = 0.003) and in 2008 (0.116, p = 0.03). RDT positivity at the concurrent visit also

  18. Narrative comprehension and production in children with SLI: An eye movement study

    PubMed Central

    ANDREU, LLORENÇ; SANZ-TORRENT, MONICA; OLMOS, JOAN GUÀRDIA; MACWHINNEY, BRIAN

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5; 8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5; 6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children with SLI. The comprehension task involved the recording of eye movements during the visual exploration of successive scenes in a story, while listening to the associated narrative. With regard to production, the children were asked to retell the story, while once again looking at the scenes, as their eye movements were monitored. During narrative production, children with SLI look at the most semantically relevant areas of the scenes fewer times than their age-matched controls, but no differences were found in narrative comprehension. Moreover, the analyses of speech productions revealed that children with SLI retained less information and made more semantic and syntactic errors during retelling. Implications for theories that characterize SLI are discussed. PMID:21453036

  19. An Exploratory Study of Reading Comprehension in College Students After Acquired Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Griffiths, Gina G; Fickas, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    This exploratory study builds on the small body of existing research investigating reading comprehension deficits in college students with acquired brain injury (ABI). Twenty-four community college students with ABI completed a battery of questionnaires and standardized tests to characterize self-perceptions of academic reading ability, performance on a standardized reading comprehension measure, and a variety of cognitive functions of this population. Half of the participants in the sample reported traumatic brain injury (n = 12) and half reported nontraumatic ABI (n = 12). College students with both traumatic and nontraumatic ABI cite problems with reading comprehension and academic performance postinjury. Mean performance on a standardized reading measure, the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (Brown, Fischo, & Hanna, 1993), was low to below average and was significantly correlated with performance on the Speed and Capacity of Language Processing Test (Baddeley, Emslie, & Nimmo-Smith, 1992). Injury status of traumatic versus nontraumatic ABI did not differentiate results. Regression analysis showed that measures of verbal attention and suppression obtained from the California Verbal Language Test-II (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 2000) predicted total scores on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test. College students with ABI are vulnerable to reading comprehension problems. Results align with other research suggesting that verbal attention and suppression problems may be contributing factors.

  20. Executive Function, Self-Regulated Learning, and Reading Comprehension: A Training Study.

    PubMed

    Cirino, Paul T; Miciak, Jeremy; Gerst, Elyssa; Barnes, Marcia A; Vaughn, Sharon; Child, Amanda; Huston-Warren, Emily

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the extent to which training that emphasizes the process of executive function (EF) and self-regulated learning (SRL) would result in increased reading comprehension; we also evaluated interrelationships of EF, SRL, and reading. We report an experiment ( N = 75 fourth graders) that contrasted two researcher-implemented conditions (text-based reading [TB] and text-based reading plus executive function [TB+EF]) to a control. We also evaluated relationships among measures of SRL, EF, and reading. Both the TB and TB+EF groups outperformed the control group for proximal text comprehension (where the topic was similar to that covered in training) and background knowledge related to it, but the two researcher-led groups performed similarly. There were no significant differences for less proximal text, and again similar performance for both TB and TB+EF. Correlations among measures were weak in general, although the pattern was similar to that found in the extant literature. The findings speak to the difficulty in separating these components from those of strong instruction more generally. The relationships of these constructs to reading comprehension will likely be enhanced by more sensitive measurement of EF and reading comprehension, particularly where tied to active treatment components.

  1. Executive Function, Self-Regulated Learning, and Reading Comprehension: A Training Study

    PubMed Central

    Cirino, Paul T.; Miciak, Jeremy; Gerst, Elyssa; Barnes, Marcia A.; Vaughn, Sharon; Child, Amanda; Huston-Warren, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the extent to which training that emphasizes the process of executive function (EF) and self-regulated learning (SRL) would result in increased reading comprehension; we also evaluated interrelationships of EF, SRL, and reading. We report an experiment (N = 75 fourth graders) that contrasted two researcher-implemented conditions (text-based reading [TB] and text-based reading plus executive function [TB+EF]) to a control. We also evaluated relationships among measures of SRL, EF, and reading. Both the TB and TB+EF groups outperformed the control group for proximal text comprehension (where the topic was similar to that covered in training) and background knowledge related to it, but the two researcher-led groups performed similarly. There were no significant differences for less proximal text, and again similar performance for both TB and TB+EF. Correlations among measures were weak in general, although the pattern was similar to that found in the extant literature. The findings speak to the difficulty in separating these components from those of strong instruction more generally. The relationships of these constructs to reading comprehension will likely be enhanced by more sensitive measurement of EF and reading comprehension, particularly where tied to active treatment components. PMID:26746314

  2. Evaluating the utility of serological testing in laryngotracheal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hall, S Ryan; Allen, Clint T; Merati, Albert L; Mayerhoff, Ross M

    2017-06-01

    Whereas mechanical (traumatic) causes of laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) are identified based on history, autoimmune laryngotracheal stenosis (aLTS) and idiopathic laryngotracheal stenosis (iLTS) are often more difficult to differentiate. The objective of this study was to evaluate serologic testing in a large cohort of nonmechanical LTS patients to determine which tests, if any, lead clinicians to the etiology of the LTS. Retrospective chart review. This study reviewed nonmechanical LTS patients seen at a tertiary medical center from 2007 to 2014. Data were obtained on patient demographics, associated preexisting autoimmune conditions, comorbidities, intubation history, and serologic testing. Ninety-two records were reviewed. Twenty-three (25%) patients were found to have autoimmune disease; 69 (75%) met criteria for iLTS. A history of cigarette smoking was more significant in the aLTS group than the iLTS group (P < .001). Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) was positive only in patients with known granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). All other serological testing was equivocal between the two cohorts. Differentiating iLTS from aLTS has proven difficult. The lack of information about the two entities has resulted in variability in the diagnostic workup to distinguish them. This study's finding of a more significant smoking history in the aLTS group correlates with the literature, which suggests an inflammatory effect of smoking cigarettes and an association with autoimmune disease. The only significant cohort of patients in this study found to have positive serological testing correlated with a diagnosable condition responsible for LTS was GPA patients with positive ANCA. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1408-1412, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Comprehensive Materials and Morphologies Study of Ion Traps (COMMIT) for Scalable Quantum Computation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-21

    the photoelectric effect. The typical shortest wavelengths needed for ion traps range from 194 nm for Hg+ to 493 nm for Ba +, corresponding to 6.4-2.5...REPORT Comprehensive Materials and Morphologies Study of Ion Traps (COMMIT) for scalable Quantum Computation - Final Report 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...CLASSIFICATION OF: Trapped ion systems, are extremely promising for large-scale quantum computation, but face a vexing problem, with motional quantum

  4. Challenges for molecular and serological ZIKV infection confirmation.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos, Zilton Farias Meira; Azevedo, Renata Campos; Thompson, Nathália; Gomes, Leonardo; Guida, Letícia; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2018-01-01

    Zika Virus (ZIKV), member of Flaviviridae family and Flavivirus genus, has recently emerged as international public health emergency after its association with neonatal microcephaly cases. Clinical diagnosis hindrance involves symptom similarities produced by other arbovirus infections, therefore laboratory confirmation is of paramount importance. The most reliable test available is based on ZIKV RNA detection from body fluid samples. However, short viremia window periods and asymptomatic infections diminish the success rate for RT-PCR positivity. Beyond molecular detection, all serology tests in areas where other Flavivirus circulates proved to be a difficult task due to the broad range of cross-reactivity, especially with dengue pre-exposed individuals. Altogether, lack of serological diagnostic tools brings limitations to any retrospective evaluation. Those studies are central in the context of congenital infection that could occur asymptomatically and mask prevalence and risk rates.

  5. Serological approaches for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis - A review.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Rebecca; Schwarz, Norbert G; Hahn, Andreas; Frickmann, Hagen

    2017-02-01

    Schistosomiasis is a common disease in endemic areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, South America and Asia. It is rare in Europe, mainly imported from endemic countries due to travelling or human migration. Available methods for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis comprise microscopic, molecular and serological approaches, with the latter detecting antigens or antibodies associated with Schistosoma spp. infection. The serological approach is a valuable screening tool in low-endemicity settings and for travel medicine, though the interpretation of any diagnostic results requires knowledge of test characteristics and a patient's history. Specific antibody detection by most currently used assays is only possible in a relatively late stage of infection and does not allow for the differentiation of acute from previous infections for therapeutic control or the discrimination between persisting infection and re-infection. Throughout the last decades, new target antigens have been identified, and assays with improved performance and suitability for use in the field have been developed. For numerous assays, large-scale studies are still required to reliably characterise assay characteristics alone and in association with other available methods for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. Apart from S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. japonicum, for which most available tests were developed, other species of Schistosoma that occur less frequently need to be taken into account. This narrative review describes and critically discusses the results of published studies on the evaluation of serological assays that detect antibodies against different Schistosoma species of humans. It provides insights into the diagnostic performance and an overview of available assays and their suitability for large-scale use or individual diagnosis, and thus sets the scene for serological diagnosis of schistosomiasis and the interpretation of results. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  6. Serological diagnosis of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Ness, SallyAnne L; Schares, Gereon; Peters-Kennedy, Jeanine; Mittel, Linda D; Dubey, Jitender P; Bowman, Dwight D; Mohammed, Hussni O; Divers, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Besnoitiosis is an emerging infectious disease of donkeys (Equus asinus) in the United States for which there are currently no serologic methods of diagnosis. A study was performed to evaluate physical examination findings and 3 serologic assays for the detection of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys. A prospective study of 416 donkeys from 6 privately owned herds across 5 U.S. states (New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Oregon, and Washington) was performed. Donkeys were examined for clinical lesions suggestive of besnoitiosis and evaluated for antibodies against B. bennetti using a fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and 2 immunoblot assays specific for bradyzoite and tachyzoite antigens, respectively. Donkeys were confirmed to be infected with B. bennetti by histology (cases; n = 32) and were compared to those with no clinical signs of besnoitiosis (controls; n = 384). Identifying clinical lesions in 2 or more locations correctly identified infected donkeys 83% of the time. Donkeys with besnoitiosis had significantly higher FAT titers (P < 0.001) and numbers of bradyzoite (P < 0.001) and tachyzoite (P < 0.001) immunoblot bands than control donkeys. The sensitivity and specificity of the serologic assays for detecting besnoitiosis was 88% and 96% for FAT, 81% and 91% for bradyzoite immunoblot, and 91% and 92% for tachyzoite immunoblot, respectively. Fluorescent antibody and immunoblot assays are effective at identifying donkeys with besnoitiosis and provide a more efficient and less invasive diagnostic alternative to histology. © 2014 The Author(s).

  7. Integrated Comprehensive Care - A Case Study in Nursing Leadership and System Transformation.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Laura; Doyle, Winnie; Evans, Cheryl; Gosse, Carolyn; Smith, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Calls for transformational change of our healthcare system are increasingly clear, persuasive and insistent. They resonate at all levels, with those who fund, deliver, provide and receive care, and they are rooted in a deep understanding that the system, as currently rigidly structured, most often lacks the necessary flexibility to comprehensively meet the needs of patients across the continuum of care. The St. Joseph's Health System (SJHS) Integrated Comprehensive Care (ICC) Program, which bundles care and funding across the hospital to home continuum, has reduced fragmentation of care, and it has delivered improved outcomes for patients, providers and the system. This case study explores the essential contribution of nursing leadership to this successful transformation of healthcare service delivery.

  8. Deaf Education Teacher Preparation: A Phenomenological Case Study of a Graduate Program With a Comprehensive Philosophy.

    PubMed

    Engler, Karen S; MacGregor, Cynthia J

    2018-01-01

    At a time when deaf education teacher preparation programs are declining in number, little is known about their actual effectiveness. A phenomenological case study of a graduate-level comprehensive deaf education teacher preparation program at a midwestern university explored empowered and enabled learning of teacher candidates using the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education educator pillars: (a) commitment to the profession, (b) proficiency in practice, and (c) learning impact, all deemed critical to developing quality teachers. A strong connection was found between the program's comprehensive philosophy and its practice. Embracing diversity of d/Deafness and differentiated instruction were the most prevalent themes expressed by participants. Teacher candidates displayed outstanding commitment to the profession and high proficiency in practice. The findings suggest that additional consideration should be given to classroom and behavior management, teacher candidate workload, teaching beyond academics, and preparation for navigating the public school system.

  9. Experimental Study on Comprehensive Performance of Full Tailings Paste Filling in Jiaojia Gold Mine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. H.; Zou, Q. B.; Wang, P. Z.

    2017-11-01

    Filling mining method is the main method of modern underground mining. High concentration cementation is carried out using coarse tailing of +37 μm, and the mine has maturely used classified tailings paste filling technology. The gold mine studied on the performance of full tailings paste filling in order to maximize the use of tailings, reduce -37 μm fine tailings discharged into the tailing pond, reduce mining cost and eliminate security risks. The results show that: comprehensive index of full tailings paste filling is higher than that of classified tailings high concentration cementation filling, and the full tailings paste filling of 76% mass concentration has the best comprehensive index of slump, expansibility, yield stress and viscosity to meet the mining method requirements, which can effectively reduce the mining loss rate and dilution rate.

  10. Pedagogical Practices in Teaching Reading Comprehension: A Case Study of Three EFL Teachers in a Secondary School in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurie, Yenus

    2017-01-01

    Various studies investigating psychological variables associated with reading comprehension are currently available. However, there has been little linguistic research conducted to examine the pedagogical practices of teachers in teaching reading comprehension of EFL Secondary Schools, Ethiopia. The present study was conducted to fill the research…

  11. [Differentiation of nonspecific serological reactions in brucellosis].

    PubMed

    Khristoforov, L

    1979-01-01

    Differentiation of non-specific agglutination was performed by the complement binding reaction, Coombs' reaction, Hajdu reaction, the surface fixation and agglutination reaction and the reaction of complement binding with heterologic antigens. For that purpose the following were used: 1) Serums--antiglobulin against cattle globulin, 5720 serum of various animals which had manifested non-specific agglutination with brucella antigen and brucella serums of experimentally infected sheep, of naturally infected swine and of cattle--received from abroad. 2) Antigens--of Br. abortus 99, of bacteria heterologic to brucellae: Proteus vulgaris, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus albus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, S. abortus ovis, for O and OH agglutination, water extraction antigens--for complement binding and concentrated suspensions of all bacteria used in brucellose and non-brucellose serum absorption. Highest number of non-specific reactions were observed in cattle serums and lowest--in goat serums. Titers with heterologic antigens were higher than these with brucella antigens. Often the serum having non-specific agglutiantion reacted not only with one, but with more heterologic antigens. Non-specific complement binding reactions were not produced in complete antibodies with the brucella antigen. Heterologic brucella antigens were exhausted more fully than heterologic complement binding antibodies. In their effectiveness (differentiation of non-specific agglutination with brucella antigen in cattle serum) the serological reactions studied rank as follows: complement binding reaction, slow agglutination with serums absorbed by heterologic antigens, surface fixation reaction, Coombs' reaction, and Hadju agglutination.

  12. Recent Trends in the Serologic Diagnosis of Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ameeta E.

    2014-01-01

    Complexities in the diagnosis of syphilis continue to challenge clinicians. While direct tests (e.g., microscopy or PCR) are helpful in early syphilis, the mainstay of diagnosis remains serologic tests. The traditional algorithm using a nontreponemal test (NTT) followed by a treponemal test (TT) remains the standard in many parts of the world. More recently, the ability to automate the TT has led to the increasingly widespread use of reverse algorithms using treponemal enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). Rapid, point-of-care TTs are in widespread use in developing countries because of low cost, ease of use, and reasonable performance. However, none of the current diagnostic algorithms are able to distinguish current from previously treated infections. In addition, the reversal of traditional syphilis algorithms has led to uncertainty in the clinical management of patients. The interpretation of syphilis tests is further complicated by the lack of a reliable gold standard for syphilis diagnostics, and the newer tests can result in false-positive reactions similar to those seen with older tests. Little progress has been made in the area of serologic diagnostics for congenital syphilis, which requires assessment of maternal treatment and serologic response as well as clinical and laboratory investigation of the neonate for appropriate management. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis continues to require the collection of cerebrospinal fluid for a combination of NTT and TT, and, while newer treponemal EIAs look promising, more studies are needed to confirm their utility. This article reviews current tests and discusses current controversies in syphilis diagnosis, with a focus on serologic tests. PMID:25428245

  13. [Malaria serology test: what contribution does it make in an endemic country such as Ivory Coast?

    PubMed

    Goran-Kouacou, Amah Patricia Victorine; Dou, Gonat Serge; Zika, Kalou Dibert; Adou, Adjoumanvoulé Honoré; Yéboah, Oppong Richard; Aka, Rita Ahou; Hien, Sansan; Siransy, Kouabla Liliane; N'Guessan, Koffi; Djibangar, Tariam Agnès; Dassé, Séry Romuald; Adoubryn, Koffi Daho

    2017-01-01

    Malaria serology test seems to have attracted very little interest in endemic countries such as Ivory Coast. However, this examination has been regularly performed in the parasitology laboratory at the Training and Research Unit of Medical Sciences in Abidjan. Our study aimed to highlight the contribution of malaria serology test in our endemic country context. We conducted a retrospective study of malaria serology test using Falciparum-Spot IF (bioMerieux) kit for the detection of IgG antiplasmodial antibodies. It included all malaria serology tests performed from January 2007 to February 2011 and whose results were available in the registry. In total, 136 patients were selected. The average age of patients was 36,3 years, ranging from 1 to 81 years, and sex ratio was 0,97. Indications for malaria serology test were varied and dominated by splenomegaly (49.3%), cytopenias (14.7%), indeterminate fever (13.2%). Almost all of the patients (98.5%) had antiplasmodial antibodies with high medium titer of 1057,35IU/ml. There was no link between age and Ab titer, which was higher in cytopenias, prolonged fevers and the splenomegaly. Malaria serology test seems to have attracted very little interest in routine clinical practice provided in our endemic area because, whatever the reason of the prescription, titers were high.

  14. New serological markers in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Márta; Müller, Katalin Eszter; Papp, Mária; Lakatos, Péter László; Csöndes, Mihály; Veres, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of serological markers associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rapidly growing. Due to frequently delayed or missed diagnoses, the application of non-invasive diagnostic tests for IBD, as well as differentiation between ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), would be useful in the pediatric population. In addition, the combination of pancreatic autoantibodies and antibodies against Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies/perinuclear cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA) improved the sensitivity of serological markers in pediatric patients with CD and UC. Some studies suggested that age-associated differences in the patterns of antibodies may be present, particularly in the youngest children. In CD, most patients develop stricturing or perforating complications, and a significant number of patients undergo surgery during the disease course. Based on recent knowledge, serum antibodies are qualitatively and quantitatively associated with complicated CD behavior and CD-related surgery. Pediatric UC is characterized by extensive colitis and a high rate of colectomy. In patients with UC, high levels of anti-CBir1 and pANCA are associated with the development of pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Thus, serologic markers for IBD can be applied to stratify IBD patients into more homogeneous subgroups with respect to disease progression. In conclusion, identification of patients at an increased risk of rapid disease progression is of great interest, as the application of early and more aggressive pharmaceutical intervention could have the potential to alter the natural history of IBD, and reduce complications and hospitalizations. PMID:24803798

  15. Creating a comprehensive customer service program to help convey critical and acute results of radiology studies.

    PubMed

    Towbin, Alexander J; Hall, Seth; Moskovitz, Jay; Johnson, Neil D; Donnelly, Lane F

    2011-01-01

    Communication of acute or critical results between the radiology department and referring clinicians has been a deficiency of many radiology departments. The failure to perform or document these communications can lead to poor patient care, patient safety issues, medical-legal issues, and complaints from referring clinicians. To mitigate these factors, a communication and documentation tool was created and incorporated into our departmental customer service program. This article will describe the implementation of a comprehensive customer service program in a hospital-based radiology department. A comprehensive customer service program was created in the radiology department. Customer service representatives were hired to answer the telephone calls to the radiology reading rooms and to help convey radiology results. The radiologists, referring clinicians, and customer service representatives were then linked via a novel workflow management system. This workflow management system provided tools to help facilitate the communication needs of each group. The number of studies with results conveyed was recorded from the implementation of the workflow management system. Between the implementation of the workflow management system on August 1, 2005, and June 1, 2009, 116,844 radiology results were conveyed to the referring clinicians and documented in the system. This accounts for more than 14% of the 828,516 radiology cases performed in this time frame. We have been successful in creating a comprehensive customer service program to convey and document communication of radiology results. This program has been widely used by the ordering clinicians as well as radiologists since its inception.

  16. The Extended Language Network: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies on Text Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Ferstl, Evelyn C.; Neumann, Jane; Bogler, Carsten; von Cramon, D. Yves

    2010-01-01

    Language processing in context requires more than merely comprehending words and sentences. Important subprocesses are inferences for bridging successive utterances, the use of background knowledge and discourse context, and pragmatic interpretations. The functional neuroanatomy of these text comprehension processes has only recently been investigated. Although there is evidence for right-hemisphere contributions, reviews have implicated the left lateral prefrontal cortex, left temporal regions beyond Wernicke’s area, and the left dorso-medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) for text comprehension. To objectively confirm this extended language network and to evaluate the respective contribution of right hemisphere regions, meta-analyses of 23 neuroimaging studies are reported here. The analyses used replicator dynamics based on activation likelihood estimates. Independent of the baseline, the anterior temporal lobes (aTL) were active bilaterally. In addition, processing of coherent compared with incoherent text engaged the dmPFC and the posterior cingulate cortex. Right hemisphere activations were seen most notably in the analysis of contrasts testing specific subprocesses, such as metaphor comprehension. These results suggest task dependent contributions for the lateral PFC and the right hemisphere. Most importantly, they confirm the role of the aTL and the fronto-medial cortex for language processing in context. PMID:17557297

  17. Reading Comprehension Mediates the Relationship between Syntactic Awareness and Writing Composition in Children: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    This research aimed to explore the relation between syntactic awareness and writing composition in 129 Hong Kong Chinese children. These children were from a ten-year longitudinal project. At each year, a number of measures were administered. The 129 children's data of nonverbal reasoning at age 4, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, vocabulary knowledge at age 8, reading comprehension at age 12 and syntactic awareness and writing composition skills at ages 11 and 12 were included in this study. Syntactic awareness was longitudinally and uniquely predictive of Chinese children's writing composition, and children's performance in early writing composition was uniquely associated with their later syntactic skills, even when controlling for the contributions from age, nonverbal and verbal abilities, phonological awareness, and morphological awareness. The relationship between syntactic awareness and writing composition was mediated by children's performance in reading comprehension. These findings may suggest a reciprocal relation between syntactic awareness and writing composition, and this association may vary with ability in reading comprehension in Chinese children.

  18. Perception of 'comprehensiveness of care': a qualitative study amongst dentists in the Brazilian Health System.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Grazielle Christine Maciel; Gallagher, Jennifer Elizabeth; Paiva, Saul Martins; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensiveness relates both to the scope of services offered and to a holistic clinical approach. The aim of this study was to identify the perception of Brazilian dentists regarding key concepts of comprehensiveness and its importance in primary health care oral health services performed in the public sector. Focus groups were conducted to explore three main concepts, 'patient welcoming', 'bonding' and 'quality of care', as well as their aspects. In total, there were four focus groups comprising seven general dentists, all of whom had at least two years of experience in primary care, from municipalities of varying sizes. Discussions of approximately 60 minutes were conducted, audio-recorded and transcribed. The data were analysed by qualitative thematic analysis, in line with the framework approach. The general dentists reported that they are aware that in the Brazilian Health System, the onset of patient care by primary health care services must happen through 'patient welcoming.' Nevertheless, they suggested that this action is often performed poorly due to the large volume of patients. Although they knew the importance of 'bonding', they realised that there is a lack of education preparing professionals to address interpersonal and social issues. They were aware that 'quality of care' is related to multiple factors. Comprehensiveness, as an approach in dental public health practices, needs to be enhanced, and there is evidence that primary care dentists are aware of the need for such an approach.

  19. Syntactic comprehension in reading and listening: a study with French children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Casalis, Séverine; Leuwers, Christel; Hilton, Heather

    2013-01-01

    This study examined syntactic comprehension in French children with dyslexia in both listening and reading. In the first syntactic comprehension task, a partial version of the Epreuve de Compréhension syntaxico-sémantique (ECOSSE test; French adaptation of Bishop's test for receptive grammar test) children with dyslexia performed at a lower level in the written but not in the spoken modality, compared to reading age-matched children, suggesting a difficulty in handling syntax while reading. In the second task, syntactic processing was further explored through a test of relative clause processing, in which inflectional markers could aid in attributing roles to the elements in a complex syntactic structure. Children with dyslexia were insensitive to inflectional markers in both reading and listening, as was the reading age control group, while only the older normal reader group appeared to make use of the inflectional markers. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that difficulties in comprehension in dyslexia are strongly related to poor reading skills.

  20. Advancing a Comprehensive Approach to the Study of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bavendam, Tamara G; Norton, Jenna M; Kirkali, Ziya; Mullins, Chris; Kusek, John W; Star, Robert A; Rodgers, Griffin P

    2016-11-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms are common in the United States population, leading to significant economic, quality of life and public health issues. The burden will increase as the population ages, and risk factors for lower urinary tract symptoms, including diabetes and obesity, remain highly prevalent. Improving clinical management and establishing the knowledge base to prevent lower urinary tract symptoms will require a comprehensive research approach that examines factors beyond the lower urinary tract. While the study of extra-lower urinary tract factors has increased recently, current urological research does not systematically account for the broad set of potential contributing factors spanning biological, behavioral, psychological/executive function and sociocultural factors. A comprehensive assessment of potential contributors to risk, treatment response and progression is necessary to reduce the burden of this condition in the United States. We considered challenges to continuing the predominantly lower urinary tract dysfunction centric approach that has dominated previous research of lower urinary tract symptoms. We developed a new, comprehensive framework for urology research that includes a broader set of potential factors contributing to lower urinary tract symptoms. This framework aims to broaden research to consider a comprehensive set of potential contributing factors and to engage a broad range of researchers in the investigation of as many extra-lower urinary tract factors as possible, with the goal of improving clinical care and prevention. We propose a new framework for future urology research, which should help to reduce the medical and economic burden of lower urinary tract symptoms in the United States population. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cross-Study Differences in the Etiology of Reading Comprehension: a Meta-Analytical Review of Twin Studies.

    PubMed

    Little, Callie W; Haughbrook, Rasheda; Hart, Sara A

    2017-01-01

    Numerous twin studies have examined the genetic and environmental etiology of reading comprehension, though it is likely that etiological estimates are influenced by unidentified sample conditions (e.g. Tucker-Drob and Bates, Psychol Sci:0956797615612727, 2015). The purpose of this meta-analysis was to average the etiological influences of reading comprehension and to explore the potential moderators influencing these estimates. Results revealed an average heritability estimate of h 2  = 0.59, with significant variation in estimates across studies, suggesting potential moderation. Moderation results indicated publication year, grade level, project, zygosity methods, and response type moderated heritability estimates. The average shared environmental estimate was c 2  = 0.16, with publication year, grade and zygosity methods acting as significant moderators. These findings support the role of genetics on reading comprehension, and a small significant role of shared environmental influences. The results suggest that our interpretation of how genes and environments influence reading comprehension should reflect aspects of study and sample.

  2. Cross-study differences in the etiology of reading comprehension: A meta-analytical review of twin studies

    PubMed Central

    Little, Callie W; Haughbrook, Rasheda; Hart, Sara A

    2016-01-01

    Numerous twin studies have been published examining the genetic and environmental etiology of reading comprehension, though the etiological estimates may be influenced currently unidentified sample conditions (e.g., Tucker-Drob & Bates, 2015). The purpose of the current meta-analysis was to average the etiological influences of reading comprehension and to explore the potential moderators that may be influencing these estimates. Results revealed an average heritability estimate of h2 = .59, with significant variation in estimates across studies, suggesting potential moderation. Heritability was moderated by publication year, grade level, project, zygosity determination method, and response type. The average shared environmental estimate was c2 = .16, with publication year, grade and zygosity determination method acting as significant moderators. These findings support the large role of genetic influences on reading comprehension, and a small but significant role of shared environmental influences. The significant moderators of etiological influences within the current synthesis suggest our interpretation of how genes and environment influence reading comprehension should reflect aspects of study and sample. PMID:27630039

  3. Cytomegalovirus frequency in neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis determined by serology, histology, immunohistochemistry and PCR

    PubMed Central

    Bellomo-Brandao, Maria Angela; Andrade, Paula D; Costa, Sandra CB; Escanhoela, Cecilia AF; Vassallo, Jose; Porta, Gilda; De Tommaso, Adriana MA; Hessel, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine cytomegalovirus (CMV) frequency in neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis by serology, histological revision (searching for cytomegalic cells), immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and to verify the relationships among these methods. METHODS: The study comprised 101 non-consecutive infants submitted for hepatic biopsy between March 1982 and December 2005. Serological results were obtained from the patient’s files and the other methods were performed on paraffin-embedded liver samples from hepatic biopsies. The following statistical measures were calculated: frequency, sensibility, specific positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy. RESULTS: The frequencies of positive results were as follows: serology, 7/64 (11%); histological revision, 0/84; immunohistochemistry, 1/44 (2%), and PCR, 6/77 (8%). Only one patient had positive immunohistochemical findings and a positive PCR. The following statistical measures were calculated between PCR and serology: sensitivity, 33.3%; specificity, 88.89%; positive predictive value, 28.57%; negative predictive value, 90.91%; and accuracy, 82.35%. CONCLUSION: The frequency of positive CMV varied among the tests. Serology presented the highest positive frequency. When compared to PCR, the sensitivity and positive predictive value of serology were low. PMID:19610143

  4. Phenotypic and Genetic Associations between Reading Comprehension, Decoding Skills, and ADHD Dimensions: Evidence from Two Population-Based Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plourde, Vickie; Boivin, Michel; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Marino, Cecilia; Tremblay, Richard T.; Dionne, Ginette

    2015-01-01

    Background: The phenotypic and genetic associations between decoding skills and ADHD dimensions have been documented but less is known about the association with reading comprehension. The aim of the study is to document the phenotypic and genetic associations between reading comprehension and ADHD dimensions of inattention and…

  5. The Listening Comprehension Strategies Used by College Students to Cope with the Aural Problems in EFL Classes: An Analytical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghoneim, Nahed Mohamed Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    The current study focused on the problems which students encounter while listening to the English language, the mental processes they activate in listening comprehension, and the strategies they use in different phases of comprehension. Also, it aimed to find out whether there were any differences between advanced and intermediate students in…

  6. Altered Neural Circuits Accompany Lower Performance during Narrative Comprehension in Children with Reading Difficulties: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Buck, Catherine; Dorrmann, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Narrative comprehension is a linguistic ability that is foundational for future reading ability. The aim of the current study was to examine the neural circuitry of children with reading difficulties (RD) compared to typical readers during a narrative-comprehension task. We hypothesized that due to deficient executive functions, which support…

  7. Feasibility Study of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs in Appalachian Communities: The McDowell CHOICES Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emily M.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.; Elliott, Eloise M.; Bulger, Sean M.; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.; Neal, William; Allar, Ishonté

    2014-01-01

    Increasing rates of childhood obesity has prompted calls for comprehensive approaches to school-based physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) development and related contextual issues within a rural Appalachian county using a Systems Approach. A…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Reading Comprehension Achievement from Grades 3 to 10: Investigating Models of Stability, Cumulative Growth, and Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiatkowska-White, Bozena; Kirby, John R.; Lee, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 78 Canadian English-speaking students examined the applicability of the stability, cumulative, and compensatory models in reading comprehension development. Archival government-mandated assessments of reading comprehension at Grades 3, 6, and 10, and the Canadian Test of Basic Skills measure of reading comprehension…

  9. Individual Differences in Fifth Graders' Literacy and Academic Language Predict Comprehension Monitoring Development: An Eye-Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated fifth graders' (n = 52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task, children…

  10. Important considerations in lesion-symptom mapping: Illustrations from studies of word comprehension.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Hinna; Sebastian, Rajani; Schnur, Tatiana T; Hanayik, Taylor; Wright, Amy; Tippett, Donna C; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris; Hillis, Argye E

    2017-06-01

    Lesion-symptom mapping is an important method of identifying networks of brain regions critical for functions. However, results might be influenced substantially by the imaging modality and timing of assessment. We tested the hypothesis that brain regions found to be associated with acute language deficits depend on (1) timing of behavioral measurement, (2) imaging sequences utilized to define the "lesion" (structural abnormality only or structural plus perfusion abnormality), and (3) power of the study. We studied 191 individuals with acute left hemisphere stroke with MRI and language testing to identify areas critical for spoken word comprehension. We use the data from this study to examine the potential impact of these three variables on lesion-symptom mapping. We found that only the combination of structural and perfusion imaging within 48 h of onset identified areas where more abnormal voxels was associated with more severe acute deficits, after controlling for lesion volume and multiple comparisons. The critical area identified with this methodology was the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, consistent with other methods that have identified an important role of this area in spoken word comprehension. Results have implications for interpretation of other lesion-symptom mapping studies, as well as for understanding areas critical for auditory word comprehension in the healthy brain. We propose that lesion-symptom mapping at the acute stage of stroke addresses a different sort of question about brain-behavior relationships than lesion-symptom mapping at the chronic stage, but that timing of behavioral measurement and imaging modalities should be considered in either case. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2990-3000, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Isfahan Comprehensive Elderly Study: Objectives, research design, methodology, and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Zahra; Feizi, Awat

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the objectives, research design, methodology, and primary findings of the Isfahan Comprehensive Elderly Study (ICES). In this cross-sectional study, 603 elderly persons (aged 60 and over) were selected by multistage cluster sampling method from Isfahan, Iran, in 2016 comprehensive questionnaires along with a detailed interview were used to collect information on personal, family, socioeconomic, health and social services characteristics, life styles, physical illnesses and chronic diseases, mental, emotional and cognition disorders, quality of life, disabilities, sleep quality, social supports, life satisfaction, self-efficacy, and of participants. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of participants was 69.66 ± 6.31 years, consisting of 50.75% females. About 23% of elderly persons were at the risk of malnutrition and 4.5% were current smoker. Severe and mild depression were documented in 9.3% and 30.2% among included study subjects, respectively. About half of the participants had hypertension, and 26.8% suffered from cardiovascular disease. The mean ± SD of total score of Geriatric Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Older People's Quality of Life, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index was 8.84 ± 6.79, 14.76 ± 5.92, 133.99 ± 10.55, 142.04 ± 120.53, and 6.17 ± 3.44, respectively. Elderly males had significantly higher life satisfaction and self-efficacy and better cognitive function than females ( P < 0.01). The findings of current study provided a comprehensive overview of the current health status and lifestyle of older adults in Isfahan city. The ICES could help policy makers to design appropriate prevention and interventional programs and policies to cover the specific needs of the elderly population.

  12. The Isfahan Comprehensive Elderly Study: Objectives, research design, methodology, and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Zahra; Feizi, Awat

    2017-01-01

    Background: This paper presents the objectives, research design, methodology, and primary findings of the Isfahan Comprehensive Elderly Study (ICES). Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 603 elderly persons (aged 60 and over) were selected by multistage cluster sampling method from Isfahan, Iran, in 2016 comprehensive questionnaires along with a detailed interview were used to collect information on personal, family, socioeconomic, health and social services characteristics, life styles, physical illnesses and chronic diseases, mental, emotional and cognition disorders, quality of life, disabilities, sleep quality, social supports, life satisfaction, self-efficacy, and of participants. Results: The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of participants was 69.66 ± 6.31 years, consisting of 50.75% females. About 23% of elderly persons were at the risk of malnutrition and 4.5% were current smoker. Severe and mild depression were documented in 9.3% and 30.2% among included study subjects, respectively. About half of the participants had hypertension, and 26.8% suffered from cardiovascular disease. The mean ± SD of total score of Geriatric Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Older People's Quality of Life, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index was 8.84 ± 6.79, 14.76 ± 5.92, 133.99 ± 10.55, 142.04 ± 120.53, and 6.17 ± 3.44, respectively. Elderly males had significantly higher life satisfaction and self-efficacy and better cognitive function than females (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The findings of current study provided a comprehensive overview of the current health status and lifestyle of older adults in Isfahan city. The ICES could help policy makers to design appropriate prevention and interventional programs and policies to cover the specific needs of the elderly population. PMID:28919912

  13. 42 CFR 493.923 - Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a laboratory's response for qualitative and quantitative syphilis tests, the program must compare... under paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section. (2) For quantitative syphilis tests, the program... quantitative syphilis serology tests is the target value ±1 dilution. (3) The criterion for acceptable...

  14. 42 CFR 493.923 - Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a laboratory's response for qualitative and quantitative syphilis tests, the program must compare... under paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section. (2) For quantitative syphilis tests, the program... quantitative syphilis serology tests is the target value ±1 dilution. (3) The criterion for acceptable...

  15. 42 CFR 493.923 - Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a laboratory's response for qualitative and quantitative syphilis tests, the program must compare... under paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section. (2) For quantitative syphilis tests, the program... quantitative syphilis serology tests is the target value ±1 dilution. (3) The criterion for acceptable...

  16. 42 CFR 493.923 - Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a laboratory's response for qualitative and quantitative syphilis tests, the program must compare... under paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section. (2) For quantitative syphilis tests, the program... quantitative syphilis serology tests is the target value ±1 dilution. (3) The criterion for acceptable...

  17. 42 CFR 493.923 - Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a laboratory's response for qualitative and quantitative syphilis tests, the program must compare... under paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section. (2) For quantitative syphilis tests, the program... quantitative syphilis serology tests is the target value ±1 dilution. (3) The criterion for acceptable...

  18. Exploring the usefulness of comprehensive care plans for children with medical complexity (CMC): a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sherri; Cohen, Eyal; Mahant, Sanjay; Friedman, Jeremy N; Macculloch, Radha; Nicholas, David B

    2013-01-19

    The Medical Home model recommends that Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) receive a medical care plan, outlining the child's major medical issues and care needs to assist with care coordination. While care plans are a primary component of effective care coordination, the creation and maintenance of care plans is time, labor, and cost intensive, and the desired content of the care plan has not been studied. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the usefulness and desired content of comprehensive care plans by exploring the perceptions of parents and health care providers (HCPs) of children with medical complexity (CMC). This qualitative study utilized in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups. HCPs (n = 15) and parents (n = 15) of CMC who had all used a comprehensive care plan were recruited from a tertiary pediatric academic health sciences center. Themes were identified through grounded theory analysis of interview and focus group data. A multi-dimensional model of perceived care plan usefulness emerged. The model highlights three integral aspects of the care plan: care plan characteristics, activating factors and perceived outcomes of using a care plan. Care plans were perceived as a useful tool that centralized and focused the care of the child. Care plans were reported to flatten the hierarchical relationship between HCPs and parents, resulting in enhanced reciprocal information exchange and strengthened relationships. Participants expressed that a standardized template that is family-centered and includes content relevant to both the medical and social needs of the child is beneficial when integrated into overall care planning and delivery for CMC. Care plans are perceived to be a useful tool to both health care providers and parents of CMC. These findings inform the utility and development of a comprehensive care plan template as well as a model of how and when to best utilize care plans within family-centered models

  19. A Comprehensive Study of Three Delay Compensation Algorithms for Flight Simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Liwen; Cardullo, Frank M.; Houck, Jacob A.; Kelly, Lon C.; Wolters, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes a comprehensive study of three predictors used for compensating the transport delay in a flight simulator; The McFarland, Adaptive and State Space Predictors. The paper presents proof that the stochastic approximation algorithm can achieve the best compensation among all four adaptive predictors, and intensively investigates the relationship between the state space predictor s compensation quality and its reference model. Piloted simulation tests show that the adaptive predictor and state space predictor can achieve better compensation of transport delay than the McFarland predictor.

  20. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human serum...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human serum...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human serum...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human serum...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human serum...

  5. Basic problems of serological laboratory diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fierz, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Serological laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases is inflicted with several kinds of basic problems. One difficulty relates to the fact that the serological diagnosis of infectious diseases is double indirect: The first indirect aim in diagnosing an infectious disease is to identify the microbial agent that caused the disease. The second indirect aim is to identify this infectious agent by measuring the patient's immune response to the potential agent. Thus, the serological test is neither measuring directly disease nor the cause of the disease, but the patient's immune system. The latter poses another type of problem, because each person's immune system is unique. The immune response to an infectious agent is usually of polyclonal nature, and the exact physicochemical properties of antibodies are unique for each clone of antibody. The clonal makeup and composition and, therefore, the way an individual's immune system sees an infectious agent, depends not only on the genetic background of the person but also on the individual experience from former encounters with various infectious agents. In consequence, the reaction of a patient's serum in an analytical system is not precisely predictable. Also, the antigenic makeup of an infectious agent is not always foreseeable. Antigenic variations leading to different serotypes is a quite common phenomenon. Altogether, these biological problems lead to complexities in selecting the appropriate tests and strategies for testing, in interpreting the results, and in standardizing serological test systems. For that reason, a close collaboration of the laboratory with the clinic is mandatory to avoid erroneous conclusions from serological test results, which might lead to wrong decisions in patient care.

  6. A Chaotic Home Environment Accounts for the Association between Respect for Rules Disposition and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jeanette; Hart, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between socioemotional dispositions from the developmental propensity model and reading comprehension and whether those associations could be accounted for by level of chaos in the home. Data from 342 monozygotic and 333 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs age 7-13 years were used. A parent rated the twins on sympathy, respect for rules, negative emotionality, and daring and level of chaos in the twins’ home. Reading comprehension was measured using a state-wide school assessment. Only respect for rules significantly and uniquely predicted reading comprehension. Biometric models indicated that respect for rules was positively associated with reading comprehension via the shared environment and home chaos accounted for a significant amount of that shared environmental variance even after controlling for family income. Children with higher respect for rules have better reading comprehension scores in school and this relationship owes partly to the level of chaos in the family home. PMID:25328362

  7. A comprehensive study of the delay vector variance method for quantification of nonlinearity in dynamical systems

    PubMed Central

    Mandic, D. P.; Ryan, K.; Basu, B.; Pakrashi, V.

    2016-01-01

    Although vibration monitoring is a popular method to monitor and assess dynamic structures, quantification of linearity or nonlinearity of the dynamic responses remains a challenging problem. We investigate the delay vector variance (DVV) method in this regard in a comprehensive manner to establish the degree to which a change in signal nonlinearity can be related to system nonlinearity and how a change in system parameters affects the nonlinearity in the dynamic response of the system. A wide range of theoretical situations are considered in this regard using a single degree of freedom (SDOF) system to obtain numerical benchmarks. A number of experiments are then carried out using a physical SDOF model in the laboratory. Finally, a composite wind turbine blade is tested for different excitations and the dynamic responses are measured at a number of points to extend the investigation to continuum structures. The dynamic responses were measured using accelerometers, strain gauges and a Laser Doppler vibrometer. This comprehensive study creates a numerical and experimental benchmark for structurally dynamical systems where output-only information is typically available, especially in the context of DVV. The study also allows for comparative analysis between different systems driven by the similar input. PMID:26909175

  8. World Hip Trauma Evaluation (WHiTE): framework for embedded comprehensive cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Costa, Matthew L; Griffin, Xavier L; Achten, Juul; Metcalfe, David; Judge, Andrew; Pinedo-Villanueva, Rafael; Parsons, Nicholas

    2016-10-21

    Osteoporotic hip fractures present a significant global challenge to patients, clinicians and healthcare systems. It is estimated that hip fracture accounts for 1.4% of total social and healthcare costs in the established market economies. The World Hip Trauma Evaluation (WHiTE) was set up to measure outcome in a comprehensive cohort of UK patients with hip fracture. All patients in the cohort are treated under a single comprehensive treatment pathway. A core outcome set, including health-related quality of life, is collected on all the patients. This protocol describes the current multicentre project that will be used as a vehicle to deliver a series of embedded observational studies. Research Ethics Committee approval was granted (Rec reference 11/LO/0927, approved 18/8/2011) and each hospital trust provided National Health Service (NHS) approvals. The study is registered with National Institute of Health Research Portfolio (UKCRN ID 12351) and the ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN63982700). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Serology for Helicobacter pylori compared with symptom questionnaires in screening before direct access endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Mendall, M A; Jazrawi, R P; Marrero, J M; Molineaux, N; Levi, J; Maxwell, J D; Northfield, T C

    1995-03-01

    This prospective study aimed to compare serology for Helicobacter pylori with two, symptom questionnaires in screening patients before direct access endoscopy. Methods were compared in terms of the number of endoscopies saved and pathology missed in 315 patients referred to a gastroenterology unit by 65 local GPs. The serology used was based on an acid glycine extract of H pylori. One in-house questionnaire was based on the Glasgow dyspepsia (GLADYS) system and the other questionnaire was that reported by Holdstock et al. A cut off point of 6.3 U/ml for H pylori serology was selected for screening patients (97% sensitive and 75% specific). Serology was combined with a history of NSAID usage in determining who should have endoscopy. For the in-house questionnaire, a cut off score of more than 8 out of a possible maximum of 18 was chosen, after prior evaluation in 118 patients referred for direct access endoscopy (the sensitivity for detection of peptic ulcer was 88%, specificity 61%). A cut off score of more than 412 was used for the Holdstock questionnaire. In patients under 45 years, serology detected more peptic ulcers than the in-house questionnaire and the Holdstock questionnaire (27/28 v 24/28, NS and v 20/28, p < 0.05 respectively). The Holdstock questionnaire saved significantly more endoscopies than the other two methods (76/149 v 57/149 for the in-house questionnaire, p = 0.05 and 59/149 for serology, p = 0.05). In all age groups combined, serology was significantly better than the in-house and Holdstock questionnaires at detecting peptic ulcers and gastric cancer (61/63, 52/63, p<0.02, and 50/63, p<0.01 respectively). But serology saved significantly fewer endoscopies (89/315, 135/315, p<0.005, and 119/315, p<0.05 respectively). Serology was inferior to the Holdstock questionnaire at detecting severe oesophagitis. It is concluded that serology is the method of choice in screening before direct access upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in those under 45

  10. A Comprehensive Study of Mass Murder Precipitants and Motivations of Offenders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Melanie A

    2018-02-01

    Much speculation has been made in the media as to the causes of mass murder in the United States, yet little empirical research exists to verify factors leading to violence. Prior research primarily relies on case study methodologies or small data sets, but none have focused on the underlying issues observed in a comprehensive national sample. Data for the current study include 152 mass murders reported through the FBI's Supplementary Homicide Reports and USA Today from 2007 to 2011, which were then matched with media reports for each event. The current study shows that mass murders typically occur following a triggering event, are committed by non-strangers, and are rarely committed by persons with mental illnesses. A more realistic image of these incidents is critical, as misperceptions of offenders and case characteristics can improperly shape public policies.

  11. Comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation in home-based online groups: a mixed method pilot study in COPD.

    PubMed

    Burkow, Tatjana M; Vognild, Lars K; Johnsen, Elin; Risberg, Marijke Jongsma; Bratvold, Astrid; Breivik, Elin; Krogstad, Trine; Hjalmarsen, Audhild

    2015-12-10

    Comprehensive multidisciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation is vital in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is considered for any stage of the disease. Rehabilitation programmes are often centre-based and organised in groups. However, the distance from the patient's home to the centre and lack of transportation may hinder participation. Rehabilitation at home can improve access to care for patients regardless of disease severity. We had previously studied the technology usability and acceptability of a comprehensive home rehabilitation programme designed for patients with very severe COPD receiving long-term oxygen therapy. The acceptability of such comprehensive home programmes for those with less severe COPD, who may be less homebound, is not known. The aims of this feasibility study were to assess patient acceptability of the delivery mode and components of a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation programme for any stage of COPD, as well as the technology usability, patient outcomes and economic aspects. Ten participants with COPD in the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) grade I-IV were enrolled in a 9-week home programme and divided into two rehabilitation groups, with five patients in each group. The programme included exercise training and self-management education in online groups of patients, and individual online consultations. The patients also kept a digital health diary. To assess the acceptability of the programme, the patients were interviewed after the intervention using a semi-structured interview guide. In addition the number of sessions attended was observed. The usability of the technology was assessed using interviews and the System Usability Scale questionnaire. The St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was used to measure health-related quality of life. The mode of delivery and the components of the programme were well accepted by the patients. The programme provided an environment

  12. WWC Review of the Report “Improving Reading Comprehension and Social Studies Knowledge in Middle School.” What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study reviewed in this paper examined the effects of the instructional practice “Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content Through Text” (“PACT”), an approach that aims to improve social studies content knowledge and reading comprehension. This study took place in two middle schools in a near-urban district in Texas. Study authors…

  13. Comprehensive joint feedback control for standing by functional neuromuscular stimulation-a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Nataraj, Raviraj; Audu, Musa L; Kirsch, Robert F; Triolo, Ronald J

    2010-12-01

    Previous investigations of feedback control of standing after spinal cord injury (SCI) using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have primarily targeted individual joints. This study assesses the potential efficacy of comprehensive (trunk, hips, knees, and ankles) joint feedback control against postural disturbances using a bipedal, 3-D computer model of SCI stance. Proportional-derivative feedback drove an artificial neural network trained to produce muscle excitation patterns consistent with maximal joint stiffness values achievable about neutral stance given typical SCI muscle properties. Feedback gains were optimized to minimize upper extremity (UE) loading required to stabilize against disturbances. Compared to the baseline case of maximum constant muscle excitations used clinically, the controller reduced UE loading by 55% in resisting external force perturbations and by 84% during simulated one-arm functional tasks. Performance was most sensitive to inaccurate measurements of ankle plantar/dorsiflexion position and hip ab/adduction velocity feedback. In conclusion, comprehensive joint feedback demonstrates potential to markedly improve FNS standing function. However, alternative control structures capable of effective performance with fewer sensor-based feedback parameters may better facilitate clinical usage.

  14. Comprehensive Joint Feedback Control for Standing by Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation – a Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Nataraj, Raviraj; Audu, Musa L.; Kirsch, Robert F.; Triolo, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations of feedback control of standing after spinal cord injury (SCI) using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have primarily targeted individual joints. This study assesses the potential efficacy of comprehensive (trunk, hips, knees, and ankles) joint-feedback control against postural disturbances using a bipedal, three-dimensional computer model of SCI stance. Proportional-derivative feedback drove an artificial neural network trained to produce muscle excitation patterns consistent with maximal joint stiffness values achievable about neutral stance given typical SCI muscle properties. Feedback gains were optimized to minimize upper extremity (UE) loading required to stabilize against disturbances. Compared to the baseline case of maximum constant muscle excitations used clinically, the controller reduced UE loading by 55% in resisting external force perturbations and by 84% during simulated one-arm functional tasks. Performance was most sensitive to inaccurate measurements of ankle plantar/dorsiflexion position and hip ab/adduction velocity feedback. In conclusion, comprehensive joint-feedback demonstrates potential to markedly improve FNS standing function. However, alternative control structures capable of effective performance with fewer sensor-based feedback parameters may better facilitate clinical usage. PMID:20923741

  15. A study of the conceptual comprehension of electric circuits that engineer freshmen display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wheijen; Shieh, Ruey S.

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of students’ conceptual comprehension of electric circuits obtained during their high school years, as opposed to in recent class lectures. A total of 201 first-year university students majoring in Engineering in four introductory physics classes were involved in the study. A lecture demonstration of electric circuits was designed to achieve the study purpose. After observing the demonstration, the students were required to identify the associated phenomena and then explain the underlying physical laws. The students’ reasoning performance was used to examine their conceptual comprehension. Two instructional strategies, group discussion without prior lecture and individual reasoning with prior lecture, were implemented to assess student performance. The findings disclosed that although the students had studied the topic previously, most of them could only identify the key phenomena involving simple principles, but failed to identify those involving profound ones. The models most of them adopted were scientifically acceptable but inappropriate in the given context. The students who engaged in group discussion appeared to have a higher phenomenon identification rate than that of the individual-reasoning group. Contrarily, the individual-reasoning group was found to have adopted the valid principles more effectively than the discussion group, probably due to the prior instruction received in the current class. The topics recently lectured seemed to have guided the students’ cognitive orientations toward selecting principles, regardless of their validity. The study findings reveal that the concepts the students had acquired from their earlier learning were rather limited. That is, sophisticated instructional design is always pivotal, regardless of students’ prior learning experiences. Moreover, when adopting demonstration as a teaching tool, explicit instructional guidance is also crucial.

  16. Scalable total synthesis and comprehensive structure-activity relationship studies of the phytotoxin coronatine.

    PubMed

    Littleson, Mairi M; Baker, Christopher M; Dalençon, Anne J; Frye, Elizabeth C; Jamieson, Craig; Kennedy, Alan R; Ling, Kenneth B; McLachlan, Matthew M; Montgomery, Mark G; Russell, Claire J; Watson, Allan J B

    2018-03-16

    Natural phytotoxins are valuable starting points for agrochemical design. Acting as a jasmonate agonist, coronatine represents an attractive herbicidal lead with novel mode of action, and has been an important synthetic target for agrochemical development. However, both restricted access to quantities of coronatine and a lack of a suitably scalable and flexible synthetic approach to its constituent natural product components, coronafacic and coronamic acids, has frustrated development of this target. Here, we report gram-scale production of coronafacic acid that allows a comprehensive structure-activity relationship study of this target. Biological assessment of a >120 member library combined with computational studies have revealed the key determinants of potency, rationalising hypotheses held for decades, and allowing future rational design of new herbicidal leads based on this template.

  17. Exploratory field study on the effect of Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) sow vaccination on serological, virological and reproductive parameters in a PCV2 subclinically infected sow herd.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Ferrando, Salvador; Segalés, Joaquim; López-Soria, Sergio; Callén, Antonio; Merdy, Olivier; Joisel, François; Sibila, Marina

    2018-04-16

    This study sought to evaluate the effect of sow vaccination against Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) on reproductive parameters during two consecutive reproductive cycles. The study was performed in a PCV2 subclinical infected breeding herd (PCV2 circulation but absence of major reproductive problems). Ninety-four pregnant sows were primo-immunized with a commercial PCV2 vaccine and ninety-seven were injected with phosphate-buffered saline at 6 and 3 weeks before the first studied farrowing, and then boosted at 2 weeks before the second one. Blood samples were taken throughout the study to assess PCV2 DNA load and antibodies. At farrowing, main reproductive parameters and piglet vitality index were registered. In addition, in those litters with more than three mummified or stillborn piglets, microscopic examination and PCV2 antigen detection in foetal myocardium was done. Vaccinated sows showed significantly higher antibody levels compared to the non-vaccinated counterparts. PCV2 DNA was only detected at farrowing in 2 (4.2%) non-vaccinated sows. Vaccinated sows had 1.3 more live-born piglets per litter at the second cycle than non-vaccinated counterparts. Piglets from vaccinated sows had significantly higher (+ 12.7%) vitality score than the ones born from non-vaccinated sows. No PCV2 compatible lesions neither PCV2 antigen were detected in the tested foetal hearts. The present study represents a first attempt to demonstrate that PCV2 sow vaccination may have a positive influence on prolificacy and vitality of the offspring in a subclinical infected breeding herd. However, since reproductive outcomes at farm level may be affected by a number of factors, further studies would be needed to confirm this association.

  18. Altered neural circuits accompany lower performance during narrative comprehension in children with reading difficulties: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Buck, Catherine; Dorrmann, Dana

    2016-10-01

    Narrative comprehension is a linguistic ability that is foundational for future reading ability. The aim of the current study was to examine the neural circuitry of children with reading difficulties (RD) compared to typical readers during a narrative-comprehension task. We hypothesized that due to deficient executive functions, which support narrative comprehension abilities, children with RD would display altered activation and functional connectivity, as well as lower performance on a narrative-comprehension task. Children with RD and typical readers were scanned during a narrative-comprehension task and administered reading behavioral tests. Children with RD scored significantly lower on the narrative-comprehension task than did typical readers. Composite activation maps showed more diffused activation during narrative comprehension in the RD group. Maps comparing the two reading groups showed more activation in the frontal lobes (regions responsible for executive functions), and functional connectivity showed higher global efficiency in children with RD than in typical readers. Global efficiency was negatively correlated with phonological awareness and reading and executive function scores in the entire study group. Children with RD may suffer from narrative-comprehension difficulties due to diffused activation of language areas, as was observed during a narrative-comprehension task. Greater effort in this task may be reflected by the engagement of brain regions related to executive functions and higher functional connectivity or attributed to difficulties in phonological processing and reading and executive functions. Therefore, the accommodation given to children with RD of reading aloud may need to be revised due to the observed difficulty in this domain.

  19. A comprehensive study of extended tetrathiafulvalene cruciform molecules for molecular electronics: synthesis and electrical transport measurements.

    PubMed

    Parker, Christian R; Leary, Edmund; Frisenda, Riccardo; Wei, Zhongming; Jennum, Karsten S; Glibstrup, Emil; Abrahamsen, Peter Bæch; Santella, Marco; Christensen, Mikkel A; Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio; Li, Tao; Gonzalez, Maria Teresa; Jiang, Xingbin; Morsing, Thorbjørn J; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Laursen, Bo W; Nørgaard, Kasper; van der Zant, Herre; Agrait, Nicolas; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2014-11-26

    Cruciform-like molecules with two orthogonally placed π-conjugated systems have in recent years attracted significant interest for their potential use as molecular wires in molecular electronics. Here we present synthetic protocols for a large selection of cruciform molecules based on oligo(phenyleneethynylene) (OPE) and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) scaffolds, end-capped with acetyl-protected thiolates as electrode anchoring groups. The molecules were subjected to a comprehensive study of their conducting properties as well as their photophysical and electrochemical properties in solution. The complex nature of the molecules and their possible binding in different configurations in junctions called for different techniques of conductance measurements: (1) conducting-probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) measurements on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), (2) mechanically controlled break-junction (MCBJ) measurements, and (3) scanning tunneling microscopy break-junction (STM-BJ) measurements. The CP-AFM measurements showed structure-property relationships from SAMs of series of OPE3 and OPE5 cruciform molecules; the conductance of the SAM increased with the number of dithiafulvene (DTF) units (0, 1, 2) along the wire, and it increased when substituting two arylethynyl end groups of the OPE3 backbone with two DTF units. The MCBJ and STM-BJ studies on single molecules both showed that DTFs decreased the junction formation probability, but, in contrast, no significant influence on the single-molecule conductance was observed. We suggest that the origins of the difference between SAM and single-molecule measurements lie in the nature of the molecule-electrode interface as well as in effects arising from molecular packing in the SAMs. This comprehensive study shows that for complex molecules care should be taken when directly comparing single-molecule measurements and measurements of SAMs and solid-state devices thereof.

  20. Comprehensive studies of the dynamics of geosystems with the use of remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilev, L. N.; Kaczyński, R.; Ney, B. I.

    The described research programme for comprehensive studies of changes occuring within geosystems is a part of scientific activity of INTERKOSMOS, which will be executed mainly with the use of remote sensing methods and techniques. The main aim of the programme is to get an insight into the seasonal rithm of environmental changes on both regional and global level. The work will consist of gathering systematized information concerning quantitative and qualitative relations between various components of the environment. The application of remote sensing methods enables the acquisition of such environmental data in dynamic setting. Research will be conducted for areas comprising distinct geosystems and will lead to the detection of diurnal, seasonal and yearly dynamics of geosystems as well as long-term trends. Except cognitive, the programme will also serve the methodological purpose. The first aim will be realized with respect to individual geosystems; the resulting sets of data will consist of matrixes of statistical data characterizing relations between various components of geosystems. The methodological aim will be achieved through the process of practical verification of the preliminary assumptions. Information will be collected from different data acquisition levels namely from satellite and aerial platforms and through ground measurements. Different types of data, such as multispectral photography (SALYUT, KOSMOS), multispectral scanner images (LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER, SPOT), infrared photography, radar imagery and spectrometric measurements will be gathered during simultaneous data acquisition projects. All types of observations will be timed in accordance with the natural rithm of the observed phenomena. The paper contains the description of geosystems under anthropogenic stress based on the previous research of the authors. The presented multifactor characteristics of soil and crops is a part of completed studies on agricultural geosystems. The results of

  1. Missing value imputation for microarray data: a comprehensive comparison study and a web tool.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chia-Chun; Chan, Shih-Yao; Wang, Chung-Ching; Wu, Wei-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Microarray data are usually peppered with missing values due to various reasons. However, most of the downstream analyses for microarray data require complete datasets. Therefore, accurate algorithms for missing value estimation are needed for improving the performance of microarray data analyses. Although many algorithms have been developed, there are many debates on the selection of the optimal algorithm. The studies about the performance comparison of different algorithms are still incomprehensive, especially in the number of benchmark datasets used, the number of algorithms compared, the rounds of simulation conducted, and the performance measures used. In this paper, we performed a comprehensive comparison by using (I) thirteen datasets, (II) nine algorithms, (III) 110 independent runs of simulation, and (IV) three types of measures to evaluate the performance of each imputation algorithm fairly. First, the effects of different types of microarray datasets on the performance of each imputation algorithm were evaluated. Second, we discussed whether the datasets from different species have different impact on the performance of different algorithms. To assess the performance of each algorithm fairly, all evaluations were performed using three types of measures. Our results indicate that the performance of an imputation algorithm mainly depends on the type of a dataset but not on the species where the samples come from. In addition to the statistical measure, two other measures with biological meanings are useful to reflect the impact of missing value imputation on the downstream data analyses. Our study suggests that local-least-squares-based methods are good choices to handle missing values for most of the microarray datasets. In this work, we carried out a comprehensive comparison of the algorithms for microarray missing value imputation. Based on such a comprehensive comparison, researchers could choose the optimal algorithm for their datasets easily

  2. Missing value imputation for microarray data: a comprehensive comparison study and a web tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microarray data are usually peppered with missing values due to various reasons. However, most of the downstream analyses for microarray data require complete datasets. Therefore, accurate algorithms for missing value estimation are needed for improving the performance of microarray data analyses. Although many algorithms have been developed, there are many debates on the selection of the optimal algorithm. The studies about the performance comparison of different algorithms are still incomprehensive, especially in the number of benchmark datasets used, the number of algorithms compared, the rounds of simulation conducted, and the performance measures used. Results In this paper, we performed a comprehensive comparison by using (I) thirteen datasets, (II) nine algorithms, (III) 110 independent runs of simulation, and (IV) three types of measures to evaluate the performance of each imputation algorithm fairly. First, the effects of different types of microarray datasets on the performance of each imputation algorithm were evaluated. Second, we discussed whether the datasets from different species have different impact on the performance of different algorithms. To assess the performance of each algorithm fairly, all evaluations were performed using three types of measures. Our results indicate that the performance of an imputation algorithm mainly depends on the type of a dataset but not on the species where the samples come from. In addition to the statistical measure, two other measures with biological meanings are useful to reflect the impact of missing value imputation on the downstream data analyses. Our study suggests that local-least-squares-based methods are good choices to handle missing values for most of the microarray datasets. Conclusions In this work, we carried out a comprehensive comparison of the algorithms for microarray missing value imputation. Based on such a comprehensive comparison, researchers could choose the optimal algorithm for

  3. Liver disease in rheumatoid arthritis and Sjøgren's syndrome. Prospective study using biochemical and serological markers of hepatic dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, J; Whaley, K; MacSween, R N; Nuki, G; Dick, W C; Buchanan, W W

    1975-01-01

    Inter-relationships of biochemical and immunological tests of liver function have been studied in a prospective study of 216 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 32 patients with Sjogren's syndrome, and 27 patients with the sicca syndrome, and these results have been compared with those obtained 289 patients with osteoarthrosis or with a form of seronegative polyarthropathy. In general the prevalence of abnormalities in serum alkaline phosphatase, bromsulphthalein excretion, smooth muscle antibody, and mitochondrial antibody in the former three groups was higher than in patients with osteoarthrosis. Patients with Sjogren's syndrome with RA had a higher prevalence of abnormalities of bromsulphthalein excretion, salivary duct antibody than patients with the sicca syndrome. Patients with RA had a higher pervalence of rheumatoid factor than those with the sicca syndrome. Patients with a positive smooth muscle or mitochondrial antibody were found to have a higher prevalence of hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, of abnormal liver function tests, of other autoantibodies, and of histological abnromalitis of liver than those in whom these tests were negative. PMID:1092275

  4. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in Egyptian women with unexplained infertility, comparing real-time PCR techniques to standard serology tests: case control study.

    PubMed

    Abdella, Rana M A; Abdelmoaty, Hatem I; Elsherif, Rasha H; Sayed, Ahmed Mahmoud; Sherif, Nadine Alaa; Gouda, Hisham M; El Lithy, Ahmed; Almohamady, Maged; Abdelbar, Mostafa; Hosni, Ahmed Naguib; Magdy, Ahmed; Ma, Youssef

    2015-06-02

    To study the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in women with primary and secondary unexplained infertility using ELISA technique for antibody detection and real time, fully automated PCR for antigen detection and to explore its association with circulating antisperm antibodies (ASA). A total of 50 women with unexplained infertility enrolled in this case control study and a control group of 44 infertile women with a known cause of infertility. Endocervical specimens were collected for Chlamydia antigen detection using PCR and serum samples for antibodies detection. Circulating anti-sperm antibodies were detected using sperm antibody Latex Agglutination tests. The overall prevalence of Chlamydial infection in unexplained infertility cases as detected by both ELISA and PCR was 40 % (20/50). The prevalence of current Chlamydial genital infection as detected by real-time PCR was only 6.0 % (3/50); two of which were also IgM positive. Prevalence of ASA was 6.0 % (3/50); all were sero-negative for anti-C.trachomatis IgM and were PCR negative. The incidence of Chlamydial infection in Egyptian patients with unexplained infertility is relatively high. In the setting of fertility investigations; screening for anti. C.trachomatis antibodies using ELISA, and treatment of positive cases should be considered. The presence of circulating ASA does not correlate with the presence of old or current Chlamydia infection in women with unexplained infertility.

  5. Regulation of reverse cholesterol transport - a comprehensive appraisal of available animal studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Plasma levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are strongly inversely correlated to the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A major recognized functional property of HDL particles is to elicit cholesterol efflux and consequently mediate reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The recent introduction of a surrogate method aiming at determining specifically RCT from the macrophage compartment has facilitated research on the different components and pathways relevant for RCT. The current review provides a comprehensive overview of studies carried out on macrophage-specific RCT including a quick reference guide of available data. Knowledge and insights gained on the regulation of the RCT pathway are summarized. A discussion of methodological issues as well as of the respective relevance of specific pathways for RCT is also included. PMID:22458435

  6. Comprehensive genomic studies: emerging regulatory, strategic, and quality assurance challenges for biorepositories.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Sandra A; Mardis, Elaine R; Ota, David; Watson, Mark A; Pfeifer, John D; Green, Jonathan M

    2012-07-01

    As part of the molecular revolution sweeping medicine, comprehensive genomic studies are adding powerful dimensions to medical research. However, their power exposes new regulatory, strategic, and quality assurance challenges for biorepositories. A key issue is that unlike other research techniques commonly applied to banked specimens, nucleic acid sequencing, if sufficiently extensive, yields data that could identify a patient. This evolving paradigm renders the concepts of anonymized and anonymous specimens increasingly outdated. The challenges for biorepositories in this new era include refined consent processes and wording, selection and use of legacy specimens, quality assurance procedures, institutional documentation, data sharing, and interaction with institutional review boards. Given current trends, biorepositories should consider these issues now, even if they are not currently experiencing sample requests for genomic analysis. We summarize our current experiences and best practices at Washington University Medical School, St Louis, MO, our perceptions of emerging trends, and recommendations.

  7. Comprehensive Genomic Studies: Emerging Regulatory, Strategic, and Quality Assurance Challenges for Biorepositories

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Sandra A.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Ota, David; Watson, Mark A.; Pfeifer, John D.; Green, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the molecular revolution sweeping medicine, comprehensive genomic studies are adding powerful dimensions to medical research. However, their power exposes new regulatory, strategic, and quality assurance challenges for biorepositories. A key issue is that unlike other research techniques commonly applied to banked specimens, nucleic acid sequencing, if sufficiently extensive, yields data that could identify a patient. This evolving paradigm renders the concepts of anonymized and anonymous specimens increasingly outdated. The challenges for biorepositories in this new era include refined consent processes and wording, selection and use of legacy specimens, quality assurance procedures, institutional documentation, data sharing, and interaction with institutional review boards. Given current trends, biorepositories should consider these issues now, even if they are not currently experiencing sample requests for genomic analysis. We summarize our current experiences and best practices at Washington University Medical School, St Louis, MO, our perceptions of emerging trends, and recommendations. PMID:22706855

  8. Brain structure differences between Chinese and Caucasian cohorts: A comprehensive morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuchun; Zhao, Lu; Lou, Yunxia; Shi, Yonggang; Fang, Rui; Lin, Xiangtao; Liu, Shuwei; Toga, Arthur

    2018-05-01

    Numerous behavioral observations and brain function studies have demonstrated that neurological differences exist between East Asians and Westerners. However, the extent to which these factors relate to differences in brain structure is still not clear. As the basis of brain functions, the anatomical differences in brain structure play a primary and critical role in the origination of functional and behavior differences. To investigate the underlying differences in brain structure between the two cultural/ethnic groups, we conducted a comparative study on education-matched right-handed young male adults (age = 22-29 years) from two cohorts, Han Chinese (n = 45) and Caucasians (n = 45), using high-dimensional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Using two well-validated imaging analysis techniques, surface-based morphometry (SBM) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we performed a comprehensive vertex-wise morphometric analysis of the brain structures between Chinese and Caucasian cohorts. We identified consistent significant between-group differences in cortical thickness, volume, and surface area in the frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital, and insular lobes as well as the cingulate cortices. The SBM analyses revealed that compared with Caucasians, the Chinese population showed larger cortical structures in the temporal and cingulate regions, and smaller structural measures in the frontal and parietal cortices. The VBM data of the same sample was well-aligned with the SBM findings. Our findings systematically revealed comprehensive brain structural differences between young male Chinese and Caucasians, and provided new neuroanatomical insights to the behavioral and functional distinctions in the two cultural/ethnic populations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Hepatitis E Virus: A Cross-Sectional Serological and Virological Study in Pigs and Humans at Zoonotic Risk within a High-Density Pig Farming Area.

    PubMed

    Caruso, C; Peletto, S; Rosamilia, A; Modesto, P; Chiavacci, L; Sona, B; Balsamelli, F; Ghisetti, V; Acutis, P L; Pezzoni, G; Brocchi, E; Vitale, N; Masoero, L

    2017-10-01

    An increase in autochthonous hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections has been recorded in Italy suspected to be zoonotically transmitted from pigs; this study was carried out to determinate the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with hepatitis HEV exposition, both in swine and humans working in pig farms, located within a high-density pig farming area in Piedmont region, north-western Italy. The presence of viral RNA in human and swine samples was also evaluated, and phylogenetic analysis was performed on HEV-positive samples. Forty-two swine farms were sampled; 142 workers were enrolled in the study and classified into two groups: (i) 69 workers with occupational contact with swine (including veterinarians and farmers) recruited in the 42 sampled farms; (ii) 73 without occupational contact with swine. Forty-one of 42 (97%) swine farms resulted positive to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test for HEV antibodies (Abs). Overall seroprevalence in swine was 50% (441/879), with seropositivity rate higher in sows (333/469, 71%). HEV RNA in stool samples was detected in animals from 13 of 42 tested farms (31%), and a higher positivity resulted in weaners (40/246, 16.3%). Phylogenetic analysis classified all HEV isolates within genotype 3 (subtypes 3f, 3e, 3c). All humans were negative for HEV viral genome in blood. Five of 142 sera were positive for IgG anti-HEV with an overall prevalence of 3.52% with no statistically significant differences in prevalence rates between workers at zoonotic risk and the control group (5.7% versus 1.3%). In contrast, a significant difference (OR 10.1) was observed within the subgroup including subjects exposed for short periods (veterinarians) compared with those who worked for long periods (farmers) suggesting a correlation between the time of exposure and the likelihood of HEV infection. Reporting HEV infection is not mandatory in Italy, but a constant epidemiological surveillance should be ensured to clarify the epidemiology of this

  10. Bartonella species pathogenic for humans infect pets, free-ranging wild mammals and their ectoparasites in the Caatinga biome, Northeastern Brazil: a serological and molecular study.

    PubMed

    Fontalvo, Mariana Campos; Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Araujo, Andreina de Carvalho; Santos, Naylla Mayana Dos; Oliveira, Glauber Meneses Barboza de; Aguiar, Daniel Moura; Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio de; Horta, Mauricio Claudio

    This study verified the occurrence of Bartonella spp. in dogs, cats, wild mammals and their ectoparasites in Petrolina and Lagoa Grande Counties, Pernambuco, located in a semi-arid region in Northeastern Brazil. Anti-Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in 24.8% of dogs (27/109) and in 15% of cats (6/40). Bartonella sp. DNA was identified by PCR performed on DNA extracted from blood and ectoparasites using primers targeting Bartonella sp. gltA and ribC genes in 100% (9/9) of Pulex irritans from Cerdocyon thous, 57.4% (35/61) of P. irritans from dogs, 2.3% (1/43) of Ctenocephalides felis felis from dogs, 53.3% (24/45) of C. felis felis from cats, and 10% (1/10) of Polyplax spp. from Thrichomys apereoides. DNA sequencing identified Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae in C. felis felis from cats, Bartonella rochalimae in P. irritans from dog and C. thous, and Bartonella vinsoni berkhofii in P. irritans from dog. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Does Mood Influence Text Processing and Comprehension? Evidence from an Eye-Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimin, Sara; Mason, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous research has indicated that mood influences cognitive processes. However, there is scarce data regarding the link between everyday emotional states and readers' text processing and comprehension. Aim: We aim to extend current research on the effects of mood induction on science text processing and comprehension, using…

  12. Narrative Comprehension Processes: A Study of Native and Non-Native Readers of Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horiba, Yukie

    1990-01-01

    Comparison of the reading strategies and resulting reading comprehension and recall of native and advanced non-native adult speakers of Japanese found that reading strategy significantly affected comprehension and recall, with non-native readers with limited language command paying more attention to vocabulary and grammar than native readers, who…

  13. Investigating a Reading Comprehension Intervention for High School Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutebuch, Colleen K.; El Zein, Farah; Kyung Kim, Min; Weinberg, Aron N.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    We adapted and piloted Collaborative Strategic Reading-High School, a reading comprehension intervention, with three high school students with autism spectrum disorder to investigate its effects on their reading comprehension. Using a nonconcurrent, multiple-baseline design, participants with autism spectrum disorder were paired with a…

  14. QRAC-the-Code: A Comprehension Monitoring Strategy for Middle School Social Studies Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Sheri; Riccomini, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Requirements for reading and ascertaining information from text increase as students advance through the educational system, especially in content-rich classes; hence, monitoring comprehension is especially important. However, this is a particularly challenging skill for many students who struggle with reading comprehension, including students…

  15. Reading Comprehension and Working Memory's Executive Processes: An Intervention Study in Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Madruga, Juan A.; Elosua, Maria Rosa; Gil, Laura; Gomez-Veiga, Isabel; Vila, Jose Oscar; Orjales, Isabel; Contreras, Antonio; Rodriguez, Raquel; Melero, Maria Angeles; Duque, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a highly demanding task that involves the simultaneous process of extracting and constructing meaning in which working memory's executive processes play a crucial role. In this article, a training program on working memory's executive processes to improve reading comprehension is presented and empirically tested in two…

  16. Developing comprehensive and Brief ICF core sets for morbid obesity for disability assessment in Taiwan: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y-N; Chang, K-H; Lin, C-Y; Hsu, M-I; Chen, H-C; Chen, H-H; Liou, T-H

    2014-04-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) provides a framework for measuring functioning and disability based on a biopsychosocial model. The aim of this study was to develop comprehensive and brief ICF core sets for morbid obesity for disability assessment in Taiwan. Observational Other Twenty-nine multidisciplinary experts of ICF METHODS: The questionnaire contained 112 obesity-relevant and second-level ICF categories. Using a 5-point Likert scale, the participants rated the significance of the effects of each category on the heath status of people with obesity. Correlation between an individual's score and the average score of the group indicated consensus. The categories were selected for the comprehensive core set for obesity if more than 50% of the experts rated them as "important" in the third round of the Delphi exercise, and for the brief core set if more than 80% of the experts rated them "very important." Twenty-nine experts participated in the study. These included 18 physicians, 4 dieticians, 3 physical therapists, 2 nurses, and 2 ICF experts. The comprehensive core set for morbid obesity contained 61 categories. Of these, 26 categories were from the component body function, 8 were from body structure, 18 were from activities and participation, and 9 were from environmental factors. The brief core set for obesity disability contained 29 categories. Of these, 19 categories were from the component body function, 3 were from body structure, 6 were from activities and participation, and one was from environmental factors. The comprehensive and brief ICF core sets provide comprehensive information on the health effects of morbid obesity and concise information for clinical practice. Comprehensive and brief core sets were created after three rounds of Delphi technique. Further validation study of these core sets by applying to patients with morbid obesity is needed. The comprehensive ICF core set for morbid obesity

  17. Diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia: evaluation of four serologic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Esteves, F; Calé, S S; Badura, R; de Boer, M G; Maltez, F; Calderón, E J; van der Reijden, T J; Márquez-Martín, E; Antunes, F; Matos, O

    2015-04-01

    The diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) relies on microscopic visualization of Pneumocystis jirovecii organisms or DNA detection in pulmonary specimens. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of (1-3)-β-d-glucan (BG), Krebs von den Lungen-6 antigen (KL-6), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) as serologic biomarkers in the diagnosis of PCP. Serum levels of BG, KL-6, LDH and SAM were investigated in 145 Portuguese patients, 50 patients from the Netherlands, 25 Spanish patients and 40 Portuguese blood donors. Data on clinical presentation, chest imaging and gasometry tests were available. PCP cases were confirmed by microscopy and PCR techniques. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. BG was found to be the most reliable serologic biomarker for PCP diagnosis, followed by KL-6, LDH and SAM. The BG/KL-6 combination test was the most accurate serologic approach for PCP diagnosis, with 94.3% sensitivity and 89.6% specificity. Although less sensitive/specific than the reference standard classic methods based on bronchoalveolar lavage followed by microscopic or molecular detection of P. jirovecii organisms, the BG/KL-6 test may provide a less onerous procedure for PCP diagnosis, as it uses a minimally invasive and inexpensive specimen (blood), which may be also a major benefit for the patient's care. The BG/KL-6 combination test should be interpreted within the clinical context, and it may be used as a preliminary screening test in patients with primary suspicion of PCP, or as an alternative diagnostic procedure in patients with respiratory failure or in children, avoiding the associated risk of complications by the use of bronchoscopy. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Serologic Reactivity Reflects Clinical Expression of Ulcerative Colitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Elizabeth A; Davis, Sonia M; Mack, David R; Boyle, Brendan M; Griffiths, Anne M; LeLeiko, Neal S; Sauer, Cary G; Keljo, David J; Markowitz, James F; Baker, Susan S; Rosh, Joel R; Baldassano, Robert N; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Pfefferkorn, Marian D; Otley, Anthony R; Heyman, Melvin B; Noe, Joshua D; Patel, Ashish S; Rufo, Paul A; Alison Marquis, M; Walters, Thomas D; Collins, Margaret H; Kugathasan, Subra; Denson, Lee A; Hyams, Jeffrey S; Dubinsky, Marla C

    2018-05-18

    In contrast to pediatric Crohn's disease (CD), little is known in pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) about the relationship between disease phenotype and serologic reactivity to microbial and other antigens. The aim of this study was to examine disease phenotype and serology in a well-characterized inception cohort of children newly diagnosed with UC during the PROTECT Study (Predicting Response to Standardized Pediatric Colitis Therapy). Patients were recruited from 29 participating centers. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and serologic (pANCA, ASCA IgA/IgG, Anti-CBir1, and Anti-OmpC) data were obtained from children 4-17 years old with UC. Sixty-five percent of the patients had positive serology for pANCA, with 62% less than 12 years old and 66% 12 years old or older. Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies did not correspond to a specific phenotype though pANCA ≥100, found in 19%, was strongly associated with pancolitis (P = 0.003). Anti-CBir1 was positive in 19% and more common in younger children with 32% less than 12 years old as compared with 14% 12 years old or older (P < 0.001). No association was found in any age group between pANCA and Anti-CBir1. Relative rectal sparing was more common in +CBir1, 16% versus 7% (P = 0.02). Calprotectin was lower in Anti-CBir1+ (Median [IQR] 1495 mcg/g [973-3333] vs 2648 mcg/g [1343-4038]; P = 0.04). Vitamin D 25-OH sufficiency was associated with Anti-CBir1+ (P = 0.0009). The frequency of pANCA in children was consistent with adult observations. High titer pANCA was associated with more extensive disease, supporting the idea that the magnitude of immune reactivity may reflect disease severity. Anti-CBir1+ was more common in younger ages, suggesting host-microbial interactions may differ by patient age.

  19. Patients' comprehension of their emergency department encounter: a pilot study using physician observers.

    PubMed

    Musso, Mandi W; Perret, J Nelson; Sanders, Taylor; Daray, Ross; Anderson, Kyle; Lancaster, Melissa; Lim, David; Jones, Glenn N

    2015-02-01

    The current study examines patients' comprehension of their emergency department (ED) encounter, using physician observers to document both physician communication and details of the encounter. Eighty-nine patients were recruited from a convenience sample in an urban ED. To be included in this study, patients had to have low triage levels (4 and 5) and be discharged from the ED. Physician observers were present throughout the encounter, documenting physician communication and procedures performed. Patients were then interviewed by physician observers about their communication with physicians, accuracy in recalling facts about the encounter, and understanding of information provided during the encounter. The majority of patients were black and had a high school education. Physicians typically engaged in behaviors related to building rapport and diagnosing patients. However, physicians informed patients about test results and diagnoses less frequently. In terms of patients' accuracy and understanding of the visit, patients were generally aware of basic facts in regard to their ED encounter (ie, whether they had blood drawn), but 65.9% of patients demonstrated less than "good" understanding in at least 1 area assessed. The findings of the current study indicate physicians could improve communication with patients, particularly in regard to care received in the ED. This study also indicates that a large percentage of patients fail to understand information about their ED encounter even when physicians provide it. A primary limitation of the current study is the relatively homogenous physician sample. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Approximations to the distribution of a test statistic in covariance structure analysis: A comprehensive study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao

    2018-05-01

    In structural equation modelling (SEM), a robust adjustment to the test statistic or to its reference distribution is needed when its null distribution deviates from a χ 2 distribution, which usually arises when data do not follow a multivariate normal distribution. Unfortunately, existing studies on this issue typically focus on only a few methods and neglect the majority of alternative methods in statistics. Existing simulation studies typically consider only non-normal distributions of data that either satisfy asymptotic robustness or lead to an asymptotic scaled χ 2 distribution. In this work we conduct a comprehensive study that involves both typical methods in SEM and less well-known methods from the statistics literature. We also propose the use of several novel non-normal data distributions that are qualitatively different from the non-normal distributions widely used in existing studies. We found that several under-studied methods give the best performance under specific conditions, but the Satorra-Bentler method remains the most viable method for most situations. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  1. International benchmarking of specialty hospitals. A series of case studies on comprehensive cancer centres.

    PubMed

    van Lent, Wineke A M; de Beer, Relinde D; van Harten, Wim H

    2010-08-31

    Benchmarking is one of the methods used in business that is applied to hospitals to improve the management of their operations. International comparison between hospitals can explain performance differences. As there is a trend towards specialization of hospitals, this study examines the benchmarking process and the success factors of benchmarking in international specialized cancer centres. Three independent international benchmarking studies on operations management in cancer centres were conducted. The first study included three comprehensive cancer centres (CCC), three chemotherapy day units (CDU) were involved in the second study and four radiotherapy departments were included in the final study. Per multiple case study a research protocol was used to structure the benchmarking process. After reviewing the multiple case studies, the resulting description was used to study the research objectives. We adapted and evaluated existing benchmarking processes through formalizing stakeholder involvement and verifying the comparability of the partners. We also devised a framework to structure the indicators to produce a coherent indicator set and better improvement suggestions. Evaluating the feasibility of benchmarking as a tool to improve hospital processes led to mixed results. Case study 1 resulted in general recommendations for the organizations involved. In case study 2, the combination of benchmarking and lean management led in one CDU to a 24% increase in bed utilization and a 12% increase in productivity. Three radiotherapy departments of case study 3, were considering implementing the recommendations.Additionally, success factors, such as a well-defined and small project scope, partner selection based on clear criteria, stakeholder involvement, simple and well-structured indicators, analysis of both the process and its results and, adapt the identified better working methods to the own setting, were found. The improved benchmarking process and the success

  2. International benchmarking of specialty hospitals. A series of case studies on comprehensive cancer centres

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Benchmarking is one of the methods used in business that is applied to hospitals to improve the management of their operations. International comparison between hospitals can explain performance differences. As there is a trend towards specialization of hospitals, this study examines the benchmarking process and the success factors of benchmarking in international specialized cancer centres. Methods Three independent international benchmarking studies on operations management in cancer centres were conducted. The first study included three comprehensive cancer centres (CCC), three chemotherapy day units (CDU) were involved in the second study and four radiotherapy departments were included in the final study. Per multiple case study a research protocol was used to structure the benchmarking process. After reviewing the multiple case studies, the resulting description was used to study the research objectives. Results We adapted and evaluated existing benchmarking processes through formalizing stakeholder involvement and verifying the comparability of the partners. We also devised a framework to structure the indicators to produce a coherent indicator set and better improvement suggestions. Evaluating the feasibility of benchmarking as a tool to improve hospital processes led to mixed results. Case study 1 resulted in general recommendations for the organizations involved. In case study 2, the combination of benchmarking and lean management led in one CDU to a 24% increase in bed utilization and a 12% increase in productivity. Three radiotherapy departments of case study 3, were considering implementing the recommendations. Additionally, success factors, such as a well-defined and small project scope, partner selection based on clear criteria, stakeholder involvement, simple and well-structured indicators, analysis of both the process and its results and, adapt the identified better working methods to the own setting, were found. Conclusions The improved

  3. Retrospective serological survey of Porcine circovirus-2 infection in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto; Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Hernández, Jesús; Correa, Pablo; Segalés, Joaquim

    2009-01-01

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is considered a multifactorial emerging disease of which Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) is the necessary infectious cause. However, retrospective studies have shown that PMWS is not a new disease and that PCV-2 has been circulating in pig farms for years. Most of these studies were performed in Europe and Asia; only a few were performed in North or South America. A PCV-2 retrospective serological survey was carried out with 659 serum samples collected from pigs in Mexico between 1972 and 2000. Serological analyses were performed with an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA). The overall prevalence of PCV-2 antibodies was 59% (387/659); the prevalence was 27% (24/90) for the period from 1972–1979; 44% (74/169) from 1980–1989, and 72% (289/400) from 1990–2000. Antibodies to PCV-2 were detected in at least 1 pig from all tested years since 1973. This study shows evidence of enzootic PCV-2 infection in Mexico for many years before the first description of PMWS in the country (in 2001), further supporting results obtained in other parts of the world. To date, this study provides the earliest evidence of PCV-2 infection in the North and South American continents. PMID:19337391

  4. Characterizing environmental risk factors for West Nile virus in Quebec, Canada, using clinical data in humans and serology in pet dogs.

    PubMed

    Rocheleau, J P; Michel, P; Lindsay, L R; Drebot, M; Dibernardo, A; Ogden, N H; Fortin, A; Arsenault, J

    2017-10-01

    The identification of specific environments sustaining emerging arbovirus amplification and transmission to humans is a key component of public health intervention planning. This study aimed at identifying environmental factors associated with West Nile virus (WNV) infections in southern Quebec, Canada, by modelling and jointly interpreting aggregated clinical data in humans and serological data in pet dogs. Environmental risk factors were estimated in humans by negative binomial regression based on a dataset of 191 human WNV clinical cases reported in the study area between 2011 and 2014. Risk factors for infection in dogs were evaluated by logistic and negative binomial models based on a dataset including WNV serological results from 1442 dogs sampled from the same geographical area in 2013. Forested lands were identified as low-risk environments in humans. Agricultural lands represented higher risk environments for dogs. Environments identified as impacting risk in the current study were somewhat different from those identified in other studies conducted in north-eastern USA, which reported higher risk in suburban environments. In the context of the current study, combining human and animal data allowed a more comprehensive and possibly a more accurate view of environmental WNV risk factors to be obtained than by studying aggregated human data alone.

  5. [A serological survey of the infection by Echinococcus sp. in the municipality of Sena Madureira, AC].

    PubMed

    Pastore, Ricardo; Vitali, Lúcia H; Macedo, Vanize de Oliveira; Prata, Aluízio

    2003-01-01

    A serological inquiry was performed in the municipality of Sena Madureira, Acre State, Brazil, to evaluate the individual contact with Echinococcus sp. The participants were recruited from two distinct populations: residents in the urban and rural areas, the latter distributed among riverside communities of the region. A total of 1,064 individuals were evaluated: 851 from the urban zone and 213 from the rural area. The study was divided into two phases: a serological screening, in which the blood samples were collected and then sent to the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo (Serology Laboratory), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, for the serological test by counterimmunoelectrophoresis technique; and secondly an epidemiological inquiry for evaluating the individuals and their dwelling conditions and customs. Comparing the results of serological tests, the prevalence in the rural area was 6% against 3.5% in the urban area. The overall prevalence was 4%. The possibility of the existence of another intermediate host in the life cycle of Echinococcus vogeli was analyzed and the findings indicated the domestic pig as being the most probable.

  6. Cat-scratch uveitis confirmed by histological, serological, and molecular diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Font, Ramon L; Del Valle, Maria; Mitchell, Bradley M; Boniuk, Milton

    2011-04-01

    To report a case of a cat-scratch uveitis caused by Bartonella henselae, which was confirmed by histology, serology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology. An iris nodule was biopsied from a 4-year-old child who was scratched by a kitten on the side of his face and developed redness of the eye associated with cervical lymphadenopathy. Sections of the iridectomy specimen were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and Warthin-Starry technique for histopathologic evaluation. Additionally, serologic tests and molecular diagnosis using B. henselae-specific PCR were performed. Histopathologically, sections of the iridectomy specimen showed a zonal granulomatous inflammation with a central iris necrotic abscess surrounded by a mantle of epithelioid histiocytes and more peripherally by lymphocytes and plasma cells. The Warthin-Starry stain disclosed scattered short bacilli within the necrotic abscess morphologically compatible with B. henselae. Report of serologic tests for B. henselae disclosed a negative immunoglobulin G antibody (negative: less than 12) and a positive immunoglobulin M antibody of 18 (positive: greater than 15). Other serologic studies including Toxocara, histoplasmin, blastomycin, coccidioidin, aspergillin, and Chlamydia were all negative. PCR was positive for B. henselae DNA. Our case showed a unilateral chronic granulomatous iritis with the histopathologic features compatible with CSD caused by B. henselae bacillus as demonstrated in the iris biopsy and confirmed by serology and PCR technique. This case is an example of a relatively rare uveal manifestation of CSD.

  7. Prevalence and Serological Diagnosis of Relapse in Paracoccidioidomycosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sylvestre, Tatiane Fernanda; Silva, Luciane Regina Franciscone; Cavalcante, Ricardo de Souza; Moris, Daniela Vanessa; Venturini, James; Vicentini, Adriana Pardini; de Carvalho, Lídia Raquel; Mendes, Rinaldo Poncio

    2014-01-01

    A review of 400 clinical records of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) patients, 93 with the acute/subacute (AF) and 307 with the chronic form (CF), attended from 1977 to 2011, selected as to the schedule of release for study by the Office of Medical Records at the University Hospital of the Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu – São Paulo State University – UNESP, was performed to detect cases in relapse. The control of cure was performed by clinical and serological evaluation using the double agar gel immunodiffusion test (DID). In the diagnosis of relapse, DID, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting assay (IBgp70 and IBgp43) were evaluated. Out of 400 patients, 21 (5.2%) went through relapse, 18 of them were male and 3 were female, 6∶1 male/female ratio. Out of the 21 patients in relapse, 15 (4.8%) showed the CF, and 6 (6.4%) the AF (p>0.05). The sensitivity of DID and ELISA before treatment was the same (76.1%). DID presented higher sensitivity in pre-treatment (80%) than at relapse (45%; p = 0.017), while ELISA showed the same sensitivity (80% vs 65%; p = 0.125). The serological methods for identifying PCM patients in relapse showed low rates of sensitivity, from 12.5% in IBgp70 to 65.0% in IBgp43 identification and 68.8% in ELISA. The sensitivity of ELISA in diagnosing PCM relapse showed a strong tendency to be higher than DID (p = 0.06) and is equal to IBgp43 (p = 0.11). In sum, prevalence of relapse was not high in PCM patients whose treatment duration was based on immunological parameters. However, the used methods for serological diagnosis present low sensitivity. While more accurate serological methods are not available, we pay special attention to the mycological and histopathological diagnosis of PCM relapse. Hence, direct mycological, cytopathological, and histopathological examinations and isolation in culture for P. brasiliensis must be appropriately and routinely performed when the hypothesis of relapse is

  8. Using the Visual World Paradigm to Study Retrieval Interference in Spoken Language Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Sekerina, Irina A.; Campanelli, Luca; Van Dyke, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    The cue-based retrieval theory (Lewis et al., 2006) predicts that interference from similar distractors should create difficulty for argument integration, however this hypothesis has only been examined in the written modality. The current study uses the Visual World Paradigm (VWP) to assess its feasibility to study retrieval interference arising from distractors present in a visual display during spoken language comprehension. The study aims to extend findings from Van Dyke and McElree (2006), which utilized a dual-task paradigm with written sentences in which they manipulated the relationship between extra-sentential distractors and the semantic retrieval cues from a verb, to the spoken modality. Results indicate that retrieval interference effects do occur in the spoken modality, manifesting immediately upon encountering the verbal retrieval cue for inaccurate trials when the distractors are present in the visual field. We also observed indicators of repair processes in trials containing semantic distractors, which were ultimately answered correctly. We conclude that the VWP is a useful tool for investigating retrieval interference effects, including both the online effects of distractors and their after-effects, when repair is initiated. This work paves the way for further studies of retrieval interference in the spoken modality, which is especially significant for examining the phenomenon in pre-reading children, non-reading adults (e.g., people with aphasia), and spoken language bilinguals. PMID:27378974

  9. Decreasing scoring errors on Wechsler Scale Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Linger, Michele L; Ray, Glen E; Zachar, Peter; Underhill, Andrea T; LoBello, Steven G

    2007-10-01

    Studies of graduate students learning to administer the Wechsler scales have generally shown that training is not associated with the development of scoring proficiency. Many studies report on the reduction of aggregated administration and scoring errors, a strategy that does not highlight the reduction of errors on subtests identified as most prone to error. This study evaluated the development of scoring proficiency specifically on the Wechsler (WISC-IV and WAIS-III) Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests during training by comparing a set of 'early test administrations' to 'later test administrations.' Twelve graduate students enrolled in an intelligence-testing course participated in the study. Scoring errors (e.g., incorrect point assignment) were evaluated on the students' actual practice administration test protocols. Errors on all three subtests declined significantly when scoring errors on 'early' sets of Wechsler scales were compared to those made on 'later' sets. However, correcting these subtest scoring errors did not cause significant changes in subtest scaled scores. Implications for clinical instruction and future research are discussed.

  10. Novel Metaphors Comprehension in a Child with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Study on Assessment and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Melogno, Sergio; Pinto, Maria A.; Orsolini, Margherita

    2017-01-01

    Until the first decade of the current millennium, the literature on metaphor comprehension highlighted typical difficulties in children with high-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). More recently, some scholars have devised special programs for enhancing the capability of understanding metaphors in these children. This article presents a case study based on a treatment aiming at enhancing novel metaphor comprehension in a high-functioning child with ASD. M.M., a pseudoacronym for an 8;10 year-old boy, diagnosed with high-functioning ASD, was first assessed with a metaphor comprehension test. This testing (at time T0) highlighted a rigid refusal of metaphors and a marked tendency toward literal interpretation. A baseline treatment (8 sessions of 45–60 min each, twice a week) was implemented, based on a series of recognition, denomination and emotion comprehension activities. M.M.'s metaphor comprehension was assessed a second time (T1), followed by the experimental treatment (same duration and frequency as the first one), specifically focused on metaphor comprehension. Finally, a third assessment of metaphor comprehension took place (T2), followed by a last assessment 4 months later (follow-up, T3). The comparison between the performances at the metaphor comprehension test across the four assessments, from T0 to T3, showed that the baseline treatment produced no effect at all, whereas a significant improvement appeared at T2, just after the experimental treatment, later confirmed at the follow up. Both quantitative and qualitative results showed an evident improvement in the way M.M. handled the semantic issues posed by the metaphors of the test, in line with the strategies he was taught during the treatment. PMID:28101069

  11. Study of the comprehension of the scientific method by members of a university health research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Burlamaque-Neto, A C; Santos, G R; Lisbôa, L M; Goldim, J R; Machado, C L B; Matte, U; Giugliani, R

    2012-02-01

    In Brazil, scientific research is carried out mainly at universities, where professors coordinate research projects with the active participation of undergraduate and graduate students. However, there is no formal program for the teaching/learning of the scientific method. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the comprehension of the scientific method by students of health sciences who participate in scientific projects in an academic research laboratory. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using Edgar Morin complexity as theoretical reference. In a semi-structured interview, students were asked to solve an abstract logical puzzle - TanGram. The collected data were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic analysis method proposed by Minayo and discussed in terms of the theoretical reference of complexity. The students' concept of the scientific method is limited to participation in projects, stressing the execution of practical procedures as opposed to scientific thinking. The solving of the TanGram puzzle revealed that the students had difficulties in understanding questions and activities focused on subjects and their processes. Objective answers, even when dealing with personal issues, were also reflected on the students' opinions about the characteristics of a successful researcher. Students' difficulties concerning these issues may affect their scientific performance and result in poorly designed experiments. This is a preliminary study that should be extended to other centers of scientific research.

  12. Study of the comprehension of the scientific method by members of a university health research laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Burlamaque-Neto, A.C.; Santos, G.R.; Lisbôa, L.M.; Goldim, J.R.; Machado, C.L.B.; Matte, U.; Giugliani, R.

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, scientific research is carried out mainly at universities, where professors coordinate research projects with the active participation of undergraduate and graduate students. However, there is no formal program for the teaching/learning of the scientific method. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the comprehension of the scientific method by students of health sciences who participate in scientific projects in an academic research laboratory. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using Edgar Morin complexity as theoretical reference. In a semi-structured interview, students were asked to solve an abstract logical puzzle - TanGram. The collected data were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic analysis method proposed by Minayo and discussed in terms of the theoretical reference of complexity. The students' concept of the scientific method is limited to participation in projects, stressing the execution of practical procedures as opposed to scientific thinking. The solving of the TanGram puzzle revealed that the students had difficulties in understanding questions and activities focused on subjects and their processes. Objective answers, even when dealing with personal issues, were also reflected on the students' opinions about the characteristics of a successful researcher. Students' difficulties concerning these issues may affect their scientific performance and result in poorly designed experiments. This is a preliminary study that should be extended to other centers of scientific research. PMID:22249427

  13. A Pilot Study of Biomedical Text Comprehension using an Attention-Based Deep Neural Reader: Design and Experimental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyubum; Kim, Byounggun; Jeon, Minji; Kim, Jihye; Tan, Aik Choon

    2018-01-01

    Background With the development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology centered on deep-learning, the computer has evolved to a point where it can read a given text and answer a question based on the context of the text. Such a specific task is known as the task of machine comprehension. Existing machine comprehension tasks mostly use datasets of general texts, such as news articles or elementary school-level storybooks. However, no attempt has been made to determine whether an up-to-date deep learning-based machine comprehension model can also process scientific literature containing expert-level knowledge, especially in the biomedical domain. Objective This study aims to investigate whether a machine comprehension model can process biomedical articles as well as general texts. Since there is no dataset for the biomedical literature comprehension task, our work includes generating a large-scale question answering dataset using PubMed and manually evaluating the generated dataset. Methods We present an attention-based deep neural model tailored to the biomedical domain. To further enhance the performance of our model, we used a pretrained word vector and biomedical entity type embedding. We also developed an ensemble method of combining the results of several independent models to reduce the variance of the answers from the models. Results The experimental results showed that our proposed deep neural network model outperformed the baseline model by more than 7% on the new dataset. We also evaluated human performance on the new dataset. The human evaluation result showed that our deep neural model outperformed humans in comprehension by 22% on average. Conclusions In this work, we introduced a new task of machine comprehension in the biomedical domain using a deep neural model. Since there was no large-scale dataset for training deep neural models in the biomedical domain, we created the new cloze-style datasets Biomedical Knowledge Comprehension Title (BMKC

  14. A Pilot Study of Biomedical Text Comprehension using an Attention-Based Deep Neural Reader: Design and Experimental Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongsoon; Park, Donghyeon; Choi, Yonghwa; Lee, Kyubum; Kim, Byounggun; Jeon, Minji; Kim, Jihye; Tan, Aik Choon; Kang, Jaewoo

    2018-01-05

    With the development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology centered on deep-learning, the computer has evolved to a point where it can read a given text and answer a question based on the context of the text. Such a specific task is known as the task of machine comprehension. Existing machine comprehension tasks mostly use datasets of general texts, such as news articles or elementary school-level storybooks. However, no attempt has been made to determine whether an up-to-date deep learning-based machine comprehension model can also process scientific literature containing expert-level knowledge, especially in the biomedical domain. This study aims to investigate whether a machine comprehension model can process biomedical articles as well as general texts. Since there is no dataset for the biomedical literature comprehension task, our work includes generating a large-scale question answering dataset using PubMed and manually evaluating the generated dataset. We present an attention-based deep neural model tailored to the biomedical domain. To further enhance the performance of our model, we used a pretrained word vector and biomedical entity type embedding. We also developed an ensemble method of combining the results of several independent models to reduce the variance of the answers from the models. The experimental results showed that our proposed deep neural network model outperformed the baseline model by more than 7% on the new dataset. We also evaluated human performance on the new dataset. The human evaluation result showed that our deep neural model outperformed humans in comprehension by 22% on average. In this work, we introduced a new task of machine comprehension in the biomedical domain using a deep neural model. Since there was no large-scale dataset for training deep neural models in the biomedical domain, we created the new cloze-style datasets Biomedical Knowledge Comprehension Title (BMKC_T) and Biomedical Knowledge Comprehension Last

  15. Surveillance of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission by serological screening of schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, A. L.; Zicker, F.; Luquetti, A. O.; Oliveira, R. M.; Silva, S. A.; Souza, J. M.; Martelli, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    The seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among children is a sensitive indicator for assessing the effectiveness of programmes for control of Chagas disease. In this study we report the result of a cross-sectional serological survey carried out among schoolchildren living in a poor rural area in central Brazil. Eluates of blood collected on filter-paper were tested for anti-T. cruzi antibodies using immunofluorescence, haemagglutination, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The overall seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection was 7.9%, which compared with the findings of the national survey carried out in 1975-80 indicates that a twofold-to-threefold reduction in prevalence has occurred over the last 10 years. This is consistent with a reduction of transmission in the area, probably related to vector control efforts. Based on our results, the incidence of new cases was estimated to be 44 per annum in the study region. In rural areas with a scattered population, surveillance of T. cruzi transmission by serological screening of children at school entry is more practical and economical than entomological evaluation for assessing both the risk of transmission in the community and the efficacy of vector control measures. A sample size of around 1000 schoolchildren is sufficient to detect prevalences as low as 2%, and such an approach would be practical and applicable to most areas where Chagas disease is endemic. PMID:1464149

  16. Serologic survey in animals of 'Q' fever in Nuevo Leon.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Melédez, J A; Avalos-Ramírez, R; Riojas-Valdez, V; Kawas-Garza, J; Fimbres-Durazo, H; Hernández-Vidal, G

    2002-01-01

    The serological prevalence of Q fever in Mexico is unknown. A serological survey for Coxiella burnetii was undertaken on a randomly selected population of dairy cattle, beef cattle, goats and sheep flocks. Serological examination of animal sera for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii was carried out by the ELISA technique. The 28% of the dairy cattle and 10% of beef cattle examinated were antibody positive. Sera from goats and sheep also had antibodies against this rickettsia, 35% and 40% respectively.

  17. Investigation of a Study Technique To Increase Learning Disabled Students' Reading Comprehension of Expository Text. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Sandra; Cooper, John O.

    The study reported in this paper investigated the effects of a frequently recommended study technique on the comprehension of expository text by high-school students having learning disabilities. The instructional procedure studied was "Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review" (SQ3R). Six experiments were conducted over a 3-year period,…

  18. New Mexico’s comprehensive impaired-driving program : a case study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-03-01

    In late 2004, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration provided funds to the New Mexico Department of Transportation to demonstrate a process for implementing a comprehensive State impaired driving system. NHTSA also contracted with the Pac...

  19. Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Liver function tests (LFTs) can be affected by many factors and the proposed effects of coffee on LFT require a comprehensive evaluation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether drinking coffee, smoking, or drinking alcohol have independent effects on LFTs in Korean health-check examinees. Methods We used the responses of 500 health-check examinees, who had participated in a self-administered questionnaire survey about coffee, alcohol drinking, and smoking habits. Results Coffee consumption was closely related to male gender, high body mass index (BMI), alcohol drinking, and smoking. On univariable and multivariable analyses, drinking coffee lowered serum levels of total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferases (AST). On multivariable analyses, smoking raised serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) level and decreased serum protein and albumin levels, while alcohol drinking raised GGT level after adjustment for age, gender, regular medication, BMI, coffee and alcohol drinking amounts, and smoking. Conclusions Coffee consumption, smoking, and alcohol drinking affect the individual components of LFT in different ways, and the above 3 habits each have an impact on LFTs. Therefore, their effects on LFTs should be carefully interpreted, and further study on the mechanism of the effects is warranted. PMID:23075166

  20. A Comprehensive Study of Retinal Vessel Classification Methods in Fundus Images

    PubMed Central

    Miri, Maliheh; Amini, Zahra; Rabbani, Hossein; Kafieh, Raheleh

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, it is obvious that there is a relationship between changes in the retinal vessel structure and diseases such as diabetic, hypertension, stroke, and the other cardiovascular diseases in adults as well as retinopathy of prematurity in infants. Retinal fundus images provide non-invasive visualization of the retinal vessel structure. Applying image processing techniques in the study of digital color fundus photographs and analyzing their vasculature is a reliable approach for early diagnosis of the aforementioned diseases. Reduction in the arteriolar–venular ratio of retina is one of the primary signs of hypertension, diabetic, and cardiovascular diseases which can be calculated by analyzing the fundus images. To achieve a precise measuring of this parameter and meaningful diagnostic results, accurate classification of arteries and veins is necessary. Classification of vessels in fundus images faces with some challenges that make it difficult. In this paper, a comprehensive study of the proposed methods for classification of arteries and veins in fundus images is presented. Considering that these methods are evaluated on different datasets and use different evaluation criteria, it is not possible to conduct a fair comparison of their performance. Therefore, we evaluate the classification methods from modeling perspective. This analysis reveals that most of the proposed approaches have focused on statistics, and geometric models in spatial domain and transform domain models have received less attention. This could suggest the possibility of using transform models, especially data adaptive ones, for modeling of the fundus images in future classification approaches. PMID:28553578

  1. Comprehensive Adsorption Studies of Doxycycline and Ciprofloxacin Antibiotics by Biochars Prepared at Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhi-wei; Tan, Xiao-fei; Liu, Yun-guo; Tian, Si-rong; Zeng, Guang-ming; Jiang, Lu-hua; Liu, Shao-bo; Li, Jiang; Liu, Ni; Yin, Zhi-hong

    2018-01-01

    This paper comparatively investigated the removal efficiency and mechanisms of rice straw biochars prepared under three pyrolytic temperatures for two kinds of tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics (doxycycline and ciprofloxacin). The influencing factors of antibiotic adsorption (including biochar dosage, pH, background electrolytes, humic acid, initial antibiotics concentration, contact time, and temperature) were comprehensively studied. The results suggest that biochars produced at high-temperature [i.e., 700°C (BC700)], have higher adsorption capacity for the two antibiotics than low-temperature (i.e., 300–500°C) biochars (BC300 and BC500). Higher surface area gives rise to greater volume of micropores and mesopores, and higher graphitic surfaces of the BC700 contributed to its higher functionality. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be in the following order: DOX > CIP. The π-π EDA interaction and hydrogen bonding might be the predominant adsorption mechanisms. Findings in this study highlight the important roles of high-temperature biochars in controlling the contamination of tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics in the environment. PMID:29637067

  2. Comprehensive characterization of well-defined silk fibroin surfaces: Toward multitechnique studies of surface modification effects.

    PubMed

    Amornsudthiwat, Phakdee; Nitschke, Mirko; Zimmermann, Ralf; Friedrichs, Jens; Grundke, Karina; Pöschel, Kathrin; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn; Werner, Carsten

    2015-06-21

    The study aims at a comprehensive surface characterization of untreated and oxygen plasma-treated silk fibroin with a particular focus on phenomena relevant to biointeraction and cell adhesion. For that purpose, a range of advanced surface diagnostic techniques is employed to thoroughly investigate well-defined and especially clean silk fibroin samples in a comparable setting. This includes surface chemistry and surface charges as factors, which control protein adsorption, but also hydration and swelling of the material as important parameters, which govern the mechanical stiffness at the interface with aqueous media. Oxygen plasma exposure of silk fibroin surfaces reveals that material ablation strongly predominates over the introduction of functional groups even for mild plasma conditions. A substantial increase in mechanical stiffness is identified as the most prominent effect upon this kind of plasma treatment. Regarding the experimental approach and the choice of techniques, the work goes beyond previous studies in this field and paves the way for well-founded investigations of other surface-selective modification procedures that enhance the applicability of silk fibroin in biomedical applications.

  3. Comprehensive Longitudinal Study Challenges the Existence of Neonatal Imitation in Humans.

    PubMed

    Oostenbroek, Janine; Suddendorf, Thomas; Nielsen, Mark; Redshaw, Jonathan; Kennedy-Costantini, Siobhan; Davis, Jacqueline; Clark, Sally; Slaughter, Virginia

    2016-05-23

    Human children copy others' actions with high fidelity, supporting early cultural learning and assisting in the development and maintenance of behavioral traditions [1]. Imitation has long been assumed to occur from birth [2-4], with influential theories (e.g., [5-7]) placing an innate imitation module at the foundation of social cognition (potentially underpinned by a mirror neuron system [8, 9]). Yet, the very phenomenon of neonatal imitation has remained controversial. Empirical support is mixed and interpretations are varied [10-16], potentially because previous investigations have relied heavily on cross-sectional designs with relatively small samples and with limited controls [17, 18]. Here, we report surprising results from the most comprehensive longitudinal study of neonatal imitation to date. We presented infants (n = 106) with nine social and two non-social models and scored their responses at 1, 3, 6, and 9 weeks of age. Longitudinal analyses indicated that the infants did not imitate any of the models, as they were just as likely to produce the gestures in response to control models as they were to matching models. Previous positive findings were replicated in limited cross-sections of the data, but the overall analyses confirmed these findings to be mere artifacts of restricted comparison conditions. Our results undermine the idea of an innate imitation module and suggest that earlier studies reporting neonatal imitation were methodologically limited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Heavy metal contamination along the China coastline: A comprehensive study using Artificial Mussels and native mussels.

    PubMed

    Degger, Natalie; Chiu, Jill M Y; Po, Beverly H K; Tse, Anna C K; Zheng, Gene J; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Xu, Di; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Wang, Xin-Hong; Liu, Wen-Hua; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf S S

    2016-09-15

    A comprehensive study was carried out to assess metal contamination in five cities spanning from temperate to tropical environment along the coastal line of China with different hydrographical conditions. At each of the five cities, Artificial Mussels (AM) were deployed together with a native species of mussel at a control site and a polluted site. High levels of Cr, Cu and Hg were found in Qingdao, high level of Cd, Hg and Pb was found in Shanghai, and high level of Zn was found in Dalian. Furthermore, level of Cu contamination in all the five cities was consistently much higher than those reported in similar studies in other countries (e.g., Australia, Portugal, Scotland, Iceland, Korea, South Africa and Bangladesh). Levels of individual metal species in the AM showed a highly significant correlation with that in the native mussels (except for Zn in Mytilus edulis and Cd in Perna viridis), while no significant difference can be found between the regression relationships of metal in the AM and each of the two native mussel species. The results demonstrated that AM can provide a reliable time-integrated estimate of metal concentration in contrasting environments over large biogeographic areas and different hydrographic conditions, and overcome the shortcomings of monitoring metals in water, sediment and the use of biomonitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of prominence in Spanish sentence comprehension: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Gattei, Carolina A; Tabullo, Ángel; París, Luis; Wainselboim, Alejandro J

    2015-11-01

    Prominence is the hierarchical relation among arguments that allows us to understand 'Who did what to whom' in a sentence. The present study aimed to provide evidence about the role of prominence information for the incremental interpretation of arguments in Spanish. We investigated the time course of neural correlates associated to the comprehension of sentences that require a reversal of argument prominence hierarchization. We also studied how the amount of available prominence information may affect the incremental build-up of verbal expectations. Results of the ERP data revealed that at the disambiguating verb region, object-initial sentences (only one argument available) elicited a centro-parietal negativity with a peak at 400 ms post-onset. Subject-initial sentences (two arguments available) yielded a broadly distributed positivity at around 650 ms. This dissociation suggests that argument interpretation may depend on their morphosyntactic features, and also on the amount of prominence information available before the verb is encountered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alterations in zebrafish development induced by simvastatin: Comprehensive morphological and physiological study, focusing on muscle

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Laise M; Rios, Eduardo A; Guapyassu, Livia; Midlej, Victor; Atella, Georgia C; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Benchimol, Marlene; Mermelstein, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The cholesterol synthesis inhibitor simvastatin, which is used to treat cardiovascular diseases, has severe collateral effects. We decided to comprehensively study the effects of simvastatin in zebrafish development and in myogenesis, because zebrafish has been used as a model to human diseases, due to its handling easiness, the optical clarity of its embryos, and the availability of physiological and structural methodologies. Furthermore, muscle is an important target of the drug. We used several simvastatin concentrations at different zebrafish developmental stages and studied survival rate, morphology, and physiology of the embryos. Our results show that high levels of simvastatin induce structural damage whereas low doses induce minor structural changes, impaired movements, and reduced heart beating. Morphological alterations include changes in embryo and somite size and septa shape. Physiological changes include movement reduction and slower heartbeat. These effects could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. Moreover, we quantified the total cell number during zebrafish development and demonstrated a large reduction in cell number after statin treatment. Since we could classify the alterations induced by simvastatin in three distinct phenotypes, we speculate that simvastatin acts through more than one mechanism and could affect both cell replication and/or cell death and muscle function. Our data can contribute to the understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of the mechanisms of action of simvastatin. PMID:27444151

  7. Alterations in zebrafish development induced by simvastatin: Comprehensive morphological and physiological study, focusing on muscle.

    PubMed

    Campos, Laise M; Rios, Eduardo A; Guapyassu, Livia; Midlej, Victor; Atella, Georgia C; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Benchimol, Marlene; Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel L

    2016-11-01

    The cholesterol synthesis inhibitor simvastatin, which is used to treat cardiovascular diseases, has severe collateral effects. We decided to comprehensively study the effects of simvastatin in zebrafish development and in myogenesis, because zebrafish has been used as a model to human diseases, due to its handling easiness, the optical clarity of its embryos, and the availability of physiological and structural methodologies. Furthermore, muscle is an important target of the drug. We used several simvastatin concentrations at different zebrafish developmental stages and studied survival rate, morphology, and physiology of the embryos. Our results show that high levels of simvastatin induce structural damage whereas low doses induce minor structural changes, impaired movements, and reduced heart beating. Morphological alterations include changes in embryo and somite size and septa shape. Physiological changes include movement reduction and slower heartbeat. These effects could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. Moreover, we quantified the total cell number during zebrafish development and demonstrated a large reduction in cell number after statin treatment. Since we could classify the alterations induced by simvastatin in three distinct phenotypes, we speculate that simvastatin acts through more than one mechanism and could affect both cell replication and/or cell death and muscle function. Our data can contribute to the understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of the mechanisms of action of simvastatin. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  8. Comprehensive adsorption studies of doxycycline and ciprofloxacin antibiotics by biochars prepared at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhi-wei; Tan, Xiao-fei; Liu, Yun-guo; Tian, Si-rong; Zeng, Guang-ming; Jiang, Lu-hua; Liu, Shao-bo; Li, Jiang; Liu, Ni; Yin, Zhi-hong

    2018-03-01

    This paper comparatively investigated the removal efficiency and mechanisms of rice straw biochars prepared under three pyrolytic temperatures for two kinds of tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics (doxycycline and ciprofloxacin). The influencing factors of antibiotic adsorption (including biochar dosage, pH, background electrolytes, humic acid, initial antibiotics concentration, contact time, and temperature) were comprehensively studied. The results suggest that biochars produced at high-temperature (i.e., 700°C (BC700)), have higher adsorption capacity for the two antibiotics than low-temperature (i.e., 300-500°C) biochars (BC300 and BC500). Higher surface area gives rise to greater volume of micropores and mesopores, and higher graphitic surfaces of the BC700 contributed to its higher functionality. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be in the following order: DOX > CIP. The π-π EDA interaction and hydrogen bonding might be the predominant adsorption mechanisms. Findings in this study highlight the important roles of high-temperature biochars in controlling the contamination of tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics in the environment.

  9. Effect of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status on Serological Response to Influenza Vaccine in Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Manpreet K.; Fakih, Marwan; Muindi, Josephia; Tian, Lili; Mashtare, Terry; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epidemiologic data suggest that there is an association between vitamin D deficiency and influenza infection. We conducted a prospective influenza vaccination study to determine the influence of vitamin D status on serological response to influenza vaccine in prostate cancer (CaP) patients. METHODS During the 2006–2007 influenza season, CaP patients treated at Roswell Park Cancer Institute were offered vaccination with the trivalent influenza vaccine (Fluzone®, 2006–2007) and sera collected for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay titers before and 3 months after vaccination. Response to vaccination was defined as ≥1:40 titer ratio or a fourfold increase in titer at 3 months, against any of the three strains. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D3) levels were measured using DiaSorin 125I radioimmunoassay kits. RESULTS Thirty-five patients with CaP participated in the study. Median baseline 25-D3 level was 44.88 ng/ml (range: 9.16–71.98 ng/ml) Serological response against any of the three strains was noted in 80%. There was a significant effect of baseline 25-D3 level when tested as a continuous variable in relation to serological response (P = 0.0446). All patients in the upper quartile of 25-D3 level responded by mounting a serological response (P = 0.0344). None of the other baseline variables (age, race, chemotherapy status, or white cell count) had an effect on serological response. CONCLUSIONS In this study in CaP patients, a replete vitamin D status was associated with more frequent serological response to influenza vaccine. PMID:20812224

  10. Comprehension of Discourse Markers and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    According to many research findings, the presence of discourse markers (DMs) enhances readers' comprehension of the texts they read. However, there is a paucity of research on the relationship between knowledge of DMs and reading comprehension (RC) and the present study explores the relationship between them. Knowledge of DMs is measured through…

  11. Brucellosis in Yellowstone National Park bison: Quantitative serology and infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, T.J.; Rhyan, Jack C.; Aune, K.; Philo, L.M.; Ewalt, D.R.; Gidlewski, T.; Hennager, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    We collected complete sets of tissues, fluids, and swabs (approx 30) from 37 Yellowstone National Park (YNP) female bison (Bison bison) killed as a result of management actions by the Montana Department of Livestock and YNP personnel. Our goal was to establish the relation between blood tests demonstrating an animal has antibody to Brucella and the potential of that animal to be infected during the second trimester of pregnancy, the time when most management actions are taken. Twenty-eight of the 37 bison were seropositive adults (27) or a seropositive calf (1). We cultured samples using macerated whole tissues plated onto 4 Brucella-selective media and incubated with added CO2 for 1 week. Specimens from 2 adult seropositive females were contaminated, thus eliminating them from our data. Twelve of the remaining 26 seropositive adult and calf female bison (46%) were culture positive for Brucella abortus from 1 or more tissues. Culture positive adult females had high serologic titers. All 11 adults measured 3+ at 1:40 for 10 of 11 (91%) animals. All culture positive female adults had either a PCFIA ???0.080 or a CF reaction ???4+ at 1:80. However 5 (36%) bison with high titers were culture negative for B. abortus. Our findings on the relation between Brucella serology and culture are similar to those reported from studies of chronically infected cattle herds.

  12. Serologic evidence for human hantavirus infection in Peru.

    PubMed

    Castillo Oré, Roger M; Forshey, Brett M; Huaman, Alfredo; Villaran, Manuel V; Long, Kanya C; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Guevara, Carolina; Montgomery, Joel M; Alvarez, Carlos A; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Morrison, Amy C; Halsey, Eric S

    2012-08-01

    While human illness associated with hantavirus infection has been documented in many countries of South America, evidence for hantavirus transmission in Peru has been limited to the isolation of Rio Mamore virus from a pigmy mouse rat (Oligoryzomys microtis) in the Amazon city of Iquitos. To address the possibility of human hantavirus exposure in the region, we screened febrile patients reporting to health clinics in Iquitos from 2007 to 2010 for serological evidence of recent hantavirus infection. In addition, we conducted a serological survey for hantavirus-reactive IgG among healthy participants residing in Iquitos and rural areas surrounding the city. Through the febrile surveillance study, we identified 15 participants (0.3%; 15/5174) with IgM reactive to hantavirus (Andes virus) antigen, all with relatively mild, self-limited illness. From the cross-sectional serosurvey we found that 1.7% (36/2063) of residents of the Iquitos area had serum IgG reactive to one or more hantaviruses, with a higher prevalence in the urban population (2.2%, compared to 1.1% in rural areas). These results suggest that human infection with hantavirus has occurred in Peru.

  13. Serological IgG avidity test for ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Subramaniam; Nor-Masniwati, Saidin; Nor-Idahriani, Muhd Nor; Wan-Hazabbah, Wan-Hitam; Zeehaida, Mohamed; Zunaina, Embong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunoglobulin (Ig) G avidity of serological toxoplasmosis testing in patients with ocular inflammation and to determine the clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis. A retrospective review of all patients presenting with ocular inflammation to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between 2005 and 2009 was undertaken. Visual acuity, clinical manifestations at presentation, toxoplasmosis antibody testing, and treatment records were analyzed. A total of 130 patients with ocular inflammation were reviewed retrospectively. The patients had a mean age of 38.41 (standard deviation 19.24, range 6-83) years. Seventy-one patients (54.6%) were found to be seropositive, of whom five (3.8%) were both IgG and IgM positive (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis) while one (0.8%) showed IgG avidity ≤40% (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis) and 65 patients (50.0%) showed IgG avidity >40% (suggestive of reactivation of toxoplasmosis infection). Chorioretinal scarring as an ocular manifestation was significantly more common in patients with seropositive toxoplasmosis (P = 0.036). Eighteen patients (13.8%) were diagnosed as having recent and/or active ocular toxoplasmosis based on clinical manifestations and serological testing. Ocular toxoplasmosis is a clinical diagnosis, but specific toxoplasmosis antibody testing helps to support the diagnosis and to differentiate between reactivation of infection and recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.

  14. Safety of intravenous thrombolysis in stroke mimics: prospective 5-year study and comprehensive meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Zand, Ramin; Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Goyal, Nitin; Uchino, Ken; Chang, Jason; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Putaala, Jukka; Alexandrov, Anne W; Malkoff, Marc D; Alexandrov, Andrei V

    2015-05-01

    Shortening door-to-needle time may lead to inadvertent intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) administration in stroke mimics (SMs). We sought to determine the safety of IVT in SMs using prospective, single-center data and by conducting a comprehensive meta-analysis of reported case-series. We prospectively analyzed consecutive IVT-treated patients during a 5-year period at a tertiary care stroke center. A systematic review and meta-analysis of case-series reporting safety of IVT in SMs and confirmed acute ischemic stroke were conducted. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage was defined as imaging evidence of ICH with an National Institutes of Health Stroke scale increase of ≥4 points. Favorable functional outcome at hospital discharge was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 1. Of 516 consecutive IVT patients at our tertiary care center (50% men; mean age, 60±14 years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke scale, 11; range, 3-22), SMs comprised 75 cases. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 1 patient, whereas we documented no cases of orolingual edema or major extracranial hemorrhagic complications. In meta-analysis of 9 studies (8942 IVT-treated patients), the pooled rates of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and orolingual edema among 392 patients with SM treated with IVT were 0.5% (95% confidence interval, 0%-2%) and 0.3% (95% confidence interval, 0%-2%), respectively. Patients with SM were found to have a significantly lower risk for symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage compared with patients with acute ischemic stroke (risk ratio=0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.77; P=0.010), with no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. Favorable functional outcome was almost 3-fold higher in patients with SM in comparison with patients with acute ischemic stroke (risk ratio=2.78; 95% confidence interval, 2.07-3.73; P<0.00001). Our prospective, single-center experience coupled with the findings of the comprehensive meta

  15. Lack of serologic evidence to link IgA nephropathy with celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Sina; Canetta, Pietro A; Taylor, Annette K; Arguelles-Grande, Carolina; Snyder, Holly; Green, Peter H; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Alaedini, Armin

    2014-01-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. Mucosal infections and food antigens, including wheat gluten, have been proposed as potential contributing environmental factors. Increased immune reactivity to gluten and/or association with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder triggered by ingestion of gluten, have been reported in IgA nephropathy. However, studies are inconsistent about this association. We aimed to evaluate the proposed link between IgA nephropathy and celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten by conducting a comprehensive analysis of associated serologic markers in cohorts of well-characterized patients and controls. Study participants included patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy (n = 99), unaffected controls of similar age, gender, and race (n = 96), and patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease (n = 30). All serum specimens were tested for IgG and IgA antibodies to native gliadin and deamidated gliadin, as well as IgA antibody to transglutaminase 2 (TG2). Anti-TG2 antibody-positive nephropathy patients and unaffected controls were subsequently tested for IgA anti-endomysial antibody and genotyped for celiac disease-associated HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 alleles. In comparison to unaffected controls, there was not a statistically significant increase in IgA or IgG antibody reactivity to gliadin in individuals with IgA nephropathy. In addition, the levels of celiac disease-specific serologic markers, i.e., antibodies to deamidated gliadin and TG2, did not differ between IgA nephropathy patients and unaffected controls. Results of the additional anti-endomysial antibody testing and HLA genotyping were corroborative. The data from this case-control study do not reveal any evidence to suggest a significant role for celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten in IgA nephropathy.

  16. Lack of Serologic Evidence to Link IgA Nephropathy with Celiac Disease or Immune Reactivity to Gluten

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Sina; Canetta, Pietro A.; Taylor, Annette K.; Arguelles-Grande, Carolina; Snyder, Holly; Green, Peter H.; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Alaedini, Armin

    2014-01-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. Mucosal infections and food antigens, including wheat gluten, have been proposed as potential contributing environmental factors. Increased immune reactivity to gluten and/or association with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder triggered by ingestion of gluten, have been reported in IgA nephropathy. However, studies are inconsistent about this association. We aimed to evaluate the proposed link between IgA nephropathy and celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten by conducting a comprehensive analysis of associated serologic markers in cohorts of well-characterized patients and controls. Study participants included patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy (n = 99), unaffected controls of similar age, gender, and race (n = 96), and patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease (n = 30). All serum specimens were tested for IgG and IgA antibodies to native gliadin and deamidated gliadin, as well as IgA antibody to transglutaminase 2 (TG2). Anti-TG2 antibody-positive nephropathy patients and unaffected controls were subsequently tested for IgA anti-endomysial antibody and genotyped for celiac disease-associated HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 alleles. In comparison to unaffected controls, there was not a statistically significant increase in IgA or IgG antibody reactivity to gliadin in individuals with IgA nephropathy. In addition, the levels of celiac disease-specific serologic markers, i.e., antibodies to deamidated gliadin and TG2, did not differ between IgA nephropathy patients and unaffected controls. Results of the additional anti-endomysial antibody testing and HLA genotyping were corroborative. The data from this case-control study do not reveal any evidence to suggest a significant role for celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten in IgA nephropathy. PMID:24732864

  17. Atopic children and use of prescribed medication: A comprehensive study in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Nielen, Mark M. J.; Bohnen, Arthur M.; Korevaar, Joke C.; Bindels, Patrick J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose A comprehensive and representative nationwide general practice database was explored to study associations between atopic disorders and prescribed medication in children. Method All children aged 0–18 years listed in the NIVEL Primary Care Database in 2014 were selected. Atopic children with atopic eczema, asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) were matched with controls (not diagnosed with any of these disorders) within the same general practice on age and gender. Logistic regression analyses were performed to study the differences in prescribed medication between both groups by calculating odds ratios (OR); 93 different medication groups were studied. Results A total of 45,964 children with at least one atopic disorder were identified and matched with controls. Disorder-specific prescriptions seem to reflect evidence-based medicine guidelines for atopic eczema, asthma and AR. However, these disorder-specific prescriptions were also prescribed for children who were not registered as having that specific disorder. For eczema-related medication, about 3.7–8.4% of the children with non-eczematous atopic morbidity received these prescriptions, compared to 1.4–3.5% of the non-atopic children. The same pattern was observed for anti-asthmatics (having non-asthmatic atopic morbidity: 0.8–6.2% vs. controls: 0.3–2.1%) and AR-related medication (having non-AR atopic morbidity: 4.7–12.5% vs. controls: 2.8–3.1%). Also, non-atopic related medication, such as laxatives and antibiotics were more frequently prescribed for atopic children. Conclusions The present study shows that atopic children received more prescriptions, compared to non-atopic children. Non-atopic controls frequently received specific prescriptions for atopic disorders. This indicates that children with atopic disorders need better monitoring by their GP. PMID:28837578

  18. A Comprehensive Study on the Internet of Underwater Things: Applications, Challenges, and Channel Models †

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Geng-De; Huang, Chun-Ju

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT) is a novel class of Internet of Things (IoT), and is defined as the network of smart interconnected underwater objects. IoUT is expected to enable various practical applications, such as environmental monitoring, underwater exploration, and disaster prevention. With these applications, IoUT is regarded as one of the potential technologies toward developing smart cities. To support the concept of IoUT, Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have emerged as a promising network system. UWSNs are different from the traditional Territorial Wireless Sensor Networks (TWSNs), and have several unique properties, such as long propagation delay, narrow bandwidth, and low reliability. These unique properties would be great challenges for IoUT. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive study of IoUT, and the main contributions of this paper are threefold: (1) we introduce and classify the practical underwater applications that can highlight the importance of IoUT; (2) we point out the differences between UWSNs and traditional TWSNs, and these differences are the main challenges for IoUT; and (3) we investigate and evaluate the channel models, which are the technical core for designing reliable communication protocols on IoUT. PMID:28640220

  19. Primary motor cortex functionally contributes to language comprehension: An online rTMS study.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Nikola; Feurra, Matteo; Shpektor, Anna; Myachykov, Andriy; Shtyrov, Yury

    2017-02-01

    Among various questions pertinent to grounding human cognitive functions in a neurobiological substrate, the association between language and motor brain structures is a particularly debated one in neuroscience and psychology. While many studies support a broadly distributed model of language and semantics grounded, among other things, in the general modality-specific systems, theories disagree as to whether motor and sensory cortex activity observed during language processing is functional or epiphenomenal. Here, we assessed the role of motor areas in linguistic processing by investigating the responses of 28 healthy volunteers to different word types in semantic and lexical decision tasks, following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of primary motor cortex. We found that early rTMS (delivered within 200ms of word onset) produces a left-lateralised and meaning-specific change in reaction speed, slowing down behavioural responses to action-related words, and facilitating abstract words - an effect present only during semantic, but not lexical, decision. We interpret these data in light of action-perception theory of language, bolstering the claim that motor cortical areas play a functional role in language comprehension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Trifunctional lipid probes for comprehensive studies of single lipid species in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Nadler, André; Haberkant, Per; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Schifferer, Martina; Stein, Frank; Hauke, Sebastian; Porter, Forbes D.; Schultz, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Lipid-mediated signaling events regulate many cellular processes. Investigations of the complex underlying mechanisms are difficult because several different methods need to be used under varying conditions. Here we introduce multifunctional lipid derivatives to study lipid metabolism, lipid−protein interactions, and intracellular lipid localization with a single tool per target lipid. The probes are equipped with two photoreactive groups to allow photoliberation (uncaging) and photo–cross-linking in a sequential manner, as well as a click-handle for subsequent functionalization. We demonstrate the versatility of the design for the signaling lipids sphingosine and diacylglycerol; uncaging of the probe for these two species triggered calcium signaling and intracellular protein translocation events, respectively. We performed proteomic screens to map the lipid-interacting proteome for both lipids. Finally, we visualized a sphingosine transport deficiency in patient-derived Niemann−Pick disease type C fibroblasts by fluorescence as well as correlative light and electron microscopy, pointing toward the diagnostic potential of such tools. We envision that this type of probe will become important for analyzing and ultimately understanding lipid signaling events in a comprehensive manner. PMID:28154130

  1. Comprehensive near infrared study of Jatropha oil esterification with ethanol for biodiesel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Alianda Dantas de; Sá, Ananda Franco de; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Pacheco, José Geraldo A.; Pereira, Claudete Fernandes; Larrechi, Maria Soledad

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a comprehensive near infrared study for in-line monitoring of the esterification reaction of high acid oils, such as Jatropha curcas oil, using ethanol. Parallel reactions involved in the process were carried out to select a spectral region that characterizes the evolution of the esterification reaction. Using absorbance intensities at 5176 cm- 1, the conversion and kinetic behaviors of the esterification reaction were estimated. This method was applied to evaluate the influence of temperature and catalyst concentration on the estimates of initial reaction rate and ester conversion as responses to a 22 factorial experimental design. Employment of an alcohol/oil ratio of 16:1, catalyst concentration of 1.5% w/w, and temperatures at 65 °C or 75 °C, made it possible to reduce the initial acidity from 18% to 1.3% w/w, which is suitable for transesterification of high free fatty acid oils for biodiesel production. Using the proposed analytical method in the esterification reaction of raw materials with high free fatty acid content for biodiesel makes the monitoring process inexpensive, fast, simple, and practical.

  2. Comprehensive Study of Lanthanum Aluminate High-Dielectric-Constant Gate Oxides for AdvancedCMOS Devices

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masamichi

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the electrical and physical characteristics of Lanthanum Aluminate (LaAlO3) high-dielectric-constant gate oxides for advanced CMOS devices was performed. The most distinctive feature of LaAlO3 as compared with Hf-based high-k materials is the thermal stability at the interface with Si, which suppresses the formation of a low-permittivity Si oxide interfacial layer. Careful selection of the film deposition conditions has enabled successful deposition of an LaAlO3 gate dielectric film with an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of 0.31 nm. Direct contact with Si has been revealed to cause significant tensile strain to the Si in the interface region. The high stability of the effective work function with respect to the annealing conditions has been demonstrated through comparison with Hf-based dielectrics. It has also been shown that the effective work function can be tuned over a wide range by controlling the La/(La + Al) atomic ratio. In addition, gate-first n-MOSFETs with ultrathin EOT that use sulfur-implanted Schottky source/drain technology have been fabricated using a low-temperature process. PMID:28817057

  3. CD34 expression in human hair follicles and tricholemmoma: a comprehensive study.

    PubMed

    Misago, Noriyuki; Toda, Shuji; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2011-08-01

    There has recently been controversy regarding whether clone My10 is superior to clone QBEND-10 for labeling cells of tricholemmal lineage. Moreover, there have been no previous reports on the CD34 expression in human vellus hair follicles. We performed a comprehensive study of the CD34 expression in human terminal and vellus hair follicles and in 10 tricholemmomas using both the QBEND-10 and the My10 clones. We also performed two different procedures of immunostaining, which included the using of the standard avidin-biotin-peroxidase (ABC) complex system and the Envision system. The most sensitive marker of CD34 for normal human hair follicles and tricholemmomas is QBEND-10 using the ABC system. The degree and strength of the CD34 positive staining mainly depended on the method being used (whether it was the ABC system or the Envision system) rather than the clone. CD34 staining was rarely (20-30%) seen in the anagen and catagen vellus hair follicles, and could only be seen by the QBEND-10 clone using the ABC system. CD34 expression in the tricholemmomas represented either a diffuse or peripheral pattern. CD34 may not be a tricholemmal lineage-specific antigen, but may be related to certain functions of the cells. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. A Comprehensive Study on the Internet of Underwater Things: Applications, Challenges, and Channel Models.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chien-Chi; Lin, Yi-Shan; Wu, Geng-De; Huang, Chun-Ju

    2017-06-22

    The Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT) is a novel class of Internet of Things (IoT), and is defined as the network of smart interconnected underwater objects. IoUT is expected to enable various practical applications, such as environmental monitoring, underwater exploration, and disaster prevention. With these applications, IoUT is regarded as one of the potential technologies toward developing smart cities. To support the concept of IoUT, Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have emerged as a promising network system. UWSNs are different from the traditional Territorial Wireless Sensor Networks (TWSNs), and have several unique properties, such as long propagation delay, narrow bandwidth, and low reliability. These unique properties would be great challenges for IoUT. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive study of IoUT, and the main contributions of this paper are threefold: (1) we introduce and classify the practical underwater applications that can highlight the importance of IoUT; (2) we point out the differences between UWSNs and traditional TWSNs, and these differences are the main challenges for IoUT; and (3) we investigate and evaluate the channel models, which are the technical core for designing reliable communication protocols on IoUT.

  5. A Comprehensive Study of the Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Fly Ash Based Geopolymer

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Navid; Mehrali, Mehdi; Behnia, Arash; Javadi Pordsari, Alireza; Mehrali, Mohammad; Alengaram, U. Johnson; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2016-01-01

    As a cementitious material, geopolymers show a high quasi-brittle behavior and a relatively low fracture energy. To overcome such a weakness, incorporation of fibers to a brittle matrix is a well-known technique to enhance the flexural properties. This study comprehensively evaluates the short and long term impacts of different volume percentages of polypropylene fiber (PPF) reinforcement on fly ash based geopolymer composites. Different characteristics of the composite were compared at fresh state by flow measurement and hardened state by variation of shrinkage over time to assess the response of composites under flexural and compressive load conditions. The fiber-matrix interface, fiber surface and toughening mechanisms were assessed using field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that incorporation of PPF up to 3 wt % into the geopolymer paste reduces the shrinkage and enhances the energy absorption of the composites. While, it might reduce the ultimate flexural and compressive strength of the material depending on fiber content. PMID:26807825

  6. A Comprehensive Study of the Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Fly Ash Based Geopolymer.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Navid; Mehrali, Mehdi; Behnia, Arash; Javadi Pordsari, Alireza; Mehrali, Mohammad; Alengaram, U Johnson; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2016-01-01

    As a cementitious material, geopolymers show a high quasi-brittle behavior and a relatively low fracture energy. To overcome such a weakness, incorporation of fibers to a brittle matrix is a well-known technique to enhance the flexural properties. This study comprehensively evaluates the short and long term impacts of different volume percentages of polypropylene fiber (PPF) reinforcement on fly ash based geopolymer composites. Different characteristics of the composite were compared at fresh state by flow measurement and hardened state by variation of shrinkage over time to assess the response of composites under flexural and compressive load conditions. The fiber-matrix interface, fiber surface and toughening mechanisms were assessed using field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that incorporation of PPF up to 3 wt % into the geopolymer paste reduces the shrinkage and enhances the energy absorption of the composites. While, it might reduce the ultimate flexural and compressive strength of the material depending on fiber content.

  7. An Ethnographic Case Study of the Administrative Organization, Processes, and Behavior in a Model Comprehensive High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimman, Richard N.

    Using ethnographic case study methodology (involving open-ended interviews, participant observation, and document analysis) theories of administrative organization, processes, and behavior were tested during a three-week observation of a model comprehensive (experimental) high school. Although the study is limited in its general application, it…

  8. Comprehensive School Reform in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Contexts: Implementation and Outcomes from a Four-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datnow, Amanda; Borman, Geoffrey D.; Stringfield, Sam; Overman, Laura T.; Castellano, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    This article presents findings from a 4-year study of 13 culturally and linguistically diverse elementary schools implementing comprehensive school reform (CSR) models. The study focused on: (a) the actions at the state and district levels that facilitated or inhibited reform implementation; (b) the adaptability of the various reforms in…

  9. Tendencies of Comprehension and Acceptance of Theory of Evolution: A Study Involving Students from the Faculties of Education and Theology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilen, Kadir; Ercan, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the views of students from the Faculty of Education and the Faculty of Theology from the University of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam regarding their comprehension and acceptance of the theory of evolution. A survey model was used involving a quantitative research design. The working group of the study was composed of…

  10. An Initial Study of the Effects of Cooperative Learning on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Acquisition, and Motivation to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaaban, Kassim

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Jigsaw II cooperative learning (CL) model and whole class instruction in improving learners' reading comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and motivation to read. Forty-four grade five English as a foreign language learners participated in the study, and a posttest-only control group experimental design…

  11. Comprehensive School Reform Models: A Study Guide for Comparing CSR Models (and How Well They Meet Minnesota's Learning Standards).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.; Loescher, Siri; Jacob, Stacy; Cekic, Osman; Kupersmith, Leigh; Musoba, Glenda Droogsma

    A growing number of schools are exploring the prospect of applying for funding to implement a Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) model. But the process of selecting a CSR model can be complicated because it frequently involves self-study and a review of models to determine which models best meet the needs of the school. This study guide is intended…

  12. Exploring the Causes of Listening Comprehension Anxiety from EFL Saudi Learners' Perspectives: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otair, Ibrahim; Aziz, Noor Hashima Abd

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety is an important factor in foreign language learning. Very few studies have been done on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Saudi students in listening classes. Therefore, this pilot study was aimed at exploring the causes of listening comprehension anxiety from EFL Saudi learners' perspectives at Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia. The…

  13. How Word Decoding, Vocabulary and Prior Topic Knowledge Predict Reading Comprehension. A Study of Language-Minority Students in Norwegian Fifth Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydland, Veslemoy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover; Fulland, Helene

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global…

  14. A Comparative Study of Listening Comprehension Measures in English as an Additional Language and Native English-Speaking Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKendry, Mairead Grainne; Murphy, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of different measures of listening comprehension for Years 2, 3 and 4 children with English as an additional language (EAL). Non-standardised uses of reading comprehension measures are often employed as proxy measures of listening comprehension, i.e. for purposes for which they were not…

  15. Increasing readers' comprehension of health education brochures: a qualitative study into how professional writers make texts coherent.

    PubMed

    Kools, Marieke; Ruiter, Robert A C; van de Wiel, Margaretha W J; Kok, Gerjo

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the extent to which health education text writers apply writing principles derived from cognitive psychological theory. Seventeen professional text writers of health education materials participated in a qualitative study, consisting of a rewriting task combined with a think-aloud procedure and a semistructured interview. The verbal data were explored carefully in light of seven text coherence principles that have proven effective in cognitive psychological research to increase text comprehension. Findings indicate text writers vary in their ideas and use of coherence principles to make a text comprehensible. It is argued that the health education profession can benefit greatly from knowledge about cognitive text processing and cognitive coherence principles for realizing effective comprehension of written health education messages.

  16. Diagnosis of Lyme-associated uveitis: value of serological testing in a tertiary centre.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Alexia; Kodjikian, Laurent; Abukhashabh, Amro; Roure-Sobas, Chantal; Boibieux, Andre; Denis, Philippe; Broussolle, Christiane; Seve, Pascal

    2018-03-01

    To determine the frequency and clinical presentation of Lyme disease in patients with uveitis and to assess the value of Borrelia burgdorferi serological testing. Retrospective study on all patients with uveitis who were referred to our tertiary hospital were serologically tested for Lyme in our laboratory between 2003 and 2016. Screening consisted of determining B. burgdorferi serum IgG and IgM by ELISA method. The patient's serology was considered as positive if the ELISA-positive result in IgM and/or IgG was confirmed by an immunoblot positive in IgM and/or IgG. Lyme-associated uveitis was diagnosed based on serological results as well as response to antibiotics and exclusion of other diagnosis. Of the 430 patients with uveitis (60% women, mean age 49 years) fulfilling inclusion criteria, 63 (14.7%) had an ELISA-positive serology, confirmed by immunoblot for 34 patients (7.9%). The diagnosis of Lyme-associated uveitis was finally retained in seven patients (1.6%). These patients reported either a previous exposure including tick bite or forest walks (n=5), symptoms suggestive of Lyme disease (n=5) and resistance to local and/or systemic steroids (n=7). Among the remaining 27 positive patients, 22 had other established aetiologies and 5 other were unclassified. The seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi among our patients with uveitis was 7.9% compared with 6 to 8.5% in the general French population which leads to a low predictive value of serological testing. Its use should be reserved for patients with unexplained uveitis, an exposure history, systemic findings suggestive of Lyme disease and steroids resistance. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Request for HIV serology in primary care: A survey of medical and nursing professionals.

    PubMed

    Pichiule-Castañeda, Myrian; Domínguez-Berjón, M Felicitas; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; García-Riolobos, Carmen; Álvarez-Castillo, M Carmen; Astray-Mochales, Jenaro

    2018-01-15

    In the Community of Madrid there is 42.7% late HIV diagnosis. Primary care is the gateway to the health system and the frequency of serological tests requested by these professionals is unknown. The objectives were to establish the frequency of requests for HIV serology by medical and nursing primary care professionals in the Community of Madrid and the factors associated with these requests. An 'on-line' survey was conducted, asking professionals who participated in the evaluation study of strategies to promote early diagnosis of HIV in primary care in the Community of Madrid (ESTVIH) about the number of HIV-serology tests requested in the last 12 months. The association between HIV-serology requesting and the sociodemographic and clinical practice characteristics of the professionals was quantified using adjusted odds ratios (aOR) according to logistic regression. 264 surveys (59.5% physicians). Eighty-two point two percent of medical and 18.7% of nursing professionals reported requesting at least one HIV-serology in the last 12 months (median: 15 and 2 HIV-serology request, respectively). The doctors associated the request with: being male (aOR: 2.95; 95% CI: 0.82-10.56), being trained in pre-post HIV test counselling (aOR: 2.42; 95% CI: 0.84-6.93) and the nurses with: age (<50 years; aOR: 2.75; 95% CI: 0.97-7.75), and number of years working in primary care (>13 years; aOR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.07-8.52). It is necessary to promote HIV testing and training in pre-post HIV test counselling for medical and nursing professionals in primary care centres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Serologic diagnosis of acute lymphadenopathic toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Welch, P C; Masur, H; Jones, T C; Remington, J S

    1980-08-01

    The diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis usually depends on serology, yet little data are available to compare the relative usefulness of various serologic tests after the onset of illness. The Sabin-Feldman dye test (DT), the IgM immunofluorescent antibody (IgM-IFA) test, the soluble antigen complement-fixation (CF) test, and the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test were performed on serial serum specimens from 27 previously healthy patients, each of whom could identify the date of onset of illness within two weeks. IgM-IFA titers of greater than or equal to 1:160 were the best indicators of infection acquired in the past two to four months. The DT was useful for screening, but two-tube rises in titer were rarely documented, and absolute titers were imprecise indicators of the recentness of infection. Although two-tube rises in titer in CF and IHA tests could be seen in the majority of patients, the rises were so slow that both tests were less useful than the IgM-IFA test in documenting the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis.

  19. Reading comprehension and its underlying components in second-language learners: A meta-analysis of studies comparing first- and second-language learners.

    PubMed

    Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Lervåg, Arne

    2014-03-01

    We report a systematic meta-analytic review of studies comparing reading comprehension and its underlying components (language comprehension, decoding, and phonological awareness) in first- and second-language learners. The review included 82 studies, and 576 effect sizes were calculated for reading comprehension and underlying components. Key findings were that, compared to first-language learners, second-language learners display a medium-sized deficit in reading comprehension (pooled effect size d = -0.62), a large deficit in language comprehension (pooled effect size d = -1.12), but only small differences in phonological awareness (pooled effect size d = -0.08) and decoding (pooled effect size d = -0.12). A moderator analysis showed that characteristics related to the type of reading comprehension test reliably explained the variation in the differences in reading comprehension between first- and second-language learners. For language comprehension, studies of samples from low socioeconomic backgrounds and samples where only the first language was used at home generated the largest group differences in favor of first-language learners. Test characteristics and study origin reliably contributed to the variations between the studies of language comprehension. For decoding, Canadian studies showed group differences in favor of second-language learners, whereas the opposite was the case for U.S. studies. Regarding implications, unless specific decoding problems are detected, interventions that aim to ameliorate reading comprehension problems among second-language learners should focus on language comprehension skills.

  20. Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Serial changes of humor comprehension evoked by a well organized four-frame comic Manga were investigated by fMRI in each step of humor comprehension. The neural substrates underlying the amusing effects in response to funny and mixed order manga were compared. In accordance with the time course of the four frames, fMRI activations changed serially. Beginning with the second frame (development scene), activation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed, followed by activations in the temporal and frontal areas during viewing of the third frame (turn scene). For the fourth frame (punch line), strong increased activations were confirmed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and cerebellum. Interestingly, distinguishable activation differences in the cerebellum between funny and non-funny conditions were also found for the fourth frame. These findings suggest that humor comprehension evokes activation that initiates in the TPJ and expands to the MPFC and cerebellum at the convergence level. PMID:25059843

  1. Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-07-25

    Serial changes of humor comprehension evoked by a well organized four-frame comic Manga were investigated by fMRI in each step of humor comprehension. The neural substrates underlying the amusing effects in response to funny and mixed order manga were compared. In accordance with the time course of the four frames, fMRI activations changed serially. Beginning with the second frame (development scene), activation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed, followed by activations in the temporal and frontal areas during viewing of the third frame (turn scene). For the fourth frame (punch line), strong increased activations were confirmed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and cerebellum. Interestingly, distinguishable activation differences in the cerebellum between funny and non-funny conditions were also found for the fourth frame. These findings suggest that humor comprehension evokes activation that initiates in the TPJ and expands to the MPFC and cerebellum at the convergence level.

  2. Surgeons' physical discomfort and symptoms during robotic surgery: a comprehensive ergonomic survey study.

    PubMed

    Lee, G I; Lee, M R; Green, I; Allaf, M; Marohn, M R

    2017-04-01

    It is commonly believed that robotic surgery systems provide surgeons with an ergonomically sound work environment; however, the actual experience of surgeons practicing robotic surgery (RS) has not been thoroughly researched. In this ergonomics survey study, we investigated surgeons' physical symptom reports and their association with factors including demographics, specialties, and robotic systems. Four hundred and thirty-two surgeons regularly practicing RS completed this comprehensive survey comprising 20 questions in four categories: demographics, systems, ergonomics, and physical symptoms. Chi-square and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used for statistical analysis. Two hundred and thirty-six surgeons (56.1 %) reported physical symptoms or discomfort. Among those symptoms, neck stiffness, finger, and eye fatigues were the most common. With the newest robot, eye symptom rate was considerably reduced, while neck and finger symptoms did not improve significantly. A high rate of lower back stiffness was correlated with higher annual robotic case volume, and eye symptoms were more common with longer years practicing robotic surgery (p < 0.05). The symptom report rate from urology surgeons was significantly higher than other specialties (p < 0.05). Noticeably, surgeons with higher confidence and helpfulness levels with their ergonomic settings reported lower symptom report rates. Symptoms were not correlated with age and gender. Although RS provides relatively better ergonomics, this study demonstrates that 56.1 % of regularly practicing robotic surgeons still experience related physical symptoms or discomfort. In addition to system improvement, surgeon education in optimizing the ergonomic settings may be necessary to maximize the ergonomic benefits in RS.

  3. Cancer Therapy Directed by Comprehensive Genomic Profiling: A Single Center Study.

    PubMed

    Wheler, Jennifer J; Janku, Filip; Naing, Aung; Li, Yali; Stephen, Bettzy; Zinner, Ralph; Subbiah, Vivek; Fu, Siqing; Karp, Daniel; Falchook, Gerald S; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M; Piha-Paul, Sarina; Anderson, Roosevelt; Ke, Danxia; Miller, Vincent; Yelensky, Roman; Lee, J Jack; Hong, David S; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2016-07-01

    Innovative molecular diagnostics deployed in the clinic enable new ways to stratify patients into appropriate treatment regimens. These approaches may resolve a major challenge for early-phase clinical trials, which is to recruit patients who, while having failed previous treatments, may nevertheless respond to molecularly targeted drugs. We report the findings of a prospective, single-center study conducted in patients with diverse refractory cancers who underwent comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP; next-generation sequencing, 236 genes). Of the 500 patients enrolled, 188 (37.6%) received either matched (N = 122/188, 65%) or unmatched therapy (N = 66/188, 35%). The most common reasons that patients were not evaluable for treatment included insufficient tissue, death, or hospice transfer. The median number of molecular alterations per patient was five (range, 1-14); median number of prior therapies, four. The most common diagnoses were ovarian cancer (18%), breast cancer (16%), sarcoma (13%), and renal cancer (7%). Of the 339 successfully profiled patients, 317 (93.5%) had at least one potentially actionable alteration. By calculating matching scores, based on the number of drug matches and genomic aberrations per patient, we found that high scores were independently associated with a greater frequency of stable disease ≥6 months/partial/complete remission [22% (high scores) vs. 9% (low scores), P = 0.024], longer time-to-treatment failure [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.36-0.74; P = 0.0003], and survival (HR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.43-1.0; P = 0.05). Collectively, this study offers a clinical proof of concept for the utility of CGP in assigning therapy to patients with refractory malignancies, especially in those patients with multiple genomic aberrations for whom combination therapies could be implemented. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3690-701. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. The neural basis of hand gesture comprehension: A meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Andric, Michael; Mathew, Mili M

    2015-10-01

    Gestures play an important role in face-to-face communication and have been increasingly studied via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although a large amount of data has been provided to describe the neural substrates of gesture comprehension, these findings have never been quantitatively summarized and the conclusion is still unclear. This activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis investigated the brain networks underpinning gesture comprehension while considering the impact of gesture type (co-speech gestures vs. speech-independent gestures) and task demand (implicit vs. explicit) on the brain activation of gesture comprehension. The meta-analysis of 31 papers showed that as hand actions, gestures involve a perceptual-motor network important for action recognition. As meaningful symbols, gestures involve a semantic network for conceptual processing. Finally, during face-to-face interactions, gestures involve a network for social emotive processes. Our finding also indicated that gesture type and task demand influence the involvement of the brain networks during gesture comprehension. The results highlight the complexity of gesture comprehension, and suggest that future research is necessary to clarify the dynamic interactions among these networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phonological and semantic processing during comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia: An N400 and Phonological Mapping Negativity Study.

    PubMed

    Robson, Holly; Pilkington, Emma; Evans, Louise; DeLuca, Vincent; Keidel, James L

    2017-06-01

    Comprehension impairments in Wernicke's aphasia are thought to result from a combination of impaired phonological and semantic processes. However, the relationship between these cognitive processes and language comprehension has only been inferred through offline neuropsychological tasks. This study used ERPs to investigate phonological and semantic processing during online single word comprehension. EEG was recorded in a group of Wernicke's aphasia n=8 and control participants n=10 while performing a word-picture verification task. The N400 and Phonological Mapping Negativity/Phonological Mismatch Negativity (PMN) event-related potential components were investigated as an index of semantic and phonological processing, respectively. Individuals with Wernicke's aphasia displayed reduced and inconsistent N400 and PMN effects in comparison to control participants. Reduced N400 effects in the WA group were simulated in the control group by artificially degrading speech perception. Correlation analyses in the Wernicke's aphasia group found that PMN but not N400 amplitude was associated with behavioural word-picture verification performance. The results confirm impairments at both phonological and semantic stages of comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia. However, reduced N400 responses in Wernicke's aphasia are at least partially attributable to earlier phonological processing impairments. The results provide further support for the traditional model of Wernicke's aphasia which claims a causative link between phonological processing and language comprehension impairments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Does mood influence text processing and comprehension? Evidence from an eye-movement study.

    PubMed

    Scrimin, Sara; Mason, Lucia

    2015-09-01

    Previous research has indicated that mood influences cognitive processes. However, there is scarce data regarding the link between everyday emotional states and readers' text processing and comprehension. We aim to extend current research on the effects of mood induction on science text processing and comprehension, using eye-tracking methodology. We investigated whether a positive-, negative-, and neutral-induced mood influences online processing, as revealed by indices of visual behaviour during reading, and offline text comprehension, as revealed by post-test questions. We were also interested in the link between text processing and comprehension. Seventy-eight undergraduate students randomly assigned to three mood-induction conditions. Students were mood-induced by watching a video clip. They were then asked to read a scientific text while eye movements were registered. Pre- and post-reading knowledge was assessed through open-ended questions. Experimentally induced moods lead readers to process an expository text differently. Overall, students in a positive mood spent significantly longer on the text processing than students in the negative and neutral moods. Eye-movement patterns indicated more effective processing related to longer proportion of look-back fixation times in positive-induced compared with negative-induced readers. Students in a positive mood also comprehended the text better, learning more factual knowledge, compared with students in the negative group. Only for the positive-induced readers did the more purposeful second-pass reading positively predict text comprehension. New insights are given on the effects of normal mood variations and students' text processing and comprehension by the use of eye-tracking methodology. Important implications for the role of emotional states in educational settings are highlighted. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Weighing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses − a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sikkema, Reina Saapke; Freidl, Gudrun Stephanie; de Bruin, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due to a lack of standardisation in study designs and in laboratory methods used in published reports. Therefore, we designed a scoring system to assess and weigh specificity of obtained serology results in the selected articles. Many studies report reliable evidence of antibodies to swine influenza viruses among persons occupationally exposed to pigs. Most avian influenza studies target H5, H7 and H9 subtypes and most serological evidence of human exposure to avian influenza viruses is reported for these subtypes. Avian influenza studies receiving a low grade in this review often reported higher seroprevalences in humans compared with studies with a high grade. Official surveillance systems mainly focus on avian H5 and H7 viruses. Swine influenza viruses and avian subtypes other than H5 and H7 (emphasising H9) should be additionally included in official surveillance systems. Surveillance efforts should also be directed towards understudied geographical areas, such as Africa and South America. PMID:27874827

  8. Weighing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses - a literature review.

    PubMed

    Sikkema, Reina Saapke; Freidl, Gudrun Stephanie; de Bruin, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion

    2016-11-03

    Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due to a lack of standardisation in study designs and in laboratory methods used in published reports. Therefore, we designed a scoring system to assess and weigh specificity of obtained serology results in the selected articles. Many studies report reliable evidence of antibodies to swine influenza viruses among persons occupationally exposed to pigs. Most avian influenza studies target H5, H7 and H9 subtypes and most serological evidence of human exposure to avian influenza viruses is reported for these subtypes. Avian influenza studies receiving a low grade in this review often reported higher seroprevalences in humans compared with studies with a high grade. Official surveillance systems mainly focus on avian H5 and H7 viruses. Swine influenza viruses and avian subtypes other than H5 and H7 (emphasising H9) should be additionally included in official surveillance systems. Surveillance efforts should also be directed towards understudied geographical areas, such as Africa and South America. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  9. Study on comprehensive planning of rocky desertification in karst area of Chongqing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Yajun

    2017-11-01

    Chongqing is a key area for comprehensive treatment of rocky desertification in karst areas of china. Strengthening the comprehensive management of karst rocky desertification area, for the maintenance of ecological safety of Three Gorges Reservoir area, expanding the karst rocky desertification area people survival and development space, and improving the regional ecological conditions, have important practical significance to the construction of ecological civilization and building a harmonious society. Based on the investigation, analysis and arrangement of the data in the rocky desertification area, the paper puts forward the corresponding measures and phased targets for the treatment of the Rocky Desertification in the karst areas of Chongqing.

  10. Alpha band event-related desynchronization underlying social situational context processing during irony comprehension: A magnetoencephalography source localization study.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Yoritaka; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Gunji, Atsuko; Kaneko, Yuu; Asano, Michiko; Matsuo, Junko; Ota, Miho; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Hanakawa, Takashi; Mazuka, Reiko; Kamio, Yoko

    2017-12-01

    Irony comprehension requires integration of social contextual information. Previous studies have investigated temporal aspects of irony processing and its neural substrates using psychological/electroencephalogram or functional magnetic resonance imaging methods, but have not clarified the temporospatial neural mechanisms of irony comprehension. Therefore, we used magnetoencephalography to investigate the neural generators of alpha-band (8-13Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) occurring from 600 to 900ms following the onset of a critical sentence at which social situational contexts activated ironic representation. We found that the right anterior temporal lobe, which is involved in processing social knowledge and evaluating others' intentions, exhibited stronger alpha ERD following an ironic statement than following a literal statement. We also found that alpha power in the left anterior temporal lobe correlated with the participants' communication abilities. These results elucidate the temporospatial neural mechanisms of language comprehension in social contexts, including non-literal processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Correlational Study of a Reading Comprehension Program and Attrition Rates of ESL Nursing Students in Texas.

    PubMed

    Donnell, Wendy M

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between English as a second language (ESL), a reading comprehension program, and attrition rates of nursing students. Higher attrition rates of ESL nursing students are an assumption, seemingly based on anecdotal evidence. Data reflecting ESL student attrition should be measured and analyzed so that students can be identified prior to attrition. A secondary analysis of a large database of 27 initial licensure programs in Texas was completed. Data analysis identified that ESL students who used a reading comprehension program were almost twice as likely to be off track or out of the program as ESL students who did not use the program. Nurse educators need to evaluate student profile characteristics in a comprehensive way when determining risk of attrition.

  12. Comprehension of concrete and abstract words in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer's disease: A behavioral and neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Sven; Vallet, Guillaume T; Montembeault, Maxime; Boukadi, Mariem; Wilson, Maximiliano A; Laforce, Robert Jr; Rouleau, Isabelle; Brambati, Simona M

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension of concrete, abstract and abstract emotional words in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and healthy elderly adults (HE) Three groups of participants (9 svPPA, 12 AD, 11 HE) underwent a general neuropsychological assessment, a similarity judgment task, and structural brain MRI. The three types of words were processed similarly in the group of AD participants. In contrast, patients in the svPPA group were significantly more impaired at processing concrete words than abstract words, while comprehension of abstract emotional words was in between. VBM analyses showed that comprehension of concrete words relative to abstract words was significantly correlated with atrophy in the left anterior temporal lobe. These results support the view that concrete words are disproportionately impaired in svPPA, and that concrete and abstract words may rely upon partly dissociable brain regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Individual differences in fifth graders’ reading and language predict their comprehension monitoring development: An eye-movement study

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated fifth-graders’ (n=52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation, and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task, children read two sentences; the second included either a plausible or implausible word in the context of the first sentence. Stronger readers had shorter reading times overall suggesting faster processing of text. Generally fifth-graders reacted to the implausible word (i.e., longer gaze duration on the implausible v. the plausible word, which reflects lexical access). Students with stronger academic language, compared to those with weaker academic language, generally spent more time re-reading the implausible target compared to the plausible target. This difference increased from fall to spring. Results support the centrality of academic language for meaning integration, setting standards of coherence, and utilizing comprehension repair strategies. PMID:27065721

  14. 42 CFR 493.835 - Standard; Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard; Syphilis serology. 493.835 Section 493.835 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.835 Standard; Syphilis serology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event score...

  15. 42 CFR 493.835 - Standard; Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard; Syphilis serology. 493.835 Section 493.835 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.835 Standard; Syphilis serology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event score...

  16. 42 CFR 493.1207 - Condition: Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Syphilis serology. 493.1207 Section 493.1207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1207 Condition: Syphilis serology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Syphilis...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1207 - Condition: Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Syphilis serology. 493.1207 Section 493.1207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1207 Condition: Syphilis serology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Syphilis...

  18. 42 CFR 493.835 - Standard; Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard; Syphilis serology. 493.835 Section 493.835 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.835 Standard; Syphilis serology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event score...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1207 - Condition: Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Syphilis serology. 493.1207 Section 493.1207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1207 Condition: Syphilis serology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Syphilis...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1207 - Condition: Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Syphilis serology. 493.1207 Section 493.1207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1207 Condition: Syphilis serology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Syphilis...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1207 - Condition: Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Syphilis serology. 493.1207 Section 493.1207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1207 Condition: Syphilis serology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Syphilis...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3850 - Trichinella spiralis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. 866.3850 Section 866.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3850...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section 866.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3400 Parainfluenza...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510 Section 866.3510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella virus...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella spp...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3250 - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents. 866.3250 Section 866.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3250...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3270...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125 Citrobacter...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600 Section 866.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3600 Schistosoma...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3140...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3135 - Coccidioides immitis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. 866.3135 Section 866.3135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3135...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3405 - Poliovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Poliovirus serological reagents. 866.3405 Section 866.3405 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3405 Poliovirus...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3050 - Beta-glucan serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beta-glucan serological assays. 866.3050 Section 866.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3050 Beta-glucan...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3405 - Poliovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Poliovirus serological reagents. 866.3405 Section 866.3405 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3405 Poliovirus...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3280 - Francisella tularensis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Francisella tularensis serological reagents. 866.3280 Section 866.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3280...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella spp...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3135 - Coccidioides immitis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. 866.3135 Section 866.3135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3135...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3270...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia spp...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3680 - Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents. 866.3680 Section 866.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3680...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section 866.3360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia spp...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510 Section 866.3510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella virus...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3300 Haemophilus...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550 Section 866.3550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. 866.3175 Section 866.3175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3175...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rhinovirus serological reagents. 866.3490 Section 866.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490 Rhinovirus...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia spp...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3780 - Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents. 866.3780 Section 866.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3780 Toxoplasma...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065 Bordetella...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Echovirus serological reagents. 866.3205 Section 866.3205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3205 Echovirus...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section 866.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3400 Parainfluenza...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3050 - Beta-glucan serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beta-glucan serological assays. 866.3050 Section 866.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3050 Beta-glucan...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3405 - Poliovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poliovirus serological reagents. 866.3405 Section 866.3405 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3405 Poliovirus...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866.3520 Section 866.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3520...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350 Section 866.3350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3050 - Beta-glucan serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beta-glucan serological assays. 866.3050 Section 866.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3050 Beta-glucan...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents. 866.3480 Section 866.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3480...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rhinovirus serological reagents. 866.3490 Section 866.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490 Rhinovirus...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866.3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3220...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section 866.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020 Adenovirus...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3320 - Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents. 866.3320 Section 866.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3320...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3780 - Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents. 866.3780 Section 866.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3780 Toxoplasma...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella spp...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065 Bordetella...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents. 866.3480 Section 866.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3480...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740 Section 866.3740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3780 - Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents. 866.3780 Section 866.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3780 Toxoplasma...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section 866.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3500 Rickettsia...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3395 - Norovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Norovirus serological reagents. 866.3395 Section 866.3395 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3395 Norovirus...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reovirus serological reagents. 866.3470 Section 866.3470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470 Reovirus...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3680 - Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents. 866.3680 Section 866.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3680...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3165 - Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents. 866.3165 Section 866.3165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3165...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866.3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3220...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona spp...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550 Section 866.3550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3145 - Coxsackievirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coxsackievirus serological reagents. 866.3145 Section 866.3145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3145...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section 866.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3500 Rickettsia...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3270...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866.3520 Section 866.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3520...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866.3700 Section 866.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3700...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3135 - Coccidioides immitis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. 866.3135 Section 866.3135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3135...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. 866.3175 Section 866.3175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3175...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3300 Haemophilus...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia spp...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255 Section 866.3255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3255 Escherichia...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350 Section 866.3350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section 866.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3500 Rickettsia...