Compressible Flow Tables for Air
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burcher, Marie A.
1947-01-01
This paper contains a tabulation of functions of the Mach number which are frequently used in high-speed aerodynamics. The tables extend from M = 0 to M = 10.0 in increments of 0.01 and are based on the assumption that air is a perfect gas having a specific heat ratio of 1.400.
Automatic device for indirect measurement of leakage flow rate in compressed air pipeline
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dindorf, R.; Wos, P.; Pawelec, K.
2017-08-01
The new measurement method of compressed air leakage flow rate in compressed air pipeline is proposed. In this method, the automatic measuring device is connected to a branch of the pipeline. The measuring device can be used to measure compressed air leakage in any place of compressed air pipeline: in main line, distribution line and connection line. The proposed measurement methods of compressed air leakage in pipeline are independent of receiver and compressor parameters, which is not the case with traditional method measuring leaks by emptying the receiver.
The research of press drop of compressed air foam flow through the bend
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y.; Chen, T.; Hu, C.; Fu, X. C.; Bao, Z. M.; Zhang, X. Z.; Xia, J. J.
2017-08-01
Compressed air foam system (CAFS) had obvious advantages in engineering. The flow model of compressed air foam in the pipeline was different from water flow model because the foam was the gas-liquid two phase flow with non-Newtonian fluid properties and compressibility, and, the water supply theory was not suitable for foam press pipeline transport. At present, there was little research on non-Newtonian fluid flow, especially the foam flow. This study researched the effect of foam flux, end valve and foam type on the press in the straight pipe and bend. The press drop in straight pipes and bends filled with compressed air foam was analyzed, and the result could provide experimental support for theoretical calculation of compressed air foam in bend.
Improving the performance of a compression ignition engine by directing flow of inlet air
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kemper, Carlton
1946-01-01
The object of this report is to present the results of tests performed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the effect on engine performance of directing the flow of the inlet air to a 5-inch by 7-inch cylinder, solid injection, compression ignition engine, After a few preliminary tests, comparative runs were made at a speed of 1500 r.p.m. with and without directed air flow. It was found that directing the flow of the inlet air toward the fuel injection valve gave steadier engine operation, and an appreciable increase in power, and decreased fuel consumption. The results indicate the possibility of improving the performance of a given type of combustion chamber without changing its shape and with no change in valve timing. They would also seem to prove that directional turbulence, set up before the inlet valve of a four-stroke cycle engine, continues in the engine cylinder throughout the compression stroke.
Compressed air energy storage system two-phase flow experiment
Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Ohtsu, Iwao; Murata, Hideo
1996-08-01
A water/CO{sub 2}-combination test facility, having a vertical shaft height of {approximately} 25 m and a shaft inner diameter of 0.2 m, has been constructed in simulating a water/air full-size CAES system, having a shaft height of {approximately} 1,000 m and an inner diameter of {approximately} 3 m. Totally fifteen experiments have been performed in this test facility. In an experiment of CO{sub 2} high-concentration ({approximately} 0.4 MPa) and medium water injection velocity ({approximately} 0.5 m/s), the shaft void fraction during gas charging to a lower reservoir (i.e. during water injection to the shaft) became highest in all the experiment. This experiment may correspond to the severest situation in a full-size CAES system; however, the blowout did not occur in this experiment. In an experiment of CO{sub 2} high-concentration({approximately} 0.4 MPa) and very-high injection velocity ({approximately} 2.5 m/s), after gas charging stopped, CO{sub 2}-supersaturated water, remained in the shaft, formed bubbles vigorously, and thereafter the blowout occurred. However, the injection velocity of {approximately} 2.5 m/s corresponds to a velocity of {approximately} 100 m/s in a full-size CAES system and may be unreal.
Fuel Spray and Flame Formation in a Compression-Ignition Engine Employing Air Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D
1937-01-01
The effects of air flow on fuel spray and flame formation in a high-speed compression-ignition engine have been investigated by means of the NACA combustion apparatus. The process was studied by examining high-speed motion pictures taken at the rate of 2,200 frames a second. The combustion chamber was of the flat-disk type used in previous experiments with this apparatus. The air flow was produced by a rectangular displacer mounted on top of the engine piston. Three fuel-injection nozzles were tested: a 0.020-inch single-orifice nozzle, a 6-orifice nozzle, and a slit nozzle. The air velocity within the combustion chamber was estimated to reach a value of 425 feet a second. The results show that in no case was the form of the fuel spray completely destroyed by the air jet although in some cases the direction of the spray was changed and the spray envelope was carried away by the moving air. The distribution of the fuel in the combustion chamber of a compression-ignition engine can be regulated to some extent by the design of the combustion chamber, by the design of the fuel-injection nozzle, and by the use of air flow.
Integrated LTCC Pressure/Flow/Temperature Multisensor for Compressed Air Diagnostics†
Fournier, Yannick; Maeder, Thomas; Boutinard-Rouelle, Grégoire; Barras, Aurélie; Craquelin, Nicolas; Ryser, Peter
2010-01-01
We present a multisensor designed for industrial compressed air diagnostics and combining the measurement of pressure, flow, and temperature, integrated with the corresponding signal conditioning electronics in a single low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) package. The developed sensor may be soldered onto an integrated electro-fluidic platform by using standard surface mount device (SMD) technology, e.g., as a standard electronic component would be on a printed circuit board, obviating the need for both wires and tubes and thus paving the road towards low-cost integrated electro-fluidic systems. Several performance aspects of this device are presented and discussed, together with electronics design issues. PMID:22163518
Integrated LTCC pressure/flow/temperature multisensor for compressed air diagnostics.
Fournier, Yannick; Maeder, Thomas; Boutinard-Rouelle, Grégoire; Barras, Aurélie; Craquelin, Nicolas; Ryser, Peter
2010-01-01
We present a multisensor designed for industrial compressed air diagnostics and combining the measurement of pressure, flow, and temperature, integrated with the corresponding signal conditioning electronics in a single low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) package. The developed sensor may be soldered onto an integrated electro-fluidic platform by using standard surface mount device (SMD) technology, e.g., as a standard electronic component would be on a printed circuit board, obviating the need for both wires and tubes and thus paving the road towards low-cost integrated electro-fluidic systems. Several performance aspects of this device are presented and discussed, together with electronics design issues.
Turbulence in Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Lecture notes for the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) Special Course on 'Turbulence in Compressible Flows' have been assembled in this report. The following topics were covered: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers, Compressible Turbulent Free Shear Layers, Turbulent Combustion, DNS/LES and RANS Simulations of Compressible Turbulent Flows, and Case Studies of Applications of Turbulence Models in Aerospace.
Turbulence in Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Lecture notes for the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) Special Course on 'Turbulence in Compressible Flows' have been assembled in this report. The following topics were covered: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers, Compressible Turbulent Free Shear Layers, Turbulent Combustion, DNS/LES and RANS Simulations of Compressible Turbulent Flows, and Case Studies of Applications of Turbulence Models in Aerospace.
Dental Compressed Air Systems.
1992-03-01
I AL-TR-IWI-0uuu AD-A249 954 DENTAL COMPRESSED AIMYTM R Curtis D. Weyrmuch, Mejor, USAP, D Samuel P.Dvs iueatclpi SF.O N AEROSPACE MwaEDIN mwr~ComA G...FUNDING NUMBERS Dental Compressed Air Systems PE - 87714F PR - 7350 TA - 22 D. Weyrauch WU - XX Samuel P. Davis George W. Gaines 7. PERFORMING...words) The purpose of this report is to update guidelines on dental compressed air systems (DCA). Much of the information was obtained from a survey
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melcher, Kevin J.
2006-01-01
The Compressible Flow Toolbox is primarily a MATLAB-language implementation of a set of algorithms that solve approximately 280 linear and nonlinear classical equations for compressible flow. The toolbox is useful for analysis of one-dimensional steady flow with either constant entropy, friction, heat transfer, or Mach number greater than 1. The toolbox also contains algorithms for comparing and validating the equation-solving algorithms against solutions previously published in open literature. The classical equations solved by the Compressible Flow Toolbox are as follows: The isentropic-flow equations, The Fanno flow equations (pertaining to flow of an ideal gas in a pipe with friction), The Rayleigh flow equations (pertaining to frictionless flow of an ideal gas, with heat transfer, in a pipe of constant cross section), The normal-shock equations, The oblique-shock equations, and The expansion equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spanogle, J A; Moore, C S
1931-01-01
Presented here are the results of performance tests made with a single-cylinder, four stroke cycle, compression-ignition engine. These tests were made on a precombustion chamber type of cylinder head designed to have air velocity and tangential air flow in both the chamber and cylinder. The performance was investigated for variable load and engine speed, type of fuel spray, valve opening pressure, injection period and, for the spherical chamber, position of the injection spray relative to the air flow. The pressure variations between the pear-shaped precombustion chamber and the cylinder for motoring and full load conditions were determined with a Farnboro electric indicator. The combustion chamber designs tested gave good mixing of a single compact fuel spray with the air, but did not control the ensuing combustion sufficiently. Relative to each other, the velocity of air flow was too high, the spray dispersion by injection too great, and the metering effect of the cylinder head passage insufficient. The correct relation of these factors is of the utmost importance for engine performance.
Experimental study of convective heat transfer of compressed air flow in radially rotating ducts
Hwang, G.J,; Tzeng, S.C.; Mao, C.P.
1999-07-01
The convective heat transfer of pressurized air flow in radially rotating serpentine channel is investigated experimentally in the present study. The main governing parameters are the Prandtl number, the Reynolds number for forced convection, the rotation number for the Coriolis force induced cross stream secondary flow and the Grashof number for natural convection. To simulate the operation conditions of a real gas turbine, the present study kept the parameters in the test rig approximately the same as those in a real engine. The air in the present serpentine channel was pressurized to increase the air density for making up the low rotational speed in the experiment. Before entering the rotating ducts, the air was also cooled to gain a high density ratio of approximately 1/3 in the ducts. This high density ratio will give a similar order of magnitude of Grashof number in a real operation condition. The local heat transfer rate on the four channel walls are present and compared with that in existing literature.
Computer program for compressible flow network analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilton, M. E.; Murtaugh, J. P.
1973-01-01
Program solves problem of an arbitrarily connected one dimensional compressible flow network with pumping in the channels and momentum balancing at flow junctions. Program includes pressure drop calculations for impingement flow and flow through pin fin arrangements, as currently found in many air cooled turbine bucket and vane cooling configurations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Runyan, Harry L; Watkins, Charles E
1953-01-01
This report treats the effect of wind-tunnel walls on the oscillating two-dimensional air forces in a compressible medium. The walls are simulated by the usual method of placing images at appropriate distances above and below the wing. An important result shown is that, for certain conditions of wing frequency, tunnel height, and Mach number, the tunnel and wing may form a resonant system so that the forces on the wing are greatly changed from the condition of no tunnel walls. It is pointed out that similar conditions exist for three-dimensional flow in circular and rectangular tunnels and apparently, within certain Mach number ranges, in tunnels of nonuniform cross section or even in open tunnels or jets.
Compressed air energy storage system
Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.
1981-01-01
An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.
Compressed air energy storage system
Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.
An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.
29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...
29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...
29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...
29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...
29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...
30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...
30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...
30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...
30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...
30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...
COMPRESSIBLE FLOW, ENTRAINMENT, AND MEGAPLUME
It is generally believed that low Mach number, i.e., low-velocity, flow may be assumed to be incompressible flow. Under steady-state conditions, an exact equation of continuity may then be used to show that such flow is non-divergent. However, a rigorous, compressible fluid-dynam...
COMPRESSIBLE FLOW, ENTRAINMENT, AND MEGAPLUME
It is generally believed that low Mach number, i.e., low-velocity, flow may be assumed to be incompressible flow. Under steady-state conditions, an exact equation of continuity may then be used to show that such flow is non-divergent. However, a rigorous, compressible fluid-dynam...
Equations, tables, and charts for compressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1953-01-01
This report, which is a revision and extension of NACA-TN-1428, presents a compilation of equations, tables, and charts useful in the analysis of high-speed flow of a compressible fluid. The equations provide relations for continuous one-dimensional flow, normal and oblique shock waves, and Prandtl-Meyer expansions for both perfect and imperfect gases. The tables present useful dimensionless ratios for continuous one-dimensional flow and for normal shock waves as functions of Mach number for air considered as a perfect gas. One series of charts presents the characteristics of the flow of air (considered a perfect gas) for oblique shock waves and for cones in a supersonic air stream. A second series shows the effects of caloric imperfections on continuous one-dimensional flow and on the flow through normal and oblique shock waves. (author)
Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol
Benton, N.
2014-11-01
Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krebs, R. P.
1971-01-01
The computer program described in this report calculates the design-point characteristics of a compressed-air generator for use in V/STOL applications such as systems with a tip-turbine-driven lift fan. The program computes the dimensions and mass, as well as the thermodynamic performance of a model air generator configuration which involves a straight through-flow combustor. Physical and thermodynamic characteristics of the air generator components are also given. The program was written in FORTRAN IV language. Provision has been made so that the program will accept input values in either SI units or U.S. customary units. Each air generator design-point calculation requires about 1.5 seconds of 7094 computer time for execution.
Analytical and experimental study on complex compressed air pipe network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gai, Yushou; Cai, Maolin; Shi, Yan
2015-09-01
To analyze the working characteristics of complex compressed air networks, numerical methods are widely used which are based on finite element technology or intelligent algorithms. However, the effectiveness of the numerical methods is limited. In this paper, to provide a new method to optimize the design and the air supply strategy of the complex compressed air pipe network, firstly, a novel method to analyze the topology structure of the compressed air flow in the pipe network is initially proposed. A matrix is used to describe the topology structure of the compressed air flow. Moreover, based on the analysis of the pressure loss of the pipe network, the relationship between the pressure and the flow of the compressed air is derived, and a prediction method of pressure fluctuation and air flow in a segment in a complex pipe network is proposed. Finally, to inspect the effectiveness of the method, an experiment with a complex network is designed. The pressure and the flow of airflow in the network are measured and studied. The results of the study show that, the predicted results with the proposed method have a good consistency with the experimental results, and that verifies the air flow prediction method of the complex pipe network. This research proposes a new method to analyze the compressed air network and a prediction method of pressure fluctuation and air flow in a segment, which can predicate the fluctuation of the pressure according to the flow of compressed air, and predicate the fluctuation of the flow according to the pressure in a segment of a complex pipe network.
Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
1993-12-01
Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.
Flow quality measurements in compressible subsonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stainback, P. Calvin; Johnson, Charles B.
1987-01-01
The purpose is to re-examine the heat transfer from a hot-wire probe in the compressible subsonic flow regime; describe the three-wire hot-wire probe calibration and data reduction techniques used to measure the velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuation; and present flow quality results obtained in the Langley 0.3 meter Transonic Cryogenic Wind Tunnel and in flight with the NASA JetStar from the same three-wire hot-wire probe.
Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project
2012-11-30
This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.
Turbulence modeling for compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, J. G.
1977-01-01
Material prepared for a course on Applications and Fundamentals of Turbulence given at the University of Tennessee Space Institute, January 10 and 11, 1977, is presented. A complete concept of turbulence modeling is described, and examples of progess for its use in computational aerodynimics are given. Modeling concepts, experiments, and computations using the concepts are reviewed in a manner that provides an up-to-date statement on the status of this problem for compressible flows.
Recoil Experiments Using a Compressed Air Cannon
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taylor, Brett
2006-01-01
Ping-Pong vacuum cannons, potato guns, and compressed air cannons are popular and dramatic demonstrations for lecture and lab. Students enjoy them for the spectacle, but they can also be used effectively to teach physics. Recently we have used a student-built compressed air cannon as a laboratory activity to investigate impulse, conservation of…
Recoil Experiments Using a Compressed Air Cannon
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taylor, Brett
2006-01-01
Ping-Pong vacuum cannons, potato guns, and compressed air cannons are popular and dramatic demonstrations for lecture and lab. Students enjoy them for the spectacle, but they can also be used effectively to teach physics. Recently we have used a student-built compressed air cannon as a laboratory activity to investigate impulse, conservation of…
Microfluidic pressure sensing using trapped air compression.
Srivastava, Nimisha; Burns, Mark A
2007-05-01
We have developed a microfluidic method for measuring the fluid pressure head experienced at any location inside a microchannel. The principal component is a microfabricated sealed chamber with a single inlet and no exit; the entrance to the single inlet is positioned at the location where pressure is to be measured. The pressure measurement is then based on monitoring the movement of a liquid-air interface as it compresses air trapped inside the microfabricated sealed chamber and calculating the pressure using the ideal gas law. The method has been used to measure the pressure of the air stream and continuous liquid flow inside microfluidic channels (d approximately 50 microm). Further, a pressure drop has also been measured using multiple microfabricated sealed chambers. For air pressure, a resolution of 700 Pa within a full-scale range of 700-100 kPa was obtained. For liquids, pressure drops as low as 70 Pa were obtained in an operating range from 70 Pa to 10 kPa. Since the method primarily uses a microfluidic sealed chamber, it does not require additional fabrication steps and may easily be incorporated in several lab-on-a-chip fluidic applications for laminar as well as turbulent flow conditions.
Microfluidic pressure sensing using trapped air compression
Srivastava, Nimisha; Burns, Mark A.
2010-01-01
We have developed a microfluidic method for measuring the fluid pressure head experienced at any location inside a microchannel. The principal component is a microfabricated sealed chamber with a single inlet and no exit; the entrance to the single inlet is positioned at the location where pressure is to be measured. The pressure measurement is then based on monitoring the movement of a liquid–air interface as it compresses air trapped inside the microfabricated sealed chamber and calculating the pressure using the ideal gas law. The method has been used to measure the pressure of the air stream and continuous liquid flow inside microfluidic channels (d ~ 50 μm). Further, a pressure drop has also been measured using multiple microfabricated sealed chambers. For air pressure, a resolution of 700 Pa within a full-scale range of 700–100 kPa was obtained. For liquids, pressure drops as low as 70 Pa were obtained in an operating range from 70 Pa to 10 kPa. Since the method primarily uses a microfluidic sealed chamber, it does not require additional fabrication steps and may easily be incorporated in several lab-on-a-chip fluidic applications for laminar as well as turbulent flow conditions. PMID:17476384
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Tojima, Atsushi; Manaka, Takaaki; Zhong-Can, Ou-Yang
2003-04-01
Compression-shear-induced tilt azimuthal orientation of amphiphilic monolayer in tilting phases (L2 and L'2) at the air-water interface is analyzed as dynamical equilibrium of the elastic distortion of orthogonally hexagonal structure of the molecules under compression-induced shear flow. It is shown theoretically that the compression can induce molecular tilts lying along and/or against the flow direction. All these tilts makeup the initial random tilt azimuth of the molecular tails along a uniform direction. At a threshold compression speed, it causes a C∞→C2v-symmetry transition at the air-water interface. With Maxwell displacement current and optical second-harmonic generation measurements, the above theoretical results are verified experimentally in a monolayer of 4-heptyloxy-4'-cyanobiphenyl.
Krylov methods for compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tidriri, M. D.
1995-01-01
We investigate the application of Krylov methods to compressible flows, and the effect of implicit boundary conditions on the implicit solution of nonlinear problems. Two defect-correction procedures, namely, approximate factorization (AF) for structured grids and ILU/GMRES for general grids, are considered. Also considered here are Newton-Krylov matrix-free methods that we combined with the use of mixed discretization schemes in the implicitly defined Jacobian and its preconditioner. Numerical experiments that show the performance of our approaches are then presented.
University of Arizona Compressed Air Energy Storage
Simmons, Joseph; Muralidharan, Krishna
2012-12-31
Boiled down to its essentials, the grant’s purpose was to develop and demonstrate the viability of compressed air energy storage (CAES) for use in renewable energy development. While everyone agrees that energy storage is the key component to enable widespread adoption of renewable energy sources, the development of a viable scalable technology has been missing. The Department of Energy has focused on expanded battery research and improved forecasting, and the utilities have deployed renewable energy resources only to the extent of satisfying Renewable Portfolio Standards. The lack of dispatchability of solar and wind-based electricity generation has drastically increased the cost of operation with these components. It is now clear that energy storage coupled with accurate solar and wind forecasting make up the only combination that can succeed in dispatchable renewable energy resources. Conventional batteries scale linearly in size, so the price becomes a barrier for large systems. Flow batteries scale sub-linearly and promise to be useful if their performance can be shown to provide sufficient support for solar and wind-base electricity generation resources. Compressed air energy storage provides the most desirable answer in terms of scalability and performance in all areas except efficiency. With the support of the DOE, Tucson Electric Power and Science Foundation Arizona, the Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy (AzRISE) at the University of Arizona has had the opportunity to investigate CAES as a potential energy storage resource.
LOW-VELOCITY COMPRESSIBLE FLOW THEORY
The widespread application of incompressible flow theory dominates low-velocity fluid dynamics, virtually preventing research into compressible low-velocity flow dynamics. Yet, compressible solutions to simple and well-defined flow problems and a series of contradictions in incom...
LOW-VELOCITY COMPRESSIBLE FLOW THEORY
The widespread application of incompressible flow theory dominates low-velocity fluid dynamics, virtually preventing research into compressible low-velocity flow dynamics. Yet, compressible solutions to simple and well-defined flow problems and a series of contradictions in incom...
Compressed Air/Vacuum Transportation Techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guha, Shyamal
2011-03-01
General theory of compressed air/vacuum transportation will be presented. In this transportation, a vehicle (such as an automobile or a rail car) is powered either by compressed air or by air at near vacuum pressure. Four version of such transportation is feasible. In all versions, a ``c-shaped'' plastic or ceramic pipe lies buried a few inches under the ground surface. This pipe carries compressed air or air at near vacuum pressure. In type I transportation, a vehicle draws compressed air (or vacuum) from this buried pipe. Using turbine or reciprocating air cylinder, mechanical power is generated from compressed air (or from vacuum). This mechanical power transferred to the wheels of an automobile (or a rail car) drives the vehicle. In type II-IV transportation techniques, a horizontal force is generated inside the plastic (or ceramic) pipe. A set of vertical and horizontal steel bars is used to transmit this force to the automobile on the road (or to a rail car on rail track). The proposed transportation system has following merits: virtually accident free; highly energy efficient; pollution free and it will not contribute to carbon dioxide emission. Some developmental work on this transportation will be needed before it can be used by the traveling public. The entire transportation system could be computer controlled.
General Equation Set Solver for Compressible and Incompressible Turbomachinery Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sondak, Douglas L.; Dorney, Daniel J.
2002-01-01
Turbomachines for propulsion applications operate with many different working fluids and flow conditions. The flow may be incompressible, such as in the liquid hydrogen pump in a rocket engine, or supersonic, such as in the turbine which may drive the hydrogen pump. Separate codes have traditionally been used for incompressible and compressible flow solvers. The General Equation Set (GES) method can be used to solve both incompressible and compressible flows, and it is not restricted to perfect gases, as are many compressible-flow turbomachinery solvers. An unsteady GES turbomachinery flow solver has been developed and applied to both air and water flows through turbines. It has been shown to be an excellent alternative to maintaining two separate codes.
30 CFR 56.13020 - Use of compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of compressed air. 56.13020 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13020 Use of compressed air. At no time shall compressed air be directed toward a...
30 CFR 56.13020 - Use of compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of compressed air. 56.13020 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13020 Use of compressed air. At no time shall compressed air be directed toward a...
30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...
30 CFR 56.13020 - Use of compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of compressed air. 56.13020 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13020 Use of compressed air. At no time shall compressed air be directed toward a...
30 CFR 57.13020 - Use of compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of compressed air. 57.13020 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13020 Use of compressed air. At no time shall compressed air be directed toward...
30 CFR 57.13020 - Use of compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of compressed air. 57.13020 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13020 Use of compressed air. At no time shall compressed air be directed toward a...
30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not be...
30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers...
Hydrodynamic stability of compressible plane Couette flow
Chagelishvili, G.D. Department of Plasma Physics, Space Research Institute, str. Profsoyuznaya 84 Rogava, A.D. ); Segal, I.N. Department of Plasma Physics, Space Research Institute, str. Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117810 Moscow )
1994-12-01
The evolution of two-dimensional spatial Fourier harmonics in a compressible plane Couette flow is considered. A new mechanism of energy exchange between the mean flow and sound-type perturbations is discovered.
Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system
Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.
1980-01-01
Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.
Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system
Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.
Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.
Efficiency at Sorting Cards in Compressed Air
Poulton, E. C.; Catton, M. J.; Carpenter, A.
1964-01-01
At a site where compressed air was being used in the construction of a tunnel, 34 men sorted cards twice, once at normal atmospheric pressure and once at 3½, 2½, or 2 atmospheres absolute pressure. An additional six men sorted cards twice at normal atmospheric pressure. When the task was carried out for the first time, all the groups of men performing at raised pressure were found to yield a reliably greater proportion of very slow responses than the group of men performing at normal pressure. There was reliably more variability in timing at 3½ and 2½ atmospheres absolute than at normal pressure. At 3½ atmospheres absolute the average performance was also reliably slower. When the task was carried out for the second time, exposure to 3½ atmospheres absolute pressure had no reliable effect. Thus compressed air affected performance only while the task was being learnt; it had little effect after practice. No reliable differences were found related to age, to length of experience in compressed air, or to the duration of the exposure to compressed air, which was never less than 10 minutes at 3½ atmospheres absolute pressure. PMID:14180485
SUPG Finite Element Simulations of Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirk, Brnjamin, S.
2006-01-01
The Streamline-Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) finite element simulations of compressible flows is presented. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) SUPG Galerkin Finite Element Methods; 3) Applications; and 4) Bibliography.
Time accurate simulations of compressible shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman; Steinberger, Craig J.; Vidoni, Thomas J.; Madnia, Cyrus K.
1993-01-01
The objectives of this research are to employ direct numerical simulation (DNS) to study the phenomenon of mixing (or lack thereof) in compressible free shear flows and to suggest new means of enhancing mixing in such flows. The shear flow configurations under investigation are those of parallel mixing layers and planar jets under both non-reacting and reacting nonpremixed conditions. During the three-years of this research program, several important issues regarding mixing and chemical reactions in compressible shear flows were investigated.
PDF approach for compressible turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, A. T.; Tsai, Y.-L. P.; Raju, M. S.
1993-01-01
The objective of the present work is to develop a probability density function (pdf) turbulence model for compressible reacting flows for use with a CFD flow solver. The probability density function of the species mass fraction and enthalpy are obtained by solving a pdf evolution equation using a Monte Carlo scheme. The pdf solution procedure is coupled with a compressible CFD flow solver which provides the velocity and pressure fields. A modeled pdf equation for compressible flows, capable of capturing shock waves and suitable to the present coupling scheme, is proposed and tested. Convergence of the combined finite-volume Monte Carlo solution procedure is discussed, and an averaging procedure is developed to provide smooth Monte-Carlo solutions to ensure convergence. Two supersonic diffusion flames are studied using the proposed pdf model and the results are compared with experimental data; marked improvements over CFD solutions without pdf are observed. Preliminary applications of pdf to 3D flows are also reported.
30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... used at connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 1-inch inside diameter or larger,...
Comments on compressible flow through butterfly valves
Blakenship, J.G. )
1989-01-01
In the flow analysis of process piping systems, it is desirable to treat control valves in the same way as elbow, reducers, expansions, and other pressure loss elements. In a recently reported research program, the compressible flow characteristics of butterfly valves were investigated. Fisher Controls International, Inc., manufacturer of a wide range of control valves, publishes coefficients that can be used to calculate flow characteristics for the full range of valve movement. This paper describes the use of the manufacturer's data to calculate flow parameters as reported by the researchers who investigated compressible flow through butterfly valves. The manufacturer's data produced consistent results and can be used to predict choked flow and the pressure loss for unchoked flow. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
41 CFR 50-204.8 - Use of compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Use of compressed air. 50-204.8 Section 50-204.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.8 Use of compressed air. Compressed air shall not be used...
41 CFR 50-204.8 - Use of compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use of compressed air. 50-204.8 Section 50-204.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.8 Use of compressed air. Compressed air shall not be used...
41 CFR 50-204.8 - Use of compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of compressed air. 50-204.8 Section 50-204.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.8 Use of compressed air. Compressed air shall not...
41 CFR 50-204.8 - Use of compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of compressed air. 50-204.8 Section 50-204.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.8 Use of compressed air. Compressed air shall not...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, C.; Yeh, G.
2011-12-01
In this investigation, newly proposed constitutive retentions are implemented to a fractional-flow based compressible multiphase-phase flow model. With the new model, a compressible three-phase (water, non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and air) flow problem is simulated. In fractional-flow approaches, the three mass balance equations written in terms of three phase pressures are transformed to those in terms of the total pressure, saturation of water, and saturation of total liquid. These three governing equations are discretized with the Galerkin finite element method (FEM). The resulted matrix equation is solved with Bi-CGSTAB. Several numerical experiments are presented to examine the accuracy and robustness of the proposed model. The results show the presented fractional-flow based multiphase flow model is feasible and yields physically realistic solutions for compressible three-phase flow problems in porous media.
Recoil Experiments Using a Compressed Air Cannon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Brett
2006-12-01
Ping-Pong vacuum cannons, potato guns, and compressed air cannons are popular and dramatic demonstrations for lecture and lab.1-3 Students enjoy them for the spectacle, but they can also be used effectively to teach physics. Recently we have used a student-built compressed air cannon as a laboratory activity to investigate impulse, conservation of momentum, and kinematics. It is possible to use the cannon, along with the output from an electronic force plate, as the basis for many other experiments in the laboratory. In this paper, we will discuss the recoil experiment done by our students in the lab and also mention a few other possibilities that this apparatus could be used for.
Compressed air energy storage technology program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loscutoff, W. V.
1980-06-01
Progress in the development of compressed air energy storage (CAES) technologies for central station electric utility applications is reported. It is reported that the concept improves the effectiveness of a gas turbine using petroleum fuels, could reduce petroleum fuel consumption of electric utility peaking plants, and is technically feasible and economically viable. Specific topics discussed include stability criteria for large underground reservoirs in salt domes, hard rock, and porous rock used for air storage in utility applications and second-generation technologies that have minimal or no dependence on petroleum fuels. The latter includes integration of thermal energy storage, fluidized bed combustion, or coal gasification with CAES.
A compressible model of soap film flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fast, Petri
2004-11-01
We consider flowing soap films, and present a new theoretical model that resembles the compressible two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. In experiments, the thickness of a gravity driven soap film can undergo significant variations. The thickness of the soap film plays the role of a density field in a 2D model: Hence significant thickness variations give rise to 2D compressibility effects that have been observed in experiments. We present a systematic derivation of a new compressible model of soap film flow using thin film asymptotics. We discuss the properties of the model, and present criteria for using the incompressible or compressible limiting equations. The properties of the model are illustrated with computational experiments.
Stability of compressible Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Chow, Chuen-Yen
1991-01-01
Compressible stability equations are solved using the spectral collocation method in an attempt to study the effects of temperature difference and compressibility on the stability of Taylor-Couette flow. It is found that the Chebyshev collocation spectral method yields highly accurate results using fewer grid points for solving stability problems. Comparisons are made between the result obtained by assuming small Mach number with a uniform temperature distribution and that based on fully incompressible analysis.
Stability of compressible Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Chow, Chuen-Yen
1991-01-01
Compressible stability equations are solved using the spectral collocation method in an attempt to study the effects of temperature difference and compressibility on the stability of Taylor-Couette flow. It is found that the Chebyshev collocation spectral method yields highly accurate results using fewer grid points for solving stability problems. Comparisons are made between the result obtained by assuming small Mach number with a uniform temperature distribution and that based on fully incompressible analysis.
Compressible flow in fluidic oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graff, Emilio; Hirsch, Damian; Gharib, Mory
2013-11-01
We present qualitative observations on the internal flow characteristics of fluidic oscillator geometries commonly referred to as sweeping jets in active flow control applications. We also discuss the effect of the geometry on the output jet in conditions from startup to supersonic exit velocity. Supported by the Boeing Company.
Stability of compressible Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, K.; Chow, C.
1992-01-01
The objectives of this paper are to: (1) develop both analytical and numerical tools that can be used to predict the onset of instability and subsequently to simulate the transition process by which the originally laminar flow evolves into a turbulent flow; and (2) conduct the preliminary investigations with the purpose of understanding the mechanisms of the vortical structures of the compressible flow between tow concentric cylinders.
Stability of compressible Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, K.; Chow, C.
1992-01-01
The objectives of this paper are to: (1) develop both analytical and numerical tools that can be used to predict the onset of instability and subsequently to simulate the transition process by which the originally laminar flow evolves into a turbulent flow; and (2) conduct the preliminary investigations with the purpose of understanding the mechanisms of the vortical structures of the compressible flow between tow concentric cylinders.
Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project
None, None
2012-11-30
of the designs would perform acceptably. Their general scope of work included development of detailed project construction schedules, capital cost and cash flow estimates for both CAES cycles, and development of detailed operational data, including fuel and compression energy requirements, to support dispatch modeling for the CAES cycles. The Dispatch Modeling Consultant selected for this project was Customized Energy Solutions (CES). Their general scope of work included development of wholesale electric and gas market price forecasts and development of a dispatch model specific to CAES technologies. Parsons Brinkerhoff Energy Storage Services (PBESS) was retained to develop an air storage cavern and well system design for the CAES project. Their general scope of work included development of a cavern design, solution mining plan, and air production well design, cost, and schedule estimates for the project. Detailed Front End Engineering Design (FEED) during Phase 1 of the project determined that CAES plant capital equipment costs were much greater than the $125.6- million originally estimated by EPRI for the project. The initial air storage cavern Design Basis was increased from a single five million cubic foot capacity cavern to three, five million cubic foot caverns with associated air production wells and piping. The result of this change in storage cavern Design Basis increased project capital costs significantly. In addition, the development time required to complete the three cavern system was estimated at approximately six years. This meant that the CAES plant would initially go into service with only one third of the required storage capacity and would not achieve full capability until after approximately five years of commercial operation. The market price forecasting and dispatch modeling completed by CES indicated that the CAES technologies would operate at only 10 to 20% capacity factors and the resulting overall project economics were not favorable for
Measurement of compressible flow pressure losses in wye-junctions
Abou-Haidar, N.I. . Dept. of Engineering); Dixon, S.L. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
1994-07-01
This paper considers the compressible flow pressure losses in sharp-cornered wye-junctions with symmetric branches under dividing and combining flow conditions. Determination of the additional total pressure losses occurring in flow through several three-leg junctions, using dry air as the working fluid, has been made experimentally. Results covering a wide speed range up to choking are presented for 30, 60, and 90 deg wye-junctions. Separate flow visualization schlieren tests detected the presence of normal shock waves, located at up to one duct diameter downstream of the junction, and therefore confirmed the choking of the flow at the vena contracta. The highest attainable Mach number (M[sub 3]) of the averaged whole flow was 0.9 for one of the dividing flow geometries and 0.65 for several of the combining flow cases. These values of M[sub 3] were the maximum possible and hence represent a limiting condition dictated by choking. In general, the compressible flow loss coefficients, caused by the presence of the wye-junctions, can be expected to be higher for dividing flows and lower for combining flows than would be the case for incompressible flows because of the influence of Mach number, M[sub 3].
Spiral vortices in compressible turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez, T.; Politano, H.; Pouquet, A.; Larchevêque, M.
2001-07-01
We extend the spiral vortex solution of Lundgren [Phys. Fluids 25, 2193 (1982)] to compressible turbulent flows with a perfect gas. This model links the dynamical and the spectral properties of incompressible flows, providing a k-5/3 Kolmogorov energy spectrum. In so doing, a compressible spatiotemporal transformation is derived, reducing the dynamics of three-dimensional vortices, stretched by an axisymmetric incompressible strain, into a two-dimensional compressible vortex dynamics. It enables us to write the three-dimensional spectra of the incompressible and compressible square velocities in terms of, respectively, the two-dimensional spectra of the enstrophy and of the square velocity divergence, by the use of a temporal integration. Numerical results are presented from decaying direct simulations performed with 5122 grid points; initially, the rms Mach number is 0.23, with local values up to 0.9, the Reynolds number is 700, and the ratio between compressible and incompressible square velocities is 0.1. A k-5/3 inertial behavior is seen to result from the dynamical evolution for both the compressible and incompressible three-dimensional spectra.
Study of parameters of a facility generating compressive plasma flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leyvi, A. Ya
2017-05-01
The prosperity of plasma technologies stimulates making of a facility generating compressive plasma flows at the South Ural State University. The facility is a compact-geometry magnetoplasma compressor with the following parameters: stored energy up to 15 kJ, voltage of a bank from 3 to 5 kV; nitrogen, air, and other gases can serve as its operating gas. The investigation of parameters of the facility showed the following parameters of compressive plasma flows: impulse duration of up to 120 μs, discharge current of 50-120 kA, speed of plasma flow of 15-30 km/s. By contrast to the available facilities, the parameters of the developed facility can be adjusted in a wide range of voltage from 2 kV to 10 kV, its design permits generating CPF in horizontal and vertical positions.
Direct simulation of compressible reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poinsot, Thierry J.
1989-01-01
A research program for direct numerical simulations of compressible reacting flows is described. Two main research subjects are proposed: the effect of pressure waves on turbulent combustion and the use of direct simulation methods to validate flamelet models for turbulent combustion. The interest of a compressible code to study turbulent combustion is emphasized through examples of reacting shear layer and combustion instabilities studies. The choice of experimental data to compare with direct simulation results is discussed. A tentative program is given and the computation cases to use are described as well as the code validation runs.
Air flow in a collapsing cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peters, Ivo R.; Gekle, Stephan; Lohse, Detlef; van der Meer, Devaraj
2013-03-01
We experimentally study the airflow in a collapsing cavity created by the impact of a circular disc on a water surface. We measure the air velocity in the collapsing neck in two ways: Directly, by means of employing particle image velocimetry of smoke injected into the cavity and indirectly, by determining the time rate of change of the volume of the cavity at pinch-off and deducing the air flow in the neck under the assumption that the air is incompressible. We compare our experiments to boundary integral simulations and show that close to the moment of pinch-off, compressibility of the air starts to play a crucial role in the behavior of the cavity. Finally, we measure how the air flow rate at pinch-off depends on the Froude number and explain the observed dependence using a theoretical model of the cavity collapse.
Assessment of the market for compressed air services
None, None
2001-01-01
The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive and balanced view of the market for engineering and consulting services to improve the energy efficiency of plant compressed air systems. The report is intended for use by Compressed Air Challenge and other industrial energy efficiency program operators in developing strategies to encourage the growth of the compressed air system efficiency and enhance the quality of the services it offers.
40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement method... during the test. Overall measurement accuracy must be ± 2 percent of the maximum engine value for all...
40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement method... during the test. Overall measurement accuracy must be ± 2 percent of the maximum engine value for all...
2010-09-13
GRIDS Project: General Compression has developed a transformative, near-isothermal compressed air energy storage system (GCAES) that prevents air from heating up during compression and cooling down during expansion. When integrated with renewable generation, such as a wind farm, intermittent energy can be stored in compressed air in salt caverns or pressurized tanks. When electricity is needed, the process is reversed and the compressed air is expanded to produce electricity. Unlike conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) projects, no gas is burned to convert the stored high-pressure air back into electricity. The result of this breakthrough is an ultra-efficient, fully shapeable, 100% renewable and carbon-free power product. The GCAES™ system can provide high quality electricity and ancillary services by effectively integrating renewables onto the grid at a cost that is competitive with gas, coal and nuclear generation.
Modeling Compressibility Effects in High-Speed Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarkar, S.
2004-01-01
Man has strived to make objects fly faster, first from subsonic to supersonic and then to hypersonic speeds. Spacecraft and high-speed missiles routinely fly at hypersonic Mach numbers, M greater than 5. In defense applications, aircraft reach hypersonic speeds at high altitude and so may civilian aircraft in the future. Hypersonic flight, while presenting opportunities, has formidable challenges that have spurred vigorous research and development, mainly by NASA and the Air Force in the USA. Although NASP, the premier hypersonic concept of the eighties and early nineties, did not lead to flight demonstration, much basic research and technology development was possible. There is renewed interest in supersonic and hypersonic flight with the HyTech program of the Air Force and the Hyper-X program at NASA being examples of current thrusts in the field. At high-subsonic to supersonic speeds, fluid compressibility becomes increasingly important in the turbulent boundary layers and shear layers associated with the flow around aerospace vehicles. Changes in thermodynamic variables: density, temperature and pressure, interact strongly with the underlying vortical, turbulent flow. The ensuing changes to the flow may be qualitative such as shocks which have no incompressible counterpart, or quantitative such as the reduction of skin friction with Mach number, large heat transfer rates due to viscous heating, and the dramatic reduction of fuel/oxidant mixing at high convective Mach number. The peculiarities of compressible turbulence, so-called compressibility effects, have been reviewed by Fernholz and Finley. Predictions of aerodynamic performance in high-speed applications require accurate computational modeling of these "compressibility effects" on turbulence. During the course of the project we have made fundamental advances in modeling the pressure-strain correlation and developed a code to evaluate alternate turbulence models in the compressible shear layer.
Multidomain approach for calculating compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cambier, L.; Chazzi, W.; Veuillot, J. P.; Viviand, H.
1982-01-01
A multidomain approach for calculating compressible flows by using unsteady or pseudo-unsteady methods is presented. This approach is based on a general technique of connecting together two domains in which hyperbolic systems (that may differ) are solved with the aid of compatibility relations associated with these systems. Some examples of this approach's application to calculating transonic flows in ideal fluids are shown, particularly the adjustment of shock waves. The approach is then applied to treating a shock/boundary layer interaction problem in a transonic channel.
Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project
None, None
2012-11-30
This report provides a review and an analysis of potential environmental justice areas that could be affected by the New York State Electric & Gas (NYSEG) compress air energy storage (CAES) project and identifies existing environmental burden conditions on the area and evaluates additional burden of any significant adverse environmental impact. The review assesses the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the area surrounding the proposed CAES facility in Schuyler County, New York. Schuyler County is one of 62 counties in New York. Schuyler County’s 2010 population of 18,343 makes it one of the least populated counties in the State (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). This report was prepared for WorleyParsons by ERM and describes the study area investigated, methods and criteria used to evaluate this area, and the findings and conclusions from the evaluation.
78. PIPING CHANNEL FOR FUEL LOADING, FUEL TOPPING, COMPRESSED AIR, ...
78. PIPING CHANNEL FOR FUEL LOADING, FUEL TOPPING, COMPRESSED AIR, GASEOUS NITROGEN, AND HELIUM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA
6. DETAIL OF HIGHPRESSURE COMPRESSED AIR HOSE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER ...
6. DETAIL OF HIGH-PRESSURE COMPRESSED AIR HOSE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SHIPPING AND RECEIVING ROOM (109) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA
Working Characteristics of Variable Intake Valve in Compressed Air Engine
Yu, Qihui; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin
2014-01-01
A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500 rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine. PMID:25379536
Working characteristics of variable intake valve in compressed air engine.
Yu, Qihui; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin
2014-01-01
A new camless compressed air engine is proposed, which can make the compressed air energy reasonably distributed. Through analysis of the camless compressed air engine, a mathematical model of the working processes was set up. Using the software MATLAB/Simulink for simulation, the pressure, temperature, and air mass of the cylinder were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the mathematical model, the experiments were conducted. Moreover, performance analysis was introduced to design compressed air engine. Results show that, firstly, the simulation results have good consistency with the experimental results. Secondly, under different intake pressures, the highest output power is obtained when the crank speed reaches 500 rpm, which also provides the maximum output torque. Finally, higher energy utilization efficiency can be obtained at the lower speed, intake pressure, and valve duration angle. This research can refer to the design of the camless valve of compressed air engine.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Abbitt, John D., III; Mcdaniel, James C.
1989-01-01
A technique is described for imaging the injectant mole-fraction distribution in nonreacting compressible mixing flow fields. Planar fluorescence from iodine, seeded into air, is induced by a broadband argon-ion laser and collected using an intensified charge-injection-device array camera. The technique eliminates the thermodynamic dependence of the iodine fluorescence in the compressible flow field by taking the ratio of two images collected with identical thermodynamic flow conditions but different iodine seeding conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Abbitt, John D., III; Mcdaniel, James C.
1989-01-01
A technique is described for imaging the injectant mole-fraction distribution in nonreacting compressible mixing flow fields. Planar fluorescence from iodine, seeded into air, is induced by a broadband argon-ion laser and collected using an intensified charge-injection-device array camera. The technique eliminates the thermodynamic dependence of the iodine fluorescence in the compressible flow field by taking the ratio of two images collected with identical thermodynamic flow conditions but different iodine seeding conditions.
Effects of turbulence compressibility and unsteadiness in compression corner flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brankovic, A.; Zeman, O.
1994-01-01
The structure of the separated flow region over a 20 degree compression corner at a free-stream Mach number of 2.84 is investigated computationally using a Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (R.A.N.S.) solver and kappa-epsilon model. At this Mach number and ramp angle, a steady-state recirculation region of order delta(sub o) is observed, with onset of a 'plateau' in the wall pressure distribution near the corner. At lower ramp angles, separation is negligible, while at an angle of 24 degrees, separation regions of length 2 delta(sub o) are expected. Of interest here is the response of the mathematical model to inclusion of the pressure dilatation term for turbulent kinetic energy. Compared with the experimental data of Smits and Muck (1987), steady-state computations show improvement when the pressure dilatation term is included. Unsteady computations, using both unforced and then forced inlet conditions, did not predict the oscillatory motion of the separation bubble as observed in laboratory experiments. An analysis of the separation bubble oscillation and the turbulent boundary layer (T.B.L.) frequencies for this flow suggests that the bubble oscillations are of nearly the same order as the turbulent frequencies, and therefore difficult for the model to separate and resolve.
46 CFR 112.50-7 - Compressed air starting.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-7 Compressed air starting. A compressed air starting system must meet the following: (a) The starting, charging... system must provide the cranking torque and engine starting RPM recommended by the engine manufacturer...
30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...
30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...
30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...
30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...
30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...
Vorticity generation in compressible multiphase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballil, A.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Jolgam, S.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A.
2014-08-01
The simulations of flows in inhomogeneous media of various physical regimes leading to shock-bubble interactions were performed using a developed numerical code based on a multi-component flow model. The numerical method which considers interfaces represented by contact discontinuities as numerically diffused zones, has been applied to simulate compressible two-phase flows. The approach takes advantage of the inherent numerical diffusion present in solutions. The mathematical formulation of the presented method is obtained after an averaging process of the single phase Navier-Stokes equations and contains the non-conservative equations and non-conservative terms that exist in the model to fulfill the interface condition. The finite volume Godunov-type computational technique, equipped with an approximate Riemann solver for calculating fluxes, is applied to simulate flows in two space dimensions. The approach accounts for pressure non-equilibrium. It resolves interfaces separating compressible fluids and captures the baroclinic source of vorticity generation. A numerically challenging shock bubble interaction problem is investigated to evaluate the effect of the Atwood number and shock wave intensity (various Mach numbers) on the interface evolution and vorticity generation.
Theoretical and computational dynamics of a compressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pai, Shih-I; Luo, Shijun
1991-01-01
An introduction to the theoretical and computational fluid dynamics of a compressible fluid is presented. The general topics addressed include: thermodynamics and physical properties of compressible fluids; 1D flow of an inviscid compressible fluid; shock waves; fundamental equations of the dynamics of a compressible inviscid non-heat-conducting and radiating fluid, method of small perturbations, linearized theory; 2D subsonic steady potential flow; hodograph and rheograph methods, exact solutions of 2D insentropic steady flow equations, 2D steady transonic and hypersonic flows, method of characteristics, linearized theory of 3D potential flow, nonlinear theory of 3D compressibe flow, anisentropic (rotational) flow of inviscid compressible fluid, electromagnetogasdynamics, multiphase flows, flows of a compressible fluid with transport phenomena.
Energy storage by compressed air. [using windpowered pumps
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Szego, G. C.
1973-01-01
The feasibility of windpower energy storage by compressed air is considered. The system is comprised of a compressor, a motor, and a pump turbine to store air in caverns or aquifiers. It is proposed that storage of several days worth of compressed air up to 650 pounds per square inch can be used to push the aquifier up closer to the container dome and thus initiate piston action by simply compressing air more and more. More energy can be put into it by pressure increase or pushing back the water in the aquifier. This storage system concept has reheat flexibility and lowest cost effectiveness.
Compressibility effects on flow friction in a fully developed pipe flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, Sreedhara V.; Gee, Ken; Steinle, Frank W.
1988-01-01
A method was evolved to account for the effects of compressibility in flows through long circular pipes of uniform diameter. Velocity and density variations across the flow cross section were approximated by profile shapes recommended for a flow past flat plates. The wall of the pipe was assumed to have attained an adiabatic condition. An integral method was used to obtain solutions for the governing equations of flow. The method was then used to analyze the detailed pressure measurements made in a long pipe for flow of air at different flow rate settings. Flow friction values derived from these pressure measurements were compared with the standard incompressible pipe flow data available in existing literature.
Adaptive THINC-GFM for compressible multi-medium flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Cheng; Hu, Changhong
2017-08-01
In this paper, a THINC (tangent of hyperbola for interface capturing) (Xiao F. et al., 2005) [26] coupled with GFM (Ghost Fluid Method) is proposed for numerical simulation of compressible multi-medium flows. The THINC scheme, which was first developed for incompressible flows, is applied for capturing the distorted material interface of compressible flows. The hybrid WENO (weighted essentially non-oscillatory) scheme with the blocked structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) method is implemented. Load balancing is considered in the parallel computing. Several well documented numerical tests are performed and the results show that the THINC scheme behaviors better in mass conservation. It is the first endeavor to implement THINC scheme with adaptive mesh for computing the compressible multiphase problems. The shock wave-helium bubble interaction test reveals that the present method is efficient in prediction of the deformed interface. The solver is further validated by shock wave impact SF6 interface with square, rectangle, forward and backward triangle shapes in which the wave positions and intersecting angles are compared quantitatively. Finally, the collapse of an air bubble under shock in water is simulated, global agreement with experimental and other numerical results are obtained.
Schwarz-Based Algorithms for Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tidriri, M. D.
1996-01-01
We investigate in this paper the application of Schwarz-based algorithms to compressible flows. First we study the combination of these methods with defect-correction procedures. We then study the effect on the Schwarz-based methods of replacing the explicit treatment of the boundary conditions by an implicit one. In the last part of this paper we study the combination of these methods with Newton-Krylov matrix-free methods. Numerical experiments that show the performance of our approaches are then presented.
Experiments on a compressed air loudspeaker
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glendinning, A. G.; Nelson, P. A.; Elliott, S. J.
1990-05-01
This work describes the development, construction, theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation of a novel type of electropneumatic sound source. The source has been specifically developed with a view to its application in active noise control systems applied in hostile environments, such as those found in the exhaust systems of gas turbines and internal combustion engines. This need arises in view of the relative fragility and large physical size of conventional loudspeakers and the high degree of non-linearity of existing electropneumatic transducers. In the new design a gas bearing is used to support the friction free motion of a sliding plate which is used to modulate the supply of compressed air. The sliding plate is driven by an electrodynamic vibrator. Experimental results demonstrate that this arrangement reduces harmonic distortion to at least 20 dB below the fundamental driving frequency for most operating conditions. In a companion paper a theoretical analysis of the transducer is presented by Chapman and Glendinning which enables predictions to be made of the acoustic volume velocity (source strength) produced by the transducer as a function of the upstream pressure and displacement of the sliding valve. The predictions of this theoretical model are found to be in good agreement with experimental results.
Numerical simulation of compressible, turbulent, two-phase flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coakley, T. J.; Champney, J. M.
1985-07-01
A computer program for numerically simulating compressible, turbulent, two-phase flows is described and applied. Special attention is given to flows in which dust is ingested into the turbulent boundary layer behind shock waves moving over the earth's surface. it is assumed that the two phases are interpenetrating continua which are coupled by drag forces and heat transfer. The particle phase is assumed to be dilute, and turbulent effects are modeled by zero- and two-equation eddy viscosity models. An important feature of the turbulence modeling is the treatment of surface boundary conditions which control the ingestion of particles into the boundary layer by turbulent friction and diffusion. The numerical method uses second-order implicit upwind differencing of the inviscid terms of the equations and second-order central differencing of the viscous terms. A diagonal form of the implicit algorithm is used to improve efficiency, and the transformation to a curvilinear coordinate system is accomplished by the finite volume techniques. Applications to a series of representative flows include a two-phase nozzle flow, the steady flow of air over a sand bed, and the air flow behind a normal shock wave in uniform motion over a sand bed. Results of the latter two applications are compared with experimental results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orlin, W James; Lindner, Norman J; Butterly, Jack G
1947-01-01
The theory of the hydraulic analogy -- that is, the analogy between water flow with a free surface and two-dimensional compressible gas flow -- and the limitations and conditions of the analogy are discussed. A test was run using the hydraulic analogy as applied to the flow about circular cylinders of various diameters at subsonic velocities extending into the supercritical range. The apparatus and techniques used in this application are described and criticized. Reasonably satisfactory agreement of pressure distributions and flow fields existed between water and air flow about corresponding bodies. This agreement indicated the possibility of extending experimental compressibility research by new methods.
Mode Selection in Compressible Active Flow Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forrow, Aden; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn
2017-07-01
Coherent, large-scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. Here, we introduce and explore an analytically tractable nonlinear model for compressible active flow networks. In contrast to thermally driven systems, we find that active friction selects discrete states with a limited number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks and find good agreement with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data. Our results suggest that the macroscopic response of active network structures, from actomyosin force networks to cytoplasmic flows, can be dominated by a significantly reduced number of modes, in contrast to energy equipartition in thermal equilibrium. The model is also well suited to study topological sound modes and spectral band gaps in active matter.
Lagrangian computation of inviscid compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klopfer, G. H.
1978-01-01
A Lagrangian method is developed to solve the Euler equations of gas dynamics. The solution of the equations is obtained by a numerical computation with the well-known Flux-Corrected-Transport (FCT) numerical method. This procedure is modified so that the boundary treatment is accurate and relatively simple. Shock waves and other flow discontinuities are captured monotonically without any type of fitting procedures. The Lagrangian method is employed so that the problem of mesh generation is completely avoided. The method is applicable to all Mach numbers except the low subsonic range where compressibility effects are small. The method is applied to a one-dimensional Riemann problem (shock tube) and to a two-dimensional supersonic channel flow with reflecting shock waves.
Finite scale equations for compressible fluid flow
Margolin, Len G
2008-01-01
Finite-scale equations (FSE) describe the evolution of finite volumes of fluid over time. We discuss the FSE for a one-dimensional compressible fluid, whose every point is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. The FSE contain new momentum and internal energy transport terms. These are similar to terms added in numerical simulation for high-speed flows (e.g. artificial viscosity) and for turbulent flows (e.g. subgrid scale models). These similarities suggest that the FSE may provide new insight as a basis for computational fluid dynamics. Our analysis of the FS continuity equation leads to a physical interpretation of the new transport terms, and indicates the need to carefully distinguish between volume-averaged and mass-averaged velocities in numerical simulation. We make preliminary connections to the other recent work reformulating Navier-Stokes equations.
Implicit compressible flow solvers on unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagaoka, Makoto; Horinouchi, Nariaki
1993-09-01
An implicit solver for compressible flows using Bi-CGSTAB method is proposed. The Euler equations are discretized with the delta-form by the finite volume method on the cell-centered triangular unstructured meshes. The numerical flux is calculated by Roe's upwind scheme. The linearized simultaneous equations with the irregular nonsymmetric sparse matrix are solved by the Bi-CGSTAB method with the preconditioner of incomplete LU factorization. This method is also vectorized by the multi-colored ordering. Although the solver requires more computational memory, it shows faster and more robust convergence than the other conventional methods: three-stage Runge-Kutta method, point Gauss-Seidel method, and Jacobi method for two-dimensional inviscid steady flows.
Computation of Thermally Perfect Compressible Flow Properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Witte, David W.; Tatum, Kenneth E.; Williams, S. Blake
1996-01-01
A set of compressible flow relations for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas are derived for a value of c(sub p) (specific heat at constant pressure) expressed as a polynomial function of temperature and developed into a computer program, referred to as the Thermally Perfect Gas (TPG) code. The code is available free from the NASA Langley Software Server at URL http://www.larc.nasa.gov/LSS. The code produces tables of compressible flow properties similar to those found in NACA Report 1135. Unlike the NACA Report 1135 tables which are valid only in the calorically perfect temperature regime the TPG code results are also valid in the thermally perfect, calorically imperfect temperature regime, giving the TPG code a considerably larger range of temperature application. Accuracy of the TPG code in the calorically perfect and in the thermally perfect, calorically imperfect temperature regimes are verified by comparisons with the methods of NACA Report 1135. The advantages of the TPG code compared to the thermally perfect, calorically imperfect method of NACA Report 1135 are its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, or polyatomic) or any specified mixture of gases, ease-of-use, and tabulated results.
Schwarz-based algorithms for compressible flows
Tidriri, M.D.
1996-12-31
To compute steady compressible flows one often uses an implicit discretization approach which leads to a large sparse linear system that must be solved at each time step. In the derivation of this system one often uses a defect-correction procedure, in which the left-hand side of the system is discretized with a lower order approximation than that used for the right-hand side. This is due to storage considerations and computational complexity, and also to the fact that the resulting lower order matrix is better conditioned than the higher order matrix. The resulting schemes are only moderately implicit. In the case of structured, body-fitted grids, the linear system can easily be solved using approximate factorization (AF), which is among the most widely used methods for such grids. However, for unstructured grids, such techniques are no longer valid, and the system is solved using direct or iterative techniques. Because of the prohibitive computational costs and large memory requirements for the solution of compressible flows, iterative methods are preferred. In these defect-correction methods, which are implemented in most CFD computer codes, the mismatch in the right and left hand side operators, together with explicit treatment of the boundary conditions, lead to a severely limited CFL number, which results in a slow convergence to steady state aerodynamic solutions. Many authors have tried to replace explicit boundary conditions with implicit ones. Although they clearly demonstrate that high CFL numbers are possible, the reduction in CPU time is not clear cut.
Compressed air systems. A guidebook on energy and cost savings
Not Available
1984-03-30
This guidebook shows how energy can be saved in compressed air systems. It discusses basic compressed air systems which are typical of those found in industry and describes them and the engineering practices behind them. Energy conservation recommendations follow. These recommendations cover equipment selection, design, maintenance, and operation. Included is information which will help the reader to make economic evaluations of various engineering and equipment alternatives as they affect operations and costs. The appendices include some modern computer based approaches to predicting pressure drop for designing compressed air distribution systems. Also included is a bibliography providing leads for further and more detailed technical information on these and related subjects.
Characteristics of compressible flow of supercritical kerosene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Feng-Quan; Fan, Xue-Jun; Wang, Jing; Yu, Gong; Li, Jian-Guo
2012-02-01
In this paper, compressible flow of aviation kerosene at supercritical conditions has been studied both numerically and experimentally. The thermophysical properties of supercritical kerosene are calculated using a 10-species surrogate based on the principle of extended corresponding states (ECS). Isentropic acceleration of supercritical kerosene to subsonic and supersonic speeds has been analyzed numerically. It has been found that the isentropic relationships of supercritical kerosene are significantly different from those of ideal gases. A two-stage fuel heating and delivery system is used to heat the kerosene up to a temperature of 820K and pressure of 5.5MPa with a maximum mass flow rate of 100 g/s. The characteristics of supercritical kerosene flows in a converging-diverging nozzle (Laval nozzle) have been studied experimentally. The results show that stable supersonic flows of kerosene could be established in the temperature range of 730 K-820K and the measurements in the wall pressure agree with the numerical calculation.
Detail of interior of compressed air chamber showing top of ...
Detail of interior of compressed air chamber showing top of working chamber and tie rods that strengthen the outer shell plates of the compression chamber. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ
Economic and environmental evaluation of compressed-air cars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Creutzig, Felix; Papson, Andrew; Schipper, Lee; Kammen, Daniel M.
2009-10-01
Climate change and energy security require a reduction in travel demand, a modal shift, and technological innovation in the transport sector. Through a series of press releases and demonstrations, a car using energy stored in compressed air produced by a compressor has been suggested as an environmentally friendly vehicle of the future. We analyze the thermodynamic efficiency of a compressed-air car powered by a pneumatic engine and consider the merits of compressed air versus chemical storage of potential energy. Even under highly optimistic assumptions the compressed-air car is significantly less efficient than a battery electric vehicle and produces more greenhouse gas emissions than a conventional gas-powered car with a coal intensive power mix. However, a pneumatic-combustion hybrid is technologically feasible, inexpensive and could eventually compete with hybrid electric vehicles.
Compressed air piping, 241-SY-101 hydraulic pump retrieval trailer
Wilson, T.R.
1994-12-12
The following Design Analysis was prepared by the Westinghouse Hanford Company to determine pressure losses in the compressed air piping installed on the hydraulic trailer for the 241-SY-101 pump retrieval mission.
Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry
2003-11-01
NREL will produce this sourcebook for DOE's Industrial Technologies Office as part of a series of documents on industrial energy equipment. The sourcebook is a reference for industrial compressed air system users, outlining opportunities to improve system efficiency.
Acceptance Test Report for 241-U compressed air system
Freeman, R.D.
1994-10-20
This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance testing of a newly upgraded compressed air system at 241-U Farm. The system was installed and the test successfully performed under work package 2W-92-01027.
Investigation on wind energy-compressed air power system.
Jia, Guang-Zheng; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Wu, Gen-Mao
2004-03-01
Wind energy is a pollution free and renewable resource widely distributed over China. Aimed at protecting the environment and enlarging application of wind energy, a new approach to application of wind energy by using compressed air power to some extent instead of electricity put forward. This includes: explaining the working principles and characteristics of the wind energy-compressed air power system; discussing the compatibility of wind energy and compressor capacity; presenting the theoretical model and computational simulation of the system. The obtained compressor capacity vs wind power relationship in certain wind velocity range can be helpful in the designing of the wind power-compressed air system. Results of investigations on the application of high-pressure compressed air for pressure reduction led to conclusion that pressure reduction with expander is better than the throttle regulator in energy saving.
Subsampling-based compression and flow visualization
Agranovsky, Alexy; Camp, David; Joy, I; Childs, Hank
2016-01-19
As computational capabilities increasingly outpace disk speeds on leading supercomputers, scientists will, in turn, be increasingly unable to save their simulation data at its native resolution. One solution to this problem is to compress these data sets as they are generated and visualize the compressed results afterwards. We explore this approach, specifically subsampling velocity data and the resulting errors for particle advection-based flow visualization. We compare three techniques: random selection of subsamples, selection at regular locations corresponding to multi-resolution reduction, and introduce a novel technique for informed selection of subsamples. Furthermore, we explore an adaptive system which exchanges the subsampling budget over parallel tasks, to ensure that subsampling occurs at the highest rate in the areas that need it most. We perform supercomputing runs to measure the effectiveness of the selection and adaptation techniques. Overall, we find that adaptation is very effective, and, among selection techniques, our informed selection provides the most accurate results, followed by the multi-resolution selection, and with the worst accuracy coming from random subsamples.
Experience with compressed air cleaning of main steam piping
Skrgic, P.J. ); Brookins, C. ); Larson, L.; Rothe, D. ); Pier, J.B.; Goldman, G. )
1990-01-01
This paper presents a summary of long-term and short-term experience that demonstrates compressed air-blow results are at least as good, and often better than steam-blows. Compressed air-blows have been used effectively on applications for supercritical boilers, drum-type boilers, and heat recovery steam generators for preoperational cleaning of main steam lines at power plants with ratings from 35 to 700 MW.
Planar temperature measurement in compressible flows using laser-induced iodine fluorescence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Hollo, Steven D.; Mcdaniel, James C.
1991-01-01
A laser-induced iodine fluorescence technique that is suitable for the planar measurement of temperature in cold nonreacting compressible air flows is investigated analytically and demonstrated in a known flow field. The technique is based on the temperature dependence of the broadband fluorescence from iodine excited by the 514-nm line of an argon-ion laser. Temperatures ranging from 165 to 245 K were measured in the calibration flow field. This technique makes complete, spatially resolved surveys of temperature practical in highly three-dimensional, low-temperature compressible flows.
Planar temperature measurement in compressible flows using laser-induced iodine fluorescence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Hollo, Steven D.; Mcdaniel, James C.
1991-01-01
A laser-induced iodine fluorescence technique that is suitable for the planar measurement of temperature in cold nonreacting compressible air flows is investigated analytically and demonstrated in a known flow field. The technique is based on the temperature dependence of the broadband fluorescence from iodine excited by the 514-nm line of an argon-ion laser. Temperatures ranging from 165 to 245 K were measured in the calibration flow field. This technique makes complete, spatially resolved surveys of temperature practical in highly three-dimensional, low-temperature compressible flows.
Boundary Conditions for Unsteady Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.; Johnson, D. K.
1994-01-01
This paper explores solutions to the spherically symmetric Euler equations. Motivated by the work of Hagstrom and Hariharan and Geer and Pope, we modeled the effect of a pulsating sphere in a compressible medium. The literature available on this suggests that an accurate numerical solution requires artificial boundary conditions which simulate the propagation of nonlinear waves in open domains. Until recently, the boundary conditions available were in general linear and based on nonreflection. Exceptions to this are the nonlinear nonreflective conditions of Thompson, and the nonlinear reflective conditions of Hagstrom and Hariharan. The former are based on the rate of change of the incoming characteristics; the latter rely on asymptotic analysis and the method of characteristics and account for the coupling of incoming and outgoing characteristics. Furthermore, Hagstrom and Hariharan have shown that, in a test situation in which the flow would reach a steady state over a long time, Thompson's method could lead to an incorrect steady state. The current study considers periodic flows and includes all possible types and techniques of boundary conditions. The technique recommended by Hagstrom and Hariharan proved superior to all others considered and matched the results of asymptotic methods that are valid for low subsonic Mach numbers.
Natural Flow Air Cooled Photovoltaics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanagnostopoulos, Y.; Themelis, P.
2010-01-01
Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. We performed experiments using a prototype based on three silicon photovoltaic modules placed in series to simulate a typical sloping building roof with photovoltaic installation. In this system the air flows through a channel on the rear side of PV panels. The potential for increasing the heat exchange from the photovoltaic panel to the circulating air by the addition of a thin metal sheet (TMS) in the middle of air channel or metal fins (FIN) along the air duct was examined. The operation of the device was studied with the air duct closed tightly to avoid air circulation (CLOSED) and the air duct open (REF), with the thin metal sheet (TMS) and with metal fins (FIN). In each case the experiments were performed under sunlight and the operating parameters of the experimental device determining the electrical and thermal performance of the system were observed and recorded during a whole day and for several days. We collected the data and form PV panels from the comparative diagrams of the experimental results regarding the temperature of solar cells, the electrical efficiency of the installation, the temperature of the back wall of the air duct and the temperature difference in the entrance and exit of the air duct. The comparative results from the measurements determine the improvement in electrical performance of the photovoltaic cells because of the reduction of their temperature, which is achieved by the naturally circulating air.
46 CFR 112.50-7 - Compressed air starting.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-7 Compressed..., and energy storing devices must be in the emergency generator room, except for the main or auxiliary... emergency generator room and a handcranked, diesel-powered air compressor for recharging the air receiver...
46 CFR 112.50-7 - Compressed air starting.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-7 Compressed..., and energy storing devices must be in the emergency generator room, except for the main or auxiliary... emergency generator room and a handcranked, diesel-powered air compressor for recharging the air receiver...
46 CFR 112.50-7 - Compressed air starting.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-7 Compressed..., and energy storing devices must be in the emergency generator room, except for the main or auxiliary... emergency generator room and a handcranked, diesel-powered air compressor for recharging the air receiver...
46 CFR 112.50-7 - Compressed air starting.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-7 Compressed..., and energy storing devices must be in the emergency generator room, except for the main or auxiliary... emergency generator room and a handcranked, diesel-powered air compressor for recharging the air receiver...
Summary of selected compressed air energy storage studies
Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.
1985-01-01
A descriptive summarily of research and development in compressed air energy storage technology is presented. Research funded primarily by the Department of Energy is described. Results of studies by other groups and experience at the Huntorf plant in West Germany are included. Feasibility studies performed by General Electric are summarized. The feasibility of air storage in dissolved salt cavities is also demonstrated. (BCS)
Study of hydraulic air compression for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion open-cycle application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golshani, A.; Chen, F. C.
1983-01-01
A hydraulic air compressor, which requires no mechanical moving parts and operates in a nearly isothermal mode, can be an alternative for the noncondensible gas disposal of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) open-cycle power system. The compressor requires only a downward flow of water to accomplish air compression. An air compressor test loop was assembled and operated to obtain test data that would lead to the design of an OTEC hydraulic air compressor. A one dimensional, hydraulic gas compressor, computer model was employed to simulate the laboratory experiments, and it was tuned to fit the test results. A sensitivity study that shows the effects of various parameters on the applied head of the hydraulic air compression is presented.
On the Interaction of Compressible Flow and Human Vocal Folds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prokopová, J.; Feistauer, M.; Horáček, J.; Kosík, A.; Kučera, V.
The paper is devoted to the numerical solution of interaction of compressible flow with elastic structure with application to the simulation of flow in vocal folds. It is described by the coupling of compressible Navier-Stokes equations and dynamical elasticity system, solved by the combination of the discontinuous Galerkin method for the solution of the flow field and conforming finite elements for the elasticity problem.
Low-Reynolds number compressible flow around a triangular airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munday, Phillip; Taira, Kunihiko; Suwa, Tetsuya; Numata, Daiju; Asai, Keisuke
2013-11-01
We report on the combined numerical and experimental effort to analyze the nonlinear aerodynamics of a triangular airfoil in low-Reynolds number compressible flow that is representative of wings on future Martian air vehicles. The flow field around this airfoil is examined for a wide range of angles of attack and Mach numbers with three-dimensional direct numerical simulations at Re = 3000 . Companion experiments are conducted in a unique Martian wind tunnel that is placed in a vacuum chamber to simulate the Martian atmosphere. Computational findings are compared with pressure sensitive paint and direct force measurements and are found to be in agreement. The separated flow from the leading edge is found to form a large leading-edge vortex that sits directly above the apex of the airfoil and provides enhanced lift at post stall angles of attack. For higher subsonic flows, the vortical structures elongate in the streamwise direction resulting in reduced lift enhancement. We also observe that the onset of spanwise instability for higher angles of attack is delayed at lower Mach numbers. Currently at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki.
Consistent air quality and energy savings provided by heat of compression air dryer
Brown, F.; Hodel, A.E.
1986-02-01
The six-year-old compressed air dryers serving the plant and instrument air needs at Monsanto Company's W.G. Krummrich plant in Sauget, IL were no longer performing at peak efficiency. Dryer reliability had declined. Energy usage of the heat regenerated dryers was substantial. The 60 kw heaters used to regenerate the desiccant were operating 2 1/2 out of 4 hours on a timer controlled continuous cycle. Engineers decided to remove the old, inefficient air compression and drying equipment air compression and drying equipment at the W.G. Krummrich plant and replace it with a state-of-the-art system. The combination of a compressor and dryer package was specified to incorporate heat recovery/energy savings. Monsanto's engineers specified an air system that would operate on demand and use a heat of compression air dryer that was available commercially.
Prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elmahgary, Yehia; Peltola, Esa; Sipila, Kari; Vaatainen, Anne
1991-08-01
A prefeasibility study on Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems is presented. The costs of excavating rock caverns for compressed air storage and those for forming suitable storage caverns in existing mines were estimated, and this information was used to calculate the economics of CAES. An analysis of the different possible systems is given following a review of literature on CAES. This was followed by an economic analysis which comprised two separate systems. The first consisted of conventional oil fueled gas turbine plants provided with CAES system. In the second system wind turbines were used to run the compressors which are used in charging the compressed air storage cavern. The results of the current prefeasibility study confirmed the economic attractiveness of the CAES in the first system. Wind turbines still seem, however, to be too expensive to compete with coal power plants. More accurate and straightforward results could be obtained only in a more comprehensive study.
Compressed Air System Optimization: Case Study Food Industry in Indonesia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Widayati, Endang; Nuzahar, Hasril
2016-01-01
Compressors and compressed air systems was one of the most important utilities in industries or factories. Approximately 10% of the cost of electricity in the industry was used to produce compressed air. Therefore the potential for energy savings in the compressors and compressed air systems had a big challenge. This field was conducted especially in Indonesia food industry or factory. Compressed air system optimization was a technique approach to determine the optimal conditions for the operation of compressors and compressed air systems that included evaluation of the energy needs, supply adjustment, eliminating or reconfiguring the use and operation of inefficient, changing and complementing some equipment and improving operating efficiencies. This technique gave the significant impact for energy saving and costs. The potential savings based on this study through measurement and optimization e.g. system that lowers the pressure of 7.5 barg to 6.8 barg would reduce energy consumption and running costs approximately 4.2%, switch off the compressor GA110 and GA75 was obtained annual savings of USD 52,947 ≈ 455 714 kWh, running GA75 light load or unloaded then obtained annual savings of USD 31,841≈ 270,685 kWh, install new compressor 2x132 kW and 1x 132 kW VSD obtained annual savings of USD 108,325≈ 928,500 kWh. Furthermore it was needed to conduct study of technical aspect of energy saving potential (Investment Grade Audit) and performed Cost Benefit Analysis. This study was one of best practice solutions how to save energy and improve energy performance in compressors and compressed air system.
A PDF closure model for compressible turbulent chemically reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kollmann, W.
1992-01-01
The objective of the proposed research project was the analysis of single point closures based on probability density function (pdf) and characteristic functions and the development of a prediction method for the joint velocity-scalar pdf in turbulent reacting flows. Turbulent flows of boundary layer type and stagnation point flows with and without chemical reactions were be calculated as principal applications. Pdf methods for compressible reacting flows were developed and tested in comparison with available experimental data. The research work carried in this project was concentrated on the closure of pdf equations for incompressible and compressible turbulent flows with and without chemical reactions.
Incipient transition phenomena in compressible flows over a flat plate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1986-01-01
The full three-dimensional time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a Fourier-Chebyshev method to study the stability of compressible flows over a flat plate. After the code is validated in the linear regime, it is applied to study the existence of the secondary instability mechanism in the supersonic regime.
29 CFR 1926.803 - Compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... that an air space is created when the seat lid is closed. (v) Fresh and pure drinking water shall be... providing drinking fountains, or by providing individual canteens, or by some other sanitary means. Community drinking vessels are prohibited. (vi) No refuse or discarded material of any kind shall be...
29 CFR 1926.803 - Compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... that an air space is created when the seat lid is closed. (v) Fresh and pure drinking water shall be... providing drinking fountains, or by providing individual canteens, or by some other sanitary means. Community drinking vessels are prohibited. (vi) No refuse or discarded material of any kind shall be...
29 CFR 1926.803 - Compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... that an air space is created when the seat lid is closed. (v) Fresh and pure drinking water shall be... providing drinking fountains, or by providing individual canteens, or by some other sanitary means. Community drinking vessels are prohibited. (vi) No refuse or discarded material of any kind shall be...
29 CFR 1926.803 - Compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... that an air space is created when the seat lid is closed. (v) Fresh and pure drinking water shall be... providing drinking fountains, or by providing individual canteens, or by some other sanitary means. Community drinking vessels are prohibited. (vi) No refuse or discarded material of any kind shall be...
29 CFR 1926.803 - Compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... that an air space is created when the seat lid is closed. (v) Fresh and pure drinking water shall be... providing drinking fountains, or by providing individual canteens, or by some other sanitary means. Community drinking vessels are prohibited. (vi) No refuse or discarded material of any kind shall be...
Finite-volume WENO scheme for viscous compressible multicomponent flows
Coralic, Vedran; Colonius, Tim
2014-01-01
We develop a shock- and interface-capturing numerical method that is suitable for the simulation of multicomponent flows governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical method is high-order accurate in smooth regions of the flow, discretely conserves the mass of each component, as well as the total momentum and energy, and is oscillation-free, i.e. it does not introduce spurious oscillations at the locations of shockwaves and/or material interfaces. The method is of Godunov-type and utilizes a fifth-order, finite-volume, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for the spatial reconstruction and a Harten-Lax-van Leer contact (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver to upwind the fluxes. A third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta (RK) algorithm is employed to march the solution in time. The derivation is generalized to three dimensions and nonuniform Cartesian grids. A two-point, fourth-order, Gaussian quadrature rule is utilized to build the spatial averages of the reconstructed variables inside the cells, as well as at cell boundaries. The algorithm is therefore fourth-order accurate in space and third-order accurate in time in smooth regions of the flow. We corroborate the properties of our numerical method by considering several challenging one-, two- and three-dimensional test cases, the most complex of which is the asymmetric collapse of an air bubble submerged in a cylindrical water cavity that is embedded in 10% gelatin. PMID:25110358
Finite-volume WENO scheme for viscous compressible multicomponent flows.
Coralic, Vedran; Colonius, Tim
2014-10-01
We develop a shock- and interface-capturing numerical method that is suitable for the simulation of multicomponent flows governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical method is high-order accurate in smooth regions of the flow, discretely conserves the mass of each component, as well as the total momentum and energy, and is oscillation-free, i.e. it does not introduce spurious oscillations at the locations of shockwaves and/or material interfaces. The method is of Godunov-type and utilizes a fifth-order, finite-volume, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for the spatial reconstruction and a Harten-Lax-van Leer contact (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver to upwind the fluxes. A third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta (RK) algorithm is employed to march the solution in time. The derivation is generalized to three dimensions and nonuniform Cartesian grids. A two-point, fourth-order, Gaussian quadrature rule is utilized to build the spatial averages of the reconstructed variables inside the cells, as well as at cell boundaries. The algorithm is therefore fourth-order accurate in space and third-order accurate in time in smooth regions of the flow. We corroborate the properties of our numerical method by considering several challenging one-, two- and three-dimensional test cases, the most complex of which is the asymmetric collapse of an air bubble submerged in a cylindrical water cavity that is embedded in 10% gelatin.
Moving and adaptive grid methods for compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trepanier, Jean-Yves; Camarero, Ricardo
1995-01-01
This paper describes adaptive grid methods developed specifically for compressible flow computations. The basic flow solver is a finite-volume implementation of Roe's flux difference splitting scheme or arbitrarily moving unstructured triangular meshes. The grid adaptation is performed according to geometric and flow requirements. Some results are included to illustrate the potential of the methodology.
Reevaluation of compressible-flow Preston tube calibrations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, J. M.
1977-01-01
Revised zero-pressure-gradient, adiabatic wall skin-friction-balance data covering a Mach number range from 1.6 to 4.6 led to a reevaluation of existing compressible flow Preston tube calibration equations.
(Air flow patterns within buildings)
Harrje, D.T.
1990-10-15
As Annex 20 enters the final year, deliverables in the form of reports, guidelines, and data formats are nearing completion. The Reporting Guidelines for the Measurement of Air Flows and Related Factors in Buildings will be published by the AIVC next month and was presented to the research community at the 11th AIVC Conference. Measurement guidelines and state-of-the-art equipment descriptions are part of a comprehensive manual, Measurement Techniques Related to Air Flow Patterns Within Buildings -- An Application Guide, in the final stages of preparation in Part 2 of Annex 20, together with reports on how to estimate the effects of flow through large openings, as well as contaminant movements in buildings. The Measurement Manual will include the latest information from the AIVC. The next AIVC Conference, in Ottawa, September 1991, will feature more than 12 presentations of Annex 20 results, including the information from Part 1 which has focused on the detailed air flow patterns in a variety of single-room configurations. Both complex modelling (including CFD) and detailed measurements have been completed, and it is now desirable that added tests be made in the next months by the University of Illinois, BERL, representing the US in Part 1 for the first time.
Compressible flow calculations employing the Galerkin/least-squares method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shakib, F.; Hughes, T. J. R.; Johan, Zdenek
1989-01-01
A multielement group, domain decomposition algorithm is presented for solving linear nonsymmetric systems arising in the finite-element analysis of compressible flows employing the Galerkin/least-squares method. The iterative strategy employed is based on the generalized minimum residual (GMRES) procedure originally proposed by Saad and Shultz. Two levels of preconditioning are investigated. Applications to problems of high-speed compressible flow illustrate the effectiveness of the scheme.
Air Compressibility Effect on Bouwer and Rice Seepage Meter.
Peng, Xin; Zhan, Hongbin
2017-07-17
Measuring a disconnected streambed seepage flux using a seepage meter can give important streambed information and help understanding groundwater-surface water interaction. In this study, we provide a correction for calculating the seepage flux rate with the consideration of air compressibility inside the manometer of the Bouwer and Rice seepage meter. We notice that the effect of air compressibility in the manometer is considerably larger when more air is included in the manometer. We find that the relative error from neglecting air compressibility can be constrained within 5% if the manometer of the Bouwer and Rice seepage meter is shorter than 0.8 m and the experiment is done in a suction mode in which air is pumped out from the manometer before the start of measurement. For manometers longer than 0.8 m, the relative error will be larger than 5%. It may be over 10% if the manometer height is longer than 1.5 m and the experiment is done in a no-suction mode, in which air is not pumped out from the manometer before the start of measurement. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.
Automatic air flow control in air conditioning ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obler, H. D.
1972-01-01
Device is designed which automatically selects air flow coming from either of two directions and which can be adjusted to desired air volume on either side. Device uses one movable and two fixed scoops which control air flow and air volume.
Studies of compressible shear flows and turbulent drag reduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orszag, S. A.
1981-01-01
Compressible shear flows and drag reduction were examined and three methods are addressed: (1) the analytical and numerical aspects of conformal mapping were summarized and a new method for computation of these maps is presented; (2) the computer code SPECFD for solution of the three dimensional time dependent Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flow on the CYBER 203 computer is described; (3) results of two equation turbulence modeling of turbulent flow over wavy walls are presented. A modified Jones-Launder model is used in two dimensional spectral code for flow in general wavy geometries.
Application of compressibility correction to calculation of flow in inlets.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albers, J. A.
1973-01-01
An application of the compressibility correction developed by Lieblein and Stockman (1972) to the calculation of flow in axisymmetric inlets is described. The results with experimental data from wind tunnel model tests are compared. The configuration is a conventional subsonic inlet with a NACA series one external cowl shape and a two-to-one ellipse internal lip. It is shown that the compressibility correction gives a relatively good approximation to the internal compressible flow behavior, and thus should be useful in the design and analysis of engine nacelle inlets.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walchner, O
1939-01-01
Errors arising from yawed flow were also determined up to 20 degrees angle of attack. In axial flow, the Prandtl pitot tube begins at w/a approx. = 0.8 to give an incorrect static pressure reading, while it records the tank pressure correctly, as anticipated, up to sonic velocity. Owing to the compressibility of the air, the Prandtl pitot tube manifests compression shocks when the air speed approaches velocity of sound. This affects the pressure reading of the instrument. Because of the increasing importance of high speed in aviation, this compressibility effect is investigated in detail.
Calculations of Supersonic and Hypersonic Flows using Compressible Wall Functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, P. G.; Coakley, T. J.
1993-01-01
The present paper presents a numerical procedure to calculate supersonic and hypersonic flows using the compressible law of the wall. The turbulence models under consideration include the Launder-Reece-Rodi-Gibson Reynolds-stress model and the k-epsilon model. The models coupled with the proposed wall function technique have been tested in both separated and unseparated flows. The flows include (1) an insulated flat plate flow over a range of Mach numbers, (2) a Mach 5 flat plate flow with cold wall conditions, (3) a two dimensional supersonic compression corner flow, (4) a hypersonic flow over an axisymmetric flare, and (5) a hypersonic flow over a 2-D compression corner. Results indicate that the wall function technique gives improved predictions of skin friction and heat transfer in separated flows compared with models using wall dampers. Predictions of the extent of separation are not improved over the wall damper models except with the Reynolds-stress model for the supersonic compression corner flow case.
Modeling Fluid Flow by Exploring Different Flow Geometries and Effect of Weak Compressibility
2006-06-01
EXPLORING DIFFERENT FLOW GEOMETRIES AND EFFECT OF WEAK COMPRESSIBILITY by James J. Sopko June 2006 Thesis Advisor: Hong Zhou Second...Flow Geometries and Effect of Weak Compressibility. 6. AUTHOR James J. Sopko 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS...velocity field. This yields a weakly compressible fluid flow. The basis of this study is to use numerical analysis to explore the effects of weak
Kessel, R; Redl, M; Mauermayer, R; Praml, G J
1989-01-01
Shotcrete techniques under compressed air are increasingly applied in the construction of tunnels. Up to now little is known about the influence of shotcrete dusts on the function of the lung. The lung function of 30 miners working with shotcrete under compressed air (before and after one shift) was measured. They carried personal air samplers to assess the total dust exposure. Long term effects were studied on a second group of 29 individuals exposed to shotcrete dusts and compressed air for two years. A significant increase of airway resistance and a significant decrease of some flow-volume parameters were found after one workshift. These changes partially correlate close to the dust exposure. After two years exposure a significant decrease of mean expiratory flow (MEF)50 and MEF25 was found. These results point to damage in the small airways and emphasise the major role of the lung function test--including the flow-volume manoeuvre for the medical examination of the workers. Additionally, they should carry filter masks. Images PMID:2923823
Kessel, R; Redl, M; Mauermayer, R; Praml, G J
1989-02-01
Shotcrete techniques under compressed air are increasingly applied in the construction of tunnels. Up to now little is known about the influence of shotcrete dusts on the function of the lung. The lung function of 30 miners working with shotcrete under compressed air (before and after one shift) was measured. They carried personal air samplers to assess the total dust exposure. Long term effects were studied on a second group of 29 individuals exposed to shotcrete dusts and compressed air for two years. A significant increase of airway resistance and a significant decrease of some flow-volume parameters were found after one workshift. These changes partially correlate close to the dust exposure. After two years exposure a significant decrease of mean expiratory flow (MEF)50 and MEF25 was found. These results point to damage in the small airways and emphasise the major role of the lung function test--including the flow-volume manoeuvre for the medical examination of the workers. Additionally, they should carry filter masks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yusman, W.; Viridi, S.; Rachmat, S.
2016-01-01
The non-discharges geothermal wells have been a main problem in geothermal development stages and well discharge stimulation is required to initiate a flow. Air compress stimulation is one of the methods to trigger a fluid flow from the geothermal reservoir. The result of this process can be predicted by using by the Af / Ac method, but sometimes this method shows uncertainty result in several geothermal wells and also this prediction method does not take into account the flowing time of geothermal fluid to discharge after opening the well head. This paper presents a simulation of non-discharges well under air compress stimulation to predict well behavior and time process required. The component of this model consists of geothermal well data during heating-up process such as pressure, temperature and mass flow in the water column and main feed zone level. The one-dimensional transient numerical model is run based on the Single Fluid Volume Element (SFVE) method. According to the simulation result, the geothermal well behavior prediction after air compress stimulation will be valid under two specific circumstances, such as single phase fluid density between 1 - 28 kg/m3 and above 28.5 kg/m3. The first condition shows that successful well discharge and the last condition represent failed well discharge after air compress stimulation (only for two wells data). The comparison of pf values between simulation and field observation shows the different result according to the success discharge well. Time required for flow to occur as observed in well head by using the SFVE method is different with the actual field condition. This model needs to improve by updating more geothermal well data and modified fluid phase condition inside the wellbore.
Legal and regulatory issues affecting compressed air energy storage
Hendrickson, P.L.
1981-07-01
Several regulatory and legal issues that can potentially affect implementation of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system are discussed. This technology involves the compression of air using base load electric power for storage in an underground storage medium. The air is subsequently released and allowed to pass through a turbine to generate electricity during periods of peak demand. The storage media considered most feasible are a mined hard rock cavern, a solution-mined cavern in a salt deposit, and a porous geologic formation (normally an aquifer) of suitable structure. The issues are discussed in four categories: regulatory issues common to most CAES facilities regardless of storage medium, regulatory issues applicable to particular CAES reservoir media, issues related to possible liability from CAES operations, and issues related to acquisition of appropriate property rights for CAES implementation. The focus is on selected federal regulation. Lesser attention is given to state and local regulation. (WHK)
THE BERNOULLI EQUATION AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW THEORIES
The incompressible Bernoulli equation is an analytical relationship between pressure, kinetic energy, and potential energy. As perhaps the simplest and most useful statement for describing laminar flow, it buttresses numerous incompressible flow models that have been developed ...
THE BERNOULLI EQUATION AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW THEORIES
The incompressible Bernoulli equation is an analytical relationship between pressure, kinetic energy, and potential energy. As perhaps the simplest and most useful statement for describing laminar flow, it buttresses numerous incompressible flow models that have been developed ...
Compressibility effects in Rayleigh-Taylor instability-induced flows.
Gauthier, S; Le Creurer, B
2010-04-13
We present a tentative review of compressibility effects in Rayleigh-Taylor instability-induced flows. The linear, nonlinear and turbulent regimes are considered. We first make the classical distinction between the static compressibility or stratification, and the dynamic compressibility owing to the finite speed of sound. We then discuss the quasi-incompressible limits of the Navier-Stokes equations (i.e. the low-Mach number, anelastic and Boussinesq approximations). We also review some results about stratified compressible flows for which instability criteria have been derived rigorously. Two types of modes, convective and acoustic, are possible in these flows. Linear stability results for perfect fluids obtained from an analytical approach, as well as viscous fluid results obtained from numerical approaches, are also reviewed. In the turbulent regime, we introduce Chandrasekhar's observation that the largest structures in the density fluctuations are determined by the initial conditions. The effects of compressibility obtained by numerical simulations in both the nonlinear and turbulent regimes are discussed. The modifications made to statistical models of fully developed turbulence in order to account for compressibility effects are also treated briefly. We also point out the analogy with turbulent compressible Kelvin-Helmholtz mixing layers and we suggest some lines for further investigations.
Compressed Air System Retrofit Reduces Energy Costs at a Newspaper Printing Facility
2002-05-01
In 2000, a compressed air system optimization project was implemented at The Bakersfield Californian's printing facility in Bakersfield, California. The compressed air system was evaluated for potential energy efficiency improvement opportunities in response to rising energy costs.
Compressed Air System Optimization Improves Production and saves energy at a Satellite Manufacturer
2002-05-01
In 2001, a compressed air improvement project was implemented following an audit on the compressed air system at Boeing Satellite Systems (formerly Hughes Space & Communications Company) in Los Angeles, California.
Near-wall modelling of compressible turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
So, Ronald M. C.
1990-01-01
Work was carried out to formulate near-wall models for the equations governing the transport of the temperature-variance and its dissipation rate. With these equations properly modeled, a foundation is laid for their extension together with the heat-flux equations to compressible flows. This extension is carried out in a manner similar to that used to extend the incompressible near-wall Reynolds-stress models to compressible flows. The methodology used to accomplish the extension of the near-wall Reynolds-stress models is examined and the actual extension of the models for the Reynolds-stress equations and the near-wall dissipation-rate equation to compressible flows is given. Then the formulation of the near-wall models for the equations governing the transport of the temperature variance and its dissipation rate is discussed. Finally, a sample calculation of a flat plate compressible turbulent boundary-layer flow with adiabatic wall boundary condition and a free-stream Mach number of 2.5 using a two-equation near-wall closure is presented. The results show that the near-wall two-equation closure formulated for compressible flows is quite valid and the calculated properties are in good agreement with measurements. Furthermore, the near-wall behavior of the turbulence statistics and structure parameters is consistent with that found in incompressible flows.
Accounting For Compressibility In Viscous Flow In Pipes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinle, Frank W.; Gee, Ken; Murthy, Sreedhara V.
1991-01-01
Method developed to account for effects of compressibility in viscous flows through long, circular pipes of uniform diameter. Based on approximation of variations in density and velocity across pipe cross section by profile equations developed for boundary-layer flow between flat plates.
Sagi, H C; DiPasquale, Thomas; Sanders, Roy; Herscovici, Dolfi
2002-01-01
To determine if the exhaust from surgical compressed-air power tools contains bacteria and if the exhaust leads to contamination of sterile surfaces. Bacteriologic study of orthopaedic power tools. Level I trauma center operative theater. None. Part I. Exhaust from two sterile compact air drills was sampled directly at the exhaust port. Part II. Exhaust from the drills was directed at sterile agar plates from varying distances. The agar plates represented sterile surfaces within the operative field. Part III. Control cultures. A battery-powered drill was operated over open agar plates in similar fashion as the compressed-air drills. Agar plates left open in the operative theater served as controls to rule out atmospheric contamination. Random cultures were taken from agar plates, gloves, drills, and hoses. Incidence of positive cultures. In Part I, all filters from both compressed-air drill exhausts were culture negative ( = 0.008). In Part II, the incidence of positive cultures for air drills number one and number two was 73% and 82%, respectively. The most commonly encountered organisms were, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus species. All control cultures from agar plates, battery-powered drill, gloves, and hoses were negative ( < 0.01). Exhaust from compressed-air power tools in orthopaedic surgery may contribute to the dissemination of bacteria onto the surgical field. We do not recommend the use of compressed-air power tools that do not have a contained exhaust.
Videos and images from 25 years of teaching compressible flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Settles, Gary
2008-11-01
Compressible flow is a very visual topic due to refractive optical flow visualization and the public fascination with high-speed flight. Films, video clips, and many images are available to convey this in the classroom. An overview of this material is given and selected examples are shown, drawn from educational films, the movies, television, etc., and accumulated over 25 years of teaching basic and advanced compressible-flow courses. The impact of copyright protection and the doctrine of fair use is also discussed.
Thermoacoustic compression based on alternating to direct gas flow conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, D. M.; Wang, K.; Xu, Y.; Shen, Q.; Zhang, X. J.; Qiu, L. M.
2012-05-01
We present a remarkable thermoacoustically driven compression effect based on the conversion of gas flow from an alternating state to a direct state. The alternating gas flow is generated by the thermoacoustic effect in thermoacoustic engines, whereas direct gas flow is achieved by means of the flow rectification effect of check valves. A demonstrative thermoacoustic compressor consisting of two standing-wave thermoacoustic engines, two reservoirs, and three check valves is constructed for experimental investigation. With nitrogen as a working gas and an initial pressure of 2.4 MPa in all components, a usable pressure difference of 0.4 MPa is achieved, with the average gas pumping rate reaching 2.85 Nm3/h during the first 3 s of the compression process. The simple mechanical structure and thermally driven nature of the compressor show potential in gas compression, power generation, and refrigeration applications.
A Study of Air Flow in an Engine Cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Dana W
1939-01-01
A 4-stroke-cycle test engine was equipped with a glass cylinder and the air movements within it were studied while the engine was being motored. Different types of air flow were produced by using shrouded intake valves in various arrangements and by altering the shape of the intake-air passage in the cylinder head. The air movements were made visible by mixing feathers with the entering air, and high-speed motion pictures were taken of them so that the air currents might be studied in detail and their velocities measured. Motion pictures were also taken of gasoline sprays injected into the cylinder on the intake stroke. The photographs showed that: a wide variety of induced air movements could be created in the cylinder; the movements always persisted throughout the compression stroke; and the only type of movement that persisted until the end of the cycle was rotation about the cylinder axis.
CNT Based Artificial Hair Sensors for Predictable Boundary Layer Air Flow Sensing (Postscript)
2016-11-07
ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) While numerous flow sensor architectures mimic the natural cilia of crickets, locusts, bats, and fish, the prediction...magnitude variability in both sensitivity and CNT compressive modulus. 15. SUBJECT TERMS flow sensor architectures ; hair sensor; piezoresistive...Boundary Layer Air Flow Sensing Keith A. Slinker,* Corey Kondash, Benjamin T. Dickinson, and Jeffery W. Baur While numerous flow sensor architectures
Toward the large-eddy simulations of compressible turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Speziale, C. G.; Zang, T. A.
1987-01-01
New subgrid-scale models for the large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows are developed based on the Favre-filtered equations of motion for an ideal gas. A compressible generalization of the linear combination of the Smagorinsky model and scale-similarity model (in terms of Favre-filtered fields) is obtained for the subgrid-scale stress tensor. An analogous thermal linear combination model is also developed for the subgrid-scale heat flux vector. The three dimensionless constants associated with these subgrid-scale models are obtained by correlating with the results of direct numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence performed on a 96 to the third power grid using Fourier collocation methods. Extensive comparisons between the direct and modeled subgrid-scale fields are provided in order to validate the models. Future applications of these compressible subgrid-scale models to the large-eddy simulation of supersonic aerodynamic flows are discussed briefly.
Penetrative convective flows induced by internal heating and mantle compressibility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Machetel, Philippe; Yuen, David A.
1989-01-01
Penetrative convective flows induced in a spherical shell by combined effects of internal heating and mantle compressibility are investigated using mathematical and numerical formulations for compressible spherical shell convection. Isothermal stress-free boundary conditions applied at the top and the bottom of the shell are solved using a time-dependent finite difference code in a temperature, vorticity, stream function formulation for Rayleigh numbers ranging from the critical Rc up to 2000 Rc. Results indicate that compressibility, together with internal heating, could be a mechanism capable of generating spontaneously layered convection and local melting in the mantle and that non-Boussinesq effects must be considered in interpretations of geophysical phenomena.
Environmental and regulatory aspects of compressed-air energy storage
Beckwith, M.A.; Mathur, J.
1981-01-01
The effects of fuel regulations, environmental protection laws, the National Environmental Policy Act, underground injection regulations, and state regulations on the development of compressed air storage systems and power plants are discussed. It is concluded that environmental regulatory concerns of conventional energy technologies are often different from those associated with new technologies such as compressed air energy storage (CAES). Confusion and uncertainty often results when the current environmental regulatory system is applied to new technologies. Evolution of the regulatory system must accompany and rapidly accommodate technological development if the benefits of such development are to be fully realized in a timely manner. Those responsible for technological development in the energy field must be aware of these disparities and conduct their efforts accordingly.
The stabilizing effect of compressibility in turbulent shear flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarkar, S.
1994-01-01
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent homogeneous shear flow is performed in order to clarify compressibility effects on the turbulence growth in the flow. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number M(t) and the gradient Mach number M(g). Two series of simulations are performed where the initial values of M(g) and M(t) are increased separately. The growth rate of turbulent kinetic energy is observed to decrease in both series of simulations. This 'stabilizing' effect of compressibility on the turbulent energy growth rate is observed to be substantially larger in the DNS series where the initial value of M(g) is changed. A systematic companion of the different DNS cues shows that the compressibility effect of reduced turbulent energy growth rate is primarily due to the reduced level of turbulence production and not due to explicit dilatational effects. The reduced turbulence production is not a mean density effect since the mean density remains constant in compressible homogeneous shear flow. The stabilizing effect of compressibility on the turbulence growth is observed to increase with the gradient Mach number M(g) in the homogeneous shear flow DNS. Estimates of M(g) for the mixing and the boundary layer are obtained. These estimates show that the parameter M(g) becomes much larger in the high-speed mixing layer relative to the high-speed boundary layer even though the mean flow Mach numbers are the same in the two flows. Therefore, the inhibition of turbulent energy production and consequent 'stabilizing' effect of compressibility on the turbulence (over and above that due to the mean density variation) is expected to be larger in the mixing layer relative to the boundary layer in agreement with experimental observations.
A compressible Navier-Stokes code for turbulent flow modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coakley, T. J.
1984-01-01
An implicit, finite volume code for solving two dimensional, compressible turbulent flows is described. Second order upwind differencing of the inviscid terms of the equations is used to enhance stability and accuracy. A diagonal form of the implicit algorithm is used to improve efficiency. Several zero and two equation turbulence models are incorporated to study their impact on overall flow modeling accuracy. Applications to external and internal flows are discussed.
2015-08-01
TURBULENT INTENSITY COMPRESSIBLE FLOW USING PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY A high turbulent intensity combustion chamber has been designed in order...INTENSITY COMPRESSIBLE FLOW USING PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY Report Title A high turbulent intensity combustion chamber has been designed in order to...USING PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY MARCO EFRAIN QUIROZ-REGALADO Department of Mechanical Engineering APPROVED: Ahsan R. Choudhuri
Flow diagnostics in unseeded air
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miles, R.; Lempert, W.
1990-01-01
Several approaches are presented for the quantitative measurement of flowfield parameters in high-speed flows. The techniques are developed for the study of air flows in the Mach 2 to Mach 3 regime and can be extended to the hypersonic and subsonic regimes in a straightforward manner. Instantaneous two-dimensional cross-sectional images of the density using UV Rayleigh scattering and the measurement of velocity profiles using the RELIEF technique are shown. The RELIEF technique employs two high-powered lasers separated in frequency by the vibrational frequency of oxygen molecules to write lines across the flowfield by stimulated Raman scattering. The preliminary results indicate that the UV Rayleigh scattering may also be extended to the measurement of velocity and temperature fields by using an atomic or molecular absorption filter window, and that the RELIEF technique can be extended to marking shaped volumetric points or arrays of points in the flowfield for velocity and vorticity measurements.
Air flow exploration of abrasive feed tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shijin; Li, Xiaohong; Gu, Yilei
2009-12-01
An abrasive water-jet cutting process is one in which water pressure is raised to a very high pressure and forced through a very small orifice to form a very thin high speed jet beam. This thin jet beam is then directed through a chamber and then fed into a secondary nozzle, or mixing tube. During this process, a vacuum is generated in the chamber, and garnet abrasives and air are pulled into the chamber, through an abrasive feed tube, and mixes with this high speed stream of water. Because of the restrictions introduced by the abrasive feed tube geometry, a vacuum gradient is generated along the tube. Although this phenomenon has been recognized and utilized as a way to monitor nozzle condition and abrasive flowing conditions, yet, until now, conditions inside the abrasive feed line have not been completely understood. A possible reason is that conditions inside the abrasive feed line are complicated. Not only compressible flow but also multi-phase, multi-component flow has been involved in inside of abrasive feed tube. This paper explored various aspects of the vacuum creation process in both the mixing chamber and the abrasive feed tube. Based on an experimental exploration, an analytical framework is presented to allow theoretical calculations of vacuum conditions in the abrasive feed tube.
CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM
J.A. Ziegler
1999-08-31
The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site compressed air system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).
Orbital compressed air and petroleum injury mimicking necrotizing fasciitis.
Mellington, Faye E; Bacon, Annette S; Abu-Bakra, Mohammed A J; Martinez-Devesa, Pablo; Norris, Jonathan H
2014-09-01
Orbital injury secondary to petroleum-based products is rare. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of a combined compressed air and chemical orbital injury, which mimicked necrotizing fasciitis. A 58-year-old man was repairing his motorcycle engine when a piston inadvertently fired, discharging compressed air and petroleum-based carburetor cleaner into his left eye. He developed surgical emphysema, skin necrosis, and a chemical cellulitis, causing an orbital compartment syndrome. He was treated initially with antibiotics and subsequently with intravenous steroid and orbital decompression surgery. There was almost complete recovery by 4 weeks postsurgery. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Petroleum-based products can cause severe skin irritation and necrosis. Compressed air injury can cause surgical emphysema. When these two mechanisms of injury are combined, the resulting orbitopathy and skin necrosis can mimic necrotizing fasciitis and cause diagnostic confusion. A favorable outcome is achievable with aggressive timely management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elmahgary, Y.; Peltola, E.; Sipilae, K.; Vaeaetaeinen, A.
1991-08-01
A prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage (CALS) systems was launched in VTT in the course of the year 1990. The study was undertaken partly in the Laboratory of Electrical and Automation Engineering and partly in the Road, Traffic and Geotechnical Laboratory. Information on existing mines in Finland which could be used as storage caverns were collected (part 2). The costs of excavating rock caverns for compressed air storage and those for forming suitable storage caverns in existing mines were also estimated. This information was used in the first (and present) part of the report to calculate the economics of CAES. In the present part (part 1) of the study, an analysis of the different possible systems was given following a review of literature on CAES. This was followed by an economic analysis which comprised two separate systems. The first consisted of conventional oil fueled gas turbine plants provided with the CALS system. In the second system, wind turbines were used to run the compressors which are used in charging the compressed air storage cavern. The results of the current prefeasibility study confirmed the economic attractiveness of the CAES in the first system. Wind turbines still seem, however, to be too expensive to compete with coal power plants. More accurate and straight-forward results could be obtained only in a more comprehensive study.
A new numerical approach for compressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, J. C.; Lekoudis, S. G.
1982-01-01
A numerical approach for computing unsteady compressible viscous flows was developed. This approach offers the capability of confining the region of computation to the viscous region of the flow. The viscous region is defined as the region where the vorticity is nonnegligible and the difference in dilatation between the potential flow and the real flow around the same geometry is also nonnegligible. The method was developed and tested. Also, an application of the procedure to the solution of the steady Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible internal flows is presented.
Compressible Turbulent Channel Flows: DNS Results and Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, P. G.; Coleman, G. N.; Bradshaw, P.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
The present paper addresses some topical issues in modeling compressible turbulent shear flows. The work is based on direct numerical simulation of two supersonic fully developed channel flows between very cold isothermal walls. Detailed decomposition and analysis of terms appearing in the momentum and energy equations are presented. The simulation results are used to provide insights into differences between conventional time-and Favre-averaging of the mean-flow and turbulent quantities. Study of the turbulence energy budget for the two cases shows that the compressibility effects due to turbulent density and pressure fluctuations are insignificant. In particular, the dilatational dissipation and the mean product of the pressure and dilatation fluctuations are very small, contrary to the results of simulations for sheared homogeneous compressible turbulence and to recent proposals for models for general compressible turbulent flows. This provides a possible explanation of why the Van Driest density-weighted transformation is so successful in correlating compressible boundary layer data. Finally, it is found that the DNS data do not support the strong Reynolds analogy. A more general representation of the analogy is analysed and shown to match the DNS data very well.
Compressible Turbulent Channel Flows: DNS Results and Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, P. G.; Coleman, G. N.; Bradshaw, P.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
The present paper addresses some topical issues in modeling compressible turbulent shear flows. The work is based on direct numerical simulation of two supersonic fully developed channel flows between very cold isothermal walls. Detailed decomposition and analysis of terms appearing in the momentum and energy equations are presented. The simulation results are used to provide insights into differences between conventional time-and Favre-averaging of the mean-flow and turbulent quantities. Study of the turbulence energy budget for the two cases shows that the compressibility effects due to turbulent density and pressure fluctuations are insignificant. In particular, the dilatational dissipation and the mean product of the pressure and dilatation fluctuations are very small, contrary to the results of simulations for sheared homogeneous compressible turbulence and to recent proposals for models for general compressible turbulent flows. This provides a possible explanation of why the Van Driest density-weighted transformation is so successful in correlating compressible boundary layer data. Finally, it is found that the DNS data do not support the strong Reynolds analogy. A more general representation of the analogy is analysed and shown to match the DNS data very well.
Compressibility effects on the flow past a rotating cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teymourtash, A. R.; Salimipour, S. E.
2017-01-01
In this paper, laminar flow past a rotating circular cylinder placed in a compressible uniform stream is investigated via a two-dimensional numerical simulation and the compressibility effects due to the combination of the free-stream and cylinder rotation on the flow pattern such as forming, shedding, and removing of vortices and also the lift and drag coefficients are studied. The numerical simulation of the flow is based on the discretization of convective fluxes of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations by second-order Roe's scheme and an explicit finite volume method. Because of the importance of the time dependent parameters in the solution, the second-order time accurate is applied by a dual time stepping approach. In order to validate the operation of a computer program, some results are compared with previous experimental and numerical data. The results of this study show that the effects due to flow compressibility such as normal shock wave caused the interesting variations on the flow around the cylinder even at a free-stream with a low Mach number. At incompressible flow around the rotating cylinder, increasing the speed ratio, α (ratio of the surface speed to free-stream velocity), causes the ongoing increase in the lift coefficient, but in compressible flow for each free-stream Mach number, increasing the speed ratio results in obtaining a limited lift coefficient (a maximum mean lift coefficient). In addition, results from the compressible flow indicate that by increasing the free-stream Mach number, the maximum mean lift coefficient is decreased, while the mean drag coefficient is increased. It is also found that by increasing the Reynolds number at low Mach numbers, the maximum mean lift coefficient and critical speed ratio are decreased and the mean drag coefficient and Strouhal number are increased. However at the higher Mach numbers, these parameters become independent of the Reynolds number.
Simulation of Inviscid Compressible Multi-Phase Flow with Condensation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelleners, Philip
2003-01-01
Condensation of vapours in rapid expansions of compressible gases is investigated. In the case of high temperature gradients the condensation will start at conditions well away from thermodynamic equilibrium of the fluid. In those cases homogeneous condensation is dominant over heterogeneous condensation. The present work is concerned with development of a simulation tool for computation of high speed compressible flows with homogeneous condensation. The resulting ow solver should preferably be accurate and robust to be used for simulation of industrial flows in general geometries.
Transition region modeling for compressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, C.-L.; Singer, B. A.; Dinavahi, S. P. G.; El-Hady, N. M.; Pruett, C. D.; Harris, J. E.; Streett, C. L.; Zang, T. A.; Wilcox, D. C.
1992-01-01
The ongoing effort at NASA Langley Research Center aimed at developing transitional zone models for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculations is described. Results from three models that we have examined - two zero-equation models and a two-equation model of the k-omega type - are presented for high-speed flows. The use of analytical and computational tools to provide guidance and to provide the transitional flow-field data bases necessary to develop such models is discussed. Some results from validation of these tools are given; qualitative comparisons between modeled and theoretical/computational representations of the transitional zone are provided.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dixon, G. V.; Barringer, S. R.; Gray, C. E.; Leatherman, A. D.
1975-01-01
Computer programs and resulting tabulations are presented of pipeline length-to-diameter ratios as a function of Mach number and pressure ratios for compressible flow. The tabulations are applicable to air, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen for compressible isothermal flow with friction and compressible adiabatic flow with friction. Also included are equations for the determination of weight flow. The tabulations presented cover a wider range of Mach numbers for choked, adiabatic flow than available from commonly used engineering literature. Additional information presented, but which is not available from this literature, is unchoked, adiabatic flow over a wide range of Mach numbers, and choked and unchoked, isothermal flow for a wide range of Mach numbers.
Compressible Flow About Wind Turbine Blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dulikravich, D. S.
1983-01-01
WIND program numerically solves exact full-potential equation for three dimensional, stead inviscid flow through isolated wind-turbine rotor. Proram automatically generates three dimensional, boundary-conforming grid and iteratively solves full-potential equation while fully accounting for rotating and Coriolis effects. Program written in FORTRAN IV.
Compressible Flow About Wind Turbine Blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dulikravich, D. S.
1983-01-01
WIND program numerically solves exact full-potential equation for three dimensional, stead inviscid flow through isolated wind-turbine rotor. Proram automatically generates three dimensional, boundary-conforming grid and iteratively solves full-potential equation while fully accounting for rotating and Coriolis effects. Program written in FORTRAN IV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oldenburg, C. M.; Pan, L.
2015-12-01
Although large opportunities exist for compressed air energy storage (CAES) in aquifers and depleted natural gas reservoirs, only two grid-scale CAES facilities exist worldwide, both in salt caverns. As such, experience with CAES in porous media, what we call PM-CAES, is lacking and we have relied on modeling to elucidate PM-CAES processes. PM-CAES operates similarly to cavern CAES. Specifically, working gas (air) is injected through well(s) into the reservoir compressing the cushion gas (existing air in the reservoir). During energy recovery, high-pressure air from the reservoir flows first into a recuperator, then into an expander, and subsequently is mixed with fuel in a combustion turbine to produce electricity, thereby reducing compression costs. Energy storage in porous media is complicated by the solid matrix grains which provide resistance to flow (via permeability in Darcy's law); in the cap rock, low-permeability matrix provides the seal to the reservoir. The solid grains also provide storage capacity for heat that might arise from compression, viscous flow effects, or chemical reactions. The storage of energy in PM-CAES occurs variably across pressure gradients in the formation, while the solid grains of the matrix can release/store heat. Residual liquid (i.e., formation fluids) affects flow and can cause watering out at the production well(s). PG&E is researching a potential 300 MW (for ten hours) PM-CAES facility in a depleted gas reservoir near Lodi, California. Special considerations exist for depleted natural gas reservoirs because of mixing effects which can lead to undesirable residual methane (CH4) entrainment and reactions of oxygen and CH4. One strategy for avoiding extensive mixing of working gas (air) with reservoir CH4 is to inject an initial cushion gas with reduced oxygen concentration providing a buffer between the working gas (air) and the residual CH4 gas. This reduces the potential mixing of the working air with the residual CH4
Improved fireman's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, H. A.; Morris, E. E.
1973-01-01
Prototype high pressure glass filament-wound, aluminum-lined pressurant vessels suitable for use in a fireman's compressed air breathing system were designed, fabricated, and acceptance tested in order to demonstrate the feasibility of producing such high performance, lightweight units. The 4000 psi tanks have a 60 standard cubic foot (SCF) air capacity, and have a 6.5 inch diamter, 19 inch length, 415 inch volume, weigh 13 pounds when empty, and contain 33 percent more air than the current 45 SCF (2250 psi) steel units. The current steel 60 SCF (3000 psi) tanks weigh approximately twice as much as the prototype when empty, and are 2 inches, or 10 percent shorter. The prototype units also have non-rusting aluminum interiors, which removes the hazard of corrosion, the need for internal coatings, and the possibility of rust particles clogging the breathing system.
The flow of a compressible fluid past a curved surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaplan, Carl
1943-01-01
An iteration method is employed to obtain the flow of a compressible fluid past a curved surface. The first approximation which leads to the Prandtl-Glauert rule, is based on the assumption that the flow differs but little from a pure translation. The iteration process then consists in improving this first approximation in order that it will apply to a flow differing from pure translatory motion to a greater degree. The method fails when the Mach number of the undisturbed stream reaches unity but permits a transition from subsonic to supersonic conditions without the appearance of a compression shock. The limiting value at which potential flow no longer exits is indicated by the apparent divergence of the power series representing the velocity of the fluid at the surface of the solid boundary.
Nonmodal Growth Of Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability In Compressible Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karimi, Mona; Girimaji, Sharath
2016-11-01
Kelvin-helmholtz instability (khi) is central to the vertical mixing in shear flows and is known to be suppressed in compressible flows. To understand the inhibition of mixing under the influence of compressibility, we analyze the linear growth of khi in the short-time limit using initial value analysis. The evolution of perturbations is studied from a nonmodal standpoint. As the underlying suppression mechanism can be understood by considering primarily linear physics, the effect of compressibility on khi is scrutinized by linear analysis. Then its inferences are verified against direct numerical simulations. It has been demonstrated that compressibility forces the dominance of dilatational, rather than shear, dynamics at the interface of two fluids of different velocities. Within the dilatiatonal interface layer, pressure waves cause the velocity perturbation to become oscillatory [karimi and girimaji, 2016]. Thereupon, the focus is to examine the effect of the initial perturbation wavenumber on the formation of this layer and eventually the degree of khi suppression in compressible flows. We demonstrate that the degree of suppression decreases with the increase the wavenumbers of the initial perturbation of dilatational, rather than shear, dynamics at the interface of two fluids of different velocities. Within the dilatiatonal interface layer, pressure waves cause the velocity perturbation to become oscillatory [karimi and girimaji, 2016]. Thereupon, the focus is to examine the effect of the initial perturbation wavenumber on the formation of this layer and eventually the degree of khi suppression in compressible flows. We demonstrate that the degree of suppression decreases with the increase the wavenumbers of the initial perturbation.
A 3-dimensional mass conserving element for compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fix, G.; Suri, M.
1985-01-01
A variety of finite element schemes has been used in the numerical approximation of compressible flows particularly in underwater acoustics. In many instances instabilities have been generated due to the lack of mass conservation. Two- and three-dimensional elements are developed which avoid these problems.
Computational methods for vortex dominated compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murman, Earll M.
1987-01-01
The principal objectives were to: understand the mechanisms by which Euler equation computations model leading edge vortex flows; understand the vortical and shock wave structures that may exist for different wing shapes, angles of incidence, and Mach numbers; and compare calculations with experiments in order to ascertain the limitations and advantages of Euler equation models. The initial approach utilized the cell centered finite volume Jameson scheme. The final calculation utilized a cell vertex finite volume method on an unstructured grid. Both methods used Runge-Kutta four stage schemes for integrating the equations. The principal findings are briefly summarized.
Investigation of compressible vortex flow characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Muirhead, V. U.
1977-01-01
The nature of intense air vortices was studied and the factors which determine the intensity and rate of decay of both single and pairs of vortices were investigated. Vortex parameters of axial pressure differential, circulation, outflow rates, separation distance and directions of rotation were varied. Unconfined vortices, generated by a single rotating cage, were intensified by an increasing axial pressure gradient. Breakdown occurred when the axial gradient became negligible. The core radius was a function of the axial gradient. Dual vortices, generated by two counterrotating cages, rotated opposite to the attached cages. With minimum spacing only one vortex was formed which rotated in a direction opposite to the attached cage. When one cage rotated at half the speed of the other cage, one vortex formed at the higher speed cage rotating in the cage direction.
Analysis of the transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jang, Jong Hoon; Faghri, Amir; Chang, Won Soon
1989-01-01
The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds and high mass flow rates are successfully predicted. The one-dimensional model also describes the vapor flow dynamics in cylindrical heat pipes at high temperatures.
Transonic injection in interaction with transverse compressible flow.
Dizene, R; Charbonnier, J M; Dorignac, E; Lablanc, R
2002-10-01
An extensive study devoted to modelling blade cooling was undertaken at CEAT a few years ago in collaboration with SNECMA. For the turbomachinery applications, an experimental configuration of a turbulent boundary layer with heat transfer was studied for compressible and incompressible flows. The research presented here is a part of that study and this paper reports on the experimental results of an investigation concerned with a row of transonic jets interacting with a transverse flow. In many applications, the cooling layer does not emerge onto the surface from a tangential slot but comes from a slot normal to or inclined to what is otherwise a flush surface. In this case the freestream interacts with the coolant flow. The secondary (jet) flow is introduced at an angle of 45 degrees to the mainstream flow direction. Visualization studies using the surface flow patterns and surface temperature flow patterns are reported and discussed.
On two-dimensional flows of compressible fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergman, Stefan
1945-01-01
This report is devoted to the study of two-dimensional steady motion of a compressible fluid. It is shown that the complete flow pattern around a closed obstacle cannot be obtained by the method of Chaplygin. In order to overcome this difficulty, a formula for the stream-function of a two-dimensional subsonic flow is derived. The formula involves an arbitrary function of a complex variable and yields all possible subsonic flow patterns of certain types. Conditions are given so that the flow pattern in the physical plane will represent a flow around a closed curve. The formula obtained can be employed for the approximate determination of a subsonic flow around an obstacle. The method can be extended to partially supersonic flows.
Analysis of the transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jang, J. H.; Faghri, A.; Chang, W. S.
1989-01-01
The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual vapor flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds and high mass flow rates are successfully predicted. The one-dimensional model also describes the vapor flow dynamics in cylindrical heat pipes at high temperatures.
Direct simulation of compressible turbulence in a shear flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarkar, S.; Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1991-01-01
Compressibility effects on the turbulence in homogeneous shear flow are investigated. The growth of the turbulent kinetic energy was found to decrease with increasing Mach number: a phenomenon which is similar to the reduction of turbulent velocity intensities observed in experiments on supersonic free shear layers. An examination of the turbulent energy budget shows that both the compressible dissipation and the pressure-dilatation contribute to the decrease in the growth of kinetic energy. The pressure-dilatation is predominantly negative in homogeneous shear flow, in contrast to its predominantly positive behavior in isotropic turbulence. The different signs of the pressure-dilatation are explained by theoretical consideration of the equations for the pressure variance and density variance. Previously, the following results were obtained for isotropic turbulence: (1) the normalized compressible dissipation is of O(M(sub t)(exp 2)); and (2) there is approximate equipartition between the kinetic and potential energies associated with the fluctuating compressible mode. Both of these results were substantiated in the case of homogeneous shear. The dilatation field is significantly more skewed and intermittent than the vorticity field. Strong compressions seem to be more likely than strong expansions.
Toward the large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Speziale, C. G.; Zang, T. A.
1990-01-01
New subgrid-scale models for the large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows are developed and tested based on the Favre-filtered equations of motion for an ideal gas. A compressible generalization of the linear combination of the Smagorinsky model and scale-similarity model, in terms of Favre-filtered fields, is obtained for the subgrid-scale stress tensor. An analogous thermal linear combination model is also developed for the subgrid-scale heat flux vector. The two dimensionless constants associated with these subgrid-scale models are obtained by correlating with the results of direct numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence performed on a 96(exp 3) grid using Fourier collocation methods. Extensive comparisons between the direct and modeled subgrid-scale fields are provided in order to validate the models. A large-eddy simulation of the decay of compressible isotropic turbulence (conducted on a coarse 32(exp 3) grid) is shown to yield results that are in excellent agreement with the fine grid direct simulation. Future applications of these compressible subgrid-scale models to the large-eddy simulation of more complex supersonic flows are discussed briefly.
Spiral small-scale structures in compressible turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez, Thomas; Politano, Hélène; Pouquet, Annick; LarchevÊque, Michèle
We extend the spiral vortex solution of Lundgren 1982 to compressible turbulent flows following a perfect gas law. Lundgren's model links the dynamical and spectral properties of incompressible flows, providing a k-5/3 Kolmogorov spectrum. A similar compressible spatio-temporal transformation is now derived, reducing the dynamics of three-dimensional (3D) vortices stretched by an axisymmetric incompressible strain into a 2D compressible vortex dynamics. It enables to write the 3D spectra of the incompressible and compressible square velocities u{s2/and u
Near-wall modelling of compressible turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
So, Ronald M. C.
1990-01-01
Work was carried out to extend the near-wall models formulated for the incompressible Reynolds stress equations to compressible flows. The idea of splitting the compressible dissipation function into a solenoidal part that is not sensitive to changes of compressibility indicators and a compressible part that is directly affected by these changes is adopted. This means that all models involving the dissipation rate could be expressed in terms of the solenoidal dissipation rate and an equation governing its transport could be formulated to close the set of compressible Reynolds stress equations. The near-wall modelling of the dissipation rate equation is investigated and its behavior near a wall is studied in detail using k-epsilon closure. It is found that all existing modelled equations give the wrong behavior for the dissipation rate near a wall. Improvements are suggested and the resultant behavior is found to be in good agreement with near-wall data. Furthermore, the present modified k-epsilon closure is used too calculate a flat plate boundary layer and the results are compared with four existing k-epsilon closures. These comparisons show that all closures tested give essentially the same flow properties, except in a region very close to the wall. In this region, the present k-epsilon closure calculations are in better agreement with measurements and direct simulation data; in particular, the behavior of the dissipation rate.
Dynamic PIV measurement of a compressible flow issuing from an airbag inflator nozzle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sang Joon; Jang, Young Gil; Kim, Seok; Kim, Chang Soo
2006-12-01
Among many equipment for passenger safety, the air bag system is the most fundamental and effective device for an automobile. The inflator housing is a main part of the curtain-type air bag system, which supplies high-pressure gases in pumping up the air bag-curtain which is increasingly being adapted in deluxe cars for protecting passengers from the danger of side clash. However, flow information on the inflator housing is very limited. In this study, we measure the instantaneous velocity fields of a high-speed compressible flow issuing from the exit nozzle of an inflator housing using a dynamic PIV system. From the velocity field data measured at a high frame-rate, we evaluate the variation of the mass flow rate with time. The dynamic PIV system consists of a high-repetition Nd:YLF laser, a high-speed CMOS camera, and a delay generator. The flow images are taken at 4000 fps with synchronization of the trigger signal for inflator ignition. From the instantaneous velocity field data of flow ejecting from the airbag inflator housing at the initial stage, we can see a flow pattern of broken shock wave front and its downward propagation. The flow ejecting from the inflator housing is found to have very high velocity fluctuations, with the maximum velocity at about 700 m/s. The time duration of the high-speed flow is very short, and there is no perceptible flow after 100 ms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinomiya, Naruaki; Nishimura, Nobuya; Iyota, Hiroyuki
Simple expressions to predict actual performance of vapor compression air-conditioners such as room air-conditioners and multi-split type air-conditioners are proposed. Coefficient of performance is expressed in these simple expressions as a function of outdoor temperature, indoor temperature, air-conditioning load rate, air flow rate of indoor unit (in case of room air-conditioners) and difference in height between indoor unit and outdoor unit (in case of multi-split type air-conditioners). Those simple expressions are obtained by neural net work analysis (Rule extraction method from facts, RF5). Actual performance of air-conditioners which are used for training data and teaching data of net work are obtained by numerical simulations developed by the authors. Calculation results of these simple expressions usually agree with experimental values of other researchers. Furthermore, amount of exhaust heat from air-conditioners calculated with these expressions are 10% or lower than traditional approach: calculated with constant value of coefficient of performance.
Compressed air energy storage technology program. Annual report for 1980
Kannberg, L.D.
1981-06-01
All of the major research funded under the Compressed Air Energy Storage Technology Program during the period March 1980 to March 1981 is described. This annual report is divided into two segments: Reservoir Stability Studies and Second-Generation Concepts Studies. The first represents research performed to establish stability criteria for CAES reservoirs while the second reports progress on research performed on second-generation CAES concepts. The report consists of project reports authored by research engineers and scientists from PNL and numerous subcontractors including universities, architect-engineering, and other private firms.
Compressed-air energy-storage technology: Program overview
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kannberg, L. D.
1981-07-01
A new technology designed to reduce the consumption of oil in the generation of electric power was developed. The program has two major elements: reservoir stability studies and second generation concepts studies. The reservoir stability studies are aimed at developing stability criteria for long term operation of large underground reservoirs used for compressed air storage. The second generation concepts studies are aimed at developing new concepts that will require little or no petroleum fuels for operation. The program efforts are outlined and major accomplishments towards the objectives of the program are identified.
Lehigh Southwest Cement Company: Compressed Air System Improvement Saves Energy
2003-10-01
In 2001, Lehigh Southwest Cement Company improved the compressed air system at its cement plant in Tehachapi, California. Consequently, the system was able to operate more efficiently with less compressor capacity and at a lower system pressure. The project yielded total annual savings of 895,000 kWh and $199,000. The initial project cost was $417,000, but Southern California Edison provided a $90,000 incentive payment to reduce the cost to $327,000. Simple payback was about 20 months.
Computer aided optimal design of compressed air energy storage systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahrens, F. W.; Sharma, A.; Ragsdell, K. M.
1980-07-01
An automated procedure for the design of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems is presented. The procedure relies upon modern nonlinear programming algorithms, decomposition theory, and numerical models of the various system components. Two modern optimization methods are employed; BIAS, a Method of Multipliers code and OPT, a Generalized Reduced Gradient code. The procedure is demonstrated by the design of a CAES facility employing the Media, Illinois Galesville aquifer as the reservoir. The methods employed produced significant reduction in capital and operating cost, and in number of aquifer wells required.
Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage
Davidson, C L; Bearden, Mark D; Horner, Jacob A; Appriou, Delphine; McGrail, B Peter
2015-12-01
Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure
Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage
Davidson, Casie L.; Bearden, Mark D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Cabe, James E.; Appriou, Delphine; McGrail, B. Peter
2015-12-20
Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure
Assessment of chemistry models for compressible reacting flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lapointe, Simon; Blanquart, Guillaume
2014-11-01
Recent technological advances in propulsion and power devices and renewed interest in the development of next generation supersonic and hypersonic vehicles have increased the need for detailed understanding of turbulence-combustion interactions in compressible reacting flows. In numerical simulations of such flows, accurate modeling of the fuel chemistry is a critical component of capturing the relevant physics. Various chemical models are currently being used in reacting flow simulations. However, the differences between these models and their impacts on the fluid dynamics in the context of compressible flows are not well understood. In the present work, a numerical code is developed to solve the fully coupled compressible conservation equations for reacting flows. The finite volume code is based on the theoretical and numerical framework developed by Oefelein (Prog. Aero. Sci. 42 (2006) 2-37) and employs an all-Mach-number formulation with dual time-stepping and preconditioning. The numerical approach is tested on turbulent premixed flames at high Karlovitz numbers. Different chemical models of varying complexity and computational cost are used and their effects are compared.
Thermodynamical effects and high resolution methods for compressible fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jiequan; Wang, Yue
2017-08-01
One of the fundamental differences of compressible fluid flows from incompressible fluid flows is the involvement of thermodynamics. This difference should be manifested in the design of numerical schemes. Unfortunately, the role of entropy, expressing irreversibility, is often neglected even though the entropy inequality, as a conceptual derivative, is verified for some first order schemes. In this paper, we refine the GRP solver to illustrate how the thermodynamical variation is integrated into the design of high resolution methods for compressible fluid flows and demonstrate numerically the importance of thermodynamic effects in the resolution of strong waves. As a by-product, we show that the GRP solver works for generic equations of state, and is independent of technical arguments.
A skin friction law for compressible turbulent flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnwell, Richard W.; Wahls, Richard A.
1989-01-01
An algebraic skin friction law is derived for adiabatic, compressible, equilibrium, turbulent boundary layer flow. An outer solution in terms of the Clauser defect stream function is matched to an inner empirical expression composed of compressible laws of the wall and wake. The modified Crocco temperature-velocity relationship and the Clauser eddy viscousity model are used in the outer solution. The skin friction law pertains for all pressure gradients in the incompressible through supersonic range and for small pressure gradients in the hypersonic range. Excellent comparisons with experiment are obtained in the appropriate parameter ranges. The application to numerical computation is discussed.
Compressibility Corrections to Closure Approximations for Turbulent Flow Simulations
Cloutman, L D
2003-02-01
We summarize some modifications to the usual closure approximations for statistical models of turbulence that are necessary for use with compressible fluids at all Mach numbers. We concentrate here on the gradient-flu approximation for the turbulent heat flux, on the buoyancy production of turbulence kinetic energy, and on a modification of the Smagorinsky model to include buoyancy. In all cases, there are pressure gradient terms that do not appear in the incompressible models and are usually omitted in compressible-flow models. Omission of these terms allows unphysical rates of entropy change.
Skin blood flow with elastic compressive extravehicular activity space suit.
Tanaka, Kunihiko; Gotoh, Taro M; Morita, Hironobu; Hargens, Alan R
2003-10-01
During extravehicular activity (EVA), current space suits are pressurized with 100% oxygen at approximately 222 mmHg. A tight elastic garment, or mechanical counter pressure (MCP) suit that generates pressure by compression, may have several advantages over current space suit technology. In this study, we investigated local microcirculatory effects produced with negative ambient pressure with an MCP sleeve. The MCP glove and sleeve generated pressures similar to the current space suit. MCP remained constant during negative pressure due to unchanged elasticity of the material. Decreased skin capillary blood flow and temperature during MCP compression was counteracted by greater negative pressure or a smaller pressure differential.
Linear stability of compressible Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Chow, Chuen-Yen
1992-01-01
A temporal stability analysis of compressible Taylor-Couette flow is presented. The viscous flow studied in this paper is contained between two concentric cylinders of infinite length, which are rotating with different angular velocities and are kept at different surface temperatures. The effects of differential rotation and temperature difference on the stability of Taylor-Couette flow are contrasted for a range of Mach numbers ranging from incompressible to Mach 3.0. The relative motion of the cylinders dramatically affects the characteristics of the Couette flow at the onset of instability. The flow is stabilized or destabilized depending upon the temperature ratio and speeds of the two cylinders. Independent of Mach number and temperature ratio, increasing Reynolds number generally promotes a destabilizing effect, indicating the inviscid nature of the Taylor-Couette flow.
Linear stability of compressible Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Chow, Chuen-Yen
1992-01-01
A temporal stability analysis of compressible Taylor-Couette flow is presented. The viscous flow studied in this paper is contained between two concentric cylinders of infinite length, which are rotating with different angular velocities and are kept at different surface temperatures. The effects of differential rotation and temperature difference on the stability of Taylor-Couette flow are contrasted for a range of Mach numbers ranging from incompressible to Mach 3.0. The relative motion of the cylinders dramatically affects the characteristics of the Couette flow at the onset of instability. The flow is stabilized or destabilized depending upon the temperature ratio and speeds of the two cylinders. Independent of Mach number and temperature ratio, increasing Reynolds number generally promotes a destabilizing effect, indicating the inviscid nature of the Taylor-Couette flow.
Coexisting attractors in compressible Rayleigh-Bénard flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castillo, V. M.; Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, C. G.
1997-05-01
We demonstrate that precise solutions of the convective flow equations for a compressible conducting viscous fluid can give degenerate stationary states. That is, two or more completely different stable flows can result for fixed stationary boundary conditions. We characterize these complex flows with finite-difference, smooth-particle methods, and high-order implicit methods. The fluids treated here are viscous conducting gases, enclosed by thermal boundaries in a gravitational field-the ``Rayleigh-Bénard problem.'' Degenerate solutions occur in both two- and three-dimensional simulations. This coexistence of solutions is a macroscopic manifestation of the strange attractors seen in atomistic systems far from equilibrium.
Compressed air energy storage technology program. Annual report for 1979
Loscutoff, W.V.
1980-06-01
The objectives of the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) program are to establish stability criteria for large underground reservoirs in salt domes, hard rock, and porous rock used for air storage in utility applications, and to develop second-generation CAES technologies that have minimal or no dependence on petroleum fuels. During the year reported reports have been issued on field studies on CAES on aquifers and in salt, stability, and design criteria for CAES and for pumped hydro-storage caverns, laboratory studies of CAES in porous rock reservoris have continued. Research has continued on combined CAES/Thermal Energy Storage, CAES/Solar systems, coal-fired fluidized bed combustors for CAES, and two-reservoir advanced CAES concepts. (LCL)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prandtl, L
1926-01-01
The researches at the Gottingen Institute are discussed especially in regards to the physical properties of fluids. The three main properties of fluids examined concern density, viscosity, and compressibility.
Finite element solver for 3-D compressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, K. C.; Reddy, J. N.
1986-01-01
The space shuttle main engine (SSME) has extremely complex internal flow structure. The geometry of the flow domain is three-dimensional with complicated topology. The flow is compressible, viscous, and turbulent with large gradients in flow quantities and regions of recirculations. The analysis of the flow field in SSME involves several tedious steps. One is the geometrical modeling of the particular zone of the SSME being studied. Accessing the geometry definition, digitalizing it, and developing surface interpolations suitable for an interior grid generator require considerable amount of manual labor. There are several types of grid generators available with some general-purpose finite element programs. An efficient and robust computational scheme for solving 3D Navier-Stokes equations has to be implemented. Post processing software has to be adapted to visualize and analyze the computed 3D flow field. The progress made in a project to develop software for the analysis of the flow is discussed. The technical approach to the development of the finite element scheme and the relaxation procedure are discussed. The three dimensional finite element code for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is listed.
Carbon and energy saving markets in compressed air
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cipollone, R.
2015-08-01
CO2 reduction and fossil fuel saving represent two of the cornerstones of the environmental commitments of all the countries of the world. The first engagement is of a medium to long term type, and unequivocally calls for a new energetic era. The second delays in time the fossil fuel technologies to favour an energetic transition. In order to sustain the two efforts, new immaterial markets have been established in almost all the countries of the world, whose exchanges (purchases and sales) concern CO2 emissions and equivalent fossil fuels that have not been emitted or burned. This paper goes deep inside two aspects not yet exploited: specific CO2 emissions and equivalent fossil fuel burned, as a function of compressed air produced. Reference is made to the current compressor technology, carefully analysing CAGI's (Compressed Air Gas Institute) data and integrating it with the PNUEROP (European Association of manufacturers of compressors, vacuum pumps, pneumatic tools and allied equipment) contribution on the compressor European market. On the base of energy saving estimates that could be put in place, this article also estimates the financial value of the CO2 emissions and fossil fuels avoided.
Evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge(R) Training Program (Executive Summary)
Not Available
2004-03-01
The final report of the evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge (CAC) Training Program. The training program is designed to provide plant personnel and compressed air system vendors with knowledge and tools required to effect improvements to the energy efficiency and overall performance of plant compressed air systems. As of May 2001, 3,029 individuals had attended the CAC Fundamentals of Compressed Air Training Systems and 925 individuals had attended ''Advanced Management of Compressed Air Systems''. These individuals represented 1,400-1,500 separate business establishments. The evaluation is based on three main research tasks: analysis of the CAC registration database, interviews with 100 end-user personnel who attended the CAC training, and interviews with 100 compressed air system vendors and consulting engineers who attended the training sessions.
LAMINAR TRANSITIONAL AND TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS FOR COMPRESSIBLE AXISYMMETRIC FLOW
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albers, J. A.
1994-01-01
This is a finite-difference program for calculating the viscous compressible boundary layer flow over either planar or axisymmetric surfaces. The flow may be initially laminar and progress through a transitional zone to a fully turbulent flow, or it may remain laminar, depending on the imposed boundary conditions, laws of viscosity, and numerical solution of the momentum and energy equations. The flow may also be forced into a turbulent flow at a chosen spot by the data input. The input may contain factors of arbitrary Reynolds number, free-stream Mach number, free stream turbulence, wall heating or cooling, longitudinal wall curvature, wall suction or blowing, and wall roughness. The solution may start from an initial Falkner-Skan similarity profile, an approximate equilibrium turbulent profile, or an initial arbitrary input profile. This program has been implemented on the IBM 7094/7044 Direct Couple System. This program is written in FORTRAN IV and was developed in 1974.
LAMINAR TRANSITIONAL AND TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS FOR COMPRESSIBLE AXISYMMETRIC FLOW
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albers, J. A.
1994-01-01
This is a finite-difference program for calculating the viscous compressible boundary layer flow over either planar or axisymmetric surfaces. The flow may be initially laminar and progress through a transitional zone to a fully turbulent flow, or it may remain laminar, depending on the imposed boundary conditions, laws of viscosity, and numerical solution of the momentum and energy equations. The flow may also be forced into a turbulent flow at a chosen spot by the data input. The input may contain factors of arbitrary Reynolds number, free-stream Mach number, free stream turbulence, wall heating or cooling, longitudinal wall curvature, wall suction or blowing, and wall roughness. The solution may start from an initial Falkner-Skan similarity profile, an approximate equilibrium turbulent profile, or an initial arbitrary input profile. This program has been implemented on the IBM 7094/7044 Direct Couple System. This program is written in FORTRAN IV and was developed in 1974.
Analytical modeling of a hydraulically-compensated compressed-air energy-storage system
McMonagle, C.A.; Rowe, D.S.
1982-12-01
A computer program was developed to calculate the dynamic response of a hydraulically-compensated compressed air energy storage (CAES) system, including the compressor, air pipe, cavern, and hydraulic compensation pipe. The model is theoretically based on the two-fluid model in which the dynamics of each phase are presented by its set of conservation equations for mass and momentum. The conservation equations define the space and time distribution of pressure, void fraction, air saturation, and phase velocities. The phases are coupled by two interface equations. The first defines the rate of generation (or dissolution) of gaseous air in water and can include the effects of supersaturation. The second defines the frictional shear coupling (drag) between the gaseous air and water as they move relative to each other. The relative motion of the air and water is, therefore, calculated and not specified by a slip or drift-velocity correlation. The total CASE system is represented by a nodal arrangement. The conservation equations are written for each nodal volume and are solved numerically. System boundary conditions include the air flow rate, atmospheric pressure at the top of the compensation pipe, and air saturation in the reservoir. Initial conditions are selected for velocity and air saturation. Uniform and constant temperature (60/sup 0/F) is assumed. The analytical model was used to investigate the dynamic response of a proposed system.Investigative calculations considered high and low water levels, and a variety of charging and operating conditions. For all cases investigated, the cavern response to air-charging, was a damped oscillation of pressure and flow. Detailed results are presented. These calculations indicate that the Champagne Effect is unlikely to cause blowout for a properly designed CAES system.
Combustion in High Speed Air Flows.
1982-05-01
objective is the analysis of reacting multiphase flows in advanced air-breathing propulsion systems. This work involves the formulation and evaluation...of new theoretical descriptions of multiphase turbulent mixing and chemical kinetic phenomena in subsonic and supersonic air flows , and the gen...area involves the development of analyti- cal models of the phenomena occurring in the multiphase turbulent reacting flows involved in spray flame
Conjugate Compressible Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cross, M. F.
2011-01-01
A computational approach to modeling transient, compressible fluid flow with heat transfer in long, narrow ducts is presented. The primary application of the model is for analyzing fluid flow and heat transfer in solid propellant rocket motor nozzle joints during motor start-up, but the approach is relevant to a wide range of analyses involving rapid pressurization and filling of ducts. Fluid flow is modeled through solution of the spatially one-dimensional, transient Euler equations. Source terms are included in the governing equations to account for the effects of wall friction and heat transfer. The equation solver is fully-implicit, thus providing greater flexibility than an explicit solver. This approach allows for resolution of pressure wave effects on the flow as well as for fast calculation of the steady-state solution when a quasi-steady approach is sufficient. Solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations with source terms significantly reduces computational run times compared to general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages solving the Navier-Stokes equations with resolved boundary layers. In addition, conjugate heat transfer is more readily implemented using the approach described in this paper than with most general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages. The compressible flow code has been integrated with a transient heat transfer solver to analyze heat transfer between the fluid and surrounding structure. Conjugate fluid flow and heat transfer solutions are presented. The author is unaware of any previous work available in the open literature which uses the same approach described in this paper.
Unsteady compressible flows in channel with varying walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pořízková, P.; Kozel, K.; Horáček, J.
2014-03-01
This study deals with numerical solution of a 2D and 3D unsteady flows of a compressible viscous fluid in 2D and 3D channel for low inlet airflow velocity. The unsteadiness of the flow is caused by a prescribed periodic motion of a part of the channel wall, nearly closing the channel during oscillations. The channels shape is a simplified geometry of the glottal space in the human vocal tract. Goal is numerical simulation of flow in the channels which involves attributes of real flow causing acoustic perturbations. The system of Navier-Stokes equations closed with static pressure expression for ideal gas describes the unsteady laminar flow of compressible viscous fluid. The numerical solution is implemented using the finite volume method and the predictor-corrector MacCormack scheme with artificial viscosity using a grid of quadrilateral cells. The unsteady grid of quadrilateral cells is considered in the form of conservation laws using Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method. The application of developed method for numerical simulations of flow fields in the 2D and 3D channels, acquired from a developed program, are presented for inlet velocity u=4.12 m/s, inlet Reynolds number Re=4481 and the wall motion frequency 100 Hz.
Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry v3
Ron Marshall, William Scales, Gary Shafer, Paul Shaw, Paul Sheaffer, Rick Stasyshan, H.P.
2016-03-01
This sourcebook is designed to provide compressed air system users with a reference that outlines opportunities for system performance improvements. It is not intended to be a comprehensive technical text on improving compressed air systems, but rather a document that makes compressed air system users aware of the performance improvement potential, details some of the significant opportunities, and directs users to additional sources of assistance.
Two Phase Compressible Flow Fields in One Dimensional and Eulerian Grid Framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sungsu; Park, Chan Wook
2008-11-01
Numerical investigation for two phase compressible flow fields of air-water in one dimensional tube are performed in the fixed Eulerian grid framework. Using an equation of states of Tait's type for a multiphase cell, the two phase compressible flow is modeled as equivalent single phase which is discretized using the Roe`s approximate Riemann solver, while the phase interface is captured via volume fractions of each phase. The most common problem found in the computational approaches in compressible multiphase flow is occurrence of the pressure oscillation at the phase interface. In order to suppress that phenomenon, tried are two approaches; a passive advection of volume fraction and a direct pressure relaxation with the compressible form of volume fraction equation. The results show that the direct pressure equalizing method suppresses pressure oscillation successfully and generates sharp discontinuities, transmitting and reflecting acoustic waves naturally at the phase interface. This work was supported by a research fund granted from Agency for Defense Development, South Korea
Tollmien-Schlichting/vortex interactions in compressible boundary layer flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blackaby, Nicholas D.
1993-01-01
The weakly nonlinear interaction of oblique Tollmien-Schlichting waves and longitudinal vortices in compressible, high Reynolds number, boundary-layer flow over a flat plate is considered for all ranges of the Mach number. The interaction equations comprise of equations for the vortex which is indirectly forced by the waves via a boundary condition, whereas a vortex term appears in the amplitude equation for the wave pressure. The downstream solution properties of interaction equations are found to depend on the sign of an interaction coefficient. Compressibility is found to have a significant effect on the interaction properties; principally through its impact on the waves and their governing mechanism, the triple-deck structure. It is found that, in general, the flow quantities will grow slowly with increasing downstream co-ordinate; i.e. in general, solutions do not terminate in abrupt, finite-distance 'break-ups'.
A multiple-scale model for compressible turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, William W.; Shih, Tsan-Hsing
1993-01-01
A multiple-scale model for compressible turbulent flows is proposed. It is assumed that turbulent eddy shocklets are formed primarily by the 'collisions' of large energetic eddies. The extra straining of the large eddy, due to their interactions with shocklets, enhances the energy cascade to smaller eddies. Model transport equations are developed for the turbulent kinetic energies and the energy transfer rates of the different scale. The turbulent eddy viscosity is determined by the total turbulent kinetic energy and the rate of energy transfer from the large scale to the small scale, which is different from the energy dissipation rate. The model coefficients in the modeled turbulent transport equations depend on the ratio of the turbulent kinetic energy of the large scale to that of the small scale, which renders the model more adaptive to the characteristics of individual flow. The model is tested against compressible free shear layers. The results agree satisfactorily with measurements.
High speed inviscid compressible flow by the finite element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zienkiewicz, O. C.; Loehner, R.; Morgan, K.
1984-01-01
The finite element method and an explicit time stepping algorithm which is based on Taylor-Galerkin schemes with an appropriate artificial viscosity is combined with an automatic mesh refinement process which is designed to produce accurate steady state solutions to problems of inviscid compressible flow in two dimensions. The results of two test problems are included which demonstrate the excellent performance characteristics of the proposed procedures.
Erikson, R.L.
1983-12-01
The long-term stability of a sandstone reservoir is of primary importance to the success of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in aquifers. The purpose of this study was to: develop experimental techniques for the operation of the CAES Porous Media Flow Loop (PMFL), an apparatus designed to study the stability of porous media in subsurface geologic environments, conduct experiments in the PMFL designed to determine the effects of temperature, stress, and humidity on the stability of candidate CAES reservoir materials, provide support for the CAES field demonstration project in Pittsfield, Illinois, by characterizing the thermophysical stability of Pittsfield reservoir sandstone under simulated field conditions.
Quasi-explicit algebraic turbulence closures for compressible reacting flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adumitroaie, Virgil
A consistent and complete set of quasi-explicit algebraic closures for turbulent reacting flows is proposed as approximate solutions to the full second order moment equations. Quasi-explicit algebraic scalar flux models that are valid for three-dimensional turbulent flows are derived from a hierarchy of second-order moment closures. The mathematical procedure is based on the Cayley-Hamilton theorem and is an extension of the scheme developed by Taulbee (1992). Several closures for the pressure-scalar gradient correlations are considered and explicit algebraic relations are provided for the velocity-scalar correlations in both non-reacting and reacting flows. In the latter, the role of the Damkohler number is exhibited in isothermal turbulent flows with nonpremixed reactants. The relationship between these closures and traditional models based on the linear gradient diffusion approximation is theoretically established. The results of model predictions are assessed via comparison with available laboratory data in turbulent jet flows. The development of the quasi-explicit algebraic models for Reynolds stresses, temperature fluxes and reacting scalar fluxes is extended to high-speed turbulent reacting flows under a density weighted average formalism. New closures are proposed for the pressure-strain and the pressure-scalar gradient correlations. These accommodate compressibility corrections subject to the magnitude of the turbulent Mach number, the density gradient, the pressure gradient and the mean dilatation effects. Non-reacting and reacting flows with heat release are considered. In the latter, a second-order irreversible chemical reactions in turbulent flows with initially segregated reactants is considered. The models are tested in simple compressible free-shear flows. Comparisons are made between the full second order moment computations and the algebraic closure predictions. For a mixing layer, experimental data are used to validate the predicted results.
Compressed breathing air - the potential for evil from within.
Millar, Ian L; Mouldey, Peter G
2008-06-01
Human underwater activities rely on an adequate supply of breathable compressed gas, usually air, free from contaminants that could cause incapacitation underwater or post-dive or longer-term health effects. Potentially fatal but well-known hazards are hypoxia secondary to steel cylinder corrosion and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning due to contaminated intake air. Another phenomenon may be behind some previously unexplained episodes of underwater incapacitation and perhaps death: low-level CO poisoning and/or the effects of gaseous contaminants generated within the compressor, including toluene and other volatile compounds. Many low molecular weight volatile contaminants are anaesthetic and will be potentiated by pressure and nitrogen narcosis. In sub-anaesthetic doses, impaired judgement, lowered seizure threshold and sensitisation of the heart to arrhythmias may occur. Toxic compounds can be volatilised from some compressor oils, especially mineral oils, in overheated compressors, or be created de novo under certain combinations of temperature, humidity and pressure, perhaps catalysed by metal traces from compressor wear and tear. Most volatiles can be removed by activated carbon filtration but many filters are undersized and may overload in hot, moist conditions and with short dwell times. A compressor that passes normal testing could contaminate one or more cylinders after heating up and then return to producing clean air as the filters dry and the systems cool. The scope of this problem is very unclear as air quality is tested infrequently and often inadequately, even after fatalities. More research is needed as well as better education regarding the safe operation and limitations of high-pressure breathing air compressors.
Investigation of Compressibility Effect for Aeropropulsive Shear Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balasubramanyam, M. S.; Chen, C. P.
2005-01-01
Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engines operate within a wide range of Mach numbers and altitudes. Fundamental fluid dynamic mechanisms involve complex choking, mass entrainment, stream mixing and wall interactions. The Propulsion Research Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville is involved in an on- going experimental and numerical modeling study of non-axisymmetric ejector-based combined cycle propulsion systems. This paper attempts to address the modeling issues related to mixing, shear layer/wall interaction in a supersonic Strutjet/ejector flow field. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solutions incorporating turbulence models are sought and compared to experimental measurements to characterize detailed flow dynamics. The effect of compressibility on fluids mixing and wall interactions were investigated using an existing CFD methodology. The compressibility correction to conventional incompressible two- equation models is found to be necessary for the supersonic mixing aspect of the ejector flows based on 2-D simulation results. 3-D strut-base flows involving flow separations were also investigated.
Compressive high speed flow microscopy with motion contrast (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bosworth, Bryan; Stroud, Jasper R.; Tran, Dung N.; Tran, Trac D.; Chin, Sang; Foster, Mark A.
2016-03-01
High-speed continuous imaging systems are constrained by analog-to-digital conversion, storage, and transmission. However, real video signals of objects such as microscopic cells and particles require only a few percent or less of the full video bandwidth for high fidelity representation by modern compression algorithms. Compressed Sensing (CS) is a recent influential paradigm in signal processing that builds real-time compression into the acquisition step by computing inner products between the signal of interest and known random waveforms and then applying a nonlinear reconstruction algorithm. Here, we extend the continuous high-rate photonically-enabled compressed sensing (CHiRP-CS) framework to acquire motion contrast video of microscopic flowing objects. We employ chirp processing in optical fiber and high-speed electro-optic modulation to produce ultrashort pulses each with a unique pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) spectral pattern with 325 features per pulse at the full laser repetition rate (90 MHz). These PRBS-patterned pulses serve as random structured illumination inside a one-dimensional (1D) spatial disperser. By multiplexing the PRBS patterns with a user-defined repetition period, the difference signal y_i=&phi_i (x_i - x_{i-tau}) can be computed optically with balanced detection, where x is the image signal, phi_i is the PRBS pattern, and tau is the repetition period of the patterns. Two-dimensional (2D) image reconstruction via iterative alternating minimization to find the best locally-sparse representation yields an image of the edges in the flow direction, corresponding to the spatial and temporal 1D derivative. This provides both a favorable representation for image segmentation and a sparser representation for many objects that can improve image compression.
Compressibility Effects on the Growth and Structure of Homogeneous Turbulent Shear Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blaisdell, G. A.; Mansour, N. N.; Reynolds, W. C.
1993-01-01
Compressibility effects within decaying isotropic turbulence and homogeneous turbulent shear flow have been studied using direct numerical simulation. The objective of this work is to increase our understanding of compressible turbulence and to aid the development of turbulence models for compressible flows. The numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence show that compressibility effects are highly dependent on the initial conditions. The shear flow simulations, on the other hand, show that measures of compressibility evolve to become independent of their initial values and are parameterized by the root mean square Mach number. The growth rate of the turbulence in compressible homogeneous shear flow is reduced compared to that in the incompressible case. The reduced growth rate is the result of an increase in the dissipation rate and energy transfer to internal energy by the pressure-dilatation correlation. Examination of the structure of compressible homogeneous shear flow reveals the presence of eddy shocklets, which are important for the increased dissipation rate of compressible turbulence.
Compressed-air energy storage: Pittsfield aquifer field test
Bui, H.V.; Herzog, R.A.; Jacewicz, D.M.; Lange, G.R.; Scarpace, E.R.; Thomas, H.H. )
1990-02-01
This report documents the results of a comprehensive investigation into the practical feasibility for Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) in Porous Media. Natural gas porous media storage technology developed from seventy years of experience by the natural gas storage industry is applied to the investigation of CAES in porous media. A major objective of this investigation is the geologic characterization, deliverability prediction, and operations analysis of the Pittsfield CAES aquifer experiment, conducted in Pike County, Illinois during 1981--85 under EPRI/DOE sponsorship. Emphasis has been placed on applying accepted petroleum engineering concepts to the study of deliverability and on the characterization and quantification of oxygen losses which reportedly occurred at Pittsfield. Other objectives are to apply the natural gas underground storage technology and approach to a general study of CAES feasibility in porous media reservoirs, with emphasis on the practical risks and constraints of air storage in aquifer and depleted natural gas reservoirs, the effects of water on CAES operation, corrosion effects, and a review of air dehydration options.
On the linear stability of compressible plane Couette flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duck, Peter W.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Yousuff
1991-01-01
The linear stability of compressible plane Couette flow is investigated. The correct and proper basic velocity and temperature distributions are perturbed by a small amplitude normal mode disturbance. The full small amplitude disturbance equations are solved numerically at finite Reynolds numbers, and the inviscid limit of these equations is then investigated in some detail. It is found that instability can occur, although the stability characteristics of the flow are quite different from unbounded flows. The effects of viscosity are also calculated, asymptotically, and shown to have a stabilizing role in all the cases investigated. Exceptional regimes to the problem occur when the wavespeed of the disturbances approaches the velocity of either of the walls, and these regimes are also analyzed in some detail. Finally, the effect of imposing radiation-type boundary conditions on the upper (moving) wall (in place of impermeability) is investigated, and shown to yield results common to both bounded and unbounded flows.
A clean air continuous flow propulsion facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krauss, R. H.; Mcdaniel, J. C., Jr.
1992-01-01
Consideration is given to a contaminant-free, high enthalpy, continuous flow facility designed to obtain detailed code validation measurements of high speed combustion. The facility encompasses uncontaminated air temperature control to within 5 K, fuel temperature control to 2 K, a ceramic flow straightener, drying of inlet air, and steady state continuous operation. The air heating method provides potential for independent control of contaminant level by injection, mixing, and heating upstream. Particular attention is given to extension of current capability of 1250 K total air temperature, which simulates Scramjet enthalpy at Mach 5.
A clean air continuous flow propulsion facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krauss, R. H.; Mcdaniel, J. C., Jr.
1992-01-01
Consideration is given to a contaminant-free, high enthalpy, continuous flow facility designed to obtain detailed code validation measurements of high speed combustion. The facility encompasses uncontaminated air temperature control to within 5 K, fuel temperature control to 2 K, a ceramic flow straightener, drying of inlet air, and steady state continuous operation. The air heating method provides potential for independent control of contaminant level by injection, mixing, and heating upstream. Particular attention is given to extension of current capability of 1250 K total air temperature, which simulates Scramjet enthalpy at Mach 5.
Two-dimensional compressible flow in turbomachines with conic flow surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stanitz, John D
1949-01-01
A general method of analysis is developed for two-dimensional, steady, compressible flow in stators or rotors of radial and mixed flow turbomachines with conic flow surfaces (surfaces of right circular cones generated by center line of flow passage in the axial-radial plane). The variables taken into account are: (1) tip speed of the rotor, (2) flow rate, (3) blade shape, (4) variation in passage height with radius, (5) number of blades, and (6) cone angle of the flow surface. Relaxation methods are used to solve the nonlinear differential equation for the stream function. Two numerical examples are presented; one for compressible and the other for incompressible flow in a centrifugal compressor with thin, straight blades. The results of these examples are given by plots of the streamlines, constant velocity-ratio lines, and constant pressure-ratio line.
Tada, Shigeru; Yoshida, Hideo; Echigo, Ryozo; Oishi, Yasushi
1999-07-01
In this paper, a numerical analysis was performed to gain the detailed features of the thermo-fluidal behavior of the air inside the cavern for the compressed air storage gas turbine (CAES-G/T). The CAES-G/T, a peak shave power plant is now on the installation in Japan, where energy is stored in off peak period by compressed air in an underground cavern at pressure up to 80 atm abs. In the present work, an analytical model based on the two-dimensional laminar flow on the cross-section of the circular cavern was developed to quantify the effect of the transient process occurring in the cavern and wall during injection, storage and release of compressed air in the experimental circular cavern. the air was introduced until the required pressure inside the cavern is reached, then it was released outside after the storage period. It was found that the stratified temperature distribution was maintained in the cavern during compression and expansion periods. The wall temperature varied together with the variation of the air temperature with time, leading to the heat storage in the wall.
Recent Research in Compression Refrigeration Cycle Air Source Heat Pumps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arai, Akira; Senshu, Takao
The most important theme for heat pump air conditioners is the improvement of energy saving and comfort. Recently, cycle components, especially compressores and heat exchangers have been improved greatly in their performance and efficiency. As for compressors, large progress in their efficiencies have been made by detailed analysises such as mechanical losses and by the development of a new type compression mechanism. As for heat exchangers, various high heat transfer surfaces have been developed together with the improvement of the production technologies for them. Further, the effect of the capacity-modulated cycle is evaluated quantitatively through the improvements of static and transient cycle simulation technologies. And in order to realize this cffect, the electrically driven expansion valves heve been marketed. This review introduces the trends of these energy-saving technologies as well as comfort improvement studies.
Viscous and gravitational fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, Joachim
2016-03-01
Viscous and gravitational fingering refer to flow instabilities in porous media that are triggered by adverse mobility or density ratios, respectively. These instabilities have been studied extensively in the past for (1) single-phase flow (e.g., contaminant transport in groundwater, first-contact-miscible displacement of oil by gas in hydrocarbon production), and (2) multi-phase immiscible and incompressible flow (e.g., water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection in oil reservoirs). Fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow has received much less attention, perhaps due to its high computational complexity. However, many important subsurface processes involve multiple phases that exchange species. Examples are carbon sequestration in saline aquifers and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by gas or WAG injection below the minimum miscibility pressure. In multiphase flow, relative permeabilities affect the mobility contrast for a given viscosity ratio. Phase behavior can also change local fluid properties, which can either enhance or mitigate viscous and gravitational instabilities. This work presents a detailed study of fingering behavior in compositional multiphase flow in two and three dimensions and considers the effects of (1) Fickian diffusion, (2) mechanical dispersion, (3) flow rates, (4) domain size and geometry, (5) formation heterogeneities, (6) gravity, and (7) relative permeabilities. Results show that fingering in compositional multiphase flow is profoundly different from miscible conditions and upscaling techniques used for the latter case are unlikely to be generalizable to the former.
Interaction of air shock waves and porous compressible materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gvozdeva, L. G.; Faresov, Yu. M.; Fokeyev, V. P.
1986-05-01
Interaction of air shock waves and porous compressible materials was studied in an experiment with two foam-plastic materials: PPU-3M-1 polyurethane (density 33 kg/cu m) and much more rigid PKhV-1 polyvinyl chloride (density 50 kg/cu m). Tests were performed in a shock tube with 0.1x0.1 m square cross-section, a single diaphragm separating its 8 m long low-pressure segment with inspection zone and 1.5 m long high-pressure segment. The instrumentation included an array of piezoelectric pressure transducers and a digital frequency meter for velocity measurements, a Tectronix 451A oscillograph, and IAB-451 shadowgraph, and a ZhFR camera with slit scanning. Air was used as compressing gas, its initial pressure being varied from 10(3) Pa to 10(5) Pa, helium and nitrogen were used as propelling gas. The impact velocity of shock waves was varied over the N(M) = 2-5 range of the Mach number. The maximum amplitude of the pressure pulse increased as the thickness of the foam layer was increased up to 80 mm and then remained constant with further increases of that thickness, at a level depending on the material and on the intitial conditions. A maximum pressure rise by a factor of approximately 10 was attained, with 1.3 x 10(3) Pa initial pressure and an impact velocity N(M) = 5. Reducing the initial pressure to below (0.1-0.3) x 10(3) Pa, with the impact velocity maintained at N(M) = 5, reduced the pressure rise to a factor below 3. The results are interpreted taking into account elasticity forces in the solid skeleton phase and gas filtration through the pores.
Hybrid Explicit Residual Distribution Scheme for Compressible Multiphase Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bacigaluppi, Paola; Abgrall, Rémi; Kaman, Tulin
2017-03-01
The aim of this work is the development of a fully explicit scheme in the framework of time dependent hyperbolic problems with strong interacting discontinuities to retain high order accuracy in the context of compressible multiphase flows. A new methodology is presented to compute compressible two-fluid problems applied to the five equation reduced model given in Kapila et al. (Physics of Fluids 2001). With respect to other contributions in that area, we investigate a method that provides mesh convergence to the exact solutions, where the studied non-conservative system is associated to consistent jump relations. The adopted scheme consists of a coupled predictor-corrector scheme, which follows the concept of residual distributions in Ricchiuto and Abgrall (J. Comp. Physics 2010), with a classical Glimm’s scheme (J. Sci. Stat. Comp. 1982) applied to the area where a shock is occurring. This numerical methodology can be easily extended to unstructured meshes. Test cases on a perfect gas for a two phase compressible flow on a Riemann problem have verified that the approximation converges to its exact solution. The results have been compared with the pure Glimm’s scheme and the expected exact solution, finding a good overlap.
Increased microvascular flow and foot sensation with mild continuous external compression
Rosales‐Velderrain, Armando; Padilla, Michael; Choe, Charles H.; Hargens, Alan R.
2013-01-01
Abstract Intermittent pneumatic compression of the calf and foot increases inflow to the popliteal artery and skin. We hypothesize that mild, continuous pneumatic compression of the lower extremities of type 2 diabetic patients increases microvascular blood flow to skin (SBF) and muscle (MBF) and improves sensation in feet. Data were collected on 19 healthy volunteers and 16 type 2 diabetic patients. Baseline values of SBF, MBF, and foot sensation were recorded in one leg. The lower extremity was then subjected to 30 mmHg of continuous external air pressure for 30 min, whereas SBF and MBF were continuously monitored. Sensation was reassessed after pressure was released. During 30 mmHg continuous external compression, the healthy control group significantly increased MBF by 39.8% (P < 0.01). Sensation of the foot in this group improved significantly by 49.8% (P < 0.01). In the diabetic group, there was a significant increase in MBF of 17.7% (P = 0.03). Also sensation improved statistically by 40.2% (P = 0.03). Importantly and counterintuitively, MBF and foot sensation both increase after 30 min of leg compression at 30 mmHg. Therefore, mild, continuous pneumatic compression may be a new approach for treating diabetic patients with compromised leg perfusion and sensation. PMID:24744851
Health woes tied to low air flow
Barber, J.
1984-01-23
Occupants in buildings with heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems which limit fresh air flow may suffer a variety of illnesses because of the buildup of noxious contaminants. Building managers need to continue conservation efforts, but they should also meet the air standards set by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) which are in the process of being strengthened. Cases of building sickness caused by indoor air pollution have increased during the past decade, prompting ASHRAE to expedite the revision of its specifications.
Chen, Zheng
2010-12-15
Large discrepancies between the laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths measured in experiments and those predicted by simulations for ultra-lean methane/air mixtures bring a great concern for kinetic mechanism validation. In order to quantitatively explain these discrepancies, a computational study is performed for propagating spherical flames of lean methane/air mixtures in different spherical chambers using different radiation models. The emphasis is focused on the effects of radiation and compression. It is found that the spherical flame propagation speed is greatly reduced by the coupling between thermal effect (change of flame temperature or unburned gas temperature) and flow effect (inward flow of burned gas) induced by radiation and/or compression. As a result, for methane/air mixtures near the lean flammability limit, the radiation and compression cause large amounts of under-prediction of the laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths extracted from propagating spherical flames. Since radiation and compression both exist in the experiments on ultra-lean methane/air mixtures reported in the literature, the measured laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths are much lower than results from simulation and thus cannot be used for kinetic mechanism validation. (author)
Air flow in the human nasal cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fomin, V. M.; Vetlutsky, V. N.; Ganimedov, V. L.; Muchnaya, M. I.; Shepelenko, V. N.; Melnikov, M. N.; Savina, A. A.
2010-03-01
A mathematical model of the air flow in the human nasal cavity is developed under the assumption of a turbulent viscous air flow. The shape of the nasal cavity is modeled with the use of the Gambit graphical software system and tomography data. A numerical solution is obtained by using the Fluent commercial software system. Calculations are performed for various variants of construction of the human nasal cavity.
Simulator Of Rain In Flowing Air
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clayton, Richard M.; Cho, Young I.; Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Back, Lloyd H.
1989-01-01
Report describes relatively inexpensive apparatus that creates simulated precipitation from drizzle to heavy rain in flowing air. Small, positive-displacement pump and water-injecting device positioned at low-airspeed end of converging section of wind tunnel 10 in. in diameter. Drops injected by array entrained in flow of air as it accelerates toward narrower outlet, 15 in. downstream. Outlet 5 in. in diameter.
Viscous compressible flow direct and inverse computation and illustrations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, T. T.; Ntone, F.
1986-01-01
An algorithm for laminar and turbulent viscous compressible two dimensional flows is presented. For the application of precise boundary conditions over an arbitrary body surface, a body-fitted coordinate system is used in the physical plane. A thin-layer approximation of tne Navier-Stokes equations is introduced to keep the viscous terms relatively simple. The flow field computation is performed in the transformed plane. A factorized, implicit scheme is used to facilitate the computation. Sample calculations, for Couette flow, developing pipe flow, an isolated airflow, two dimensional compressor cascade flow, and segmental compressor blade design are presented. To a certain extent, the effective use of the direct solver depends on the user's skill in setting up the gridwork, the time step size and the choice of the artificial viscosity. The design feature of the algorithm, an iterative scheme to correct geometry for a specified surface pressure distribution, works well for subsonic flows. A more elaborate correction scheme is required in treating transonic flows where local shock waves may be involved.
A real-time interferometer technique for compressible flow research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. J.
1984-01-01
Strengths and shortcomings in the application of interferometric techniques to transonic flow fields are examined and an improved method is elaborated. Such applications have demonstrated the value of interferometry in obtaining data for compressible flow research. With holographic techniques, interferometry may be applied in large scale facilities without the use of expensive optics or elaborate vibration isolation equipment. Results obtained using holographic interferometry and other methods demonstrate that reliable qualitative and quantitative data can be acquired. Nevertheless, the conventional method can be difficult to set up and apply, and it cannot produce real-time data. A new interferometry technique is investigated that promises to be easier to apply and can provide real-time information. This single-beam technique has the necessary insensitivity to vibration for large scale wind tunnel operations. Capabilities of the method and preliminary tests on some laboratory scale flow fluids are described.
Heat Transfer Correlations for compressible flow in Micro Heat Exchangers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coppola, M. A.; Croce, G.
2016-09-01
The paper discusses the definition of dimensionless parameters useful to define a local correlation for convective heat transfer in compressible, micro scale gaseous flows. A combination of static and stagnation temperatures is chosen, as it allows to weight the temperature change related to the heat transfer and that induced by conversion of internal energy into kinetic one. The correlation offers a purely convective local Nusselt number, i.e. correlating the heat flow rate with the local flow parameters and wall surface temperature. The correlation is validated through a series of numerical computations in both counter-current and co-current micro heat exchanger configurations. The numerical computations take into account rarefaction and conjugate heat transfer effects.
Compressible Turbulent Flow Numerical Simulations of Tip Vortex Cavitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khatami, F.; van der Weide, E.; Hoeijmakers, H.
2015-12-01
For an elliptic Arndt's hydrofoil numerical simulations of vortex cavitation are presented. An equilibrium cavitation model is employed. This single-fluid model assumes local thermodynamic and mechanical equilibrium in the mixture region of the flow, is employed. Furthermore, for characterizing the thermodynamic state of the system, precomputed multiphase thermodynamic tables containing data for the appropriate equations of state for each of the phases are used and a fast, accurate, and efficient look-up approach is employed for interpolating the data. The numerical simulations are carried out using the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations for compressible flow. The URANS equations of motion are discretized using an finite volume method for unstructured grids. The numerical simulations clearly show the formation of the tip vortex cavitation in the flow about the elliptic hydrofoil.
Optical phase distortion due to compressible flow over laser turrets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fuhs, A. E.; Fuhs, S. E.
1980-01-01
Analytical models for optical phase distortion due to compressible flow over a laser turret are developed. Phase distortion is calculated for both blunt and small perturbation turrets. For the blunt turret, the Janzen-Rayleigh technique is used to determine the flow field. Phase distortions of 2.2 wavelengths at 3.8 microns are calculated for the blunt turret. For small perturbation turrets, a versatile analytical model is developed for a turret on a fuselage with circular cross section. With a two dimensional Fourier series representation of the turret, any shape can be considered. Both subsonic and supersonic flows can be calculated. Phase distortions of 1.2 wavelengths at 3.8 microns are calculated for one turret at high subsonic Mach number. In addition to being of value for laser turrets, the methods are applicable to reconnaissance aircraft using photographic equipment and cruise missiles using celestial navigation.
Achieving acoustic cloak by using compressible background flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ruo-Yang; Zhao, Qing; Ge, Mo-Lin
2016-08-01
We propose a scheme of acoustic spherical cloaking by means of background irrotational flow in compressible fluid. The background flow forms a virtual curved spacetime and directs the sound waves to bypass the cloaked objects. To satisfy the laws of real fluid, we show that spatially distributed mass source and momentum source are necessary to supply. The propagation of sound waves in this system is studied via both geometric acoustics approximation and full wave approach. The analytic solution of sound fields is obtained for plane wave incidence. The results reveal the effect of phase retardation (or lead) in comparison with the ordinary transformation-acoustic cloak. In addition, the ability of cloaking is also evaluated for unideal background flows by analyzing the scattering cross section. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11475088 and 11275024) and the Fund from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2013YQ030595-3).
A real-time interferometer technique for compressible flow research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. J.
1984-01-01
Strengths and shortcomings in the application of interferometric techniques to transonic flow fields are examined and an improved method is elaborated. Such applications have demonstrated the value of interferometry in obtaining data for compressible flow research. With holographic techniques, interferometry may be applied in large scale facilities without the use of expensive optics or elaborate vibration isolation equipment. Results obtained using holographic interferometry and other methods demonstrate that reliable qualitative and quantitative data can be acquired. Nevertheless, the conventional method can be difficult to set up and apply, and it cannot produce real-time data. A new interferometry technique is investigated that promises to be easier to apply and can provide real-time information. This single-beam technique has the necessary insensitivity to vibration for large scale wind tunnel operations. Capabilities of the method and preliminary tests on some laboratory scale flow fluids are described.
29 CFR 1926.913 - Blasting in excavation work under compressed air.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting in excavation work under compressed air. 1926.913... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.913 Blasting in excavation work under compressed air. (a) Detonators and...
30 CFR 56.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 56.13015 Section 56.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...
30 CFR 57.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 57.13015 Section 57.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...
30 CFR 56.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 56.13015 Section 56.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...
30 CFR 57.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 57.13015 Section 57.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...
30 CFR 57.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 57.13015 Section 57.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...
30 CFR 56.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 56.13015 Section 56.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...
30 CFR 56.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 56.13015 Section 56.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...
30 CFR 57.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 57.13015 Section 57.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...
30 CFR 56.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 56.13015 Section 56.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...
30 CFR 57.13015 - Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. (a) Compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection of compressed-air receivers and other unfired pressure vessels. 57.13015 Section 57.13015 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...
Pencil: Finite-difference Code for Compressible Hydrodynamic Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandenburg, Axel; Dobler, Wolfgang
2010-10-01
The Pencil code is a high-order finite-difference code for compressible hydrodynamic flows with magnetic fields. It is highly modular and can easily be adapted to different types of problems. The code runs efficiently under MPI on massively parallel shared- or distributed-memory computers, like e.g. large Beowulf clusters. The Pencil code is primarily designed to deal with weakly compressible turbulent flows. To achieve good parallelization, explicit (as opposed to compact) finite differences are used. Typical scientific targets include driven MHD turbulence in a periodic box, convection in a slab with non-periodic upper and lower boundaries, a convective star embedded in a fully nonperiodic box, accretion disc turbulence in the shearing sheet approximation, self-gravity, non-local radiation transfer, dust particle evolution with feedback on the gas, etc. A range of artificial viscosity and diffusion schemes can be invoked to deal with supersonic flows. For direct simulations regular viscosity and diffusion is being used. The code is written in well-commented Fortran90.
Spark-ignition, air-compressing, internal combustion engine
Chmela, F.; Herzog, W.; Meier, R.
1988-09-20
This patent describes a spark-ignition, air-compressing, internal combustion engine that has direct ignition of a major portion of the fuel by means of a jet onto the wall of the combustion chamber that is provided, in the shape of a body of revolution, in the piston, whereby rotary motion is imparted by means known per se to the inflowing air in the direction of the injected fuel jet so as to cause the fuel to be removed gradually in the vapor state from the wall of the combustion chamber and to be mixed with the air, the injection nozzle being located in the cylinder head near the combustion chamber rim, with the spark plug, which is disposed opposite the injection nozzle, extending into the combustion chamber in the top dead center position of the piston, with the side wall of the combustion chamber, when viewed in cross section, being formed by two arcs that blend into each other and have respective radii of curvature R/sub 1/, R/sub 2/, the first arc having a radius R/sub 1/ that extends from a restricted combustion chamber opening down to the maximum combustion chamber diameter D/sub B/, and the second arc having a radius R/sub 2/ that extends down to the bottom of the combustion chamber and blends into the latter. The maximum combustion chamber diameter D/sub B/ being 0.5 to 0.7 times the diameter D/sub K/ of the piston and being at a defined depth t/sub D/ from the piston crown relative to the depth T/sub B/ of the combustion chamber, the ratio of the diameter d/sub H/ of the combustion chamber opening to the maximum combustion chamber diameter D/sub B/.
Efficacy of Micromobile Foot Compression Device in Increasing Lower Limb Venous Blood Flow
Weatherall, Mark
2013-01-01
Background. A novel, micromobile foot compression device (MMC) has been developed to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with prolonged seated immobility. Objective. To compare the efficacy of the MMC with graduated compression stockings in augmenting lower limb venous blood flow. Patients/Methods. Twenty participants were randomised to wear the MMC or a graduated compression stocking (GCS) on either the left or right leg while seated. Doppler ultrasound measurements of popliteal vein blood flow and leg circumference measurements were made −30 and −10 minutes (baseline) and +30 and +60 minutes following application of the interventions. The primary outcome variable was peak systolic velocity. A mixed linear model was used, with covariates including baseline measurement, randomised side, time, and a time by interaction term. Results. The mean popliteal vein peak systolic velocity at 60 minutes with the MMC was 20.1 cm/s which was significantly higher than with the GCS (difference 14.1 cm/s 95% CI 12.1–16.2), representing a 3.8-fold increase from baseline. Conclusion. The MMC resulted in a marked increase in lower limb venous blood flow which suggests that it may have efficacy in reducing the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with prolonged seated immobility, such as long distance air travel. PMID:24319596
A finite element solver for 3-D compressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, K. C.; Reddy, J. N.; Nayani, S.
1990-01-01
Computation of the flow field inside a space shuttle main engine (SSME) requires the application of state of the art computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technology. Several computer codes are under development to solve 3-D flow through the hot gas manifold. Some algorithms were designed to solve the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations, either by implicit or explicit factorization methods, using several hundred or thousands of time steps to reach a steady state solution. A new iterative algorithm is being developed for the solution of the implicit finite element equations without assembling global matrices. It is an efficient iteration scheme based on a modified nonlinear Gauss-Seidel iteration with symmetric sweeps. The algorithm is analyzed for a model equation and is shown to be unconditionally stable. Results from a series of test problems are presented. The finite element code was tested for couette flow, which is flow under a pressure gradient between two parallel plates in relative motion. Another problem that was solved is viscous laminar flow over a flat plate. The general 3-D finite element code was used to compute the flow in an axisymmetric turnaround duct at low Mach numbers.
Parallel simulation of compressible flow using automatic differentiation and PETSc.
Hovland, P. D.; McInnes, L. C.; Mathematics and Computer Science
2001-03-01
Many aerospace applications require parallel implicit solution strategies and software. The use of two computational tools, the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific computing (PETSc) and ADIFOR, to implement a Newton-Krylov-Schwarz method with pseudo-transient continuation for a particular application, namely, a steady-state, fully implicit, three-dimensional compressible Euler model of flow over an M6 wing is considered. How automatic differentiation (AD) can be used within the PETSc framework to compute the required derivatives is described. Performance data demonstrating the suitability of AD and PETSc for this problem are presented. A synopsis of results and a description of opportunities for future work concludes this paper.
Scalar/Vector potential formulation for compressible viscous unsteady flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morino, L.
1985-01-01
A scalar/vector potential formulation for unsteady viscous compressible flows is presented. The scalar/vector potential formulation is based on the classical Helmholtz decomposition of any vector field into the sum of an irrotational and a solenoidal field. The formulation is derived from fundamental principles of mechanics and thermodynamics. The governing equations for the scalar potential and vector potential are obtained, without restrictive assumptions on either the equation of state or the constitutive relations or the stress tensor and the heat flux vector.
Simple numerical method for predicting steady compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vonlavante, Ernst; Nelson, N. Duane
1986-01-01
A numerical method for solving the isenthalpic form of the governing equations for compressible viscous and inviscid flows was developed. The method was based on the concept of flux vector splitting in its implicit form. The method was tested on several demanding inviscid and viscous configurations. Two different forms of the implicit operator were investigated. The time marching to steady state was accelerated by the implementation of the multigrid procedure. Its various forms very effectively increased the rate of convergence of the present scheme. High quality steady state results were obtained in most of the test cases; these required only short computational times due to the relative efficiency of the basic method.
Pseudo-compressibility methods for the incompressible flow equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turkel, Eli; Arnone, A.
1993-01-01
Preconditioning methods to accelerate convergence to a steady state for the incompressible fluid dynamics equations are considered. The analysis relies on the inviscid equations. The preconditioning consists of a matrix multiplying the time derivatives. Thus the steady state of the preconditioned system is the same as the steady state of the original system. The method is compared to other types of pseudo-compressibility. For finite difference methods preconditioning can change and improve the steady state solutions. An application to viscous flow around a cascade with a non-periodic mesh is presented.
Simple numerical method for predicting steady compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Von Lavante, E.; Melson, N. Duane
1987-01-01
The present numerical method for the solution of the isenthalpic form of the governing equations for compressible viscous and inviscid flows has its basis in the concept of flux vector splitting in its implicit form, and has been tested in the cases of several difficult viscous and inviscid configurations. An acceleration of time-marching to steady state is accomplished by implementing a multigrid procedure which effectively increases the convergence rate. The steady state results obtained are largely of good quality, and required only short computational times.
Visualization, Extraction and Quantification of Discontinuities in Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Samtaney, Ravi; Morris, R. D.; Cheeseman, P.; Sunelyansky, V.; Maluf, D.; Wolf, D.
2000-01-01
Scientific visualizations of two-dimensional compressible flow of a gas with discontinuities are presented. The numerical analogue to experimental techniques such as schlieren imaging, shadowgraphs, and interferograms are discussed. Edge detection techniques are utilized to identify the discontinuities. In particular, the zero crossing of the Laplacian of a field (usually density) is recommended for extracting the discontinuities. An algorithm to extract and quantify the discontinuities is presented. To illustrate the methods developed in the report, the example chosen is that of an unsteady interaction of a shock wave with a contact discontinuity.
Coherent structures in compressible free-shear-layer flows
Aeschliman, D.P.; Baty, R.S.; Kennedy, C.A.; Chen, J.H.
1997-08-01
Large scale coherent structures are intrinsic fluid mechanical characteristics of all free-shear flows, from incompressible to compressible, and laminar to fully turbulent. These quasi-periodic fluid structures, eddies of size comparable to the thickness of the shear layer, dominate the mixing process at the free-shear interface. As a result, large scale coherent structures greatly influence the operation and efficiency of many important commercial and defense technologies. Large scale coherent structures have been studied here in a research program that combines a synergistic blend of experiment, direct numerical simulation, and analysis. This report summarizes the work completed for this Sandia Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project.
Two-dimensional subsonic compressible flow past elliptic cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaplan, Carl
1938-01-01
The method of Poggi is used to calculate, for perfect fluids, the effect of compressibility upon the flow on the surface of an elliptic cylinder at zero angle of attack and with no circulation. The result is expressed in a closed form and represents a rigorous determination of the velocity of the fluid at the surface of the obstacle insofar as the second approximation is concerned. Comparison is made with Hooker's treatment of the same problem according to the method of Janzen and Rayleight and it is found that, for thick elliptic cylinders, the two methods agree very well. The labor of computation is considerably reduced by the present solution.
Iterative spectral methods and spectral solutions to compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hussaini, M. Y.; Zang, T. A.
1982-01-01
A spectral multigrid scheme is described which can solve pseudospectral discretizations of self-adjoint elliptic problems in O(N log N) operations. An iterative technique for efficiently implementing semi-implicit time-stepping for pseudospectral discretizations of Navier-Stokes equations is discussed. This approach can handle variable coefficient terms in an effective manner. Pseudospectral solutions of compressible flow problems are presented. These include one dimensional problems and two dimensional Euler solutions. Results are given both for shock-capturing approaches and for shock-fitting ones.
Rutqvist, Jonny; Kim, Hyung-Mok; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Synn, Joong-Ho; Song, Won-Kyong
2012-06-01
We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be
Air-water flow in subsurface systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, A.; Mishra, P.
2013-12-01
Groundwater traces its roots to tackle challenges of safe and reliable drinking water and food production. When the groundwater level rises, air pressure in the unsaturated Vadose zone increases, forcing air to escape from the ground surface. Abnormally high and low subsurface air pressure can be generated when the groundwater system, rainfall, and sea level fluctuation are favorably combined [Jiao and Li, 2004]. Through this process, contamination in the form of volatile gases may diffuse from the ground surface into residential areas, or possibly move into groundwater from industrial waste sites. It is therefore crucial to understand the combined effects of air-water flow in groundwater system. Here we investigate theoretically and experimentally the effects of air and water flow in groundwater system.
Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung
2007-12-31
This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when
Prediction of compressible flow pressure losses in 30--150 deg sharp-cornered bends
Haidar, N.
1995-12-01
This paper considers the measurement and prediction of the additional total pressure losses of subsonic steady air flow in sharp-cornered bends, similar to those present in the secondary air cooling systems of gas turbine engines. The bends examined ranged between 30 to 150 in 30 deg increments and were circular in cross section. Experimental results covering a wide speed range up to choking are presented for five different bend geometries. An analytical flow model provided results in fairly good agreement with the measurements obtained and equally compared favorably with the experimental findings of other researchers at low Mach numbers. The highest attainable upstream Mach number (M{sub U}) of the average upstream flow was 0.57 for the 30 deg bend. The maximum possible values of M{sub U} represent a limiting condition dictated by downstream choking of the flow. The compressible flow coefficients, caused by the presence of the bends, can be expected to be between 10 to 20 percent higher than those for incompressible flow.
A sharp interface immersed boundary method for compressible viscous flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghias, R.; Mittal, R.; Dong, H.
2007-07-01
An immersed boundary method for computing viscous, subsonic compressible flows with complex shaped stationary immersed boundaries is presented. The method employs a ghost-cell technique for imposing the boundary conditions on the immersed boundaries. The current approach leads to a sharp representation of the immersed boundaries, a property that is especially useful for flow simulations at high Reynolds numbers. Another unique feature of the method is that it can be applied on Cartesian as well as generalized body non-conformal curvilinear meshes. A mixed second-order central difference-QUICK scheme is used which allows a high degree of control over the numerical damping. A bilinear interpolation scheme used in conjunction with the ghost-cell approach results in second-order global as well as local spatial accuracy. The solver is parallelized for distributed memory platforms using domain decomposition and message passing interface (MPI) and salient features of the parallel algorithm are presented. The accuracy, fidelity and efficiency of the solver are examined by simulating flow past circular cylinders and airfoils and comparing against experimental data and other established results. Finally, we present results from a simulation of wing-tip flow at a relatively high Reynolds number in order to demonstrate the ability of the solver to model complex, non-canonical three-dimensional flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Hollo, Steven D.; Mcdaniel, James C.
1992-01-01
A unified laser-induced fluorescence technique for conducting planar measurements of temperature, pressure and velocity in nonreacting, highly compressible flows has been developed, validated and demonstrated. Planar fluorescence from iodine, seeded into air, was induced by an argon-ion laser and collected using a liquid-nitrogen cooled CCD camera. In the measurement technique, temperature is determined from the fluorescence induced with the laser operated broad band. Pressure and velocity are determined from the shape and position of the fluorescence excitation spectrum which is measured with the laser operated narrow band. The measurement approach described herein provides a means of obtaining accurate, spatially-complete maps of the primary flow field parameters in a wide variety of cold supersonic and transonic flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Hollo, Steven D.; Mcdaniel, James C.
1992-01-01
A unified laser-induced fluorescence technique for conducting planar measurements of temperature, pressure and velocity in nonreacting, highly compressible flows has been developed, validated and demonstrated. Planar fluorescence from iodine, seeded into air, was induced by an argon-ion laser and collected using a liquid-nitrogen cooled CCD camera. In the measurement technique, temperature is determined from the fluorescence induced with the laser operated broad band. Pressure and velocity are determined from the shape and position of the fluorescence excitation spectrum which is measured with the laser operated narrow band. The measurement approach described herein provides a means of obtaining accurate, spatially-complete maps of the primary flow field parameters in a wide variety of cold supersonic and transonic flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, J.; Tiwari, Surendra N.
1994-01-01
The two-dimensional spatially elliptic Navier-Stokes equations have been used to investigate the radiative interactions in chemically reacting compressible flows of premixed hydrogen and air in an expanding nozzle. The radiative heat transfer term in the energy equation is simulated using the Monte Carlo method (MCM). The nongray model employed is based on the statistical narrow band model with an exponential-tailed inverse intensity distribution. The spectral correlation has been considered in the Monte Carlo formulations. Results obtained demonstrate that the effect of radiation on the flow field is minimal but its effect on the wall heat transfer is significant. Extensive parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects of equivalence ratio, wall temperature, inlet flow temperature, and the nozzle size on the radiative and conductive wall fluxes.
A Cartesian grid approach with hierarchical refinement for compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quirk, James J.
1994-01-01
Many numerical studies of flows that involve complex geometries are limited by the difficulties in generating suitable grids. We present a Cartesian boundary scheme for two-dimensional, compressible flows that is unfettered by the need to generate a computational grid and so it may be used, routinely, even for the most awkward of geometries. In essence, an arbitrary-shaped body is allowed to blank out some region of a background Cartesian mesh and the resultant cut-cells are singled out for special treatment. This is done within a finite-volume framework and so, in principle, any explicit flux-based integration scheme can take advantage of this method for enforcing solid boundary conditions. For best effect, the present Cartesian boundary scheme has been combined with a sophisticated, local mesh refinement scheme, and a number of examples are shown in order to demonstrate the efficacy of the combined algorithm for simulations of shock interaction phenomena.
A Theory of Unstaggered Airfoil Cascades in Compressible Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spurr, Robert A.; Allen, H. Julian
1947-01-01
By use of the methods of thin airfoil theory, which include effects of compressibility, rela.tio^as are developed which permit the rapid determination of the pressure distribution over an unstaggered cascade of airfoils of a given profile, and the determination of the profile shape necessary to yield a given pressure distribution for small chord gap ratios, For incompressible flow the results of the theory are compared with available examples obtained by the more exact method of conformal transformation. Although the theory is developed for small chord/gap ratios, these comparisons show that it may be extended to chord/gap ratios of order unity, at least for low speed flows. Choking of cascades, a phenomenon of particular importance in compressor design, is considered.
A theory of unstaggered airfoil cascades in compressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spurr, Robert A; Allen, H Julian
1947-01-01
By use of the methods of thin airfoil theory, which include effects of compressibility, relations are developed which permit the rapid determination of the pressure distribution over an unstaggered cascade of airfoils of a given profile, and the determination of the profile shape necessary to yield a given pressure distribution for small chord/gap ratios. For incompressible flow the results of the theory are compared with available examples obtained by the more exact method of conformal transformation. Although the theory is developed for small chord/gap ratios, these comparisons show that it may be extended to chord/gap ratios of order unity, at least for low-speed flows. Choking cascades, a phenomenon of particular importance in compressor design, is considered.
On the stability of compressible flow past axisymmetric bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malik, M. R.; Spall, R. E.
1991-01-01
Compressible linear stability theory for axisymmetric flows is presented. The theory is applied to flow past a cylinder and a sharp cone at a Mach number of 5 with adiabatic wall conditions. The effect of transverse curvature and body divergence is studied. It is found that transverse curvature has a stabilizing influence on axisymmetric (first and second mode) disturbances while it has a destabilizing influence on the asymmetric (oblique first mode) disturbances. The body divergence effects are stabilizing for both symmetric and asymmetric disturbances. Comparisons made with the results of planar stability theory show that, for a cylinder, curvature effects become more pronounced with increasing distance along the cylinder. For a sharp cone, these effects become less significant further away from the cone tip since the body radius increases faster than the growth of the boundary layer. The effect of cone angle on stability is also studied.
Predicting the stability of a compressible periodic parallel jet flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miles, Jeffrey H.
1996-01-01
It is known that mixing enhancement in compressible free shear layer flows with high convective Mach numbers is difficult. One design strategy to get around this is to use multiple nozzles. Extrapolating this design concept in a one dimensional manner, one arrives at an array of parallel rectangular nozzles where the smaller dimension is omega and the longer dimension, b, is taken to be infinite. In this paper, the feasibility of predicting the stability of this type of compressible periodic parallel jet flow is discussed. The problem is treated using Floquet-Bloch theory. Numerical solutions to this eigenvalue problem are presented. For the case presented, the interjet spacing, s, was selected so that s/omega =2.23. Typical plots of the eigenvalue and stability curves are presented. Results obtained for a range of convective Mach numbers from 3 to 5 show growth rates omega(sub i)=kc(sub i)/2 range from 0.25 to 0.29. These results indicate that coherent two-dimensional structures can occur without difficulty in multiple parallel periodic jet nozzles and that shear layer mixing should occur with this type of nozzle design.
The Compressible Flow Past Various Plane Profiles Near Sonic Velocity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goethert, B.; Kawalki, K. H.
1949-01-01
In an earlier report UM No.1117 by Gothert,the single-source method was applied to the compressible flow around circles, ellipses, lunes, and around an elongated body of revolution at different Mach numbers and the results compared as far as possible with the calculations by Lamla ad Busemann. Essentially, it was found that with favorable source arrangement the single-source method is in good agreement with the calculations of the same degree of approximation by.Lamla and Busemann. Near sonic velocity the number of steps must be increased considerably in order to sufficiently approximate the adiabatic curve. After exceeding a certain Mach number where local supersonic fields occur already, it was no longer possible, in spite of the substantially increased number of steps, to obtain a systematic solution because the calculation diverged. This result,was interpreted to mean that above this point of divergence the symmetrical type of flow ceases to exist and changes into the unsymmetrical type characterized by compressibility shocks.
An interface capturing scheme for modeling atomization in compressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garrick, Daniel P.; Hagen, Wyatt A.; Regele, Jonathan D.
2017-09-01
The study of atomization in supersonic flow is critical to ensuring reliable ignition of scramjet combustors under startup conditions. Numerical methods incorporating surface tension effects have largely focused on the incompressible regime as most atomization applications occur at low Mach numbers. Simulating surface tension effects in compressible flow requires robust numerical methods that can handle discontinuities caused by both shocks and material interfaces with high density ratios. In this work, a shock and interface capturing scheme is developed that uses the Harten-Lax-van Leer-Contact (HLLC) Riemann solver while a Tangent of Hyperbola for INterface Capturing (THINC) interface reconstruction scheme retains the fluid immiscibility condition in the volume fraction and phasic densities in the context of the five equation model. The approach includes the effects of compressibility, surface tension, and molecular viscosity. One and two-dimensional benchmark problems demonstrate the desirable interface sharpening and conservation properties of the approach. Simulations of secondary atomization of a cylindrical water column after its interaction with a shockwave show good qualitative agreement with experimentally observed behavior. Three-dimensional examples of primary atomization of a liquid jet in a Mach 2 crossflow demonstrate the robustness of the method.
Air flow through poppet valves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewis, G W; Nutting, E M
1920-01-01
Report discusses the comparative continuous flow characteristics of single and double poppet valves. The experimental data presented affords a direct comparison of valves, single and in pairs of different sizes, tested in a cylinder designed in accordance with current practice in aviation engines.
40 CFR 91.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Intake air flow measurement... Procedures § 91.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure the air flow over the...
40 CFR 91.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Procedures § 91.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure the air flow over the...
40 CFR 91.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Procedures § 91.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure the air flow over the...
40 CFR 91.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Procedures § 91.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure the air flow over the...
The Effect of Water Compressibility on a Rigid Body Movement in Two Phase Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Chan Wook; Kim, Hak Sun; Lee, Sungsu
2008-11-01
The motion of a rigid body in a tube full of water-filled, initiated by a sudden release of highly pressurized air is simulated presuming the flow field as a two dimensional one. The effects of water compressibility on the body movement are investigated, comparing results based on the Fluent VOF model where water is treated as an incompressible medium with those from the presently developed VOF scheme. The present model considers compressibility of both air and water. The Fluent results show that the body moves farther and at higher speeds than the present ones. As time proceeds, the relative difference of speed and displacement between the two results drops substantially, after acoustic waves in water traverse and return the full length of the tube several times. To estimate instantaneous accelerations, however, requires implementation of the water compressibility effect as discrepancies between them do not decrease even after several pressure wave cycles. This work was supported by a research fund granted from Agency for Defense Development, South Korea.
Integration of Wind Turbines with Compressed Air Energy Storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arsie, I.; Marano, V.; Rizzo, G.; Moran, M.
2009-08-01
Some of the major limitations of renewable energy sources are represented by their low power density and intermittent nature, largely depending upon local site and unpredictable weather conditions. These problems concur to increase the unit costs of wind power, so limiting their diffusion. By coupling storage systems with a wind farm, some of the major limitations of wind power, such as a low power density and an unpredictable nature, can be overcome. After an overview on storage systems, the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is analyzed, and the state of art on such systems is discussed. A Matlab/Simulink model of a hybrid power plant consisting of a wind farm coupled with CAES is then presented. The model has been successfully validated starting from the operating data of the McIntosh CAES Plant in Alabama. Time-series neural network-based wind speed forecasting are employed to determine the optimal daily operation strategy for the storage system. A detailed economic analysis has been carried out: investment and maintenance costs are estimated based on literature data, while operational costs and revenues are calculated according to energy market prices. As shown in the paper, the knowledge of the expected available energy is a key factor to optimize the management strategies of the proposed hybrid power plant, allowing to obtain environmental and economic benefits.
Assessment of market potential of compressed air energy storage systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyd, D. W.; Buckley, O. E.; Clark, C. E., Jr.
1983-12-01
This report describes an assessment of potential roles that EPRI might take to facilitate the commercial acceptance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. The assessment is based on (1) detailed analyses of the market potential of utility storage technologies, (2) interviews with representatives of key participants in the CAES market, and (3) a decision analysis synthesizing much of the information about market and technology status. The results indicate a large potential market for CAES systems if the overall business environment for utilities improves. In addition, it appears that EPRI can have a valuable incremental impact in ensuring that utilities realize the potential of CAES by (1) continuing an aggressive information dissemination and technology transfer program, (2) working to ensure the success of the first United States CAES installation at Soyland Power Cooperative, (3) developing planning methods to allow utilities to evaluate CAES and other storage options more effectively and more realistically, and (4) supporting R and D to resolve residual uncertainties in first-generation CAES cost and performance characteristics. Previously announced in STAR as N83-25121
Grid Convergence of High Order Methods for Multiscale Complex Unsteady Viscous Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sjoegreen, B.; Yee, H. C.
2001-01-01
Grid convergence of several high order methods for the computation of rapidly developing complex unsteady viscous compressible flows with a wide range of physical scales is studied. The recently developed adaptive numerical dissipation control high order methods referred to as the ACM and wavelet filter schemes are compared with a fifth-order weighted ENO (WENO) scheme. The two 2-D compressible full Navier-Stokes models considered do not possess known analytical and experimental data. Fine grid solutions from a standard second-order TVD scheme and a MUSCL scheme with limiters are used as reference solutions. The first model is a 2-D viscous analogue of a shock tube problem which involves complex shock/shear/boundary-layer interactions. The second model is a supersonic reactive flow concerning fuel breakup. The fuel mixing involves circular hydrogen bubbles in air interacting with a planar moving shock wave. Both models contain fine scale structures and are stiff in the sense that even though the unsteadiness of the flows are rapidly developing, extreme grid refinement and time step restrictions are needed to resolve all the flow scales as well as the chemical reaction scales.
Thermodynamic analysis of five compressed-air energy-storage cycles. [Using CAESCAP computer code
Fort, J. A.
1983-03-01
One important aspect of the Compressed-Air Energy-Storage (CAES) Program is the evaluation of alternative CAES plant designs. The thermodynamic performance of the various configurations is particularly critical to the successful demonstration of CAES as an economically feasible energy-storage option. A computer code, the Compressed-Air Energy-Storage Cycle-Analysis Program (CAESCAP), was developed in 1982 at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This code was designed specifically to calculate overall thermodynamic performance of proposed CAES-system configurations. The results of applying this code to the analysis of five CAES plant designs are presented in this report. The designs analyzed were: conventional CAES; adiabatic CAES; hybrid CAES; pressurized fluidized-bed CAES; and direct coupled steam-CAES. Inputs to the code were based on published reports describing each plant cycle. For each cycle analyzed, CAESCAP calculated the thermodynamic station conditions and individual-component efficiencies, as well as overall cycle-performance-parameter values. These data were then used to diagram the availability and energy flow for each of the five cycles. The resulting diagrams graphically illustrate the overall thermodynamic performance inherent in each plant configuration, and enable a more accurate and complete understanding of each design.
Computational modelling of combining compressible flow through 30--150{degree} tee junction
Haidar, N.I.A.
1994-12-31
The present computational investigation is concerned with quantifying the influence of fluid compressibility on the additional total pressure losses in three-leg branched ducts. A fully-elliptic, control volume computational model is presented for the simulation of subsonic steady flow under combining conditions in 30--150{degree} sharp-cornered tee-junctions, in 300 increments, similar to those used in the secondary air cooling systems of gas turbine engines. For the main part of the flow the {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model is adopted, while wall functions are employed in the near wall region. A comparison is presented between computational and experimental results for the additional total pressure losses occurring in these tee-junctions using dry air as the working fluid. The Mach number of the average flow in the leg carrying the whole flow range between 0.2 and 0.6 in 0.1 increments. The successive refinement of the grid is found to bring the computed additional total pressure loss coefficients (i.e. pressure fields) into close accord with measurements. The comparison demonstrates that the adopted procedure is capable of predicting magnitude of pressure losses and extent of separation regions of low subsonic flows in branched ducts.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Costello, George R; Cummings, Robert L; Sinnette, John T , Jr
1952-01-01
A detailed step-by-step computational outline is presented for the design of two-dimensional cascade blades having a prescribed velocity distribution on the blade in a potential flow of the usual compressible fluid. The outline is based on the assumption that the magnitude of the velocity in the flow of the usual compressible nonviscous fluid is proportional to the magnitude of the velocity in the flow of a compressible nonviscous fluid with linear pressure-volume relation.
Internal combustion engine with compressed air collection system
Brown, P.W.
1988-08-23
This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising cylinders respectively including a pressure port, pistons respectively movable in the cylinders through respective compression strokes, fuel injectors respectively connected to the cylinders and operative to supply, from a fuel source to the respective cylinders, a metered quantity of fuel conveyed by compressed gas in response to fuel injector operation during the compression strokes of the respective cylinders, a storage tank for accumulating and storing compressed gas, means for selectively connecting the pressure ports to the storage tank only during the compression strokes of the respective cylinders, and duct means connecting the storage tank to the fuel injectors for supplying the fuel injectors with compressed gas in response to fuel injector operation.
A Finite Element Method for Simulation of Compressible Cavitating Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shams, Ehsan; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yu; Sahni, Onkar; Shephard, Mark; Oberai, Assad
2016-11-01
This work focuses on a novel approach for finite element simulations of multi-phase flows which involve evolving interface with phase change. Modeling problems, such as cavitation, requires addressing multiple challenges, including compressibility of the vapor phase, interface physics caused by mass, momentum and energy fluxes. We have developed a mathematically consistent and robust computational approach to address these problems. We use stabilized finite element methods on unstructured meshes to solve for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation is used to handle the interface motions. Our method uses a mesh adaptation strategy to preserve the quality of the volumetric mesh, while the interface mesh moves along with the interface. The interface jump conditions are accurately represented using a discontinuous Galerkin method on the conservation laws. Condensation and evaporation rates at the interface are thermodynamically modeled to determine the interface velocity. We will present initial results on bubble cavitation the behavior of an attached cavitation zone in a separated boundary layer. We acknowledge the support from Army Research Office (ARO) under ARO Grant W911NF-14-1-0301.
An immersed boundary method for fluid-structure interaction with compressible multiphase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Li; Currao, Gaetano M. D.; Han, Feng; Neely, Andrew J.; Young, John; Tian, Fang-Bao
2017-10-01
This paper presents a two-dimensional immersed boundary method for fluid-structure interaction with compressible multiphase flows involving large structure deformations. This method involves three important parts: flow solver, structure solver and fluid-structure interaction coupling. In the flow solver, the compressible multiphase Navier-Stokes equations for ideal gases are solved by a finite difference method based on a staggered Cartesian mesh, where a fifth-order accuracy Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillation (WENO) scheme is used to handle spatial discretization of the convective term, a fourth-order central difference scheme is employed to discretize the viscous term, the third-order TVD Runge-Kutta scheme is used to discretize the temporal term, and the level-set method is adopted to capture the multi-material interface. In this work, the structure considered is a geometrically non-linear beam which is solved by using a finite element method based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF). The fluid dynamics and the structure motion are coupled in a partitioned iterative manner with a feedback penalty immersed boundary method where the flow dynamics is defined on a fixed Lagrangian grid and the structure dynamics is described on a global coordinate. We perform several validation cases (including fluid over a cylinder, structure dynamics, flow induced vibration of a flexible plate, deformation of a flexible panel induced by shock waves in a shock tube, an inclined flexible plate in a hypersonic flow, and shock-induced collapse of a cylindrical helium cavity in the air), and compare the results with experimental and other numerical data. The present results agree well with the published data and the current experiment. Finally, we further demonstrate the versatility of the present method by applying it to a flexible plate interacting with multiphase flows.
Lagrangian transported MDF methods for compressible high speed flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerlinger, Peter
2017-06-01
This paper deals with the application of thermochemical Lagrangian MDF (mass density function) methods for compressible sub- and supersonic RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) simulations. A new approach to treat molecular transport is presented. This technique on the one hand ensures numerical stability of the particle solver in laminar regions of the flow field (e.g. in the viscous sublayer) and on the other hand takes differential diffusion into account. It is shown in a detailed analysis, that the new method correctly predicts first and second-order moments on the basis of conventional modeling approaches. Moreover, a number of challenges for MDF particle methods in high speed flows is discussed, e.g. high cell aspect ratio grids close to solid walls, wall heat transfer, shock resolution, and problems from statistical noise which may cause artificial shock systems in supersonic flows. A Mach 2 supersonic mixing channel with multiple shock reflection and a model rocket combustor simulation demonstrate the eligibility of this technique to practical applications. Both test cases are simulated successfully for the first time with a hybrid finite-volume (FV)/Lagrangian particle solver (PS).
Very High Resolution Simulations of Compressible, Turbulent Flows
Woodward, P R; Porter, D H; Sytine, I; Anderson, S E; Mirin, A A; Curtis, B C; Cohen, R H; Dannevik, W P; Dimits, A M; Eliason, D E; Winkler, K-H; Hodson, S W
2001-04-26
The steadily increasing power of supercomputing systems is enabling very high resolution simulations of compressible, turbulent flows in the high Reynolds number limit, which is of interest in astrophysics as well as in several other fluid dynamical applications. This paper discusses two such simulations, using grids of up to 8 billion cells. In each type of flow, convergence in a statistical sense is observed as the mesh is refined. The behavior of the convergent sequences indicates how a subgrid-scale model of turbulence could improve the treatment of these flows by high-resolution Euler schemes like PPM. The best resolved case, a simulation of a Richtmyer-Meshkov mixing layer in a shock tube experiment, also points the way toward such a subgrid-scale model. Analysis of the results of that simulation indicates a proportionality relationship between the energy transfer rate from large to small motions and the determinant of the deviatoric symmetric strain as well as the divergence of the velocity for the large-scale field.
An experimental study on compressible cylindrical cavity flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Kung-Ming; Lee, Kuan-Huang; Lebiga, Vadim; Zinoviev, Vitali
2016-10-01
Experiments were performed to study the characteristics of compressible cylindrical cavity flows. The diameter-to-depth ratio is an important parameter in determining the characteristics inside a cylindrical cavity and its vicinity. Closed-type cavity flow has lower amplitude of mean surface pressure behind the front wall and higher one ahead of the rear wall of the cavity. The amplitude of surface pressure fluctuations increases toward the rear face for an open-type cavity, whereas an additional peak near the middle of cavity floor is observed for a closed-type cavity. The diameter-to-depth ratio affects the characteristics of pressure distribution of a cavity, while the freestream Mach number effect is less significant. By taking Fourier transform analysis of the data near the trailing edge of a cavity, resonant modes are observed in open- and transitional-cavity flows. These modes are well-predicted by the Rossiter's empirical equation developed for rectangular cavities. Furthermore, the dominant mode switches to a higher mode as Mach number increases.
Attachment-Line Heating in a Compressible Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reed, Helen; Saric, William
2011-11-01
The attachment-line boundary layer on a swept wing can be subject to either an instability or contamination by wing-root turbulence. A model of the attachment-line boundary layer is first developed including compressibility and wall heating in a Falkner-Skan-Cooke class of 3-D boundary layers with Hartree parameter of 1.0. For cases otherwise subcritical to either contamination or instability, the destabilizing effect of leading-edge heating under a variety of sweep angles and flight conditions is demonstrated. The results correlate with the attachment-line Reynolds number. Because the required heating levels are reasonable and achievable to trip the flow over the wing to turbulent, one possible application of this work is in the establishing of a baseline turbulent flow (on demand) for the calibration of a laminar-flow-control health monitoring system. *Portion based on work under Framework Agreement between Airbus Americas and NIA, and opinions, findings, conclusions do not necessarily reflect views of Airbus or NIA. Support from AFOSR/NASA National Center for Hypersonic Research in Laminar-Turbulent Transition through Grant FA9550-09-1-0341 gratefully acknowledged.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feistauer, Miloslav; Kosík, Adam; Kučera, Václav; Prokopová, Jaroslav; Horáček, Jaromír
2011-09-01
The paper is concerned with the numerical solution of interaction of compressible flow with elastic structures. The aim of this work is the simulation of air flow in human vocal folds during phonation. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations written in the ALE form, equipped with initial and boundary conditions, are discretized by the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. The deformation of an elastic body, caused by aeroelastc forces, is described by the dynamical elasticity equations. This system is discretized with the aid of the conforming finite element method. The coupling of the flow and elastic structures is carried out via transmission conditions on a common part of the boundary. The developed method is applied to the simulation of flow induced vibrations of vocal folds during phonation. The results of numerical experiments are presented.
Design of a Variational Multiscale Method for Turbulent Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diosady, Laslo Tibor; Murman, Scott M.
2013-01-01
A spectral-element framework is presented for the simulation of subsonic compressible high-Reynolds-number flows. The focus of the work is maximizing the efficiency of the computational schemes to enable unsteady simulations with a large number of spatial and temporal degrees of freedom. A collocation scheme is combined with optimized computational kernels to provide a residual evaluation with computational cost independent of order of accuracy up to 16th order. The optimized residual routines are used to develop a low-memory implicit scheme based on a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method. A preconditioner based on the finite-difference diagonalized ADI scheme is developed which maintains the low memory of the matrix-free implicit solver, while providing improved convergence properties. Emphasis on low memory usage throughout the solver development is leveraged to implement a coupled space-time DG solver which may offer further efficiency gains through adaptivity in both space and time.
Axisymmetric compressible flow in a rotating cylinder with axial convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ungarish, M.; Israeli, M.
1985-05-01
The steady compressible flow of an ideal gas in a rotating annulus with thermally conducting walls is considered for small Rossby number epsilon and Ekman number E and moderate rotational Mach numbers M. Attention is focused on nonlinear effects which show up when sigma and epsilon M-squared are not small (sigma = epsilon/H square root of E, H is the dimensionless height of the container). These effects are not properly predicted by the classical linear perturbation analysis, and are treated here by quasi-linear extensions. The extra work required by these extensions is only the numerical solution of one ordinary differential equation for the pressure. Numerical solutions of the full Navier-Stokes equations in the nonlinear range are presented, and the validity of the present approach is confirmed.
Computation of recirculating compressible flow in axisymmetric geometries
Isaac, K.M.; Nejad, A.S.
1985-01-01
A computational study of compressible, turbulent, recirculating flow in axisymmetric geometries is reported in this paper. The SIMPLE algorithm was used in the differencing scheme and the k-epsilon model for turbulence was used for turbulence closure. Special attention was given to the specification of the boundary conditions. The study revealed the significant influence of the boundary conditions on the solution. The eddy length scale at the inlet to the solution domain was the most uncertain parameter in the specification of the boundary conditions. The predictions were compared with the recent data based on laser velocimetry. The two are seen to be in good agreement. The present study underscores the need to have a more reliable means of specifying the inlet boundary conditions for the k-epsilon turbulence model.
Transition-Sensitized Turbulence Models for Compressible and Incompressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thacker, William D.
2003-01-01
During the grant period from January 1,2002 to December 31,2002 work was carried out on three projects to extend the range of applicability of advanced turbulence models. First, a new transition-sensitized turbulence model was tested and refined. Second, the influence of compressibility on the pressure-strain rate correlation was studied. Third, the relationship between time-filtered large eddy simulation (TLES) and Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) modeling was investigated leading to submission of the article. The transition-sensitized turbulence model encompasses the early-stage transition and turbulent flow regimes describing the evolution of the ensemble mean disturbance energy and dissipation rate. It is founded on a consistent mathematical description of the laminar regime with its linear disturbances and the fully turbulent regime with its stochastic fluctuations. The unified description is provided by the ensemble viewpoint.
Fluid-plasma interaction in compressible unstable flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massa, Luca
2014-11-01
The receptivity of the boundary layer discrete modes to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuation is studied to improve the understanding of the interaction between non-equilibrium plasma and fluid in convectively amplified vortical layers. The momentum transfer induced by a DBD patch at various Reynolds numbers is evaluated using an adaptive mesh refinement computational solver in the Mach number regime 0.8-2.0. The energy of the induced modal perturbation is determined by weighting such a source term with the corresponding adjoint eigenfunctions. Conditions of maximum overlapping between the adjoint and the source term define the regimes of maximum receptivity and the locations of optimal placement of the DBD patch at different Mach and Reynolds numbers. The interaction between non-equilibrium plasma and the jet in cross flow is also being studied to determine the ability of DBD patches to influence mixing in the compressible regime, thus improving flame-holding in plasma assisted ignition and combustion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedro, J. B.; Báez Vidal, A.; Lehmkuhl, O.; Pérez Segarra, C. D.; Oliva, A.
2016-09-01
The objective of the present work is to validate the compressible Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) models implemented in the in house parallel unstructured CFD code TermoFluids. Our research team has implemented and tested several LES models over the past years for the incompressible regimen. In order to be able to solve complex turbulent compressible flows, the models are revisited and modified if necessary. In addition, the performance of the implemented hybrid advection scheme is an issue of interest for the numerical simulation of turbulent compressible flows. The models are tested in the well known turbulent channel flow problem at different compressible regimens.
Upgrade of Compressed Air Control System Reduces Energy Costs at Michelin Tire Plant
2002-01-01
This case study highlights the upgraded compressed air system at a Michelin tire manufacturing plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina. The controls upgrade project enabled multiple compressor operation without blow-off, and significantly reduced energy costs.
Effects of boundary layer and liquid viscosity and compressible air on sloshing characteristics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Chang-Fang; Wang, De-Yu; Cai, Zhong-Hua
2015-07-01
In this paper, numerical investigations for tank sloshing, based on commercial CFD package FLUENT, are performed to study effects of boundary layer grid, liquid viscosity and compressible air on sloshing pressure, wave height and rising time of impact pressure. Also, sloshing experiments for liquids of different viscosity are carried out to validate the numerical results. Through comparison of numerical and experimental results, a computational model including boundary layer grid can predict the sloshing pressure more accurately. Energy dissipation due to viscous friction leads to reduction of sloshing pressure and wave elevation. Sloshing pressure is also reduced because of cushion effect of compressible air. Due to high viscosity damping effect and compressible air effect, the rising time of impact pressure becomes longer. It is also found that liquid viscosity and compressible air influence distribution of dynamic pressure along the vertical tank wall.
Watkins, A.P.; Dessipris, S.; Khaleghi, H.
1987-01-01
Computational results are presented of air flow during the compression stroke of three engines with differently shaped piston bowls. The three dimensional computer code uses orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems to body fit the engine shapes. A parametric variation of bowl offset position and swirl ratio is performed to assess their effects on the mean flow and the turbulence parameters. The bowl shape and swirl ratio are found to be most influential. Bowl offset is less important except when combined with swirl in which case significant effects are made on the mean flow and to a lesser extent on the turbulence.
40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Air flow measurement specifications. 89.414 Section 89.414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement method...
40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications. 89.414 Section 89.414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement...
40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications. 89.414 Section 89.414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement...
Polar-coordinate lattice Boltzmann modeling of compressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Chuandong; Xu, Aiguo; Zhang, Guangcai; Li, Yingjun; Succi, Sauro
2014-01-01
We present a polar coordinate lattice Boltzmann kinetic model for compressible flows. A method to recover the continuum distribution function from the discrete distribution function is indicated. Within the model, a hybrid scheme being similar to, but different from, the operator splitting is proposed. The temporal evolution is calculated analytically, and the convection term is solved via a modified Warming-Beam (MWB) scheme. Within the MWB scheme a suitable switch function is introduced. The current model works not only for subsonic flows but also for supersonic flows. It is validated and verified via the following well-known benchmark tests: (i) the rotational flow, (ii) the stable shock tube problem, (iii) the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability, and (iv) the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. As an original application, we studied the nonequilibrium characteristics of the system around three kinds of interfaces, the shock wave, the rarefaction wave, and the material interface, for two specific cases. In one of the two cases, the material interface is initially perturbed, and consequently the RM instability occurs. It is found that the macroscopic effects due to deviating from thermodynamic equilibrium around the material interface differ significantly from those around the mechanical interfaces. The initial perturbation at the material interface enhances the coupling of molecular motions in different degrees of freedom. The amplitude of deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium around the shock wave is much higher than those around the rarefaction wave and material interface. By comparing each component of the high-order moments and its value in equilibrium, we can draw qualitatively the main behavior of the actual distribution function. These results deepen our understanding of the mechanical and material interfaces from a more fundamental level, which is indicative for constructing macroscopic models and other kinds of kinetic models.
Polar-coordinate lattice Boltzmann modeling of compressible flows.
Lin, Chuandong; Xu, Aiguo; Zhang, Guangcai; Li, Yingjun; Succi, Sauro
2014-01-01
We present a polar coordinate lattice Boltzmann kinetic model for compressible flows. A method to recover the continuum distribution function from the discrete distribution function is indicated. Within the model, a hybrid scheme being similar to, but different from, the operator splitting is proposed. The temporal evolution is calculated analytically, and the convection term is solved via a modified Warming-Beam (MWB) scheme. Within the MWB scheme a suitable switch function is introduced. The current model works not only for subsonic flows but also for supersonic flows. It is validated and verified via the following well-known benchmark tests: (i) the rotational flow, (ii) the stable shock tube problem, (iii) the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability, and (iv) the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. As an original application, we studied the nonequilibrium characteristics of the system around three kinds of interfaces, the shock wave, the rarefaction wave, and the material interface, for two specific cases. In one of the two cases, the material interface is initially perturbed, and consequently the RM instability occurs. It is found that the macroscopic effects due to deviating from thermodynamic equilibrium around the material interface differ significantly from those around the mechanical interfaces. The initial perturbation at the material interface enhances the coupling of molecular motions in different degrees of freedom. The amplitude of deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium around the shock wave is much higher than those around the rarefaction wave and material interface. By comparing each component of the high-order moments and its value in equilibrium, we can draw qualitatively the main behavior of the actual distribution function. These results deepen our understanding of the mechanical and material interfaces from a more fundamental level, which is indicative for constructing macroscopic models and other kinds of kinetic models.
2001-01-01
The energy team at Visteon’s Monroe plant, formerly owned by Ford Motor Company, implemented an ongoing compressed air system leak management program. The team developed an approach that combined a traditional “find and fix” effort with an innovative implementation and marketing program. As a result of the leak management program, compressed air system consumption was reduced by more than 50% on a per production unit basis.
Canandaigua Wines: Compressed Air System Upgrade Saves Energy and Improves Performance at a Winery
2005-03-01
In June 2004, Canandaigua Wine Company (CWC) completed an upgrade project on the compressed air system at its winery in Lodi, California. Before the project, the winery depended on two compressors to satisfy its production requirements. Anticipating an expansion of its production capacity, the winery commissioned a review of the compressed air system by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Qualifi ed AIRMaster+ Specialist at Atlas Copco Compressors, Inc.
Compression-ignition Engine Performance at Altitudes and at Various Air Pressures and Temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, Charles S; Collins, John H
1937-01-01
Engine test results are presented for simulated altitude conditions. A displaced-piston combustion chamber on a 5- by 7-inch single cylinder compression-ignition engine operating at 2,000 r.p.m. was used. Inlet air temperature equivalent to standard altitudes up to 14,000 feet were obtained. Comparison between performance at altitude of the unsupercharged compression-ignition engine compared favorably with the carburetor engine. Analysis of the results for which the inlet air temperature, inlet air pressure, and inlet and exhaust pressure were varied indicates that engine performance cannot be reliably corrected on the basis of inlet air density or weight of air charge. Engine power increases with inlet air pressure and decreases with inlet air temperatures very nearly as straight line relations over a wide range of air-fuel ratios. Correction factors are given.
40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225... flow meter. (a) Application. You may use an intake-air flow meter in combination with a chemical..., you may use an intake-air flow meter signal that does not give the actual value of raw exhaust, as...
40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225... flow meter. (a) Application. You may use an intake-air flow meter in combination with a chemical..., you may use an intake-air flow meter signal that does not give the actual value of raw exhaust, as...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrick, Joseph T; Ginsburg, Ambrose; Osborn, Walter M
1952-01-01
A method is presented for analysis of the compressible flow between the hub and the shroud of mixed-flow impellers of arbitrary design. Axial symmetry was assumed, but the forces in the meridional (hub to shroud) plane, which are derived from tangential pressure gradients, were taken into account. The method was applied to an experimental mixed-flow impeller. The analysis of the flow in the meridional plane of the impeller showed that the rotational forces, the blade curvature, and the hub-shroud profile can introduce severe velocity gradients along the hub and the shroud surfaces. Choked flow at the impeller inlet as determined by the analysis was verified by experimental results.
The Calculation of Compressible Flows with Local Regions of Supersonic Velocity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goethert, B.; Kawalki, K. H.
1947-01-01
This report addresses a method for the approximate calculation of compressible flows about profiles with local regions of supersonic velocity. The flow around a slender profile is treated as an example.
A parallel explicit solver for unsteady compressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akay, H. U.; Ecer, A.; Kemle, W. B.
A previously developed sequential solver for unsteady compressible Euler equations is implemented on INTEL iPSC/860 parallel computer. An explicit finite element formulation using Clebsch variable form of the Euler equations is presented. A streamwise upwinding technique is employed for introducing artificial diffusion to convective terms. Applications are presented for the solution of transonic potential equations. For parallel implementation of the method, the three-dimensional solution domain is partitioned into a number of subdomains requiring each subdomain to reside on a separate processor for parallel computations. The exchange of information between the solution blocks is due to overlapped boundaries at the block interfaces. The same algorithm can also be applied to steady flows by continuing the time integrations until the steady flow conditions are reached. It has been observed that the convergence rate to steady state is affected little with increased number of solution blocks. Efficiency curves for nearly-balanced loads are obtained for different partitioning algorithms. The partition efficiency is shown to affect the central processing unit (CPU) efficiency of the algorithm directly.
Compressible turbulent channel flow with impedance boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scalo, Carlo; Bodart, Julien; Lele, Sanjiva
2014-11-01
We have performed large-eddy simulations of compressible turbulent channel flow at one bulk Reynolds number, Reb = 6900, for bulk Mach numbers Mb = 0.05, 0.2, 0.5, with linear acoustic impedance boundary conditions (IBCs). The IBCs are formulated in the time domain following Fung and Ju (2004) and coupled with a Navier-Stokes solver. The impedance model adopted is a three-parameter Helmholtz oscillator with resonant frequency tuned to the outer layer eddies. The IBC's resistance, R, has been varied in the range, R = 0.01, 0.10, 1.00. Tuned IBCs result in a noticeable drag increase for sufficiently high Mb and/or low R, exceeding 300% for Mb = 0.5 and R = 0.01, and thus represents a promising passive control technique for delaying boundary layer separation and/or enhancing wall heat transfer. Alterations to the turbulent flow structure are confined to the first 15% of the boundary layer thickness where the classical buffer-layer coherent vortical structures are replaced by an array of Kelvin-Helmholtz-like rollers. The non-zero asymptotic value of the Reynolds shear stress gradient at the wall results in the disappearance of the viscous sublayer and very early departure of the mean velocity profiles from the law of the wall.
Compressible turbulent channel flow with impedance boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scalo, Carlo; Bodart, Julien; Lele, Sanjiva K.
2015-03-01
We have performed large-eddy simulations of isothermal-wall compressible turbulent channel flow with linear acoustic impedance boundary conditions (IBCs) for the wall-normal velocity component and no-slip conditions for the tangential velocity components. Three bulk Mach numbers, Mb = 0.05, 0.2, 0.5, with a fixed bulk Reynolds number, Reb = 6900, have been investigated. For each Mb, nine different combinations of IBC settings were tested, in addition to a reference case with impermeable walls, resulting in a total of 30 simulations. The adopted numerical coupling strategy allows for a spatially and temporally consistent imposition of physically realizable IBCs in a fully explicit compressible Navier-Stokes solver. The IBCs are formulated in the time domain according to Fung and Ju ["Time-domain impedance boundary conditions for computational acoustics and aeroacoustics," Int. J. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 18(6), 503-511 (2004)]. The impedance adopted is a three-parameter damped Helmholtz oscillator with resonant angular frequency, ωr, tuned to the characteristic time scale of the large energy-containing eddies. The tuning condition, which reads ωr = 2πMb (normalized with the speed of sound and channel half-width), reduces the IBCs' free parameters to two: the damping ratio, ζ, and the resistance, R, which have been varied independently with values, ζ = 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, and R = 0.01, 0.10, 1.00, for each Mb. The application of the tuned IBCs results in a drag increase up to 300% for Mb = 0.5 and R = 0.01. It is shown that for tuned IBCs, the resistance, R, acts as the inverse of the wall-permeability and that varying the damping ratio, ζ, has a secondary effect on the flow response. Typical buffer-layer turbulent structures are completely suppressed by the application of tuned IBCs. A new resonance buffer layer is established characterized by large spanwise-coherent Kelvin-Helmholtz rollers, with a well-defined streamwise wavelength λx, traveling downstream with
Flynn, M R; Gatano, B L; McKernan, J L; Dunn, K H; Blazicko, B A; Carlton, G N
1999-01-01
This paper presents a mathematical model to predict breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting in cross-flow ventilated booths. The model focuses on characterizing the generation and transport of overspray mist. It extends previous work on conventional spray guns to include exposures generated by HVLP guns. Dimensional analysis and scale model wind-tunnel studies are employed using non-volatile oils, instead of paint, to produce empirical equations for estimating exposure to total mass. Results indicate that a dimensionless breathing zone concentration is a nonlinear function of the ratio of momentum flux of air from the spray gun to the momentum flux of air passing through the projected area of the worker's body. The orientation of the spraying operation within the booth is also very significant. The exposure model requires an estimate of the contaminant generation rate, which is approximated by a simple impactor model. The results represent an initial step in the construction of more realistic models capable of predicting exposure as a mathematical function of the governing parameters.
Compressed Air System Survey at Sierra Army Depot, CA
2000-11-01
time. Each station uses a paint gun (mostly HVLP guns with a capacity of 5 SCFM are used, but occasionally HPLV guns with a capacity of 8 SCFM may be...SCFM. d. Air release from the two CO monitors for a total of 30 SCFM. e. Occasional application of air guns , one unit at a given time, 5 SCFM...a. This shop used various types of air tools. The major air users in- clude air hammers, drills, sanders, air guns , and impact wrenches. Pneumatic
Gardner, William Payton
2013-06-01
The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a
Compressed Air System Improvements Increase Production at a Tin Mill (Weirton Plant)
2000-12-01
In 1999, Weirton Steel completed a project in which the compressed air system at their tin mill in Weirton, West Virginia was completely overhauled. The installation of new compressors, the addition of air treatment equipment, and the repair of leaks significantly reduced compressor shutdowns, production downtime, and product rejects.
Optical Air Flow Measurements for Flight Tests and Flight Testing Optical Air Flow Meters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jentink, Henk W.; Bogue, Rodney K.
2005-01-01
Optical air flow measurements can support the testing of aircraft and can be instrumental to in-flight investigations of the atmosphere or atmospheric phenomena. Furthermore, optical air flow meters potentially contribute as avionics systems to flight safety and as air data systems. The qualification of these instruments for the flight environment is where we encounter the systems in flight testing. An overview is presented of different optical air flow measurement techniques applied in flight and what can be achieved with the techniques for flight test purposes is reviewed. All in-flight optical airflow velocity measurements use light scattering. Light is scattered on both air molecules and aerosols entrained in the air. Basic principles of making optical measurements in flight, some basic optical concepts, electronic concepts, optoelectronic interfaces, and some atmospheric processes associated with natural aerosols are reviewed. Safety aspects in applying the technique are shortly addressed. The different applications of the technique are listed and some typical examples are presented. Recently NASA acquired new data on mountain rotors, mountain induced turbulence, with the ACLAIM system. Rotor position was identified using the lidar system and the potentially hazardous air flow profile was monitored by the ACLAIM system.
Alkadi, Nasr E; Kissock, Professor Kelly
2011-01-01
The automotive industry is the largest industry in the United States in terms of the dollar value of production [1]. U.S. automakers face tremendous pressure from foreign competitors, which have an increasing manufacturing presence in this country. The Big Three North American Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler are reacting to declining sales figures and economic strain by working more efficiently and seeking out opportunities to reduce production costs without negatively affecting the production volume or the quality of the product. Successful, cost-effective investment and implementation of the energy efficiency technologies and practices meet the challenge of maintaining the output of high quality product with reduced production costs. Automotive stamping and assembly plants are typically large users of compressed air with annual compressed air utility bills in the range of $2M per year per plant. This paper focuses on practical methods that the authors have researched, analyzed and implemented to improve compressed air system efficiency in automobile manufacturing facilities. It describes typical compressed air systems in automotive stamping and assembly plants, and compares these systems to best practices. The paper then presents a series of examples, organized using the method of inside-out approach, which strategically identifies the energy savings in the compressed air system by first minimizing end-use demand, then minimizing distribution losses, and finally making improvements to primary energy conversion equipment, the air compressor plant.
Review of air flow measurement techniques
McWilliams, Jennifer
2002-12-01
Airflow measurement techniques are necessary to determine the most basic of indoor air quality questions: ''Is there enough fresh air to provide a healthy environment for the occupants of the building?'' This paper outlines airflow measurement techniques, but it does not make recommendations for techniques that should be used. The airflows that will be discussed are those within a room or zone, those between rooms or zones, such as through doorways (open or closed) or passive vents, those between the building and outdoors, and those through mechanical air distribution systems. Techniques that are highlighted include particle streak velocimetry, hot wire anemometry, fan pressurization (measuring flow at a given pressure), tracer gas, acoustic methods for leak size determination, the Delta Q test to determine duct leakage flows, and flow hood measurements. Because tracer gas techniques are widely used to measure airflow, this topic is broken down into sections as follows: decay, pulse injection, constant injection, constant concentration, passive sampling, and single and multiple gas measurements for multiple zones.
Effect of a Shear Layer on the Stability of an Axisymmetric External Compression Air Intake,
1985-10-21
ID , E = OF A SHEAR LAY ON THE STABILITY OF AN AXISYI4~M=C EXTERNAL QYM2RESSION AIR INTAKE by Z. Kunyuan, Y. Shaozhi, P. Chenyi Approved for public...t 110E 4 EFFECT OF A SItEAR LAYER ON THE STABILITY OF AN AXISYMMETRICEXTERNAL COMPRESSION AIR INTAKE Zhang Kunyuan, Yu Shaozhi, Peng Chenyi (Nanjing...positions on the stability of a variable center cone external compression air intake under the condition of a M 1.72 incident stream. It was experimentally
Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.
2011-07-15
This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage
A compressibility correction of the pressure strain correlation model in turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klifi, Hechmi; Lili, Taieb
2013-07-01
This paper is devoted to the second-order closure for compressible turbulent flows with special attention paid to modeling the pressure-strain correlation appearing in the Reynolds stress equation. This term appears as the main one responsible for the changes of the turbulence structures that arise from structural compressibility effects. From the analysis and DNS results of Simone et al. and Sarkar, the compressibility effects on the homogeneous turbulence shear flow are parameterized by the gradient Mach number. Several experiment and DNS results suggest that the convective Mach number is appropriate to study the compressibility effects on the mixing layers. The extension of the LRR model recently proposed by Marzougui, Khlifi and Lili for the pressure-strain correlation gives results that are in disagreement with the DNS results of Sarkar for high-speed shear flows. This extension is revised to derive a turbulence model for the pressure-strain correlation in which the compressibility is included in the turbulent Mach number, the gradient Mach number and then the convective Mach number. The behavior of the proposed model is compared to the compressible model of Adumitroiae et al. for the pressure-strain correlation in two turbulent compressible flows: homogeneous shear flow and mixing layers. In compressible homogeneous shear flows, the predicted results are compared with the DNS data of Simone et al. and those of Sarkar. For low compressibility, the two compressible models are similar, but they become substantially different at high compressibilities. The proposed model shows good agreement with all cases of DNS results. Those of Adumitroiae et al. do not reflect any effect of a change in the initial value of the gradient Mach number on the Reynolds stress anisotropy. The models are used to simulate compressible mixing layers. Comparison of our predictions with those of Adumitroiae et al. and with the experimental results of Goebel et al. shows good qualitative
Local conservative regularizations of compressible magnetohydrodynamic and neutral flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnaswami, Govind S.; Sachdev, Sonakshi; Thyagaraja, A.
2016-02-01
Ideal systems like magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and Euler flow may develop singularities in vorticity ( w =∇×v ). Viscosity and resistivity provide dissipative regularizations of the singularities. In this paper, we propose a minimal, local, conservative, nonlinear, dispersive regularization of compressible flow and ideal MHD, in analogy with the KdV regularization of the 1D kinematic wave equation. This work extends and significantly generalizes earlier work on incompressible Euler and ideal MHD. It involves a micro-scale cutoff length λ which is a function of density, unlike in the incompressible case. In MHD, it can be taken to be of order the electron collisionless skin depth c/ωpe. Our regularization preserves the symmetries of the original systems and, with appropriate boundary conditions, leads to associated conservation laws. Energy and enstrophy are subject to a priori bounds determined by initial data in contrast to the unregularized systems. A Hamiltonian and Poisson bracket formulation is developed and applied to generalize the constitutive relation to bound higher moments of vorticity. A "swirl" velocity field is identified, and shown to transport w/ρ and B/ρ, generalizing the Kelvin-Helmholtz and Alfvén theorems. The steady regularized equations are used to model a rotating vortex, MHD pinch, and a plane vortex sheet. The proposed regularization could facilitate numerical simulations of fluid/MHD equations and provide a consistent statistical mechanics of vortices/current filaments in 3D, without blowup of enstrophy. Implications for detailed analyses of fluid and plasma dynamic systems arising from our work are briefly discussed.
Undergraduate Studies on Compressible Flows and Shock Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stein, Keith; Schommer, Jennifer; Heppner, Benjamin
2012-02-01
The Bethel University physics department believes advanced lab projects and undergraduate research experiences are crucial in the development of our students, particularly those that pursue graduate studies in physics, engineering and other applied fields. Open-ended advanced lab projects are key components in several upper level physics courses. Student project work in a specific course is often enhanced by student experiences in other upper level physics courses or other research experiences. For example, projects in Fluid Mechanics (PHY420) are often enriched by experiences that students bring from projects in Optics (PHY330) and Computer Methods in Physics (PHY350). We present examples from recent undergraduate projects on compressible flows and shock waves. Special attention is given to a project involving the design, construction, and initial testing of a small supersonic blowdown tunnel. This facility was initially constructed as part of a project in Fluid Mechanics (fall 2010). Subsequent student research projects have included high-speed video shadowgraph imaging (summer 2011) and the development of a MATLAB GUI to allow for side-by-side comparisons between simulation and ongoing experiments with the tunnel (fall 2011).
Energy-Dependent Octagonal Lattice Boltzmann Modeling for Compressible Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavlo, Pavol; Vahala, Linda; Vahala, George
2000-10-01
There has been much interest in thermal lattice Boltzmann modeling (TLBM) for compressible flows because of their inherent parallelizeability. Instead of applying CFD techniques to the nonlinear conservation equations, one instead solves a linear BGK kinetic equation. To reduce storage requirements, the velocity space is discretized and lattice geometries are so chosen to minimize the number of degrees of freedom that must be retained in the Chapman-Enskog recovery of the original macroscopic equations. The simplest (and most efficient) TLBM runs at a CFL=1, so that no numerical diffusion or dissipation is introduced. The algorithm involves Lagrangian streaming (shift operator) and purely local operations. Because of the underlying discrete lattice symmetry, the relaxation distributions cannot be Maxwellian and hence the inherent numerical instability problem in TLBM. We are investigating the use of energy-dependent lattices so as to allow simulation of problems of interest in divertor physics, The appeal of TLBM is that it can provide a unified representation for both strongly collisional (‘fluid’) and weakly collisional (‘Monte Carlo’) regimes. Moreover, our TLBM code is more efficiently solved on mulit-PE platforms than the corresponding CFD codes and is readily extended to 3D. MHD can also be handled by TLBM.
A general method to determine the stability of compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guenther, R. A.; Chang, I. D.
1982-01-01
Several problems were studied using two completely different approaches. The initial method was to use the standard linearized perturbation theory by finding the value of the individual small disturbance quantities based on the equations of motion. These were serially eliminated from the equations of motion to derive a single equation that governs the stability of fluid dynamic system. These equations could not be reduced unless the steady state variable depends only on one coordinate. The stability equation based on one dependent variable was found and was examined to determine the stability of a compressible swirling jet. The second method applied a Lagrangian approach to the problem. Since the equations developed were based on different assumptions, the condition of stability was compared only for the Rayleigh problem of a swirling flow, both examples reduce to the Rayleigh criterion. This technique allows including the viscous shear terms which is not possible in the first method. The same problem was then examined to see what effect shear has on stability.
A Feasibility Study on Operating Large Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage in Porous Formations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, B.; Pfeiffer, W. T.; Li, D.; Bauer, S.
2015-12-01
Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous formations has been considered as one promising option of large scale energy storage for decades. This study, hereby, aims at analyzing the feasibility of operating large scale CAES in porous formations and evaluating the performance of underground porous gas reservoirs. To address these issues quantitatively, a hypothetic CAES scenario with a typical anticline structure in northern Germany was numerically simulated. Because of the rapid growth in photovoltaics, the period of extraction in a daily cycle was set to the early morning and the late afternoon in order to bypass the massive solar energy production around noon. The gas turbine scenario was defined referring to the specifications of the Huntorf CAES power plant. The numerical simulations involved two stages, i.e. initial fill and cyclic operation, and both were carried out using the Eclipse E300 simulator (Schlumberger). Pressure loss in the gas wells was post analyzed using an analytical solution. The exergy concept was applied to evaluate the potential energy amount stored in the specific porous formation. The simulation results show that porous formations prove to be a feasible solution of large scale CAES. The initial fill with shut-in periods determines the spatial distribution of the gas phase and helps to achieve higher gas saturation around the wells, and thus higher deliverability. The performance evaluation shows that the overall exergy flow of stored compressed air is also determined by the permeability, which directly affects the deliverability of the gas reservoir and thus the number of wells required.
A survey of air flow models for multizone structures
Feustel, H.E.; Dieris, J.
1991-03-01
Air flow models are used to simulate the rates of incoming and outgoing air flows for a building with known leakage under given weather and shielding conditions. Additional information about the flow paths and air-mass flows inside the building can only by using multizone air flow models. In order to obtain more information on multizone air flow models, a literature review was performed in 1984. A second literature review and a questionnaire survey performed in 1989, revealed the existence of 50 multizone air flow models, all developed since 1966, two of which are still under development. All these programs use similar flow equations for crack flow but differ in the versatility to describe the full range of flow phenomena and the algorithm provided for solving the set of nonlinear equations. This literature review was found that newer models are able to describe and simulate the ventilation systems and interrelation of mechanical and natural ventilation. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
30 CFR 57.22213 - Air flow (III mines).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air flow (III mines). 57.22213 Section 57.22213... Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22213 Air flow (III mines). The quantity of air... longwall and continuous miner sections. The quantity of air across each face at a work place shall be...
30 CFR 57.22213 - Air flow (III mines).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air flow (III mines). 57.22213 Section 57.22213... Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22213 Air flow (III mines). The quantity of air... longwall and continuous miner sections. The quantity of air across each face at a work place shall be at...
40 CFR 90.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure...
40 CFR 90.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure...
40 CFR 90.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Intake air flow measurement... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure...
40 CFR 90.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure...
Simulations of Direct Current Glow Discharges in Supersonic Air Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahadevan, Shankar; Raja, Laxminarayan
2008-10-01
In recent years, there have been a significant number of computational and experimental studies investigating the application of plasma discharges as actuators for high speed flow control. The relative importance of the actuation mechanisms: volumetric heating and electrostatic forcing can be established by developing self-consistent models of the plasma and bulk supersonic flow. To simulate the plasma discharge in a supersonic air stream, a fluid model of the glow discharge is coupled with a compressible Navier-Stokes solver in a self-consistent manner. Source terms for the momentum and energy equations are calculated from the plasma model and input into the Navier-Stokes solver. In turn, the pressure, gas temperature and velocity fields from the Navier-Stokes solution are fed back into the plasma model. The results include plasma species number density contour maps in the absence and presence of Mach 3 supersonic flow, and the corresponding effect of the glow discharge on gas dynamic properties such as the gas pressure and temperature. We also examine the effect of increasing the discharge voltage on the structure of the discharge and its corresponding effect on the supersonic flow.
Numerical calculation of steady inviscid full potential compressible flow about wind turbine blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dulikravich, D. S.
1980-01-01
The air flow through a propeller-type wind turbine rotor is characterized by three-dimensional rotating cascade effects about the inner portions of the rotor blades and compressibility effects about the tip regions of the blades. In the case of large rotor diameter and/or increased rotor angular speed, the existence of small supersonic zones terminated by weak shocks is possible. An exact nonlinear mathematical model (called a steady Full Potential Equation - FPE) that accounts for the above phenomena has been rederived. An artificially time dependent version of FPE was iteratively solved by a finite volume technique involving an artificial viscosity and a three-level consecutive mesh refinement. The exact boundary conditions were applied by generating a boundary conforming periodic computation mesh.
Stability and control of compressible flows over a surface with concave-conves curvature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maestrello, L.; Bayliss, A.; Parikh, P.; Turkel, E.
1986-01-01
The active control of spatially unstable disturbances in a laminar, two-dimensional, compressible boundary layer over a curved surface is numerically simulated. The control is effected by localized time-periodic surface heating. We consider two similar surfaces of different heights with concave-convex curvature. In one, the height is sufficiently large so that the favorable pressure gradient is sufficient to stabilize a particular disturbance. In the other case the pressure gradient induced by the curvature is destabilizing. It is shown that by using active control that the disturbance can be stabilized. The results demonstrate that the curvature induced mean pressure gradient significantly enhances the receptivity of the flow localized time-periodic surface heating and that this is a potentially viable mechanism in air.
Numerical calculation of steady inviscid full potential compressible flow about wind turbine blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dulikravich, D. S.
1980-01-01
The air flow through a propeller-type wind turbine rotor is characterized by three-dimensional rotating cascade effects about the inner portions of the rotor blades and compressibility effects about the tip regions of the blades. In the case of large rotor diameter and/or increased rotor angular speed, the existence of small supersonic zones terminated by weak shocks is possible. An exact nonlinear mathematical model (called a steady Full Potential Equation - FPE) that accounts for the above phenomena has been rederived. An artificially time dependent version of FPE was iteratively solved by a finite volume technique involving an artificial viscosity and a three-level consecutive mesh refinement. The exact boundary conditions were applied by generating a boundary conforming periodic computation mesh.
Zaleska, Marzanna T; Olszewski, Waldemar L
2017-07-20
The commonly used modalities for therapy of limb lymphedema are manual lymphatic drainage, manual devices moving edema fluid and intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC). What seems to be necessary for validation of the effect of the compression procedure is imaging of the mobilized moving edema fluid. Picture of edema fluid flow would allow the therapist to use force adjusted to the tissue volume and stiffness differing in various limb regions as well as identify sites of abundant accumulation of fluid requiring more compression. The purpose of the present study was visualise tissue edema fluid flow during manual drainage, Linforoll massage, intermittent pneumatic compression and bandaging. To obtain data how high compression pressures should be used to mobilize ICG stained fluid, concomitantly tissue fluid pressure measurements were done. The following observations were obtained: a) the possibility of real time observation of edema fluid movement using various compression modalities, b) the threshold pressures necessary to move edema fluid to be over 80 mmHg in the compression device and over 40 mmHg in the tissue fluid, c) inefficacy of compression in some cases despite of applying high compression force. These observations point to the need of ICG lymphangiography before compression therapy in each patient. The images observed during the compression procedure give an insight into the distribution of edema fluid, sites of its accumulation and efficacy of applied external force on fluid mobilization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Effects of Compressibility on the Flow Past Thick Airfoil Sections
1948-07-01
Tests of Airfoils Designed to Delay the Compressibility Burble . NACA Rep. No. 763, 19^3• 3. Stack, John, Lindsey, W. F., and Littell, Robert E.: The...Compressi- bility Burble and the Effect of Compressibility on Pressures and Forces Acting on an Airfoil. NACA Rep. No. 6k6, 1938. k. Byrne, Robert
Li, Honggang; Zhou, Zhenggan
2017-07-01
Air-coupled ultrasonic testing systems are usually restricted by low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The use of pulse compression techniques based on P4 Polyphase codes can improve the ultrasound SNR. This type of codes can generate higher Peak Side Lobe (PSL) ratio and lower noise of compressed signal. This paper proposes the use of P4 Polyphase sequences to code ultrasound with a NDT system based on air-coupled piezoelectric transducer. Furthermore, the principle of selecting parameters of P4 Polyphase sequence for obtaining optimal pulse compression effect is also studied. Successful results are presented in molded composite material. A hybrid signal processing method for improvement in SNR up to 12.11dB and in time domain resolution about 35% are achieved when compared with conventional pulse compression technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Air flow patterns in the operating theatre.
Howorth, F H
1980-04-01
Bacteria-carrying particles and exhaled anaesthetic gases are the two contaminants found in the air flow patterns of operating rooms. Their origin, direction and speed were illustrated by a motion picture using Schlieren photography and smoke tracers. Compared with a conventionally well air conditioned operating theatre, it was shown that a downward flow of clean air reduced the number of bacteria-carrying particles at the wound site by sixty times. The Exflow method of achieving this without the restriction of any side panels or floor obstruction was described. The total body exhaust worn by the surgical team was shown to reduce the bacteria count by a further eleven times. Clinical results show that when both these systems are used together, patient infection was reduced from 9 per cent to between 0.3 per cent and 0.5 per cent, even when no pre-operative antibiotics were used. Anaesthetic gas pollution was measured and shown to be generally 1000 p.p.m. at the head of the patient, in induction, operating and recovery rooms, also in dental and labour rooms. A high volume low pressure active scavenging system was described together with its various attachments including one specially for paediatric scavenging. Results showed a reduction of nitrous oxide pollution to between zero and 3 p.p.m. The economy and cost effectiveness of both these pollution control systems was shown to be good due to the removal of health hazards from patients and theatre staff.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zang, Thomas A.; Mathelin, Lionel; Hussaini, M. Yousuff; Bataille, Francoise
2003-01-01
This paper describes a fully spectral, Polynomial Chaos method for the propagation of uncertainty in numerical simulations of compressible, turbulent flow, as well as a novel stochastic collocation algorithm for the same application. The stochastic collocation method is key to the efficient use of stochastic methods on problems with complex nonlinearities, such as those associated with the turbulence model equations in compressible flow and for CFD schemes requiring solution of a Riemann problem. Both methods are applied to compressible flow in a quasi-one-dimensional nozzle. The stochastic collocation method is roughly an order of magnitude faster than the fully Galerkin Polynomial Chaos method on the inviscid problem.
Modeling turbulent compressible flows - The mass fluctuating velocity and squared density
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taulbee, D.; Vanosdol, J.
1991-01-01
This paper deals with single-point closure theory for compressible turbulent flow, including the effects of compressibility on the turbulence. In particular, the combination of the pressure dilatation and the dilatation dissipation, terms which appear on the turbulent kinetic energy equation, are modeled. Model parameters in these transport equations are determined by comparing predictions with boundary layer measurements. Finally, predictions with a k-epsilon model, including the new formulations, are presented for the compressible shear layer.
Reattachment heating upstream of short compression ramps in hypersonic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Estruch-Samper, David
2016-05-01
Hypersonic shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions with separation induce unsteady thermal loads of particularly high intensity in flow reattachment regions. Building on earlier semi-empirical correlations, the maximum heat transfer rates upstream of short compression ramp obstacles of angles 15° ⩽ θ ⩽ 135° are here discretised based on time-dependent experimental measurements to develop insight into their transient nature (Me = 8.2-12.3, Re_h= 0.17× 105-0.47× 105). Interactions with an incoming laminar boundary layer experience transition at separation, with heat transfer oscillating between laminar and turbulent levels exceeding slightly those in fully turbulent interactions. Peak heat transfer rates are strongly influenced by the stagnation of the flow upon reattachment close ahead of obstacles and increase with ramp angle all the way up to θ =135°, whereby rates well over two orders of magnitude above the undisturbed laminar levels are intermittently measured (q'_max>10^2q_{u,L}). Bearing in mind the varying degrees of strength in the competing effect between the inviscid and viscous terms—namely the square of the hypersonic similarity parameter (Mθ )^2 for strong interactions and the viscous interaction parameter bar{χ } (primarily a function of Re and M)—the two physical factors that appear to most globally encompass the effects of peak heating for blunt ramps (θ ⩾ 45°) are deflection angle and stagnation heat transfer, so that this may be fundamentally expressed as q'_max∝ {q_{o,2D}} θ ^2 with further parameters in turn influencing the interaction to a lesser extent. The dominant effect of deflection angle is restricted to short obstacle heights, where the rapid expansion at the top edge of the obstacle influences the relaxation region just downstream of reattachment and leads to an upstream displacement of the separation front. The extreme heating rates result from the strengthening of the reattaching shear layer with the increase in
The least-squares finite element method for low-mach-number compressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yu, Sheng-Tao
1994-01-01
The present paper reports the development of the Least-Squares Finite Element Method (LSFEM) for simulating compressible viscous flows at low Mach numbers in which the incompressible flows pose as an extreme. Conventional approach requires special treatments for low-speed flows calculations: finite difference and finite volume methods are based on the use of the staggered grid or the preconditioning technique; and, finite element methods rely on the mixed method and the operator-splitting method. In this paper, however, we show that such difficulty does not exist for the LSFEM and no special treatment is needed. The LSFEM always leads to a symmetric, positive-definite matrix through which the compressible flow equations can be effectively solved. Two numerical examples are included to demonstrate the method: first, driven cavity flows at various Reynolds numbers; and, buoyancy-driven flows with significant density variation. Both examples are calculated by using full compressible flow equations.
Combustor air flow control method for fuel cell apparatus
Clingerman, Bruce J.; Mowery, Kenneth D.; Ripley, Eugene V.
2001-01-01
A method for controlling the heat output of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual air inlet streams including atmospheric air and fuel cell cathode effluent containing oxygen depleted air. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is provided by regulating the quantity of the air flow stream to the combustor to support fuel cell processor heat requirements. A control provides a quick fast forward change in an air valve orifice cross section in response to a calculated predetermined air flow, the molar constituents of the air stream to the combustor, the pressure drop across the air valve, and a look up table of the orifice cross sectional area and valve steps. A feedback loop fine tunes any error between the measured air flow to the combustor and the predetermined air flow.
Suppression of Cavity-Driven Flow Separation in a Simulated Mixed Compression Inlet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wendt, Bruce J.
2000-01-01
A test facility designed to simulate a bifurcated subsonic diffuser operating within a mixed compression inlet is described. The subsonic diffuser in this facility modeled a bypass cavity feature often used in mixed compression inlets for engine flow matching and normal shock control. A bypass cavity-driven flow separation was seen to occur in the subsonic diffuser without applied flow control. Flow control in the form of vortex generators and/or a partitioned bypass cavity cover plate were used to eliminate this flow separation, providing a 2% increase in area-averaged total pressure recovery, and a 70% reduction in circumferential distortion intensity.
Analytical skin friction and heat transfer formula for compressible internal flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dechant, Lawrence J.; Tattar, Marc J.
1994-01-01
An analytic, closed-form friction formula for turbulent, internal, compressible, fully developed flow was derived by extending the incompressible law-of-the-wall relation to compressible cases. The model is capable of analyzing heat transfer as a function of constant surface temperatures and surface roughness as well as analyzing adiabatic conditions. The formula reduces to Prandtl's law of friction for adiabatic, smooth, axisymmetric flow. In addition, the formula reduces to the Colebrook equation for incompressible, adiabatic, axisymmetric flow with various roughnesses. Comparisons with available experiments show that the model averages roughly 12.5 percent error for adiabatic flow and 18.5 percent error for flow involving heat transfer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jarvis, Alexandra-Selene
Renewable Energy Systems (RES) such as solar and wind, are expected to play a progressively significant role in electricity production as the world begins to move away from an almost total reliance on nonrenewable sources of power. In the US there is increasing investment in RES as the Department of Energy (DOE) expands its wind power network to encompass the use of offshore wind resources in places such as the South Carolina (SC) Atlantic Coastal Plain. Because of their unstable nature, RES cannot be used as reliable grid-scale power sources unless power is somehow stored during excess production and recovered at times of insufficiency. Only two technologies have been cited as capable of storing renewable energy at this scale: Pumped Hydro Storage and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). Both CAES power plants in existence today use solution-mined caverns as their storage spaces. This project focuses on exploring the feasibility of employing the CAES method to store excess wind energy in sand aquifers. The numerical multiphase flow code, TOUGH2, was used to build models that approximate subsurface sand formations similar to those found in SC. Although the aquifers of SC have very low dips, less than 10, the aquifers in this study were modeled as flat, or having dips of 00. Cycle efficiency is defined here as the amount of energy recovered compared to the amount of energy injected. Both 2D and 3D simulations have shown that the greatest control on cycle efficiency is the volume of air that can be recovered from the aquifer after injection. Results from 2D simulations showed that using a dual daily peak load schedule instead of a single daily peak load schedule increased cycle efficiency as do the following parameters: increased anisotropy, screening the well in the upper portions of the aquifer, reduced aquifer thickness, and an initial water displacement by the continuous injection of air for at least 60 days. Aquifer permeability of 1x10-12 m2 produced a cycle
Decentralized and Tactical Air Traffic Flow Management
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Odoni, Amedeo R.; Bertsimas, Dimitris
1997-01-01
This project dealt with the following topics: 1. Review and description of the existing air traffic flow management system (ATFM) and identification of aspects with potential for improvement. 2. Identification and review of existing models and simulations dealing with all system segments (enroute, terminal area, ground) 3. Formulation of concepts for overall decentralization of the ATFM system, ranging from moderate decentralization to full decentralization 4. Specification of the modifications to the ATFM system required to accommodate each of the alternative concepts. 5. Identification of issues that need to be addressed with regard to: determination of the way the ATFM system would be operating; types of flow management strategies that would be used; and estimation of the effectiveness of ATFM with regard to reducing delay and re-routing costs. 6. Concept evaluation through identification of criteria and methodologies for accommodating the interests of stakeholders and of approaches to optimization of operational procedures for all segments of the ATFM system.
On the convergence of the weakly compressible sharp-interface method for two-phase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schranner, Felix S.; Hu, Xiangyu; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2016-11-01
A weakly compressible sharp-interface framework for two-phase flows is presented. Special emphasis is on investigating its convergence properties. For this purpose a well-defined set of benchmark configurations is introduced. These may serve as future references for the verification of sharp-interface methods. Global mass and momentum conservation is ensured by the conservative sharp-interface method. Viscous and capillary stresses are considered directly at the interface. A low-dissipation weakly compressible Roe Riemann solver, in combination with a 5th-order WENO scheme, leads to high spatial accuracy. A wavelet-based adaptive multi-resolution approach permits to combine computational efficiency with physical consistency. The first test configuration is a Rayleigh-Taylor instability at moderate Reynolds number and infinite Eötvös number. A second group of benchmark cases are isolated air bubbles rising in water at high Eötvös numbers, and low to high Reynolds numbers. With these test cases, three distinct types of complex interface evolution, which are typical for a wide range of industrial applications, are realized.
Laser ignition of hypersonic air-hydrogen flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brieschenk, S.; Kleine, H.; O'Byrne, S.
2013-09-01
An experimental investigation of the behaviour of laser-induced ignition in a hypersonic air-hydrogen flow is presented. A compression-ramp model with port-hole injection, fuelled with hydrogen gas, is used in the study. The experiments were conducted in the T-ADFA shock tunnel using a flow condition with a specific total enthalpy of 2.5 MJ/kg and a freestream velocity of 2 km/s. This study is the first comprehensive laser spark study in a hypersonic flow and demonstrates that laser-induced ignition at the fuel-injection site can be effective in terms of hydroxyl production. A semi-empirical method to estimate the conditions in the laser-heated gas kernel is presented in the paper. This method uses blast-wave theory together with an expansion-wave model to estimate the laser-heated gas conditions. The spatially averaged conditions found with this approach are matched to enthalpy curves generated using a standard chemical equilibrium code (NASA CEA). This allows us to account for differences that are introduced due to the idealised description of the blast wave, the isentropic expansion wave as well as thermochemical effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Y.; Leon, A.; Apte, S.
2015-12-01
The presence of pressurized air pockets in combined sewer systems is argued to produce geyser flows, which is an oscillating jetting of a mixture of gas-liquid flows through vertical shafts. A 1D numerical model is developed for predicting pressure and velocity oscillations of a compressed air-pocket in a vertical shaft which in turn attempts to simulate geyser like flows. The vertical shaft is closed at the bottom and open to ambient pressure at the top. Initially, the lower section of the vertical shaft is filled with compressed air and the upper section with water. The interaction between the pressurized air pocket and the water column in the vertical shaft exhibits an oscillatory motion of the water column that decays over time. The model accounts for steady and unsteady friction to estimate the energy dissipation. The model also includes the falling flow of water around the external perimeter of the pressurized air pocket by assuming that any expansion in the pressurized air pocket would result in the falling volume of water. The acceleration of air-water interface is predicted through a force balance between the pressurized air pocket and the water column combined with the Method of Characteristics that resolves pressure and velocity within the water column. The expansion and compression of the pressurized air pocket is assumed to follow either isothermal process or adiabatic process. Results for both assumptions; isothermal and adiabatic processes, are presented. The performance of the developed 1D numerical model is compared with that of a commercial 3D CFD model. Overall, a good agreement between both models is obtained for pressure and velocity oscillations. The paper will also present a sensitivity analysis of the 3D CFD model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orlin, W James; Lindner, Norman J; Bitterly, Jack G
1947-01-01
The theory of hydraulic analogy, that is, the analogy between water flow with a free surface and two-dimensional compressible gas flow and the limitations and conditions of the analogy are discussed. A test run was made using the hydraulic analogy as applied to the flow about circular cylinders at various diameters at subsonic velocities extending to the super critical range. The apparatus and techniques used in this application are described and criticized. Reasonably satisfactory agreement of pressure distributions and flow fields existed between water and airflow about corresponding bodies. This agreement indicated the possibility of extending experimental compressibility research by new methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, J.; Amooie, M. A.; Soltanian, M. R.
2016-12-01
Problems in hydrogeology and hydrocarbon reservoirs generally involve the transport of solutes in a single solvent phase (e.g., contaminants or dissolved injection gas), or the flow of multiple phases that may or may not exchange mass (e.g., brine, NAPL, oil, gas). Often, flow is viscously and gravitationally unstable due to mobility and density contrasts within a phase or between phases. Such instabilities have been studied in detail for single-phase incompressible fluids and for two-phase immiscible flow, but to a lesser extent for multiphase multicomponent compressible flow. The latter is the subject of this presentation. Robust phase stability analyses and phase split calculations, based on equations of state, determine the mass exchange between phases and the resulting phase behavior, i.e., phase densities, viscosities, and volumes. Higher-order finite element methods and fine grids are used to capture the small-scale onset of flow instabilities. A full matrix of composition dependent coefficients is considered for each Fickian diffusive phase flux. Formation heterogeneity can have a profound impact and is represented by realistic geostatistical models. Qualitatively, fingering in multiphase compositional flow is different from single-phase problems because 1) phase mobilities depend on rock wettability through relative permeabilities, and 2) the initial density and viscosity ratios between phases may change due to species transfer. To quantify mixing rates in different flow regimes and for varying degrees of miscibility and medium heterogeneities, we define the spatial variance, scalar dissipation rate, dilution index, skewness, and kurtosis of the molar density of introduced species. Molar densities, unlike compositions, include compressibility effects. The temporal evolution of these measures shows that, while transport at the small-scale (cm) is described by the classical advection-diffusion-dispersion relations, scaling at the macro-scale (> 10 m) shows
Inverse design of axisymmetric flow passages using compressible viscous flow theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ntone, F.; Yang, T.-T.
1986-01-01
A study reported by Yang and Hudson (1971) was extended by Nelson (1971), who presented a method of inverse design for axisymmetric diffusers. The diffusers obtained with the aid of this method were found to function well under certain conditions, while, for other cases, a modification of the analytical design procedure was required. An outline is provided of the method of inverse solution in simple axisymmetric internal flow passages. Attention is given to governing equations, the method of solution, and examples which illustrate the feasibility of the design procedure. The discussed method, which is based on viscous compressible flow theory, has some limitations. However, it is expected to yield good designs in many practical cases in which the existing design must be modified.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albers, J. A.; Gregg, J. L.
1974-01-01
Finite-difference computer program calculates viscous compressible boundary layer flow over either planar or axisymmetric surfaces. Flow may be initially laminar and progress through transitional zone to fully turbulent flow, or it may remain laminar, depending on imposed boundary conditions, laws of viscosity, and numerical solution of momentum and energy equations.
Numerical Solution of Compressible Steady Flows around the RAE 2822 Airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kryštůfek, P.; Kozel, K.
2014-03-01
The article presents results of a numerical solution of subsonic, transonic and supersonic flows described by the system of Navier-Stokes equations in 2D laminar compressible flows around the RAE 2822 airfoil. Authors used FVM multistage Runge-Kutta method to numerically solve the flows around the RAE 2822 airfoil.
Direct numerical simulation of compressible free shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lele, Sanjiva K.
1989-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of compressible free shear layers in open domains are conducted. Compact finite-difference schemes of spectral-like accuracy are used for the simulations. Both temporally-growing and spatially-growing mixing layers are studied. The effect of intrinsic compressibility on the evolution of vortices is studied. The use of convective Mach number is validated. Details of vortex roll up and pairing are studied. Acoustic radiation from vortex roll up, pairing and shape oscillations is studied and quantified.
The boundary data immersion method for compressible flows with application to aeroacoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlanderer, Stefan C.; Weymouth, Gabriel D.; Sandberg, Richard D.
2017-03-01
This paper introduces a virtual boundary method for compressible viscous fluid flow that is capable of accurately representing moving bodies in flow and aeroacoustic simulations. The method is the compressible extension of the boundary data immersion method (BDIM, Maertens & Weymouth (2015), [18]). The BDIM equations for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations are derived and the accuracy of the method for the hydrodynamic representation of solid bodies is demonstrated with challenging test cases, including a fully turbulent boundary layer flow and a supersonic instability wave. In addition we show that the compressible BDIM is able to accurately represent noise radiation from moving bodies and flow induced noise generation without any penalty in allowable time step.
Evolution of the air cavity during a depressurized wave impact. I. The kinematic flow field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lugni, C.; Miozzi, M.; Brocchini, M.; Faltinsen, O. M.
2010-05-01
This paper describes a systematic experimental study of the role of the ambient pressure on wave impact events in depressurized environments. A wave impact event of "mode (b)" [see Lugni et al., "Wave impact loads: The role of the flip-through," Phys. Fluids 18, 122101 (2006)] causes entrapment of an air cavity. Here the topological and kinematic aspects of its oscillation and evolution toward collapse into a mixture of water and air bubbles are studied, while Part II [Lugni et al., "Evolution of the air cavity during a depressurized wave impact. II. The dynamic field," Phys. Fluids 22, 056102 (2010)] focuses on the dynamic features of the flow. Four distinct stages characterize the flow evolution: (1) the closure of the cavity onto the wall, (2) the isotropic compression/expansion of the cavity, (3) its anisotropic compression/expansion, and (4) the rise of the cavity up the wall. The first two stages are mainly governed by the air leakage, the last two by the surrounding hydrodynamic flow, which contributes to compressing the bubble horizontally and to convecting it up the wall. Ullage pressure affects the ratio between the minimum and maximum cavity areas. An ullage pressure of 2.5% of the atmospheric pressure leads to an area ratio of about 360% of the equivalent ratio at atmospheric conditions.
Effects of saline-water flow rate and air speed on leakage current in RTV coatings
Kim, S.H.; Hackam, R.
1995-10-01
Room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone rubber is increasingly being used to coat porcelain and glass insulators in order to improve their electrical performance in the presence of pollution and moisture. A study of the dependence of leakage current, pulse current count and total charge flowing across the surface of RTV on the flow rate of the saline water and on the compressed air pressure used to create the salt-fog is reported. The fog was directed at the insulating rods either from one or two sides. The RTV was fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane polymer, a filler of alumina trihydrate (ATH), a polymerization catalyst and fumed silica reinforcer, all dispersed in 1,1,1-trichloroethane solvent. The saline water flow rate was varied in the range 0.4 to 2.0 l/min. The compressed air pressure at the input of the fog nozzles was varied from 0.20 to 0.63 MPa. The air speed at the surface of the insulating rods was found to depend linearly on the air pressure measured at the inlet to the nozzles and varied in the range 3 to 14 km/hr. The leakage current increased with increasing flow rate and increasing air speed. This is attributed to the increased loss of hydrophobicity with a larger quantity of saline fog and a larger impact velocities of fog droplets interacting with the surface of the RTV coating.
Calculation of external-internal flow fields for mixed-compression inlets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chyu, W. J.; Kawamura, T.; Bencze, D. P.
1986-01-01
Supersonic inlet flows with mixed external-internal compressions were computed using a combined implicit-explicit (Beam-Warming-Steger/MacCormack) method for solving the three-dimensional unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations in conservation form. Numerical calculations were made of various flows related to such inlet operations as the shock-wave intersections, subsonic spillage around the cowl lip, and inlet started versus unstarted conditions. Some of the computed results were compared with wind tunnel data.
Dynamic Flow Management Problems in Air Transportation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patterson, Sarah Stock
1997-01-01
In 1995, over six hundred thousand licensed pilots flew nearly thirty-five million flights into over eighteen thousand U.S. airports, logging more than 519 billion passenger miles. Since demand for air travel has increased by more than 50% in the last decade while capacity has stagnated, congestion is a problem of undeniable practical significance. In this thesis, we will develop optimization techniques that reduce the impact of congestion on the national airspace. We start by determining the optimal release times for flights into the airspace and the optimal speed adjustment while airborne taking into account the capacitated airspace. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Problem (TFMP). We address the complexity, showing that it is NP-hard. We build an integer programming formulation that is quite strong as some of the proposed inequalities are facet defining for the convex hull of solutions. For practical problems, the solutions of the LP relaxation of the TFMP are very often integral. In essence, we reduce the problem to efficiently solving large scale linear programming problems. Thus, the computation times are reasonably small for large scale, practical problems involving thousands of flights. Next, we address the problem of determining how to reroute aircraft in the airspace system when faced with dynamically changing weather conditions. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Rerouting Problem (TFMRP) We present an integrated mathematical programming approach for the TFMRP, which utilizes several methodologies, in order to minimize delay costs. In order to address the high dimensionality, we present an aggregate model, in which we formulate the TFMRP as a multicommodity, integer, dynamic network flow problem with certain side constraints. Using Lagrangian relaxation, we generate aggregate flows that are decomposed into a collection of flight paths using a randomized rounding heuristic. This collection of paths is used in a packing integer
Transconjunctival orbital emphysema caused by compressed air injury: A case report
Vasu, Usha; Francis, Febson; Nazareth, Colin
2008-01-01
Orbital emphysema following conjunctival tear in the absence of orbital wall fracture, caused by air under pressure is rare. Usually orbital emphysema is seen in facial trauma associated with damage to the adjacent paranasal sinuses or facial bones. To the best of our knowledge, there have been only eight reports of orbital emphysema following use of compressed air during industrial work. The air under pressure is pushed through the subconjunctival space into the subcutaneous and retrobulbar spaces. We present here a rare cause of orbital emphysema in a young man working with compressed air gun. Although the emphysema was severe, there were no orbital bone fracture and the visual recovery of the patient was complete without attendant complications. PMID:18417833
Formation of the compression zone in a plasma flow generated by a magnetoplasma compressor
Solyakov, D. G. Petrov, Yu. V.; Garkusha, I. E.; Chebotarev, V. V.; Ladygina, M. S.; Cherednichenko, T. N.; Morgal’, Ya. I.; Kulik, N. V.; Stal’tsov, V. V.; Eliseev, D. V.
2013-12-15
Processes occurring in a plasma flow generated by a magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) during the formation of the compression zone are discussed. The paper presents results of measurements of the spatial distribution of the electric current in the plasma flow, the temporal and spatial (along the flow) distributions of the plasma density, and the profiles of the velocity of individual flow layers along the system axis. The spatial distribution of the electromagnetic force in the flow is analyzed. It is shown that the plasma flow is decelerated when approaching the compression zone and reaccelerated after passing it. In this case, the plasma flow velocity decreases from ν = (2–3) × 10{sup 7} cm/s at the MPC output to ν < 10{sup 6} cm/s in the region of maximum compression and then again increases to 10{sup 7} cm/s at a distance of 15–17 cm from the MPC output. In some MPC operating modes, a displacement of the magnetic field from the compression zone and the formation of toroidal electric current vortices in the plasma flow after passing the compression zone were detected.
Aerothermodynamics of compressible flow past a flat plate in the slip-flow regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Chi-Yang; Dai, Yi; Li, Genong; Hu, Yitao; Lai, Ming-Chia
2015-11-01
Compressible flow past a flat plate in the slip-flow regime features a very simple geometry and flow field, but it retains the most relevant and interesting physics in high-speed rarefied gas dynamics. In the slip-flow regime, the aerothermodynamic issues, especially the recovery factors and the convection heat transfer correlation, are the focus of this presentation. We first present the detailed similarity equations, especially the transformed Maxwell's slip and jump boundary conditions, and the equations for the Chapman-Rubesin parameter as well as how we incorporate the variable gas properties and the constitutive scaling model for the Knudsen layer in the similarity equations. The similarity solutions are compared with results published by E. R. van Driest [NACA Technical Note 2597, 1952]. We point out that van Driest's solutions were computed by using no-slip and no-jump boundary conditions. The recovery factor and Nusselt number of the plate are shown as functions of the Reynolds number and the Mach number. Finally, the similarity solutions are also compared with simulations of a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model solving the full Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations with slip and jump boundary conditions.
On the implicit density based OpenFOAM solver for turbulent compressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fürst, Jiří
The contribution deals with the development of coupled implicit density based solver for compressible flows in the framework of open source package OpenFOAM. However the standard distribution of OpenFOAM contains several ready-made segregated solvers for compressible flows, the performance of those solvers is rather week in the case of transonic flows. Therefore we extend the work of Shen [15] and we develop an implicit semi-coupled solver. The main flow field variables are updated using lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel method (LU-SGS) whereas the turbulence model variables are updated using implicit Euler method.
40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225... flow meter. (a) Application. You may use an intake-air flow meter in combination with a chemical... meter signal that does not give the actual value of raw exhaust, as long as it is linearly...
40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section 1065.225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION... flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging...
40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section 1065.225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION... flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, a thermal-mass meter, an averaging...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Der Schijff, Hermanus P.
Variable air volume (VAV) air terminals are designed to save energy by reducing airflow into a given space based on occupancy and required load. Systems are typically designed to operate at peak load, however as load is reduced, performance is compromised due to inadequate throw. As a result, fans are installed to adjust for the losses, negating many of the energy savings. Additionally flow is vectored by the use of vanes, a basic passive type of flow control. An experimental investigation was performed to study the application of flow control on that of a HVAC diffuser using synthetic jets distributed evenly along the diffuser edge parallel to the flow field. The study was conducted on a 1:3 scale typical office space (150 ft2), which included a simulated scale HVAC system supplied by compressed air. Two different jet blowing ratios were investigated for system loads of 60% and 90%. The flow field was established using hot wire anemometry and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of synthetic jet based active flow control at controlling airflow, showing ability to affect throw parameters for changing flow rates within the test chamber. Vectoring of up to 20% and improvement in jet spread of 200% was demonstrated. The use of such devices has the potential to improve air quality and air distribution in building while simultaneously lowering energy demands of HVAC systems.
Langbroek, Ginger B; Horbach, Sophie Er; van der Vleuten, Carine Jm; Ubbink, Dirk T; van der Horst, Chantal Mam
2016-12-19
Introduction Low-flow vascular malformations are congenital abnormalities of the veins, capillaries or lymphatic vessels or a combination of the previous. Compressive garments are frequently used as a first-line treatment option for low-flow vascular malformations of the extremities with the purpose of relieving symptoms. Yet, the benefits and harms of compression stockings remain unclear. Methods A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials including a hand search for studies measuring the benefits and harms of compression garments in treating low-flow vascular malformations. Two investigators performed study selection, quality assessment and data extraction independently. Results Of the 565 studies found, eventually five (totalling 101 patients with venous malformations or Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome receiving compression therapy) observational studies were included in the systematic review. Although the overall quality of these studies was poor, results suggest that compression garments might lessen intravascular coagulation, improve symptoms and appearance, diminish oedema, and protect against minor trauma. None of the studies quantified any harms of compression therapy. Conclusion Even though compression therapy is commonly used in the treatment of low-flow vascular malformations, available literature does not provide high-quality evidence to validate its use. We therefore advocate the need for prospective comparative trials with standardised outcome measures to study the benefits and harms of this treatment option.
Demonstration of Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage to Support Renewable Energy Production
Bollinger, Benjamin
2015-01-02
This project develops and demonstrates a megawatt (MW)-scale Energy Storage System that employs compressed air as the storage medium. An isothermal compressed air energy storage (ICAES^{TM}) system rated for 1 MW or more will be demonstrated in a full-scale prototype unit. Breakthrough cost-effectiveness will be achieved through the use of proprietary methods for isothermal gas cycling and staged gas expansion implemented using industrially mature, readily-available components.The ICAES approach uses an electrically driven mechanical system to raise air to high pressure for storage in low-cost pressure vessels, pipeline, or lined-rock cavern (LRC). This air is later expanded through the same mechanical system to drive the electric motor as a generator. The approach incorporates two key efficiency-enhancing innovations: (1) isothermal (constant temperature) gas cycling, which is achieved by mixing liquid with air (via spray or foam) to exchange heat with air undergoing compression or expansion; and (2) a novel, staged gas-expansion scheme that allows the drivetrain to operate at constant power while still allowing the stored gas to work over its entire pressure range. The ICAES system will be scalable, non-toxic, and cost-effective, making it suitable for firming renewables and for other grid applications.
Light-weight extension tubes for compressed-air garden sprayers
Thomas W. McConkey; Charles E. Swett
1967-01-01
To hand-spray taller trees safely and efficiently, 8-, 12-, and 16-foot extension tubes for compressed-air garden sprayers were designed and built. These light-weight tubes have been used successfully for spraying white pine leaders for weevil control on the Massabesic Experimental Forest in Maine. Bill of materials and assembly instructions are included.
2002-06-01
This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.
2000-12-01
In 1995, Modern Forge of Tennessee implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Piney Flats, Tennessee, forging plant. Due to the project’s implementation, the plant was able to operate with fewer compressors and improve its product quality, thus allowing it to increase productivity. The project also resulted in considerable energy and maintenance savings.
Improving Energy Efficiency of Compressed Air System Based onSystem Audit
Shanghai, Hongbo Qin; McKane, Aimee
2007-06-01
Industrial electric motor systems consume more than 600billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China selectricity use. The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimizing motor systems results in an improvement of 20-25 percent,which is well-supported by experience in both the U.S. and China.Compressed air systems in China use 9.4 percent of all electricity.Compressed air use in China is growing rapidly, as new industrial plantsare built and the production processes of existing plants expand andchange. Most of these systems, whether existing or new, are not optimizedfor energy efficiency. This paper will present a practitioner'sperspective on theemergence of compressed air auditing services inChina, specifically as it pertains to Shanghai and surrounding areas.Both the methodology used and the market development of these compressedair system services will be addressed. Finally, the potential for energysaving opportunities will be described based on highlights from over 50compressed air system energy audits completed by Shanghai EnergyConservation Service Center, both during the United Nations IndustrialDevelopment Organization (UNIDO) China Motor System Energy ConservationProgram, and after this training program was completed.
Compressed Air System Upgrade Improves Production at an Automotive Glass Plant
Not Available
2003-02-01
In 2000, The Visteon automotive glass plant improved its compressed air system at its automotive glass plant in Nashville, Tennessee. This improvement allowed Visteon to save $711,000 annually, reduce annual energy consumption by 7.9 million kilowatt-hours, reduce maintenance, improve system performance, and avoid $800,000 in asbestos abatement costs.
Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles
Drost, M.K.
1981-01-07
An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.
Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles
Drost, Monte K.
1982-01-01
An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.
Compressed Air System Improvement Project Saves Foundry Energy and Increases Production
2002-05-01
This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.
Proctor & Gamble: Compressed Air System Upgrade Saves Energy & Improves Production at a Paper Mill
2004-05-01
In 2002, Procter & Gamble applied a system-level strategy to optimize a compressed air system at its paper products mill in Mehoopany, Pennsylvania. The project improved production, improved system performance, and saved 7.6 million kWh per year and $309,000 per year in maintenance costs.
Safety in the use of compressed air versus oxygen for the ophthalmic patient.
Rodgers, Laura A; Kulwicki, Anahid
2002-02-01
Oxygen, routinely administered during surgery to avoid hypoxia, poses risks including increased likelihood of surgical room fires and predisposition to retinal phototoxicity in patients. Compressed air to supplement ventilation may be safer than oxygen. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hypoxia occurs more frequently when compressed air replaces supplemental oxygen during ophthalmic surgery. A convenience sample of 111 patients was randomly assigned to receive supplemental oxygen (group 1) or compressed air (group 2). Patients with serious cardiac or pulmonary disease were excluded. Blood oxygen levels were monitored during surgery by pulse oximetry. Oxygen was administered to all group 2 patients whose oxygen saturation fell to less than 90% or by more than 5% below baseline. No differences were observed between groups in age, ASA classification, type of surgery, or anesthetic drugs or doses. Minor, but statistically higher oxygen values were observed in group 1. The frequency with which oxygen saturation decreased below 90% or below 5% of baseline was similar in both groups. Supplemental oxygen is not required routinely in selected patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery. By using compressed air, the risk of operating room fires and retinal phototoxicity may be reduced.
Torres-Castro, R; Vilaró, J; Vera-Uribe, R; Monge, G; Avilés, P; Suranyi, C
2014-05-01
Cross-sectional. To assess cough using air stacking (AS) to assist inspiratory volume with abdominal compression (AC) during expiration in patients with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) A. Large tertiary hospital in Chile. Peak cough flow (PCF) was measured during four different interventions: spontaneous maximal expiratory effort (MEE); MEE while receiving AC (MEE-AC); MEE after AS with a manual resuscitation bag (AS-MEE); and MEE with AS and AC (AS-MEE-AC). Fifteen in-patients with complete tetraplegia (C4-C6) were included. Median age was 33 years (16-56). PCF during the different interventions was PCF for MEE was 183±90 l min(-1); PCF for MEE-AC was 273±119 l min(-1); PCF for AS-MEE was 278±106 l min(-1) and PCF for AS-MEE-AC was 368±129 l min(-1). We observed significant differences in PCF while applying MEE-AC and AS-MEE compared with MEE (P=0.0001). However, the difference in PCF value was greater using the AS-MEE-AC technique (P=0.00001). Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) presented an ineffective cough that constitutes a risk factor for developing respiratory complications. The application of combined techniques (AS-MEE-AC) can reach near normal PCF values. This is a low-cost, simple and easily applied intervention that could be introduced to all patients with tetraplegia.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCafferty, T. W.; Walke, W. C.; Bonk, J. S.
1981-07-01
The behavior and suitability of an aquifer-based compressed air energy storage (CAES) facility were investigated. The project was part of a five-phase program to promote compressed air energy storage and underground pumped hydro in the United States. The background, project organization, and summarization of all project work are provided.
A Riemann problem based method for solving compressible and incompressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Haitian; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Chunwu; Wang, Donghong; Zhao, Ning
2017-02-01
A Riemann problem based method for solving two-medium flow including compressible and incompressible regions is presented. The material interface is advanced by front tracking method and the material interface boundary conditions are defined by modified ghost fluid method. A coupled compressible and incompressible Riemann problem constructed in the normal direction of the material interface is proposed to predict the interfacial states. With the ghost fluid states, the compressible and incompressible flows are solved by discontinuous Galerkin method. An incompressible discontinuous Galerkin method with nonuniform time step is also deduced. For shock wave formed in compressible flow, the numerical errors for the ghost fluid method in earlier works are analyzed and discussed in the numerical examples. It shows that the proposed method can provide reasonable results including shock wave location.
Quasi-one-dimensional compressible flow across face seals and narrow slots. 2: Computer program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.; Smith, P. J.
1972-01-01
A computer program is presented for compressible fluid flow with friction across face seals and through narrow slots. The computer program carries out a quasi-one-dimensional flow analysis which is valid for laminar and turbulent flows under both subsonic and choked flow conditions for parallel surfaces. The program is written in FORTRAN IV. The input and output variables are in either the International System of Units (SI) or the U.S. customary system.
Heath, Jason E.; Bauer, Stephen J.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Dewers, Thomas A.; Rodriguez, Mark A
2013-03-01
The Iowa Stored Energy Plant Agency selected a geologic structure at Dallas Center, Iowa, for evaluation of subsurface compressed air energy storage. The site was rejected due to lower-than-expected and heterogeneous permeability of the target reservoir, lower-than-desired porosity, and small reservoir volume. In an initial feasibility study, permeability and porosity distributions of flow units for the nearby Redfield gas storage field were applied as analogue values for numerical modeling of the Dallas Center Structure. These reservoir data, coupled with an optimistic reservoir volume, produced favorable results. However, it was determined that the Dallas Center Structure cannot be simplified to four zones of high, uniform permeabilities. Updated modeling using field and core data for the site provided unfavorable results for air fill-up. This report presents Sandia National Laboratories petrologic and petrophysical analysis of the Dallas Center Structure that aids in understanding why the site was not suitable for gas storage.
3D reconstruction of a compressible flow by synchronized multi-camera BOS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolas, F.; Donjat, D.; Léon, O.; Le Besnerais, G.; Champagnat, F.; Micheli, F.
2017-05-01
This paper investigates the application of a 3D density reconstruction from a limited number of background-oriented schlieren (BOS) images as recently proposed in Nicolas et al. (Exp Fluids 57(1):1-21, 2016), to the case of compressible flows, such as underexpanded jets. First, an optimization of a 2D BOS setup is conducted to mitigate the intense local blurs observed in raw BOS images and caused by strong density gradients present in the jets. It is demonstrated that a careful choice of experimental conditions enables one to obtain sharp deviation fields from 2D BOS images. Second, a 3DBOS experimental bench involving 12 synchronized cameras is specifically designed for the present study. It is shown that the 3DBOS method can provide physically consistent 3D reconstructions of instantaneous and mean density fields for various underexpanded jet flows issued into quiescent air. Finally, an analysis of the density structure of a moderately underexpanded jet is conducted through phase-averaging, highlighting the development of a large-scale coherent structure associated with a jet shear layer instability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Majumdar, Alok
2007-01-01
The present paper describes the verification and validation of a quasi one-dimensional pressure based finite volume algorithm, implemented in Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), for predicting compressible flow with friction, heat transfer and area change. The numerical predictions were compared with two classical solutions of compressible flow, i.e. Fanno and Rayleigh flow. Fanno flow provides an analytical solution of compressible flow in a long slender pipe where incoming subsonic flow can be choked due to friction. On the other hand, Raleigh flow provides analytical solution of frictionless compressible flow with heat transfer where incoming subsonic flow can be choked at the outlet boundary with heat addition to the control volume. Nonuniform grid distribution improves the accuracy of numerical prediction. A benchmark numerical solution of compressible flow in a converging-diverging nozzle with friction and heat transfer has been developed to verify GFSSP's numerical predictions. The numerical predictions compare favorably in all cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paolucci, Samuel; Zikoski, Zachary J.; Grenga, Temistocle
2014-09-01
The Wavelet Adaptive Multiresolution Representation (WAMR) algorithm is parallelized using a domain decomposition approach suitable to a wide range of distributed-memory parallel architectures. The method is applied to the solution of two unsteady, compressible, reactive flow problems and includes detailed diffusive transport and chemical kinetics models. The first problem is a cellular detonation in a hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixture. The second problem corresponds to the ignition and combustion of a hydrogen bubble by a shock wave in air. In both cases, results agree favorably with previous computational results.
A Semi-Hydrostatic Theory of Gravity-Dominated Compressible Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubos, T.; Voitus, F.
2014-12-01
Compressible Euler equations support the propagation of acoustic waves. Although much progress has been achieved towards efficient and accurate solutions to the resulting numerical difficulties, it can still be desirable to identify "unified" equations of motion that would not support acoustic waves while retaining accuracy at large and small scales. Even if such equations are eventually not chosen as the basis of a numerical model, they may help identifying the independent degrees of freedom of the atmospheric flow to be modeled and how the dependent fields are related to the independent fields. From Hamilton's least action principle (HP), "semi-hydrostatic" compressible equations of motion with density diagnosed from potential temperature through hydrostatic balance are derived. Energy, potential vorticity and momentum are conserved. Slaving density to potential temperature suppresses the degrees of freedom supporting the propagation of acoustic waves and results in a sound-proof system. Scale analysis and linear normal modes analysis for an isothermal state of rest suggest that the semy-hydrostatic system is accurate from hydrostatic to non-hydrostatic scales, except for deep internal gravity waves (Figure : decimal logarithm of relative error of the frequency of internal normal modes of a non-rotating isothermal atmosphere as a function of horizontal and vertical wavenumbers k,m normalized by the scale height H). Especially the Lamb wave and long Rossby waves are not distorted, unlike with anelastic or pseudo-incompressible systems. Compared to similar equations derived by Arakawa and Konor (2009), the semi-hydrostatic system possesses an additional term in the horizontal momentum budget. This term is an apparent force resulting from the vertical coordinate not being the actual height of an air parcel, but its hydrostatic height, i.e. the hypothetical height it would have after the atmospheric column it belongs to has reached hydrostatic balance through
Two stroke homogenous charge compression ignition engine with pulsed air supplier
Clarke, John M.
2003-08-05
A two stroke homogenous charge compression ignition engine includes a volume pulsed air supplier, such as a piston driven pump, for efficient scavenging. The usage of a homogenous charge tends to decrease emissions. The use of a volume pulsed air supplier in conjunction with conventional poppet type intake and exhaust valves results in a relatively efficient scavenging mode for the engine. The engine preferably includes features that permit valving event timing, air pulse event timing and injection event timing to be varied relative to engine crankshaft angle. The principle use of the invention lies in improving diesel engines.
Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.
Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.
2011-09-01
This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.
An old integration scheme for compressible flows revisited, refurbished and put to work
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moretti, G.
1978-01-01
A scheme for integrating the Euler equations of compressible flow in any hyperbolic case is presented. The scheme relies on the concept of characteristics but is strictly a finite difference scheme. Improvements in accuracy and physical consistence due to the scheme are discussed and results of its application to complex flows are shown.
On the method of pseudo compressibility for numerically solving incompressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, J. L. C.; Kwak, D.
1984-01-01
Pseudo compressibility is used for numerically solving incompressible flows to achieve computational efficiency. The use of pseudo compressibility results in a system of hyperbolic-type equations of motion that introduce waves of finite speed. The interactions of the wave propagation and the vorticity spreading are analyzed. A criterion governing the dependence of the pseudo compressiblity on the Reynolds number and the characteristic length of the flow geometry is obtained that allows for a proper convergence. It is demonstrated that the solution does tend to the incompressible limit. External and internal viscous flow test problems are presented to verify the theory.
Fluctuation diagrams for hot-wire anemometry in subsonic compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stainback, P. C.; Nagabushana, K. A.
1991-01-01
The concept of using 'fluctuation diagrams' for describing basic fluctuations in compressible flows was reported by Kovasznay in the 1950's. The application of this technique, for the most part, was restricted to supersonic flows. Recently, Zinovev and Lebiga published reports where they considered the fluctuation diagrams in subsonic compressible flows. For the above studies, the velocity and density sensitivities of the heated wires were equal. However, there are considerable data, much taken in the 1950's, which indicate that under some conditions the velocity and density sensitivities are not equal in subsonic compressible flows. Therefore, possible fluctuation diagrams are described for the cases where the velocity and density sensitivities are equal and the more general cases where they are unequal.
The influence of external compression on muscle blood flow during exercise
Styf, J. )
1990-01-01
Intramuscular pressures and muscle blood flow were measured in the anterior tibial muscle during dynamic concentric exercise in 14 subjects. Pressures were recorded by the microcapillary infusion method and muscle blood flow by the 133-Xenon clearance technique. Muscle blood flow during constant exercise decreased from 34.5 (SD = 10.3) to 10.6 (SD = 4.9) ml/100 g/min (P less than 0.001) when muscle relaxation pressure was increased from 13.5 (SD = 2.7) to 39.9 (SD = 9.0) mm Hg by external compression. Muscle relaxation pressure during exercise is the intramuscular pressure between contractions. External compression of the lower limb during exercise impedes muscle blood flow by increasing muscle relaxation pressure. The experimental model seems suitable to study the influence of external compression by knee braces on intramuscular pressure during exercise.
A Study on the Air flow outside Ambient Vaporizer Fin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, G.; Lee, T.; Jeong, H.; Chung, H.
2015-09-01
In this study, we interpreted Fog's Fluid that appear in the Ambient Vaporizer and predict the point of change Air to Fog. We interpreted using Analysis working fluid was applied to LNG and Air. We predict air flow when there is chill of LNG in the air Temperature and that makes fog. Also, we interpreted based on Summer and Winter criteria in the air temperature respectively. Finally, we can check the speed of the fog when fog excreted.
Large Eddy simulation of turbulent hydrogen-fuelled supersonic combustion in an air cross-flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ingenito, A.; Cecere, D.; Giacomazzi, E.
2013-09-01
The main aim of this article is to provide a theoretical understanding of the physics of supersonic mixing and combustion. Research in advanced air-breathing propulsion systems able to push vehicles well beyond is of interest around the world. In a scramjet, the air stream flow captured by the inlet is decelerated but still maintains supersonic conditions. As the residence time is very short , the study of an efficient mixing and combustion is a key issue in the ongoing research on compressible flows. Due to experimental difficulties in measuring complex high-speed unsteady flowfields, the most convenient way to understand unsteady features of supersonic mixing and combustion is to use computational fluid dynamics. This work investigates supersonic combustion physics in the Hyshot II combustion chamber within the Large Eddy simulation framework. The resolution of this turbulent compressible reacting flow requires: (1) highly accurate non-dissipative numerical schemes to properly simulate strong gradients near shock waves and turbulent structures away from these discontinuities; (2) proper modelling of the small subgrid scales for supersonic combustion, including effects from compressibility on mixing and combustion; (3) highly detailed kinetic mechanisms (the Warnatz scheme including 9 species and 38 reactions is adopted) accounting for the formation and recombination of radicals to properly predict flame anchoring. Numerical results reveal the complex topology of the flow under investigation. The importance of baroclinic and dilatational effects on mixing and flame anchoring is evidenced. Moreover, their effects on turbulence-scale generation and the scaling law are analysed.
Air-coupled ultrasonic spectroscopy of highly damping materials using pulse compression.
Pallav, Prakash; Hutchins, David A; Yin, Xiaokang
2009-06-01
Air-coupled ultrasonic spectroscopy is described, whereby the output from a pulse compression system is used. It is demonstrated that the cross-correlation operation used within a pulse-compression system preserves amplitude and phase information. This approach allows the signal-to-noise ratio and, hence, signal-detection capability to be improved by the cross-correlation, while allowing noncontact spectral information for solid samples to be obtained. Results are presented for chocolate samples, where measurements of interest to the food industry have been obtained.
2000-11-01
In 1998, GKN Sinter Metals completed a successful compressed air system improvement project at its Salem, Indiana manufacturing facility. The project was performed after GKN undertook a survey of its system in order to solve air quality problems and to evaluate whether the capacity of their compressed air system would meet their anticipated plant expansion. Once the project was implemented, the plant was able to increase production by 31% without having to add any additional compressor capacity.
Moawad, S. M. Ibrahim, D. A.
2016-08-15
The equilibrium properties of three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated. Incompressible and compressible flows are considered. The governing equations are taken in a steady state such that the magnetic field is parallel to the plasma flow. Equations of stationary equilibrium for both of incompressible and compressible MHD flows are derived and described in a mathematical mode. For incompressible MHD flows, Alfvénic and non-Alfvénic flows with constant and variable magnetofluid density are investigated. For Alfvénic incompressible flows, the general three-dimensional solutions are determined with the aid of two potential functions of the velocity field. For non-Alfvénic incompressible flows, the stationary equilibrium equations are reduced to two differential constraints on the potential functions, flow velocity, magnetofluid density, and the static pressure. Some examples which may be of some relevance to axisymmetric confinement systems are presented. For compressible MHD flows, equations of the stationary equilibrium are derived with the aid of a single potential function of the velocity field. The existence of three-dimensional solutions for these MHD flows is investigated. Several classes of three-dimensional exact solutions for several cases of nonlinear equilibrium equations are presented.
Carotid blood flow measurement accelerated by compressed sensing: validation in healthy volunteers.
Tao, Yuehui; Rilling, Gabriel; Davies, Mike; Marshall, Ian
2013-11-01
Measurement of blood flow by cine phase-contrast MRI is a valuable technique in the study of arterial disease but is time consuming, especially for multi-slice (4D) studies. Compressed sensing is a modern signal processing technique that exploits sparse signal representations to enable sampling at lower than the conventional Nyquist rate. It is emerging as a powerful technique for the acceleration of MRI acquisition. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of phase-contrast carotid blood flow measurement in healthy volunteers using threefold undersampling of kt-space and compressed sensing reconstruction. Sixteen healthy volunteers were scanned at 1.5T with a retrospectively gated 2D cine phase-contrast sequence. Both fully sampled and three-fold accelerated scans were carried out to measure blood flow velocities in the common carotid arteries. The accelerated scans used a k-t variable density randomised sampling scheme and standard compressed sensing reconstruction. Flow rates were determined by integration of velocities within the manually segmented arteries. Undersampled measurements were compared with fully sampled results. Bland-Altman analysis found that peak velocities and flow rates determined from the compressed sensing scans were underestimated by 5% compared with fully sampled scanning. The corresponding figure for time-averaged flow was 3%. These acceptably small errors with a threefold reduction in scan time will facilitate future extension to 4D flow studies in clinical research and practice. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
On solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for unsteady flows at very low Mach numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pletcher, R. H.; Chen, K.-H.
1993-01-01
The properties of a preconditioned, coupled, strongly implicit finite-difference scheme for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables are investigated for two unsteady flows at low speeds, namely the impulsively started driven cavity and the startup of pipe flow. For the shear-driven cavity flow, the computational effort was observed to be nearly independent of Mach number, especially at the low end of the range considered. This Mach number independence was also observed for steady pipe flow calculations; however, rather different conclusions were drawn for the unsteady calculations. In the pressure-driven pipe startup problem, the compressibility of the fluid began to significantly influence the physics of the flow development at quite low Mach numbers. The present scheme was observed to produce the expected characteristics of completely incompressible flow when the Mach number was set at very low values. Good agreement with incompressible results available in the literature was observed.
On solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for unsteady flows at very low Mach numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pletcher, R. H.; Chen, K.-H.
1993-01-01
The properties of a preconditioned, coupled, strongly implicit finite difference scheme for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables are investigated for two unsteady flows at low speeds, namely the impulsively started driven cavity and the startup of pipe flow. For the shear-driven cavity flow, the computational effort was observed to be nearly independent of Mach number, especially at the low end of the range considered. This Mach number independence was also observed for steady pipe flow calculations; however, rather different conclusions were drawn for the unsteady calculations. In the pressure-driven pipe startup problem, the compressibility of the fluid began to significantly influence the physics of the flow development at quite low Mach numbers. The present scheme was observed to produce the expected characteristics of completely incompressible flow when the Mach number was set at very low values. Good agreement with incompressible results available in the literature was observed.
Navier-Stokes computations of laminar compressible and incompressible vortex flows in a channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brockmeier, U.; Mitra, N. K.; Fiebig, M.
To investigate the structure of compressible and incompressible vortices behind a small delta wing in a channel at low Reynolds and Mach numbers, computer programs have been developed to solve complete three-dimensional Navier-Stokes and energy equations. Results show qualitatively similar vortex formation, flattening of the vortex core, and movement of the core away from the channel center and towards the bottom wall for both incompressible and compressible flows.
The "Limiting Line" in Mixed Subsonic and Supersonic Flow of Compressible Fluids
1944-11-01
burble ." Along a shock wave, the change of state of the fluid is no longer isentropic, although still adiabatic. This results in an increase in en...number,-" The actual critical Mach number for the appearance of shock waves and the compressibility burble must lie between these two limits. By...gradients along the \\ surface of the body, the compressibility burble can be delayed, / AXIALLY SYMMETEIC FLOW The solution of the exact
Ghaly, O.; McCone, A.; Nakhamkin, M.; Patel, M.
1993-11-01
Integrated Gasification Compressed Air Storage with Humidification (IGCASH) is concept for an intermediate-load, cycling-duty plant with the environmental advantages of coal gasification and the reliability benefits of continuous operation of the hot gasification and turbomachinery equipment. The IGCASH concept integrates a quench-type coal gasification system with an advanced compressed air storage system in which the compression heat is recovered and stored in water which is used to humidify and preheat the air and fuel gas sent to the turbine. Bechtel under contract to EPRI (RP 2834-3) performed an engineering and economic evaluation to verify the feasibility of IGCASH as an option for intermediate-load power generation from coal. A baseline design was developed for a conceptual 400 MW generic IGCASH plant using currently available technology, including the Texaco full-quench gasification process, Westinghouse turbomachinery, and solution-mined salt-dome cavern for air storage. Three alternatives to the baseline design were also developed to assess the effects of storage water temperature and next-generation turbomachinery on plant performance and economics. The IGCASH concept compared favorably with conventional pulverized coal fired steam (PCFS) power generation. The IGCASH baseline design showed a significantly lower heat rate and yielded a lower cost of electricity than a comparable PCFS plant operating on the same duty cycle.
Numerical Modeling of Compressible Flow and Its Control
2014-03-01
Two main technical areas were addressed: nanosecond- pulse , dielectric barrier discharge flow control actuators, and large-scale unsteadiness in...interactions as a major influence on the experiments. High-fidelity fluid simulations of nanosecond- pulse discharges demonstrated the importance of rapid...shows promise for mitigating fatigue loading on high Mach number aircraft. 15. SUBJECT TERMS computational fluid dynamics, CFD , computational, flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, K.; Thornton, E. A.
1982-01-01
The current capability of the finite element method for solving problems of viscous flow is reviewed. Much work has been directed to the simulation of incompressible flows and the relevant features are described. The methods available for, and the problems associated with, the finite element solution of high speed viscous compressible flows are analyzed. A plan for developing finite element research in this area with experimental support is presented.
The CABARET method for a weakly compressible fluid flows in one- and two-dimensional implementations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulikov, Yu M.; Son, E. E.
2016-11-01
The CABARET method implementation for a weakly compressible fluid flow is in the focus of present paper. Testing both one-dimensional pressure balancing problem and a classical plane Poiseuille flow, we analyze this method in terms of discontinuity resolution, dispersion and dissipation. The method is proved to have an adequate convergence to an analytical solution for a velocity profile. We also show that a flow formation process represents a set of self-similar solutions under varying pressure differential and sound speed.
Numerical Solution of Inviscid Compressible Steady Flows around the RAE 2822 Airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kryštůfek, P.; Kozel, K.
2015-05-01
The article presents results of a numerical solution of subsonic, transonic and supersonic flows described by the system of Euler equations in 2D compressible flows around the RAE 2822 airfoil. Authors used FVM multistage Runge-Kutta method to numerically solve the flows around the RAE 2822 airfoil. The results are compared with the solution using the software Ansys Fluent 15.0.7.
30 CFR 57.22213 - Air flow (III mines).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air flow (III mines). 57.22213 Section 57.22213 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22213 Air flow (III mines). The quantity of...
Paul, J.D.
1992-12-31
Each new HEPA filter installation presents a different physical configuration based on the system requirements the available space and designer preference. Each different configuration can result in variations of air flow uniformity inside the filter housing across the filter banks. This paper will present the results of air flow uniformity testing for six different filter housing/ductwork configurations and discuss if any of the variations in air flow uniformity is attributable to the difference in the physical arrangements for the six cases.
Paul, J.D.
1992-01-01
Each new HEPA filter installation presents a different physical configuration based on the system requirements the available space and designer preference. Each different configuration can result in variations of air flow uniformity inside the filter housing across the filter banks. This paper will present the results of air flow uniformity testing for six different filter housing/ductwork configurations and discuss if any of the variations in air flow uniformity is attributable to the difference in the physical arrangements for the six cases.
Air conditioning system and component therefore distributing air flow from opposite directions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obler, H. D.; Bauer, H. B. (Inventor)
1974-01-01
The air conditioning system comprises a plurality of separate air conditioning units coupled to a common supply duct such that air may be introduced into the supply duct in two opposite flow directions. A plurality of outlets such as registers or auxiliary or branch ducts communicate with the supply duct and valve means are disposed in the supply duct at at least some of the outlets for automatically channelling a controllable amount of air from the supply duct to the associated outlet regardless of the direction of air flow within the supply duct. The valve means comprises an automatic air volume control apparatus for distribution within the air supply duct into which air may be introduced from two opposite directions. The apparatus incorporates a freely swinging movable vane in the supply duct to automatically channel into the associated outlet only the deflected air flow which has the higher relative pressure.
In-cylinder air-flow characteristics of different intake port geometries using tomographic PIV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Gadekar, Suresh; Singh, Akhilendra Pratap
2017-09-01
For improving the in-cylinder flow characteristics of intake air/charge and for strengthening the turbulence intensity, specific intake port geometries have shown significant potential in compression ignition engines. In this experimental study, effects of intake port geometries on air-flow characteristics were investigated using tomographic particle imaging velocimetry (TPIV). Experiments were performed using three experimental conditions, namely, swirl port open (SPO), tangential port open (TPO), and both port open (BPO) configurations in a single cylinder optical research engine. Flow investigations were carried out in a volumetric section located in the middle of the intake and exhaust valves. Particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) images were captured using two high speed cameras at a crank angle resolution of 2° in the intake and compression strokes. The captured PIV images were then pre-processed and post-processed to obtain the final air-flow-field. Effects of these two intake ports on flow-field are presented for air velocity, vorticity, average absolute velocity, and turbulent kinetic energy. Analysis of these flow-fields suggests the dominating nature of the swirl port over the tangential port for the BPO configuration and higher rate of flow energy dissipation for the TPO configuration compared to the SPO and BPO configurations. These findings of TPIV investigations were experimentally verified by combustion and particulate characteristics of the test engine in thermal cylinder head configuration. Combustion results showed that the SPO configuration resulted in superior combustion amongst all three port configurations. Particulate characteristics showed that the TPO configuration resulted in higher particulate compared to other port configurations.
TF34 engine compression system computer study. [simulation of flow stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hosny, W. M.; Steenken, W. G.
1979-01-01
The stability of the fan and the compressor components was examined individually using linearized and time dependent, one dimensional stability analysis techniques. The stability of the fan core integrated compression system was investigated using a two dimensional compression system model. The analytical equations on which this model was based satisfied the mass, axial momentum, radial momentum, and energy conservation equations for flow through a finite control volume. The results gave an accurate simulation of the flow through the compression system. The speed lines of the components were reproduced; the points of instability were accurately predicted; the locations where the instability was initiated in the fan and the core were indicated; and the variation of the bypass ratio during flow throttling was calculated. The validity of the analytical techniques was then established by comparing these results with test data and with results obtained from the steady state cycle deck.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, C.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
Performance of the two commonly used numerical procedures, one based on artificial compressibility method and the other pressure projection method, are compared. These formulations are selected primarily because they are designed for three-dimensional applications. The computational procedures are compared by obtaining steady state solutions of a wake vortex and unsteady solutions of a curved duct flow. For steady computations, artificial compressibility was very efficient in terms of computing time and robustness. For an unsteady flow which requires small physical time step, pressure projection method was found to be computationally more efficient than an artificial compressibility method. This comparison is intended to give some basis for selecting a method or a flow solution code for large three-dimensional applications where computing resources become a critical issue.
Simultaneous measurements of temperature and density in air flows using UV laser spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fletcher, D. G.; Mckenzie, R. L.
1991-01-01
The simultaneous measurement of temperature and density using laser-induced fluorescence of oxygen in combination with Q-branch Raman scattering of nitrogen and oxygen is demonstrated in a low-speed air flow. The lowest density and temperature measured in the experiment correspond to the freestream values at Mach 5 in the Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel for stagnation conditions of 100 atm and 1000 K. The experimental results demonstrate the viability of the optical technique for measurements that support the study of compressible turbulence and the validation of numerical codes in supersonic and hypersonic wind tunnel flows.
Particle displacement tracking applied to air flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wernet, Mark P.
1991-01-01
Electronic Particle Image Velocimeter (PIV) techniques offer many advantages over conventional photographic PIV methods such as fast turn around times and simplified data reduction. A new all electronic PIV technique was developed which can measure high speed gas velocities. The Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) technique employs a single cw laser, small seed particles (1 micron), and a single intensified, gated CCD array frame camera to provide a simple and fast method of obtaining two-dimensional velocity vector maps with unambiguous direction determination. Use of a single CCD camera eliminates registration difficulties encountered when multiple cameras are used to obtain velocity magnitude and direction information. An 80386 PC equipped with a large memory buffer frame-grabber board provides all of the data acquisition and data reduction operations. No array processors of other numerical processing hardware are required. Full video resolution (640x480 pixel) is maintained in the acquired images, providing high resolution video frames of the recorded particle images. The time between data acquisition to display of the velocity vector map is less than 40 sec. The new electronic PDT technique is demonstrated on an air nozzle flow with velocities less than 150 m/s.
Particle displacement tracking applied to air flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wernet, Mark P.
1991-01-01
Electronic Particle Image Velocimetric (PIV) techniques offer many advantages over conventional photographic PIV methods such as fast turn around times and simplified data reduction. A new all electronic PIV technique was developed which can measure high speed gas velocities. The Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) technique employs a single CW laser, small seed particles (1 micron), and a single intensified, gated CCD array frame camera to provide a simple and fast method of obtaining two-dimensional velocity vector maps with unambiguous direction determination. Use of a single CCD camera eliminates registration difficulties encountered when multiple cameras are used to obtain velocity magnitude and direction information. An 80386 PC equipped with a large memory buffer frame-grabber board provides all of the data acquisition and data reduction operations. No array processors of other numerical processing hardware are required. Full video resolution (640 x 480 pixel) is maintained in the acquired images, providing high resolution video frames of the recorded particle images. The time between data acquisition to display of the velocity vector map is less than 40 sec. The new electronic PDT technique is demonstrated on an air nozzle flow with velocities less than 150 m/s.
Ramsey, Scott D.; Ivancic, Philip R.; Lilieholm, Jennifer F.
2015-12-10
This work is concerned with the use of similarity solutions of the compressible flow equations as benchmarks or verification test problems for finite-volume compressible flow simulation software. In practice, this effort can be complicated by the infinite spatial/temporal extent of many candidate solutions or “test problems.” Methods can be devised with the intention of ameliorating this inconsistency with the finite nature of computational simulation; the exact strategy will depend on the code and problem archetypes under investigation. For example, self-similar shock wave propagation can be represented in Lagrangian compressible flow simulations as rigid boundary-driven flow, even if no such “piston” is present in the counterpart mathematical similarity solution. The purpose of this work is to investigate in detail the methodology of representing self-similar shock wave propagation as a piston-driven flow in the context of various test problems featuring simple closed-form solutions of infinite spatial/temporal extent. The closed-form solutions allow for the derivation of similarly closed-form piston boundary conditions (BCs) for use in Lagrangian compressible flow solvers. Finally, the consequences of utilizing these BCs (as opposed to directly initializing the self-similar solution in a computational spatial grid) are investigated in terms of common code verification analysis metrics (e.g., shock strength/position errors and global convergence rates).
Ramsey, Scott D.; Ivancic, Philip R.; Lilieholm, Jennifer F.
2015-12-10
This work is concerned with the use of similarity solutions of the compressible flow equations as benchmarks or verification test problems for finite-volume compressible flow simulation software. In practice, this effort can be complicated by the infinite spatial/temporal extent of many candidate solutions or “test problems.” Methods can be devised with the intention of ameliorating this inconsistency with the finite nature of computational simulation; the exact strategy will depend on the code and problem archetypes under investigation. For example, self-similar shock wave propagation can be represented in Lagrangian compressible flow simulations as rigid boundary-driven flow, even if no such “piston”more » is present in the counterpart mathematical similarity solution. The purpose of this work is to investigate in detail the methodology of representing self-similar shock wave propagation as a piston-driven flow in the context of various test problems featuring simple closed-form solutions of infinite spatial/temporal extent. The closed-form solutions allow for the derivation of similarly closed-form piston boundary conditions (BCs) for use in Lagrangian compressible flow solvers. Finally, the consequences of utilizing these BCs (as opposed to directly initializing the self-similar solution in a computational spatial grid) are investigated in terms of common code verification analysis metrics (e.g., shock strength/position errors and global convergence rates).« less
A priori evaluation of the Pantano and Sarkar model in compressible homogeneous shear flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khlifi, Hechmi; Abdallah, J.; Aïcha, H.; Taïeb, L.
2011-01-01
In this study, a Reynolds stress closure, including the Pantano and Sarkar model of the mean part of the pressure-strain correlation is used for the computation of compressible homogeneous at high-speed shear flow. Several studies concerning the compressible homogeneous shear flow show that the changes of the turbulence structures are principally due to the structural compressibility effects which significantly affect the pressure field and then the pressure-strain correlation. Eventually, this term appears as the main term responsible for the changes in the magnitude of the Reynolds stress anisotropies. The structure of the gradient Mach number is similar to that of turbulence, therefore this parameter may be appropriate to study the changes in turbulence structures that arise from structural compressibility effects. Thus, the incompressible model of the pressure strain correlation and its corrected form by using the turbulent Mach turbulent only, fail to correctly evaluate the compressibility effects at high shear flow. An extension of the widely used incompressible Launder, Reece and Rodi model on compressible homogeneous shear flow is the major aim of the present work. From this extension, the standard coefficients C become a function of the extra compressibility parameters (the turbulent Mach number M and the gradient Mach number M) through the Pantano and Sarkar model. Application of the model on compressible homogeneous shear flow by considering various initial conditions shows reasonable agreement with the DNS results of Simone et al. and Sarkar. The observed trend of the dramatic increase in the normal Reynolds stress anisotropies, the significant decrease in the Reynolds shear stress anisotropy and the increase of the turbulent kinetic energy amplification rate with increasing the gradient Mach number are well predicted by the model. The ability of the model to predict the equilibrium states for the flow in cases A to A from DNS results of Sarkar is
Chaos in a one-dimensional compressible flow.
Gerig, Austin; Hübler, Alfred
2007-04-01
We study the dynamics of a one-dimensional discrete flow with open boundaries--a series of moving point particles connected by ideal springs. These particles flow towards an inlet at constant velocity, pass into a region where they are free to move according to their nearest neighbor interactions, and then pass an outlet where they travel with a sinusoidally varying velocity. As the amplitude of the outlet oscillations is increased, we find that the resident time of particles in the chamber follows a bifurcating (Feigenbaum) route to chaos. This irregular dynamics may be related to the complex behavior of many particle discrete flows or is possibly a low-dimensional analogue of nonstationary flow in continuous systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1981-07-01
The performance of an aquifer compressed air energy storage system was studied. The benefits derived from the integration of a compressed air energy storage facility with a hypothetical electrical network are analyzed. Scenarios of 100 percent coal, 50 percent coal and 50 percent nuclear, and 100 percent nuclear base load capacity additions were examined. Favorable economics are indicated when compressed air energy storage is installed as an alternative to combustion turbine peaking capacity on a system with a significant amount of oil fired generation.
Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier
Fasching, George E.
1984-01-01
An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Om, Deepak; Childs, Morris E.
1987-01-01
An experimental study is described in which detailed wall pressure measurements have been obtained for compressible three-dimensional unseparated boundary layer flow in annular diffusers with and without normal shock waves. Detailed mean flow-field data were also obtained for the diffuser flow without a shock wave. Two diffuser flows with shock waves were investigated. In one case, the normal shock existed over the complete annulus whereas in the second case, the shock existed over a part of the annulus. The data obtained can be used to validate computational codes for predicting such flow fields. The details of the flow field without the shock wave show flow reversal in the circumferential direction on both inner and outer surfaces. However, there is a lag in the flow reversal between the inner nad the outer surfaces. This is an interesting feature of this flow and should be a good test for the computational codes.
Nonlinear stability of non-stationary cross-flow vortices in compressible boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gajjar, J. S. B.
1995-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of long wavelength non-stationary cross-flow vortices in a compressible boundary layer is investigated and the work extends that of Gajjar (1994) to flows involving multiple critical layers. The basic flow profile considered in this paper is that appropriate for a fully three-dimensional boundary layer with O(1) Mach number and with wall heating or cooling. The governing equations for the evolution of the cross-flow vortex are obtained and some special cases are discussed. One special case includes linear theory where exact analytic expressions for the growth rate of the vortices are obtained. Another special case is a generalization of the Bassom & Gajjar (1988) results for neutral waves to compressible flows. The viscous correction to the growth rate is derived and it is shown how the unsteady nonlinear critical layer structure merges with that for a Haberman type of viscous critical layer.
System Engineering Analysis of Compressed Air Systems Installed on LHA-1 and LPH-2 Class Ships,
1982-07-01
MAINTENANCE HISTORY (SARP) Number Receiving Class B/C Overhaul ROH Hull Class B Class C Completion Number Overhauis Repairs H/MPAC Percentage LPAC ...worn fourth-stage suction and discharge valves; and 144 for wiped connecting rod bearings, scored wrist pins, and crankshafts. The HPAC and LPAC ...COMNAVSURFPACINST inspection requirements, should be adequate to main- tain the system. PMS requirements for the compressed air system ( LPAC , MPAC
The effect of compressed air foam on the detection of hydrocarbon fuels in fire debris samples.
Coulson, S A; Morgan-Smith, R K; Noble, D
2000-01-01
In 1998/99 the New Zealand Fire Service implemented compressed air foam delivery systems for the suppression of fires in rural areas. This study investigated whether the introduction of the foam to the seat of the fire created any problems in subsequent analyses of fire debris samples. No significant interferences from the foam were found when the samples were analysed by direct headspace using activated carbon strips. The only foam component detected was limonene.
One-Year Results for the Kelly Air Force Base Compressed Work Week Survey
1994-01-01
home and at work, resulting in social stability. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Compressed Work Week Lifestyle .44 Attitude Survey Air Force Base...for 1-year. Few published studies have investigated the impact of CWS on the lifestyle or quality of life of the employee, particularly over extended...grouped into lifestyle subcategories (family, community, health, leisure, social, cultural, sleep, and finances) or job related subcategories
Six-Month Results for the Kelly Air Force Base Compressed Work Week Survey
1993-07-01
14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Air Force Base workers Compressed work week 60 Attitude survey Lifestyle 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...10 APPENDIX A The Kelly AFB Attitude Survey ................. 13 B Responses to the Lifestyle and Job Relat i Questions (1-91) on the Survey (Sections...on CWS for a 6-month period. There are few published studies regarding the impact of CWS on the lifestyle or quality of life of the employee
Lymphoedema management with the LymphFlow Advance pneumatic compression pump.
Lee, Natalie; Wigg, Jane; Pugh, Stacy; Barclay, Janet; Moore, Hayley
2016-10-01
There are many intermittent pneumatic compression devices available for use in the management and adjunct treatment of lymphatic, venous and arterial disease. This article discusses the development of a new advanced pneumatic compression device, the LymphFlow Advance, which can perform focussed treatment on the lymphoedematous area using a variety of different cycles. Case studies with therapist and patient feedback are used to demonstrate the use of the LymphFlow Advance in the lymphoedema clinic, with a discussion of the evidence to underpin recommended treatment regimes.
Exact Navier-stokes Solutions in a Compressible 2D Open Cavity Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otero, Javier; Sharma, Ati; Sandberg, Richard
2016-11-01
In very simple geometries and always assuming an incompressible flow, researchers have sought to understand the flow physics by looking for steady or periodic flow solutions. These solutions exactly satisfy the governing equations, and determine the physics of the flow. In the current investigation we perform for the first time this type of analysis in a compressible flow and in a complex geometry. In particular, we focus on a 2D laminar inflow open cavity flow at Re = 2000 , which is simulated using an in-house compressible DNS code. Initially, an exact periodic flow solution is found at M = 0 . 5 , which shows a novel noise generation mechanism that we explain in detail. This periodic flow solution is continued across Mach number, covering from M = 0.25 to M = 0.8. At the lower end of the range, the periodic solution ceases to exist due to the low compressibility of the system and leads to a steady state. This steady solution can be seen as the bifurcation point between the family of steady and periodic solutions.
Community detection by label propagation with compression of flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Jihui; Li, Wei; Su, Zhu; Zhao, Longfeng; Deng, Weibing
2016-12-01
The label propagation algorithm (LPA) has been proved to be a fast and effective method for detecting communities in large complex networks. However, its performance is subject to the non-stable and trivial solutions of the problem. In this paper, we propose a modified label propagation algorithm LPAf to efficiently detect community structures in networks. Instead of the majority voting rule of the basic LPA, LPAf updates the label of a node by considering the compression of a description of random walks on a network. A multi-step greedy agglomerative strategy is employed to enable LPAf to escape the local optimum. Furthermore, an incomplete update condition is also adopted to speed up the convergence. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world networks confirm the effectiveness of our algorithm.
CAESCAP: A computer code for compressed-air energy-storage-plant cycle analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fort, J. A.
1982-10-01
The analysis code, CAESCAP, was developed as an aid in comparing and evaluating proposed compressed air energy storage (CAES) cycles. Input consists of component parameters and working fluid conditions at points along a cycle. The code calculates thermodynamic properties at each point and then calculates overall cycle performance. Working fluid capabilities include steam, air, nitrogen, and parahydrogen. The CAESCAP code was used to analyze a variety of CAES cycles. The combination of straightforward input and flexible design make the code easy and inexpensive to use.
AEC brings new technology to US: Compressed air provides peaking power
Not Available
1989-09-01
The first power plant utilizing compressed air energy storage technology (CAES) in the United States is being built by Alabama Electric Cooperative near McIntosh, Alabama. CAES technology, which stores pressurized air in underground chambers during periods of low power demand for generating power during high demand periods, is capable of producing up to three times more power per BTU of fuel burned than conventional gas turbine generators. A 19 million-cubic foot air storage cavern is being excavated in a salt dome 1,400 feet underground for the 110 MW McIntosh plant. Once finished, the cavern is expected to be 200 feet in diameter and 600 feet deep, storing enough air to operate the generator for 26 consecutive hours.
Increasing the Air Charge and Scavenging the Clearance Volume of a Compression-Ignition Engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spanogle, J A; Hicks, C W; Foster, H H
1934-01-01
The object of the investigation presented in this report was to determine the effects of increasing the air charge and scavenging the clearance volume of a 4-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine having a vertical-disk form combustion chamber. Boosting the inlet-air pressure with normal valve timing increased the indicated engine power in proportion to the additional air inducted and resulted in smoother engine operation with less combustion shock. Scavenging the clearance volume by using a valve overlap of 145 degrees and an inlet-air boost pressure of approximately 2 1/2 inches of mercury produced a net increase in performance for clear exhaust operation of 33 percent over that obtained with normal valve timing and the same boost pressure. The improved combustion characteristics result in lower specific fuel consumption, and a clearer exhaust.
A Geophysical Flow Experiment in a Compressible Critical Fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hegseth, John; Garcia, Laudelino
1996-01-01
The first objective of this experiment is to build an experimental system in which, in analogy to a geophysical system, a compressible fluid in a spherical annulus becomes radially stratified in density through an A.C. electric field. When this density gradient is demonstrated, the system will be augmented so that the fluid can be driven by heating and rotation and tested in preparation for a microgravity experiment. This apparatus consists of a spherical capacitor filled with critical fluid in a temperature controlled environment. To make the fluid critical, the apparatus will be operated near the critical pressure, critical density, and critical temperature of the fluid. This will result in a highly compressible fluid because of the properties of the fluid near its critical point. A high voltage A.C. source applied across the capacitor will create a spherically symmetric central force because of the dielectric properties of the fluid in an electric field gradient. This central force will induce a spherically symmetric density gradient that is analogous to a geophysical fluid system. To generate such a density gradient the system must be small (approx. 1 inch diameter). This small cell will also be capable of driving the critical fluid by heating and rotation. Since a spherically symmetric density gradient can only be made in microgravity, another small cell, of the same geometry, will be built that uses incompressible fluid. The driving of the fluid by rotation and heating in these small cells will be developed. The resulting instabilities from the driving in these two systems will then be studied. The second objective is to study the pattern forming instabilities (bifurcations) resulting from the well controlled experimental conditions in the critical fluid cell. This experiment will come close to producing conditions that are geophysically similar and will be studied as the driving parameters are changed.
Aerodynamic control in compressible flow using microwave driven discharges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McAndrew, Brendan
A new aerodynamic control scheme based on heating of the free stream flow is developed. The design, construction, and operation of a unique small scale wind tunnel to perform experiments involving this control scheme is detailed. Free stream heating is achieved by means of microwave driven discharges, and the resulting flow perturbations are used to alter the pressure distribution around a model in the flow. The experimental facility is also designed to allow the injection of an electron beam into the free stream for control of the discharge. Appropriate models for the fluid flow and discharge physics are developed, and comparisons of calculations based on those models are made with experimental results. The calculations have also been used to explore trends in parameters beyond the range possible in the experiments. The results of this work have been (1) the development of an operating facility capable of supporting free stream heat addition experiments in supersonic flow, (2) the development of a compatible instrumented model designed to make lift and drag measurements in a low pressure, high electrical noise environment, (3) a theoretical model to predict the change in breakdown threshold in the presence of an electron beam or other source of ionization, and (4) successful demonstration of aerodynamic control using free stream heat addition.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shouman, A. R.; Garcia, C. E.
1971-01-01
An analytical solution for the compressible one-dimensional flow in convergent and divergent ducts with friction is obtained. It is found that a nondimensional parameter, N, can be formed using the friction factor, duct half-angle and the ratio of specific heats of the gas. Seven flow regimes are describable with the solution, based on certain bounds on the magnitude of N. The regimes are discussed and corollary data are presented graphically.
Equations and simulations for multiphase compressible gas-dust flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oran, Elaine; Houim, Ryan
2014-11-01
Dust-gas multiphase flows are important in physical scenarios such as dust explosions in coal mines, asteroid impact disturbing lunar regolith, and soft aircraft landings dispersing desert or beach sand. In these cases, the gas flow regime can range from highly subsonic and nearly incompressible to supersonic and shock-laden flow, the grain packing can range from fully packed to completely dispersed, and both the gas and the dust can range from chemically inert to highly exothermic. To cover the necessary parameter range in a single model, we solve coupled sets of Navier-Stokes equations describing the background gas and the dust. As an example, a reactive-dust explosion that results in a type of shock-flame complex is described and discussed. Sponsored by the University of Maryland through Minta Martin Endowment Funds in the Department of Aerospace Engineering, and through the Glenn L. Martin Institute Chaired Professorship at the A. James Clark School of Engineering.
Boundary conditions for direct simulations of compressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poinsot, T. J.; Lele, S. K.
1992-01-01
The present consideration of procedures for the definition of boundary conditions for the Navier-Stokes equations emphasizes the derivation of boundary conditions that are compatible with nondissipative algorithms applicable to direct simulations of turbulent flows. A novel formulation for the Euler equations is derived on the basis of characteristic wave relations through boundaries; this formulation is generalized to the Navier-Stokes equations. The method, which applies to both sub- and supersonic flows, is used in reflecting and nonreflecting boundary-condition treatments. Attention is given to practical implementations involving inlet and outlet boundaries and slip and nonslip walls, as well as the test cases of a ducted shear layer, vortices propagating through boundaries, and Poiseuille flow.
Linearized compressible-flow theory for sonic flight speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heaslet, Max A; Lomax, Harvard; Spreiter, John R
1950-01-01
The partial differential equation for the perturbation velocity potential is examined for free-stream Mach numbers close to and equal to one. It is found that, under the assumptions of linearized theory, solutions can be found consistent with the theory for lifting-surface problems both in stationary three-dimensional flow and in unsteady two-dimensional flow. Several examples are solved including a three dimensional swept-back wing and two dimensional harmonically-oscillating wing, both for a free stream Mach number equal to one. Momentum relations for the evaluation of wave and vortex drag are also discussed. (author)
Blanchard, M.; Schuller, T.; Sipp, D.; Schmid, P. J.
2015-04-15
The response of a laminar premixed methane-air flame subjected to flow perturbations around a steady state is examined experimentally and using a linearized compressible Navier-Stokes solver with a one-step chemistry mechanism to describe combustion. The unperturbed flame takes an M-shape stabilized both by a central bluff body and by the external rim of a cylindrical nozzle. This base flow is computed by a nonlinear direct simulation of the steady reacting flow, and the flame topology is shown to qualitatively correspond to experiments conducted under comparable conditions. The flame is then subjected to acoustic disturbances produced at different locations in the numerical domain, and its response is examined using the linearized solver. This linear numerical model then allows the componentwise investigation of the effects of flow disturbances on unsteady combustion and the feedback from the flame on the unsteady flow field. It is shown that a wrinkled reaction layer produces hydrodynamic disturbances in the fresh reactant flow field that superimpose on the acoustic field. This phenomenon, observed in several experiments, is fully interpreted here. The additional perturbations convected by the mean flow stem from the feedback of the perturbed flame sheet dynamics onto the flow field by a mechanism similar to that of a perturbed vortex sheet. The different regimes where this mechanism prevails are investigated by examining the phase and group velocities of flow disturbances along an axis oriented along the main direction of the flow in the fresh reactant flow field. It is shown that this mechanism dominates the low-frequency response of the wrinkled shape taken by the flame and, in particular, that it fully determines the dynamics of the flame tip from where the bulk of noise is radiated.
Hot-Wire Probe for Compressible Subsonic Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stainback, P. C.; Johnson, C. B.; Basnett, C. B.
1985-01-01
Probe measures velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations. Three-wire probe used with each wire operating at different overheat ratio. Technique extendable into transonic and low supersonic flow regimes without difficulty except for those problems usually associated with lengthy calibration and possible wire breaking.
Pinkerton, Gary Wayne
1993-01-01
The purpose of this study is to find aluminum alloys that are effective for use as wire vacuum seals in the 800MeV particle accelerator located at the Louis Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) in Los Alamos, NM. Three alloys, Al 1100, Al 3003, and Al 6061, are investigated under uniaxial compression to determine stresses for a given height reduction from 0 to 70 percent, and to find plastic flow and surface interaction effects. Right-circular cylindrical specimens are compressed on-end (cylindrically) and radially (for modeling as compressed wire). Aluminum 1100 and 3003 alloys are compared for length to diameter ratios of 1 and 2 for both compression types, and are then compared to results of radial compression of annealed small diameter Al 1100 wire currently used at LAMPE. The specimens are also compressed between three different platen surfaces, polished steel, etched steel, and aluminum 6061-T6, to determine effects of friction. The Al 3003 alloy exhibits 20 to 25% lower stresses at all height reductions than Al 1100 for both cylindrical and radial compression.
Nonequilibrium thermohydrodynamic effects on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in compressible flows.
Lai, Huilin; Xu, Aiguo; Zhang, Guangcai; Gan, Yanbiao; Ying, Yangjun; Succi, Sauro
2016-08-01
The effects of compressibility on Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) are investigated by inspecting the interplay between thermodynamic and hydrodynamic nonequilibrium phenomena (TNE, HNE, respectively) via a discrete Boltzmann model. Two effective approaches are presented, one tracking the evolution of the local TNE effects and the other focusing on the evolution of the mean temperature of the fluid, to track the complex interfaces separating the bubble and the spike regions of the flow. It is found that both the compressibility effects and the global TNE intensity show opposite trends in the initial and the later stages of the RTI. Compressibility delays the initial stage of RTI and accelerates the later stage. Meanwhile, the TNE characteristics are generally enhanced by the compressibility, especially in the later stage. The global or mean thermodynamic nonequilibrium indicators provide physical criteria to discriminate between the two stages of the RTI.