Science.gov

Sample records for compressive strength

  1. Compressive strength of unidirectional composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, K.H.; Chim, E.S.M. )

    1992-08-01

    A combined analytical and semiempirical approach is used to obtain a simple equation for predicting the compressive strength of unidirectional composites. The formulation is based on the concept of microbuckling of a representative volume element in the composite, with the effect of shear deformation included. The validity of the equation proposed here is supported by good correlation with experimental data for E-glass, carbon, and boron fiber composites. 129 refs.

  2. HIGH-COMPRESSIVE-STRENGTH CONCRETE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CONCRETE , COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES), PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), AGING(MATERIALS), MANUFACTURING, STRUCTURES, THERMAL PROPERTIES, CREEP, DEFORMATION, REINFORCED CONCRETE , MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, STRESSES, MIXTURES, TENSILE PROPERTIES

  3. (Finite) statistical size effects on compressive strength

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Jérôme; Girard, Lucas; Gimbert, Florent; Amitrano, David; Vandembroucq, Damien

    2014-01-01

    The larger structures are, the lower their mechanical strength. Already discussed by Leonardo da Vinci and Edmé Mariotte several centuries ago, size effects on strength remain of crucial importance in modern engineering for the elaboration of safety regulations in structural design or the extrapolation of laboratory results to geophysical field scales. Under tensile loading, statistical size effects are traditionally modeled with a weakest-link approach. One of its prominent results is a prediction of vanishing strength at large scales that can be quantified in the framework of extreme value statistics. Despite a frequent use outside its range of validity, this approach remains the dominant tool in the field of statistical size effects. Here we focus on compressive failure, which concerns a wide range of geophysical and geotechnical situations. We show on historical and recent experimental data that weakest-link predictions are not obeyed. In particular, the mechanical strength saturates at a nonzero value toward large scales. Accounting explicitly for the elastic interactions between defects during the damage process, we build a formal analogy of compressive failure with the depinning transition of an elastic manifold. This critical transition interpretation naturally entails finite-size scaling laws for the mean strength and its associated variability. Theoretical predictions are in remarkable agreement with measurements reported for various materials such as rocks, ice, coal, or concrete. This formalism, which can also be extended to the flowing instability of granular media under multiaxial compression, has important practical consequences for future design rules. PMID:24733930

  4. Compressive strength of continuous fiber unidirectional composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Ronald H.

    Dow and Rosen's work in 1965 formed an intellectual framework for compressive strength of unidirectional composites. Compressive strength was explained in terms of micro-buckling, in which filaments are beams on an elastic foundation. They made simplifying assumptions, with a two dimensional idealization and linearized material properties. This study builds on their model, recognizing that the shear mode of instability drives unidirectional compressive strength. As a necessary corollary, the predictive methods developed in this study emphasize correct representation of composite shear stiffness. Non-linear effects related to matrix material properties, fiber misalignment, three dimensional representation, and thermal prestrains are taken into account. Four work streams comprise this study: first, development of a closed form analytical model; second, empirical methods development and model validation; third, creation and validation of a unit cell finite element model; and fourth, a patent application that leverages knowledge gained from the first three work streams. The analytical model characterizes the non-linearity of the matrix both with respect to shear and compressive loading. This improvement on existing analyses clearly shows why fiber modulus affects composite shear instability. Accounting for fiber misalignment in the model and experimental characterization of the fiber misalignment continuum are important contributions of this study. A simple method of compressive strength measurement of a small diameter monofilament glass-resin composite is developed. Sample definition and preparation are original, and necessary technologies are easily assessable to other researchers in this field. This study shows that glass fiber composites have the potential for high compressive strength. This potential is reached with excellent fiber alignment and suitable matrix characteristics, and results are consistent with model predictions. The unit cell three dimensional

  5. Post impact compressive strength in composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuts, Edvins; Sandhu, Raghbir S.; Daniels, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Presented in this paper are the plan, equipment, procedures, and findings of an experimental investigation of the tolerance to low velocity impact of a graphite epoxy (AS4/3501-6) and graphite bismaleimide (M6/CYCOM3100) advanced composites. The applied impacts were governed by the Air Force Guide Specification 87221. Specimens of each material system having a common nominal layup (10% 0 deg; 80% +/-45 deg; 10% 90 deg), a common 7 inch (17.78 cm) by 10 inch (25.40 cm) size, five different thicknesses (9, 26, 48, 74, and 96 plies), and ambient moisture content were impacted and strength tested at room temperature. Damaged areas and post impact compression strengths (PICS) were among the most significant findings obtained. While the undamaged per ply compression strength of both materials is a strong function of laminate thickness, the per ply PICS is not. The average difference in per ply PICS between the two material systems is about seven percent. Although a smaller percentage of the applied kinetic energy was absorbed by the Gr/BMI than by the Gr/Epoxy composites, larger damaged areas were produced in the Gr/BMI than in Gr/Epoxy. Within the limitations of this investigation, the Gr/BMI system seems to offer no advantage in damage tolerance over the Gr/Epoxy system examined.

  6. Compressive strength of delaminated aerospace composites.

    PubMed

    Butler, Richard; Rhead, Andrew T; Liu, Wenli; Kontis, Nikolaos

    2012-04-28

    An efficient analytical model is described which predicts the value of compressive strain below which buckle-driven propagation of delaminations in aerospace composites will not occur. An extension of this efficient strip model which accounts for propagation transverse to the direction of applied compression is derived. In order to provide validation for the strip model a number of laminates were artificially delaminated producing a range of thin anisotropic sub-laminates made up of 0°, ±45° and 90° plies that displayed varied buckling and delamination propagation phenomena. These laminates were subsequently subject to experimental compression testing and nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) using cohesive elements. Comparison of strip model results with those from experiments indicates that the model can conservatively predict the strain at which propagation occurs to within 10 per cent of experimental values provided (i) the thin-film assumption made in the modelling methodology holds and (ii) full elastic coupling effects do not play a significant role in the post-buckling of the sub-laminate. With such provision, the model was more accurate and produced fewer non-conservative results than FEA. The accuracy and efficiency of the model make it well suited to application in optimum ply-stacking algorithms to maximize laminate strength.

  7. 49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405... II Passenger Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To form an effective... shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of 2,100,000 pounds without...

  8. 49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405... II Passenger Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To form an effective... shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of 2,100,000 pounds without...

  9. 49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405... II Passenger Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To form an effective... shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of 2,100,000 pounds without...

  10. 49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405... II Passenger Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To form an effective... shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of 2,100,000 pounds without...

  11. 49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405... II Passenger Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To form an effective... shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of 2,100,000 pounds without...

  12. Strength and compressibility of returned lunar soil.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, W. D., III; Bromwell, L. G.; Martin, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Two oedometer and three direct shear tests have been performed in vacuum on a 200 g sample of lunar soil from Apollo 12 (12001, 119). The compressibility data have been used to calculate bulk density and shear wave velocity versus depth on the lunar surface. The shear wave velocity was found to increase approximately with the one-fourth power of the depth, and the results suggest that the Apollo 14 Active Seismic Experiment may not have detected the Fra Mauro formation at a depth of 8.5 m, but only naturally consolidated lunar soil. The shear data indicate that the strength of the lunar soil sample is about 65% that of a ground basalt simulant at the same void ratio.

  13. Compressive strength of dune sand reinforced concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Mani; Abdelouahed, Kriker; Allaoua, Belferrag

    2017-02-01

    Many areas of south Algeria suffer from the problem of accumulation of sand on constructions. In fact, the phenomenon of sand silting causes technical and economical problems. Besides, these areas and other regions in Algeria suffer from the problem of unavailability of suitable sand for building. The use of dune sand offers an alternative solution for construction. In the same context, many researches confirm the possibility of using dune sand in the composition of concrete. In this paper, concrete made with dune sand was studied. For correction of the granulometry of dune sand by river sand, the rates of 50% DS+50% RS and 40% DS+60% RS were used. Also, two types of fibers were used, with 45 and 30 mm lengths, and diameters of 1 and 0.5 mm respectively. The percentage of the used fibers in the sand concrete was 1% and 1.5%. In this work an improvement of the compressive strength for the metal fibers reinforced sand concrete compared to plain concrete was obtained.

  14. Properties of Compressive Strength and Heating Value of Compressed Semi-Carbonized Sugi thinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Toru; Kajimoto, Takeshi; Akasaka, Motofumi; Kaji, Masuo; Ida, Tamio; Fuchihata, Manabu; Honjyo, Takako; Sano, Hiroshi

    Sugi thinnings with small diameter that are not suitable for lumber can be considered as important domestic energy resources. To utilize Sugi thinnings as alternative fuel of coal cokes, properties of compressive strength and heating value of compressed semi-carbonized wood fuel are investigated. To enhance the heating value, "semi-carbonization", that is the pyrolysis in the temperature range between 200 and 400 degree, is conducted. From the variation of heating value and energy yield of char with pyrolysis temperature, the semi-carbonization pyrolysis is found to be the upgrading technology to convert the woody biomass into the high energy density fuel at high energy yield. To increase the compressive strength, "Cold Isostatic Pressing" method is adopted. The compressive strength of the compressed wood fuel decreases with pyrolysis temperature, while the heating value increases. The drastic decrease in the compressive strength is observed at temperature of 250 degree. The increase in the hydrostatic compression pressure improves the compressive strength for an entire range of semi-carbonization pyrolysis. The alternative fuel with high heating value and high compressive strength can be produced by the semi-carbonization processing at temperature of 280 degree for wood fuel compressed at hydrostatic pressure of 200MPa.

  15. Compressive strength of fiber-reinforced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Results of an experimental and analytical investigation of the compressive strength of unidirectional boron-epoxy composite material are presented. Observation of fiber coordinates in a boron-epoxy composite indicates that the fibers contain initial curvature. Combined axial compression and torsion tests were conducted on boron-epoxy tubes and it was shown that the shear modulus is a function of axial compressive stress. An analytical model which includes initial curvature in the fibers and permits an estimate of the effect of curvature on compressive strength is proposed. Two modes of failure which may result from the application of axial compressive stress are analyzed - delamination and shear instability. Based on tests and analysis, failure of boron-epoxy under axial compressive load is due to shear instability.

  16. Studies of fiber-matrix adhesion on compression strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bascom, Willard D.; Nairn, John A.; Boll, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    A study was initiated on the effect of the matrix polymer and the fiber matrix bond strength of carbon fiber polymer matrix composites. The work includes tests with micro-composites, single ply composites, laminates, and multi-axial loaded cylinders. The results obtained thus far indicate that weak fiber-matrix adhesion dramatically reduces 0 degree compression strength. Evidence is also presented that the flaws in the carbon fiber that govern compression strength differ from those that determine fiber tensile strength. Examination of post-failure damage in the single ply tests indicates kink banding at the crack tip.

  17. Compressive residual strength of graphite/epoxy laminates after impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, Teresa A.; Lagace, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    The issue of damage tolerance after impact, in terms of the compressive residual strength, was experimentally examined in graphite/epoxy laminates using Hercules AS4/3501-6 in a (+ or - 45/0)(sub 2S) configuration. Three different impactor masses were used at various velocities and the resultant damage measured via a number of nondestructive and destructive techniques. Specimens were then tested to failure under uniaxial compression. The results clearly show that a minimum compressive residual strength exists which is below the open hole strength for a hole of the same diameter as the impactor. Increases in velocity beyond the point of minimum strength cause a difference in the damage produced and cause a resultant increase in the compressive residual strength which asymptotes to the open hole strength value. Furthermore, the results show that this minimum compressive residual strength value is independent of the impactor mass used and is only dependent upon the damage present in the impacted specimen which is the same for the three impactor mass cases. A full 3-D representation of the damage is obtained through the various techniques. Only this 3-D representation can properly characterize the damage state that causes the resultant residual strength. Assessment of the state-of-the-art in predictive analysis capabilities shows a need to further develop techniques based on the 3-D damage state that exists. In addition, the need for damage 'metrics' is clearly indicated.

  18. The Axial Compressive Strength of High Performance Polymer Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    examined is a high-modulus graphite fiber (Union Carbide P-75) that is spun from mesophase pitch . This fiber is stretched during the graphitization...After approximately 3% axial compressive strain the fibers exhibited surface helical kink bands having a pitch angle of 600. Both left- and right-handed...strength using transmission optical microscopy with the beam bending technique. However, the compressive strengths of similar pitch -based graphite fibers

  19. Evaluation of adhesive and compressive strength of glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Ramashanker; Singh, Raghuwar D; Chand, Pooran; Jurel, Sunit Km; Tripathi, Shuchi

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, compare and evaluate the adhesive strength and compressive strength of different brands of glass ionomer cements to a ceramometal alloy. (A) Glass ionomer cements: GC Fuji II (GC Corporation, Tokyo), Chem Flex (Dentsply DeTrey, Germany), Glass ionomer FX (Shofu-11, Japan), MR dental (MR dental suppliers Pvt Ltd, England). (B) Ceramometal alloy (Ni-Cr: Wiron 99; Bego, Bremen, Germany). (C) Cold cure acrylic resin. (E) Temperature cum humidity control chamber. (F) Instron Universal Testing Machine. Four different types of Glass ionomer cements were used in the study. From each type of the Glass ionomer cements, 15 specimens for each were made to evaluate the compressive strength and adhesive strength, respectively. The 15 specimens were further divided into three subgroups of five specimens. For compressive strength, specimens were tested at 2, 4 and 12 h by using Instron Universal Testing Machine. To evaluate the adhesive strength, specimens were surface treated with diamond bur, silicone carbide bur and sandblasting and tested under Instron Universal Testing Machine. It was concluded from the study that the compressive strength as well as the adhesive bond strength of MR dental glass ionomer cement with a ceramometal alloy was found to be maximum compare to other glass ionomer cements. Sandblasting surface treatment of ceramometal alloy was found to be comparatively more effective for adhesive bond strength between alloy and glass ionomer cement.

  20. Comparison of Open-Hole Compression Strength and Compression After Impact Strength on Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminates for the Ares I Composite Interstage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Andrew J.; Nettles, Alan T.; Jackson, Justin R.

    2011-01-01

    Notched (open hole) composite laminates were tested in compression. The effect on strength of various sizes of through holes was examined. Results were compared to the average stress criterion model. Additionally, laminated sandwich structures were damaged from low-velocity impact with various impact energy levels and different impactor geometries. The compression strength relative to damage size was compared to the notched compression result strength. Open-hole compression strength was found to provide a reasonable bound on compression after impact.

  1. The compressive strengths of ice cubes of different sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, G.A.; Schulson, E.M.; Jones, D.E.; Zhang, J. . Thayer School of Engineering)

    1993-05-01

    Cubes of side length from 10 to 150 mm were prepared from freshwater granular ice of about 1 mm grain size and then compressed uniaxially to failure at [minus]10 C. In addition to size, the variables were strain rate (10[sup [minus]5] s[sup [minus]1] and 10[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1]) and boundary conditions (ground brass plates, ground and polished brass plates, and brass brushes). The results showed that over the range investigated, size is not an important factor when considering the ductile compressive strength of ice. It also appears that size is not a factor when considering the brittle compressive failure strength under more ideal loading conditions. However, under less ideal conditions where perturbations on the loading surface may be significant, the brittle compressive strength decreases as the size of cube increases. In this case, the effect is attributed to nonsimultaneous failure.

  2. Removal of surface loop from stitched composites can improve compression and compression-after-impact strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.; Dickinson, Larry C.

    1992-01-01

    Stitching through-the-thickness (TTT) of composite materials produces a surface loop of yarn between successive penetrations. The surface loop is pressed into the surface layers of the composite material during the curing of the laminate, kinking the in-plane fibers near the surface of the material. The compression strength and compression-after-impact (CAI) strengths of carbon-epoxy specimens were measured with and without the surface loop. Removal of the surface loop had no influence on failure mode or failure mechanism, but did significantly increase the compression and CAI strengths.

  3. Column compression strength of tubular packaging forms made from paper

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Urbanik; Sung K. Lee; Charles G. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Tubular packaging forms fabricated and shaped from rolled paper are used as reinforcing corner posts for major appliances packaged in corrugated containers. Tests of column compression strength simulate the expected performance loads from appliances stacked in warehouses. Column strength depends on tube geometry, paper properties, basis weight, and number of...

  4. Compressive strength of axially loaded composite cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollar, Laszlo P.; Springer, George C.; Spingarn, Jay; McColskey, J. D.

    1993-10-01

    Tests were performed to measure the failure loads of axially compressed glass-fiber-reinforced and graphite-fiber-reinforced composite cylinders. The data were compared with the results of a previous model, which was based on a three-dimensional stress analysis and the Tsai-Wu quadratic first-ply failure criterion. This model predicted the failure loads for glass-fiber-reinforced composites with good accuracy, but less accurately for failure loads of graphite-epoxy composites.

  5. Effects of additional nanosilica of compressive strength on mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retno Setiati, N.

    2017-07-01

    The use of nanosilica as one of the innovations in concrete technology has developed very rapidly. Some research mentioned that nanosilica obtained from the synthesis process silica sand is a type of material that is as pozolan when added to the concrete mix, so as to accelerate the hydration process in concrete. With the addition of nanosilica into the concrete mix, the compressive strength of the concrete can be increased and it has a high durability. This study aims to determine the effect from the addition of nanosilica on mechanical properties of concrete. Laboratory testing is conducted by making the mortar test specimen size of 50 mm x 50 mm x 50 mm. The material used is composed of silica sand, nanosilica, gravel, superplasticizer, cement, and water. Nanosilica percentage amount is added as much as 5, 10, and 15% by weight of cement. Testing of mechanical properties such as compressive strength mortar done at age 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. Based on the analysis and discussion obtained that at 28 days, mortar with the addition of 5% and 15% nanosilica has the compressive strength of 23 MPa. Addition nanosilika into the mortar to improve the mechanical properties by increasing the compressive strength of mortar. The compressive strength of mortar with the addition of 10% nanosilica is 19 MPa. The increase in compressive strength of mortar with the addition of 5% and 15% nano silica is 21% larger than the mortar with the addition of 10% nanosilica and without nanosilica. Nanosilica addition of more than 10% can cause agglomeration when mixed into the mortar so that the impact on the compressive strength of mortar.

  6. Correlation between compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity of high strength concrete incorporating chopped basalt fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiq, Nasir; Fadhilnuruddin, Muhd; Elshekh, Ali Elheber Ahmed; Fathi, Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), is considered as the most important test for non-destructive techniques that are used to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of high strength concrete (HSC). The relationship between the compressive strength of HSC containing chopped basalt fibre stands (CBSF) and UPV was investigated. The concrete specimens were prepared using a different ratio of CBSF as internal strengthening materials. The compressive strength measurements were conducted at the sample ages of 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days; whilst, the ultrasonic pulse velocity was measured at 28 days. The result of HSC's compressive strength with the chopped basalt fibre did not show any improvement; instead, it was decreased. The UPV of the chopped basalt fibre reinforced concrete has been found to be less than that of the control mix for each addition ratio of the basalt fibre. A relationship plot is gained between the cube compressive strength for HSC and UPV with various amounts of chopped basalt fibres.

  7. Compression strength of composite primary structural components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Eric R.

    1992-10-01

    A status report of work performed during the period May 1, 1992 to October 31, 1992 is presented. Research was conducted in three areas: delamination initiation in postbuckled dropped-ply laminates; stiffener crippling initiated by delamination; and pressure pillowing of an orthogonally stiffened cylindrical shell. The geometrically nonlinear response and delamination initiation of compression-loaded dropped-ply laminates is analyzed. A computational model of the stiffener specimens that includes the capability to predict the interlaminar response at the flange free edge in postbuckling is developed. The distribution of the interacting loads between the stiffeners and the shell wall, particularly at the load transfer at the stiffener crossing point, is determined.

  8. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1998-12-29

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

  9. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  10. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-04-29

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

  11. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  12. Research on the compressive strength of a passenger vehicle roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guanglei; Cao, Jianxiao; Liu, Tao; Yang, Na; Zhao, Hongguang

    2017-05-01

    To study the compressive strength of a passenger vehicle roof, this paper makes the simulation test on the static collapse of the passenger vehicle roof and analyzes the stress and deformation of the vehicle roof under pressure in accordance with the Roof Crush Resistance of Passenger Cars (GB26134-2010). It studies the optimization on the major stressed parts, pillar A, pillar B and the rail of roof, during the static collapse process of passenger vehicle roof. The result shows that the thickness of pillar A and the roof rail has significant influence on the compressive strength of the roof while that of pillar B has minor influence on the compressive strength of the roof.

  13. Dynamic microbuckling model for compressive strength of polymeric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jia-Lin

    Dynamic compressive strength of off-axis fiber composites in the form of fiber microbuckling was studied. Both fiber misalignments and material nonlinearity were taken into account in this study. A fiber microbuckling model derived using micromechanics based on the nonlinear behavior of the matrix was extended to include the strain rate effect. The critical microbuckling stress was found to be the same as that in Rosen's bifurcation analysis except that elastic shear modulus was replaced by the tangent shear modulus of composites. The tangent shear modulus was rate dependent and described using an elastic/viscoplastic constitutive model. The viscoplasticity model was verified to provide stress-strain relations at high strain rates. S2/8552 glass/epoxy unidirectional composites with small off-axis angles were tested to failure at various strain rates. For strain rates below 1/sec, the compression tests were conducted on an MTS machine, while higher strain rate tests were carried out using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. Comparison with experimental data indicated that the dynamic microbuckling model was suitable for prediction of compressive strengths at different strain rates. The compressive strength of multi-directional laminates was characterized. Laminate plate theory and finite element analysis with material nonlinearity were employed for laminar stress analysis. The critical failure stress in the 0° ply was estimated using the microbuckling model. Based on that, the compressive strength of composite laminates was predicted. The model predictions were compared with experimental data and good agreements were revealed.

  14. Compression Strength of Composite Primary Structural Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric R.

    1998-01-01

    Research conducted under NASA Grant NAG-1-537 focussed on the response and failure of advanced composite material structures for application to aircraft. Both experimental and analytical methods were utilized to study the fundamental mechanics of the response and failure of selected structural components subjected to quasi-static loads. Most of the structural components studied were thin-walled elements subject to compression, such that they exhibited buckling and postbuckling responses prior to catastrophic failure. Consequently, the analyses were geometrically nonlinear. Structural components studied were dropped-ply laminated plates, stiffener crippling, pressure pillowing of orthogonally stiffened cylindrical shells, axisymmetric response of pressure domes, and the static crush of semi-circular frames. Failure of these components motivated analytical studies on an interlaminar stress postprocessor for plate and shell finite element computer codes, and global/local modeling strategies in finite element modeling. These activities are summarized in the following section. References to literature published under the grant are listed on pages 5 to 10 by a letter followed by a number under the categories of journal publications, conference publications, presentations, and reports. These references are indicated in the text by their letter and number as a superscript.

  15. Neutron irradiation of sapphire for compressive strengthening. - I. Processing conditions and compressive strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, Thomas M.; Harris, Daniel C.; Stroud, Rhonda M.; White, John R.

    2002-01-01

    Sapphire suffers a dramatic loss of c-axis compression strength at elevated temperatures. Irradiation of sapphire with fission-spectrum neutrons to an exposure of ˜10 22 neutrons/m 2 in the core of a 1 MW fission reactor increased the c-axis compression strength by a factor of ˜3 at 600 °C. Strength was similarly improved when 99% of slow neutrons (⩽0.1 eV) were removed by 10B and Cd shields during irradiation. Annealing at 600 °C for 10 min changed the yellow-brown color of irradiated sapphire to pale yellow, but had no effect on compressive strength. Annealing irradiated sapphire at 1200 °C for 24 h reduced the compressive strength to its baseline value. Transmission electron microscopy suggests that fast-neutron-induced displacement damage inhibits the propagation of r-plane twins which are responsible for the low compressive strength. When irradiated with 10B and Cd shielding, sapphire that was not grown in iridium crucibles is safe for unrestricted handling after 1 month.

  16. Relationship among fatigue strength, mean grain size and compressive strength of a rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. K.

    1988-10-01

    Fatigue tests carried on three sets of samples having different mean grain sizes revealed that fatigue strength is a function of mean grain size of the rock. Samples having smaller grain size show higher value of fatigue strength. Graywacke samples from Flagstaff formation having mean grain sizes of 1.79 mm, 1.35 mm and 0.93 mm showed fatigue strengths of 87%, 88.25% and 89.1% respectively. Since the mean uniaxial compressive strength also varied with varying grain size, i. e. higher mean strength value for samples having finer grain size; the fatigue strength of a rock also shows a converse relation with mean uniaxial compressive strength.

  17. Testing compression strength of wood logs by drilling resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalny, Gerda; Rados, Kristijan; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2017-04-01

    Soil bioengineering is a construction technique using biological components for hydraulic and civil engineering solutions, based on the application of living plants and other auxiliary materials including among others log wood. Considering the reliability of the construction it is important to know about the durability and the degradation process of the wooden logs to estimate and retain the integral performance of a soil bioengineering system. An important performance indicator is the compression strength, but this parameter is not easy to examine by non-destructive methods. The Rinntech Resistograph is an instrument to measure the drilling resistance by a 3 mm wide needle in a wooden log. It is a quasi-non-destructive method as the remaining hole has no weakening effects to the wood. This is an easy procedure but result in values, hard to interpret. To assign drilling resistance values to specific compression strengths, wooden specimens were tested in an experiment and analysed with the Resistograph. Afterwards compression tests were done at the same specimens. This should allow an easier interpretation of drilling resistance curves in future. For detailed analyses specimens were investigated by means of branch inclusions, cracks and distances between annual rings. Wood specimens are tested perpendicular to the grain. First results show a correlation between drilling resistance and compression strength by using the mean drilling resistance, average width of the annual rings and the mean range of the minima and maxima values as factors for the drilling resistance. The extended limit of proportionality, the offset yield strength and the maximum strength were taken as parameters for compression strength. Further investigations at a second point in time strengthen these results.

  18. Compressive strength and hydration processes of concrete with recycled aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Koenders, Eduardus A.B.; Pepe, Marco; Martinelli, Enzo

    2014-02-15

    This paper deals with the correlation between the time evolution of the degree of hydration and the compressive strength of Recycled Aggregate Concrete (RAC) for different water to cement ratios and initial moisture conditions of the Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCAs). Particularly, the influence of such moisture conditions is investigated by monitoring the hydration process and determining the compressive strength development of fully dry or fully saturated recycled aggregates in four RAC mixtures. Hydration processes are monitored via temperature measurements in hardening concrete samples and the time evolution of the degree of hydration is determined through a 1D hydration and heat flow model. The effect of the initial moisture condition of RCAs employed in the considered concrete mixtures clearly emerges from this study. In fact, a novel conceptual method is proposed to predict the compressive strength of RAC-systems, from the initial mixture parameters and the hardening conditions. -- Highlights: •The concrete industry is more and more concerned with sustainability issues. •The use of recycled aggregates is a promising solution to enhance sustainability. •Recycled aggregates affect both hydration processes and compressive strength. •A fundamental approach is proposed to unveil the influence of recycled aggregates. •Some experimental comparisons are presented to validate the proposed approach.

  19. Cement paste compressive strength estimation using nondestructive microwave reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoughi, Reza; Gray, S.; Nowak, Paul S.

    1994-09-01

    Microwave reflection properties of four cement paste samples with various water-cement (w/c) ratios were measured daily for 28 days using microwave frequencies of 5, 9, and 13 GHz. The dielectric properties of these samples, and hence their reflection coefficients, were measured daily and shown to decrease as a function of increasing w/c ratio. This is as a direct result of curing (no chemical interaction or hydration). The presence of curing as indicated by this result indicates that microwaves could be used to monitor the amount of curing in a concrete member. The variation in the reflection coefficient of these samples as a function of w/c ratio followed a trend similar to the variation of compressive strength as a function of w/c ratio. Subsequently, a correlation between the measured compressive strength and reflection coefficient of these blocks was obtained. The early results indicated that lower frequencies are more sensitive to compressive strength variations. However, further investigations showed that there may be a frequency around 5 GHz which is the optimum measurement frequency. This result can be used to directly and nondestructively estimate the compressive strength of a cement paste and mortar blocks.

  20. Modelling the effect of shear strength on isentropic compression experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Stuart; Howell, Peter; Ockendon, John; Ockendon, Hilary

    2017-01-01

    Isentropic compression experiments (ICE) are a way of obtaining equation of state information for metals undergoing violent plastic deformation. In a typical experiment, millimetre thick metal samples are subjected to pressures on the order of 10 - 102 GPa, while the yield strength of the material can be as low as 10-2 GPa. The analysis of such experiments has so far neglected the effect of shear strength, instead treating the highly plasticised metal as an inviscid compressible fluid. However making this approximation belies the basic elastic nature of a solid object. A more accurate method should strive to incorporate the small but measurable effects of shear strength. Here we present a one-dimensional mathematical model for elastoplasticity at high stress which allows for both compressibility and the shear strength of the material. In the limit of zero yield stress this model reproduces the hydrodynamic models currently used to analyse ICEs. Numerical solutions of the governing equations will then be presented for problems relevant to ICEs in order to investigate the effects of shear strength compared with a model based purely on hydrodynamics.

  1. Insulation interlaminar shear strength testing with compression and irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McManamy, T.J.; Brasier, J.E.; Snook, P.; Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID; Princeton Univ., NJ )

    1989-01-01

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) project identified the need for research and development for the insulation to be used in the toroidal field coils. The requirements included tolerance to a combination of high compression and shear and a high radiation dose. Samples of laminate-type sheet material were obtained from commercial vendors. The materials included various combinations of epoxy, polyimide, E-glass, S-glass, and T-glass. The T-glass was in the form of a three-dimensional weave. The first tests were with 50 {times} 25 {times} 1 mm samples. These materials were loaded in compression and then to failure in shear. At 345-MPa compression, the interlaminar shear strength was generally in the range of 110 to 140 MPa for the different materials. A smaller sample configuration was developed for irradiation testing. The data before irradiation were similar to those for the larger samples but approximately 10% lower. Limited fatigue testing was also performed by cycling the shear load. No reduction in shear strength was found after 50,000 cycles at 90% of the failure stress. Because of space limitations, only three materials were chosen for irradiation: two polyimide systems and one epoxy system. All used boron-free glass. The small shear/compression samples and some flexure specimens were irradiated to 4 {times} 10{sup 9} and 2 {times} 10{sup 10} rad in the Advanced Technology Reactor at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. A lead shield was used to ensure that the majority of the dose was from neutrons. The shear strength with compression before and after irradiation at the lower dose was determined. Flexure strength and the results from irradiation at the higher dose level will be available in the near future. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Analysis of Homogel Uniaxial Compression Strength on Bio Grouting Material.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyungho; Kim, Daehyeon

    2016-03-29

    This study analyzed uniaxial compression strength over time by preparing a homogel specimen from a bio grouting material, a cement-like form produced by environment-friendly microbial reactions. Among chemical grouting methods, the most commonly used method is the Labile Waterglass method. In this study, the homogel uniaxial compressive strength of Labile Waterglass (LW) injection material and that of bio grouting material were measured and analyzed. In order to perform the experiment, a total of 10 types of grouting mixing ratios were prepared by a combination of different materials such as Ordinary Portland Cement, Micro Cement, Bio Grouting Material and Sodium Silicate. They were cured in the air, and their homogel uniaxial compression strengths were measured on days 1, 3, 7 and 28 Based on the test results, it was confirmed that the uniaxial strength of the specimen made with Bio Grouting Material, Ordinary Portland Cement and Micro Cement was increased by more than 30% than that of the specimen only used with Ordinary Portland Cement, as a result of hydrogen-released heat reaction between calcium carbonate, the main ingredient of the bio grouting material, and calcium silicate in the cement. This indicates that the use of 30% bio-grouting material instead of cement in the grouting can be a reasonable mixing ratio to save the use of cement, leading to reduction in CO₂ emission.

  3. Effect of force feeder on tablet strength during compression.

    PubMed

    Narang, Ajit S; Rao, Venkatramana M; Guo, Hang; Lu, Jian; Desai, Divyakant S

    2010-11-30

    Mechanical strength of tablets is an important quality attribute, which depends on both formulation and process. In this study, the effect of process variables during compression on tablet tensile strength and tabletability (the ratio of tensile strength to compression pressure) was investigated using a model formulation. Increase in turret and force feeder speeds reduced tablet tensile strength and tabletability. Turret speed affected tabletability through changes in dwell time under the compression cam and the kinetics of consolidation of granules in the die cavity. The effect of force feeder was attributed to the shearing of the granulation, leading to its over-lubrication. A dimensionless equation was derived to estimate total shear imparted by the force feeder on the granulation in terms of a shear number. Scale-independence of the relationship of tabletability with the shear number was explored on a 6-station Korsch press, a 16-station Betapress, and a 35-station Korsch XL-400 press. The use of this relationship, the exact nature of which may be formulation dependent, during tablet development is expected to provide guidance to the scale-up and interchangeability of tablet presses.

  4. Shock compression and release in high-strength ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kipp, M E; Grady, D E

    1989-08-01

    A preliminary investigation of shock compression and release properties has been performed on four ceramics: silicon carbide, titanium diboride, boron carbide and zirconium dioxide. Eight planar impact experiments using thin discs of similar ceramic as impactor and target have been completed. The particle velocity history at the interface between the back of the target ceramic and a lithium fluoride window material was acquired with a laser velocity interferometer (VISAR). These wave profiles indicate that each of these materials responds in a unique way to shock loading. Peak impact stresses in these experiments range between 20 and 50 GPa, leading to pronounced permanent deformation behavior of these materials. Dynamic compression and release stress-strain behavior of the ceramics, formulated with numerical iteration methods, is compared with compressive strength properties determined from the experimental data. The current experiments provide data for these ceramic materials which can be used to evaluate computational material models in wave propagation codes. 23 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. The effects of compressive preloads on the compression-after-impact strength of carbon/epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.; Lance, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    A preloading device was used to examine the effects of compressive prestress on the compression-after-impact (CAI) strength of 16-ply, quasi-isotropic carbon epoxy test coupons. T300/934 material was evaluated at preloads from 200 to 4000 lb at impact energies from 1 to 9 joules. IM7/8551-7 material was evaluated at preloads from 4000 to 10,000 lb at impact energies from 4 to 16 joules. Advanced design of experiments methodology was used to design and evaluate the test matrices. The results showed that no statistically significant change in CAI strength could be contributed to the amount of compressive preload applied to the specimen.

  6. Compression Strength of Sulfur Concrete Subjected to Extreme Cold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfur concrete cubes were cycled between liquid nitrogen and room temperature to simulate extreme exposure conditions. Subsequent compression testing showed the strength of cycled samples to be roughly five times less than those non-cycled. Fracture surface examination showed de-bonding of the sulfur from the aggregate material in the cycled samples but not in those non-cycled. The large discrepancy found, between the samples is attributed to the relative thermal properties of the materials constituting the concrete.

  7. Compressive strength of damaged and repaired composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, Scott R.; Springer, George S.

    1992-01-01

    Tests were performed assessing the effectiveness of repair in restoring the mechanical properties of damaged, solid composite plates made of Fiberite T300/976 graphite-epoxy. Some (75%) or all (100%) of the damaged zone was cut out, and the plate was repaired by plugging and patching the hole. The effectiveness of the repair was evaluated by measuring the compressive strengths of undamaged plates, damaged plates with no cutout, damaged plates with a cutout, and plates that had been repaired.

  8. Compression Strength of Sulfur Concrete Subjected to Extreme Cold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfur concrete cubes were cycled between liquid nitrogen and room temperature to simulate extreme exposure conditions. Subsequent compression testing showed the strength of cycled samples to be roughly five times less than those non-cycled. Fracture surface examination showed de-bonding of the sulfur from the aggregate material in the cycled samples but not in those non-cycled. The large discrepancy found, between the samples is attributed to the relative thermal properties of the materials constituting the concrete.

  9. Tow collapse model for compression strength of textile composites

    SciTech Connect

    Emehel, T.C.; Shivakumar, K.N.

    1995-12-31

    The unidirectional composite compression strength model based on microbuckling of fibers embedded in a rigid-plastic matrix was extended to multiaxial laminates and textile composites. The resulting expression is a function of matrix yield strength under the fiber constraint, fiber misalignment angle, fiber volume fraction, and the area fractions of various sets of inclined tows. The analysis was verified by experimentation. Compression tests were conducted on laminated, three-dimensional triaxially braided and orthogonally woven composites using the IITRI test specimen. The laminate specimens were made up of AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy composite with (0){sub 24}, (0/30/0/{minus}30){sub 3S}, and ((0/90)6/0){sub S} stacking sequence. Textile composites were made of BASF G30-500 graphite fiber tows (tow size is 6K) and Dow Chemicals Tactix 123 matrix. Fiber preform architecture of braided and woven composites before resin consolidation was 0/{+-}17 and 0/90, respectively and after consolidation it was about (7/{+-}20) and (5/90/90), respectively. The analysis agreed reasonably well with the test data for all cases considered. The axial fiber/tow misalignment angle for laminated, braided, and woven composites were about 4, 7, and 5 degrees, respectively. The compression strength was found to be strongly dependent on the percentage of axial tows and its misalignment angle. A small variation in the off-axis fiber/tow orientation had marginal effect on the compression strength. Hence, the off axis tow misalignment angle can be assumed to be same as the initial laminate or the two orientation angle.

  10. Tension/Compression Strength Asymmetry in a Simulated Nanocrystalline Metal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 69, 012101 ~2004!TensionÕcompression strength asymmetry in a simulated nanocrystalline metal A. C. Lund,1 T. G. Nieh,2 and C. A...nanoscale range plastic flow occurs by shear shuffling of atoms located at intercrystalline boundaries,4,6 ultimately leading to cooperative, large-scale...the fraction of intercrystal- line atoms becomes appreciable. Thus it is natural to con- sider the amorphous state as being the ultimate limit for

  11. Strength Tests of Thin-Walled Duralumin Cylinders in Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Eugene E

    1934-01-01

    This report is the second of a series presenting the results of strength tests of thin-walled duralumin cylinders and truncated cones of circular and elliptic section. It contains the results obtained from compression tests on 45 thin-walled duralumin cylinders of circular section with ends clamped to rigid bulkheads. In addition to the tests on duralumin cylinders, there are included the results of numerous tests on rubber, celluloid, steel, and brass cylinders obtained from various sources.

  12. Compressive strength of damaged and repaired composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, Scott R.; He, Yi-Fei; Springer, George S.; Lee, Hung-Joo

    1992-01-01

    Tests were performed assessing the effectiveness of repair in restoring the mechanical properties of damaged, solid composite plates made either of Fiberite T300/976 graphite-epoxy, Fiberite IM7/977-2 graphite-toughened epoxy, or ICI APC-2 graphite-PEEK. The plate length, the layup and the amount of damage were also varied. Damage was introduced in the plates either by impacting them with a solid projectile or by applying a transverse static load. Some (75 percent) or all (100 percent) of the damaged zone was then cut out, and the plate was repaired by plugging and patching the hole. The effectiveness of the repair was evaluated by measuring the compressive strengths of undamaged plates, damaged plates with no cutout, damaged plates with a cutout, and repaired plates. The data at an intermediate stage of repair provide information on the effect of each repair step on the compressive strength. The results indicated that for the solid plates used in these tests, the repair methods used herein did not improve the compressive strength of already damaged plates.

  13. Study on conversion relationships of compressive strength indexes for recycled lightweight aggregate concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang-gang; Yang, Jian-hui; Kuang, Xiao-mei

    2017-01-01

    In order to study cube compressive strength and axial compressive strength of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete(RLAC), and conversion relationship between the two, with the replacement rate of recycled lightweight coarse aggregate as change parameters, 15 standard cube test specimens and 15 standard prism test specimens were produced to carry out the test. Then compressive strength of test specimens were measured, and the law of different replacement rate of recycled lightweight coarse aggregate influencing compressive strength of RLAC was analyzed, as the method of statistical regression adopted, the conversion relationships between of cube compressive strength and axial compressive strength of RLAC was obtained. It is shown that compressive strength of RLAC are lower than compressive strength of ordinary concrete; and that compressive strength of RLAC gradually decreases as replacement rate of recycled lightweight coarse aggregate increases; as well as, the conversion relationship between axial compressive strength and cube compressive strength of RLAC is different from ordinary concrete; based on the experimental data, conversion relationship formula between compressive strength indexes of RLAC was established. It is suggested that the replacement rate of recycled lightweight aggregate should be controlled within 25%.

  14. A model for compression after impact strength evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Dost, Ernst F.; Coggeshall, Randy L.

    1989-01-01

    One key property commonly used for evaluating composite material performance is compression after impact strength (CAI). Standarad CAI tests typically use a specific laminate stacking sequence, coupon geometry, and impact level. In order to understand what material factors affect CAI, evaluation of test results should include more than comparisons of the measured strength for different materials. This study considers the effects of characteristic impact damage state, specimen geometry, material toughness, ply group thickness, undamaged strength, and failure mode. The results of parametric studies, using an analysis model developed to predict CAI, are discussed. Experimental results used to verify the model are also presented. Finally, recommended pre- and post-test CAI evaluation schemes which help link material behavior to structural performance are summarized.

  15. A model for compression after impact strength evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Dost, Ernst F.; Coggeshall, Randy L.

    1989-01-01

    One key property commonly used for evaluating composite material performance is compression after impact strength (CAI). Standarad CAI tests typically use a specific laminate stacking sequence, coupon geometry, and impact level. In order to understand what material factors affect CAI, evaluation of test results should include more than comparisons of the measured strength for different materials. This study considers the effects of characteristic impact damage state, specimen geometry, material toughness, ply group thickness, undamaged strength, and failure mode. The results of parametric studies, using an analysis model developed to predict CAI, are discussed. Experimental results used to verify the model are also presented. Finally, recommended pre- and post-test CAI evaluation schemes which help link material behavior to structural performance are summarized.

  16. Ultra-porous titanium oxide scaffold with high compressive strength

    PubMed Central

    Tiainen, Hanna; Lyngstadaas, S. Petter; Ellingsen, Jan Eirik

    2010-01-01

    Highly porous and well interconnected titanium dioxide (TiO2) scaffolds with compressive strength above 2.5 MPa were fabricated without compromising the desired pore architectural characteristics, such as high porosity, appropriate pore size, surface-to-volume ratio, and interconnectivity. Processing parameters and pore architectural characteristics were investigated in order to identify the key processing steps and morphological properties that contributed to the enhanced strength of the scaffolds. Cleaning of the TiO2 raw powder removed phosphates but introduced sodium into the powder, which was suggested to decrease the slurry stability. Strong correlation was found between compressive strength and both replication times and solid content in the ceramic slurry. Increase in the solid content resulted in more favourable sponge loading, which was achieved due to the more suitable rheological properties of the ceramic slurry. Repeated replication process induced only negligible changes in the pore architectural parameters indicating a reduced flaw size in the scaffold struts. The fabricated TiO2 scaffolds show great promise as load-bearing bone scaffolds for applications where moderate mechanical support is required. PMID:20711636

  17. The Effects of Compressive Preloads on the Compression-After-Impact Strength of Carbon/Epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    1994-01-01

    A fixture to apply compressive loads to composite specimens during an impact event was used to assess the effect of prestresses on the compression-after-impact (CAI) strength of 16 ply quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy test coupons. Advanced design of experiments techniques were used to evaluate a range of prestresses and impact energies on two material systems, T300/934 and IM7/8551-7. An instrumented drop tower supplied impact energies between 1 and 9 Joules for the T300/934 material and between 4 and 16 Joules for the IM7/8551-7 material. The prestress values varied between a low of 5.7 Wa and a high of 287 NDa. Results showed some change in CAI strength that could be attributed to the prestresses on the specimens.

  18. A Proposed Uniaxial Compression Test for High Strength Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    is lost and catastrophic collapse ensues. The origin of the microcracks may be microplasticity in the form of twinning, 2 or existing flaws such as...Uniaxial compressive strength tElastic modulus sonic method (strain gage method ) sPoisson’s ratio sonic method MIL-STD-1942(MR) size B, mean flexure...SEA-O5MB, LCDR W. M. Elger Commander, U.S. Armament, Munitions and Chemical 1 SEA-05R 25, C. Zanis Command, Dover, NJ 07801 2 ATTN: Technical Library

  19. Space Shuttle filament wound case compressive strength study. I - Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, C. B.; Nuismer, R. J.; Bianca, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    Immediately before liftoff, ignition of the Space Shuttle main engines places a significant bending moment on the filament wound cases of the solid rocket booster motors. This results in substantial compressive loading of the aft end of the composite case which, because of attachment requirements, has a complicated design including inserted broadgoods and helical ply dropoffs. To investigate the performance of the filament wound cases during the prelaunch load environment, a comprehensive study was initiated which included both testing and analysis. The results of the test program, which included testing of several full-scale and over three hundred subscale articles, will be described. The test program began with a short development effort to establish appropriate subscale test specimens for determining the material compressive strengths. Once these were established, a more comprehensive test program was initiated to determine the effects on strength of both processing and design changes. Full-scale cases were tested in a simulated prelaunch bending environment in order to validate the analysis predictions. In all tests, special attention was given to observation of the failure sequence which involved a complex process of load transfer from the region of helical ply dropoffs to the broadgood termination region.

  20. An investigation of the compressive strength of PRD-49-3/Epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, S. V.; Rice, J. S.; Rosen, B. W.

    1973-01-01

    The development of unidirectional fiber composite materials is discussed. The mechanical and physical properties of the materials are described. Emphasis is placed in analyzing the compressive behavior of composite materials and developing methods for increasing compressive strength. The test program for evaluating the various procedures for improving compressive strength are reported.

  1. Compression garment promotes muscular strength recovery after resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Goto, Kazushige; Morishima, Takuma

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing a compression garment (CG) for 24 h on changes in muscular strength and blood parameters over time after resistance exercise. Nine trained men conducted resistance exercises (10 repetitions of 3-5 sets at 70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) for nine exercises) in two trials, wearing either a CG or a normal garment (CON) for 24 h after exercise. Recovery of muscular strength, blood parameters, muscle soreness, and upper arm and thigh circumference were compared between the trials. Both trials showed decreases in maximal strength after the exercise (P < 0.05). However, the CG trial showed faster recovery of one-repetition maximum for the chest press from 3 to 8 h after exercise (P < 0.05). Recovery of maximal knee extension strength was also improved in the CG trial 24 h after exercise (P < 0.05). The CG trial was associated with lower muscle soreness and subjective fatigue scores the following morning (P < 0.05). The upper arm and thigh circumferences were significantly higher during the recovery period in the CON trial, whereas no change was observed in the CG trial. Blood lactate, insulin like growth factor-1, free testosterone, myoglobin, creatine kinase, interleukin 6, and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist concentrations for 24 h after exercise were similar in both trials. Wearing a CG after resistance exercise facilitates the recovery of muscular strength. Recovery for upper body muscles significantly improved within 3-8 h after exercise. However, facilitation of recovery of lower limb muscles by wearing the CG took a longer time.

  2. The influence of postpouring time on the roughness, compressive strength, and diametric tensile strength of dental stone.

    PubMed

    De Cesero, Leonardo; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2014-12-01

    The optimum time after pouring a dental impression before removing the dental cast is unknown with regard to the strength and roughness of the stone. Setting times and the commercial products used are important variables. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of postpouring time on the surface roughness, compressive strength, and diametric tensile strength of Type IV dental stone. A total of 270 specimens were prepared from 3 commercial brands of dental stone (Durone, Fuji Rock, and Tuff Rock). Surface roughness, compressive strength, and diametric tensile strength were assessed at 1 hour, 24 hours, and 7 days after pouring. Specimens 6 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height were produced for roughness and diametric tensile strength tests. Specimens 3 mm in diameter and 6 mm in height were used to measure compressive strength. The results were analyzed with the general linear model and Tukey honestly significant difference test (α=.05). The surface roughness measured for the different types of dental stone tested varied from 0.3 μm (Durone, 1 hour) to 0.64 μm (Tuff Rock, 7 days). The diametric tensile strength ranged from 3.94 MPa (Tuff Rock, 1 hour) to 9.20 MPa (Durone, 7 days). The compressive strength varied from 26.67 MPa (Durone, 1 hour) to 65.14 MPa (Fuji Rock, 7 days). Surface roughness (P=.005), diametric tensile strength (P=.001), and compressive strength (P=.001) increased significantly with time after pouring. The commercial brand used affected roughness (P=.001), diametric tensile strength (P=.004), and compressive strength (P=.001). Tuff Rock exhibited the highest surface roughness. The highest diametric tensile strength values were recorded for Durone and Fuji Rock. Fuji Rock exhibited the highest compressive strength. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling of Compressive Strength for Self-Consolidating High-Strength Concrete Incorporating Palm Oil Fuel Ash

    PubMed Central

    Safiuddin, Md.; Raman, Sudharshan N.; Abdus Salam, Md.; Jumaat, Mohd. Zamin

    2016-01-01

    Modeling is a very useful method for the performance prediction of concrete. Most of the models available in literature are related to the compressive strength because it is a major mechanical property used in concrete design. Many attempts were taken to develop suitable mathematical models for the prediction of compressive strength of different concretes, but not for self-consolidating high-strength concrete (SCHSC) containing palm oil fuel ash (POFA). The present study has used artificial neural networks (ANN) to predict the compressive strength of SCHSC incorporating POFA. The ANN model has been developed and validated in this research using the mix proportioning and experimental strength data of 20 different SCHSC mixes. Seventy percent (70%) of the data were used to carry out the training of the ANN model. The remaining 30% of the data were used for testing the model. The training of the ANN model was stopped when the root mean square error (RMSE) and the percentage of good patterns was 0.001 and ≈100%, respectively. The predicted compressive strength values obtained from the trained ANN model were much closer to the experimental values of compressive strength. The coefficient of determination (R2) for the relationship between the predicted and experimental compressive strengths was 0.9486, which shows the higher degree of accuracy of the network pattern. Furthermore, the predicted compressive strength was found very close to the experimental compressive strength during the testing process of the ANN model. The absolute and percentage relative errors in the testing process were significantly low with a mean value of 1.74 MPa and 3.13%, respectively, which indicated that the compressive strength of SCHSC including POFA can be efficiently predicted by the ANN. PMID:28773520

  4. Influence of Pore Structure on Compressive Strength of Cement Mortar

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haitao; Xiao, Qi; Huang, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation into the pore structure of cement mortar using mercury porosimeter. Ordinary Portland cement, manufactured sand, and natural sand were used. The porosity of the manufactured sand mortar is higher than that of natural sand at the same mix proportion; on the contrary, the probable pore size and threshold radius of manufactured sand mortar are finer. Besides, the probable pore size and threshold radius increased with increasing water to cement ratio and sand to cement ratio. In addition, the existing models of pore size distribution of cement-based materials have been reviewed and compared with test results in this paper. Finally, the extended Bhattacharjee model was built to examine the relationship between compressive strength and pore structure. PMID:24757414

  5. Compressive strength after blast of sandwich composite materials

    PubMed Central

    Arora, H.; Kelly, M.; Worley, A.; Del Linz, P.; Fergusson, A.; Hooper, P. A.; Dear, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Composite sandwich materials have yet to be widely adopted in the construction of naval vessels despite their excellent strength-to-weight ratio and low radar return. One barrier to their wider use is our limited understanding of their performance when subjected to air blast. This paper focuses on this problem and specifically the strength remaining after damage caused during an explosion. Carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite skins on a styrene–acrylonitrile (SAN) polymer closed-cell foam core are the primary composite system evaluated. Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite skins were also included for comparison in a comparable sandwich configuration. Full-scale blast experiments were conducted, where 1.6×1.3 m sized panels were subjected to blast of a Hopkinson–Cranz scaled distance of 3.02 m kg−1/3, 100 kg TNT equivalent at a stand-off distance of 14 m. This explosive blast represents a surface blast threat, where the shockwave propagates in air towards the naval vessel. Hopkinson was the first to investigate the characteristics of this explosive air-blast pulse (Hopkinson 1948 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 89, 411–413 (doi:10.1098/rspa.1914.0008)). Further analysis is provided on the performance of the CFRP sandwich panel relative to the GFRP sandwich panel when subjected to blast loading through use of high-speed speckle strain mapping. After the blast events, the residual compressive load-bearing capacity is investigated experimentally, using appropriate loading conditions that an in-service vessel may have to sustain. Residual strength testing is well established for post-impact ballistic assessment, but there has been less research performed on the residual strength of sandwich composites after blast. PMID:24711494

  6. Compressive strength after blast of sandwich composite materials.

    PubMed

    Arora, H; Kelly, M; Worley, A; Del Linz, P; Fergusson, A; Hooper, P A; Dear, J P

    2014-05-13

    Composite sandwich materials have yet to be widely adopted in the construction of naval vessels despite their excellent strength-to-weight ratio and low radar return. One barrier to their wider use is our limited understanding of their performance when subjected to air blast. This paper focuses on this problem and specifically the strength remaining after damage caused during an explosion. Carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite skins on a styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) polymer closed-cell foam core are the primary composite system evaluated. Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite skins were also included for comparison in a comparable sandwich configuration. Full-scale blast experiments were conducted, where 1.6×1.3 m sized panels were subjected to blast of a Hopkinson-Cranz scaled distance of 3.02 m kg(-1/3), 100 kg TNT equivalent at a stand-off distance of 14 m. This explosive blast represents a surface blast threat, where the shockwave propagates in air towards the naval vessel. Hopkinson was the first to investigate the characteristics of this explosive air-blast pulse (Hopkinson 1948 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 89, 411-413 (doi:10.1098/rspa.1914.0008)). Further analysis is provided on the performance of the CFRP sandwich panel relative to the GFRP sandwich panel when subjected to blast loading through use of high-speed speckle strain mapping. After the blast events, the residual compressive load-bearing capacity is investigated experimentally, using appropriate loading conditions that an in-service vessel may have to sustain. Residual strength testing is well established for post-impact ballistic assessment, but there has been less research performed on the residual strength of sandwich composites after blast.

  7. Influence of Waste Tyre Crumb Rubber on Compressive Strength, Static Modulus of Elasticity and Flexural Strength of Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haridharan, M. K.; Bharathi Murugan, R.; Natarajan, C.; Muthukannan, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the experimental investigations was carried out to find the compressive strength, static modulus of elasticity and flexural strength of concrete mixtures, in which natural sand was partially replaced with Waste Tyre Crumb Rubber (WTCR). River sand was replaced with five different percentages (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) of WTCR by volume. The main objective of the experimental investigation is to find the relationship between static modulus of elasticity and flexural strength with compressive strength of concrete with WTCR. The experimentally obtainedstatic modulus of elasticity and flexural strength results comparing with the theoretical values (various country codes recommendations).

  8. Compressive mechanical of high strength concrete (HSC) after different high temperature history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongfu; Liu, Yuchen; Gao, Haijing; Han, Xiao

    2017-08-01

    The compression strength test of high strength concrete under different high-temperature conditions was carried out by universal testing machine. The friction surface of the pressure bearing surface of the specimen was composed of three layers of plastic film and glycerol. The high temperature working conditions were the combination of different heating temperature and different constant temperature time. The characteristics of failure modes and the developments of cracks were observed; the residual compressive strength and stress-strain curves were measured; the effect of different temperature and heating time on the strength and deformation of high strength concrete under uniaxial compression were analyzed; the failure criterion formula of the high strength concrete after high temperature under uniaxial compression was established. The formula of the residual compressive strength of high strength concrete under the influence of heating temperature and constant temperature time was put forward. The relationship between the residual elastic modulus and the peak strain and residual compressive strength of high strength concrete and different high temperature conditions is established. The quantitative relationship that the residual compressive strength decreases the residual elastic modulus decreases and the peak strain increases with the increase of heating temperature and the constant temperature time was given, which provides a reference for the detection and evaluation of high strength concrete structures after fire.

  9. Dataset of long-term compressive strength of concrete with manufactured sand.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xinxin; Li, Changyong; Xu, Yangyang; Li, Fenglan; Zhao, Shunbo

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents 186 groups compressive strength tests data of concrete with manufactured sand (MSC) in different curing age and 262 groups compressive strength tests data of MSC at 28 days collected from authors' experiments and other researches in China. Further interpretation and discussion were described in this issues.

  10. A reassessment of the compressive strength properties of southern yellow pine bark

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2007-01-01

    Samples of southern yellow pine outer bark and wood were tested in compression to determine values for modulus of elasticity, stress at proportional limit, and maximum crushing strength. Results reported here resolve inconsistencies in the compressive strength data previously reported by others for pine bark. Testing of solvent-treated bark blocks suggests that...

  11. Strength of Kevlar narrow fabrics as influenced by folding and compression in the presence of moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Ericksen, R.H.

    1986-08-01

    The tensile strength of dry Kevlar narrow fabrics was investigated as a function of moisture present during folding and compression. Fabric samples were exposed to 96% relative humidity, or soaked in water prior to compression; or moisture was introduced while the samples were compressed. The fabrics exhibited a 10 to 30% tensile strength loss after wet compression relative to data for samples compressed dry. Similar tests on nylon did not show this effect. Warp yarns removed from fabrics compressed with moisture present exhibited nominally the same strength as those obtained from fabrics compressed dry or from uncompressed fabrics. These results are consistent with test data from a parachute that had been exposed to moisture and with packing difficulties encountered under high humidity environments.

  12. Effect of compression speed on the tensile strength of tablets of binary mixtures containing aspirin.

    PubMed

    Cook, G D; Summers, M P

    1990-07-01

    Mixtures of aspirin with sodium chloride, sucrose, Starch 1500 or Emcompress have been compressed to two maximum upper punch pressures at two compression speeds. Non-linear relationships between tensile strength and composition, and tablet porosity and composition were found in all cases. Tablets of the individual materials compressed at fast speed showed either little change or a reduction in tensile strength when compared with those compressed at slow speed. For mixtures of aspirin with Starch 1500, tablets compressed at fast speed were weaker and more porous than those compressed at slow speed. However, some mixtures of aspirin with sodium chloride, sucrose or Emcompress gave tablets with greater tensile strength and lower porosity when prepared at fast compression speed compared with tablets prepared at slow speed. This behaviour was attributed to the modification of the consolidation behaviour of the aspirin by the second material.

  13. Compressive Strength of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate with Propylene Glycol

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Negin; Rahimi, Saeed; Shahi, Shahriar; Salem Milani, Amin; Rezaei, Yashar; Nobakht, Mahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding propylene glycol (PG) to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) liquid with volume ratio of 20% on the compressive strength (CS) of MTA in two time periods (4 and 21 days) after mixing. Methods and Materials: Four groups of steel cylinders (n=15) with an internal diameter of 3 and a height of 6 mm were prepared and MTA (groups 1 and 2) and MTA+PG (80% MTA liquid+20% PG) (groups 3 and 4) were placed in to the cylinders. In groups 1 and 3 the CS was evaluated after 4 days and in groups 2 and 4 after 21 days. Data were calculated using the two-ways ANOVA. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The highest (52.22±18.92 MPa) and lowest (4.5±0.67 MPa) of CS was obtained in 21-day MTA samples and 4-day MTA+PG specimen, respectively. The effect of time and PG were significant on the CS (P<0.05). Mixing MTA with PG significantly reduced the CS; but passing the time from 4 to 21 days significantly increased the CS. Conclusion: Considering the limitations of this study, PG had a negative effect on CS of MTA. PMID:27790264

  14. A comparison study on the flexural strength and compressive strength of four resin-modified luting glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Zhang, Xuehui; Xu, Yongxiang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the differences in flexural strength and compressive strength between four resin-modified luting glass ionomer cements that are commonly used in clinics. Furthermore, this study investigates the influence of curing mode on the flexural strength and compressive strength of dual-cured resin-modified glass ionomer cements. Initially, flexural strength and compressive strength test specimens were prepared for RL, NR, GCP, and GCC. The RL group and NR group were cured by the light-curing mode and chemical-curing mode. Five specimens were prepared for each test group, and the flexural strength and compressive strength of each were measured. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with SPSS 13.0. Furthermore, the fracture morphology of the flexural specimens was observed by SEM. The result of the mean flexural strength of each group is as follows: the NR light-cured group > NR chemically-cured group > GCP > RL light-cured group > GCC > RL chemically-cured group. More specifically, the flexural strength of the NR light-cured group ((42.903±4.242) MPa) is significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the other groups, and in addition, the flexural strength of the light-curing mode is significantly higher (P<0. 05) than that of both the NR and RL chemically-cured groups. The result of the mean compressive strength of each group is as follows: GCP > NR chemically-cured group > NR light-cured group > GCC > RL light-cured group > RL chemically-cured group. Although the compressive strengths of the NR and GCP groups are higher than those of the GCC and RL groups, there are no significant differences (P>0.05) between NR and GCP, and no significant differences between GCC and RL. Furthermore, there are no significant differences (P>0.05) between the two curing modes on NR and RL. From the present study, it can be concluded that NR has superior flexural strength and compressive strength compared to the other three materials. Additionally, the

  15. Development of K-Basin High-Strength Homogeneous Sludge Simulants and Correlations Between Unconfined Compressive Strength and Shear Strength

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo; Baer, Ellen BK; Chun, Jaehun; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sande, Susan; Buchmiller, William C.

    2011-02-20

    K-Basin sludge will be stored in the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) at an interim storage location on Central Plateau before being treated and packaged for disposal. During the storage period, sludge in the STSCs may consolidate/agglomerate, potentially resulting in high-shear-strength material. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) plans to use water jets to retrieve K-Basin sludge after the interim storage. STP has identified shear strength to be a key parameter that should be bounded to verify the operability and performance of sludge retrieval systems. Determining the range of sludge shear strength is important to gain high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from the STSCs. The shear strength measurements will provide a basis for bounding sludge properties for mobilization and erosion. Thus, it is also important to develop potential simulants to investigate these phenomena. Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) show that high-uranium-content K-Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has 'paste' and 'chunks' with shear strengths of approximately 3-5 kPa and 380-770 kPa, respectively. High-uranium-content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185 C, 10 hours) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. These high values were estimated by measured unconfined compressive strength (UCS) obtained with a pocket penetrometer. Due to its ease of use, it is anticipated that a pocket penetrometer will be used to acquire additional shear strength data from archived K-Basin sludge samples stored at the PNNL Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) hot cells. It is uncertain whether the pocket penetrometer provides accurate shear strength measurements of the material. To assess the bounding material strength and potential for erosion, it

  16. The effects of embedded internal delaminations on composite laminate compression strength; an experimental review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    1994-01-01

    Delaminations in laminated composite materials can degrade the compressive strength of these materials. Delaminations can form as a result of impact damage or processing flaws. In order to better understand the effects of these delaminations on the compressive behavior of laminated composite plates, programs have been conducted to assess the criticality of prescribed delaminations of known size, shape, and location on the compression strength of laminated composites. A review of these programs is presented along with highlights of pertinent findings from each.

  17. Effect of shelf life on compressive strength of zinc phosphate cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwiputri, D. R.; Damiyanti, M.; Eriwati, Y. K.

    2017-08-01

    Usage of zinc phosphate cements with no account of the shelf life left before the expiry date can affect its compressive strength. The aim of this study is to determine the different compressive strength values of zinc phosphate cement with different shelf lives before expiry. Three groups of zinc phosphate cement (GC Elite cement 100) with different expiry dates were tested for compressive strength using a universal testing machine (crosshead speed 1 mm/min: load cell of 250 kgF). The results showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the compressive strengths of zinc phosphate cement in group III (2 months before expiry date), group I (2 years and 5 months before expiry date), and group II (11 months before expiry date). It can be concluded that there is a significant decrease in compressive strength of zinc phosphate cement near its expiry date.

  18. Neuromuscular Compression Garments: Effects on Neuromuscular Strength and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Bottaro, Martim; Martorelli, Saulo; Vilaça, José

    2011-01-01

    Graduated compression stockings have been used as a mechanical method of deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis for several years. Several studies have demonstrated an increase in mean deep venous velocity, reduced venous pooling, improved venous return, and increase blood lactate clearance in subjects who wore graduated compression stockings during exercise. A possible improvement in venous return during and after exercise may facilitate the clearance of metabolites produced during exercise. Also, studies have suggested that compressive clothing can promote tissue regeneration and consequently positively benefit the muscle function following strenuous exercise. However, the results from the previous studies are controversial. Also, the majority of the studies investigated the effects of compression stockings and there is a lack of studies using different compression garments such as compression shorts, shirts and sleeves. Thus, the purpose of this text is to briefly review the possible effects of compression garments on exercise performance and muscle recovery. PMID:23486558

  19. Sublaminate buckling and compression strength of stitched uniweave graphite/epoxy laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.K.; Sankar, B.V.

    1995-12-31

    Effects of through-the-thickness stitching on the sublaminate buckling and residual compression strength (often referred as compression-after-impact or CAI strength) of graphite/epoxy uniweave laminates are experimentally investigated. Primarily, three stitching variables: type of stitch yarn, linear density of stitch yam and stitch density were studied. Delaminations were created by implanting teflon inserts during processing. The improvement in the CAI strength of the stitched laminates was up to 400% compared to the unstitched laminates. Stitching was observed to effectively restrict sublaminate buckling failure of the laminates. The CAI strength increases rapidly with increase in stitch density. It reaches a peak CAI strength that is very close to the compression strength of the undamaged material. All the stitch yams in this study demonstrated very close performance in improving the CAI strength. It appears that any stitch yarn with adequate breaking strength and stiffness successfully restricts the sublaminate buckling.

  20. Filler effect of fine particle sand on the compressive strength of mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Tangpagasit, Jatuphon; Songmue, Sawang; Kiattikomol, Kraiwood

    2011-04-01

    The river sand, which is a non-pozzolanic material, was ground into 3 different particle sizes. Portland cement type I was replaced by the ground river sands at 10wt%-40wt% of binder to cast mortar. Compressive strengths of mortar were investigated and the filler effect of different fine particles of sand on the compressive strength of mortar was evaluated. The results show that the compressive strength of mortar contributed from the filler effect of smaller particles is higher than that of the coarser ones. The difference in compressive strength of mortar tends to be greater as the difference in ground river sand fineness increases. The results also suggest that ASTM C618 specification is not practically suitable for specifying pozzolan in concrete since the strength activity index of mortar containing ground river sand (high crystalline phase) with 33.8wt% of particles retained on a 45-μm sieve can pass the strength requirement.

  1. Effect of diode laser irradiation on compressive strength of dental amalgam.

    PubMed

    Tabari, Mitra; Fekrazad, Reza; Alaghemand, Homayoun; Hamzeh, Mahtab

    2017-04-01

    One of the biggest disadvantages of dental amalgam is that gaining its ultimate strength is a slow process. The use of a rapid-setting amalgam with high early compressive strength could be a better option in preventing early fractures in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of diode laser irradiation on compressive strength of dental amalgam. A case-control study was performed on 180 amalgam samples made at the Tehran Dental Material Research Center in 2014. Fifteen and thirty minute compressive strength of regular setting and fast setting amalgams were measured as control. In case groups, the samples were irradiated by 810nm diode laser with power of 1 and 2 watt and in pulsed and continuous mode, and compressive strength was measured after 15 and 30 minutes. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 18 using one and two way ANOVA and Scheffe multiple comparisons test and p<0.05 was considered significant. Numerous kinds of laser irradiation led to a significant increase in compressive strength compared to regular setting control groups. Fifteen minutes-compressive strength of regular-setting amalgam irradiated by 2 watt laser was significantly more than fast-setting control group (p<0.05). Irradiation by 810nm diode laser can significantly increase the compressive strength of dental amalgam especially in the first 15 minutes.

  2. [The influence of mixing and heating on the compressive strength of investment materials].

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, T; Caracatsanis, M

    1989-08-01

    In the present study, the compressive strength of four representative dental investment materials was compared. The whole investigation was divided in three experiments. In the first one the effect of different ways of mixing on the compressive strength of the investments was examined. In the second the compressive strength of investments mixed mechanically under vacuum was compared: a) two hours after mixing, b) at the highest heating temperature and c) at room temperature after the heating procedure. In the third experiment, a comparison was made between the compressive strength of investments at the highest heating temperature. The investments were mixed mechanically under vacuum but half of the specimens were placed in a pressure device during setting. From the results obtained the following conclusions were made: a) Mixing mechanically under vacuum increases the compressive strength of the investments, b) the compressive strength of phosphate-bonded investments increases at the highest temperature of the heating procedure and c) the use of a pressure device during the setting of the investments results also in an increased compressive strength.

  3. Research on compressive strength of recycled cement mortar after high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianggang; Yang, Jianhui; Deng, Dapeng

    2017-01-01

    In order to study cube compressive strength of recycled fine aggregate cement mortar after different temperatures, with the affect parameters between replacement rate of recycled fine aggregate and temperature, 45 standard cube test blocks were designed and produced to carry out compressive strength test. The failure process and failure mode of test blocks were observed. Ultimate compressive strength of cube blocks were measured, the relations between cube compressive strength and the replacement rates of recycled fine aggregate under different temperatures as well as the relations between cube compressive strength and temperatures under different replacement rates were all analyzed, the influence change parameters made on cube compressive strength was discussed. The results showed: the failure process and the failure mode of recycled fine aggregate cement mortar and the failure process and the failure mode of nature is similar; when the temperature reached 400°C, the block has no burst phenomenon, but the colour of block into a dark pink; with the increase of recycled fine aggregate, the mass lose rate of block is increase; effect different temperature make on cube compressive strength of test block is not obvious when temperature keeps same for 3h.

  4. Effect of blood contamination on the compressive strength of three calcium silicate-based cements.

    PubMed

    Sheykhrezae, Mohammad S; Meraji, Naghmeh; Ghanbari, Fatemeh; Nekoofar, Mohammad H; Bolhari, Behnam; Dummer, Paul M H

    2017-09-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of human blood exposure on the compressive strength of various calcium silicate-based cements. Two hundred and eighty-eight customised cylindrical moulds were randomly divided into three groups according to material used: ProRoot MTA, Biodentine or CEM cement (n = 96). Each group was divided into two subgroups according to exposure conditions: PBS or blood. Then, the compressive strength of the specimens was measured after 6 h, 24 h, 72 h and 7 days. The compressive strength of CEM cement could not be measured after 6 and 24‏ h regardless of the exposure conditions nor could the compressive strength of 6 h blood-exposed ProRoot MTA. The compressive strength of blood-exposed ProRoot MTA was only significantly lower after 6 h, but no difference was seen at other time intervals. Blood exposed did adversely affected the compressive strength of Biodentine. The compressive strength of all groups significantly increased over time (P < 0.005). © 2017 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  5. [Effects of silicon carbide on the cure depth, hardness and compressive strength of composite resin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi'na; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2009-08-01

    The hardness, compressive strength and cure depth are important indices of the composite resin. This investigation was made with regard to the effects of silicon carbide on the cure depth, hardness and compressive strength of the light-curing composite resin. Different amounts of silicon carbide were added to the light-curing composite resin, which accounted for 0 wt%, 1 wt%, 0.6 wt%, 0.3 wt%, 0.1 wt%, 0.05 wt% and 0.005 wt% of the composite resin, respectively. The hardness, compressive strength and cure depth of the six afore-mentioned groups of composite resin were measured by the vernier caliper, the vickers hardness tester and the tensile strength of machine, respectively. The results showed that silicon carbide improved the hardness and compressive strength of the light-curing composite resin,when the concentration was 0.05 wt%. And the cure depth was close to that of control.

  6. Strength and deformation behaviors of veined marble specimens after vacuum heat treatment under conventional triaxial compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Haijian; Jing, Hongwen; Yin, Qian; Yu, Liyuan; Wang, Yingchao; Wu, Xingjie

    2017-03-01

    The mechanical behaviors of rocks affected by high temperature and stress are generally believed to be significant for the stability of certain projects involving rocks, such as nuclear waste storage and geothermal resource exploitation. In this paper, veined marble specimens were treated to high temperature treatment and then used in conventional triaxial compression tests to investigate the effect of temperature, confining pressure, and vein angle on strength and deformation behaviors. The results show that the strength and deformation parameters of the veined marble specimens changed with the temperature, presenting a critical temperature of 600°C. The triaxial compression strength of a horizontal vein (β = 90°) is obviously larger than that of a vertical vein (β = 0°). The triaxial compression strength, elasticity modulus, and secant modulus have an approximately linear relation to the confining pressure. Finally, Mohr-Coulomb and Hoek-Brown criteria were respectively used to analyze the effect of confining pressure on triaxial compression strength.

  7. Compressive strength of fiber reinforced composite materials. [composed of boron and epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Results of an experimental and analytical investigation of the compressive strength of unidirectional boron-epoxy composite material are presented. Observation of fiber coordinates in a boron-epoxy composite indicates that the fibers contain initial curvature. Combined axial compression and torsion tests were conducted on boron-epoxy tubes, and it was shown that the shear modulus is a function of axial compressive stress. An analytical model which includes initial curvature in the fibers and permits an estimate of the effect of curvature on compressive strength is proposed. Two modes of failure which may result from the application of axial compressive stress are analyzed, delamination and shear instability. Based on tests and analysis, failure of boron-epoxy under axial compressive load is due to shear instability.

  8. Compressive Strength, Chloride Permeability, and Freeze-Thaw Resistance of MWNT Concretes under Different Chemical Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingang; Wang, Yao; Xi, Yunping

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated compressive strength, chloride penetration, and freeze-thaw resistance of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) concrete. More than 100 cylindrical specimens were used to assess test variables during sensitivity observations, including water-cement ratios (0.75, 0.5, and 0.4) and exposure to chemical agents (including gum arabic, propanol, ethanol, sodium polyacrylate, methylcellulose, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and silane). To determine the adequate sonication time for MWNT dispersal in water, the compressive strengths of MWNT concrete cylinders were measured after sonication times ranging from 2 to 24 minutes. The results demonstrated that the addition of MWNT can increase the compressive strength of concrete by up to 108%. However, without chemical treatment, MWNT concretes tend to have poor freeze-thaw resistance. Among the different chemical treatments, MWNT concrete treated with sodium polyacrylate has the best compressive strength, chloride resistance, and freeze-thaw durability. PMID:25140336

  9. Compressive strength, chloride permeability, and freeze-thaw resistance of MWNT concretes under different chemical treatments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingang; Rhee, Inkyu; Wang, Yao; Xi, Yunping

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated compressive strength, chloride penetration, and freeze-thaw resistance of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) concrete. More than 100 cylindrical specimens were used to assess test variables during sensitivity observations, including water-cement ratios (0.75, 0.5, and 0.4) and exposure to chemical agents (including gum arabic, propanol, ethanol, sodium polyacrylate, methylcellulose, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and silane). To determine the adequate sonication time for MWNT dispersal in water, the compressive strengths of MWNT concrete cylinders were measured after sonication times ranging from 2 to 24 minutes. The results demonstrated that the addition of MWNT can increase the compressive strength of concrete by up to 108%. However, without chemical treatment, MWNT concretes tend to have poor freeze-thaw resistance. Among the different chemical treatments, MWNT concrete treated with sodium polyacrylate has the best compressive strength, chloride resistance, and freeze-thaw durability.

  10. Standard test method for edgewise compressive strength of flat sandwich constructions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covers determination of the compressive properties of flat structural sandwich constructions in a direction parallel to the plane of the sheet of sandwich. Significance of the edgewise compressive strength of flat sandwich constructions, apparatus, dimensions, number and preparation of specimens, conditioning, procedure and reporting are discussed.

  11. Moisture influence on compressive strength of ternary gypsum-based binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doleželová, Magdaléna; Vimmrová, Alena

    2017-07-01

    The environmental influence on the ternary gypsum-based binders is described in the paper. The ternary mixtures were composed from gypsum, lime and pozzolan. The crushed ceramic, microsilica and granulated blast slag were selected as representatives of pozzolan. Changes of compressive strength were investigated according to the method of storing and treatment before the test. Samples with microsilica have the best results of compressive strength from all tested mixtures when stored in the water and tested in moist state.

  12. Effect of root canal irrigating solutions on the compressive strength of tricalcium silicate cements.

    PubMed

    Govindaraju, Lokhasudhan; Neelakantan, Prasanna; Gutmann, James L

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of root canal irrigants on the compressive strength of hydraulic tricalcium silicate cements. Specimens (n = 60) of tricalcium silicate materials-Group 1: White ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Group 2: NeoMTA Plus, Group 3: White MTA Angelus, and Group 4: Biodentine were exposed to one of the solutions (n = 20): Phosphate buffered saline (PBS; control), 3 % NaOCl, or 17 % EDTA for 5 min while being suspended in PBS. Compressive strength values were evaluated after 7 days of storage. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison test (P = 0.05). Biodentine (BD) showed significantly higher compressive strength than the other materials (P < 0.05) in the control group. When exposed to NaOCl, compressive strength of WMTA and WMTA-A decreased significantly (P < 0.05), while EDTA decreased the compressive strength of all the cements compared to the control (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the compressive strength of BD and NMTA-P when exposed to NaOCl or EDTA. Biodentine and NeoMTA Plus did not show a significant reduction in compressive strength when exposed to NaOCl. EDTA reduced the compressive strength of the cements tested. Tricalcium silicates were differentially influenced by root canal irrigants. It is essential to understand the composition of these materials prior to clinical use. Traces of irrigants from the root canal wall must be thoroughly removed.

  13. Compressive Strength of Stainless-Steel Sandwiches at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathauser, Eldon E.; Pride, Richard A.

    1959-01-01

    Experimental results are presented from crippling tests of stainless-steel sandwich specimens in the temperature range from 80 F to 1,200 F. The specimens included resistance-welded 17-7 PH stainless-steel sandwiches with single-corrugated cores, type 301 stainless-steel sandwiches with double-corrugated cores, and brazed 17-7 PH stainless-steel sandwiches with honeycomb cores. The experimental strengths are compared with predicted buckling and crippling strengths. The crippling strengths were predicted from the calculated maximum strength of the individual plate elements of the sandwiches and from a correlation procedure which gives the elevated-temperature crippling strength when the experimental room-temperature crippling strengths are known. Photographs of some of the tested specimens are included to show the modes of failure.

  14. Evaluation of compressive strength of hydraulic silicate-based root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Ryan M; Woodmansey, Karl F; Glickman, Gerald N; He, Jianing

    2014-07-01

    Hydraulic silicate cements such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) have many clinical advantages. Newer hydraulic silicate materials have been developed that improve on the limitations of mineral trioxide aggregate such as the long setting time and difficult handling characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of saline and fetal bovine serum (FBS) on the setting and compressive strength of the following hydraulic silicate cements: ProRoot MTA (white WMTA; Dentsply International, Tulsa Dental Specialties, Johnson City, TN), EndoSequence Root Repair Material (Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA), MTA Plus (MTAP; Avalon Biomed Inc, Bradenton, FL), and QuickSet (QS; Avalon Biomed Inc, Bradenton, FL). Samples of root-end filling materials were compacted into polyethylene molds. Samples were exposed to FBS or saline for 7 days. A universal testing machine was used to determine the compressive strengths. QS had significantly lower compressive strength than all other materials (P < .001). White MTA and MTAP mixed with liquid had lower compressive strengths after exposure to FBS compared with saline (P = .003). ERRM, MTAP mixed with gel, and QS were not affected by the exposure to FBS. New silicate-based root-end filling materials, other than QS, have compressive strength similar to MTA. Within the limits of this study, premixed materials and those mixed with antiwashout gel maintain their compressive strength when exposed to biological fluids. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimating the concrete compressive strength using hard clustering and fuzzy clustering based regression techniques.

    PubMed

    Nagwani, Naresh Kumar; Deo, Shirish V

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of the compressive strength of concrete is important for activities like construction arrangement, prestressing operations, and proportioning new mixtures and for the quality assurance. Regression techniques are most widely used for prediction tasks where relationship between the independent variables and dependent (prediction) variable is identified. The accuracy of the regression techniques for prediction can be improved if clustering can be used along with regression. Clustering along with regression will ensure the more accurate curve fitting between the dependent and independent variables. In this work cluster regression technique is applied for estimating the compressive strength of the concrete and a novel state of the art is proposed for predicting the concrete compressive strength. The objective of this work is to demonstrate that clustering along with regression ensures less prediction errors for estimating the concrete compressive strength. The proposed technique consists of two major stages: in the first stage, clustering is used to group the similar characteristics concrete data and then in the second stage regression techniques are applied over these clusters (groups) to predict the compressive strength from individual clusters. It is found from experiments that clustering along with regression techniques gives minimum errors for predicting compressive strength of concrete; also fuzzy clustering algorithm C-means performs better than K-means algorithm.

  16. Estimating the Concrete Compressive Strength Using Hard Clustering and Fuzzy Clustering Based Regression Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Nagwani, Naresh Kumar; Deo, Shirish V.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of the compressive strength of concrete is important for activities like construction arrangement, prestressing operations, and proportioning new mixtures and for the quality assurance. Regression techniques are most widely used for prediction tasks where relationship between the independent variables and dependent (prediction) variable is identified. The accuracy of the regression techniques for prediction can be improved if clustering can be used along with regression. Clustering along with regression will ensure the more accurate curve fitting between the dependent and independent variables. In this work cluster regression technique is applied for estimating the compressive strength of the concrete and a novel state of the art is proposed for predicting the concrete compressive strength. The objective of this work is to demonstrate that clustering along with regression ensures less prediction errors for estimating the concrete compressive strength. The proposed technique consists of two major stages: in the first stage, clustering is used to group the similar characteristics concrete data and then in the second stage regression techniques are applied over these clusters (groups) to predict the compressive strength from individual clusters. It is found from experiments that clustering along with regression techniques gives minimum errors for predicting compressive strength of concrete; also fuzzy clustering algorithm C-means performs better than K-means algorithm. PMID:25374939

  17. Analysis of the Optimum Usage of Slag for the Compressive Strength of Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han-Seung; Wang, Xiao-Yong; Zhang, Li-Na; Koh, Kyung-Taek

    2015-01-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag is widely used as a mineral admixture to replace partial Portland cement in the concrete industry. As the amount of slag increases, the late-age compressive strength of concrete mixtures increases. However, after an optimum point, any further increase in slag does not improve the late-age compressive strength. This optimum replacement ratio of slag is a crucial factor for its efficient use in the concrete industry. This paper proposes a numerical procedure to analyze the optimum usage of slag for the compressive strength of concrete. This numerical procedure starts with a blended hydration model that simulates cement hydration, slag reaction, and interactions between cement hydration and slag reaction. The amount of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is calculated considering the contributions from cement hydration and slag reaction. Then, by using the CSH contents, the compressive strength of the slag-blended concrete is evaluated. Finally, based on the parameter analysis of the compressive strength development of concrete with different slag inclusions, the optimum usage of slag in concrete mixtures is determined to be approximately 40% of the total binder content. The proposed model is verified through experimental results of the compressive strength of slag-blended concrete with different water-to-binder ratios and different slag inclusions. PMID:28787998

  18. Analysis of the Optimum Usage of Slag for the Compressive Strength of Concrete.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han-Seung; Wang, Xiao-Yong; Zhang, Li-Na; Koh, Kyung-Taek

    2015-03-18

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag is widely used as a mineral admixture to replace partial Portland cement in the concrete industry. As the amount of slag increases, the late-age compressive strength of concrete mixtures increases. However, after an optimum point, any further increase in slag does not improve the late-age compressive strength. This optimum replacement ratio of slag is a crucial factor for its efficient use in the concrete industry. This paper proposes a numerical procedure to analyze the optimum usage of slag for the compressive strength of concrete. This numerical procedure starts with a blended hydration model that simulates cement hydration, slag reaction, and interactions between cement hydration and slag reaction. The amount of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is calculated considering the contributions from cement hydration and slag reaction. Then, by using the CSH contents, the compressive strength of the slag-blended concrete is evaluated. Finally, based on the parameter analysis of the compressive strength development of concrete with different slag inclusions, the optimum usage of slag in concrete mixtures is determined to be approximately 40% of the total binder content. The proposed model is verified through experimental results of the compressive strength of slag-blended concrete with different water-to-binder ratios and different slag inclusions.

  19. Influence of Compression and Shear on the Strength of Composite Laminates with Z-Pinned Reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin; Krueger, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    The influence of compression and shear loads on the strength of composite laminates with z-pins is evaluated parametrically using a 2D Finite Element Code (FLASH) based on Cosserat couple stress theory. Meshes were generated for three unique combinations of z-pin diameter and density. A laminated plate theory analysis was performed on several layups to determine the bi-axial stresses in the zero degree plies. These stresses, in turn, were used to determine the magnitude of the relative load steps prescribed in the FLASH analyses. Results indicated that increasing pin density was more detrimental to in-plane compression strength than increasing pin diameter. Compression strengths of lamina without z-pins agreed well with a closed form expression derived by Budiansky and Fleck. FLASH results for lamina with z-pins were consistent with the closed form results, and FLASH results without z-pins, if the initial fiber waviness due to z-pin insertion was added to the fiber waviness in the material to yield a total misalignment. Addition of 10% shear to the compression loading significantly reduced the lamina strength compared to pure compression loading. Addition of 50% shear to the compression indicated shear yielding rather than kink band formation as the likely failure mode. Two different stiffener reinforced skin configurations with z-pins, one quaiisotropic and one orthotropic, were also analyzed. Six unique loading cases ranging from pure compression to compression plus 50% shear were analyzed assuming material fiber waviness misalignment angles of 0, 1, and 2 degrees. Compression strength decreased with increased shear loading for both configurations, with the quasi-isotropic configuration yielding lower strengths than the orthotropic configuration.

  20. Influence of Compression and Shear on the Strength of Composite Laminates With Z-Pinned Reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OBrien, T. Kevin; Krueger, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    The influence of compression and shear loads on the strength of composite laminates with z-pins is evaluated parametrically using a 2D Finite Element Code (FLASH) based on Cosserat couple stress theory. Meshes were generated for three unique combinations of z-pin diameter and density. A laminated plate theory analysis was performed on several layups to determine the bi-axial stresses in the zero degree plies. These stresses, in turn, were used to determine the magnitude of the relative load steps prescribed in the FLASH analyses. Results indicated that increasing pin density was more detrimental to in-plane compression strength than increasing pin diameter. Compression strengths of lamina without z-pins agreed well with a closed form expression derived by Budiansky and Fleck. FLASH results for lamina with z-pins were consistent with the closed form results, and FLASH results without z-pins, if the initial fiber waviness due to z-pin insertion was added to the fiber waviness in the material to yield a total misalignment. Addition of 10% shear to the compression loading significantly reduced the lamina strength compared to pure compression loading. Addition of 50% shear to the compression indicated shear yielding rather than kink band formation as the likely failure mode. Two different stiffener reinforced skin configurations with z-pins, one quasi-isotropic and one orthotropic, were also analyzed. Six unique loading cases ranging from pure compression to compression plus 50% shear were analyzed assuming material fiber waviness misalignment angles of 0, 1, and 2 degrees. Compression strength decreased with increased shear loading for both configurations, with the quasi-isotropic configuration yielding lower strengths than the orthotropic configuration.

  1. New metallic ureteral stents: improved tensile strength and resistance to extrinsic compression.

    PubMed

    Hendlin, Kari; Korman, Emily; Monga, Manoj

    2012-03-01

    Extrinsic ureteral compression challenges a ureteral stent's ability to facilitate urinary drainage and to protect the kidney. Our purpose was to evaluate the performance of new metallic coil-based ureteral stents in terms of tensile strength and radial compression force. Three stent designs tested from Prosurg Inc included Passage 7.0F, Snake 6.0F, and Snake 7.0F with the straight section covered with a biocompatible polymer tubing. A MTS Microbionix Testing System using Testworks II software, vibration isolation table, and a 5-N load cell were used to measure tensile and compressive strength. Stents were placed in hydraulic grips and stretched at a rate of 5 mm/s for 1 second under uniaxial tension. Extrinsic compression was exerted in 0.1-mm increments to maximum compression. The Young Modulus, E, was calculated from each trial using engineering stress. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and t tests. The Passage, Snake 6F, and Snake 7F stents had tensile strengths of 27±3, 5±0.1, and 73±26 kPa, respectively. Mann-Whitney tests show statistically significant difference between stents (P<0.05). Elastic modulus needed to cause extrinsic compression was highest for Snake 6F (145,842±14332 Pa) compared with that of Passage (124,999±3182 Pa) and Snake 7F (126,132±19316 Pa), (P<0.05). The Snake 6F stent had the lowest tensile strength and was least resistant to extrinsic compression. The Snake 7F had the highest tensile strength and was most resistant to extrinsic compression. All three stents are more resistant to extrinsic compression than the Applied Silhouette or Cook Resonance, yet have lower tensile strengths.

  2. Comparison of postbuckling model and finite element model with compression strength of corrugated boxes

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Urbanik; Edmond P. Saliklis

    2002-01-01

    Conventional compression strength formulas for corrugated fiberboard boxes are limited to geometry and material that produce an elastic postbuckling failure. Inelastic postbuckling can occur in squatty boxes and trays, but a mechanistic rationale for unifying observed strength data is lacking. This study employs a finite element model, instead of actual experiments, to...

  3. Effect of Silica Nanoparticles on Compressive Strength of Leaves-Waste Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masturi, Masturi; Aliah, Hasniah; Aji, Mahardika Prasetya; Sagita, Adi Ardian; Bukit, Minsyahril; Sustini, Euis; Khairurrijal, Khairurrijal; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

    2011-12-01

    The utilization of solid-waste, especially leaves-waste is one of interesting research of environmental field. One of them is making a composite using polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) polymer as binder (matrix) and silica nanoparticles as reinforcement (filler) to improve the strength of composite-produced. Those raw materials preliminary were mixed by simple mixing with varied compositions and then hot-pressed at 36 MPa and 100 °C for 20 minutes. From compressive strength test, it was found that composite with composition 7:8 of PVAc and leaves-waste had maximum compressive strength, i.e. 57.60 MPa. It was also that the enhancement of strength due to PVAc fraction (w/w) increasing is a percolation behavior, even though its mathematical explanation has not been performed. Into composition of maximum strength above, silica with average size is 74 nm then was added to improve the strength and found that at silica weight fraction of 0.79 (%w/w), the composite had optimum compressive strength, i.e. 70.5 MPa, or increased up to 22.4% of that without silica. The final compressive strength was very comparable to some building goods such as sandstones and bricks. The composite density was also measured and obtained that it was about 0.9 g/cm3 that is very close to some usual woods.

  4. A Study of the Compressive Strength of Stiffened Plywood Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Eugene E.; Kotanchik, Joseph N.; Zender, George W.

    1942-01-01

    The results of compression tests on 44 stiffened plywood panels are presented and correlated in groups for the three types of failure observed: column failure, failure by separation of plywood from stiffener, and crushing failure. The expanded program of military aircraft construction has made it necessary to seek substitute materials that can be used in aircraft in place of aluminum alloys. Wood is one of these substitute materials. The development of synthetic resins as bonding and impregnating agents has resulted in the production of plywood which is being used in stressed-skin structures for aircraft. The use of plywood in such structures necessitates that tests be performed. to determine allowable stress values for use in design, This report presents a preliminary analysis of the results of compression tests on 44 stiffened plywood panels made by the Universal Moulded Products Corporation. The tests were made in a testing machine of 1,200,000 pounds capacity in the NACA structures research laboratory.

  5. Effect of raw material ratios on the compressive strength of magnesium potassium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-juan; Yuan, Zhi-long; Zhang, Jiao; Liu, Lin-tao; Li, Jun-ming; Liu, Zheng

    2013-12-01

    The compressive strength of magnesium potassium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics is important in biomedical field. In this work, the compressive strength of magnesium potassium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics was investigated with different liquid-to-solid and MgO-to-KH2PO4 ratios. X-ray diffractometer was applied to characterize its phase composition. The microstructure was imaged using a scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the compressive strength of the chemically bonded ceramics increased with the decrease of liquid-to-solid ratio due to the change of the packing density and the crystallinity of hydrated product. However, with the increase of MgO-to-KH2PO4 weight ratio, its compressive strength increased firstly and then decreased. The low compressive strength in lower MgO-to-KH2PO4 ratio might be explained by the existence of the weak phase KH2PO4. However, the low value of compressive strength with the higher MgO-to-KH2PO4 ratio might be caused by lack of the joined phase in the hydrated product. Besides, it has been found that the microstructures were different in these two cases by the scanning electron microscope. Colloidal structure appeared for the samples with lower liquid-to-solid and higher MgO-to-KH2PO4 ratios possibly because of the existence of amorphous hydrated products. The optimization of both liquid-to-solid and MgO-to-KH2PO4 ratios was important to improve the compressive strength of magnesium potassium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics.

  6. Effect of shelf life on compressive strength of type iv gypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumastuti, K. S.; Irawan, B.; Damiyanti, M.

    2017-08-01

    Type IV gypsum, as a dental material for an indirect restoration’s working model, should have strength and abrasive-resistant properties. These properties depend on the product’s shelf life and its proper storage, which sometimes are easily missed by sellers. The aim of this research was to observe the effect of shelf life on the compressive strength of type IV gypsum with different production dates. Twenty cylindrical specimens were separated into two groups with different production dates and tested with a universal testing with the crosshead speed of 1 mm per minute and a load of 2,500 kgf. The data were analyzed with independent t-tests. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the compressive strength between the two groups with an increase in compressive strength seen in the gypsum that was stored longer.

  7. Influence of Compression and Shear on the Strength of Composite Laminates with Z-Pinned Reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin; Krueger, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    The influence of compression and shear loads on the strength of composite laminates with z-pins is evaluated parametrically using a 2D Finite Element Code (FLASH). Meshes were generated for three unique combinations of z-pin diameter and density. A laminated plate theory analysis was performed on several layups to determine the bi-axial stresses in the zero degree plies. These stresses, in turn, were used to determine the magnitude of the relative load steps prescribed in the FLASH analyses. Results indicated that increasing pin density was more detrimental to in-plane compression strength than increasing pin diameter. FLASH results for lamina with z-pins were consistent with the closed form results, and FLASH results without z-pins, if the initial fiber waviness due to z-pin insertion was added to the fiber waviness in the material to yield a total misalignment. Addition of 10% shear to the compression loading significantly reduced the lamina strength compared to pure compression loading. Addition of 50% shear to the compression indicated shear yielding rather than kink band formation as the likely failure mode. Two different stiffener reinforced skin configurations with z-pins, one quasi-isotropic and one orthotropic, were also analyzed. Six unique loading cases ranging from pure compression to compression plus 50% shear were analyzed assuming material fiber waviness misalignment angles of 0, 1, and 2 degrees. Compression strength decreased with increased shear loading for both configurations, with the quasi-isotropic configuration yielding lower strengths than the orthotropic configuration.

  8. The increase of compressive strength of natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilorini, Rr. M. I. Retno; Santosa, Budi; Rejeki, V. G. Sri; Riangsari, M. F. Devita; Hananta, Yan's. Dianaga

    2017-03-01

    Polymer modified concrete is one of some concrete technology innovations to meet the need of strong and durable concrete. Previous research found that Moringa oleifera can be applied as natural polymer modifiers into mortars. Natural polymer modified mortar using Moringa oleifera is proven to increase their compressive strength significantly. In this resesearch, Moringa oleifera seeds have been grinded and added into concrete mix for natural polymer modified concrete, based on the optimum composition of previous research. The research investigated the increase of compressive strength of polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera as natural polymer modifiers. There were 3 compositions of natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera referred to previous research optimum compositions. Several cylinder of 10 cm x 20 cm specimens were produced and tested for compressive strength at age 7, 14, and, 28 days. The research meets conclusions: (1) Natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera, with and without skin, has higher compressive strength compared to natural polymer modified mortar with Moringa oleifera and also control specimens; (2) Natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera without skin is achieved by specimens contains Moringa oleifera that is 0.2% of cement weight; and (3) The compressive strength increase of natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera without skin is about 168.11-221.29% compared to control specimens

  9. Hydraulic efficiency compromises compression strength perpendicular to the grain in Norway spruce trunkwood

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate bending stiffness and compression strength perpendicular to the grain of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trunkwood with different anatomical and hydraulic properties. Hydraulically less safe mature sapwood had bigger hydraulic lumen diameters and higher specific hydraulic conductivities than hydraulically safer juvenile wood. Bending stiffness (MOE) was higher, whereas radial compression strength lower in mature than in juvenile wood. A density-based tradeoff between MOE and hydraulic efficiency was apparent in mature wood only. Across cambial age, bending stiffness did not compromise hydraulic efficiency due to variation in latewood percent and because of the structural demands of the tree top (e.g. high flexibility). Radial compression strength compromised, however, hydraulic efficiency because it was extremely dependent on the characteristics of the “weakest” wood part, the highly conductive earlywood. An increase in conduit wall reinforcement of earlywood tracheids would be too costly for the tree. Increasing radial compression strength by modification of microfibril angles or ray cell number could result in a decrease of MOE, which would negatively affect the trunk’s capability to support the crown. We propose that radial compression strength could be an easily assessable and highly predictive parameter for the resistance against implosion or vulnerability to cavitation across conifer species, which should be topic of further studies. PMID:22058609

  10. The Fire Resistance Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Columns with Different Concrete Compressive Strengths

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Bian, Jianhui; Zhang, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    In order to ascertain the fire resistance performance of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) components with different concrete compressive strengths, four full-scaled concrete columns were designed and tested under high temperature. Two of the four specimens were constructed by normal concrete with compressive strength ratings of C20 and C30, respectively, while the others were made from recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) concrete of C30 and C40, respectively. Identical constant axial forces were applied to specimens while being subjected to simulated building fire conditions in a laboratory furnace. Several parameters from the experimental results were comparatively analyzed, including the temperature change, vertical displacement, lateral deflection, fire endurance, and failure characteristics of specimens. The temperature field of specimens was simulated with ABAQUS Software (ABAQUS Inc., Provindence, RI, USA) and the results agreed quite well with those from the experiments. Results show that the rate of heat transfer from the surface to the interior of the column increases with the increase of the concrete’s compressive strength for both RAC columns and normal concrete columns. Under the same initial axial force ratio, for columns with the same cross section, those with lower concrete compressive strengths demonstrate better fire resistance performance. The fire resistance performance of RAC columns is better than that of normal concrete columns, with the same concrete compressive strength. PMID:28788279

  11. Effect of angle-ply orientation on compression strength of composite laminates

    SciTech Connect

    DeTeresa, S J; Hoppel, C P

    1999-03-01

    An experimental program was initiated to investigate the effect of angle-ply orientations on the compressive strength (X{sub 1C}) of 0{degree} plies in fiber reinforced composite laminates. Graphite fiber-reinforced epoxy test coupons with the generic architecture [0{sub 2}/{+-}{theta}] (where {theta} varied between 0{degree} and 90{degree}) and for the quasi-isotropic architecture were evaluated. The effective compressive strength of the 0{degree} plies varied considerably. The results were related to the Poisson's ratios of the laminates with high Poisson's ratios leading to high transverse tensile strains in the test coupons and lower than expected strengths. Specimens with the [O{sub 2}/{+-}30] architecture had both the highest Poisson's ratio and the lowest calculated ply-level compression strength for the 0{degree} plies. This work has implications in the selection of composite failure criterion for compression performance, design of test coupons for acceptance testing, and the selection of laminate architectures for optimum combinations of compressive and shear behavior. Two commonly used composite failure criteria, the maximum stress and the Tsai-Wu, predict significantly different laminate strengths depending on the Poisson's ratio of the laminate. This implies that the biaxial stress state in the laminate needs to be carefully considered before backing out unidirectional properties.

  12. The Effect of Blood Contamination on the Compressive Strength of Calcium-Enriched Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Adl, Alireza; Shojaee, Nooshin Sadat; Sobhnamayan, Fereshte; Hashemzade, Mohammadsaeed

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem In clinical situations, Calcium-Enriched Mixture (CEM) comes into direct contact or even mixes with blood during or after placement. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood contamination on the compressive strength of CEM. Materials and Method Three experimental groups were included in this study. In the first group, CEM was mixed with distilled water and was exposed to normal saline (control group). In the second group, CEM cement was mixed with distilled water and then was exposed to blood. In the third group, CEM was mixed with and exposed to blood. Nine custom-made two-part split Plexiglas molds with five holes were used to form CEM samples for compressive strength testing (15 samples in each group). After 7 days of incubation, compressive bond strength testing was performed using a universal testing machine. Data were statistically analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test with a significance level of p< 0.05. Results Nine samples from group 3 were fractured during removal from the molds; the other six blocks had some cracks on their surfaces. Therefore, a compressive strength measurement was not obtainable for this group. No statistically significant difference was found between groups 1 and 2 (p> 0.05). Conclusion It can be concluded that exposure to blood does not adversely affect the compressive strength of CEM, but incorporation of blood makes the cement very brittle. PMID:25759856

  13. An evaluation of elastomeric impression materials based on surface compressive strength.

    PubMed

    Omori, K; Arikawa, H; Inoue, K

    2001-04-01

    The setting times of seven commercially available elastomeric impression materials were determined using Wilson's reciprocating rheometer at temperatures 23 +/- 0.5 or 32 +/- 0.5 degrees C. The surface compressive strength and depression of these materials after setting time were measured using a rheometer (Fudoh). Each material was mixed according to the mixing proportion (base/accelerator or catalyst ratio) recommended by the manufacturer. The surface compressive strength and the depression of each material were measured by using a method which pressed the material to the edge of a sensitive rod (2.0 mm in diameter) connected to a load cell. In the case of silicone impression materials (additional type) at a temperature of 23 +/- 0.5 degrees C, the surface compressive strength and the depression of these materials were extremely stable after the setting time. However, the surface compressive strength of other materials except additional type materials increased markedly after setting time and the depression corresponding to the surface compressive strength decreased. These increased largely with the increase, in pressing speed to the sensitive rod. At 450 s from the setting time of all materials, there was an adequate correlation (r = 0.84) between measured values and theoretical values derived using the theory of elasticity.

  14. The Fire Resistance Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Columns with Different Concrete Compressive Strengths.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Bian, Jianhui; Zhang, Jianwei

    2014-12-08

    In order to ascertain the fire resistance performance of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) components with different concrete compressive strengths, four full-scaled concrete columns were designed and tested under high temperature. Two of the four specimens were constructed by normal concrete with compressive strength ratings of C20 and C30, respectively, while the others were made from recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) concrete of C30 and C40, respectively. Identical constant axial forces were applied to specimens while being subjected to simulated building fire conditions in a laboratory furnace. Several parameters from the experimental results were comparatively analyzed, including the temperature change, vertical displacement, lateral deflection, fire endurance, and failure characteristics of specimens. The temperature field of specimens was simulated with ABAQUS Software (ABAQUS Inc., Provindence, RI, USA) and the results agreed quite well with those from the experiments. Results show that the rate of heat transfer from the surface to the interior of the column increases with the increase of the concrete's compressive strength for both RAC columns and normal concrete columns. Under the same initial axial force ratio, for columns with the same cross section, those with lower concrete compressive strengths demonstrate better fire resistance performance. The fire resistance performance of RAC columns is better than that of normal concrete columns, with the same concrete compressive strength.

  15. Compressive strength evaluation of structural lightweight concrete by non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity method.

    PubMed

    Bogas, J Alexandre; Gomes, M Glória; Gomes, Augusto

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the compressive strength of a wide range of structural lightweight aggregate concrete mixes is evaluated by the non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity method. This study involves about 84 different compositions tested between 3 and 180 days for compressive strengths ranging from about 30 to 80 MPa. The influence of several factors on the relation between the ultrasonic pulse velocity and compressive strength is examined. These factors include the cement type and content, amount of water, type of admixture, initial wetting conditions, type and volume of aggregate and the partial replacement of normal weight coarse and fine aggregates by lightweight aggregates. It is found that lightweight and normal weight concretes are affected differently by mix design parameters. In addition, the prediction of the concrete's compressive strength by means of the non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity test is studied. Based on the dependence of the ultrasonic pulse velocity on the density and elasticity of concrete, a simplified expression is proposed to estimate the compressive strength, regardless the type of concrete and its composition. More than 200 results for different types of aggregates and concrete compositions were analyzed and high correlation coefficients were obtained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Compressive and flexural strength of expanded perlite aggregate mortar subjected to high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifeli, Muhamad Faqrul Hisham bin Mohd; Saman@Hj Mohamed, Hamidah binti Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Work on thermal resistant of outer structures of buildings is one of the solution to reduce death, damages and properties loss in fire cases. Structures protected with thermal resistant materials can delay or avoid failure and collapse during fire. Hence, establishment of skin cladding with advance materials to protect the structure of buildings is a necessary action. Expanded perlite is a good insulation material which can be used as aggregate replacement in mortar. This study is to study on mortar mechanical properties of flexural and compressive strength subjected to elevated temperatures using expanded perlite aggregate (EPA). This study involved experimental work which was developing mortar with sand replacement by volume of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of EPA and cured for 56 days. The mortars then exposed to 200°C, 400 °C, 700 °C and 1000 °C. Flexural and compressive strength of the mortar were tested. The tests showed that there were increased of flexural and compressive strength at 200°C, and constantly decreased when subjected to 400°C, 700°C and 1000 °C. There were also variation of strengths at different percentages of EPA replacement. Highest compressive strength and flexural strength recorded were both at 200 °C with 65.52 MPa and 21.34 MPa respectively. The study conclude that by using EPA as aggregate replacement was ineffective below elevated temperatures but increased the performance of the mortar at elevated temperatures.

  17. Dynamic compressive and tensile strengths of spark plasma sintered alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Girlitsky, I.; Zaretsky, E.; Kalabukhov, S.; Dariel, M. P.; Frage, N.

    2014-06-28

    Fully dense submicron grain size alumina samples were manufactured from alumina nano-powder using Spark Plasma Sintering and tested in two kinds of VISAR-instrumented planar impact tests. In the first kind, samples were loaded by 1-mm tungsten impactors, accelerated to a velocity of about 1 km/s. These tests were aimed at studying the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS)-processed alumina and the decay, with propagation distance, of the elastic precursor wave. In the tests of the second kind, alumina samples of 3-mm thickness were loaded by 1-mm copper impactors accelerated to 100–1000 m/s. These tests were aimed at studying the dynamic tensile (spall) strength of the alumina specimens. The tensile fracture of the un-alloyed alumina shows a monotonic decline of the spall strength with the amplitude of the loading stress pulse. Analysis of the decay of the elastic precursor wave allowed determining the rate of the irreversible (inelastic) strains in the SPS-processed alumina at the initial stages of the shock-induced inelastic deformation and to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the deformation. The 1-% addition of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} decreases the HEL of the SPS-processed alumina by 5-% and its spall strength by 50% but barely affects its static properties.

  18. Dynamic compressive and tensile strengths of spark plasma sintered alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girlitsky, I.; Zaretsky, E.; Kalabukhov, S.; Dariel, M. P.; Frage, N.

    2014-06-01

    Fully dense submicron grain size alumina samples were manufactured from alumina nano-powder using Spark Plasma Sintering and tested in two kinds of VISAR-instrumented planar impact tests. In the first kind, samples were loaded by 1-mm tungsten impactors, accelerated to a velocity of about 1 km/s. These tests were aimed at studying the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS)-processed alumina and the decay, with propagation distance, of the elastic precursor wave. In the tests of the second kind, alumina samples of 3-mm thickness were loaded by 1-mm copper impactors accelerated to 100-1000 m/s. These tests were aimed at studying the dynamic tensile (spall) strength of the alumina specimens. The tensile fracture of the un-alloyed alumina shows a monotonic decline of the spall strength with the amplitude of the loading stress pulse. Analysis of the decay of the elastic precursor wave allowed determining the rate of the irreversible (inelastic) strains in the SPS-processed alumina at the initial stages of the shock-induced inelastic deformation and to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the deformation. The 1-% addition of Cr2O3 decreases the HEL of the SPS-processed alumina by 5-% and its spall strength by 50% but barely affects its static properties.

  19. Micromechanical strength effects in shock compression of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.N.

    1993-06-01

    Time-resolved shock-wave measurements and post-shock recovery have long been used for inferring the underlaying micromechanics controlling high-rate deformation of solids; this requires considerable subjective interpretation. In spite of this, progress has been made in experimentation and theoretical interpretation of the shock-compression/release cycle and some of the results are reviewed here for weak shocks. This cycle involves the elements of the elastic precursor, plastic loading wave, pulse duration, release wave, and post-mortem examination. Those topics are examined, with emphasis on the second and fourth elements. Cu and Ta results show how shock data can be used to determine the transition from deformation mechanism of thermal activation to that of dislocation drag. Release-wave studies indicate that the leading observable release disturbance in fcc metals may not be propagating with the ideal longitudinal elastic-wave speed. 5 figs, 18 refs.

  20. Micromechanical strength effects in shock compression of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.N.

    1993-01-01

    Time-resolved shock-wave measurements and post-shock recovery have long been used for inferring the underlaying micromechanics controlling high-rate deformation of solids; this requires considerable subjective interpretation. In spite of this, progress has been made in experimentation and theoretical interpretation of the shock-compression/release cycle and some of the results are reviewed here for weak shocks. This cycle involves the elements of the elastic precursor, plastic loading wave, pulse duration, release wave, and post-mortem examination. Those topics are examined, with emphasis on the second and fourth elements. Cu and Ta results show how shock data can be used to determine the transition from deformation mechanism of thermal activation to that of dislocation drag. Release-wave studies indicate that the leading observable release disturbance in fcc metals may not be propagating with the ideal longitudinal elastic-wave speed. 5 figs, 18 refs.

  1. Characterization of compressive and short beam shear strength of bamboo opened cell foam core sandwich composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi; Sugiman, Saputra, Yudhi

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the compressive and the short beam shear strength of a sandwich composite with opened cell foam made of bamboo fiber as the core and plywood as the skins. The core thickness was varied from 10 mm to 40 mm keeping the volume fraction of fiber constant. Several test s were carried out including the core density, flatwise compressive and the short beam shear testing in three point bending. The results show that the density of bamboo opened cell foam is comparable with commercial plastic foam, such as polyurethane foam. The compressive strength tends to increase linearly with increasing the core thickness. The short beam shear failure load of the sandwich composite increases with the increase of core thickness, however on the contrary, the short beam shear strength which tends to sharply decrease from the thickness of 10 mm to 30 mm and then becomes flat.

  2. An investigation of the compressive strength of Kevlar 49/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, S. V.; Rosen, B. W.; Rice, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were performed to evaluate the effect of a wide range of variables including matrix properties, interface properties, fiber prestressing, secondary reinforcement, and others on the ultimate compressive strength of Kevlar 49/epoxy composites. Scanning electron microscopy is used to assess the resulting failure surfaces. In addition, a theoretical study is conducted to determine the influence of fiber anisotropy and lack of perfect bond between fiber and matrix on the shear mode microbuckling. The experimental evaluation of the effect of various constituent and process characteristics on the behavior of these unidirectional composites in compression did not reveal any substantial increase in strength. However, theoretical evaluations indicate that the high degree of fiber anisotropy results in a significant drop in the predicted stress level for internal instability. Scanning electron microscope data analysis suggests that internal fiber failure and smooth surface debonding could be responsible for the measured low compressive strengths.

  3. The effects of shelf life on the compressive strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wajong, K. H.; Damiyanti, M.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    Resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) is a restoration material composed of powder and liquid whose stability is affected by its shelf life. This is an issue that has not been taken into consideration by customers or sellers. To observe the effects of shelf life on the compressive strength of RMGIC, 30 cylindrical (d = 4mm and t = 6mm) specimens of RMGIC (Fuji II LC, GC, Tokyo, Japan) were divided into three groups with different storage times and their compressive strength was tested with a universal testing machine. Results were statistically analyzed with the one-way ANOVA test. There were significant differences (p<0.05) between the three groups of RMGIC. There is a decrease in the compressive strength value along with the duration of storage time.

  4. Characterization of compressive and short beam shear strength of bamboo opened cell foam core sandwich composites

    SciTech Connect

    Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi Sugiman,; Saputra, Yudhi

    2016-03-29

    The paper presents the compressive and the short beam shear strength of a sandwich composite with opened cell foam made of bamboo fiber as the core and plywood as the skins. The core thickness was varied from 10 mm to 40 mm keeping the volume fraction of fiber constant. Several test s were carried out including the core density, flatwise compressive and the short beam shear testing in three point bending. The results show that the density of bamboo opened cell foam is comparable with commercial plastic foam, such as polyurethane foam. The compressive strength tends to increase linearly with increasing the core thickness. The short beam shear failure load of the sandwich composite increases with the increase of core thickness, however on the contrary, the short beam shear strength which tends to sharply decrease from the thickness of 10 mm to 30 mm and then becomes flat.

  5. A synthetic aragonite-based bioceramic: influence of process parameters on porosity and compressive strength.

    PubMed

    Luca-Girot, A; Langlois, P; Sangleboeuf, J C; Ouammou, A; Rouxel, T; Gaude, J

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the influence of process parameters such as weight fraction and particle size of pore-former, and isostatic pressure, on porosity and compressive strength of non-sintered porous calcium carbonate biomaterials compacted at high pressure in uniaxial or isostatic mode. Experiment design and results analysis are performed according to a two-level 2k factorial design method (FDM). Results indicate that only the weight fraction of pore-former (wt fpf) influences significantly the porosity and the compressive strength. The porosity P, is described by a linear function of wt fpf, and the compressive strength sigma(comp), by an exponential one. For materials compacted under uniaxial pressing: P (vol%) = 33.7 + 85.4 (wt fpf) and sigma(comp) (MPa) = 28.8e(-9.2(wt fpf)) with 0.1 < or = wt fpf < or = 0.3. For materials compacted in isostatic mode: P (vol%) = 33.9 + 82.1 (wt fpf) and sigma(comp) (MPa) = 24.0e(-7.0(wt fpf)) with 0.15 < or = wt fpf < or = 0.35. The pore-former particle size has no significant influence on both properties. The increase in isostatic pressure provides slightly lower porosity and better compressive strength. For a fixed fraction of pore-former, isostatic pressing leads to a better compressive strength than uniaxial pressing. This study indicates that, for a constant amount of pore former, the size of macropores can be adjusted to reach optimal bone-ingrowth without change in compressive strength.

  6. Hardness and compressive strength of indirect composite resins: effects of immersion in distilled water.

    PubMed

    Da Fonte Porto Carreiro, A; Dos Santos Cruz, C A; Vergani, C E

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ageing in distilled water on the hardness and compressive strength of a direct composite resin Z100, a feldspatic porcelain (Noritake) and three indirect composites (Artglass, Solidex and Targis). For the Vickers hardness tests, five disk-shaped specimens (2 x 4 mm) of each material were prepared according to the manufacturers' instructions. The hardness tests were conducted using a Vickers diamond indentor. Compressive strength measurements were recorded on cylindrical specimens with a diameter of 6 mm and a length of 12 mm. The compression tests were carried out with a constant cross-head speed of 0.5 mm min(-1) on a mechanical test machine. For each material, 10 specimens were tested after 7 days of dry storage at 37 +/- 1 degrees C and 10 specimens were tested after water storage at 37 +/- 1 degrees C for 180 days. Noritake porcelain specimens showed higher hardness values than the composites. Among the composite materials, Z100 promoted the highest VHN values, regardless of the ageing periods. The results showed that Solidex and Z100 had the highest compressive strength values. Ageing in water reduced the hardness for all composites, but had no long-term effect on the compressive strength.

  7. The effects of K2SO4 solution on the compressive strength of dental gypsum type III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeilina, T.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    Dental gypsum type III is used as a material for manufacturing working models of dentures. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the addition of a K2SO4 solution on the compressive strength of gypsum type III. A compressive strength test was performed using a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. The results showed that the compressive strength of gypsum type III with a 1.5% K2SO4 solution added was higher than for gypsum type III alone but lower than the compressive strength of gypsum type IV.

  8. A compressibility based model for predicting the tensile strength of directly compressed pharmaceutical powder mixtures.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Gavin K; Campbell, Jacqueline I; Roberts, Ron J

    2017-08-18

    A new model to predict the compressibility and compactability of mixtures of pharmaceutical powders has been developed. The key aspect of the model is consideration of the volumetric occupancy of each powder under an applied compaction pressure and the respective contribution it then makes to the mixture properties. The compressibility and compactability of three pharmaceutical powders: microcrystalline cellulose, mannitol and anhydrous dicalcium phosphate have been characterised. Binary and ternary mixtures of these excipients have been tested and used to demonstrate the predictive capability of the model. Furthermore, the model is shown to be uniquely able to capture a broad range of mixture behaviours, including neutral, negative and positive deviations, illustrating its utility for formulation design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Cyclic Loading on the Compressive Strength of Core Build-Up Materials.

    PubMed

    Zankuli, Muayed A; Silikas, Nick; Devlin, Hugh

    2015-01-15

    To evaluate the effect of cyclic loading on compressive strength of core build-up materials. Four dual-cured composites (Core.X Flow, Grandio Core, Bright Flow Core, Spee-Dee) and one light-cured reinforced resin-modified glass ionomer (Fuji II LC) were tested. One hundred cylindrical specimens (4 mm × 6 mm) were prepared. Each material had two groups (ten specimens to be tested under static loading and ten specimens to be tested after cyclic loading). The specimens were stored wet, and after 30 days, one group of each material was cyclically loaded (for 250,000 cycles with a frequency of 1.6 Hz under stress load of 68.6 N) in a chewing simulator CS-4.2. Then specimens were subjected to static compressive loading until failure in a universal testing machine. Mean compressive strength values before cycling ranged from 144 MPa (15.8) for Fuji II LC to 277 MPa (23.2) for Grandio Core. Independent t-test showed no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the compressive strength of each material before and after cycling (p = 0.7 Grandio Core, p = 0.3 Core.X Flow, p = 0.6 Bright Flow Core, p = 0.2 Spee-Dee, p = 0.6 Fuji II LC); however, there was a statistically significant difference between the materials when comparing before and after cycling. All tested materials showed no reduction in the compressive strength after cycling. Therefore, the tested materials can survive 1 year in service without a reduction in compressive strength. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  10. Effect of additives on the compressive strength and setting time of a Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Machado, Desirée Freitas Mryczka; Bertassoni, Luiz Eduardo; Souza, Evelise Machado de; Almeida, Janaina Bertoncelo de; Rached, Rodrigo Nunes

    2010-01-01

    Improvements in strength and setting time of Portland cements (PC) are needed to enhance their performance as endodontic and load bearing materials. This study sought to enhance the compressive strength and setting time of a PC by adding one of the following additives: 20% and 30% poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA), 20% and 30% irregular and spherical amalgam alloys, and 10% CaCl(2). The control consisted of unreinforced PC specimens. Setting time was determined using a Gillmore apparatus according to standardized methods while compressive strength was measured using a universal testing machine after 21 hours or 60 days of water storage. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey and Games-Howell tests (alpha = 5%). All additives significantly decreased both initial and final setting times as compared with the PC-control (p < .05). 30% PMMA and 30% irregular alloy had the lowest values of initial setting time. 30% irregular alloy also produced the lowest values of final setting time while 30% spherical alloy yielded the highest (p < .05). No differences were detected between the compressive strength values of 21 hours and 60 days. While 10% CaCl(2), 20% and 30% PMMA produced values significantly lower than the PC-control, 30% spherical alloy significantly improved the compressive strength of the reinforced PC (p < .05). In summary, all additives significantly reduced the setting time and 30% spherical amalgam alloy yielded a significant increase in compressive strength for the tested PC, which might represent an improved composition for PCs to expand their use as endodontic and potentially load bearing materials.

  11. Evaluation of Early-Age Concrete Compressive Strength with Ultrasonic Sensors.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyejin; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Hee Seok; Kang, Jun Won; Koh, Hyun-Moo

    2017-08-07

    Surface wave velocity measurement of concrete using ultrasonic sensors requires testing on only one side of a member. Thus, it is applicable to concrete cast inside a form and is often used to detect flaws and evaluate the compressive strength of hardened concrete. Predicting the in situ concrete strength at a very early stage inside the form helps with determining the appropriate form removal time and reducing construction time and costs. In this paper, the feasibility of using surface wave velocities to predict the strength of in situ concrete inside the form at a very early stage was evaluated. Ultrasonic sensors were used to measure a series of surface waves for concrete inside a form in the first 24 h after placement. A continuous wavelet transform was used to compute the travel time of the propagating surface waves. The cylindrical compressive strength and penetration resistance tests were also performed during the test period. Four mixtures and five curing temperatures were used for the specimens. The surface wave velocity was confirmed to be applicable to estimating the concrete strength at a very early age in wall-like elements. An empirical formula is proposed for evaluating the early-age compressive strength of concrete considering the 95% prediction intervals.

  12. Evaluation of Early-Age Concrete Compressive Strength with Ultrasonic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyejin; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Hee Seok; Kang, Jun Won; Koh, Hyun-Moo

    2017-01-01

    Surface wave velocity measurement of concrete using ultrasonic sensors requires testing on only one side of a member. Thus, it is applicable to concrete cast inside a form and is often used to detect flaws and evaluate the compressive strength of hardened concrete. Predicting the in situ concrete strength at a very early stage inside the form helps with determining the appropriate form removal time and reducing construction time and costs. In this paper, the feasibility of using surface wave velocities to predict the strength of in situ concrete inside the form at a very early stage was evaluated. Ultrasonic sensors were used to measure a series of surface waves for concrete inside a form in the first 24 h after placement. A continuous wavelet transform was used to compute the travel time of the propagating surface waves. The cylindrical compressive strength and penetration resistance tests were also performed during the test period. Four mixtures and five curing temperatures were used for the specimens. The surface wave velocity was confirmed to be applicable to estimating the concrete strength at a very early age in wall-like elements. An empirical formula is proposed for evaluating the early-age compressive strength of concrete considering the 95% prediction intervals. PMID:28783128

  13. Compression strengths of advanced composites from a novel mini-sandwich beam

    SciTech Connect

    Crasto, A.S.; Kim, R.Y. )

    1991-04-01

    The intrinsic compression strength of advanced composites is difficult to measure, as the results often depend on the loading geometry and test conditions. Slight variations in specimen geometry can result in an eccentricity of the applied load with consequent specimen buckling. Complex test fixtures and specimen geometries have therefore been developed to avoid such premature failure under compressive loading. In spite of this, there is a large variation in reported strengths for some composites (notably those of intermediate-modulus carbon fibers), and failure strains are also significantly lower than those of the individual filaments. To better approximate the intrinsic composite compressive strength, a novel symmetric mini-sandwich beam was designed for testing. The beam has a composite skin (of variable thickness) on both sides of a neat resin core (of same material as the composite matrix). Unidirectional mini-sandwich specimens of AS4 and S-glass fibers in an epoxy matrix and AS4 in a PEEK matrix were tested in direct axial compression and four-point flexure. Failure occurred predominantly in the specimen gage section, at composite stresses and strains substantially higher than observed in corresponding tests on all composite-coupons. This paper discusses the fabrication and testing of these beams and analyzes the resulting compressive data and failure modes.

  14. Effect of different dispersants in compressive strength of carbon fiber cementitious composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, Yulinda; Bahri, Saiful; Sugiarti, Eni; Ramadhan, Gilang; Akbar, Ari Yustisia; Martides, Erie; Khaerudini, Deni S.

    2013-09-01

    Carbon Fiber Cementitious Composites (CFCC) is one of the most important materials in smart concrete applications. CFCC should be able to have the piezoresistivity properties where its resistivity changes when there is applied a stress/strain. It must also have the compressive strength qualification. One of the important additives in carbon fiber cementitious composites is dispersant. Dispersion of carbon fiber is one of the key problems in fabricating piezoresistive carbon fiber cementitious composites. In this research, the uses of dispersants are methylcellulose, mixture of defoamer and methylcellulose and superplasticizer based polycarboxylate. The preparation of composite samples is similar as in the mortar technique according to the ASTM C 109/109M standard. The additives material are PAN type carbon fibers, methylcellulose, defoamer and superplasticizer (as water reducer and dispersant). The experimental testing conducts the compressive strength and resistivity at various curing time, i.e. 3, 7 and 28 days. The results obtained that the highest compressive strength value in is for the mortar using superplasticizer based polycarboxylate dispersant. This also shown that the distribution of carbon fiber with superplasticizer is more effective, since not reacting with the cementitious material which was different from the methylcellulose that creates the cement hydration reaction. The research also found that the CFCC require the proper water cement ratio otherwise the compressive strength becomes lower.

  15. Prediction of Corrosion Resistance of Concrete Containing Natural Pozzolan from Compressive Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    al-Swaidani, A. M.; Ismat, R.; Diyab, M. E.; Aliyan, S. D.

    2015-11-01

    A lot of Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures in Syria have suffered from reinforcement corrosion which shortened significantly their service lives. Probably, one of the most effective approaches to make concrete structures more durable and concrete industry on the whole - more sustainable is to substitute pozzolan for a portion of Portland cement (PC). Syria is relatively rich in natural pozzolan. In the study, in order to predict the corrosion resistance from compressive strength, concrete specimens were produced with seven cement types: one plain Portland cement (control) and six natural pozzolan-based cements with replacement levels ranging from 10 to 35%. The development of the compressive strengths of concrete cube specimens with curing time has been investigated. Chloride penetrability has also been evaluated for all concrete mixes after three curing times of 7, 28 and 90 days. The effect on resistance of concrete against damage caused by corrosion of the embedded reinforcing steel has been investigated using an accelerated corrosion test by impressing a constant anodic potential for 7, 28 and 90 days curing. Test results have been statistically analysed and correlation equations relating compressive strength and corrosion performance have been developed. Significant correlations have been noted between the compressive strength and both rapid chloride penetrability and corrosion initiation times. So, this prediction could be reliable in concrete mix design when using natural pozzolan as cement replacement.

  16. Buckling strength of filament-wound cylinders under axial compression is investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Analytical study was made of the effects of axial compression on buckling strength of filament-wound cylinders having diameter-to-wall thickness ratios of 167 to 643. Analytical predictions for buckling loads were obtained by using linear anisotropic shell theory.

  17. Comparison of antimicrobial activities and compressive strength of alginate impression materials following disinfection procedure.

    PubMed

    Alwahab, Zahraa

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of disinfecting solution when incorporated into alginate powder instead of water against some microorganisms and on compressive strength of alginate. For measuring antimicrobial activity of alginate, 60 alginate specimens were prepared and divided into two groups: One with water incorporated in the mix (control) and the other with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate incorporated in the mix instead of water. The tested microorganisms were: gram +ve cocci, gram -ve bacilli and yeast (each group 10 samples). For measuring compressive strength, 20 specimens of alginate were divided into two groups: One with water incorporated in the mix (control) and the other with chlorhexidine incorporated in the mix. The statistical analysis of antimicrobial efficacy of alginate was performed with Mann-Whitney U-test, which revealed very high significant difference when comparing among groups (p < 0.000). Student t-test analyzed the compressive strength data which revealed nonsignificant difference between groups (p > 0.05). The incorporation of disinfecting agents into impression materials could serve an important role in dental laboratory infection control and it had no adverse effect on compressive strength of the hydrocolloid alginate. The risk of transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to dental laboratories via impression has been considered a topic of importance for a number of years.

  18. A statistical, micromechanical theory of the compressive strength of brittle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, M.; Sines, G.

    1978-01-01

    A general theory of the compressive strength of brittle materials is presented. This theory proposes that failure is brought about by structural weakening from accumulated crack damage which increases with the stress level. The statistics of the flaw distribution and the mechanism of crack initiation and extension are important. A sample calculation using the theory is given to demonstrate its application

  19. A statistical, micromechanical theory of the compressive strength of brittle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, M.; Sines, G.

    1978-01-01

    A general theory of the compressive strength of brittle materials is presented. This theory proposes that failure is brought about by structural weakening from accumulated crack damage which increases with the stress level. The statistics of the flaw distribution and the mechanism of crack initiation and extension are important. A sample calculation using the theory is given to demonstrate its application

  20. Optimization of calcium carbonate content on synthesis of aluminum foam and its compressive strength characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutarno, Nugraha, Bagja; Kusharjanto

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important characteristic of aluminum foam is compressive strength, which is reflected by its impact energy and Young's modulus. In the present research, optimization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) content in the synthesized aluminum foam in order to obtain the highest compressive strength was carried out. The results of this study will be used to determine the CaCO3 content synthesis process parameter in pilot plant scale production of an aluminum foam. The experiment was performed by varying the concentration of calcium carbonate content, which was used as foaming agent, at constant alumina concentration (1.5 wt%), which was added as stabilizer, and temperature (725°C). It was found that 4 wt% CaCO3 gave the lowest relative density, which was 0.15, and the highest porosity, which was 85.29%, and compressive strength of as high as 0.26 Mpa. The pore morphology of the obtained aluminum foam at such condition was as follow: the average pore diameter was 4.42 mm, the wall thickness minimum of the pore was 83.24 µm, roundness of the pore was 0.91. Based on the fractal porosity, the compressive strength was inversely proportional to the porosity and huddled on a power law value of 2.91.

  1. Chemical treatments for improving compressive strength of linerboard at high moisture conditions

    Treesearch

    D. J. Fahey

    1964-01-01

    Various chemical treatments have been investigated at the Forest Products Laboratory for improving the compressive strength of linerboard exposed at high humidities and after water-soaking. Phenolic resins have been among the more promising chemicals studied, but they vary in performance. The low-condensed water-soluble phenolic resins have given some of the highest...

  2. New rapid method for determining edgewise compressive strength of corrugated fiberboard

    Treesearch

    John W. Koning

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if corrugated fiberboard specimens that had been necked down with a common router would yield acceptable edgewise compressive strength values. Tests were conducted on specimens prepared using a circular saw and router, and the results were compared with those obtained on specimens prepared according to TAPPI Test Method T...

  3. Column and Plate Compressive Strength of Extruded XB75S-T Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimerl, George J.; Roy, J. Albert

    1944-01-01

    Results are presented of tests to determine the column and plate compressive strength of extruded XB75S-T aluminum alloy, and comparative values are shown for 24S-T aluminum-alloy sheet. Stress-strain curves are also given,

  4. Effect of Impact Damage and Open Hole on Compressive Strength of Hybrid Composite Laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Hiel, C.; Brinson, H.F.

    1993-05-01

    Impact damage tolerance is a frequently listed design requirement for composites hardware. The effect of impact damage and open hole size on laminate compressive strength was studied on sandwich beam specimens which combine CFRP-GFRP hybrid skins and a syntactic foam core. Three test specimen configurations have been investigated for this study. The first two were sandwich beams which were loaded in pure bending (by four point flexure). One series had a skin damaged by impact, and the second series had a circular hole machined through one of the skins. The reduction of compressive strength with increasing damage (hole) size was compared. Additionally a third series of uniaxially loaded open hole compression coupons were tested to generate baseline data for comparison with both series of sandwich beams.

  5. Effect of Impact Damage and Open Hole on Compressive Strength of Hybrid Composite Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiel, Clement; Brinson, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    Impact damage tolerance is a frequently listed design requirement for composites hardware. The effect of impact damage and open hole size on laminate compressive strength was studied on sandwich beam specimens which combine CFRP-GFRP hybrid skins and a syntactic foam core. Three test specimen configurations have been investigated for this study. The first two were sandwich beams which were loaded in pure bending (by four point flexure). One series had a skin damaged by impact, and the second series had a circular hole machined through one of the skins. The reduction of compressive strength with increasing damage (hole) size was compared. Additionally a third series of uniaxially loaded open hole compression coupons were tested to generate baseline data for comparison with both series of sandwich beams.

  6. The influence of lay-up and thickness on composite impact damage and compression strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, E. G.; Obrien, T. K.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of composite stacking sequence, thickness, and percentage of zero-degree plies on the size, shape, and distribution of delamination through the laminate thickness and on residual compression strength following impact were studied. Graphite/epoxy laminates were impacted with an 0.5 inch diameter aluminum sphere at a specific low or high velocity. Impact damage was measured nondestructively by ultrasonic C-scans and X-radiography and destructively by the deply technique, and compression strength tests were performed. It was found that differences in compression failure strain due to stacking sequence were small, while laminates with very low percentages of zero-degree plies had similar failure loads but higher failure strains than laminates with higher percentages of zero-degree plies. Failure strain did not correlate with planar impact damage area, and delaminations in impact regions were associated with matrix cracking.

  7. Damage Characteristics and Residual Strength of Composite Sandwich Panels Impacted with and Without Compression Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the impact damage characteristics and residual strength of composite sandwich panels impacted with and without a compression loading are presented. Results of impact damage screening tests conducted to identify the impact-energy levels at which damage initiates and at which barely visible impact damage occurs in the impacted facesheet are discussed. Parametric effects studied in these tests include the impactor diameter, dropped-weight versus airgun-launched impactors, and the effect of the location of the impact site with respect to the panel boundaries. Residual strength results of panels tested in compression after impact are presented and compared with results of panels that are subjected to a compressive preload prior to being impacted.

  8. Comparison of the compressive strength of 3 different implant design systems.

    PubMed

    Pedroza, Jose E; Torrealba, Ysidora; Elias, Augusto; Psoter, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: to compare the static compressive strength at the implant-abutment interface of 3 design systems and to describe the implant abutment connection failure mode. A stainless steel holding device was designed to align the implants at 30 degrees with respect to the y-axis. Sixty-nine specimens were used, 23 for each system. A computer-controlled universal testing machine (MTS 810) applied static compression loading by a unidirectional vertical piston until failure. Specimens were evaluated macroscopically for longitudinal displacement, abutment looseness, and screw and implant fracture. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The mean compressive strength for the Unipost system was 392.5 psi (SD +/-40.9), for the Spline system 342.8 psi (SD+/-25.8), and for the Screw-Vent system 269.1 psi (SD+/-30.7). The Unipost implant-abutment connection demonstrated a statistically significant superior mechanical stability (P < or = .009) compared with the Spline implant system. The Spline implant system showed a statistically significant higher compressive strength than the Screw-Vent implant system (P < or =.009). Regarding failure mode, the Unipost system consistently broke at the same site, while the other systems failed at different points of the connection. The Unipost system demonstrated excellent fracture resistance to compressive forces; this resistance may be attributed primarily to the diameter of the abutment screw and the 2.5 mm counter bore, representing the same and a unique piece of the implant. The Unipost implant system demonstrated a statistically significant superior compressive strength value compared with the Spline and Screw-Vent systems, at a 30 degrees angulation.

  9. Compressive strength of dental composites photo-activated with different light tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvão, M. R.; Caldas, S. G. F. R.; Calabrez-Filho, S.; Campos, E. A.; Bagnato, V. S.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Andrade, M. F.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the compressive strength of microhybrid (Filtek™ Z250) and nanofilled (Filtek™ Supreme XT) composite resins photo-activated with two different light guide tips, fiber optic and polymer, coupled with one LED. The power density was 653 mW cm-2 when using the fiber optic light tip and 596 mW cm-2 with the polymer. After storage in distilled water at 37 ± 2 °C for seven days, the samples were subjected to mechanical testing of compressive strength in an EMIC universal mechanical testing machine with a load cell of 5 kN and speed of 0.5 mm min-1. The statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA with a confidence interval of 95% and Tamhane’s test. The results showed that the mean values of compressive strength were not influenced by the different light tips (p > 0.05). However, a statistical difference was observed (p < 0.001) between the microhybrid composite resin photo-activated with the fiber optic light tip and the nanofilled composite resin. Based on these results, it can be concluded that microhybrid composite resin photo-activated with the fiber optic light tip showed better results than nanofilled, regardless of the tip used, and the type of the light tip did not influence the compressive strength of either composite. Thus, the presented results suggest that both the fiber optic and polymer light guide tips provide adequate compressive strength to be used to make restorations. However, the fiber optic light tip associated with microhybrid composite resin may be an interesting option for restorations mainly in posterior teeth.

  10. The Effect of Different Concentrations of Chlorhexidine Gluconate on the Compressive Strength of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Bidar, Maryam; Eslami, Neda; Naghavi, Neda; Fasihi, Zohreh; Attaran Mashhadi, Negin

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Substituting chlorhexidine (CHX) for water has been shown to enhance antimicrobial activity of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). The purpose of this study was to compare the compressive strength of MTA mixed with distilled water, 0.12% and 0.2% chlorhexidine. Materials and methods. MTA was mixed according to manufacturer's instructions in group I (n = 20). In groups II & III, 0.12% and 0.2% CHX liquid was substituted for water, respectively. Samples were condensed with moderate force into 20 tubes with 1.5×5 mm dimensions and were allowed to set for 72 hours at 37°C in 100% humidity. After being removed from the molds, their compressive strength was determined using Instron testing machine. Each group was divided into two subgroups according to the time of testing (at 72 hours, and one week). Fractured surfaces of 4 specimens in each group were then evaluated under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to determine their microstructure. One-way ANOVA, Tukey, and paired sample t-test was used for statistical analysis. P < 0.05 was set as significant. Results. There was no significant difference between three groups in terms of their compressive strength after 72 hours. However, the compressive strength of group II was significantly higher than group I (P = 0.034) and group III (P = 0.021) after one week. Crystalline microstructure was similar in all groups. Conclusion. Substitution of 0.012% chlorhexidine for water significantly increased the compressive strength of MTA at 1 week without significant change in crystalline structure. PMID:25973146

  11. Effect of Oral Tissue Fluids on Compressive Strength of MTA and Biodentine: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Vasantharajan, Madhusudhan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Over the past many years various root end filling materials have been used which have been tested for their physical properties but each of them had certain limitations. In clinical practice, root end filling materials are exposed to oral tissue fluids which may compromise their longevity. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oral tissue fluids on compressive strength of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and biodentine. Materials and Methods MTA and biodentine cylinders measuring 6 mm × 4 mm were prepared using acrylic blocks. They were divided into six groups; (Group 1) (MTA) (n=3), (Group 2) MTA contaminated with saliva, (MTA-S) (n=3), Group 3: MTA contaminated with blood, MTA-B (n=3), Group 4: Biodentine (BD), Group 5: Biodentine contaminated with saliva (BD-S) (n=5), Group 6: Biodentine contaminated with blood (BD-B) (n=5). The mould was contaminated with saliva and blood and incubated at 37°C at 100% humidity for three days and compressive strength (MPa) was measured using universal testing machine and the data was analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA test. Results There was no significant difference in the compressive strength between the three groups i.e., MTA, MTA-S, MTA-B (p > 0.05). However, there was higher compressive strength in the MTA-B group when compared to MTA and MTA-S. Also, there was no statistical significant difference between BD, BD-S, BD-B (p>0.05). Conclusion This study showed that the compressive strength of MTA and biodentine was not adversely affected by contamination with oral tissue fluids like blood and saliva. PMID:28571272

  12. Effect of Oral Tissue Fluids on Compressive Strength of MTA and Biodentine: An In vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Divya; Vasantharajan, Madhusudhan

    2017-04-01

    Over the past many years various root end filling materials have been used which have been tested for their physical properties but each of them had certain limitations. In clinical practice, root end filling materials are exposed to oral tissue fluids which may compromise their longevity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oral tissue fluids on compressive strength of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and biodentine. MTA and biodentine cylinders measuring 6 mm × 4 mm were prepared using acrylic blocks. They were divided into six groups; (Group 1) (MTA) (n=3), (Group 2) MTA contaminated with saliva, (MTA-S) (n=3), Group 3: MTA contaminated with blood, MTA-B (n=3), Group 4: Biodentine (BD), Group 5: Biodentine contaminated with saliva (BD-S) (n=5), Group 6: Biodentine contaminated with blood (BD-B) (n=5). The mould was contaminated with saliva and blood and incubated at 37°C at 100% humidity for three days and compressive strength (MPa) was measured using universal testing machine and the data was analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA test. There was no significant difference in the compressive strength between the three groups i.e., MTA, MTA-S, MTA-B (p > 0.05). However, there was higher compressive strength in the MTA-B group when compared to MTA and MTA-S. Also, there was no statistical significant difference between BD, BD-S, BD-B (p>0.05). This study showed that the compressive strength of MTA and biodentine was not adversely affected by contamination with oral tissue fluids like blood and saliva.

  13. Retention Strength after Compressive Cyclic Loading of Five Luting Agents Used in Implant-Supported Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Arenal, Angel; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Ignacio; deLlanos-Lanchares, Hector; Pinés-Hueso, Javier; Ellakuria-Echebarria, Joseba

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the retention strength of five cement types commonly used in implant-retained fixed partial dentures, before and after compressive cyclic loading. In five solid abutments screwed to 5 implant analogs, 50 metal Cr-Ni alloy copings were cemented with five luting agents: resin-modified glass ionomer (RmGI), resin composite (RC), glass ionomer (GI), resin urethane-based (RUB), and compomer cement (CC). Two tensile tests were conducted with a universal testing machine, one after the first luting of the copings and the other after 100,000 cycles of 100 N loading at 0.72 Hz. The one way ANOVA test was applied for the statistical analysis using the post hoc Tukey test when required. Before and after applying the compressive load, RmGI and RC cement types showed the greatest retention strength. After compressive loading, RUB cement showed the highest percentage loss of retention (64.45%). GI cement recorded the lowest retention strength (50.35 N) and the resin composite cement recorded the highest (352.02 N). The type of cement influences the retention loss. The clinician should give preference to lower retention strength cement (RUB, CC, and GI) if he envisages any complications and a high retention strength one (RmGI, RC) for a specific clinical situation. PMID:27822468

  14. Effect of dilute tungsten alloying on the dynamic strength of tantalum under ramp compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C. S.; Brown, J. L.; Millett, J. C. F.; Whiteman, G.; Asay, J. R.; Bourne, N. K.

    2015-06-01

    The strength of tantalum and tantalum alloys are of considerable interest due to their widespread use in both military and industrial applications. Previous work has shown that strength in these materials is tied to dislocation density and mobility within the microstructure. Accordingly, strength has been observed to increase with dilute alloying which serves to increase the dislocation density. In this study, we examine the effect of alloying on the strength of a dilute tantalum-tungsten alloy (2.5 weight percent W) under ramp compression. The strength of the alloy is measured using the ``self-consistent'' technique which examines the response under longitudinal unloading from peak compression. The results are compared to previous studies of pure tantalum and dilute tantalum-tungsten alloys under both shock and ramp compression and indicate strengthening of the alloy when compared to pure tantalum. Sandia National Labs is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Effect of quartz sand on compressive strength of the solid waste composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masturi, Marwoto, Putut; Sunarno, Rustad, Supriadi

    2016-02-01

    A solid waste composite was successfully made. Preliminary, the composite was synthesized using polyurethane (PU) as binder mixed with the solid waste using simple mixing method and then hot-pressed at at pressure of 4 metric-tons and temperature of 80°C for 20 minutes. To enhance its strength, quartz sand partilces with varied content then were added into the PU-solid waste mixture. From the compressive strength test, it was obtained that PU/solid waste composite with PU fraction (w/w) of 0.43 has optimum compressive strength of 38.91 MPa. Having been added quartz sand having average particles size of 0.94 μm, its compressive strength attains maximum at 40.47 MPa for quartz sand fraction (w/w) of 4.27 × 10-3. The strength is comparable to that of clay brick, slate stone, sandstone, limestone, alder wood, aspen wood, black cherry and pine woods. Therefore, this composite is very adequate to compete the building materials such as the bricks, stones and woods.

  16. Residual strength of composite laminates subjected to tensile-compressive fatigue loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rotem, Assa; Nelson, H. G.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on the measurements of the residual strengths of T300/934 graphite epoxy laminates, in tension and in compression, after the samples were exposed to tension-compression fatigue loading (R = -1). Four laminate ocnfigurations were tested: unidirectional, cross-ply, angle-ply, and quasi-isotropic. It was found that the fatigue behavior of laminates was dependent on the quasi-static strengths and the specific structure of the laminate. No direct correlation was found between remaining residual strengths and the percentage of average fatigue life. However, a correlation scheme was developed for the individual specimen under test, based on a cumulative damage model and a stiffness change of the material.

  17. A low cost method of testing compression-after-impact strength of composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    1991-01-01

    A method was devised to test the compression strength of composite laminate specimens that are much thinner and wider than other tests require. The specimen can be up to 7.62 cm (3 in) wide and as thin as 1.02 mm (.04 in). The best features of the Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute (IITRI) fixture are combined with an antibuckling jig developed and used at the University of Dayton Research Institute to obtain a method of compression testing thin, wide test coupons on any 20 kip (or larger) loading frame. Up to 83 pct. less composite material is needed for the test coupons compared to the most commonly used compression-after-impact (CAI) tests, which calls for 48 ply thick (approx. 6.12 mm) test coupons. Another advantage of the new method is that composite coupons of the exact lay-up and thickness of production parts can be tested for CAI strength, thus yielding more meaningful results. This new method was used to compression test 8 and 16 ply laminates of T300/934 carbon/epoxy. These results were compared to those obtained using ASTM standard D 3410-87 (Celanese compression test). CAI testing was performed on IM6/3501-6, IM7/SP500 and IM7/F3900. The new test method and associated fixture work well and is a valuable asset to MSFC's damage tolerance program.

  18. The effects of specimen scale on the compression strength of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camponeschi, Eugene Thomas, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a number of observations on the effect of specimen scale on the compression response of composite materials. Work on this topic was motivated by observations that thick-walled, unstiffened carbon reinforced cylinders subjected to hydrostatic pressure were not reaching inplane laminate stress levels at failure expected from coupon level properties, while similar cylinders reinforced with fiberglass were. Results from a study on coupon strength of (0/0/90) laminates, reinforced with AS4 carbon fiber and S2 glass fiber, are presented and show that compression strength is not a function of material or specimen thickness for materials that have the same laminate quality (autoclave cured quality). Actual laminate compression strength was observed to decrease with increasing thickness, but this is attributed to fixture restraint effects on coupon response. The hypothesis drawn from the coupon level results is further supported by results from a compression test on a thick carbon reinforced coupon in a fixture with reduced influence on specimen response and from a hydrostatic test on an unstiffened carbon reinforced cylinder subjected to hydrostatic pressure with end closures designed to minimize their effect on cylinder response.

  19. Effect of shear strength on the Hugoniot-compression curve and EOS of some metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashimo, Tsutomu; Gomoto, Yuya; Liu, Xun; Zaretsky, Eugene; Katayama, Masahide; Nagayama, Kunihito

    2015-06-01

    To derive true equations of state (EOS) of matter, we need the precise Hugoniot data, and must access the strength under shock compression to draw the isothermal hydrostatic compression curve. For this, we have established the high-speed streak camera measurement system consisting of rotating-mirror type streak camera and pulsed dye laser combined with the one-stage powder gun and two-stage light gas gun. We performed the plate-mirror Hugoniot measurement experiments on tungsten (W), copper (Cu), etc. in the pressure range up to >200 GPa by symmetric impact method, and measured the Hugoniot data where the effects of tilt and bowing of the impact plate were carefully considered. It was found that the zero-intercept value (C0) of Us-Up relation (Us =C0 +SUp) of W were larger than the bulk sound velocity by 3.1%, which may show the effect of shear strength in plastic region. The hydrostatic-compression curves were drawn by using the shear strength values reported by Sandia National Laboratories group, and the EOS's were discussed. The hypothesized Us-Up Hugoniot curve of the hydrostatic compression curve converged to the bulk sound velocity.

  20. The effect of impact damage and circular holes on the compressive strength of a graphite-epoxy laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, J. H., Jr.; Rhodes, M. D.; Williams, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Specimens were impacted by 1.27-cm-diameter aluminum spheres with speeds ranging from 52 to 101 m/s. Some specimens were impacted without any applied compressive load and then loaded to failure to determine their residual strength. Other specimens were loaded to a prescribed axial compressive strain and impacted while at that applied load. Loaded specimens that did not fail catastrophically on impact were subsequently loaded to failure to determine their residual strength. Low-velocity impact damage was found to degrade seriously the laminate static compressive strength. Low-strain compression-compression cyclic loading was found to degrade further the compressive strength of impact-damaged specimens. Specimens with circular holes having diameters up to a third of the specimen width were loaded to failure in compression. It was found that circular holes can also degrade the static compressive strength of the laminate. The effects of circular holes and impact damage on the compressive strength of the laminate are compared.

  1. Compressive strength and the effect of duration after photo-activation among dual-cure bulk fill composite core materials.

    PubMed

    Alkhudhairy, Fahad; Vohra, Fahim

    2016-01-01

    To assess compressive strength and effect of duration after photoactivation on the compressive strength of different dual cure bulk fill composites. Seventy-two disc shaped (4x10mm) specimens were prepared from three dual cure bulk fill materials, ZirconCore (ZC) (n=24), MulticCore Flow (MC) (n=24) and Luxacore Dual (LC) (n=24). Half of the specimens in each material were tested for failure loads after one hour [MC1 (n=12), LC1 (n=12) & ZC1 (n=12)] and the other half in 7 days [MC7 (n=12), LC7 (n=12), ZC7 (n=12)] from photo-polymerization using the universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 cm/minutes. Compressive strength was calculated using the formula UCS=4f/πd(2). Compressive strengths among different groups were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's multiple comparisons test. Maximum and minimum compressive strengths were observed in ZC7 (344.14±19.22) and LC1 (202.80±15.52) groups. Specimens in LC1 [202.80 (15.52)] showed significantly lower compressive strength as compared to MC1 [287.06 (15.03)] (p<0.01) and ZC1 [276.82 (11.51)] (p<0.01). ZC7 [344.14 (19.22)] specimens showed significantly higher (p<0.01) compressive strengths compared to LC7 [324.56 (19.47)] and MC7 [315.26 (12.36)]. Compressive strengths among all three materials were significantly higher (p<0.01) at 7 days as compared to one hour. Bulk fill material with Zr nano-hybrid filler (ZC) showed high compressive strength compared to MC and LC. Increasing the post photo-activation duration (from one hour to 7 days) significantly improves the compressive strengths of dual cure bulk fill material.

  2. Correlation between aggregate quality and compressive strength of andesite from Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czinder, Balázs; Török, Ákos

    2015-04-01

    Andesite is one of the most common lithology that is used as aggregate. Testing of aggregate quality traditionally includes Los Angeles, micro-Deval tests and the quality of the stone is assessed according to these values. In the present paper both aggregate properties and strength properties of andesites are compared in order to find correlation between aggregate strength, durability and compressive and tensile strength as well as frost resistance. Tests were made from andesite types obtained from two operating quarries of Nógrádkövesd and Gyöngyössolymos. Uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) values were compared with aggregate test results obtained from the same block. Air dry, water saturated and freeze-thaw subjected specimens were tested. According to lithological description and fabric analyses samples were grouped into 4 main lithotypes: one from Nógrádkövesd and three from Gyöngyössolymos. Fine porphyric andesite from Gyöngyössolymos provided the best micro-Deval values. In terms of uniaxial compressive strength the same trend was found, fine porphyric andesite from Gyöngyössolymos had the highest UCS under laboratory conditions, while coarser porphyritic andesite from the same quarry had lower strength. Water saturation decreased UCS as it was expected. Tensile strength values show a gradual deceases from air dry to water saturated and finally subjected to freeze-thaw cycles. Mean micro-Deval value of fine porphyric Gyöngyössolymos andesite was about 7, while that of the coarser porphyritic andesite was app. 16. These values are still higher than the mean micro-Deval test result of Nógrádkövesd andesite; which was 20. A good correlation was found in between Los Angeles and micro-Deval values, but there was no indication that micro-Deval values correlate well with UCS.

  3. Strength and texture of Pt compressed to 63 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, Susannah M.; Shieh, Sean R.; Duffy, Thomas S.

    2015-02-14

    Angle- and energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction experiments in a radial geometry were performed in the diamond anvil cell on polycrystalline platinum samples at pressures up to 63 GPa. Observed yield strength and texture depend on grain size. For samples with 70–300-nm particle size, the yield strength is 5–6 GPa at ∼60 GPa. Coarse-grained (∼2-μm particles) Pt has a much lower yield strength of 1–1.5 GPa at ∼60 GPa. Face-centered cubic metals Pt and Au have lower strength to shear modulus ratio than body-centered cubic or hexagonal close-packed metals. While a 300-nm particle sample exhibits the 〈110〉 texture expected of face-centered-cubic metals under compression, smaller and larger particles show a weak mixed 〈110〉 and 〈100〉 texture under compression. Differences in texture development may also occur due to deviations from uniaxial stress under compression in the diamond anvil cell.

  4. The influence of nickel slag aggregate concentration to compressive and flexural strength on fly ash-based geopolymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujiono, E. H.; Setiawan, A.; Husain, H.; Irhamsyah, A.; Samnur, S.; Subaer, S.

    2016-04-01

    Fly ash-based geopolymer with nickel slag aggregate has been successfully produced. Fly ash and nickel slag were obtained from Bosowa Jeneponto Power Plant and PT. Vale Indonesia, respectively. This research aims to investigate the influence of nickel slag concentration to compressive strength, flexural strength, and microstructure of geopolymer composite. The increment of nickel slag aggregate on fly ash was relative to the weight of samples. Geopolymer composite were synthesized by using alkali activated method, cured at temperature of 70 °C for 1 hour. The resulting composites were left at room temperature for 14 days, before compressive and flexural strength were performed. The results showed that the addition of nickel slag aggregate was found to increase the compressive strength of the material. The optimum compressive strength was 14.81 MPa with the addition of 10% aggregate. The optimum flexural strength was 2.63 MPa with the addition of 15% aggregate.

  5. Effect of shallow angles on compressive strength of biaxial and triaxial laminates.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongli; Yang, Hyun-Ik

    2016-01-01

    Biaxial (BX) and triaxial (TX) composite laminates with ±45° angled plies have been widely used in wind turbine blades. As the scale of blades increases, BX and TX laminates with shallow-angled plies (i.e. off-axis ply angle <45°) might be utilized for reducing mass and/or improving performance. The compressive properties of shallow-angled BX and TX laminates are critical considering their locations in a wind turbine blade, and therefore in this study, the uniaxial static compression tests were conducted using BX and TX laminates with angled-plies of ±45°, ±35°, and ±25°, for the purpose of evaluation. On the other hand, Mori-Tanaka mean field homogenization method was employed to predict elastic constants of plies in BX and TX laminates involved in tests; linear regression analyses of experimentally measured ply strengths collected from various sources were then performed to estimate strengths of plies in BX and TX laminates; finally, Tsai-Wu, Hashin, and Puck failure criteria were chosen to predict compressive strengths of BX and TX laminates. Comparison between theoretical predictions and test results were carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of each criterion. The compressive strength of BX laminate decreases as ply angle increases, and the trend was successfully predicted by all three failure criteria. For TX laminates, ±35° angled plies rather than ±45° angled plies led to the lowest laminate compressive strength. Hashin and Puck criteria gave good predictions at certain ply angles for TX laminates, but Tsai-Wu criterion was able to capture the unexpected strength variation of TX laminates with ply angle. It was concluded that the transverse tensile stress in 0° plies of TX laminates, which attains its maximum when the off-axis ply angle is 35°, is the dominant factor in failure determination if using Tsai-Wu criterion. This explains the unexpected strength variation of TX laminates with ply angle, and also indicates that proper

  6. Development of optimization models for the set behavior and compressive strength of sodium activated geopolymer pastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillenwarth, Brian Albert

    As large countries such as China begin to industrialize and concerns about global warming continue to grow, there is an increasing need for more environmentally friendly building materials. One promising material known as a geopolymer can be used as a portland cement replacement and in this capacity emits around 67% less carbon dioxide. In addition to potentially reducing carbon emissions, geopolymers can be synthesized with many industrial waste products such as fly ash. Although the benefits of geopolymers are substantial, there are a few difficulties with designing geopolymer mixes which have hindered widespread commercialization of the material. One such difficulty is the high variability of the materials used for their synthesis. In addition to this, interrelationships between mix design variables and how these interrelationships impact the set behavior and compressive strength are not well understood. A third complicating factor with designing geopolymer mixes is that the role of calcium in these systems is not well understood. In order to overcome these barriers, this study developed predictive optimization models through the use of genetic programming with experimentally collected set times and compressive strengths of several geopolymer paste mixes. The developed set behavior models were shown to predict the correct set behavior from the mix design over 85% of the time. The strength optimization model was shown to be capable of predicting compressive strengths of geopolymer pastes from their mix design to within about 1 ksi of their actual strength. In addition to this the optimization models give valuable insight into the key factors influencing strength development as well as the key factors responsible for flash set and long set behaviors in geopolymer pastes. A method for designing geopolymer paste mixes was developed from the generated optimization models. This design method provides an invaluable tool for use in future geopolymer research as well as

  7. A Graphical Method Predicting the Compressive Strength of Toughened Unidirectional Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumahat, Aidah; Soutis, Constantinos; Hodzic, Alma

    2011-02-01

    The in-plane shear and compressive properties of unidirectional (UD) HTS40/977-2 carbon fibre-toughened resin (CF/TR) laminates are investigated. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy are used to reveal the failure mechanisms developed during compression. It is found that damage initiates by fibre microbuckling (a fibre instability failure mode) which then is followed by yielding of the matrix to form a fibre kink band zone that leads to final fracture. Analytical models are briefly reviewed and a graphical method, based on the shear response of the composite system, is described in order to estimate the UD compressive strength. Predictions for the HTS40/977-2 system are compared to experimental measurements and to data of five other unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites that are currently used in aerospace and other structural applications. It is shown that the estimated values are in a good agreement with the measured results.

  8. A Finite Element Analysis for Predicting the Residual Compressive Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, James G.; Jackson, Wade C.

    2008-01-01

    A simple analysis method has been developed for predicting the residual compressive strength of impact-damaged sandwich panels. The method is tailored for honeycomb core-based sandwich specimens that exhibit an indentation growth failure mode under axial compressive loading, which is driven largely by the crushing behavior of the core material. The analysis method is in the form of a finite element model, where the impact-damaged facesheet is represented using shell elements and the core material is represented using spring elements, aligned in the thickness direction of the core. The nonlinear crush response of the core material used in the analysis is based on data from flatwise compression tests. A comparison with a previous analysis method and some experimental data shows good agreement with results from this new approach.

  9. A Finite Element Analysis for Predicting the Residual Compression Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, James G.; Jackson, Wade C.

    2008-01-01

    A simple analysis method has been developed for predicting the residual compression strength of impact-damaged sandwich panels. The method is tailored for honeycomb core-based sandwich specimens that exhibit an indentation growth failure mode under axial compression loading, which is driven largely by the crushing behavior of the core material. The analysis method is in the form of a finite element model, where the impact-damaged facesheet is represented using shell elements and the core material is represented using spring elements, aligned in the thickness direction of the core. The nonlinear crush response of the core material used in the analysis is based on data from flatwise compression tests. A comparison with a previous analysis method and some experimental data shows good agreement with results from this new approach.

  10. Strength properties and structure of a submicrocrystalline Al-Mg-Mn alloy under shock compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, A. N.; Brodova, I. G.; Razorenov, S. V.

    2017-06-01

    The results of studying the strength of a submicrocrystalline aluminum A5083 alloy (chemical composition was 4.4Mg-0.6Mn-0.11Si-0.23Fe-0.03Cr-0.02Cu-0.06Ti wt % and Al base) under shockwave compression are presented. The submicrocrystalline structure of the alloy was produced in the process of dynamic channel-angular pressing at a strain rate of 104 s-1. The average size of crystallites in the alloy was 180-460 nm. Hugoniot elastic limit σHEL, dynamic yield stress σy, and the spall strength σSP of the submicrocrystalline alloy were determined based on the free-surface velocity profiles of samples during shock compression. It has been established that upon shock compression, the σHEL and σy of the submicrocrystalline alloy are higher than those of the coarse-grained alloy and σsp does not depend on the grain size. The maximum value of σHEL reached for the submicrocrystalline alloy is 0.66 GPa, which is greater than that in the coarse-crystalline alloy by 78%. The dynamic yield stress is σy = 0.31 GPa, which is higher than that of the coarse-crystalline alloy by 63%. The spall strength is σsp = 1.49 GPa. The evolution of the submicrocrystalline structure of the alloy during shock compression was studied. It has been established that a mixed nonequilibrium grain-subgrain structure with a fragment size of about 400 nm is retained after shock compression, and the dislocation density and the hardness of the alloy are increased.

  11. Structure and compressive strength of silicon open-cell foam obtained by a centrifugal separation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Ju-Young; Kim, Ki-Young

    2013-03-01

    The present study describes a new way to make an open-cell silicon foam from an Al-Si alloy melt by centrifugation during its solidification. The effects of the silicon content and the chute diameter of the crucible on the morphology, the density and the compressive strength of the silicon foams were investigated. A vertical-type centrifugal separator was designed to push the unfrozen Al-Si melt outside, leaving only the silicon foam inside the crucible during rotation. Alloys in the Al-Si system with silicon contents of 40 and 50 wt% were prepared by an electrical resistance furnace, and the revolution of the centrifugal separator was controlled to fabricate the foam. Open-cell silicon foams could be obtained successfully. The apparent density and the compressive strength were in the ranges of 620-820 kg/m3 and 7.5-14.5 MPa, respectively.

  12. A mechanism responsible for reducing compression strength of through-the-thickness reinforced composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify one of the mechanisms that contributes to the reduced compression strength of composite materials with through-the-thickness (TTT) reinforcements. In this study a series of thick (0/90) laminates with stitched and integrally woven TTT reinforcements were fabricated and statically tested. In both the stitching and weaving process a surface loop of TTT reinforcement yarn is created between successive TTT penetrations. It was shown that the surface loop of the TTT reinforcement 'kinked' the in-plane fibers in such a manner that they were made ineffective in carrying compressive load. The improvement in strength by removal of the surface loop and 'kinked' in-plane fibers was between 7 and 35 percent.

  13. Effect of mineral admixtures on kinetic property and compressive strength of self Compacting Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagalur Mahalingasharma, Srishaila; Prakash, Parasivamurthy; Vishwanath, K. N.; Jawali, Veena

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents experimental investigations made on the influence of chemical, physical, morphological and mineralogical properties of mineral admixtures such as fly ash, ground granulate blast furnace slag, metakaoline and micro silica used as a replacement of cement in self compacting concrete on workability and compressive strength. Nineteen concrete mixes were cast by replacing with cement by fly ash or ground granulated blast furnace slag as binary blend at 30%, 40%, 50% and with addition of micro silica and metakaoline at 10% as a ternary blend with fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and obtained results were compare with control mix. Water powder ratio 0.3 and super plasticizer dosage 1% of cementitious material was kept constant for all the mixes. The self compacting concrete tested for slump flow, V-funnel, L-Box, J-Ring, T50, and compressive strength on concrete cube were determined at age of 3, 7, 28, 56, 90 days.

  14. [Orthogonal test analysis of compressive strength of porous hydroxylapatite prepared by gel-casting process].

    PubMed

    Han, Yanjun; Li, Musen; Lü, Yupeng; Song, Yunjing; Chen, Y; Low, H

    2004-10-01

    Porous hydroxylapatite (HA) has excellent osseous inductive ability. It has been prepared by gel-casting process, which is feasible and can make complex ceramic material. According to the result of orthogonal test based on the compressive strength, the order and the level of the factors, including monomer HA, initiator MBAM, catalyst APS and water, were dealt with. The effects of drying and sintering technique on the properties of porous hydroxylapatite were also researched. The results showed that the order of every factor in the gel-casting process is as follows, AM-APS, MBAM, H2O. Based on the determined level of each factor, the suitable slurry constituents and drying and sintering technologies were selected, and the porous hydroxylapatite with compressive strength of 6-7 MPa was produced.

  15. Column and Plate Compressive Strengths of Aircraft Structural Martials Extruded 0-1HTA Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimerl, George J; Niles, Donald E

    1947-01-01

    Column and plate compressive strengths of extruded 0-1HTA magnesium alloy were determined both within and beyond the elastic range from tests of flat end H-section columns and from local instability tests of H-, Z-, and channel section columns. These tests are part of an extensive research investigation to provide data on the structural strength of various aircraft materials. The results are presented in the form of curves and charts that are suitable for use in the design and analysis of aircraft structures.

  16. Column and Plate Compressive Strengths of Aircraft Structural Materials: Extruded 24S-T Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimerl, George J.; Roy, J Albert

    1945-01-01

    Column and plate compressive strengths of extruded 24S-T aluminum alloy were determined both within and beyond the elastic range from tests of thin-strip columns and local-instability tests of H-, Z-,and channel-section columns. These tests are part of an extensive research investigation to provide data on the' structural strength of various aircraft materials. The results are presented in the form of curves and charts that are suitable for use in the design and analysis of aircraft structures.

  17. COMPARISON OF QUANTITATIVE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY-BASED MEASURES IN PREDICTING VERTEBRAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Jenni M.; Loo, Kenneth; Motherway, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Patient-specific measures derived from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans are currently being developed as a clinical tool for vertebral strength prediction. QCT-based measurement techniques vary greatly in structural complexity and generally fall into one of three categories: 1) bone mineral density (BMD), 2) “mechanics of solids” (MOS) models, such as minimum axial rigidity (the product of axial stiffness and vertebral height), or 3) three dimensional finite element (FE) models. There is no clear consensus as to the relative performance of these measures due to differences in experimental protocols, sample sizes and demographics, and outcome metrics. The goal of this study was to directly compare the performance of QCT-based assessment techniques of varying degrees of structural sophistication in predicting experimental vertebral compressive strength. Eighty-one human thoracic vertebrae (T6 – T10) from 44 donors cadavers (F = 32, M = 12; 85 + 8 y.o., max = 97 y.o., min = 54 y.o.) were QCT scanned and destructively tested in uniaxial compression. The QCT scans were processed to generate FE models and various BMD and MOS measures, including trabecular bone mineral density (tBMD), integral bone mineral density (iBMD), and axial rigidity. Bone mineral density was weakly to moderately predictive of compressive strength (R2 = 0.16 and 0.62 for tBMD and iBMD, respectively). Ex vivo vertebral strength was strongly correlated with both axial rigidity (R2 = 0.81) and FE strength measurements (R2 = 0.80), and the predictive capabilities of these two metrics were statistically equivalent (p > 0.05 for differences between FE and axial rigidity). The results of this study indicate that non-invasive predictive measures of vertebral strength should include some level of structural sophistication, specifically, gross geometric and material property distribution information. However, for uniaxial compression of isolated vertebrae, which is the current biomechanical

  18. An Exploratory Compressive Strength Of Concrete Containing Modified Artificial Polyethylene Aggregate (MAPEA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadipramana, J.; Mokhatar, S. N.; Samad, A. A. A.; Hakim, N. F. A.

    2016-11-01

    Concrete is widely used in the world as building and construction material. However, the constituent materials used in concrete are high cost when associated with the global economic recession. This exploratory aspires to have an alternative source of replacing natural aggregate with plastic wastes. An investigation of the Modified Artificial Polyethylene Aggregate (MAPEA) as natural aggregate replacement in concrete through an experimental work was conducted in this study. The MAPEA was created to improve the bonding ability of Artificial Polyethylene Aggregate (APEA) with the cement paste. The concrete was mixed with 3%, 6%, 9%, and 12% of APEA and MAPEA for 14 and 28 curing days, respectively. Furthermore, the compressive strength test was conducted to find out the optimum composition of MAPEA in concrete and compared to the APEA concrete. Besides, this study observed the influence and behaviour of MAPEA in concrete. Therefore, the Scanning Electron Microscopy was applied to observe the microstructure of MAPEA and APEA concrete. The results showed the use of high composition of an artificial aggregate resulted inferior strength on the concrete and 3% MAPEA in the concrete mix was highest compressive strength than other content. The modification of APEA (MAPEA) concrete increased its strength due to its surface roughness. However, the interfacial zone cracking was still found and decreased the strength of MAPEA concrete especially when it was age 28 days.

  19. The pore characteristics of geopolymer foam concrete and their impact on the compressive strength and modulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zuhua; Wang, Hao

    2016-08-01

    The pore characteristics of GFCs manufactured in the laboratory with 0-16% foam additions were examined using image analysis (IA) and vacuum water saturation techniques. The pore size distribution, pore shape and porosity were obtained. The IA method provides a suitable approach to obtain the information of large pores, which are more important in affecting the compressive strength of GFC. By examining the applicability of the existing models of predicting compressive strength of foam concrete, a modified Ryshkevitch’s model is proposed for GFC, in which only the porosity that is contributed by the pores over a critical diameter (>100 μm) is considered. This “critical void model” is shown to have very satisfying prediction capability in the studied range of porosity. A compression-modulus model for Portland cement concrete is recommended for predicting the compression modulus elasticity of GFC. This study confirms that GFC have similar pore structures and mechanical behavior as those Portland cement foam concrete and can be used alternatively in the industry for the construction and insulation purposes.

  20. Effects of fiber, matrix, and interphase on carbon fiber composite compression strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nairn, John A.; Harper, Sheila I.; Bascom, Willard D.

    1994-01-01

    The major goal of this project was to obtain basic information on compression failure properties of carbon fiber composites. To do this, we investigated fiber effects, matrix effects, and fiber/matrix interface effects. Using each of nine fiber types, we prepared embedded single-fiber specimens, single-ply specimens, and full laminates. From the single-fiber specimens, in addition to the standard fragmentation test analysis, we were able to use the low crack density data to provide information about the distribution of fiber flaws. The single-ply specimens provided evidence of a correlation between the size of kink band zones and the quality of the interface. Results of the laminate compression experiments mostly agreed with the results from single-ply experiments, although the ultimate compression strengths of laminates were higher. Generally, these experiments showed a strong effect of interfacial properties. Matrix effects were examined using laminates subjected to precracking under mixed-mode loading conditions. A large effect of precracking conditions on the mode 1 toughness of the laminates was found. In order to control the properties of the fiber/matrix interface, we prepared composites of carbon fiber and polycarbonate and subjected these to annealing. The changes in interfacial properties directly correlated with changes in compression strength.

  1. Influence of Incorporating Fluoroapatite Nanobioceramic on the Compressive Strength and Bioactivity of Glass Ionomer Cement

    PubMed Central

    M, Khaghani; S, Alizadeh; A, Doostmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Statement of Problem: In order to increase the performance of glass ionomer cement, it is reinforced with metal powders, short fibers, bioceramics and other materials. Fluoroapatite (Ca10(PO4)6F2) is found in dental enamel and is usually used in dental materials due to its good chemical and physical properties. Objectives: In this study, the effects of the addition of synthesized fluoroapatite nanoceramic on the compressive strength and bioactivity of glass ionomer cement were investigated. Materials and Methods: The synthesized fluoroapatite nanoceramic particles (~ 70 nm) were incorporated into as-prepared glass ionomer powder and were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the compressive strength values of the modified glass ionomer cements with 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt% of fluoroapatite were evaluated. Results: Results showed that glass ionomer cement containing 3 wt% fluoroapatite nanoparticles exhibited the highest compressive strength (102.6 ± 4) compared to the other groups, including control group. Furthermore, FTIR and SEM investigations indicated that after soaking the glass ionomer cement- 3 wt% fluoroapatite composite in the simulated body fluid solution, the intensity of O-H, P-O and C-O absorption bands increased as a result of the formation of apatite layer on the surface of the sample, and the rather flat and homogeneous surface of the cement became more porous and inhomogeneous. Conclusions: Addition of synthesized nano-fluoroapatite to as-prepared glass ionomer cement enhanced the compressive strength as well as nucleation of the calcium phosphate layer on the surface of the composite. This makes it a good candidate for dentistry and orthopedic applications. PMID:28959754

  2. Influence of Incorporating Fluoroapatite Nanobioceramic on the Compressive Strength and Bioactivity of Glass Ionomer Cement.

    PubMed

    M, Khaghani; S, Alizadeh; A, Doostmohammadi

    2016-09-01

    In order to increase the performance of glass ionomer cement, it is reinforced with metal powders, short fibers, bioceramics and other materials. Fluoroapatite (Ca10(PO4)6F2) is found in dental enamel and is usually used in dental materials due to its good chemical and physical properties. In this study, the effects of the addition of synthesized fluoroapatite nanoceramic on the compressive strength and bioactivity of glass ionomer cement were investigated. The synthesized fluoroapatite nanoceramic particles (~ 70 nm) were incorporated into as-prepared glass ionomer powder and were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the compressive strength values of the modified glass ionomer cements with 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt% of fluoroapatite were evaluated. Results showed that glass ionomer cement containing 3 wt% fluoroapatite nanoparticles exhibited the highest compressive strength (102.6 ± 4) compared to the other groups, including control group. Furthermore, FTIR and SEM investigations indicated that after soaking the glass ionomer cement- 3 wt% fluoroapatite composite in the simulated body fluid solution, the intensity of O-H, P-O and C-O absorption bands increased as a result of the formation of apatite layer on the surface of the sample, and the rather flat and homogeneous surface of the cement became more porous and inhomogeneous. Addition of synthesized nano-fluoroapatite to as-prepared glass ionomer cement enhanced the compressive strength as well as nucleation of the calcium phosphate layer on the surface of the composite. This makes it a good candidate for dentistry and orthopedic applications.

  3. Correlation between the uniaxial compressive strength and the point load strength index of the Pungchon limestone, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Hwanjo; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Kim, Kyoungman; Choi, Young-Sup; Kang, Sang-Soo; Kang, Jung-Seock

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the use of underground openings for various purposes is expanding, particularly for the crushing and processing facilities in open-pit limestone mines. The suitability of current rockmass classification systems for limestone or dolostone is therefore one of the major concerns for field engineers. Consequently, development of the limestone mine site characterization model(LSCM) is underway through the joint efforts of some research institutes and universities in Korea. An experimental program was undertaken to investigate the correlation between rock properties, for quick adaptation of the rockmass classification system in the field. The uniaxial compressive strength(UCS) of rock material is a key property for rockmass characterization purposes and, is reasonably included in the rock mass rating(RMR). As core samples for the uniaxial compression test are not always easily obtained, indirect tests such as the point load test can be a useful alternative, and various equations between the UCS and the point load strength index(Is50) have been reported in the literature. It is generally proposed that the relationship between the Is50 and the UCS value depends on the rock types and, also on the testing conditions. This study investigates the correlation between the UCS and the Is50 of the Pungchon limestone, with a total of 48 core samples obtained from a underground limestone mine. Both uniaxial compression and point load specimens were prepared from the same segment of NX-sized rock cores. The derived equation obtained from regression analysis of two variables is UCS=26Is50, with the root-mean-square error of 13.18.

  4. Experimental study of tensile strength of pharmaceutical tablets: effect of the diluent nature and compression pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juban, Audrey; Briançon, Stéphanie; Puel, François; Hoc, Thierry; Nouguier-Lehon, Cécile

    2017-06-01

    In the pharmaceutical field, tablets are the most common dosage form for oral administration in the world. Among different manufacturing processes, direct compression is widely used because of its economics interest and it is a process which avoids the steps of wet granulation and drying processes. Tablets are composed of at least two ingredients: an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) which is mixed with a diluent. The nature of the powders and the processing conditions are crucial for the properties of the blend and, consequently, strongly influence the mechanical characteristics of tablets. Moreover, tablets have to present a suitable mechanical strength to avoid crumbling or breaking when handling, while ensuring an appropriate disintegration after administration. Accordingly, this mechanical property is an essential parameter to consider. Experimental results showed that proportion of the diluent, fragmentary (DCPA) or plastic (MCC), had a large influence on the tensile strength evolution with API content as well as the compression load applied during tableting process. From these results a model was developed in order to predict the tensile strength of binary tablets by knowing the compression pressure. The validity of this model was demonstrated for the two studied systems and a comparison was made with two existing models.

  5. Influence of Random Inclusion of Coconut Fibres on the Short term Strength of Highly Compressible Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramani Sujatha, Evangelin; SaiSree, S.; Prabalini, C.; Aysha Farsana, Z.

    2017-07-01

    The choice of natural fibres for soil stabilization provides an economic, safe and eco-friendly alternative to improve the properties of soil. They are an important step forward toward sustainable development. An attempt was made to study the influence of the random addition of untreated coconut fibres on the short term strength of soil, its stress-strain behavior, compaction characteristics and index properties. The soil selected for the study is a highly compressible clay sample with a liquid limit of 52.5 % and plasticity index of 38 %. The soil has no organic content. The study reveals that the compaction curves tend to shift to the right side, indicating more plastic behavior with the addition of fibres. The addition of fibres also reorient the soil structure to a more dispersed fashion. A significant increase in the unconfined compressive strength is also observed. An increase of nearly 51 % in the unconfined compressive strength is observed at 0.75 % coir inclusion. The stress-strain behavior of the soil shows a shift toward more plastic behavior. The mode of failure of the soil specimen is by cracking and with fibre inclusion, length of the failure cracks is restrained as the fibre tends to hold the cracks together, resulting in shorter cracks, with significant bulging of the specimen at failure.

  6. Preparing diopside nanoparticle scaffolds via space holder method: Simulation of the compressive strength and porosity.

    PubMed

    Abdellahi, Majid; Najafinezhad, Aliakbar; Ghayour, Hamid; Saber-Samandari, Saeed; Khandan, Amirsalar

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, diopside nanopowders were prepared via mechanical milling with eggshell as the calcium source. The space holder method (compaction of ceramic powder and spacer) as one of the most important methods to produce ceramic/metal scaffolds was used to produce diopside scaffolds. For the first time, the effect of the spacer size on mechanical properties and porosity of the obtained scaffolds was experimentally discussed. According to the results obtained, the NaCl particles (as the spacer) with the size of 400-600µm maintained their original spherical shape during the compaction and sintering processes. As a new work, the most important parameters including the spacer type, spacer concentration, spacer size, and applied pressure were considered, and their effects on mechanical properties and porosity of diopside scaffolds were simulated. Gene Expression Programming (GEP), as one of the most branches of the artificial intelligence, was used for simulation process. By using the GEP, two equations were introduced to predict the compressive strength and porosity of the obtained scaffolds with the lowest error values. The 3D diagrams extracted from the model were used to evaluate the combined effect of the process parameters on the compressive strength and porosity of the scaffolds. The GEP model presented in this work has a very low level of error and a high level of the squared regression for predicting the compressive strength and porosity of diopside scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect on the Flexural Strength, Flexural Modulus and Compressive Strength of Fibre Reinforced Acrylic with That of Plain Unfilled Acrylic Resin – An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Tony C; K, Aswini Kumar; Krishnan, Vinod; Mathew, Anil; V, Manju

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the flexural strength, the flexural modulus and compressive strength of the acrylic polymer reinforced with glass, carbon, polyethylene and Kevlar fibres with that of plain unfilled resin. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 specimens were prepared and divided into 10 specimens each under 5 groups namely group 1- control group without any fibres, group 2 – carbon fibres, group 3- glass fibres, group 4 – polyethylene, group 5- Kevlar. Universal testing machine (Tinius olsen, USA) was used for the testing of these specimens. Out of each group, 5 specimens were randomly selected and testing was done for flexural strength using a three point deflection test and three point bending test for compressive strength and the modulus was plotted using a graphical method. Statistical analysis was done using statistical software. Results: The respective mean values for samples in regard to their flexural strength for PMMA plain, PMMA+ glass fibre, PMMA+ carbon, PMMA+ polyethylene and PMMA+ Kevlar were 90.64, 100.79, 102.58, 94.13 and 96.43 respectively. Scheffes post hoc test clearly indicated that only mean flexural strength values of PMMA + Carbon, has the highest mean value. One-way ANOVA revealed a non-significant difference among the groups in regard to their compressive strength. Conclusion: The study concludes that carbon fibre reinforced samples has the greatest flexural strength and greatest flexural modulus, however the compressive strength remains unchanged. PMID:25954696

  8. The effect on the flexural strength, flexural modulus and compressive strength of fibre reinforced acrylic with that of plain unfilled acrylic resin - an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tony C; K, Aswini Kumar; Mohamed, Shamaz; Krishnan, Vinod; Mathew, Anil; V, Manju

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the flexural strength, the flexural modulus and compressive strength of the acrylic polymer reinforced with glass, carbon, polyethylene and Kevlar fibres with that of plain unfilled resin. A total of 50 specimens were prepared and divided into 10 specimens each under 5 groups namely group 1- control group without any fibres, group 2 - carbon fibres, group 3- glass fibres, group 4 - polyethylene, group 5- Kevlar. Universal testing machine (Tinius olsen, USA) was used for the testing of these specimens. Out of each group, 5 specimens were randomly selected and testing was done for flexural strength using a three point deflection test and three point bending test for compressive strength and the modulus was plotted using a graphical method. Statistical analysis was done using statistical software. The respective mean values for samples in regard to their flexural strength for PMMA plain, PMMA+ glass fibre, PMMA+ carbon, PMMA+ polyethylene and PMMA+ Kevlar were 90.64, 100.79, 102.58, 94.13 and 96.43 respectively. Scheffes post hoc test clearly indicated that only mean flexural strength values of PMMA + Carbon, has the highest mean value. One-way ANOVA revealed a non-significant difference among the groups in regard to their compressive strength. The study concludes that carbon fibre reinforced samples has the greatest flexural strength and greatest flexural modulus, however the compressive strength remains unchanged.

  9. Prediction of compression strength of high performance concrete using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torre, A.; Garcia, F.; Moromi, I.; Espinoza, P.; Acuña, L.

    2015-01-01

    High-strength concrete is undoubtedly one of the most innovative materials in construction. Its manufacture is simple and is carried out starting from essential components (water, cement, fine and aggregates) and a number of additives. Their proportions have a high influence on the final strength of the product. This relations do not seem to follow a mathematical formula and yet their knowledge is crucial to optimize the quantities of raw materials used in the manufacture of concrete. Of all mechanical properties, concrete compressive strength at 28 days is most often used for quality control. Therefore, it would be important to have a tool to numerically model such relationships, even before processing. In this aspect, artificial neural networks have proven to be a powerful modeling tool especially when obtaining a result with higher reliability than knowledge of the relationships between the variables involved in the process. This research has designed an artificial neural network to model the compressive strength of concrete based on their manufacturing parameters, obtaining correlations of the order of 0.94.

  10. Flow strength of tantalum under ramp compression to 250 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J. L.; Alexander, C. S.; Asay, J. R.; Dolan, D. H.; Vogler, T. J.; Belof, J. L.

    2014-01-28

    A magnetic loading technique was used to study the strength of polycrystalline tantalum ramp compressed to peak stresses between 60 and 250 GPa. Velocimetry was used to monitor the planar ramp compression and release of various tantalum samples. A wave profile analysis was then employed to determine the pressure-dependence of the average shear stress upon unloading at strain rates on the order of 10{sup 5} s{sup −1}. Experimental uncertainties were quantified using a Monte Carlo approach, where values of 5% in the estimated pressure and 9–17% in the shear stress were calculated. The measured deviatoric response was found to be in good agreement with existing lower pressure strength data as well as several strength models. Significant deviations between the experiments and models, however, were observed at higher pressures where shear stresses of up to 5 GPa were measured. Additionally, these data suggest a significant effect of the initial material processing on the high pressure strength. Heavily worked or sputtered samples were found to support up to a 30% higher shear stress upon release than an annealed material.

  11. Modeling of Hydration, Compressive Strength, and Carbonation of Portland-Limestone Cement (PLC) Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Limestone is widely used in the construction industry to produce Portland limestone cement (PLC) concrete. Systematic evaluations of hydration kinetics, compressive strength development, and carbonation resistance are crucial for the rational use of limestone. This study presents a hydration-based model for evaluating the influences of limestone on the strength and carbonation of concrete. First, the hydration model analyzes the dilution effect and the nucleation effect of limestone during the hydration of cement. The degree of cement hydration is calculated by considering concrete mixing proportions, binder properties, and curing conditions. Second, by using the gel–space ratio, the compressive strength of PLC concrete is evaluated. The interactions among water-to-binder ratio, limestone replacement ratio, and strength development are highlighted. Third, the carbonate material contents and porosity are calculated from the hydration model and are used as input parameters for the carbonation model. By considering concrete microstructures and environmental conditions, the carbon dioxide diffusivity and carbonation depth of PLC concrete are evaluated. The proposed model has been determined to be valid for concrete with various water-to-binder ratios, limestone contents, and curing periods. PMID:28772472

  12. Modeling of Hydration, Compressive Strength, and Carbonation of Portland-Limestone Cement (PLC) Concrete.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yong

    2017-01-26

    Limestone is widely used in the construction industry to produce Portland limestone cement (PLC) concrete. Systematic evaluations of hydration kinetics, compressive strength development, and carbonation resistance are crucial for the rational use of limestone. This study presents a hydration-based model for evaluating the influences of limestone on the strength and carbonation of concrete. First, the hydration model analyzes the dilution effect and the nucleation effect of limestone during the hydration of cement. The degree of cement hydration is calculated by considering concrete mixing proportions, binder properties, and curing conditions. Second, by using the gel-space ratio, the compressive strength of PLC concrete is evaluated. The interactions among water-to-binder ratio, limestone replacement ratio, and strength development are highlighted. Third, the carbonate material contents and porosity are calculated from the hydration model and are used as input parameters for the carbonation model. By considering concrete microstructures and environmental conditions, the carbon dioxide diffusivity and carbonation depth of PLC concrete are evaluated. The proposed model has been determined to be valid for concrete with various water-to-binder ratios, limestone contents, and curing periods.

  13. Effect of overglazed and polished surface finishes on the compressive fracture strength of machinable ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tetsuya; Kazama, Ryunosuke; Fukushima, Masayoshi; Okiji, Takashi

    2010-11-01

    Controversy prevails over the effect of overglazing on the fracture strength of ceramic materials. Therefore, the effects of different surface finishes on the compressive fracture strength of machinable ceramic materials were investigated in this study. Plates prepared from four commercial brands of ceramic materials were either surface-polished or overglazed (n=10 per ceramic material for each surface finish), and bonded to flat surfaces of human dentin using a resin cement. Loads at failure were determined and statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni test. Although no statistical differences in load value were detected between polished and overglazed groups (p>0.05), the fracture load of Vita Mark II was significantly lower than those of ProCAD and IPS Empress CAD, whereas that of IPS e.max CAD was significantly higher than the latter two ceramic materials (p<0.05). It was concluded that overglazed and polished surfaces produced similar compressive fracture strengths irrespective of the machinable ceramic material tested, and that fracture strength was material-dependent.

  14. Compression strength failure mechanisms in unidirectional composite laminates containing a hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments on graphite-epoxy laminated plates containing unloaded small holes show that these laminates are notch insensitive. That is, the uniaxial strength of these laminates with small holes exceeds the strength predicted by a point stress criterion using the stress concentration factor for the in-plane stress field. Laminates containing large holes exhibit notch sensitive behavior and consequently their strength is reasonably well predicted by the stress concentration effect. This hole size effect is manifested both in tension and in compression. Apparently, some mechanism must cause in-plane stress relief for laminates containing small holes. The purpose of this research was to study the influence of geometric nonlinearity on the micromechanical response of a filamentary composite material in the presence of a strain gradient caused by a discontinuity such as a hole. A mathematical model was developed at the micromechanical level to investigate this geometrically nonlinear effect.

  15. Compressive, diametral tensile and biaxial flexural strength of cutting-edge calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Ajaxon, Ingrid; Ginebra, Maria Pau; Engqvist, Håkan; Persson, Cecilia

    2016-07-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are widely used in bone repair. Currently there are two main types of CPCs, brushite and apatite. The aim of this project was to evaluate the mechanical properties of particularly promising experimental brushite and apatite formulations in comparison to commercially available brushite- and apatite-based cements (chronOS(™) Inject and Norian(®) SRS(®), respectively), and in particular evaluate the diametral tensile strength and biaxial flexural strength of these cements in both wet and dry conditions for the first time. The cements׳ porosity and their compressive, diametral tensile and biaxial flexural strength were tested in wet (or moist) and dry conditions. The surface morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Phase composition was assessed with X-ray diffraction. It was found that the novel experimental cements showed better mechanical properties than the commercially available cements, in all loading scenarios. The highest compressive strength (57.2±6.5MPa before drying and 69.5±6.0MPa after drying) was found for the experimental brushite cement. This cement also showed the highest wet diametral tensile strength (10.0±0.8MPa) and wet biaxial flexural strength (30.7±1.8MPa). It was also the cement that presented the lowest porosity (approx. 12%). The influence of water content was found to depend on cement type, with some cements showing higher mechanical properties after drying and some no difference after drying. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the compressive strengths for stitched and toughened composite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, James R.

    1994-01-01

    The compression strength of a stitched and a toughened matrix graphite/epoxy composite was determined and compared to a baseline unstitched untoughened composite. Two different layups with a variety of test lengths were tested under both ambient and hot/wet conditions. No significant difference in strength was seen for the different materials when the gage lengths of the specimens were long enough to lead to a buckling failure. For shorter specimens, a 30 percent reduction in strength from the baseline was seen due to stitching for both a 48-ply quasi-isotropic and a (0/45/0/-45/90/-45/0/45/0)s laminate. Analysis of the results suggested that the decrease in strength was due to increased fiber misalignment due to the stitches. An observed increasing strength with decreasing gage length, which was seen for all materials, was explained with a size effect model. The model assumed a random distribution of flaws (misaligned fibers). The toughened materials showed a small increase in strength over the baseline material for both laminates presumably due to the compensating effects of a more compliant matrix and straighter fibers in the toughened material. The hot/wet strength of the stitched and baseline material fell 30 percent below their ambient strengths for shorter, nonbuckling specimen, while the strength of the toughened matrix material only fell 20 percent. Video images of the failing specimen were recorded and showed local failures prior to global collapse of the specimen. These images support the theory of a random distribution of flaws controlling composite failure. Failed specimen appearance, however, seems to be a misleading indication of the cause of failure.

  17. General and mechanistic optimal relationships for tensile strength of doubly convex tablets under diametrical compression.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Sonia M; Gonzalez, Marcial; Cuitiño, Alberto M

    2015-04-30

    We propose a general framework for determining optimal relationships for tensile strength of doubly convex tablets under diametrical compression. This approach is based on the observation that tensile strength is directly proportional to the breaking force and inversely proportional to a non-linear function of geometric parameters and materials properties. This generalization reduces to the analytical expression commonly used for flat faced tablets, i.e., Hertz solution, and to the empirical relationship currently used in the pharmaceutical industry for convex-faced tablets, i.e., Pitt's equation. Under proper parametrization, optimal tensile strength relationship can be determined from experimental results by minimizing a figure of merit of choice. This optimization is performed under the first-order approximation that a flat faced tablet and a doubly curved tablet have the same tensile strength if they have the same relative density and are made of the same powder, under equivalent manufacturing conditions. Furthermore, we provide a set of recommendations and best practices for assessing the performance of optimal tensile strength relationships in general. Based on these guidelines, we identify two new models, namely the general and mechanistic models, which are effective and predictive alternatives to the tensile strength relationship currently used in the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Temperature on Compressive and Tensile Strengths of Commonly Used Luting Cements: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Suneel G; Sajjan, MC Suresh; Patil, Rekha

    2015-01-01

    Background: The luting cements must withstand masticatory and parafunctional stresses in the warm and wet oral environment. Mouth temperature and the temperature of the ingested foods may induce thermal variation and plastic deformation within the cements and might affect the strength properties. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of temperature on the compressive and diametral tensile strengths of two polycarboxylate, a conventional glass ionomer and a resin modified glass ionomer luting cements and, to compare the compressive strength and the diametral tensile strength of the selected luting cements at varying temperatures. Materials and Methods: In this study, standardized specimens were prepared. The temperature of the specimens was regulated prior to testing them using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Six specimens each were tested at 23°C, 37°C and 50°C for both the compressive and diametral tensile strengths, for all the luting cements. Results: All the luting cements showed a marginal reduction in their compressive and diametral tensile strengths at raised temperatures. Fuji Plus was strongest in compression, followed by Fuji I > Poly F > Liv Carbo. Fuji Plus had the highest diametral tensile strength values, followed by Poly F = Fuji I = Liv Carbo, at all temperatures. Conclusion: An increase in the temperature caused no significant reduction in the compressive and diametral tensile strengths of the cements evaluated. The compressive strength of the luting cements differed significantly from one another at all temperatures. The diametral tensile strength of resin modified glass ionomers differed considerably from the other cements, whereas there was no significant difference between the other cements, at all the temperatures. PMID:25859100

  19. Influence of variables on the consolidation and unconfined compressive strength of crushed salt: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Senseny, P.E.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    Eight hydrostatic compression creep tests were performed on crushed salt specimens fabricated from Avery Island dome salt. Following the creep test, each specimen was tested in unconfined compression. The experiments were performed to assess the influence of the following four variables on the consolidation and unconfined strength of crushed salt: grain size distribution, temperature, time, and moisture content. The experiment design comprised a half-fraction factorial matrix at two levels. The levels of each variable investigated were grain size distribution, uniform-graded and well-graded (coefficient of uniformity of 1 and 8); temperature 25/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C; time, 3.5 x 10/sup 3/s and 950 x 10/sup 3/s (approximately 60 minutes and 11 days, respectively); and moisture content, dry and wet (85% relative humidity for 24 hours). The hydrostatic creep stress was 10 MPa. The unconfined compression tests were performed at an axial strain rate of 1 x 10/sup -5/s/sup -1/. Results show that the variables time and moisture content have the greatest influence on creep consolidation, while grain size distribution and, to a somewhat lesser degree, temperature have the greatest influence on total consolidation. Time and moisture content and the confounded two-factor interactions between either grain size distribution and time or temperature and moisture content have the greatest influence on unconfined strength. 7 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Effects of Temperature on the Compressive Strength Parallel to the Grain of Bamboo Scrimbe

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yong; Ren, Hai-Qing; Jiang, Ze-Hui

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the compressive strength parallel to the grain of bamboo scrimber during and after exposure to various temperatures, in a range from 20 to 225 °C. These data were used to provide a basis for the evaluation of the fire performance of bamboo structures. A total of 152 specimens, assembled as group “during-fire” and “post-fire”, were tested during and after exposure to high temperatures. The experimental results indicated that there were significant differences in compressive properties between the “during-fire” and “post-fire” groups. At one temperature level, the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of the “post-fire” group were significantly higher than those properties of the “during fire” group, but the ductility coefficient was reversed. FTIR analysis results showed that 175 °C was a key turning point, at which thermal decomposition occurred in the cellulose of the bamboo and phenolic resin. PMID:28773565

  1. The influence of dicarboxylic acids: Oxalic acid and tartaric acid on the compressive strength of glass ionomer cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, Ahmadi Jaya; Setyawati, Harsasi; Hamami, Murwani, Irmina Kris

    2016-03-01

    Glass ionomer cement (GIC) has limitation on the mechanical properties especially compressive strength. The change of compressive strength of GIC by adding oxalic acid and tartaric acid has been investigated. Oxalic acid and tartaric acid was added to the liquid components at concentrations of 0 - 15% (w/w). Powder component of GIC was made from optimum experimental powder glass SiO2-Al2O3-CaF2. GIC was characterized by compressive strength test, SEM-EDX and FTIR. The addition of tartaric acid to GIC has greater improvement than addition of oxalic acid. The addition of tartaric acid at 10 % (w/w) to GIC has greatest value of compressive strength.

  2. The Effect of Alkaline Activator Ratio on the Compressive Strength of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lăzărescu, A. V.; Szilagyi, H.; Baeră, C.; Ioani, A.

    2017-06-01

    Alkaline activation of fly ash is a particular procedure in which ash resulting from a power plant combined with a specific alkaline activator creates a solid material when dried at a certain temperature. In order to obtain desirable compressive strengths, the mix design of fly ash based geopolymer pastes should be explored comprehensively. To determine the preliminary compressive strength for fly ash based geopolymer paste using Romanian material source, various ratios of Na2SiO3 solution/ NaOH solution were produced, keeping the fly ash/alkaline activator ratio constant. All the mixes were then cured at 70 °C for 24 hours and tested at 2 and 7 days, respectively. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary compressive strength results for producing fly ash based geopolymer paste using Romanian material sources, the effect of alkaline activators ratio on the compressive strength and studying the directions for future research.

  3. The Value Compressive Strength and Split Tensile Strength on Concrete Mixture With Expanded Polystyrene Coated by Surfactant Span 80 as a Partial Substitution of Fine Aggregate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Irpan; Siauwantara, Alice

    2014-03-01

    The value of the density normal concrete which ranges between 2200-2400 kg/m3. Therefore the use of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) as a subitute to fine aggregate can reduce the density of concrete. The purpose this research is to reduce the density of normal concrete but increase compressive strength of EPS concrete, with use surfactant as coating for the EPS. Variables of substitution percentage of EPS and EPS coated by surfactant are 5%,10%,15%,20%,25%. Method of concrete mix design based on SNI 03-2834-2000 "Tata Cara Pembuatan Rencana Campuran Beton Normal (Provisions for Proportioning Normal Concrete Mixture)". The result of testing, every increase percentage of EPS substitution will decrease the compressive strength around 1,74 MPa and decrease density 34,03 kg/m3. Using Surfactant as coating of EPS , compressive strength increase from the EPS's compressive strength. Average of increasing compressive strength 0,19 MPa and increase the density 20,03 kg/m3,average decrease of the tensile split strength EPS coated surfaktan is 0,84 MPa.

  4. Evaluation of shear-compressive strength properties for laminated GFRP composites in electromagnet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jun Hee; Kim, Hak Kun; Kim, Sam Yeon

    2014-07-01

    Laminated fiber-reinforced composites can be applied to an insulating structure of a nuclear fusion device. It is necessary to investigate the interlaminar fracture characteristics of the laminated composites for the assurance of design and structural integrity. The three methods used to prepare the glass fiber reinforced plastic composites tested in this study were vacuum pressure impregnation, high pressure laminate (HPL), and prepreg laminate. We discuss the design criteria for safe application of composites and the shear-compressive test methods for evaluating mechanical properties of the material. Shear-compressive tests could be performed successfully using series-type test jigs that were inclined 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 75° to the normal axis. Shear strength depends strongly on the applied compressive stress. The design range of allowable shear stress was extended by use of the appropriate composite fabrication method. HPL had the largest design range, and the allowable interlaminar shear stress was 0.254 times the compressive stress.

  5. Zeolite-silver-zinc nanoparticles: Biocompatibility and their effect on the compressive strength of mineral trioxide aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Samiei, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Negin; Asl-Aminabadi, Naser; Divband, Baharak; Golparvar-Dashti, Yasamin

    2017-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to evaluate the biocompatibility of zeolite-silver-zinc (Ze-Ag-Zn) nanoparticles and their effect on the compressive strength of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA). Material and Methods Biocompatibility was evaluated by an MTT assay on the pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells with 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/mL concentrations of Ze-Ag-Zn. For compressive strength test, four groups containing 15 stainless-steel cylinders with an internal diameter of 4 and a height of 6 mm were prepared and MTA (groups 1 and 2) or MTA + 2% Ze-Ag-Zn (groups 3 and 4) were placed in the cylinders. The compressive strength was evaluated using a universal testing machine 4 days after mixing in groups 1 and 3, and 21 days after mixing in groups 2 and 4. Results There was no significant difference between cytotoxicity of different concentrations. The highest (52.22±18.92 MPa) and lowest (19.57±5.76 MPa) compressive strength were observed in MTA group after 21 days and in MTA + 2% Ze-Ag-Zn group after four days, respectively. The effect of time and 2% Ze-Ag-Zn on the compressive strength were significant (P<0.05). Mixing MTA with Ze-Ag-Zn significantly reduced and passage of time from day four to 21 significantly increased the compressive strength. Conclusions Mixing MTA with 2% Ze-Ag-Zn had an adverse effect on the compressive strength of MTA, but this combination had no cytotoxic effects. Key words:Compressive strength, Cytotoxicity, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Nanoparticle, Zeolite-Silver-Zinc. PMID:28298974

  6. Zeolite-silver-zinc nanoparticles: Biocompatibility and their effect on the compressive strength of mineral trioxide aggregate.

    PubMed

    Samiei, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Negin; Asl-Aminabadi, Naser; Divband, Baharak; Golparvar-Dashti, Yasamin; Shirazi, Sajjad

    2017-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the biocompatibility of zeolite-silver-zinc (Ze-Ag-Zn) nanoparticles and their effect on the compressive strength of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA). Biocompatibility was evaluated by an MTT assay on the pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells with 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/mL concentrations of Ze-Ag-Zn. For compressive strength test, four groups containing 15 stainless-steel cylinders with an internal diameter of 4 and a height of 6 mm were prepared and MTA (groups 1 and 2) or MTA + 2% Ze-Ag-Zn (groups 3 and 4) were placed in the cylinders. The compressive strength was evaluated using a universal testing machine 4 days after mixing in groups 1 and 3, and 21 days after mixing in groups 2 and 4. There was no significant difference between cytotoxicity of different concentrations. The highest (52.22±18.92 MPa) and lowest (19.57±5.76 MPa) compressive strength were observed in MTA group after 21 days and in MTA + 2% Ze-Ag-Zn group after four days, respectively. The effect of time and 2% Ze-Ag-Zn on the compressive strength were significant (P<0.05). Mixing MTA with Ze-Ag-Zn significantly reduced and passage of time from day four to 21 significantly increased the compressive strength. Mixing MTA with 2% Ze-Ag-Zn had an adverse effect on the compressive strength of MTA, but this combination had no cytotoxic effects. Key words:Compressive strength, Cytotoxicity, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Nanoparticle, Zeolite-Silver-Zinc.

  7. A Study of the Efficiency of High-strength, Steel, Cellular-core Sandwich Plates in Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Aldie E , Jr; Semonian, Joseph W

    1956-01-01

    Structural efficiency curves are presented for high-strength, stainless-steel, cellular-core sandwich plates of various proportions subjected to compressive end loads for temperatures of 80 F and 600 F. Optimum proportions of sandwich plates for any value of the compressive loading intensity can be determined from the curves. The efficiency of steel sandwich plates of optimum proportions is compared with the efficiency of solid plates of high-strength steel and aluminum and titanium alloys at the two temperatures.

  8. Investigation of out of plane compressive strength of 3D printed sandwich composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikshit, V.; Yap, Y. L.; Goh, G. D.; Yang, H.; Lim, J. C.; Qi, X.; Yeong, W. Y.; Wei, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the 3D printing technique was utilized to manufacture the sandwich composites. Composite filament fabrication based 3D printer was used to print the face-sheet, and inkjet 3D printer was used to print the sandwich core structure. This work aims to study the compressive failure of the sandwich structure manufactured by using these two manufacturing techniques. Two different types of core structures were investigated with the same type of face-sheet configuration. The core structures were printed using photopolymer, while the face-sheet was made using nylon/glass. The out-of-plane compressive strength of the 3D printed sandwich composite structure has been examined in accordance with ASTM standards C365/C365-M and presented in this paper.

  9. Damage assessment and residual compression strength of thick composite plates with through-the-thickness reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Barry T.

    1990-01-01

    Damage in composite materials was studied with through-the-thickness reinforcements. As a first step it was necessary to develop new ultrasonic imaging technology to better assess internal damage of the composite. A useful ultrasonic imaging technique was successfully developed to assess the internal damage of composite panels. The ultrasonic technique accurately determines the size of the internal damage. It was found that the ultrasonic imaging technique was better able to assess the damage in a composite panel with through-the-thickness reinforcements than by destructively sectioning the specimen and visual inspection under a microscope. Five composite compression-after-impact panels were tested. The compression-after-impact strength of the panels with the through-the-thickness reinforcements was almost twice that of the comparable panel without through-the-thickness reinforcement.

  10. Damage assessment and residual compression strength of thick composite plates with through-the-thickness reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Barry T.; Farley, Gary L.; Maiden, Janice; Coogan, Dreux; Moore, Judith G.

    1991-01-01

    Damage in composite materials was studied with through-the-thickness reinforcements. As a first step it was necessary to develop new ultrasonic imaging technology to better assess internal damage of the composite. A useful ultrasonic imaging technique was successfully developed to assess the internal damage of composite panels. The ultrasonic technique accurately determines the size of the internal damage. It was found that the ultrasonic imaging technique was better able to assess the damage in composite panel with through-the-thickness reinforcements than by destructively sectioning the specimen and visual inspection under a microscope. Five composite compression-after-impact panels were tested. The compression-after-impact strength of the panels with the through-the-thickness reinforcements was almost twice that of the comparable panel without through-the-thickness reinforcement.

  11. Statistical microbuckling propagation model for compression strength prediction of fiber-reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Tomblin, J.S.; Barbero, E.J.

    1997-12-31

    Compressive strength prediction for a fiber-reinforced composite material still remains an unresolved topic when dealing with composites in the design process. Although significant scatter is present in the experimental data, experimental test results are the only criteria on which to base design parameters. Although significant advances have been accomplished recently by various modeling techniques, only quantitative comparison with experimental data may be realized. This quantitative comparison requires the use of a semi-empirical parameter into the model formulation, which is usually set as the fiber misalignment. By using a single value of the fiber misalignment within the composite, model predictions easily match the experimental data because of the extreme sensitivity of the model with respect to fiber misalignment. However, it is well known that thee is not a unique value of fiber misalignment for all the fibers but rather a distribution of misalignments throughout the composite. In this paper, using the complete fiber misalignment distribution, stability theory is coupled with continuous damage mechanics to generate a model for compressive strength of continuous fiber-reinforced composites. Sample results are also presented showing the correlation of the analytical model with experimentally measured strengths.

  12. Improving the compressive strength of bioceramic robocast scaffolds by polymer infiltration.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Perera, Fidel H; Miranda, Pedro; Pajares, Antonia; Guiberteau, Fernando

    2010-11-01

    The effect of polymer infiltration on the compressive strength of β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting (direct write assembly) is analyzed in this work. Porous structures consisting of a tetragonal three-dimensional mesh of interpenetrating rods were fabricated from concentrated TCP inks with suitable viscoelastic properties. Biodegradable polymers (polylactic acid (PLA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)) were infiltrated into selected scaffolds by immersion of the structure in a polymer melt. Infiltration increased the uniaxial compressive strength of these model scaffolds by a factor of three (PCL) or six (PLA). It also considerably improved the mechanical integrity of the structures after initial cracking, with the infiltrated structure retaining a significant load-bearing capacity after fracture of the ceramic rods. The strength improvement in the infiltrated scaffolds was attributed to two different contributions: the sealing of precursor flaws in the ceramic rod surfaces and the partial transfer of stress to the polymer, as confirmed by finite element analysis. The implications of these results for the mechanical optimization of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High Strength Concrete Columns under Axial Compression Load: Hybrid Confinement Efficiency of High Strength Transverse Reinforcement and Steel Fibers.

    PubMed

    Perceka, Wisena; Liao, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Yo-de

    2016-04-01

    Addition of steel fibers to high strength concrete (HSC) improves its post-peak behavior and energy absorbing capability, which can be described well in term of toughness. This paper attempts to obtain both analytically and experimentally the efficiency of steel fibers in HSC columns with hybrid confinement of transverse reinforcement and steel fibers. Toughness ratio (TR) to quantify the confinement efficiency of HSC columns with hybrid confinement is proposed through a regression analysis by involving sixty-nine TRs of HSC without steel fibers and twenty-seven TRs of HSC with hybrid of transverse reinforcement and steel fibers. The proposed TR equation was further verified by compression tests of seventeen HSC columns conducted in this study, where twelve specimens were reinforced by high strength rebars in longitudinal and transverse directions. The results show that the efficiency of steel fibers in concrete depends on transverse reinforcement spacing, where the steel fibers are more effective if the spacing transverse reinforcement becomes larger in the range of 0.25-1 effective depth of the section column. Furthermore, the axial load-strain curves were developed by employing finite element software (OpenSees) for simulating the response of the structural system. Comparisons between numerical and experimental axial load-strain curves were carried out.

  14. High Strength Concrete Columns under Axial Compression Load: Hybrid Confinement Efficiency of High Strength Transverse Reinforcement and Steel Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Perceka, Wisena; Liao, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Yo-de

    2016-01-01

    Addition of steel fibers to high strength concrete (HSC) improves its post-peak behavior and energy absorbing capability, which can be described well in term of toughness. This paper attempts to obtain both analytically and experimentally the efficiency of steel fibers in HSC columns with hybrid confinement of transverse reinforcement and steel fibers. Toughness ratio (TR) to quantify the confinement efficiency of HSC columns with hybrid confinement is proposed through a regression analysis by involving sixty-nine TRs of HSC without steel fibers and twenty-seven TRs of HSC with hybrid of transverse reinforcement and steel fibers. The proposed TR equation was further verified by compression tests of seventeen HSC columns conducted in this study, where twelve specimens were reinforced by high strength rebars in longitudinal and transverse directions. The results show that the efficiency of steel fibers in concrete depends on transverse reinforcement spacing, where the steel fibers are more effective if the spacing transverse reinforcement becomes larger in the range of 0.25–1 effective depth of the section column. Furthermore, the axial load–strain curves were developed by employing finite element software (OpenSees) for simulating the response of the structural system. Comparisons between numerical and experimental axial load–strain curves were carried out. PMID:28773391

  15. Steelmaking slag as aggregate for mortars: effects of particle dimension on compression strength.

    PubMed

    Faraone, Nicola; Tonello, Gabriele; Furlani, Erika; Maschio, Stefano

    2009-11-01

    The present paper reports on the results of some experiments obtained from the production, hydration and subsequent measurement of the mechanical properties of several mortars prepared using a commercial CII/B-LL Portland cement, steelmaking slag, superplasticizer and water. Relevant parameters for the mortar preparation are the weight ratios of cement/water, the weight ratio superplasticizer/cement and between fine and granulated coarse particles. It has been demonstrated that optimisation of such parameters leads to the production of materials with mechanical properties suitable for civil engineering applications. Moreover, materials with improved compressive strength can be prepared by the use of slag containing extensive amounts of large particles.

  16. Microstructure and compression strength of novel TRIP-steel/Mg-PSZ composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, H.; Aneziris, C. G.; Kolbe, A.; Martin, U.; Müller, A.; Schärfl, W.; Herrmann, M.

    2010-07-01

    A novel steel-based composite material, composed of metastable austenitic stainless steel as matrix and up to 15 % zirconia as reinforcement, is processed by two powder metallurgy routes. The matrix exhibits the so-called TRIP-effect (TRIP: TRansformation-Induced Plasticity) and shows a deformation-induced formation of martensite. Compression tests of rod samples processed by cold isostatic pressing show increased strength compared to the non-reinforced steel matrix up to 20 % strain. Three-point bending tests show, however, reduced ductility for high zirconia contents. Filigree honeycomb structures were produced by a novel extrusion technique with extraordinary high values of specific energy absorption.

  17. Strength Behavior, Creep Failure and Permeability Change of a Tight Marble Under Triaxial Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zaobao; Shao, Jianfu

    2017-03-01

    The coupled hydro-mechanical behaviors of a tight marble are investigated by a series of laboratory tests with continuous gas injection during the hydrostatic compression, triaxial compression and compressive creep tests. Hydrostatic compression tests are firstly carried out in three steps to identify the viscous effect of hydrostatic stress on deformation and permeability of the marble. Coupled triaxial tests are then conducted at a constant axial strain rate under five different confining pressures ( P c) with continuous gas injection. Coupled creep behaviors of the marble are also characterized by a constant deviatoric stress test under P c = 30 MPa with gas flowing at a constant injection pressure. The high-stress unloading failure behavior of the marble is finally investigated by an unloading test with a previous multi-step creep phase to realize a high-stress state as well as to investigate the time-dependent deformation of marble under different deviatoric stresses. Experimental results reveal that gas permeability of the marble shows an evident rate-dependent effect in hydrostatic compression. Mechanical behaviors of the tight marble are closely depended on the applied P c in triaxial tests, and its permeability exhibits a decrease phase at initial deviatoric loading and turns to increase at a critical stress corresponding to the initial yield stress. Marble can withstand more important plastic deformation under high P c than under lower ones. Gas flow seems to be more sensitive than the strains to characterize the creep behaviors of the marble. No time-dependent strains are observed when deviatoric creep stress is lower than 50% of its peak strength under P c = 30 MPa.

  18. Comparative evaluation of compressive strength, diametral tensile strength and shear bond strength of GIC type IX, chlorhexidine-incorporated GIC and triclosan-incorporated GIC: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Jaidka, Shipra; Somani, Rani; Singh, Deepti J.; Shafat, Shazia

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To comparatively evaluate the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength of glass ionomer cement type IX, chlorhexidine-incorporated glass ionomer cement, and triclosan-incorporated glass ionomer cement. Materials and Methods: In this study, glass ionomer cement type IX was used as a control. Chlorhexidine diacetate, and triclosan were added to glass ionomer cement type IX powder, respectively, in order to obtain 0.5, 1.25, and 2.5% concentrations of the respective experimental groups. Compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength were evaluated after 24 h using Instron Universal Testing Machine. The results obtained were statistically analyzed using the independent t-test, Dunnett test, and Tukey test. Results: There was no statistical difference in the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength of glass ionomer cement type IX (control), 0.5% triclosan-glass ionomer cement, and 0.5% chlorhexidine-glass ionomer cement. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength of 0.5% triclosan-glass ionomer cement and 0.5% chlorhexidine-glass ionomer cement were similar to those of the glass ionomer cement type IX, discernibly signifying that these can be considered as viable options for use in pediatric dentistry with the additional value of antimicrobial property along with physical properties within the higher acceptable range. PMID:27195231

  19. Comparative evaluation of compressive strength, diametral tensile strength and shear bond strength of GIC type IX, chlorhexidine-incorporated GIC and triclosan-incorporated GIC: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Jaidka, Shipra; Somani, Rani; Singh, Deepti J; Shafat, Shazia

    2016-04-01

    To comparatively evaluate the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength of glass ionomer cement type IX, chlorhexidine-incorporated glass ionomer cement, and triclosan-incorporated glass ionomer cement. In this study, glass ionomer cement type IX was used as a control. Chlorhexidine diacetate, and triclosan were added to glass ionomer cement type IX powder, respectively, in order to obtain 0.5, 1.25, and 2.5% concentrations of the respective experimental groups. Compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength were evaluated after 24 h using Instron Universal Testing Machine. The results obtained were statistically analyzed using the independent t-test, Dunnett test, and Tukey test. There was no statistical difference in the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength of glass ionomer cement type IX (control), 0.5% triclosan-glass ionomer cement, and 0.5% chlorhexidine-glass ionomer cement. The present study suggests that the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and shear bond strength of 0.5% triclosan-glass ionomer cement and 0.5% chlorhexidine-glass ionomer cement were similar to those of the glass ionomer cement type IX, discernibly signifying that these can be considered as viable options for use in pediatric dentistry with the additional value of antimicrobial property along with physical properties within the higher acceptable range.

  20. Noninvasive prediction of vertebral body compressive strength using nonlinear finite element method and an image based technique.

    PubMed

    Zeinali, Ahad; Hashemi, Bijan; Akhlaghpoor, Shahram

    2010-04-01

    Noninvasive prediction of vertebral body strength under compressive loading condition is a valuable tool for the assessment of clinical fractures. This paper presents an effective specimen-specific approach for noninvasive prediction of human vertebral strength using a nonlinear finite element (FE) model and an image based parameter based on the quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Nine thoracolumbar vertebrae excised from three cadavers with an average age of 42 years old were used as the samples. The samples were scanned using the QCT. Then, a segmentation technique was performed on each QCT sectional image. The segmented images were then converted into three-dimensional FE models for linear and nonlinear analyses. A new material model was implemented in our nonlinear model being more compatible with real mechanical behavior of trabecular bone. A new image based MOS (Mechanic of Solids) parameter named minimum sectional strength ((sigma(u)A)(min)) was used for the ultimate compressive strength prediction. Subsequently, the samples were destructively tested under uniaxial compression and their experimental ultimate compressive strengths were obtained. Results indicated that our new implemented FE model can predict ultimate compressive strength of human vertebra with a correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.94) better than usual linear and nonlinear FE models (R(2)=0.83 and 0.85 respectively). The image based parameter introduced in this study ((sigma(u)A)(min)) was also correlated well with the experimental results (R(2)=0.86). Although nonlinear FE method with new implemented material model predicts compressive strength better than the (sigma(u)A)(min), this parameter is clinically more feasible due to its simplicity and lower computational costs. This can make future applications of the (sigma(u)A)(min) more justified for human vertebral body compressive strength prediction. Copyright 2009 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points.

  2. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-10-28

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points. 2 figs.

  3. Optimum mass-strength analysis for orthotropic ring-stiffened cylinders under axial compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shideler, J. L.; Anderson, M. S.; Jackson, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis was developed to calculate the minimum mass-strength curve for an orthotropic cylinder subjected to axial compressive loading. The analysis, which includes the effects of ring and stringer eccentricities, is in a general form so that various cylinder wall and stiffener geometries can be considered. Several different ring-stiffened orthotropic configurations were studied. The minimum mass-strength curves and the dimensions associated with these curves are presented for (in order of decreasing efficiency) a tubular double bead, a nonsymmetric double bead, a Z-stiffened skin, and a trapezoidal corrugation. A comparison of efficiencies of the configurations shows a tubular element cylinder to be more efficient than a 3-percent core-density honeycomb-sandwich cylinder. It was found that for an optimized Z-stiffened skin, the location of the Z-stiffeners (internal or external) made a negligible difference in efficiency.

  4. Ultrasonic parameters and relationship between compressive strength, microstructure of gall bladder stones.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, R; Singh, V R

    2000-05-01

    Patients with symptomatic stones are at a great risk for complications and these complications are a major cause of morbidity. The gall bladder stones may have a complex structure and variable composition. In the present investigation stones have been grouped into three categories namely cholesterol, bilirubinate and mixed, and a correlation between the surface structure, ultrasonic parameters and compressive strength is estimated. A double-probe through-transmission technique was used for the ultrasonic parameters study, a universal testing instrument for hardness and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for microstructure study. Gall bladder stones of mixed type with higher ultrasonic velocity, less attenuation and higher crushing strength were found to be more difficult to break in comparison to other types of stones. SEM of mixed type stones showed rough surface as compared to bilirubinate and cholesterol stones. The results obtained as well as the relationship might be useful in the design of a focussed ultrasonic 0lithotripter.

  5. Break force and tensile strength relationships for curved faced tablets subject to diametrical compression.

    PubMed

    Shang, C; Sinka, I C; Jayaraman, B; Pan, J

    2013-02-14

    The break force of flat faced tablets subject to diametrical compression (often referred to as "hardness") can be related to the tensile strength of the material using the Hertz contact theory. For curved tablets analytical solutions do not exist and an empirical equation developed by Pitt and Newton (1988) is usually used. In this paper we measure the break force of curved faced tablets having a range of curvatures pressed at various compaction forces. An empirical equation is proposed to relate the break force of curved faced tablets to the material tensile strength. The proposed equation is simplified and reduced to a form that is consistent with developed by Hertz theory for flat faced tablets.

  6. Compressive strength and the effect of duration after photo-activation among dual-cure bulk fill composite core materials

    PubMed Central

    Alkhudhairy, Fahad; Vohra, Fahim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess compressive strength and effect of duration after photoactivation on the compressive strength of different dual cure bulk fill composites. Methods: Seventy-two disc shaped (4x10mm) specimens were prepared from three dual cure bulk fill materials, ZirconCore (ZC) (n=24), MulticCore Flow (MC) (n=24) and Luxacore Dual (LC) (n=24). Half of the specimens in each material were tested for failure loads after one hour [MC1 (n=12), LC1 (n=12) & ZC1 (n=12)] and the other half in 7 days [MC7 (n=12), LC7 (n=12), ZC7 (n=12)] from photo-polymerization using the universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 cm/minutes. Compressive strength was calculated using the formula UCS=4f/πd2. Compressive strengths among different groups were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. Results: Maximum and minimum compressive strengths were observed in ZC7 (344.14±19.22) and LC1 (202.80±15.52) groups. Specimens in LC1 [202.80 (15.52)] showed significantly lower compressive strength as compared to MC1 [287.06 (15.03)] (p<0.01) and ZC1 [276.82 (11.51)] (p<0.01). ZC7 [344.14 (19.22)] specimens showed significantly higher (p<0.01) compressive strengths compared to LC7 [324.56 (19.47)] and MC7 [315.26 (12.36)]. Compressive strengths among all three materials were significantly higher (p<0.01) at 7 days as compared to one hour. Conclusions: Bulk fill material with Zr nano-hybrid filler (ZC) showed high compressive strength compared to MC and LC. Increasing the post photo-activation duration (from one hour to 7 days) significantly improves the compressive strengths of dual cure bulk fill material. PMID:27882021

  7. Long-Term Isothermal Aging Effects on Carbon Fabric-Reinforced PMR-15 Composites: Compression Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Roberts, Gary D.; Kamvouris, John E.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of long-term isothermal thermo-oxidative aging on the compressive properties of T-650-35 fabric reinforced PMR-15 composites. The temperatures that were studied were 204, 260, 288, 316, and 343 C. Specimens of different geometries were evaluated. Cut edge-to-surface ratios of 0.03 to 0.89 were fabricated and aged. Aging times extended to a period in excess of 15,000 hours for the lower temperature runs. The unaged and aged specimens were tested in compression in accordance with ASTM D-695. Both thin and thick (plasma) specimens were tested. Three specimens were tested at each time/temperature/geometry condition. The failure modes appeared to be initiated by fiber kinking with longitudinal, interlaminar splitting. In general, it appears that the thermo-oxidative degradation of the compression strength of the composite material may occur by both thermal (time-dependent) and oxidative (weight-loss) mechanisms. Both mechanisms appear to be specimen-thickness dependent.

  8. Parametric Study of Three-Stringer-Panel Compression-After-Impact Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, Carl Q.; Hethcock, J. Donn; Baker, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    Damage tolerance requirements for integrally-stiffened composite wing skins are typically met using design allowables generated by testing impact-damaged subcomponents, such as three-stringer stiffened panels. To improve these structures, it is necessary to evaluate the critical design parameters associated with three-stringer stiffened-panel compressive behavior. During recent research and development programs, four structural parameters were identified as sources for strength variation: (a) material system, (b) stringer configuration, (c) skin layup, and (d) form of axial reinforcement (tape versus pultruded carbon rods). Relative effects of these parameters on damage resistance and damage tolerance were evaluated numerically and experimentally. Material system and geometric configuration had the largest influence on damage resistance; location and extent of the damage zone influenced the sublaminate buckling behavior, failure initiation site, and compressive ultimate strength. A practical global-local modeling technique captured observed experimental behavior and has the potential to identify critical damage sites and estimate failure loads prior to testing. More careful consideration should be given to accurate simulation of boundary conditions in numerical and experimental studies.

  9. Compressive strength, fluoride release and recharge of fluoride-releasing materials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoming; Burgess, John O

    2003-06-01

    The compressive strength, fluoride releases and recharge profiles of 15 commercial fluoride-releasing restorative materials have been studied. The materials include glass ionomers (Fuji IX, Ketac Molar, Ketac Silver, and Miracle Mix), resin-modified glass ionomers (Fuji II LC Improved, Photac-Fil, and Vitremer), compomers (Compoglass, Dyract AP, F2000, and Hytac) and composite resins (Ariston pHc, Solitaire, Surefil and Tetric Ceram). A negative linear correlation was found between the compressive strength and fluoride release (r(2)=0.7741), i.e., restorative materials with high fluoride release have lower mechanical properties. The fluoride-releasing ability can be partially regenerated or recharged by using a topical fluoride agent. In general, materials with higher initial fluoride release have higher recharge capability (r(2)=0.7088). Five equations have been used in curve fitting to describe the cumulative fluoride release from different materials. The equation [F](c)=[F](I)(1-e(-bt))+betat best describes the cumulative fluoride release for most glass ionomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, and some high fluoride-releasing compomers and composites, whereas [F](c)=[F](I)/(t(1/2)+t)+alphat best describes the cumulative fluoride release for most compomers and composite resins. The clinic applications of different fluoride-releasing materials have also been discussed.

  10. Material strength and inelastic deformation of silicon carbide under shock wave compression

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, R.; Raiser, G.F.; Gupta, Y.M.

    1998-01-01

    In-material, lateral, manganin foil gauge measurements were obtained in dense polycrystalline silicon carbide (SiC) shocked to peak longitudinal stresses ranging from 10{endash}24 GPa. The lateral gauge data were analyzed to determine the lateral stresses in the shocked SiC and the results were checked for self-consistency through dynamic two-dimensional computations. Over the stress range examined, the shocked SiC has an extremely high strength: the maximum shear stress supported by the material in the shocked state increases from 4.5 GPa at the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of the material (11.5 GPa) to 7.0 GPa at stresses approximately twice the HEL. The latter value is 3.7{percent} of the shear modulus of the material. The elastic{endash}inelastic transition in the shocked SiC is nearly indistinctive. At stresses beyond twice the HEL, the data suggest a gradual softening with increasing shock compression. The post-HEL material strength evolution resembles neither catastrophic failure due to massive cracking nor classical plasticity response. Stress confinement, inherent in plane shock wave compression, contributes significantly to the observed material response. The results obtained are interpreted qualitatively in terms of an inhomogeneous deformation mechanism involving both in-grain microplasticity and highly confined microfissures. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Investigation of the Compressive Strength and Creep Lifetime of 2024-T3 Aluminum-Alloy Plates at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathauser, Eldon E; Deveikis, William D

    1957-01-01

    The results of elevated-temperature compressive strength and creep tests of 2024-t3 (formerly 24s-t3) aluminum alloy plates supported in v-grooves are presented. The strength-test results indicate that a relation previously developed for predicting plate compressive strength for plates of all materials at room temperature is also satisfactory for determining elevated-temperature strength. Creep-lifetime results are presented for plates in the form of master creep-lifetime curves by using a time-temperature parameter that is convenient for summarizing tensile creep-rupture data. A comparison is made between tensile and compressive creep lifetime for the plates and a method that made use of isochronous stress-strain curves for predicting plate-creep failure stresses is investigated.

  12. Determination of Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Ankara Agglomerate Considering Fractal Geometry of Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coskun, Aycan; Sonmez, Harun; Ercin Kasapoglu, K.; Ozge Dinc, S.; Celal Tunusluoglu, M.

    2010-05-01

    The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of rock material is a crucial parameter to be used for design stages of slopes, tunnels and foundations to be constructed in/on geological medium. However, preparation of high quality cores from geological mixtures or fragmented rocks such as melanges, fault rocks, coarse pyroclastic rocks, breccias and sheared serpentinites is often extremely difficult. According to the studies performed in literature, this type of geological materials may be grouped as welded and unwelded birmocks. Success of preparation of core samples from welded bimrocks is slightly better than unwelded ones. Therefore, some studies performed on the welded bimrocks to understand the mechanical behavior of geological mixture materials composed of stronger and weaker components (Gokceoglu, 2002; Sonmez et al., 2004; Sonmez et al., 2006; Kahraman, et al., 2008). The overall strength of bimrocks are generally depends on strength contrast between blocks and matrix; types and strength of matrix; type, size, strength, shape and orientation of blocks and volumetric block proportion. In previously proposed prediction models, while UCS of unwelded bimrocks may be determined by decreasing the UCS of matrix considering the volumetric block proportion, the welded ones can be predicted by considering both UCS of matrix and blocks together (Lindquist, 1994; Lindquist and Goodman, 1994; Sonmez et al., 2006 and Sonmez et al., 2009). However, there is a few attempts were performed about the effect of blocks shape and orientation on the strength of bimrock (Linqduist, 1994 and Kahraman, et al., 2008). In this study, Ankara agglomerate, which is composed of andesite blocks and surrounded weak tuff matrix, was selected as study material. Image analyses were performed on bottom, top and side faces of cores to identify volumetric block portions. In addition to the image analyses, andesite blocks on bottom, top and side faces were digitized for determination of fractal

  13. Compressive Strength Evaluation in Brazed ZrO2/Ti6Al4V Joints Using Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kee, Se Ho; Jung, Flora; Heo, Yongku; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to synthesize and evaluate the compressive strength of the ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint brazed using an active metal filler Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti, and its application to dental implants assuring its reliability to resist the compressive failure in the actual oral environment. The brazing was performed at a temperature of 750 °C for 30 min in a vacuum furnace under 5 × 10-6 Torr atmosphere. The microstructure of the brazed joint showed the presence of an Ag-rich matrix and a Cu-rich phase, and Cu-Ti intermetallic compounds were observed along the Ti-6Al-4V bonded interface. The compressive strength of the brazed ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint was measured by EN ISO 14801 standard test method. The measured compressive strength of the joint was ~1477 MPa—a value almost five times that of existing dental cements. Finite element analysis also confirmed the high von Mises stress values. The compressive strains in the samples were found concentrated near the Ti-6Al-4V position, matching with the position of the real fractured sample. These results suggest extremely significant compressive strength in ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joints using the Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti filler. It is believed that a highly reliable dental implant can be processed and designed using the results of this study.

  14. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Compression Strength Measurements Conducted According to ASTM E9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luecke, William E.; Ma, Li; Graham, Stephen M.; Adler, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Ten commercial laboratories participated in an interlaboratory study to establish the repeatability and reproducibility of compression strength tests conducted according to ASTM International Standard Test Method E9. The test employed a cylindrical aluminum AA2024-T351 test specimen. Participants measured elastic modulus and 0.2 % offset yield strength, YS(0.2 % offset), using an extensometer attached to the specimen. The repeatability and reproducibility of the yield strength measurement, expressed as coefficient of variations were cv(sub r)= 0.011 and cv(sub R)= 0.020 The reproducibility of the test across the laboratories was among the best that has been reported for uniaxial tests. The reported data indicated that using diametrically opposed extensometers, instead of a single extensometer doubled the precision of the test method. Laboratories that did not lubricate the ends of the specimen measured yield stresses and elastic moduli that were smaller than those measured in laboratories that lubricated the specimen ends. A finite element analysis of the test specimen deformation for frictionless and perfect friction could not explain the discrepancy, however. The modulus measured from stress-strain data were reanalyzed using a technique that finds the optimal fit range, and applies several quality checks to the data. The error in modulus measurements from stress-strain curves generally increased as the fit range decreased to less than 40 % of the stress range.

  15. Numerical prediction of the low-velocity impact damage and compression after impact strength of composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wei; Falzon, Brian G.; Chiu, Louis N. S.; Price, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Low-velocity impact damage can drastically reduce the residual mechanical properties of the composite structure even when there is barely visible impact damage. The ability to computationally predict the extent of damage and compression after impact (CAI) strength of a composite structure can potentially lead to the exploration of a larger design space without incurring significant development time and cost penalties. A three-dimensional damage model, to predict both low-velocity impact damage and compression after impact CAI strength of composite laminates, has been developed and implemented as a user material subroutine in the commercial finite element package, ABAQUS/Explicit. The virtual tests were executed in two steps, one to capture the impact damage and the other to predict the CAI strength. The observed intra-laminar damage features, delamination damage area as well as residual strength are discussed. It is shown that the predicted results for impact damage and CAI strength correlated well with experimental testing.

  16. Effect of activation modes on the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength and microhardness of dual-cured self-adhesive resin cements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah-Rang; Jeon, Yong-Chan; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Yun, Mi-Jung; Choi, Jae Won; Kwon, Yong Hoon; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength and microhardnss of several selfadhesive resin cements (Rely-X U200, Clearfill SA Luting, G-CEM LinkAce, Maxcem Elite, PermaCem 2.0, and Zirconite) using different activation modes (self-cured, light-cured) and testing time (immediately, 24 h, thermocycling). Specimens were prepared for the compressive strength (Ø 4×6 mm) and diametral tensile strength and microhardness (Ø 6×3 mm) according to ISO standards. The strength after 24 h was higher than immediately after. In addition, G-CEM showed the highest values. In terms of the activation modes, Rely-X U200, PermaCem 2.0 had higher values in the light-curing than the self-curing. In conclusion, all cements demonstrated clinically available strength values and revealed differences in strength according to their composition, testing time and activation mode. Furthermore, correlation was found between the microhardness (degree of conversion) and mechanical strengths of the cements tested.

  17. The effect of compression force on surface structure, crushing strength, friability and disintegration time of erythromycin acistrate tablets.

    PubMed

    Riippi, M; Antikainen, O; Niskanen, T; Yliruusi, J

    1998-11-01

    The surface roughness of erythromycin acistrate tablets was studied by non-contact laser profilometry. Seven roughness parameters and 3D fractal dimension were examined. The mechanical properties (including crushing strength, friability and disintegration time) were determined, and SEM data were taken from the tablets. According to the results, the crushing strength and the disintegration time of the tablets increased with increasing compression force. At higher compression forces the crushing strength reached a constant level. The friability of the tablets behaved quite unexpectedly and minimum friability was observed at a compression force of 14 kN. Except for fractal dimension, the roughness parameters behaved very much in the same way as the friability of the tablets. The SEM data supported the friability and surface roughness data of the tablets.

  18. Statistical analysis of the effective factors on the 28 days compressive strength and setting time of the concrete

    PubMed Central

    Abolpour, Bahador; Mehdi Afsahi, Mohammad; Hosseini, Saeed Gharib

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of various factors (weight fraction of the SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O, K2O, CaO, MgO, Cl, SO3, and the Blaine of the cement particles) on the concrete compressive strength and also initial setting time have been investigated. Compressive strength and setting time tests have been carried out based on DIN standards in this study. Interactions of these factors have been obtained by the use of analysis of variance and regression equations of these factors have been obtained to predict the concrete compressive strength and initial setting time. Also, simple and applicable formulas with less than 6% absolute mean error have been developed using the genetic algorithm to predict these parameters. Finally, the effect of each factor has been investigated when other factors are in their low or high level. PMID:26425360

  19. Hot/Wet Open Hole Compression Strength of Carbon/Epoxy Laminates for Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    2009-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum examines the effects of heat and absorbed moisture on the open hole compression strength of carbon/epoxy laminates with the material and layup intended for the Ares I composite interstage. The knockdown due to temperature, amount of moisture absorbed, and the interaction between these two are examined. Results show that temperature is much more critical than the amount of moisture absorbed. The environmental knockdown factor was found to be low for this material and layup and thus obtaining a statistically significant number for this value needs to be weighed against a program s cost and schedule since basis values, damage tolerance, and safety factors all contribute much more to the overall knockdown factor.

  20. On the determination of tensile and compressive strengths of unidirectional fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, S.N.; Yen, C.F.; Oplinger, D.W.

    1997-12-31

    Stress fields in tabbed unidirectional composite coupons and in cross-ply specimens are examined with a goal towards improving the methods for determining the axial strengths of the unidirectional material. Results of parametric studies for evaluation of the influence of tab materials and geometries as well as adhesive properties on the stress peaks in unidirectional tension coupons are presented. Use of ductile (but tough) adhesives, soft tabs, and low taper angles is recommended to reduce failures near tab ends. Data reduction schemes for evaluation of cross-ply test data are critically examined with due consideration to subcritical damages (such as ply cracks) and expected failure modes. Test results from cross-ply and unidirectional tension and compression specimens of carbon and glass-fiber composites are compared. Some recommendations are made based on the results reported. Tests and data correlations for other composites are suggested for selecting a data reduction scheme acceptable to the composites community.

  1. Effect of synthesis parameters on the compressive strength of low-calcium ferronickel slag inorganic polymers.

    PubMed

    Komnitsas, Kostas; Zaharaki, Dimitra; Perdikatsis, Vasillios

    2009-01-30

    The wide range of physical and chemical properties of inorganic polymers, also known as geopolymers, commonly formed by alkali activation of aluminosilicates, makes these materials useful for a variety of applications. In the present experimental study inorganic polymers are synthesised from low-Ca electric arc ferronickel slag. The effect of experimental conditions on the compressive strength of the final products is assessed. A number of techniques, namely XRD, FTIR and TG-DTG were used to identify new phases and subsequently elucidate to some degree the mechanisms involved. Finally, the paper discusses briefly the potential of inorganic polymer technology as a feasible option for the utilisation of certain potentially hazardous mining and metallurgical wastes towards an increased sustainability of the wider minerals sector.

  2. Dynamic shear strength of S2 glass fiber reinforced polymer composites under shock compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fuping; Tsai, Liren; Prakash, Vikas; Dandekar, Dattatraya P.; Rajendran, A. M.

    2008-05-01

    In the present paper, a series of plate impact shock-reshock and shock-release experiments were conducted to study the critical shear strength of a S2 glass fiber reinforced polymer (GRP) composite under shock compression levels ranging from 0.8 to 1.8 GPa. The GRP was fabricated at ARL, Aberdeen, using S2 glass woven roving in a Cycom 4102 polyester resin matrix. The experiments were conducted by using an 82.5 mm bore single-stage gas gun at Case Western Reserve University. In order to conduct shock-reshock and shock-release experiments a dual flyer plate assembly was utilized. The shock-reshock experiments were conducted by using a projectile faced with GRP and backed with a relatively high shock impedance Al 6061-T6 plate; while for the shock-release experiments the GRP was backed by a relatively lower impedance polymethyl methacrylate backup flyer plate. A multibeam velocity interferometer was used to measure the particle velocity profile at the rear surface of the target plate. By using self-consistent technique procedure described by Asay and Chabbildas [Shock Waves and High-Strain-Rate Phenomena, in Metals, edited by M. M. Myers and L. E. Murr (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 417-431], the critical shear strength of the GRP (2τc) was determined for impact stresses in the range of 0.8 to 1.8 GPa. The results show that the critical shear strength of the GRP is increased from 0.108 GPa to 0.682 GPa when the impact stress is increased from 0.8 to 1.8 GPa. The increase in critical shear strength may be attributed to rate-dependence and/or pressure dependent yield behavior of the GRP.

  3. Prediction of zeolite-cement-sand unconfined compressive strength using polynomial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MolaAbasi, H.; Shooshpasha, I.

    2016-04-01

    The improvement of local soils with cement and zeolite can provide great benefits, including strengthening slopes in slope stability problems, stabilizing problematic soils and preventing soil liquefaction. Recently, dosage methodologies are being developed for improved soils based on a rational criterion as it exists in concrete technology. There are numerous earlier studies showing the possibility of relating Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) and Cemented sand (CS) parameters (voids/cement ratio) as a power function fits. Taking into account the fact that the existing equations are incapable of estimating UCS for zeolite cemented sand mixture (ZCS) well, artificial intelligence methods are used for forecasting them. Polynomial-type neural network is applied to estimate the UCS from more simply determined index properties such as zeolite and cement content, porosity as well as curing time. In order to assess the merits of the proposed approach, a total number of 216 unconfined compressive tests have been done. A comparison is carried out between the experimentally measured UCS with the predictions in order to evaluate the performance of the current method. The results demonstrate that generalized polynomial-type neural network has a great ability for prediction of the UCS. At the end sensitivity analysis of the polynomial model is applied to study the influence of input parameters on model output. The sensitivity analysis reveals that cement and zeolite content have significant influence on predicting UCS.

  4. A Numerical Study on the Edgewise Compression Strength of Sandwich Structures with Facesheet-Core Disbonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergan, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Damage tolerant design approaches require determination of critical damage modes and flaw sizes in order to establish nondestructive evaluation detection requirements. A finite element model is developed to assess the effect of circular facesheet-core disbonds on the strength of sandwich specimens subjected to edgewise compressive loads for the purpose of predicting the critical flaw size for a variety of design parameters. Postbuckling analyses are conducted in which an initial imperfection is seeded using results from a linear buckling analysis. Both the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) and cohesive elements are considered for modeling disbond growth. Predictions from analyses using the VCCT and analyses using cohesive elements are in good correlation. A series of parametric analyses are conducted to investigate the effect of core thickness and material, facesheet layup, facesheet-core interface properties, and curvature on the criticality of facesheet-core disbonds of various sizes. The results from these analyses provide a basis for determining the critical flaw size for facesheet-core disbonds subjected to edgewise compression loads and, therefore, nondestructive evaluation flaw detection requirements for this configuration.

  5. The Effect of Different Parameters on the Development of Compressive Strength of Oil Palm Shell Geopolymer Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Kupaei, Ramin Hosseini; Alengaram, U. Johnson; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of an on-going research project on geopolymer lightweight concrete using two locally available waste materials—low calcium fly ash (FA) and oil palm shell (OPS)—as the binder and lightweight coarse aggregate, respectively. OPS was pretreated with three different alkaline solutions of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide, and sodium silicate as well as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for 30 days; afterwards, oil palm shell geopolymer lightweight concrete (OPSGPC) was cast by using both pretreated and untreated OPSs. The effect of these solutions on the water absorption of OPS, and the development of compressive strength in different curing conditions of OPSGPC produced by pretreated OPS were investigated; subsequently the influence of NaOH concentration, alkaline solution to FA ratio (A/FA), and different curing regimes on the compressive strength and density of OPSGPC produced by untreated OPS was inspected. The 24-hour water absorption value for OPS pretreated with 20% and 50% PVA solution was about 4% compared to 23% for untreated OPS. OPSGPC produced from OPS treated with 50% PVA solution produced the highest compressive strength of about 30 MPa in ambient cured condition. The pretreatment with alkaline solution did not have a significant positive effect on the water absorption of OPS aggregate and the compressive strength of OPSGPC. The result revealed that a maximum compressive strength of 32 MPa could be obtained at a temperature of 65°C and curing period of 4 days. This investigation also found that an A/FA ratio of 0.45 has the optimum amount of alkaline liquid and it resulted in the highest level of compressive strength. PMID:25531006

  6. The effect of different parameters on the development of compressive strength of oil palm shell geopolymer concrete.

    PubMed

    Kupaei, Ramin Hosseini; Alengaram, U Johnson; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of an on-going research project on geopolymer lightweight concrete using two locally available waste materials--low calcium fly ash (FA) and oil palm shell (OPS)--as the binder and lightweight coarse aggregate, respectively. OPS was pretreated with three different alkaline solutions of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide, and sodium silicate as well as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for 30 days; afterwards, oil palm shell geopolymer lightweight concrete (OPSGPC) was cast by using both pretreated and untreated OPSs. The effect of these solutions on the water absorption of OPS, and the development of compressive strength in different curing conditions of OPSGPC produced by pretreated OPS were investigated; subsequently the influence of NaOH concentration, alkaline solution to FA ratio (A/FA), and different curing regimes on the compressive strength and density of OPSGPC produced by untreated OPS was inspected. The 24-hour water absorption value for OPS pretreated with 20% and 50% PVA solution was about 4% compared to 23% for untreated OPS. OPSGPC produced from OPS treated with 50% PVA solution produced the highest compressive strength of about 30 MPa in ambient cured condition. The pretreatment with alkaline solution did not have a significant positive effect on the water absorption of OPS aggregate and the compressive strength of OPSGPC. The result revealed that a maximum compressive strength of 32 MPa could be obtained at a temperature of 65°C and curing period of 4 days. This investigation also found that an A/FA ratio of 0.45 has the optimum amount of alkaline liquid and it resulted in the highest level of compressive strength.

  7. Effects of method of loading and specimen configuration on compressive strength of graphite/epoxy composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. K.; Lisagor, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Three test schemes were examined for testing graphite/epoxy (Narmco T300/5208) composite material specimens to failure in compression, including an adaptation of the IITRI "wedge grip" compression fixture, a face-supported-compression fixture, and an end-loaded-coupon fixture. The effects of specimen size, specimen support arrangement and method of load transfer on compressive behavior of graphite/epoxy were investigated. Compressive stress strain, strength, and modulus data obtained with the three fixtures are presented with evaluations showing the effects of all test parameters, including fiber orientation. The IITRI fixture has the potential to provide good stress/strain data to failure for unidirectional and quasi-isotropic laminates. The face supported fixture was found to be the most desirable for testing + or - 45 s laminates.

  8. Effect of varying water-to-powder ratios and ultrasonic placement on the compressive strength of mineral trioxide aggregate.

    PubMed

    Basturk, Fatima B; Nekoofar, Mohammad Hossein; Gunday, Mahir; Dummer, Paul M H

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the compressive strength of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) when mixed with 2 different water-to-powder (WP) proportions using either hand or ultrasonic placement. Tooth-colored ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and white MTA Angelus (Angelus Soluçoes Odontologicas, Londrina, Brazil) were investigated. One gram of each MTA powder was mixed with either 0.34 or 0.40 g distilled water. The 4 groups were further divided into 2 groups of 5 specimens for each of the following techniques: conventional (ie, hand placement) and placement using indirect ultrasonic activation for 30 seconds. All specimens were subjected to compressive strength testing after 4 days. The results were statistically analyzed with multivariate analysis of variance and Tukey Honestly Significant Difference tests at a significance level of P < .05. The mean compressive strength values of ProRoot MTA (84.17 ± 22.68) were significantly greater than those of MTA Angelus (47.71 ± 14.29) (P < .01). Specimens mixed with the 0.34 WP ratio had higher compressive strength values (72.85 ± 25.77) than those mixed with the 0.40 WP ratio (56.69 ± 24.85) (P < .05). The highest compressive strength values were recorded for ProRoot MTA specimens that were mixed in the 0.34 WP ratio, and then the samples were placed with ultrasonic activation (mean = 91.35 MPa). The lowest values were recorded for MTA Angelus samples that were mixed in the 0.40 WP ratio, and the specimens were placed without ultrasonic activation (mean = 36.36 MPa). Ultrasonic activation had no significant difference in terms of compressive strength. When using ProRoot MTA and MTA Angelus, higher WP ratios resulted in lower compressive strength values. Ultrasonication had no significant effect on the compressive strength of the material regardless of the WP ratio that was used. Therefore, adherence to the manufacturer's recommended WP ratio when preparing MTA for use in dental

  9. Experiments on the enhancement of compressible mixing via streamwise vorticity. II - Vortex strength assessment and seed particle dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naughton, J. W.; Cattafesta, L. N.; Settles, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of streamwise vorticity on compressible axisymmetric mixing layers is examined using vortex strength assessment and seed particle dynamics analysis. Experimental results indicate that the particles faithfully represent the dynamics of the turbulent swirling flow. A comparison of the previously determined mixing layer growth rates with the present vortex strength data reveals that the increase of turbulent mixing up to 60 percent scales with the degree of swirl. The mixing enhancement appears to be independent of the compressibility level of the mixing layer.

  10. Experiments on the enhancement of compressible mixing via streamwise vorticity. II - Vortex strength assessment and seed particle dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naughton, J. W.; Cattafesta, L. N.; Settles, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of streamwise vorticity on compressible axisymmetric mixing layers is examined using vortex strength assessment and seed particle dynamics analysis. Experimental results indicate that the particles faithfully represent the dynamics of the turbulent swirling flow. A comparison of the previously determined mixing layer growth rates with the present vortex strength data reveals that the increase of turbulent mixing up to 60 percent scales with the degree of swirl. The mixing enhancement appears to be independent of the compressibility level of the mixing layer.

  11. The relationship between unconfined compressive strength and leachate concentration of stabilised contaminated sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir Aliyu, Mohammed; Tarmizi Abd Karim, Ahmad; -Ming Chan, Chee

    2016-11-01

    Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) treatment was used in this study to immobilise copper (Cu) in contaminated river sediment. The sediment was artificially contaminated by spiking the solution of Copper sulphate (CuSO4.5H2O) to so as to get an average of 1000 ppm target concentration. Portland composite cement and Rice husk ash (RHA) were used as S/S agents. The amount of cement added to the mixture was l0% and while rice husk ash at the rate of 5%, l0%, 15% and 20% to the total dry weight of the mixture and then was cured for 7, 14 and 28 days. The unconfined compressive strength test (UCS) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the S/S treatments. From the results obtained it indicates that the partial replacement of cement with RHA in the binder system has increased the strength and the leachate concentration of copper was less in the treated sediment samples if compared with the untreated ones.

  12. Prediction of unconfined compressive strength of cement paste containing industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, J A; Buenfeld, N R

    2003-01-01

    Neural network analysis was used to construct models of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) as a function of mix composition using existing data from literature studies of Portland cement containing real industrial wastes. The models were able to represent the known non-linear dependency of UCS on curing time and water content, and generalised from the literature data to find relationships between UCS and quantities of five waste types. Substantial decreases in UCS were caused by all wastes; except for EAF dust, the effect was nonlinear with the greatest decrease caused initially by approx. 12% plating sludge, 40% foundry dust, 58% other ash, and 72% MSWI fly ash by mass of dry product. It appears that the maximum waste additions used in modelling may approximate the practical limits of waste additions used in modelling may approximate the practical limits of waste addition to Portland cement, i.e., 50% plating sludge or EAF dust, 64% foundry dust, 92% other ash, and 85% MSWI fly ash by mass of dry product. The laboratory was found to be a key predictive variable and acted as a surrogate for laboratory-specific variables related to cement composition, strength and hardening class, product mixing and preparation details, laboratory conditions, and testing details. While the neural network modelling approach has been shown to be feasible, development of better models would require larger data sets with more complete information regarding laboratory-specific variables and waste composition.

  13. Study on compressive strength of self compacting mortar cubes under normal & electric oven curing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna Venkatesh, G. J.; Vivek, S. S.; Dhinakaran, G.

    2017-07-01

    In the majority of civil engineering applications, the basic building blocks were the masonry units. Those masonry units were developed as a monolithic structure by plastering process with the help of binding agents namely mud, lime, cement and their combinations. In recent advancements, the mortar study plays an important role in crack repairs, structural rehabilitation, retrofitting, pointing and plastering operations. The rheology of mortar includes flowable, passing and filling properties which were analogous with the behaviour of self compacting concrete. In self compacting (SC) mortar cubes, the cement was replaced by mineral admixtures namely silica fume (SF) from 5% to 20% (with an increment of 5%), metakaolin (MK) from 10% to 30% (with an increment of 10%) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) from 25% to 75% (with an increment of 25%). The ratio between cement and fine aggregate was kept constant as 1: 2 for all normal and self compacting mortar mixes. The accelerated curing namely electric oven curing with the differential temperature of 128°C for the period of 4 hours was adopted. It was found that the compressive strength obtained from the normal and electric oven method of curing was higher for self compacting mortar cubes than normal mortar cube. The cement replacement by 15% SF, 20% MK and 25%GGBS obtained higher strength under both curing conditions.

  14. Effect of Industrial By-Products on Unconfined Compressive Strength of Solidified Organic Marine Clayey Soils

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan-Gi; Yun, Sung-Wook; Baveye, Phillippe C.; Yu, Chan

    2015-01-01

    The use of industrial by-products as admixture to ASTM Type I cement (ordinary Portland cement (OPC)) was investigated with the objective of improving the solidification of organic marine clayey soils. The industrial by-products considered in this paper were oyster-shell powder (OSP), steelmaking slag dust (SMS) and fuel-gas-desulfurized (FGD) gypsum. The industrial by-products were added to OPC at a ratio of 5% based on dry weight to produce a mixture used to solidify organic marine clayey soils. The dosage ratios of mixtures to organic marine clayey soils were 5, 10 and 15% on a dry weight basis. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test after 28 days revealed that the highest strength was obtained with the OPC + SMS 15% mixing ratio. The UCS of specimens treated with this mixture was >500 kPa, compared with 300 kPa for specimens treated with a 15% OPC + OSP mixture and 200 kPa when 15% of OPC was used alone. These results were attributed to the more active hydration and pozzolanic reaction of the OPC + SMS mixture. This hypothesis was verified through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses, and was confirmed by variations in the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) content of the materials during curing. PMID:28793493

  15. Comparison of Three Methods for Calculating the Compressive Strength of Flat and Slightly Curved Sheet and Stiffener Combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Eugene E

    1933-01-01

    This report gives a comparison of the accuracy of the three methods for calculating the compressive strength of flat sheet and stiffener combinations such as occur in stressed-skin or monocoque structures for aircraft. Of the three methods based upon various assumptions with regard to the interaction of sheet and stiffener, the method based upon mutual action of the stiffener and an effective width as a column gave the best agreement with the results of the tests. An investigation of the effect of small curvature resulted in the conclusion that the compressive strength of the curved panels is, for all practical purposes, equal to the strength of flat panels except for thick sheet where non-uniform curvature throughout the length may cause the strength of the curved panel to be 10 to 15 percent less than that of a corresponding flat panel.

  16. Effects of fabrication and joining processes on compressive strength of boron/aluminum and borsic/aluminum structural panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royster, D. M.; Wiant, H. R.; Mcwithey, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Processes for forming and joining boron/aluminum and borsic/aluminum to themselves and to titanium alloys were studied. Composite skin and titanium skin panels were joined to composite stringers by high strength bolts, by spotwelding, by diffusion bonding, by adhesive bonding, or by brazing. The effects of the fabrication and joining processes on panel compressive strengths were discussed. Predicted buckling loads were compared with experimental data.

  17. Developing a Material Strength Design Value Based on Compression after Impact Damage for the Ares I Composite Interstage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.; Jackson, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    The derivation of design values for compression after impact strength for two types of honeycomb sandwich structures are presented. The sandwich structures in this study had an aluminum core and composite laminate facesheets of either 16-ply quasi or 18-ply directional lay-ups. The results show that a simple power law curve fit to the data can be used to create A- and B-basis residual strength curves.

  18. Structural strength of cancellous specimens from bovine femur under cyclic compression

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Kaori; Yamada, Satoshi; Todoh, Masahiro; Takahata, Masahiko; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporotic fractures was estimated as nine million worldwide in 2000, with particular occurrence at the proximity of joints rich in cancellous bone. Although most of these fractures spontaneously heal, some fractures progressively collapse during the early post-fracture period. Prediction of bone fragility during progressive collapse following initial fracture is clinically important. However, the mechanism of collapse, especially the gradual loss of the height in the cancellous bone region, is not clearly proved. The strength of cancellous bone after yield stress is difficult to predict since structural and mechanical strength cannot be determined a priori. The purpose of this study was to identify whether the baseline structure and volume of cancellous bone contributed to the change in cancellous bone strength under cyclic loading. A total of fifteen cubic cancellous bone specimens were obtained from two 2-year-old bovines and divided into three groups by collection regions: femoral head, neck, and proximal metaphysis. Structural indices of each 5-mm cubic specimen were determined using micro-computed tomography. Specimens were then subjected to five cycles of uniaxial compressive loading at 0.05 mm/min with initial 20 N loading, 0.3 mm displacement, and then unloading to 0.2 mm with 0.1 mm displacement for five successive cycles. Elastic modulus and yield stress of cancellous bone decreased exponentially during five loading cycles. The decrease ratio of yield stress from baseline to fifth cycle was strongly correlated with bone volume fraction (BV/TV, r = 0.96, p < 0.01) and structural model index (SMI, r = − 0.81, p < 0.01). The decrease ratio of elastic modulus from baseline to fifth cycle was also correlated with BV/TV (r = 0.80, p < 0.01) and SMI (r = − 0.78, p < 0.01). These data indicate that structural deterioration of cancellous bone is associated with bone strength after yield stress. This study suggests that baseline cancellous

  19. A comparative study for the concrete compressive strength estimation using neural network and neuro-fuzzy modelling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgehan, Mahmut

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and artificial neural network (ANN) model have been successfully used for the evaluation of relationships between concrete compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) values using the experimental data obtained from many cores taken from different reinforced concrete structures having different ages and unknown ratios of concrete mixtures. A comparative study is made using the neural nets and neuro-fuzzy (NF) techniques. Statistic measures were used to evaluate the performance of the models. Comparing of the results, it is found that the proposed ANFIS architecture with Gaussian membership function is found to perform better than the multilayer feed-forward ANN learning by backpropagation algorithm. The final results show that especially the ANFIS modelling may constitute an efficient tool for prediction of the concrete compressive strength. Architectures of the ANFIS and neural network established in the current study perform sufficiently in the estimation of concrete compressive strength, and particularly ANFIS model estimates closely follow the desired values. Both ANFIS and ANN techniques can be used in conditions where too many structures are to be examined in a restricted time. The presented approaches enable to practically find concrete strengths in the existing reinforced concrete structures, whose records of concrete mixture ratios are not available or present. Thus, researchers can easily evaluate the compressive strength of concrete specimens using UPV and density values. These methods also contribute to a remarkable reduction in the computational time without any significant loss of accuracy. A comparison of the results clearly shows that particularly the NF approach can be used effectively to predict the compressive strength of concrete using UPV and density values. In addition, these model architectures can be used as a nondestructive procedure for health monitoring of

  20. Long-term compressive strength and some other properties of controlled low strength materials made with pozzolanic cement and Class C fly ash.

    PubMed

    Türkel, S

    2006-09-01

    Controlled low strength material (CLSM) is a flowable mixture that can be used as a backfill material in place of compacted soils. CLSM (or flowable fill) require no tamping or compaction to achieve its compressive strength and typically has a load carrying capacity much higher than that of compacted soils, but can be proportioned to allow future excavation. In this study, several different CLSM mixtures containing Class C fly ash (FA) obtained from Soma Thermal Power Plant in Turkey, crushed limestone sand (CLS), and a minimal amount of pozzolanic cement (PZC) were produced. The mass of PZC was kept constant for all mixtures at 5% of FA by mass. The mechanical and physical properties of CLSM mixtures such as unconfined compressive strength, water absorption by capillarity and EP toxicity were investigated by a series of laboratory tests. CLSM mixtures with low PZC contents and high Class C FA and CLS contents can be produced with excellent flowability and low unconfined compressive strengths in the range of 1.16-2.80 MPa at 365-days age when re-excavation at later ages might be needed. The results presented here show a new field of application for Soma FA in CLSM mixtures, resulting in great advantages in waste minimization, as well as, conservation of resources and environment.

  1. Age- and sex-related regional compressive strength characteristics of human lumbar vertebrae in osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Kurutz, Márta; Donáth, Judit; Gálos, Miklós; Varga, Péter; Fornet, Béla

    2008-01-01

    Objective To obtain the compressive load bearing and energy absorption capacity of lumbar vertebrae of osteoporotic elderly for the everyday medical praxis in terms of the simple diagnostic data, like computed tomography (CT), densitometry, age, and sex. Methods Compressive test of 54 osteoporotic cadaver vertebrae L1 and L2, 16 males and 38 females (age range 43–93, mean age 71.6 ± 13.3 years, mean bone mineral density (BMD) 0.377 ± 0.089 g/cm2, mean T-score −5.57 ± 0.79, Z-score −4.05 ± 0.77) was investigated. Based on the load-displacement diagrams and the measured geometrical parameters of vertebral bodies, proportional, ultimate and yield stresses and strains, Young’s modulus, ductility and energy absorption capacity were determined. Three vertebral regions were distinguished: superior, central and inferior regions, but certain parameters were calculated for the upper/ lower intermediate layers, as well. Cross-sectional areas, and certain bone tissue parameters were determined by image analysis of CT pictures of vertebrae. Sex- and age-related decline functions and trends of strength characteristics were determined. Results Size-corrected failure load was 15%–25% smaller in women, proportional and ultimate stresses were about 30%–35% smaller for women in any region, and 20%–25% higher in central regions for both sexes. Young’s moduli were about 30% smaller in women in any region, and 20%–25% smaller in the central region for both sexes. Small strains were higher in males, large strains were higher in females, namely, proportional strains were about 25% larger in men, yield and ultimate strains were quasi equal for sexes, break strains were 10% higher in women. Ultimate energy absorption capacity was 10%–20% higher in men; the final ductile energy absorption capacity was quasi equal for sexes in all levels. Age-dependence was stronger for men, mainly in central regions (ultimate load, male: r = −0.66, p < 0.01, female: r = −0.52, p

  2. Improvement of the compressive strength of a cuttlefish bone-derived porous hydroxyapatite scaffold via polycaprolactone coating.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kang, Hyo Jin; Lee, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Cuttlefish bones (CBs) have emerged as attractive biomaterials because of their porous structure and components that can be converted into hydroxyapatite (HAp) via a hydrothermal reaction. However, their brittleness and low strength restrict their application in bone tissue engineering. Therefore, to improve the compressive strength of the scaffold following hydrothermal conversion to a HAp form of CB (CB-HAp), the scaffold was coated using a polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer at various concentrations. In this study, raw CB was successfully converted into HAp via a hydrothermal reaction. We then evaluated their surface properties and composition by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The CB-HAp coated with PCL showed improved compressive performance and retained a microporous structure. The compressive strength was significantly increased upon coating with 5 and 10% PCL, by 2.09- and 3.30-fold, respectively, as compared with uncoated CB-HAp. However, coating with 10% PCL resulted in a reduction in porosity. Furthermore, an in vitro biological evaluation demonstrated that MG-63 cells adhered well, proliferated and were able to be differentiated on the PCL-coated CB-HAp scaffold, which was noncytotoxic. These results suggest that a simple coating method is useful to improve the compressive strength of CB-HAp for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Investigation of test methods for measuring compressive strength and modulus of two-dimensional carbon-carbon composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Sawyer, James Wayne; Yamaki, Y. Robert

    1989-01-01

    An experimental evaluation has been conducted to ascertain the the usefulness of two techniques for measuring in-plane compressive failure strength and modulus in coated and uncoated carbon-carbon composites. The techniques involved testing specimens with potted ends as well as testing them in a novel clamping fixture; specimen shape, length, gage width, and thickness were the test parameters investigated for both coated and uncoated 0/90 deg and +/-45 deg laminates. It is found that specimen shape does not have a significant effect on the measured compressive properties. The potting of specimen ends results in slightly higher measured compressive strengths than those obtained with the new clamping fixture. Comparable modulus values are obtained by both techniques.

  4. Comparative evaluation of compressive strength and flexural strength of conventional core materials with nanohybrid composite resin core material an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, Narasimha; Vinod, V

    2013-09-01

    Several dental materials have been used for core build-up procedures. Most of these materials were not specifically developed for this purpose, but as a consequence of their properties, have found application in core build-up procedures. Improvements in composites and the development of nanocomposites have led to their use as a core build up material due to their superior mechanical properties, optical properties and ease of handling. However it is not clear if they have better mechanical properties than the conventional core build up materials like amalgam, GIC and dual cure composite core build up material. The strength of the core material is very important and this study was undertaken to compare the mechanical properties of materials used for direct core foundations. The differences between the compressive strength and flexural strength of Filtek Z350 nanocomposite with conventional core build up materials like Amalgam, Vitremer GIC and Fluorocore were tested. Cylindrical plexi glass split molds of dimension 6 ± 1 mm [height] x4 ± 1 mm [diameter] were used to fabricate 15 samples of each core material for testing the compressive strength and rectangular plexi glass split molds of dimension 25 ± 1 mm [length] x 2 ± 1 mm[height] x2 ± 1 mm [width] used for fabricating samples for flexural strength. The samples were stored a water bath at 250 °C for 24 h before testing. The samples were tested using a Universal Instron testing machine. The results of the study showed that Fluorocore had the highest compressive strength and flexural strength followed by Filtek Z350 [nanocomposite] Amalgam had the least flexural strength and Vitremer GIC had the least compressive strength. Thus flurocore and nanocomposite are stronger than other core build up materials and hence should be preferred over other conventional core build up materials in extensively damaged teeth.

  5. Wear resistance and compression strength of ceramics tested in fluoride environments.

    PubMed

    Theodoro, Guilherme Teixeira; Fiorin, Lívia; Moris, Izabela Cristina Maurício; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria

    2017-01-01

    Dental ceramics have been widely used because of aesthetic, but wear is still questioned. There are relates that ceramic surface is prone to degradation by acidulated fluoride, that can increase wear rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of neutral and acidulated fluoride gel, used as preventive agents for professional use, at wear and compression strength of dental ceramics IPS e.max ZirPress (ZIR), IPS Empress Esthetic (EMP) e IPS Inline POM (POM). For this, 30 crowns and 30 disks were obtained by heat-pressing. Crowns and disks were submitted to two-body wear test at machine of mechanical loading, simulating occlusion, lateral movement and disocclusion. It was performed 300,000 cycles at 1Hz frequency under 20N load, to simulate 1 year of mastication. Samples were totally immersed during the test and were divided into three groups according to the gel used for immersion (n=10): control, neutral (sodium fluoride 2%) and acidulated (acidulated phosphate fluoride 1.23%). Samples (crowns and disks) were analyzed for vertical height loss after the test using, respectively, profile projector and stereomicroscope. Roughness of worn surface of crowns and disks was evaluated by laser confocal microscopy. Data of height loss and roughness were evaluated by two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's test. A crown/disk of each group was analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy. After wear resistance tests, crowns were cemented to their abutments and submitted to compressive load at 30° angulation and 1mm/min speed. Type of failures was compared by qui-square test. Ceramic EMP worn less while ZIR worn more. Control gel worn more at crowns while acidulated gel worn more at disks. Surface roughness of samples tested at acidulated gel was significantly lower. Type of failures found at compression resistance tests was affected by ceramic type, but not by gel used. The results suggest that ceramic and fluoride gel affect wear and roughness of worn surface while type of

  6. Constraining the bulk Dust to Ice Ratio and Compressive Strength for Comet Churyumov Gerasimenko Using CONSERT Radar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggy, E.; Shafie, A.; Herique, A.; Lasue, J.; Kofman, W. W.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Using CONSERT most recent Bistatic observations in the Post-Philae landing phase we estimate the variability in the subsurface Dust to Ice ratios for comet Churyumov Gerasimenko under different dielectric hypotheses inverted from the 90 MHz radar observations and constrained by both the COSIMA and the Radio science experiments. In particular we constrain the comet dust type and ratios to the ice mass in the nucleus body. Additionally we estimat the subsurface density and porosity from CONSERT dielectric inversion and compare it to the values estimated for the upper crust from the Philae landing dynamics. Our preliminary results suggest that the comet dielectric properties are consistent with carbonated chondrites dust and water crystalline ice mixtures with very low dust concentration in the comet deep subsurface. Additionally we develop an empirical model that correlates the surface and subsurface compressive strengths to the dielectric properties. The compressive strength of both the surface and the subsurface are explored using this model using the dielectric properties inverted from the CONSERT observations. Our preliminary results suggest that the average surface compressive strength at 67P surface range from 2 kPa to 1 MPa, for a mean surface temperature of -70° C. We also analyzed the OSIRIS images of the Philae lander first impact footprints which are suggested to be ~15 cm deep into the upper regolith and hence suggesting a low surface compressive strength close to 2 kPa. The comet subsurface compressive strength of subsurface is estimated to be < 1kPa. We will discuss the implications of our results for understanding cometary formation and future sampling experiments.

  7. Data on Material Properties and Panel Compressive Strength of a Plastic-bonded Material of Glass Cloth and Canvas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zender, George W; Schuette, Evan H; Weinberger, Robert A

    1944-01-01

    Results are presented of tests for determining the tensile, compressive, and bending properties of a material of plastic-bonding glass cloth and canvas layers. In addition, 10 panel specimens were tested in compression. Although the material is not satisfactory for primary structural use in aircraft when compared on a strength-weight basis with other materials in common use, there appears to be potential strength in the material that will require research for development. These points are considered in some detail in the concluding discussion of the report. An appendix shows that a higher tensile strength can be obtained by changes in the type of weave used in the glass-cloth reinforcement.

  8. Experiment to Measure the Strength of Lead to ~ 1.5 Mbar by Compression and Release using the Z Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, Stephen; Brown, Justin; Davis, Jean-Paul

    2015-06-01

    We are planning an experiment to infer the strength of lead at ~ 1.5 Mbar by ramp compression and release using the Z machine. Longitudinal and bulk sound speeds may be calculated from the measurement of the velocity of the interface between thin lead samples and a LiF window by an iterative process using either a transfer-function or characteristics-based method to map in-situ velocity onto measured window velocity. The hydrostatic response comes from analysis of the compression; the strength at each iteration step from the difference between the longitudinal and (extrapolated) bulk sound speeds. As lead is expected to be soft, the effect of its strength on the expansion on release is thought to be small, and may be treated as an error on the results, contrary to similar results for, e.g., Ta. (c) British Crown Owned Copyright 2015/AWE.

  9. Predicting the uniaxial compressive strength of cemented paste backfill from ultrasonic pulse velocity test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, Tekin; Ercikdi, Bayram

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the predictability of the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of cemented paste backfill (CPB) prepared from three different tailings (Tailings T1, Tailings T2 and Tailings T3) using ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test. For this purpose, 180 CPB samples with diameter × height of 5 × 10 cm (similar to NX size) prepared at different binder dosages and consistencies were subjected to the UPV and UCS tests at 7-56 days of curing periods. The effects of binder dosage and consistency on the UPV and UCS properties of CPB samples were investigated and UCS values were correlated with the corresponding UPV data. Microstructural analyses were also performed on CPB samples in order to understand the effect of microstructure (i.e. total porosity) on the UPV data. The UPV and UCSs of CPB samples increased with increasing binder dosage and reducing the consistency irrespective of the tailings type and curing periods. Changes in the mixture properties observed to have a lesser extent on the UPV properties of CPB, while, their effect on the UCS of CPB was significant. Empirical equations were produced for each mixture in order to predict the UCSs of CPB through UPV. The validity of the equations was also checked by t- and F-test. The results showed that a linear relation appeared to exist between the UPV and UCS with high correlation coefficients (r ≥ 0.79) and all models were valid by statistical analysis. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses have revealed that the UPV properties of CPB samples were highly associated with their respective microstructural properties (i.e. total porosity). The major output of this study is that UPV test can be effectively used for a preliminary prediction of the strength of CPB.

  10. Compressive strength of concrete by partial replacement of cement with metakaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, Y. S. V.; Durgaiyya, P.; Shivanarayana, Ch.; Prasad, D. S. V.

    2017-07-01

    Metakaolin or calcined kaolin, other type of pozzolan, produced by calcination has the capability to replace silica fume as an alternative material. Supplementary cementitious materials have been widely used all over the world in concrete due to their economic and environmental benefits; hence, they have drawn much attention in recent years. Mineral admixtures such as fly ash, rice husk ash, silica fume etc. are more commonly used SCMs. They help in obtaining both higher performance and economy. Metakaolin is also one of such non - conventional material, which can be utilized beneficially in the construction industry. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigations carried out to find the suitability of metakaolin in production of concrete. In the present work, the results of a study carried out to investigate the effects of Metakaolin on compressive strength of concrete are presented. The referral concrete M30 was made using 43 grade OPC and the other mixes were prepared by replacing part of OPC with Metakaolin. The replacement levels were 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%(by weight) for Metakaolin. The various results, which indicate the effect of replacement of cement by metakalion on concrete, are presented in this paper to draw useful conclusions.

  11. Effect of Different Mixing and Placement Methods on the Compressive Strength of Calcium-Enriched Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Sahebi, Safoora; Sadatshojaee, Nooshin; Jafari, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this experimental laboratory study was to evaluate the effect of different mixing and placement techniques on compressive strength (CS) of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Methods and Materials: CEM powder was mixed with its liquid either by hand mixing or amalgamator mixing. The mixture was loaded to cylindrical acrylic molds with 6.0±0.1 mm height and 4.0±1 mm diameter. Half of the specimens in each group were selected randomly and ultrasonic energy was applied to them for 30 sec. All samples were incubated for 7 days at 37°C. The CS test was performed by means of a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed by the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post hoc tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The maximum CS was seen in the amalgamator-mixed samples that did not receive ultrasonic agitation. The CS value of amalgamator-mixed samples was significantly higher than manually-mixed ones (P=0.003). Ultrasonic vibration did not change the CS of specimens. Conclusion: According to the results, mixing with amalgamator increases the CS of CEM cement, while ultrasonic vibration had no positive effect. PMID:25834593

  12. Compressive Strength Enhancement of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Forests by Constraint of Graphene Sheets.

    PubMed

    Su, Chih-Chung; Chen, Ting-Xu; Chang, Shuo-Hung

    2017-02-21

    We fabricated a 3D sandwich hybrid material composed of graphene and vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests (VACNTs) using chemical vapor deposition. The graphene was first synthesized on Cu foil. Then it was transferred to a substrate which had a pre-deposited catalyst Fe film and a buffer film of Al₂O₃ for the growth of VACNTs. The VACNTs were grown underneath the graphene and lifted up the graphene. The graphene, with its edges anchored on the Al₂O₃, provided a constrained boundary condition for the VACNTs and hence affected the growth height and mechanical strength of the VACNTs. We prepared three groups of samples: VACNTs without graphene, VACNTs with graphene transferred once (1-Gr/VACNTs), and VACNTs with graphene transferred twice (2-Gr/VACNTs). A nano-indentation system was used to measure the reduced compressive modulus (Er) and hardness (H). The Er and H of Gr/VACNTs increased with the number of transfers of the anchored graphene. The 2-Gr/VACNTs had the largest Er and H, 23.8 MPa and 912 KPa, which are 6.6 times and 5.2 times those of VACNTs without the anchored graphene, respectively. In this work, we have demonstrated a simple method to increase the mechanical properties and suppress the height of VACNTs with the anchored graphene and number of transfers.

  13. An engineering procedure for calculating compressive strength of isogrid cylindrical shells with buckled skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, W. L., Jr.; Anderson, M. S.; Slysh, P.

    1976-01-01

    An engineering procedure is presented for calculating the compressive buckling strength of isogrid cylinders using shell of revolution techniques and accounting for loading beyond the material proportional limit and/or local buckling of the skin prior to general buckling. A general nondimensional chart is presented which can be used in conjunction with formulas based on simple deformation plasticity theory to calculate postbuckling stiffnesses of the skin. The stiffening grid system is treated as an equivalent isotropic grid layer. Stiffnesses are determined for this grid layer, when loaded beyond the proportional limit, by the same plasticity theory used for the skin and a nonlinear stress-strain curve constructed from simple isogrid-handbook formulas and standard-reference-manual stress-strain curves for the material involved. Comparison of prebuckling strains and buckling results obtained by this procedure with data from a large isogrid-cylinder test is excellent with the calculated buckling load no more than 4 percent greater than the test value.

  14. Shell hardness and compressive strength of the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the Asian oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Sara A; Chon, Grace D; Lee, James Jin-Wu; Lane, Hillary A; Paynter, Kennedy T

    2013-12-01

    The valves of oysters act as a physical barrier between tissues and the external environment, thereby protecting the oyster from environmental stress and predation. To better understand differences in shell properties and predation susceptibilities of two physiologically and morphologically similar oysters, Crassostrea virginica and Crassostrea ariakensis, we quantified and compared two mechanical properties of shells: hardness (resistance to irreversible deformation; GPa) and compressive strength (force necessary to produce a crack; N). We found no differences in the hardness values between foliated layers (innermost and outermost foliated layers), age class (C. virginica: 1, 4, 6, 9 years; C. ariakensis: 4, 6 years), or species. This suggests that the foliated layers have similar properties and are likely composed of the same material. The compressive force required to break wet and dry shells was also not different. However, the shells of both six- and nine-year-old C. virginica withstood higher compressive force than C. virginica shells aged either one or four, and the shells of C. ariakensis at both ages studied (4- and 6-years-old). Differences in ability to withstand compressive force are likely explained by differences in thickness and density between age classes and species. Further, we compared the compressive strength of differing ages of these two species to the crushing force of common oyster predators in the Chesapeake Bay. By studying the physical properties of shells, this work may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanical defenses of oysters as well as of their predation vulnerabilities.

  15. The effect of shredding and test apparatus size on compressibility and strength parameters of degraded municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M S; Gabr, M A; Asce, F

    2009-09-01

    In many situations, MSW components are processed and shredded before use in laboratory experiments using conventional soil testing apparatus. However, shredding MSW material may affect the target property to be measured. The objective of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the effect of shredding of MSW on the measured compressibility and strength properties. It is hypothesized that measured properties can be correlated to an R-value, the ratio of waste particle size to apparatus size. Results from oedometer tests, conducted on 63.5 mm, 100 mm, 200 mm diameter apparatus, indicated the dependency of the compressibility parameters on R-value. The compressibility parameters are similar for the same R-value even though the apparatus size varies. The results using same apparatus size with variable R-values indicated that shredding of MSW mainly affects initial compression. Creep and biological strain rate of the tested MSW are not significantly affected by R-value. The shear strength is affected by shredding as the light-weight reinforcing materials are shredded into smaller pieces during specimen preparation. For example, the measured friction angles are 32 degrees and 27 degrees for maximum particle sizes of 50 mm and 25 mm, respectively. The larger MSW components in the specimen provide better reinforcing contribution. This conclusion is however dependent on comparing specimen at the same level of degradation since shear strength is also a function of extent of degradation.

  16. Effect of Different pH Values on the Compressive Strength of Calcium-Enriched Mixture Cement

    PubMed Central

    Sobhnamayan, Fereshte; Sahebi, Safoora; Alborzi, Ali; Ghorbani, Saeed; Shojaee, Nooshin Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the compressive strength of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement in contact with acidic, neutral and alkaline pH values. Methods and Materials: The cement was mixed according to the manufacturer’s instructions, it was then condensed into fourteen split molds with five 4×6 mm holes. The specimens were randomly divided into 7 groups (n=10) and were then exposed to environments with pH values of 4.4, 5.4, 6.4, 7.4, 8.4, 9.4 and 10.4 in an incubator at 37° C for 4 days. After removing the samples from the molds, cement pellets were compressed in a universal testing machine. The exact forces required for breaking of the samples were recorded. The data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests for individual and pairwise comparisons, respectively. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The greatest (48.59±10.36) and the lowest (9.67±3.16) mean compressive strength values were observed after exposure to pH value of 9.4 and 7.4, respectively. Alkaline environment significantly increased the compressive strength of CEM cement compared to the control group. There was no significant difference between the pH values of 9.4 and 10.4 but significant differences were found between pH values of 9.4, 8.4 and 7.4. The acidic environment showed better results than the neutral environment, although the difference was not significant for the pH value of 6.4. Alkaline pH also showed significantly better results than acidic and neutral pH. Conclusion: The compressive strength of CEM cement improved in the presence of acidic and alkaline environments but alkaline environment showed the best results. PMID:25598805

  17. Compressive strength of directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlNb intermetallics at 1200 and 1300 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Reviere, R.; Noebe, R. D.; Oliver, B. F.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from measurements of 1200 K and 1300 K compressive properties of two directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlNb compositions (in at. pct): Ni-41.75Al-16.5Nb (eutectic composition) and Ni-47.5Al-8.9Nb-1.3C (Al-rich composition). Results showed that the strength of the eutectic was a factor of 2 greater than that of the Al-rich composition. However, the analysis of the compressive stress-strain data indicated that the deformation mechanism was the same in both materials.

  18. [Evaluation of grip strength in normal and obese Wistar rats submitted to swimming with overload after median nerve compression].

    PubMed

    Coradinia, Josinéia Gresele; Kakihata, Camila Mayumi Martin; Kunz, Regina Inês; Errero, Tatiane Kamada; Bonfleur, Maria Lúcia; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2015-01-01

    To verify the functionality through muscle grip strength in animals with obesity induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) and in control animals, which suffered compression of the right median nerve, and treated with swimming with overload. During the first five days of life, neonatal Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of MSG. The control group received a hypertonic saline solution. Forty-eight rats were divided into six groups: G1 (control); G2 (control + injury); G3 (control + injury + swimming); G4 (obese); G5 (obese + injury); G6 (obese + injury + swimming). The animals in groups G2, G3, G5 and G6 were submitted to compression of the median nerve and G3 and G6 groups were treated, after injury, with swimming exercise with load for three weeks. The swimming exercise had a progressive duration, according to the week, of 20, 30 and 40minutes. Muscle strength was assessed using a grip strength meter preoperatively and on the 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21st days after surgery. The results were expressed and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. When the grip strength was compared among assessments regardless of group, in the second assessment the animals exhibited lower grip strength. G1 and G4 groups had greater grip strength, compared to G2, G3, G4 and G6. The swimming exercise with overload has not been effective in promoting improvement in muscle grip strength after compression injury of the right median nerve in control and in obese-MSG rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Low Velocity Impact Damage on the Compressive Strength of Graphite/Epoxy Hat-Stiffened Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, M. D.; Williams, J. G.; Starnes, J. H., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Low velocity impact damage on the compressive strength of graphite/epoxy hat stiffened panels is studied. Fourteen panels, representative of minimum-mass designs for two compression load levels were tested. Eight panels were damaged by impact and the effect on compressive strength was evaluated by comparing the results with data for undamaged panels. The impact tests consisted of firing 1.27 cm diameter aluminum projectiles normal to the plane of the panel at a velocity of approximately 55 m/sec to simulate impact from runway debris. The results of this investigation indicate that impact damage in the panels designed for 0.53 MN/m was contained locally and the damaged panels were capable of carrying the design load. The panels designed for 1.58 MN/m failed between 50 and 58 percent of the design load due to impact damage in the high axial stiffness region. The extent of damage in the high axial stiffness region of both panel designs increased with the magnitude of applied axial load. Damage in this region was the most significant factor in reducing panel strength. Limited damage that was not visually detectable reduced ultimate strength as much as extensive visible damage.

  20. In-Situ Welding Carbon Nanotubes into a Porous Solid with Super-High Compressive Strength and Fatigue Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhiqiang; Gui, Xuchun; Gan, Qiming; Chen, Wenjun; Cheng, Xiaoping; Liu, Ming; Zhu, Yuan; Yang, Yanbing; Cao, Anyuan; Tang, Zikang

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene-based sponges and aerogels have an isotropic porous structure and their mechanical strength and stability are relatively lower. Here, we present a junction-welding approach to fabricate porous CNT solids in which all CNTs are coated and welded in situ by an amorphous carbon layer, forming an integral three-dimensional scaffold with fixed joints. The resulting CNT solids are robust, yet still highly porous and compressible, with compressive strengths up to 72 MPa, flexural strengths up to 33 MPa, and fatigue resistance (recovery after 100,000 large-strain compression cycles at high frequency). Significant enhancement of mechanical properties is attributed to the welding-induced interconnection and reinforcement of structural units, and synergistic effects stemming from the core-shell microstructures consisting of a flexible CNT framework and a rigid amorphous carbon shell. Our results provide a simple and effective method to manufacture high-strength porous materials by nanoscale welding. PMID:26067176

  1. Compressive Strength and Water Absorption of Pervious Concrete that Using the Fragments of Ceramics and Roof Tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahara, E.; Meilani

    2014-03-01

    Pervious concrete was introduced in America in 2003, popularized by Dan Brown and used as a rigid pavement in the open parking lot. Rigid pavement using pervious concrete can absorb water in the surface to go straight through the concrete to the ground below.This water flow is one of the benefit of using the pervious concrete. Using of wastes such as broken roof and ceramics tiles are not commonly used in Indonesia. Utilization these kind of wastes is predicted lower the compressive strength of pervious concrete as they are used as a substitute for coarse aggregate.In this research, pervious concrete is made using a mixture of the fragment of ceramics and roof tiles.This research using broken ceramics and roof tiles with a grain size that loose from 38 mm sieve, retained on 19 mm sieve and the coarse aggregate from crushed stone that loose 12.5 mm sieve, retained on 9.5 mm sieve. The water cement ratio is 0.3 and to assist the mixing process, the addition of addictive in pervious concrete is used.The size of coarse aggregate used in the mixture affects the strength of pervious concrete. The larger the size of aggregate, the obtained compressive strength becomes smaller. It also affects the density of pervious concrete. The using of mixture of ceramics and roof tiles only reduce 2 MPa of pervious concrete compressive strength so this mixture can be used as a substitute for coarse aggregate with a maximum portion of 30 %. The high porosity of the specimens causes the reduction of pervious concrete density that affect the compressive strength. This high level of porosity can be seen from the high level of water absorption that exceed the required limit of water infiltration.

  2. Embedded NMR Sensor to Monitor Compressive Strength Development and Pore Size Distribution in Hydrating Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Díaz, Floriberto; de J. Cano-Barrita, Prisciliano F.; Balcom, Bruce J.; Solís-Nájera, Sergio E.; Rodríguez, Alfredo O.

    2013-01-01

    In cement-based materials porosity plays an important role in determining their mechanical and transport properties. This paper describes an improved low–cost embeddable miniature NMR sensor capable of non-destructively measuring evaporable water loss and porosity refinement in low and high water-to-cement ratio cement-based materials. The sensor consists of two NdFeB magnets having their North and South poles facing each other, separated by 7 mm to allow space for a Faraday cage containing a Teflon tube and an ellipsoidal RF coil. To account for magnetic field changes due to temperature variations, and/or the presence of steel rebars, or frequency variation due to sample impedance, an external tuning circuit was employed. The sensor performance was evaluated by analyzing the transverse magnetization decay obtained with a CPMG measurement from different materials, such as a polymer phantom, fresh white and grey cement pastes with different w/c ratios and concrete with low (0.30) and high (0.6) w/c ratios. The results indicated that the sensor is capable of detecting changes in water content in fresh cement pastes and porosity refinement caused by cement hydration in hardened materials, even if they are prepared with a low w/c ratio (w/c = 0.30). The short lifetime component of the transverse relaxation rate is directly proportional to the compressive strength of concrete determined by destructive testing. The r2 (0.97) from the linear relationship observed is similar to that obtained using T2 data from a commercial Oxford Instruments 12.9 MHz spectrometer.

  3. Influence of compressive strength and applied force in concrete on particles exposure concentrations during cutting processes.

    PubMed

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Chen, Ching-Hwa; Chen, Mei-Ru; Hsu, Hsin-I; Wu, Trong-Neng

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this research was to identify the influence of applied force (AF) and the compressive strength (CS) of concrete on particle exposure concentrations during concrete cutting processes. Five cutting conditions were selected with AF varied between 9.8 and 49 N and CS varied between 2500 and 6000 psi. For each selected cutting condition, the measured total dust concentrations (C(tot)) were used to further determine the corresponding three health-related exposure concentrations of the inhalable (C(inh)), thoracic (C(thor)), and respirable fraction (C(res)). Results show that particle size distribution was consistently in a bimodal form under all selected cutting conditions. An increase in CS resulted in an increase in coarse particle generations leading to an increase in the four measured particle exposure levels. An increase in AF resulted in an increase in exposure concentrations with a higher fraction of fine particles (i.e., C(tho) and C(res)) However, for particle exposure concentrations with a higher fraction of coarse particles (i.e., C(tot) and C(inh)), an increase in AF resulted in an initial increase, followed by a decrease in concentration. Finally, the above inferences were further confirmed through the use of fixed-effect models to determine the influence of both CS and AF on the four exposure concentrations. These results provide a reference for industries to initiate appropriate control strategies to reduce the exposure levels encountered by workers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Index of Unconfined Compressive Strength of SAFOD Core by Means of Point-Load Penetrometer Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enderlin, M. B.; Weymer, B.; D'Onfro, P. S.; Ramos, R.; Morgan, K.

    2010-12-01

    The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) project is motivated by the need to answer fundamental questions on the physical and chemical processes controlling faulting and earthquake generation within major plate-boundaries. In 2007, approximately 135 ft (41.1 m) of 4 inch (10.61 cm) diameter rock cores was recovered from two actively deforming traces of the San Andreas Fault. 97 evenly (more or less) distributed index tests for Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) where performed on the cores using a modified point-load penetrometer. The point-load penetrometer used was a handheld micro-conical point indenter referred to as the Dimpler, in reference to the small conical depression that it creates. The core surface was first covered with compliant tape that is about a square inch in size. The conical tip of the indenter is coated with a (red) dye and then forced, at a constant axial load, through the tape and into the sample creating a conical red depression (dimple) on the tape. The combination of red dye and tape preserves a record of the dimple geometrical attributes. The geometrical attributes (e.g. diameter and depth) depend on the rock UCS. The diameter of a dimple is measured with a surface measuring magnifier. Correlation between dimple diameter and UCS has been previously established with triaxial testing. The SAFOD core gave Dimpler UCS values in the range of 10 psi (68.9 KPa) to 15,000 psi (103.4 MPa). The UCS index also allows correlations between geomechanical properties and well log-derived petrophysical properties.

  5. In situ micropillar compression reveals superior strength and ductility but an absence of damage in lamellar bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwiedrzik, Jakob; Raghavan, Rejin; Bürki, Alexander; Lenader, Victor; Wolfram, Uwe; Michler, Johann; Zysset, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Ageing societies suffer from an increasing incidence of bone fractures. Bone strength depends on the amount of mineral measured by clinical densitometry, but also on the micromechanical properties of the hierarchical organization of bone. Here, we investigate the mechanical response under monotonic and cyclic compression of both single osteonal lamellae and macroscopic samples containing numerous osteons. Micropillar compression tests in a scanning electron microscope, microindentation and macroscopic compression tests were performed on dry ovine bone to identify the elastic modulus, yield stress, plastic deformation, damage accumulation and failure mechanisms. We found that isolated lamellae exhibit a plastic behaviour, with higher yield stress and ductility but no damage. In agreement with a proposed rheological model, these experiments illustrate a transition from a ductile mechanical behaviour of bone at the microscale to a quasi-brittle response driven by the growth of cracks along interfaces or in the vicinity of pores at the macroscale.

  6. A Unified Model for Predicting the Open Hole Tensile and Compressive Strengths of Composite Laminates for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Paul; Pineda, Evan J.; Heinrich, Christian; Waas, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    The open hole tensile and compressive strengths are important design parameters in qualifying fiber reinforced laminates for a wide variety of structural applications in the aerospace industry. In this paper, we present a unified model that can be used for predicting both these strengths (tensile and compressive) using the same set of coupon level, material property data. As a prelude to the unified computational model that follows, simplified approaches, referred to as "zeroth order", "first order", etc. with increasing levels of fidelity are first presented. The results and methods presented are practical and validated against experimental data. They serve as an introductory step in establishing a virtual building block, bottom-up approach to designing future airframe structures with composite materials. The results are useful for aerospace design engineers, particularly those that deal with airframe design.

  7. Enhanced Compressive Strength of Nanostructured Aluminum Reinforced with SiC Nanoparticles and Investigation of Strengthening Mechanisms and Fracture Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarpour, M. R.; Torknik, F. S.; Manafi, S. A.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, microstructure and mechanical properties of nanostructured Al and Al reinforced with different volume fractions of SiC nanoparticles fabricated through a powder metallurgy route, including high-energy mechanical milling and hot pressing method, were examined. Nanostructured Al and the Al-8 vol.%SiC nanocomposite showed superior compressive strength of ≈300 and ≈412 MPa, respectively, with reasonable ductility. The high strength of the nanocomposite was attributed to the reduced grain size of the Al matrix and homogeneous dispersion of the nanoparticles in the matrix. The effects of nanoparticles on strengthening of Al and fracture mechanisms are presented and discussed.

  8. Study of the strength of molybdenum under high pressure using electromagnetically applied compression-shear ramp loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jow; Alexander, C. Scott; Asay, James

    2015-06-01

    MAPS (Magnetically Applied Pressure Shear) is a new technique that has the potential to study material strength under mega-bar pressures. By applying a mixed-mode pressure-shear loading and measuring the resultant material responses, the technique provides explicit and direct information on material strength under high pressure. In order to apply sufficient shear traction to the test sample, the driver must have substantial strength. Molybdenum was selected for this reason along with its good electrical conductivity. In this work, the mechanical behavior of molybdenum under MAPS loading was studied. To understand the experimental data, a viscoplasticity model with tension-compression asymmetry was also developed. Through a combination of experimental characterization, model development, and numerical simulation, many unique insights were gained on the inelastic behavior of molybdenum such as the effects of strength on the interplay between longitudinal and shear stresses, potential interaction between the magnetic field and molybdenum strength, and the possible tension-compression asymmetry of the inelastic material response. Sandia National Labs is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Dept. of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Effects of external pelvic compression on isokinetic strength of the thigh muscles in sportsmen with and without hamstring injuries.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Ashokan; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Woodley, Stephanie; Sole, Gisela

    2015-05-01

    To investigate whether application of a pelvic compression belt affects isokinetic strength of the thigh muscles in sportsmen with and without hamstring injuries. Randomized crossover, cross-sectional. Twenty sportsmen (age 22.0±1.5 years) with hamstring injuries (hamstring-injured group) and 29 (age 23.5±1.5 years) without hamstring injuries (control group) underwent isokinetic testing of the thigh muscles. Testing included five reciprocal concentric quadriceps and hamstring contractions, and five eccentric hamstring contractions at an angular velocity of 60°/s, with and without a pelvic compression belt in randomized order. The outcome measures were average torque normalized to bodyweight for terminal range eccentric hamstring contractions and peak torque normalized to bodyweight for concentric quadriceps, concentric hamstring and eccentric hamstring contractions. There was a significant increase in normalized average torque of eccentric hamstring contractions in the terminal range for both groups (p≤0.044) and normalized peak torque of eccentric hamstring contractions for injured hamstrings (p=0.025) while wearing the pelvic compression belt. No significant changes were found for other torque variables. Injured hamstrings were weaker than the contralateral uninjured hamstrings during terminal range eccentric hamstring (p=0.040), and concentric hamstring (p=0.020) contractions recorded without the pelvic compression belt. However, no between-group differences were found for any of the investigated variables. Wearing the pelvic compression belt appears to have a facilitatory effect on terminal range eccentric hamstring strength in sportsmen with and without hamstring injuries. Future investigations should ascertain whether there is a role for using a pelvic compression belt for rehabilitation of hamstring injuries. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Molarity of Sodium Hydroxide and Curing Method on the Compressive Strength of Ternary Blend Geopolymer Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathish Kumar, V.; Ganesan, N.; Indira, P. V.

    2017-07-01

    Concrete plays a vital role in the development of infrastructure and buildings all over the world. Geopolymer based cement-less concrete is one of the current findings in the construction industry which leads to a green environment. This research paper deals with the results of the use of Fly ash (FA), Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) and Metakaolin (MK) as a ternary blend source material in Geopolymer concrete (GPC). The aspects that govern the compressive strength of GPC like the proportion of source material, Molarity of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) and Curing methods were investigated. The purpose of this research is to optimise the local waste material and use them effectively as a ternary blend in GPC. Seven combinations of binder were made in this study with replacement of FA with GGBS and MK by 35%, 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5% and 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35% respectively. The molarity of NaOH solution was varied by 12M, 14M and 16M and two types of curing method were adopted, viz. Hot air oven curing and closed steam curing for 24 hours at 60°C (140°F). The samples were kept at ambient temperature till testing. The compressive strength was obtained after 7 days and 28 days for the GPC cubes. The test data reveals that the ternary blend GPC with molarity 14M cured by hot air oven produces the maximum compressive strength. It was also observed that the compressive strength of the oven cured GPC is approximately 10% higher than the steam cured GPC using the ternary blend.

  11. Improving the standard of the standard for glass ionomers: an alternative to the compressive fracture strength test for consideration?

    PubMed

    Dowling, Adam H; Fleming, Garry J P; McGinley, Emma L; Addison, Owen

    2012-03-01

    Three strength tests (compressive, three point flexure and biaxial) were performed on three glass ionomer (GI) restoratives to assess the most appropriate methodology in terms of validity and reliability. The influence of mixing induced variability on the data sets generated were eliminated by using encapsulated GIs. Specimen groups of 40 (eight batches of n=5) cylinders (6.0±0.1mm height, 4.0±0.1mm diameter) for compressive fracture testing, bars (25.0±0.1mm length, 2.0±0.1mm height, 2.0±0.1mm width) for three point flexure testing and discs (13.0±0.1mm diameter, 1.0±0.1mm thickness) for biaxial flexure testing were randomly prepared by an operator. The strength data sets for each GI restorative were pooled and one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to compare between GI restoratives (p=0.05). The coefficient of variation (CoV) values for each test were pooled and a one-way ANOVA was conducted to test for differences between the reliability of the three tests. For the GI restoratives, the one-way ANOVA showed significant differences when tested in compression (p=0.001) but not when tested in three point (p=0.271) or biaxial (p=0.134) flexure. The pooled CoV values showed no significant difference between the three strength tests (p=0.632). The compressive fracture strength test specified for GIs in the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO 9917-1: 2003) should be replaced and should no longer be advocated for the predictive performance modelling of GI restoratives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Haemodynamic Performance of Low Strength Below Knee Graduated Elastic Compression Stockings in Health, Venous Disease, and Lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Lattimer, C R; Kalodiki, E; Azzam, M; Geroulakos, G

    2016-07-01

    To test the in vivo haemodynamic performance of graduated elastic compression (GEC) stockings using air-plethysmography (APG) in healthy volunteers (controls) and patients with varicose veins (VVs), post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), or lymphoedema. Responsiveness data were used to determine which group benefited the most from GEC. There were 12 patients per group compared using no compression, knee-length Class 1 (18-21 mmHg) compression, and Class 2 (23-32 mmHg) compression. Stocking/leg interface pressures (mmHg) were measured supine in two places using an air-sensor transducer. Stocking performance parameters, investigated before and after GEC, included the standard APG tests (working venous volume [wVV], venous filling index [VFI], venous drainage index [VDI], ejection fraction [EF]) and the occlusion plethysmography tests (incremental pressure causing the maximal increase in calf volume [IPMIV], outflow fraction [OF]). Results were expressed as median and interquartile range. Significant graduated compression was achieved in all four groups with higher interface pressures at the ankle. Only the VVs patients had a significant reduction in their wVV (without: 133 [109-146] vs. class1: 93 [74-113] mL) and the VFI (without: 4.6 [3-7.1] vs. class1: 3.1 [1.9-5] mL/s), both at p <.05. The IPMIV improved significantly in all groups except in the PTS group (p <.05). The OF improved only in the controls (without: 43 [38-51] vs. class1: 50 [48-53] %) and the VVs patients (without: 47 [39-58] vs. class1: 56 [50-64] %), both at p <.05. There were no significant differences in the VDI or the EF with GEC. Compression dose-response relationships were not observed. Patients with varicose veins improved the most, whereas those with PTS improved the least. Performance seemed to depend more on disease pathophysiology than compression strength. However, the lack of responsiveness to compression strength may be related to the low external pressures used. Stocking performance tests

  13. Real time synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements to determine material strength of shocked single crystals following compression and release

    SciTech Connect

    Turneaure, Stefan J.; Gupta, Y.M.

    2009-09-15

    We present a method to use real time, synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements to determine the strength of shocked single crystals following compression and release during uniaxial strain loading. Aluminum and copper single crystals shocked along [111] were examined to peak stresses ranging from 2 to 6 GPa. Synchrotron x rays were used to probe the longitudinal lattice strains near the rear free surface (16 and 5 {micro}m depths for Al and Cu, respectively) of the metal crystals following shock compression and release. The 111 diffraction peaks showed broadening indicating a heterogeneous microstructure in the released state. The diffraction peaks also shifted to lower Bragg angles relative to the ambient Bragg angle; the magnitude of the shift increased with increasing impact stress. The Bragg angle shifts and appropriate averaging procedures were used to determine the macroscopic or continuum strength following compression and release. For both crystals, the strengths upon release increased with increasing impact stress and provide a quantitative measure of the strain hardening that occurs in Al(111) and Cu(111) during the shock and release process. Our results for Al(111) are in reasonable agreement with a previous determination based solely on continuum measurements. Two points are noteworthy about the developments presented here: Synchrotron x rays are needed because they provide the resolution required for analyzing the data in the released state; the method presented here can be extended to the shocked state but will require additional measurements.

  14. Vertebral Body Compressive Strength Evaluated by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Hounsfield Units In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jie; Li, Kang; Zhao, Xin; Zhao, Chang-Qing; Li, Hua; Zhao, Jie

    2016-09-09

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and Hounsfield unit (HU) are 2 technologies used in vivo to assess bone mineral density and to predict fracture risk. However, few in vitro studies focus on the difference between the 2 technologies in the ability to determine vertebral body compressive strength. Forty-two lumbar vertebrates were harvested from 7 mature goats. All the vertebrae were imaged using clinical computed tomography and assessed by DXA subsequently. The individual vertebral body was then mechanically tested to failure in compression, to determine ultimate load and stress. HU has a moderate correlation with DXA (r = 0.64). DXA has significant associations with ultimate load and stress (r = 0.59 and 0.69, respectively). Significant positive linear correlations were also found between HU and ultimate load (r = 0.65) and stress (r = 0.81). There was no significant difference between HU and DXA to predict the ultimate load (t = 0.56, p = 0.577) or the ultimate stress (t = 1.62, p = 0.112). HU has an equal predictive value as the DXA for whole vertebral body compressive strength. This work supports the application of the HU measurement using clinical computed tomography imaging technology to assess bone strength and fracture risk. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of carbonation on the leachability and compressive strength of cement-solidified and geopolymer-solidified synthetic metal wastes.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Bhishan; Kinrade, Stephen D; Catalan, Lionel J J

    2012-06-30

    The effects of accelerated carbonation on the compressive strength and leachability of fly ash-based geopolymer and ordinary portland cement (OPC) doped with Cd(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Pb(II) or Zn(II) salts were investigated. Cement was effective at immobilizing Cd, Cr(III), Cu, Pb and Zn under both the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), but ineffective for retaining Cr(VI). Carbonated cement maintained its ability to immobilize Cd, Cr(III), Pb and Zn, but, under acidic TCLP conditions, was much worse at retaining Cu. Geopolymer was effective at immobilizing Cr(III) and Cu, and, to a lesser degree, Cd, Pb and Zn in SPLP leaching tests. Only Cr(III) was immobilized under comparatively acidic TCLP testing conditions. Carbonation did not change the metal retention capacity of the geopolymer matrix. Metal doping caused compressive strengths of both geopolymer and cement to decrease. Carbonation increased the compressive strength of cement, but decreased that of the geopolymer. Geochemical equilibrium modeling provided insight on the mechanisms of metal immobilization.

  16. An in vitro study to compare the transverse strength of thermopressed and conventional compression-molded polymethylmethacrylate polymers.

    PubMed

    Raut, Anjana; Rao, Polsani Laxman; Vikas, B V J; Ravindranath, T; Paradkar, Archana; Malakondaiah, G

    2013-01-01

    Acrylic resins have been in the center stage of Prosthodontics for more than half a century. The flexural fatigue failure of denture base materials is the primary mode of clinical failure. Hence there is a need for superior physical and mechanical properties. This in vitro study compared the transverse strength of specimens of thermopressed injection-molded and conventional compression-molded polymethylmethacrylate polymers and examined the morphology and microstructure of fractured acrylic specimens. The following denture base resins were examined: Brecrystal (Thermopressed injection-molded, modified polymethylmethacrylate) and Pyrax (compression molded, control group). Specimens of each material were tested according to the American Society for Testing and Materials standard D790-03 for flexural strength testing of reinforced plastics and subsequently examined under SEM. The data was analyzed with Student unpaired t test. Flexural strength of Brecrystal (82.08 ± 1.27 MPa) was significantly higher than Pyrax (72.76 ± 0.97 MPa). The tested denture base materials fulfilled the requirements regarding flexural strength (>65 MPa). The scanning electron microscopy image of Brecrystal revealed a ductile fracture with crazing. The fracture pattern of control group specimens exhibited poorly defined crystallographic planes with a high degree of disorganization. Flexural strength of Brecrystal was significantly higher than the control group. Brecrystal showed a higher mean transverse strength value of 82.08 ± 1.27 MPa and a more homogenous pattern at microscopic level. Based on flexural strength properties and handling characteristics, Brecrystal may prove to be an useful alternative to conventional denture base resins.

  17. Compressive strength, plastic flow properties, and surface frictional effects of 1100, 3003 and 6061 aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkerton, Gary Wayne

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find aluminum alloys that are effective for use as wire vacuum seals in the 800MeV particle accelerator located at the Louis Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) in Los Alamos, NM. Three alloys, Al 1100, Al 3003, and Al 6061, are investigated under uniaxial compression to determine stresses for a given height reduction from 0 to 70 percent, and to find plastic flow and surface interaction effects. Right-circular cylindrical specimens are compressed on-end (cylindrically) and radially (for modeling as compressed wire). Aluminum 1100 and 3003 alloys are compared for length to diameter ratios of 1 and 2 for both compression types, and are then compared to results of radial compression of annealed small diameter Al 1100 wire currently used at LAMPE. The specimens are also compressed between three different platen surfaces, polished steel, etched steel, and aluminum 6061-T6, to determine effects of friction. The Al 3003 alloy exhibits 20 to 25% lower stresses at all height reductions than Al 1100 for both cylindrical and radial compression.

  18. Static compressive strength prediction of open-hole structure based on non-linear shear behavior and micro-mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wangnan; Cai, Hongneng; Li, Chao

    2014-11-01

    This paper deals with the characterization of the strength of the constituents of carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminate (CFRP), and a prediction of the static compressive strength of open-hole structure of polymer composites. The approach combined with non-linear analysis in macro-level and a linear elastic micromechanical failure analysis in microlevel (non-linear MMF) is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy. A face-centered cubic micromechanics model is constructed to analyze the stresses in fiber and matrix in microlevel. Non-interactive failure criteria are proposed to characterize the strength of fiber and matrix. The non-linear shear behavior of the laminate is studied experimentally, and a novel approach of cubic spline interpolation is used to capture significant non-linear shear behavior of laminate. The user-defined material subroutine UMAT for the non-linear share behavior is developed and combined in the mechanics analysis in the macro-level using the Abaqus Python codes. The failure mechanism and static strength of open-hole compressive (OHC) structure of polymer composites is studied based on non-linear MMF. The UTS50/E51 CFRP is used to demonstrate the application of theory of non-linear MMF.

  19. Effect of shear strength on Hugoniot-compression curve and the equation of state of tungsten (W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashimo, Tsutomu; Liu, Xun; Kodama, Masao; Zaretsky, Eugene; Katayama, Masahide; Nagayama, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    The Hugoniot data for highly dense polycrystalline tungsten were obtained for pressures above 200 GPa, and the equation of state (EOS) was determined taking into account shear strength effects. For this study, we have made some improvements in measurement system and analyses of the shock wave data. Symmetric-impact Hugoniot measurements were performed using the high-time resolution streak camera system equipped on a one-stage powder gun and two-stage light gas gun, where the effects of tilting and bowing of flyer plate on the Hugoniot data were carefully considered. The shock velocity-particle velocity (US-UP) Hugoniot relation in the plastic regime was determined to be US = 4.137 + 1.242UP km/s (UP < 2 km/s). Ultrasonic and Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector measurements were also performed in this study. The zero-intercept value of the US-UP Hugoniot relation was found to be slightly larger than the ultrasonic bulk sound velocity (4.023 km/s). The hypothetical hydrostatic isothermal Us-Up Hugoniot curve, which corresponds to the hydrostatic isothermal compression curve derived from the Hugoniot data using the strength data, converged to the bulk sound velocity, clearly showing shear strength dependence in the Hugoniot data. The EOS for tungsten is derived from the hydrostatic isothermal compression curve using the strength data.

  20. Injectable porous nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/tripolyphosphate scaffolds with improved compressive strength for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Uswatta, Suren P; Okeke, Israel U; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C

    2016-12-01

    In this study we have fabricated porous injectable spherical scaffolds using chitosan biopolymer, sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). TPP was primarily used as an ionic crosslinker to crosslink nHA/chitosan droplets. We hypothesized that incorporating nHA into chitosan could support osteoconduction by emulating the mineralized cortical bone structure, and improve the Ultimate Compressive Strength (UCS) of the scaffolds. We prepared chitosan solutions with 0.5%, 1% and 2% (w/v) nHA concentration and used simple coacervation and lyophilization techniques to obtain spherical scaffolds. Lyophilized spherical scaffolds had a mean diameter of 1.33mm (n=25). Further, portion from each group lyophilized scaffolds were soaked and dried to obtain Lyophilized Soaked and Dried (LSD) scaffolds. LSD scaffolds had a mean diameter of 0.93mm (n=25) which is promising property for the injectability. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed porous surface morphology and interconnected pore structures inside the scaffolds. Lyophilized and LSD scaffolds had surface pores <10 and 2μm, respectively. 2% nHA/chitosan LSD scaffolds exhibited UCS of 8.59MPa compared to UCS of 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds at 3.93MPa. Standardize UCS values were 79.98MPa and 357MPa for 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized and LSD particles respectively. One-way ANOVA results showed a significant increase (p<0.001) in UCS of 1% and 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds compared to 0% and 0.5% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds. Moreover, 2% nHA LSD scaffolds had significantly increased (p<0.005) their mean UCS by 120% compared to 2% nHA lyophilized scaffolds. In a drawback, all scaffolds have lost their mechanical properties by 95% on the 2nd day when fully immersed in phosphate buffered saline. Additionally live and dead cell assay showed no cytotoxicity and excellent osteoblast attachment to both lyophilized and LSD scaffolds at the end of 14th day of in vitro studies. 2% n

  1. Introducing Mg-4Zn-3Gd-1Ca/ZnO nanocomposite with compressive strengths matching/exceeding that of mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Tekumalla, S.; Guo, Y. B.; Gupta, M.

    2016-08-01

    This work introduces Mg-4Zn-3Gd-1Ca/2ZnO (wt.%) nanocomposite fabricated using the technique of disintegrated melt deposition and extrusion. Addition of ZnO nanoparticles enhanced the compressive strengths of alloy by ~100 MPa. Nanocomposite samples display high strength and good ductility: 0.2% compressive yield stress of 355 MPa, ultimate compressive stress of 703 MPa, and compressive failure strain of 10.6%. The significant enhancement of compressive yield stress is mainly attributed to the grain refinement by adding nanoparticles. The strength levels exceed that of commercial magnesium alloys (i.e. WE43, WE54, ZK60, and ME21) and mild steels (i.e. S275 and S355), making Mg-4Zn-3Gd-1Ca/2ZnO a very promising material for multiple engineering and biomedical applications.

  2. Introducing Mg-4Zn-3Gd-1Ca/ZnO nanocomposite with compressive strengths matching/exceeding that of mild steel

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y.; Tekumalla, S.; Guo, Y. B.; Gupta, M.

    2016-01-01

    This work introduces Mg-4Zn-3Gd-1Ca/2ZnO (wt.%) nanocomposite fabricated using the technique of disintegrated melt deposition and extrusion. Addition of ZnO nanoparticles enhanced the compressive strengths of alloy by ~100 MPa. Nanocomposite samples display high strength and good ductility: 0.2% compressive yield stress of 355 MPa, ultimate compressive stress of 703 MPa, and compressive failure strain of 10.6%. The significant enhancement of compressive yield stress is mainly attributed to the grain refinement by adding nanoparticles. The strength levels exceed that of commercial magnesium alloys (i.e. WE43, WE54, ZK60, and ME21) and mild steels (i.e. S275 and S355), making Mg-4Zn-3Gd-1Ca/2ZnO a very promising material for multiple engineering and biomedical applications. PMID:27572903

  3. Microstructure and Room Temperature Compressive Deformation Behavior of Cold-Sprayed High-Strength Cu Bulk Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Kyu-Sik; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Park, Chan-Hee; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the room temperature compressive deformation behavior of Cu bulk material manufactured by cold spray process. Initial microstructural observation identified a unique microstructure with grain size of hundreds of nm in the particle interface area and relatively coarse grains in all other areas. Room temperature compressive results confirmed cold-sprayed Cu to have a yield strength of 340 MPa, which is similar to materials manufactured by severe plastic deformation process such as equal channel angular press. In addition, strain softening phenomenon, which is rarely found in room temperature compressive deformation, was observed. According to such unique characteristics, continuous microstructure evolution and surface fractures according to the strain (ɛ t = 0.3/0.6/0.9) of the material were observed, and considerations were made for deformation and fracture behavior. Microstructural observation after compressive deformation confirmed that average grain size decreased as the strain increased, and the fraction of the low-angle boundary, which has an indirect relationship with dislocation density, showed a tendency to decrease in ɛ t = 0.3-0.6 region where the strain softening phenomenon occurs. Based on the results described above, this study was able to identify the possibility of manufacturing cold-sprayed Cu bulk material for structural material and its room temperature deformation behavior.

  4. Microstructure and Room Temperature Compressive Deformation Behavior of Cold-Sprayed High-Strength Cu Bulk Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Kyu-Sik; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Park, Chan-Hee; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the room temperature compressive deformation behavior of Cu bulk material manufactured by cold spray process. Initial microstructural observation identified a unique microstructure with grain size of hundreds of nm in the particle interface area and relatively coarse grains in all other areas. Room temperature compressive results confirmed cold-sprayed Cu to have a yield strength of 340 MPa, which is similar to materials manufactured by severe plastic deformation process such as equal channel angular press. In addition, strain softening phenomenon, which is rarely found in room temperature compressive deformation, was observed. According to such unique characteristics, continuous microstructure evolution and surface fractures according to the strain ( ɛ t = 0.3/0.6/0.9) of the material were observed, and considerations were made for deformation and fracture behavior. Microstructural observation after compressive deformation confirmed that average grain size decreased as the strain increased, and the fraction of the low-angle boundary, which has an indirect relationship with dislocation density, showed a tendency to decrease in ɛ t = 0.3-0.6 region where the strain softening phenomenon occurs. Based on the results described above, this study was able to identify the possibility of manufacturing cold-sprayed Cu bulk material for structural material and its room temperature deformation behavior.

  5. A prediction model for uniaxial compressive strength of deteriorated pyroclastic rocks due to freeze-thaw cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    İnce, İsmail; Fener, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    Either directly or indirectly, building stone is exposed to diverse atmospheric interactions depending on the seasonal conditions. Due to those interactions, objects of historic and cultural heritage, as well as modern buildings, partially or completely deteriorate. Among processes involved in rock deterioration, the freeze-thaw (F-T) cycle is one of the most important. Even though pyroclastic rocks have been used as building stone worldwide due to their easy workability, they are the building stone most affected by the F-T cycle. A historical region in Central Anatolia, Turkey, Cappadoia encompasses exceptional natural wonders characterized by fairy chimneys and unique historical and cultural heritage. Human-created caves, places of worship and houses have been dug into the pyroclastic rocks, which have in turn been used in architectural construction as building stone. Using 10 pyroclastic rock samples collected from Cappadocia, we determined the rock's index-mechanical properties to develop a statistical model for estimating percentage loss of uniaxial compressive strength a critical parameter of F-T cycle's important value. We used dry density (ρd), ultrasonic velocity (Vp), point load strengths (IS(50)), and slake-durability test indexes (Id4) values of unweathered rocks in our model, which is highly reliable (R2 = 0.84) for predetermination of percentage loss of uniaxial compressive strengths of pyroclastic rocks without requiring any F-T tests.

  6. Behavior of a High Strength Concrete Model Subjected to Biaxial Compression.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    D-Ai26 442 BEHAIOR OF A HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE MODEL SUBJECTED-TO i/3j,~BIAXIAL C MPRESSION(U) TEXAS UNIV AT AUSTIN DEPT OF I CIVIL ENGINEERING J C...RESOLUTION TEST CHART +’ NATIONAL BURAU OF STANDARDS-1963 " A" r I r [- . • ° - r. -4- - - AFOSR-TR. 93-0137 ( BEHAVIOR OF A HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE ...on reveree aide if neceeary and identify by block number) HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE DISCONTINUITY BIAXIAL LOADING ULTIMATE STRENGTH STRESS-STRAIN

  7. Study of Compressive Strength of sic in Impact Experiments with Divergent Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, V.; Frage, N.; Zaretsky, E.

    2009-12-01

    The axisymmetric divergent flow was generated in SiC samples by impact of convex copper flyer plates (radius of curvature ranging from 88 to 550 mm) having velocities from 550 to 700 m/s. The sample-window (sapphire) interface velocities or the velocities of the free surface of the nickel witness plate were continuously monitored by VISAR. The maximum shear stress achieved under different confining stress just prior to the sample failure is associated with the compressive failure threshold of the SiC. Both the compressive failure threshold of SiC and the parameters of its inelastic deformation were found by matching the results of the AUTODYN-2D numerical simulation with the experimentally obtained waveforms. The compressive failure threshold of SiC is characterized by a transition from brittle-like behavior below the confining stress of 1.4-1.5 GPa to the ductile-like one at higher confining stress.

  8. Micro-computed tomography assisted distal femur metaphyseal blunt punch compression for determining trabecular bone strength in mice.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Uma; Pritchard, Zachary J; Voor, Michael J

    2016-05-03

    Shorter generation time and the power of genetic manipulation make mice an ideal model system to study bone biology as well as bone diseases. However their small size presents a challenge to perform strength measurements, particularly of the weight-bearing cancellous bone in the murine long bones. We recently developed an improved method to measure the axial compressive strength of the cancellous bone in the distal femur metaphysis in mice. Transverse micro-computed tomography image slices that are 7µm thick were used to locate the position where the epiphysis-metaphysis transition occurs. This enabled the removal of the distal femur epiphysis at the exact transition point exposing the full extent of metaphyseal trabecular bone, allowing more accurate and consistent measurement of its strength. When applied to a murine model system consisting of five month old male wild-type (WT) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) knockout (KO) Camkk2(-/-) mice that possess recorded differences in trabecular bone volume, data collected using this method showed good correlation between bone volume fraction and strength of trabecular bone. In combination with micro-computed tomography and histology, this method will provide a comprehensive and consistent assessment of the microarchitecture and tissue strength of the cancellous bone in murine mouse models.

  9. Comparison of in vivo bioactivity and compressive strength of a novel superporous hydroxyapatite with beta-tricalcium phosphates.

    PubMed

    Okanoue, Yusuke; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Takemasa, Ryuichi; Tani, Toshikazu; Matsumoto, Toshio; Sakamoto, Michiko; Nakasu, Masanori

    2012-11-01

    Superporous hydroxyapatite (HAp-S) is a novel bone substitute that contains three-dimensionally interconnected macropores with micropores, which stimulate bone ingrowth into the material. We investigated the in vivo behaviour of HAp-S by comparing its bioactivity and biomechanical properties with beta-tricalcium phosphates (β-TCP). HAp-S or β-TCP was implanted in the lateral femoral condyle of rabbits. In vivo bioactivity of each material, including bone ingrowth and material resorption, was quantitatively evaluated by micro-CT and the ultimate compressive strength of the bone-material composite was also measured. Micro-CT showed that bone ingrowth in the HAp-S group significantly increased over time, while no significant increase was observed after 8 weeks in the β-TCP group. Although both materials showed gradual material resorption, β-TCP resorption was significantly greater than HAp-S. The ultimate compressive strength in the HAp-S group significantly increased over time up to six times its original value, while there was no significant increase in the β-TCP group. These results show that HAp-S resorption is concurrent with bone ingrowth, resulting in increasing compressive strength over 12 weeks. On the other hand, β-TCP resorption is fast but unaccompanied by bone ingrowth; consequently, it remains relatively fragile at least in the early period after implantation. Although these highly porous materials themselves are structurally and mechanically similar, there are significant differences in in vivo behaviour depending on the material composition. These findings should be kept in mind when choosing the highly porous ceramics.

  10. Aging and Curing Temperature Effects on Compressive Strength of Mortar Containing Lime Stone Quarry Dust and Industrial Granite Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Muhammad Nasir; Khan, Kaffayatullah; Saleem, Muhammad Umair; Khurram, Nauman; Niazi, Muhammad Umar Khan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the researchers investigated the potential use of locally available waste materials from the lime stone quarry and the granite industry as a partial replacement of cement. Quarry sites and granite industry in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia produces tons of powder wastes in the form of quarry dust (QD) and granite sludge (GS), respectively, causing serious environmental problems along with frequent dust storms in the area. According to ASTM C109, identical 50-mm3 specimens were cast throughout this study to evaluate the compressive strength development of mortars (7, 28 and 91 days) containing these waste materials. Experimental variables included different percentage replacement of cement with waste materials (GS, QD), fineness of GS, various curing temperatures (20, 40 and 60 °C as local normal and hot environmental temperatures) and curing moisture (continuously moist and partially moist followed by air curing). Finally, the results of mortar containing waste materials were compared to corresponding results of control mortar (CM) and mortar containing fly ash (FA). The test results indicated that under normal curing (20 °C, moist cured), the compressive strength of mortar containing the different percentage of waste materials (QD, GS, FA and their combinations) remained lower than that of CM at all ages. However, the compressive strength of mortar containing waste materials slightly increased with increased fineness of GS and significantly increased under high curing temperatures. It was recommended that more fineness of GS be achieved to use its high percentage replacement with cement (30% or more) incorporating local environmental conditions. PMID:28772999

  11. Aging and Curing Temperature Effects on Compressive Strength of Mortar Containing Lime Stone Quarry Dust and Industrial Granite Sludge.

    PubMed

    Amin, Muhammad Nasir; Khan, Kaffayatullah; Saleem, Muhammad Umair; Khurram, Nauman; Niazi, Muhammad Umar Khan

    2017-06-11

    In this study, the researchers investigated the potential use of locally available waste materials from the lime stone quarry and the granite industry as a partial replacement of cement. Quarry sites and granite industry in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia produces tons of powder wastes in the form of quarry dust (QD) and granite sludge (GS), respectively, causing serious environmental problems along with frequent dust storms in the area. According to ASTM C109, identical 50-mm3 specimens were cast throughout this study to evaluate the compressive strength development of mortars (7, 28 and 91 days) containing these waste materials. Experimental variables included different percentage replacement of cement with waste materials (GS, QD), fineness of GS, various curing temperatures (20, 40 and 60 °C as local normal and hot environmental temperatures) and curing moisture (continuously moist and partially moist followed by air curing). Finally, the results of mortar containing waste materials were compared to corresponding results of control mortar (CM) and mortar containing fly ash (FA). The test results indicated that under normal curing (20 °C, moist cured), the compressive strength of mortar containing the different percentage of waste materials (QD, GS, FA and their combinations) remained lower than that of CM at all ages. However, the compressive strength of mortar containing waste materials slightly increased with increased fineness of GS and significantly increased under high curing temperatures. It was recommended that more fineness of GS be achieved to use its high percentage replacement with cement (30% or more) incorporating local environmental conditions.

  12. Evaluation of Compressive Strength and Stiffness of Grouted Soils by Using Elastic Waves

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Mo; Kim, Jong-Sun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2014-01-01

    Cement grouted soils, which consist of particulate soil media and cementation agents, have been widely used for the improvement of the strength and stiffness of weak ground and for the prevention of the leakage of ground water. The strength, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio of grouted soils have been determined by classical destructive methods. However, the performance of grouted soils depends on several parameters such as the distribution of particle size of the particulate soil media, grouting pressure, curing time, curing method, and ground water flow. In this study, elastic wave velocities are used to estimate the strength and elastic modulus, which are generally obtained by classical strength tests. Nondestructive tests by using elastic waves at small strain are conducted before and during classical strength tests at large strain. The test results are compared to identify correlations between the elastic wave velocity measured at small strain and strength and stiffness measured at large strain. The test results show that the strength and stiffness have exponential relationship with elastic wave velocities. This study demonstrates that nondestructive methods by using elastic waves may significantly improve the strength and stiffness evaluation processes of grouted soils. PMID:25025082

  13. Use of Nano-SiO2 to Improve Microstructure and Compressive Strength of Recycled Aggregate Concretes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, P.; Booshehrian, A.; Delkash, M.; Ghavami, S.; Zanjani, M. K.

    The purpose of this paper is to provide new type of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) incorporating nano-SiO2. In particular, we investigate the effects of colloidal nano-silica solution on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. The main variables included the dosage of nano-silica (including 0%, 1.5%, and 3% of cement content) and the cement content of the concrete (including 400 and 450 kg/m3). Results were compared with plain concretes. Tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties (compressive strength) and microstructure (SEM test) of the concretes.

  14. Effect of impact damage and open holes on the compression strength of tough resin/high strain fiber laminates. [graphite-epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Structural damage and design-based inclusions such as cutouts can reduce significantly the strength of graphite-epoxy laminates. One composite mechanics research activity at the Langley Research Center is to assess and improve the performance of composite structures in strength are common to both tension and compression loaded laminates; however, the problem associated with compression performance is the most illusive to solve. Compression failure involves both shear crippling and delamination modes. Several graphite-epoxy material systems proposed for improved damage-tolerance were studied. Material parameters included both tough resin formulations and high strain fibers.

  15. The influence of test piece preparation on the compressive strength of unidirectional fiber-reinforced plastic

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberle, J.G. ); Matthews, F.L. . Centre for Composite Materials)

    1994-07-01

    During a wide-ranging experimental study of compression testing of unidirectional fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP), covering several materials and test methods, if became apparent that the variability of data could be reduced by adopting a rigorous and consistent approach to all phases of specimen productions. Details are given of the procedures adopted, together with results from an associated parameter study.

  16. Effect of shear strength on Hugoniot-compression curve and the equation of state of tungsten (W)

    SciTech Connect

    Mashimo, Tsutomu Liu, Xun; Kodama, Masao; Zaretsky, Eugene; Katayama, Masahide; Nagayama, Kunihiko

    2016-01-21

    The Hugoniot data for highly dense polycrystalline tungsten were obtained for pressures above 200 GPa, and the equation of state (EOS) was determined taking into account shear strength effects. For this study, we have made some improvements in measurement system and analyses of the shock wave data. Symmetric-impact Hugoniot measurements were performed using the high-time resolution streak camera system equipped on a one-stage powder gun and two-stage light gas gun, where the effects of tilting and bowing of flyer plate on the Hugoniot data were carefully considered. The shock velocity–particle velocity (U{sub S}–U{sub P}) Hugoniot relation in the plastic regime was determined to be U{sub S} = 4.137 + 1.242U{sub P} km/s (U{sub P} < 2 km/s). Ultrasonic and Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector measurements were also performed in this study. The zero-intercept value of the U{sub S}–U{sub P} Hugoniot relation was found to be slightly larger than the ultrasonic bulk sound velocity (4.023 km/s). The hypothetical hydrostatic isothermal U{sub s}–U{sub p} Hugoniot curve, which corresponds to the hydrostatic isothermal compression curve derived from the Hugoniot data using the strength data, converged to the bulk sound velocity, clearly showing shear strength dependence in the Hugoniot data. The EOS for tungsten is derived from the hydrostatic isothermal compression curve using the strength data.

  17. Handbook of structural stability part V : compressive strength of flat stiffened panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerard, George

    1957-01-01

    A generalized crippling analysis for short monolithic panels with formed or extruded stiffeners is presented. Methods are presented for determining if riveted panels act in a monolithic manner and for determining the strength of those which do not. The failure modes of intermediate-length and long stiffened panels are discussed and methods given for estimating column strength. Theory and test data on optimum stiffened panels are presented and the various factors of importance in box types of construction are considered.

  18. The Strength of Single Crystal Copper under Uniaxial Shock Compression at Mbar pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, W; Higginbotham, A; Kimminau, G; Barbrel, B; Bringa, E; Hawreliak, J; Koenig, M; McBarron, W; Meyers, M; Nagler, B; Ozaki, N; Park, N; Remington, B; Rothman, S; Vinko, S M; Whitcher, T; Wark, J

    2009-05-21

    In situ x-ray diffraction has been used to measure the shear strain (and thus strength) of single crystal copper shocked to Mbar pressures along the [001] and [111] axes. These direct shear strain measurements indicate shear strengths at these ultra-high strain rates (of order 10{sup 9} s{sup -1}) of a few GPa, which are both broadly in agreement with the extrapolation of lower strain-rate data and with non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations.

  19. An extrapolation method for compressive strength prediction of hydraulic cement products

    SciTech Connect

    Siqueira Tango, C.E. de

    1998-07-01

    The basis for the AMEBA Method is presented. A strength-time function is used to extrapolate the predicted cementitious material strength for a late (ALTA) age, based on two earlier age strengths--medium (MEDIA) and low (BAIXA) ages. The experimental basis for the method is data from the IPT-Brazil laboratory and the field, including a long-term study on concrete, research on limestone, slag, and fly-ash additions, and quality control data from a cement factory, a shotcrete tunnel lining, and a grout for structural repair. The method applicability was also verified for high-performance concrete with silica fume. The formula for predicting late age (e.g., 28 days) strength, for a given set of involved ages (e.g., 28,7, and 2 days) is normally a function only of the two earlier ages` (e.g., 7 and 2 days) strengths. This equation has been shown to be independent on materials variations, including cement brand, and is easy to use also graphically. Using the AMEBA method, and only needing to know the type of cement used, it has been possible to predict strengths satisfactorily, even without the preliminary tests which are required in other methods.

  20. An experimental investigation into the damage resistance and compression-after-impact strength of T800H/3900-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vietinghoff, H.; Poon, C.; Straznicky, P. V.; Gould, R.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted into impact behavior of a Toray T800H/3900-2 material system, a system representative of the most recent generation of toughened graphite-epoxy composites selected for use in several new airframes. In the investigation, test specimens featuring quasi-isotropic and midplane symmetric layup with 24 plies were fabricated and impacted at five different impact energy levels, resulting in damage ranging from barely visible to severe. Damage was characterized using nondestructive and destructive inspection, including ultrasound and x-ray techniques, and the specimens were then compressively loaded to failure. The carefully controlled set of experiments resulted in a detailed three dimensional characterization of the damage induced in the selected laminate layup for a range of impact energies. Compression after impact testing resulted in a correlation of impact energy and damage area with residual compressive strength. The results will be used to calibrate and test the analytical prediction methods being developed as part of a project on impact resistance and tolerance of composite materials, and as reference data on the material system.

  1. Study of Compressive Strength of SiC In Impact Experiments with Divergent Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Vitaly; Frage, Naum; Zaretsky, Eugene

    2009-06-01

    The axisymmetric divergent flow was generated in SiC specimens by impact of spherical (radius of curvature ranging from 170 to 550 mm) copper impactors having velocities 550 to 700 m/s. The specimen-window (sapphire) interface velocities or the velocities of the free surface of the nickel witness plate were continuously monitored by VISAR. The maximum, just prior to the failure, shear stress values achieved in the SiC under different confining stresses are associated with the failure threshold of the material. Both the compressive failure threshold of SiC and the parameters of its inelastic deformation were found by matching the results of the AUTODYN numerical simulation to the experimentally obtained waveforms. The compressive failure threshold of SiC is characterized by a transition from apparently pressure-dependent behavior below the confining stress equal to 1.5 GPa to a pressure-independent behavior at higher confining stresses.

  2. Strength Anisotropy of Berea Sandstone: Results of X-Ray Computed Tomography, Compression Tests, and Discrete Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang Yeom; Zhuang, Li; Yang, Hwayoung; Kim, Hanna; Min, Ki-Bok

    2016-04-01

    Berea sandstone in northern Ohio is a transversely isotropic rock. X-ray CT investigations showed that its internal structure is composed of cross-bedded loose layers and relatively thin tightly packed layers called bedding. Uniaxial compression tests were performed on different Berea sandstone specimens. The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) decreases with increasing porosity, and also decreases with increasing inclination of the bedding plane relative to horizontal line. Two-dimensional discrete modeling was applied to investigate the micromechanical behavior of Berea sandstone. Different microparameters were assigned to loose and tight layers. The UCS simulation results agree well with the experimental results. At the peak stress, cracks almost always develop in loose layers regardless of the bedding plane orientation. In addition, both normal and shear cracks occur earlier for specimens with a higher inclination angle. No correlations were found between the inclination angle of failure planes and the orientation of bedding planes. The bedding planes of Berea sandstone are not weak planes. The strength anisotropy of Berea sandstone is not significant compared with other rocks such as shale, gneiss, and schist.

  3. Comparison of compressive strength among three different intracanal post materials in primary anterior teeth: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Nilavarasan, Nilavu; Hemalatha, R.; Vijayakumar, R.; Hariharan, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of our study was to compare the fracture resistance and the mode of failure among three different post materials in primary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of sixty extracted primary anterior teeth were selected for the study. The samples were divided into three groups of twenty teeth each: Group I (Ribbond), Group II (Omega loop), and Group III (Glass fiber post). Pulp therapy was followed by intracanal post and crown buildup. The samples were mounted in self-cure acrylic and subjected to compressive strength test using universal testing machine (Instron). The maximum force at which the tooth fractured was recorded. Results: The values were subjected to one-way analysis of variance. The mean compressive strength values of Ribbond, omega loop, and glass fiber post were found to be 83.25 N, 61.60 N, and 75.55 N, respectively. The P value was found to be 0.220. Conclusion: Group I (Ribbond) showed the highest fracture resistance values followed by Group III (Glass fiber post) and Group II (Omega loop). Although there is difference in mean values, they were nonsignificant. PMID:28042259

  4. Fundamental Study of Compressive Strength Development in PAN-Based Carbon Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-20

    number) Evolution of mechanical properties in the conversion of two precursor polymeric fibers to carbon fibers has been studied. The focus has been on...of morphology and compressive properties in the formation of carbon fibers from polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based precursor polymers constitutes the major...carbon fibers. The motivation here has been to explore not only the evolutionary aspects in the conversion of current commercial precursors , but also

  5. Correlation of the Buckling Strength of Pressurized Cylinders in Compression or Bending with Structural Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, James P.

    1960-01-01

    The data on nonpressurized cylinders in bending of NACA TN 3735 and the data on pressurized cylinders in compression and bending of NASA TN D-360 are correlated with structural parameters by using small-deflection buckling theory and reduced values for the extensional stiffness of the cylinder wall. The correlating procedure should prove useful in future shell-buckling investigations by reducing the number of tests required.

  6. Radius bone strength in bending, compression, and falling and its correlation with clinical densitometry at multiple sites.

    PubMed

    Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Lill, Christoph A; Kuhn, Volker; Schneider, Erich; Eckstein, Felix

    2002-09-01

    This study comprehensively analyzes the ability of site-specific and nonsite-specific clinical densitometric techniques for predicting mechanical strength of the distal radius in different loading configurations. DXA of the distal forearm, spine, femur, and total body and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measurements of the distal radius (4, 20, and 33%) were obtained in situ (with soft tissues) in 129 cadavers, aged 80.16 +/- 9.8 years. Spinal QCT and calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) were performed ex situ in degassed specimens. The left radius was tested in three-point bending and axial compression, and the right forearm was tested in a fall configuration, respectively. Correlation coefficients with radius DXA were r = 0.89, 0.84, and 0.70 for failure in three-point bending, axial compression, and the fall simulation, respectively. The correlation with pQCT (r = 0.75 for multiple regression models with the fall) was not significantly higher than for DXA. Nonsite-specific measurements and calcaneal QUS displayed significantly (p < 0.01) lower correlation coefficients, and QUS did only contribute to the prediction of axial failure stress but not of failure load. We conclude that a combination of pQCT parameters involves only marginal improvement in predicting mechanical strength of the distal radius, nonsite-specific measurements are less accurate for this purpose, and QUS adds only little independent information to site-specific bone mass. Therefore, the noninvasive diagnosis of loss of strength at the distal radius should rely on site-specific measurements with DXA or pQCT and may be the earliest chance to detect individuals at risk of osteoporotic fracture.

  7. The strength of single crystal copper under uniaxial shock compression at 100 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, W. J.; Higginbotham, A.; Kimminau, G.; Barbrel, B.; Bringa, E. M.; Hawreliak, J.; Kodama, R.; Koenig, M.; McBarron, W.; Meyers, M. A.; Nagler, B.; Ozaki, N.; Park, N.; Remington, B.; Rothman, S.; Vinko, S. M.; Whitcher, T.; Wark, J. S.

    2010-02-01

    In situ x-ray diffraction has been used to measure the shear strain (and thus strength) of single crystal copper shocked to 100 GPa pressures at strain rates over two orders of magnitude higher than those achieved previously. For shocks in the [001] direction there is a significant associated shear strain, while shocks in the [111] direction give negligible shear strain. We infer, using molecular dynamics simulations and VISAR (standing for 'velocity interferometer system for any reflector') measurements, that the strength of the material increases dramatically (to ~1 GPa) for these extreme strain rates.

  8. Irreversible volume expansion of a TATB-based composite and compressive strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Darla Graff; Schwarz, Ricardo B.; DeLuca, Racci

    2017-01-01

    It has long been known that compacted composites containing TATB (triaminotrinitrobenzene) crystals undergo "ratchet growth," an irreversible volume expansion upon thermal cycling. A clear mechanism has not been established for this phenomenon, but is believed to arise from the highly-anisotropic CTE of TATB crystals and interactions caused by compaction. Explosive performance depends fundamentally on bulk density, so the effect may be important. PBX 9502 is a plastic bonded explosive containing 95 wt% TATB crystals. We have monitored uniaxial length changes of PBX 9502 specimens for various thermal cycles providing mechanistic insight. Post-cycled specimens were compression tested to determine if mechanical properties correlated with the detailed thermal history.

  9. The Influence of GI and GII on the Compression After Impact Strength of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminates and Sandwich Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.; Scharber, L. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study measured the compression after impact strength of IM7 carbon fiber laminates made from epoxy resins with various mode I and mode II toughness values to observe the effects of these toughness values on the resistance to damage formation and subsequent residual compression strength-carrying capabilities. Both monolithic laminates and sandwich structure were evaluated. A total of seven different epoxy resin systems were used ranging in approximate GI values of 245-665 J/sq m and approximate GII values of 840-2275 J/sq m. The results for resistance to impact damage formation showed that there was a direct correlation between GII and the planar size of damage, as measured by thermography. Subsequent residual compression strength testing suggested that GI had no influence on the measured values and most of the difference in compression strength was directly related to the size of damage. Thus, delamination growth assumed as an opening type of failure mechanism does not appear to be responsible for loss of compression strength in the specimens examined in this study.

  10. Elevated Temperature, Residual Compressive Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Structure Manufactured Out-of-Autoclave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Sutter, James K.; Burke, Eric R.; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Gyekenyesi, Thomas G.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.

    2012-01-01

    Several 1/16th-scale curved sandwich composite panel sections of a 10 m diameter barrel were fabricated to demonstrate the manufacturability of large-scale curved sections using minimum gauge, [+60/-60/0]s, toughened epoxy composite facesheets co-cured with low density (50 kilograms per cubic meters) aluminum honeycomb core. One of these panels was fabricated out of autoclave (OoA) by the vacuum bag oven (VBO) process using Cycom(Registered Trademark) T40-800b/5320-1 prepreg system while another panel with the same lay-up and dimensions was fabricated using the autoclave-cure, toughened epoxy prepreg system Cycom(Registered Trademark) IM7/977-3. The resulting 2.44 m x 2 m curved panels were investigated by non-destructive evaluation (NDE) at NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) to determine initial fabrication quality and then cut into smaller coupons for elevated temperature wet (ETW) mechanical property characterization. Mechanical property characterization of the sandwich coupons was conducted including edge-wise compression (EWC), and compression-after-impact (CAI) at conditions ranging from 25 C/dry to 150 C/wet. The details and results of this characterization effort are presented in this paper.

  11. The influence of different radiopacifying agents on the radiopacity, compressive strength, setting time, and porosity of Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Medigovic, Ivana; Zrilic, Milorad; Jokic, Bojan; Vukovic, Zorica; Todorovic, Ljubomir

    2014-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the radiopacity, compressive strength, setting time, and porosity of white Portland cement (PC) with the addition of bismuth oxide (Bi2O3), zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), and ytterbium trifluoride (YbF3) after immersion at 37 °C for 7 days in distilled water or phosphate buffer saline. Specimens measuring 8 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness were fabricated from PC with the addition of 10, 20, and 30 wt% Bi2O3, ZrO2 or YbF3. ProRoot MTA (Dentsply, Tulsa, OK, USA) and pure PC were used as controls. For radiopacity assessments, specimens were radiographed alongside a tooth slices and an aluminum stepwedge on Extraspeed occlusal dental films (Insight Kodak, Rochester, New York). Mean optical density of each specimen was calculated and used to express radiopacity of the material as an equivalent thickness of aluminum. Compressive strength was measured by using 4-mm diameter and 6-mm high specimens and Universal testing machine. High-pressure mercury intrusion porosimeter (Carlo Erba Porosimeter 2000) was employed to measure the porosity of the specimens. The setting time was measured by using a needle of 100 g in weight. The morphology of specimens was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (TESCAN Mira3 XMU, USA Inc.). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey test (P < 0.05). The PC with the addition of at least 10 wt% Bi2O3 and 20 wt% ZrO2 or YbF3 demonstrated greater radiopacity value than the recommended 3 mmAl cut-off. ZrO2 and YbF3 increased the compressive strength of PC, but it was not statistically significant (P > 0.05), while Bi2O3 decreased it (P < 0.05). All radiopacifiers significantly increased the porosity of the experimental cements (P < 0.05). Bi2O3 extended the setting time of PC (P < 0.05), whilst ZrO2 and YbF3 did not significantly affect it (P > 0.05). ZrO2 and YbF3 may be used as a suitable alternative to replace Bi2O3 in MTA without influencing its physical properties.

  12. The Effect of Healing on the Brittle Compressive Strength of Ice that Contains Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nodder, Stephen Thomas

    We report the parameters that affect the healing of Columbic (C) faulted (or analogue) S2 columnar ice and the effect that healing has on the resistance to frictional sliding. Healing is defined as the restoration of mechanical strength to an interface in ice during periods of dormancy when the driving forces for sliding along the interface falls below the level required for continuous sliding. Damaged laboratory grown polycrystalline specimens of ice, freshwater and saline, were tested under a variety of conditions (biaxial confining stresses (60kPa to 750 kPa), biaxial confinement times (3s to 18 hours), temperatures (-3°C to -30°C), three surface roughnesses) to explore the effect of these parameters on healing. The damage was imparted as a C-fault created under low confinement or as a fault made using a bandsaw cut (termed saw-cut fault) or as a smoothed bandsaw cut (termed smooth fault). Healing was quantified through the uniaxial fracture strength, as defined by the maximum force before failure divided by the area over which that force was applied. The uniaxial fracture strengths show that the degree of healing is dependent upon time, temperature, confinement, and salinity but not dependent on roughness. The greater the degree of healing, the more the ice behaves like virgin material in that the failure strength approaches that for undamaged ice and the failure plane becomes less dependent on the pre-existing fault. Biaxial confinement experiments allowed for healing to be quantified by the resistance to sliding, i.e. as a friction coefficient. These experiments illustrate that the friction coefficient is dependent on both the magnitude of the healing force and the length of time the specimen is held under biaxial confinement. We show that the underlying mechanism involved in healing is pressure sintering caused by the creep of connecting asperities.

  13. Effect of SrCO3 addition on the dynamic compressive strength of ZTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arab, Ali; Ahmad, Roslan; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin

    2016-04-01

    Ceramic parts usually experience dynamic load in armor applications. Therefore, studying the dynamic behaviors of ceramics is important. Limited data are available on the dynamic behaviors of ceramics; thus, it is helpful to predict the dynamic strength of ceramics on the basis of their mechanical properties. In this paper, the addition of SrCO3 into zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) was demonstrated to improve the fracture toughness of ZTA due to the formation of the SrAl12O19 (SA6) phase. The porosity of ZTA was found to be increased by the addition of SrCO3. These newly formed pores served as the nucleation sites of cracks under dynamic load; these cracks eventually coalesced to form damaged zones in the samples. Although the K IC values of the samples were improved, the dynamic strength was not enhanced because of the increase in porosity; in fact, the dynamic strength of ZTA ceramics decreased with the addition of SrCO3.

  14. Spall strength and ejecta production of gold under explosively driven shock wave compression

    SciTech Connect

    La Lone, B. M.; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; Veeser, L. R.; Holtkamp, D. B.

    2013-12-16

    Explosively driven shock wave experiments were conducted to characterize the spall strength and ejecta production of high-purity cast gold samples. The samples were from 0.75 to 1.84 mm thick and 30 mm in diameter. Peak stresses up to 44 GPa in gold were generated using PBX-9501 high explosive. Sample free surface and ejecta velocities were recorded using photonic Doppler velocimetry techniques. Lithium niobate pins were used to quantify the time dependence of the ejecta density and the total ejected mass. An optical framing camera for time-resolved imaging and a single-image x-ray radiograph were used for additional characterization. Free surface velocities exhibited a range of spall strengths from 1.7 to 2.4 GPa (mean: 2.0 ±0.3 GPa). The pullback signals were faint, minimal ringing was observed in the velocity records, and the spall layer continued to decelerate after first pull back. These results suggest finite tensile strength was present for some time after the initial void formation. Ejecta were observed for every sample with a roughened free surface, and the ejecta density increased with increased surface roughness, which was different in every experiment. The total ejected mass is consistent with the missing mass model.

  15. Shape memory and transformation behavior of high strength 60NiTi in compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, I.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the transformation behavior of highly Ni-rich 60NiTi alloys after aging at 600 °C for 3 h. After 600 °C-3h aging, R-phase disappeared and alloy transformed in one step. The latent heats of austenite to martensite and martensite to austenite transformations were 13 Jg-1 and 16.4 Jg-1, respectively, for 600 °C-3h aged alloy. The elastic strain energy of 0.75 Jg-1 was obtained in aged alloy. The maximum recoverable transformation strain of 1.7% is obtained under 500 MPa in compression. The superelastic behavior was observed accompanied with a recoverable strain of 1.4%, even high stress level of 1000 MPa is applied.

  16. Optimizing the Compressive Strength of Strain-Hardenable Stretch-Formed Microtruss Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bosco; Abu Samk, Khaled; Hibbard, Glenn D.

    2015-05-01

    The mechanical performance of stretch-formed microtrusses is determined by both the internal strut architecture and the accumulated plastic strain during fabrication. The current study addresses the question of optimization, by taking into consideration the interdependency between fabrication path, material properties and architecture. Low carbon steel (AISI1006) and aluminum (AA3003) material systems were investigated experimentally, with good agreement between measured values and the analytical model. The compressive performance of the microtrusses was then optimized on a minimum weight basis under design constraints such as fixed starting sheet thickness and final microtruss height by satisfying the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker condition. The optimization results were summarized as carpet plots in order to meaningfully visualize the interdependency between architecture, microstructural state, and mechanical performance, enabling material and processing path selection.

  17. Effects of altered crystalline structure and increased initial compressive strength of calcium sulfate bone graft substitute pellets on new bone formation.

    PubMed

    Urban, Robert M; Turner, Thomas M; Hall, Deborah J; Infanger, Susan I; Cheema, Naveed; Lim, Tae-Hong; Moseley, Jon; Carroll, Michael; Roark, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A new, modified calcium sulfate has been developed with a different crystalline structure and a compressive strength similar to many calcium phosphate materials, but with a resorption profile only slightly slower than conventional surgical-grade calcium sulfate. A canine bilateral defect model was used to compare restoration of defects treated with the modified calcium sulfate compared to treatment using conventional calcium sulfate pellets after 6, 13, and 26 weeks. The modified calcium sulfate pellets were as effective as conventional calcium sulfate pellets with regard to the area fraction and compressive strength of newly formed bone in the treated bone defects. Mechanical testing demonstrated that the initial compressive strength of the modified material was increased nearly three-fold compared to that of conventional surgical-grade calcium sulfate. This increase potentially allows for its use in a broader range of clinical applications, such as vertebral and subchondral defects.

  18. The Influence of Multiple Nested Layer Waviness on the Compression Strength of Double Nested Wave Formations in a Carbon Fiber Composite Laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Z. M.; Adams, D. O.; Anas, S.

    2016-01-01

    As advanced composite materials having superior physical and mechanical properties are being developed, the optimization of their processing techniques is eagerly sought. One of the most common defects arising during processing of structural composites is layer waviness. The layer waviness is more pronounced in thick-section flat and cylindrical laminates, which are extensively used in large wind turbine blades, submersibles, and space platforms. The layer waviness undulates the entire layer of a multidirectional laminate in the throughthe-thickness direction, leading to a gross deterioration of its compressive strength. This research investigates the influence of multiple layer waviness in a double nest formation on the compression strength of a composite laminate. Different wave fractions of wavy 0° layers were fabricated in an IM/8551-7 carbon-epoxy composite laminate on a steel mold by using a single-step fabrication procedure. The test laminates were cured on a heated press according to the specific curing cycle of epoxy. Their static compression testing was performed using a NASA short block compression fixture on an MTS servohydraulic machine. The purpose of these tests was to determine the effects of multiple layer wave regions on the compression strength of the composite laminate. The experimental and analytical results obtained revealed that the reduction in the compression strength of composite laminate was constant after the fraction of the wavy 0° layers exceeded 35%. This analysis indicated that the percentage of the 0° wavy layer may be used to estimate the reduction in the compression strength of a double nested wave formation in a composite laminate.

  19. Novel tricalcium silicate/magnesium phosphate composite bone cement having high compressive strength, in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjuan; Zhai, Dong; Huan, Zhiguang; Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Although inorganic bone cements such as calcium phosphate cements have been widely applied in orthopaedic and dental fields because of their self-setting ability, development of high-strength bone cement with bioactivity and biodegradability remains a major challenge. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to prepare a tricalcium silicate/magnesium phosphate (C3S/MPC) composite bone cement, which is intended to combine the excellent bioactivity of C3S with remarkable self-setting properties and mechanical strength of MPC. The self-setting and mechanical properties, in vitro induction of apatite formation and degradation behaviour, and cytocompatibility of the composite cements were investigated. Our results showed that the C3S/MPC composite cement with an optimal composition had compressive strength up to 87 MPa, which was significantly higher than C3S (25 MPa) and MPC (64 MPa). The setting time could be adjusted between 3 min and 29 min with the variation of compositions. The hydraulic reaction products of the C3S/MPC composite cement were composed of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) derived from the hydration of C3S and gel-like amorphous substance. The C3S/MPC composite cements could induce apatite mineralization on its surface in SBF solution and degraded gradually in Tris-HCl solution. Besides, the composite cements showed good cytocompatibility and stimulatory effect on the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. Our results indicated that the C3S/MPC composite bone cement might be a new promising high-strength inorganic bioactive material which may hold the potential for bone repair in load-bearing site.

  20. Changes in Mineralogy, Microstructure, Compressive Strength and Intrinsic Permeability of Two Sedimentary Rocks Subjected to High-Temperature Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianfeng; Yuan, Shengyang; Sieffert, Yannick; Fityus, Stephen; Buzzi, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    This study falls in the context of underground coal fires where burning coal can elevate the temperature of a rock mass in excess of 1000°. The objective of the research is to experimentally characterize the change in mechanical behaviour, mineralogy and microstructural texture of two sedimentary rocks when subjected to temperatures up to 1200 °C for 24 h. Specimens of local sandstone and mudstone were comprehensively characterized by X-ray diffraction and thermal-gravimetric analysis. These analyses were complemented by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy on polished thin sections. In addition, pore size distributions of these heated rocks were inferred by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry. These results were extended to an estimation of the intrinsic permeability using the Katz-Thompson model. Investigations at micro scale were followed by mechanical testing (both unconfined and confined compression tests) on cylindrical specimens of heated rocks. Results show that the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of both rock types tends to increase when the temperatures increases up to 900 °C, beyond which the UCS tends to slightly decrease. As for the permeability, a clear increase in intrinsic permeability was observed for both rocks. The macroscopic behaviour was found to be fully consistent with the changes observed at micro scale.

  1. The strength of ruby from X-ray diffraction under non-hydrostatic compression to 68 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Haini; Dorfman, Susannah M.; Wang, Jianghua; He, Duanwei; Duffy, Thomas S.

    2014-07-01

    Polycrystalline ruby (α-Al2O3:Cr3+), a widely used pressure calibrant in high-pressure experiments, was compressed to 68.1 GPa at room temperature under non-hydrostatic conditions in a diamond anvil cell. Angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction experiments in a radial geometry were conducted at beamline X17C of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The stress state of ruby at high pressure and room temperature was analyzed based on the measured lattice strain. The differential stress of ruby increases with pressure from ~3.4 % of the shear modulus at 18.5 GPa to ~6.5 % at 68.1 GPa. The polycrystalline ruby sample can support a maximum differential stress of ~16 GPa at 68.1 GPa under non-hydrostatic compression. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the mechanical properties of this important material for high-pressure science. From a synthesis of existing data for strong ceramic materials, we find that the high-pressure yield strength correlates well with the ambient pressure Vickers hardness.

  2. Fracture toughness, compressive strength and load-bearing capacity of short glass fibre-reinforced composite resin.

    PubMed

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the reinforcing effect of short E-glass fibre fillers on fracture related mechanical properties of dental composite resin with a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) polymer matrix. Experimental short fibre composite (FC) resin was prepared by mixing 22.5 wt% of short E-glass fibres, 22.5 wt% of IPN-resin and 55 wt% of silane treated silica fillers using a high speed mixing machine. Test specimens were made bar shaped (3 × 6 × 25 mm3), cylindrical (6 mm length × 3 mm diameter) and cubic (9.5 × 5.5 × 3 mm3) from the experimental FC resin and conventional particulate composite resin (Grandio) as control. The test specimens (n = 8) were either dry stored or water stored (37°C for 30 days) before the mechanical tests. A three-point loading test and compression test were carried out according to ISO 10477 and a static loading test was carried out using a steel ball (Ø 3.0 mm) with a speed of 1.0 mm/min until fracture. Experimental fibre composite had a significantly higher mechanical performance for fracture toughness (14 MNm-1.5), compression strength (129 MPa) and static load-bearing capacity (1584 N) than the control composite (2 MNm-1.5, 112 MPa and 1031 N). The resin with short E-glass fibre fillers and IPN-polymer matrix yielded improved mechanical performance compared to the conventional particulate composite resin.

  3. Solidification/stabilization of ASR fly ash using Thiomer material: Optimization of compressive strength and heavy metals leaching.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jin Woong; Choi, Angelo Earvin Sy; Park, Hung Suck

    2017-09-18

    Optimization studies of a novel and eco-friendly construction material, Thiomer, was investigated in the solidification/stabilization of automobile shredded residue (ASR) fly ash. A D-optimal mixture design was used to evaluate and optimize maximum compressive strength and heavy metals leaching by varying Thiomer (20-40wt%), ASR fly ash (30-50wt%) and sand (20-40wt%). The analysis of variance was utilized to determine the level of significance of each process parameters and interactions. The microstructure of the solidified materials was taken from a field emission-scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy that confirmed successful Thiomer solidified ASR fly ash due to reduced pores and gaps in comparison with an untreated ASR fly ash. The X-ray diffraction detected the enclosed materials on the ASR fly ash primarily contained sulfur associated crystalline complexes. Results indicated the optimal conditions of 30wt% Thiomer, 30wt% ASR fly ash and 40wt% sand reached a compressive strength of 54.9MPa. For the optimum results in heavy metals leaching, 0.0078mg/LPb, 0.0260mg/L Cr, 0.0007mg/LCd, 0.0020mg/L Cu, 0.1027mg/L Fe, 0.0046mg/L Ni and 0.0920mg/L Zn were leached out, being environmentally safe due to being substantially lower than the Korean standard leaching requirements. The results also showed that Thiomer has superiority over the commonly used Portland cement asa binding material which confirmed its potential usage as an innovative approach to simultaneously synthesize durable concrete and satisfactorily pass strict environmental regulations by heavy metals leaching. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Use of steel fibres recovered from waste tyres as reinforcement in concrete: pull-out behaviour, compressive and flexural strength.

    PubMed

    Aiello, M A; Leuzzi, F; Centonze, G; Maffezzoli, A

    2009-06-01

    The increasing amount of waste tyres worldwide makes the disposition of tyres a relevant problem to be solved. In the last years over three million tons of waste tyres were generated in the EU states [ETRA, 2006. Tyre Technology International - Trends in Tyre Recycling. http://www.etra-eu.org]; most of them were disposed into landfills. Since the European Union Landfill Directive (EU Landfill, 1999) aims to significantly reduce the landfill disposal of waste tyres, the development of new markets for the tyres becomes fundamental. Recently some research has been devoted to the use of granulated rubber and steel fibres recovered from waste tyres in concrete. In particular, the concrete obtained by adding recycled steel fibres evidenced a satisfactory improvement of the fragile matrix, mostly in terms of toughness and post-cracking behaviour. As a consequence RSFRC (recycled steel fibres reinforced concrete) appears a promising candidate for both structural and non-structural applications. Within this context a research project was undertaken at the University of Salento (Italy) aiming to investigate the mechanical behaviour of concrete reinforced with RSF (recycled steel fibres) recovered from waste tyres by a mechanical process. In the present paper results obtained by the experimental work performed up to now are reported. In order to evaluate the concrete-fibres bond characteristics and to determine the critical fibre length, pull-out tests were initially carried out. Furthermore compressive strength of concrete was evaluated for different volume ratios of added RSF and flexural tests were performed to analyze the post-cracking behaviour of RSFRC. For comparison purposes, samples reinforced with industrial steel fibres (ISF) were also considered. Satisfactory results were obtained regarding the bond between recycled steel fibres and concrete; on the other hand compressive strength of concrete seems unaffected by the presence of fibres despite their irregular

  5. Fracture Energy-Based Brittleness Index Development and Brittleness Quantification by Pre-peak Strength Parameters in Rock Uniaxial Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, H.; Taheri, A.; Chanda, E. K.

    2016-12-01

    Brittleness is a fundamental mechanical rock property critical to many civil engineering works, mining development projects and mineral exploration operations. However, rock brittleness is a concept yet to be investigated as there is not any unique criterion available, widely accepted by rock engineering community able to describe rock brittleness quantitatively. In this study, new brittleness indices were developed based on fracture strain energy quantities obtained from the complete stress-strain characteristics of rocks. In doing so, different rocks having unconfined compressive strength values ranging from 7 to 215 MPa were examined in a series of quasi-static uniaxial compression tests after properly implementing lateral-strain control in a closed-loop system to apply axial load to rock specimen. This testing method was essential to capture post-peak regime of the rocks since a combination of class I-II or class II behaviour featured post-peak stress-strain behaviour. Further analysis on the post-peak strain localisation, stress-strain characteristics and the fracture pattern causing class I-II and class II behaviour were undertaken by analysing the development of field of strains in the rocks via three-dimensional digital image correlation. Analysis of the results demonstrated that pre-peak stress-strain brittleness indices proposed solely based on pre-peak stress-strain behaviour do not show any correlation with any of pre-peak rock mechanical parameters. On the other hand, the proposed brittleness indices based on pre-peak and post-peak stress-strain relations were found to competently describe an unambiguous brittleness scale against rock deformation and strength parameters such as the elastic modulus, the crack damage stress and the peak stress relevant to represent failure process.

  6. Compression testing spherical particles for strength: Theory of the meridian crack test and implementation for microscopic fused quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejchal, Václav; Žagar, Goran; Charvet, Raphaël; Dénéréaz, Cyril; Mortensen, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    We show that uniaxial compression testing of spherical particles can give unambiguous access to their tensile strength as governed by surface flaws if one uses pairs of elasto-plastic platens, tailoring their hardness in order to control the relative area of particle-to-platen contact during the test. This eliminates the development of contact microcracks that are typically found to govern particle fracture when hard platens are used. We show that, if the platen materials are well chosen, one can probe a range of stress states for which it is known that particle failure was initiated along the surface, under elevated hoop stress within a region situated remote from the points of load application. Specifically, platens must be chosen such that particles tend to fracture when the ratio of projected contact area radius to particle radius exceeds a specific value that depends on the Poisson ratio of the particles. With fused quartz of Poisson ratio 0.17, this specific ratio value equals 0.65. We demonstrate the approach using microscopic fused quartz spheres 40±20 μm in diameter as a testbench material; with those particles hardened steel serves as an appropriate platen material. Their strength values are statistically distributed; this is addressed using several platen materials. The resulting bank of data is interpreted using established survival-analysis methods, namely the non-parametric product-limit estimator. We also give a maximum likelihood estimation of the particle strength Weibull distribution parameters derived from the ensemble of data after left-truncation and/or right-censoring of data points situated inside of the range of unambiguous surface fracture strength measurement for each platen material. This gives a Weibull modulus of 6.3 and characteristic strength of 890 MPa for the fused quartz particles. These values are significantly lower than what is produced in high-strength fused quartz fibers of comparable diameter; the difference is most likely

  7. Strength and stability analysis of a single-walled black phosphorus tube under axial compression.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kun; Wan, Jing; Wei, Ning; Qin, Qing H

    2016-07-08

    Few-layered black phosphorus materials currently attract much attention due to their special electronic properties. As a consequence, a single-layer black phosphorus (SLBP) nanotube has been theoretically built. The corresponding electronic properties of such a black phosphorus nanotube (BPNT) were also evaluated numerically. However, unlike graphene formed with 2sp(2) covalent carbon atoms, SLBP is formed with 3sp(3) bonded atoms. It means that the structure from SLBP will possess lower Young's modulus and mechanical strength than those of carbon nanotubes. In this study, molecular dynamics simulation is performed to investigate the strength and stability of BPNTs affected by the factors of diameter, length, loading speed and temperature. Results are fundamental for investigating the other physical properties of a BPNT acting as a component in a nanodevice. For example, buckling of the BPNT happens earlier than fracture, before which the nanostructure has very small axial strain. For the same BPNT, a higher load speed results in lower critical axial strain and a nanotube with lower axial strain can still be stable at a higher temperature.

  8. Strength and stability analysis of a single-walled black phosphorus tube under axial compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Kun; Wan, Jing; Wei, Ning; Qin, Qing H.

    2016-07-01

    Few-layered black phosphorus materials currently attract much attention due to their special electronic properties. As a consequence, a single-layer black phosphorus (SLBP) nanotube has been theoretically built. The corresponding electronic properties of such a black phosphorus nanotube (BPNT) were also evaluated numerically. However, unlike graphene formed with 2sp2 covalent carbon atoms, SLBP is formed with 3sp3 bonded atoms. It means that the structure from SLBP will possess lower Young’s modulus and mechanical strength than those of carbon nanotubes. In this study, molecular dynamics simulation is performed to investigate the strength and stability of BPNTs affected by the factors of diameter, length, loading speed and temperature. Results are fundamental for investigating the other physical properties of a BPNT acting as a component in a nanodevice. For example, buckling of the BPNT happens earlier than fracture, before which the nanostructure has very small axial strain. For the same BPNT, a higher load speed results in lower critical axial strain and a nanotube with lower axial strain can still be stable at a higher temperature.

  9. Isothermal Volume Expansion of a TATB-Based Composite and the Effect on Compressive Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Darla; Schwarz, Ricardo; Deluca, Racci

    2015-06-01

    It has long been known that compacted composites containing TATB crystals undergo ``ratchet growth,'' an irreversible volume expansion upon thermal cycling. A mechanism has not been established but is believed to arise from the highly-anisotropic CTE of TATB crystals and the interactions caused by compaction. Because explosive performance depends fundamentally on bulk density, the details of this phenomenon are important to understand. PBX 9502 is a plastic bonded explosive containing 95 wt% TATB crystals. We have used a TA Instruments thermal mechanical analyzer (TMA) to monitor uniaxial length changes of PBX 9502 specimens as a function of temperature and thermal cycling. Previous ``ratchet growth'' work has focused on irreversible expansion as a function of temperature range and number of thermal cycles (1). In the work reported here, we demonstrate that irreversible growth also occurs during extended isothermal conditions and especially at elevated temperatures. We explore PBX 9502 irreversible expansion as a function of time and temperature, in the form of thermal ramps and holds. Post-test specimens are then subjected to quasi-static compression testing to determine whether the mechanical properties correlate with the final bulk density, or depend in a more complex way on the detailed thermal history of the specimen.

  10. Method of increasing the phase stability and the compressive yield strength of uranium-1 to 3 wt. % zirconium alloy

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    A uranium-1 to 3 wt. % zirconium alloy characterized by high strength, high ductility and stable microstructure is fabricated by an improved thermal mechanical process. A homogenous ingot of the alloy which has been reduced in thickness of at least 50% in the two-step forging operation, rolled into a plate with a 75% reduction and then heated in vacuum at a temperature of about 750.degree. to 850.degree. C. and then quenched in water is subjected to further thermal-mechanical operation steps to increase the compressive yield strength approximately 30%, stabilize the microstructure, and decrease the variations in mechanical properties throughout the plate is provided. These thermal-mechanical steps are achieved by cold rolling the quenched plate to reduce the thickness thereof about 8 to 12%, aging the cold rolled plate at a first temperature of about 325.degree. to 375.degree. C. for five to six hours and then aging the plate at a higher temperature ranging from 480.degree. to 500.degree. C. for five to six hours prior to cooling the billet to ambient conditions and sizing the billet or plate into articles provides the desired increase in mechanical properties and phase stability throughout the plate.

  11. The estimation of uniaxial compressive strength conversion factor of trona and interbeds from point load tests and numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, H.; Altinpinar, M.

    2017-07-01

    The point load (PL) test is generally used for estimation of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of rocks because of its economic advantages and simplicity in testing. If the PL index of a specimen is known, the UCS can be estimated using conversion factors. Several conversion factors have been proposed by various researchers and they are dependent upon the rock type. In the literature, conversion factors on different sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks can be found, but no study exists on trona. In this study, laboratory UCS and field PL tests were carried out on trona and interbeds of volcano-sedimentary rocks. Based on these tests, PL to UCS conversion factors of trona and interbeds are proposed. The tests were modeled numerically using a distinct element method (DEM) software, particle flow code (PFC), in an attempt to guide researchers having various types of modeling problems (excavation, cavern design, hydraulic fracturing, etc.) of the abovementioned rock types. Average PFC parallel bond contact model micro properties for the trona and interbeds were determined within this study so that future researchers can use them to avoid the rigorous PFC calibration procedure. It was observed that PFC overestimates the tensile strength of the rocks by a factor that ranges from 22 to 106.

  12. Strain anisotropy and shear strength of shock compressed tantalum from in-situ Laue diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrenberg, C.; Comley, A. J.; Rudd, R. E.; Terry, M.; Hawreliak, J.; Maddox, B. R.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A.

    2014-05-01

    Laser driven shock experiments were performed at the Omega facility to study the dynamic yield strength of ~5 μm thick single crystal tantalum using in-situ Laue diffraction. Tantalum samples were shocked along the [001] direction to peak stresses up to 50 GPa and probed using a 150 ps pulse of bremsstrahlung radiation from an imploding CH capsule x-ray source timed for when the shock was halfway through the sample. The capsule implosion was monitored by a combination of pinhole cameras and DANTE x-ray diode scopes. Diffraction spots for both the undriven and driven regions of the sample were recorded simultaneously on image plate detectors. The strain state of the material was found by combining the strain anisotropy found from the driven diffraction pattern and with simultaneous VISAR measurements.

  13. Phase transition and strength of vanadium under shock compression up to 88 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yuying Tan, Ye; Dai, Chengda; Li, Xuemei; Li, Yinghua; Wu, Qiang; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-17

    A series of reverse-impact experiments were performed on vanadium at shock pressure ranging from 32 GPa to 88 GPa. Particle velocity profiles measured at sample/LiF window interface were used to estimate the sound velocities, shear modulus, and yield stress in shocked vanadium. A phase transition at ∼60.5 GPa that may be the body-centered cubic (BCC) to rhombohedral structure was identified by the discontinuity of the sound velocity against shock pressure. This transition pressure is consistent with the results from diamond anvil cell (DAC) experiments and first-principle calculations. However, present results show that the rhombohedral phase has higher strength and shear modulus than the BCC phase, which is contrast to the findings from DAC experiments and theoretical work.

  14. Compression versus first shock strength in indirect-drive NIF implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landen, Otto; Celliers, Peter; Robey, Harry; Berzak Hopkins, Laura; Haan, Steve; Lindl, John

    2016-10-01

    NIF indirect-drive cryogenic DT implosions have used a variety of multi-shock pulse shapes to implode capsules with in-flight fuel adiabats ranging from 1.5 to 4. At a given design adiabat, the stagnated convergence ratio and fuel areal density inferred from the neutron image size and the ratio of downscattered to primary neutron yield shows variability that can be ascribed to shot-to-shot differences in shock timing, ablator dopant level and duration of coast phase. However, the locus of maxima in convergence and fuel areal density is shown to depend principally on the first shock strength that is measured by separate shock timing shots. No clear secondary dependence on hot electron preheat levels that vary by orders of magnitude between designs is observed. The scalings, which include all NIF indirect-drive implosions shot to date, are fitted using an analytic 1D implosion model. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Hierarchical order of influence of mix variables affecting compressive strength of sustainable concrete containing fly ash, copper slag, silica fume, and fibres.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Sakthieswaran; Karuppiah, Ganesan

    2014-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to study the effect of addition of fly ash, copper slag, and steel and polypropylene fibres on compressive strength of concrete and to determine the hierarchical order of influence of the mix variables in affecting the strength using cluster analysis experimentally. While fly ash and copper slag are used for partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate, respectively, defined quantities of steel and polypropylene fibres were added to the mixes. It is found from the experimental study that, in general, irrespective of the presence or absence of fibres, (i) for a given copper slag-fine aggregate ratio, increase in fly ash-cement ratio the concrete strength decreases and with the increase in copper slag-sand ratio also the rate of strength decrease and (ii) for a given fly ash-cement ratio, increase in copper slag-fine aggregate ratio increases the strength of the concrete. From the cluster analysis, it is found that the quantities of coarse and fine aggregate present have high influence in affecting the strength. It is also observed that the quantities of fly ash and copper slag used as substitutes have equal "influence" in affecting the strength. Marginal effect of addition of fibres in the compression strength of concrete is also revealed by the cluster analysis.

  16. Hierarchical Order of Influence of Mix Variables Affecting Compressive Strength of Sustainable Concrete Containing Fly Ash, Copper Slag, Silica Fume, and Fibres

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Sakthieswaran; Karuppiah, Ganesan

    2014-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to study the effect of addition of fly ash, copper slag, and steel and polypropylene fibres on compressive strength of concrete and to determine the hierarchical order of influence of the mix variables in affecting the strength using cluster analysis experimentally. While fly ash and copper slag are used for partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate, respectively, defined quantities of steel and polypropylene fibres were added to the mixes. It is found from the experimental study that, in general, irrespective of the presence or absence of fibres, (i) for a given copper slag-fine aggregate ratio, increase in fly ash-cement ratio the concrete strength decreases and with the increase in copper slag-sand ratio also the rate of strength decrease and (ii) for a given fly ash-cement ratio, increase in copper slag-fine aggregate ratio increases the strength of the concrete. From the cluster analysis, it is found that the quantities of coarse and fine aggregate present have high influence in affecting the strength. It is also observed that the quantities of fly ash and copper slag used as substitutes have equal “influence” in affecting the strength. Marginal effect of addition of fibres in the compression strength of concrete is also revealed by the cluster analysis. PMID:24707213

  17. Strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with various types of non-metallic fiber and rods reinforcement under static loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevskii, A. V.; Baldin, I. V.; Kudyakov, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Adoption of modern building materials based on non-metallic fibers and their application in concrete structures represent one of the important issues in construction industry. This paper presents results of investigation of several types of raw materials selected: basalt fiber, carbon fiber and composite fiber rods based on glass and carbon. Preliminary testing has shown the possibility of raw materials to be effectively used in compressed concrete elements. Experimental program to define strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with non-metallic fiber reinforcement and rod composite reinforcement included design, manufacture and testing of several types of concrete samples with different types of fiber and longitudinal rod reinforcement. The samples were tested under compressive static load. The results demonstrated that fiber reinforcement of concrete allows increasing carrying capacity of compressed concrete elements and reducing their deformability. Using composite longitudinal reinforcement instead of steel longitudinal reinforcement in compressed concrete elements insignificantly influences bearing capacity. Combined use of composite rod reinforcement and fiber reinforcement in compressed concrete elements enables to achieve maximum strength and minimum deformability.

  18. Effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures

    Treesearch

    Andy W.C. Lee; Zhongli Hong; Douglas R. Phillips; Chung-Yun Hse

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures made from six wood species: southern pine, white oak, southern red oak, yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and hickory. Cement/wood ratios varied from 13/1 to 4/1. Wood storage conditions consisted of air-...

  19. Description of Primary Education 1st Grade Students' Forms of Holding a Pencil as well as Their Grip and Compression Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temur, Turan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine how first grade students in primary education held and gripped a pencil and their compressive strength using a descriptive research method. The participants of the research comprises first grade students attending a private school in the city center of Ankara (n=79). All of the four different sections in this private…

  20. Image compression in morphometry studies requiring 21 CFR Part 11 compliance: procedure is key with TIFFs and various JPEG compression strengths.

    PubMed

    Tengowski, Mark W

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to compare the integrity and reproducibility of measurements created from uncompressed and compressed digital images in order to implement compliance with 21 CFR Part 11 for image analysis studies executed using 21 CFR Part 58 compliant capture systems. Images of a 400-mesh electron microscope grid and H&E stained rat liver tissue were captured on an upright microscope with digital camera using commercially available analysis software. Digital images were stored as either uncompressed TIFFs or in one of five different levels of JPEG compression. The grid images were analyzed with automatic detection of bright objects while the liver images were segmented using color cube-based morphometry techniques, respectively, using commercially-available image analysis software. When comparing the feature-extracted measurements from the TIFF uncompressed to the JPEG compressed images, the data suggest that JPEG compression does not alter the accuracy or reliability to reproduce individual data point measurements in all but the highest compression levels. There is, however, discordance if the initial measure was obtained with a TIFF format and subsequently saved as one of the JPEG levels, suggesting that the use of compression must precede feature extraction. It is a common practice in software packages to work with TIFF uncompressed images. However, this study suggests that the use of JPEG compression as part of the analysis work flow was an acceptable practice for these images and features. Investigators applying image file compression to other organ images will need to validate the utility of image compression in their work flow. A procedure to digitally acquire and JPEG compress images prior to image analysis has the potential to reduce file archiving demands without compromising reproducibility of data.

  1. In Vitro Comparison of Compressive and Tensile Strengths ofAcrylic Resins Reinforced by Silver Nanoparticles at 2% and0.2% Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Tahereh; Hamedirad, Fahimeh; Ezzati, Baharak

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Polymethyl methacrylate, PMMA, is widely used in prosthodontics for fabrication of removable prostheses. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adding silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to PMMA at 2% and 0.2% concentrations on compressive and tensile strengths of PMMA. Materials and methods. The silver nanoparticles were mixed with heat-cured acrylic resin in an amalgamator in two groups at 0.2 and 2 wt% of AgNPs. Eighteen 2×20×200-mm samples were prepared for tensile strength test, 12 samples containing silver nanoparticle and 6 samples for the control group. Another 18 cylindrical 25×38-mm samples were prepared for compressive strength test. Scanning electron microscopy was used to verify homogeneous distribution of particles. The powder was manually mixed with a resin monomer and then the mixture was properly blended. Before curing, the paste was packed into steel molds. After curing, the specimens were removed from the molds. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by multiple comparison test (Scheffé’s test). Results. This study showed that the mean compressive strength of PMMA reinforced with AgNPs was significantly higher than that of the unmodified PMMA (P<0.05). It was not statistically different between the two groups reinforced with AgNPs. The tensile strength was not significantly different between the 0.2% group and unmodified PMMA and it de-creased significantly after incorporation of 2% AgNPs (P<0.05). Conclusion. Based on the results and the desirable effect of nanoparticles of silver on improvement of compressive strength of PMMA, use of this material with proper concentration in the palatal area of maxillary acrylic resin dentures is recommended. PMID:25587381

  2. Compressive strength and interfacial transition zone of sugar cane bagasse ash concrete: A comparison to the established pozzolans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Asma Abd Elhameed; Shafiq, Nasir; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil

    2015-05-01

    Agricultural and industrial by-products are commonly used in concrete production as cement replacement materials (CRMs) or as admixtures to enhance both fresh and hardened properties of concrete as well as to save the environment from the negative effects caused by their disposal. Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) is one of the promising CRMs, it is used as a partial replacement of cement for producing concrete; properties of such concrete depend on the chemical composition, fineness, and burning temperature of SCBA. Approximately 1500 Million tons of sugarcane are annually produced over all the world which leave about 40-45% bagasse after juice crushing for sugar industry giving an average annual production of about 600 Million tons of bagasse as a waste material. This paper presents some findings on the effect of SCBA on workability, compressive strength and microstructure of interfacial zone of concrete and its performance is compared to some of the established CRMs namely Densified Silica Fume, Fly Ash and Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash.

  3. Hybrid microscaffold-based 3D bioprinting of multi-cellular constructs with high compressive strength: A new biofabrication strategy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yu Jun; Tan, Xipeng; Yeong, Wai Yee; Tor, Shu Beng

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid 3D bioprinting approach using porous microscaffolds and extrusion-based printing method is presented. Bioink constitutes of cell-laden poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) porous microspheres with thin encapsulation of agarose-collagen composite hydrogel (AC hydrogel). Highly porous microspheres enable cells to adhere and proliferate before printing. Meanwhile, AC hydrogel allows a smooth delivery of cell-laden microspheres (CLMs), with immediate gelation of construct upon printing on cold build platform. Collagen fibrils were formed in the AC hydrogel during culture at body temperature, improving the cell affinity and spreading compared to pure agarose hydrogel. Cells were proven to proliferate in the bioink and the bioprinted construct. High cell viability up to 14 days was observed. The compressive strength of the bioink is more than 100 times superior to those of pure AC hydrogel. A potential alternative in tissue engineering of tissue replacements and biological models is made possible by combining the advantages of the conventional solid scaffolds with the new 3D bioprinting technology. PMID:27966623

  4. Effects of coating thickness and interfacial roughness on cracking and delamination strength of WC-Co coating measured by ring compression test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Masahiko; Nazul, Mahmoud; Itti, Takeshi; Akebono, Hiroyuki; Sugeta, Atsushi; Mitani, Eiji

    2014-08-01

    The effects of coating thickness and interfacial roughness on the interfacial fracture toughness of tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) coatings were evaluated using a ring compression test. WC-Co powder was sprayed on steel (JIS:SS400) rings by a high-velocity air- fuel method in coatings with various thicknesses and values of interfacial roughness. The ring compression test was carried out, and the cracking and delamination behavior of the coatings was observed using charge-coupled-device cameras. The results showed that cracking perpendicular to the loading direction occurred in the coatings during the ring compression test, and the cracking strength obtained from the ring compression test decreased slightly with increasing coating thickness, but was independent of the interfacial roughness. Upon further increase of the compression load, the coatings delaminated from the substrate. The interfacial fracture toughness calculated from the delamination of the coatings during the ring compression test decreased with increasing coating thickness and increased with increasing interfacial roughness.

  5. A Comparative Evaluation of Sorption, Solubility, and Compressive Strength of Three Different Glass Ionomer Cements in Artificial Saliva: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Hind P; Sood, Shveta; Sharma, Naresh

    2017-01-01

    Aim To evaluate and compare the sorption, solubility, and compressive strength of three different glass ionomer cements in artificial saliva - type IX glass ionomer cement, silver-reinforced glass ionomer cement, and zirconia-reinforced glass ionomer cement, so as to determine the material of choice for stress-bearing areas. Materials and methods A total of 90 cylindrical specimens (4 mm diameter and 6 mm height) were prepared for each material following the manufacturer’s instructions. After subjecting the specimens to thermocycling, 45 specimens were immersed in artificial saliva for 24 hours for compressive strength testing under a universal testing machine, and the other 45 were evaluated for sorption and solubility, by first weighing them by a precision weighing scale (W1), then immersing them in artificial saliva for 28 days and weighing them (W2), and finally dehydrating in an oven for 24 hours and weighing them (W3). Results Group III (zirconomer) shows the highest compressive strength followed by group II (Miracle Mix) and least compressive strength is seen in group I (glass ionomer cement type IX-Extra) with statistically significant differences between the groups. The sorption and solubility values in artificial saliva were highest for glass ionomer cement type IX - Extra-GC (group I) followed by zirconomer-Shofu (group III), and the least value was seen for Miracle Mix-GC (group II). Conclusion Zirconia-reinforced glass ionomer cement is a promising dental material and can be used as a restoration in stress-bearing areas due to its high strength and low solubility and sorption rate. It may be a substitute for silver-reinforced glass ionomer cement due to the added advantage of esthetics. Clinical significance This study provides vital information to pediatric dental surgeons on relatively new restorative materials as physical and mechanical properties of the new material are compared with conventional materials to determine the best suited material in

  6. A Comparative Evaluation of Sorption, Solubility, and Compressive Strength of Three Different Glass Ionomer Cements in Artificial Saliva: An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Hind P; Singh, Shivani; Sood, Shveta; Sharma, Naresh

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the sorption, solubility, and compressive strength of three different glass ionomer cements in artificial saliva - type IX glass ionomer cement, silver-reinforced glass ionomer cement, and zirconia-reinforced glass ionomer cement, so as to determine the material of choice for stress-bearing areas. A total of 90 cylindrical specimens (4 mm diameter and 6 mm height) were prepared for each material following the manufacturer's instructions. After subjecting the specimens to thermocycling, 45 specimens were immersed in artificial saliva for 24 hours for compressive strength testing under a universal testing machine, and the other 45 were evaluated for sorption and solubility, by first weighing them by a precision weighing scale (W1), then immersing them in artificial saliva for 28 days and weighing them (W2), and finally dehydrating in an oven for 24 hours and weighing them (W3). Group III (zirconomer) shows the highest compressive strength followed by group II (Miracle Mix) and least compressive strength is seen in group I (glass ionomer cement type IX-Extra) with statistically significant differences between the groups. The sorption and solubility values in artificial saliva were highest for glass ionomer cement type IX - Extra-GC (group I) followed by zirconomer-Shofu (group III), and the least value was seen for Miracle Mix-GC (group II). Zirconia-reinforced glass ionomer cement is a promising dental material and can be used as a restoration in stress-bearing areas due to its high strength and low solubility and sorption rate. It may be a substitute for silver-reinforced glass ionomer cement due to the added advantage of esthetics. This study provides vital information to pediatric dental surgeons on relatively new restorative materials as physical and mechanical properties of the new material are compared with conventional materials to determine the best suited material in terms of durability, strength and dimensional stability. This study

  7. Compressive strength and setting time determination of glass-ionomer cements incorporated with cetylpyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Dimkov, A; Nicholson, W J; Gjorgievska, E; Booth, S

    2012-01-01

    Because of the relatively frequent occurrence of recurrent caries after a restorative treatment, and because of the huge number of cariogenic microorganisms present in the oral cavity, which present a potential risk factor regarding the development of new carious lesions, attention has increasingly been directed towards the therapeutic antimicrobial effects of restorative materials. The glass ionomer cements distinguish themselves as the most acceptable restorative materials possessing the positive characteristics of fluorine in the processes of remineralisation and antimicrobial action. In addition to the release of fluoride ions, GICs can potentially be used as templates for the release of other active antimicrobial components. The addition of antimicrobial compounds in the glass ionomer cements and analysis of their physical characteristics are very important especially for use in the posterior region of milk teeth. The aim of this study was to analyse the physical characteristics of ChemFlex and Fuji IX, conventional glass ionomer cements incorporated with the antimicrobial components Cetylpyridinium Chloride and Benzalkonium Chloride, through measurements of their setting times, and determination of their compressive strengths. Five samples of each glass ionomer with no antimicrobial compounds added were prepared--to serve as a control group; and collections of five samples of each cement with different concentrations of Cetylpyridinium Chloride and Benzalkonium Chloride--1%, 2% and 3%--added to them were also prepared--a total of 60 samples. The results of the analysis point out that it is possible to incorporate these antimicrobial agents in conventional GICs, and this is especially true when the added amount of the antimicrobial agents is 1%.

  8. Association analyses of vitamin D-binding protein gene with compression strength index variation in Caucasian nuclear families

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X.-H.; Xiong, D.-H.; Liu, X.-G.; Guo, Y.; Chen, Y.; Zhao, J.; Recker, R. R.; Deng, H.-W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This study was conducted to test whether there exists an association between vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) gene and compression strength index (CSI) phenotype. Candidate gene association analyses were conducted in total sample, male subgroup, and female subgroup, respectively. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with significant association results were found in males, suggesting the importance of DBP gene polymorphisms on the variation in CSI especially in Caucasian males. Introduction CSI of the femoral neck (FN) is a newly developed phenotype integrating information about bone size, body size, and bone mineral density. It is considered to have the potential to improve the performance of risk assessment for hip fractures because it is based on a combination of phenotypic traits influencing hip fractures rather than a single trait. CSI is under moderate genetic determination (with a heritability of ~44% found in this study), but the relevant genetic study is still rather scarce. Methods Based on the known physiological role of DBP in bone biology and the relatively high heritability of CSI, we tested 12 SNPs of the DBP gene for association with CSI variation in 405 Caucasian nuclear families comprising 1,873 subjects from the Midwestern US. Association analyses were performed in the total sample, male and female subgroups, respectively. Results Significant associations with CSI were found with two SNPs (rs222029, P=0.0019; rs222020, P=0.0042) for the male subgroup. Haplotype-based association tests corroborated the single-SNP results. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the DBP gene might be one of the genetic factors influencing CSI phenotype in Caucasians, especially in males. PMID:19543766

  9. Application of support vector machines and relevance vector machines in predicting uniaxial compressive strength of volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceryan, Nurcihan

    2014-12-01

    The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of intact rocks is an important and pertinent property for characterizing a rock mass. It is known that standard UCS tests are destructive, expensive and time-consuming task, which is particularly true for thinly bedded, highly fractured, foliated, highly porous and weak rocks. Consequently, prediction models have become an attractive alternative for engineering geologists. In the last several years, a new, alternative kernel-based technique, support vector machines (SVMs), has been popular in modeling studies. Despite superior SVM performance, this technique has certain significant, practical drawbacks. Hence, the relevance vector machines (RVMs) approach has been proposed to recast the main ideas underlying SVMs in a Bayesian context. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the applicability and capability of RVM and SVM models for predicting the UCS of volcanic rocks from NE Turkey and comparing its performance with ANN models. In these models, the porosity and P-durability index representing microstructural variables are the input parameters. The study results indicate that these methods can successfully predict the UCS for the volcanic rocks. The SVM and RVM performed better than the ANN model. When these kernel based models are considered, RVM model found successful in terms of statistical performance criterions (e.g., performance index, PI values for training and testing data are computed as 1.579 and 1.449). These values for SVM are 1.509 and 1.307. Although SVM and RVM models are powerful techniques, the RVM run time was considerably faster, and it yielded the highest accuracy.

  10. Effects of humeral head compression taping on the isokinetic strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of humeral head compression taping (HHCT) on the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with rotator cuff tendinitis were recruited. The shoulder external rotator strength was measured using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer system. A paired t-test was performed to evaluate within-group differences in the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle. [Results] Significantly higher shoulder external rotator peak torque and peak torque per body weight were found in the HHCT condition than in the no-taping condition. [Conclusion] HHCT may effectively increase the shoulder external rotator muscle strength in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis. PMID:25642053

  11. Fly and bottom ashes from biomass combustion as cement replacing components in mortars production: rheological behaviour of the pastes and materials compression strength.

    PubMed

    Maschio, Stefano; Tonello, Gabriele; Piani, Luciano; Furlani, Erika

    2011-10-01

    In the present research mortar pastes obtained by replacing a commercial cement with the equivalent mass of 5, 10, 20 and 30 wt.% of fly ash or bottom ash from fir chips combustion, were prepared and rheologically characterized. It was observed that the presence of ash modifies their rheological behaviour with respect to the reference blend due to the presence, in the ashes, of KCl and K2SO4 which cause precipitation of gypsum and portlandite during the first hydration stages of the pastes. Hydrated materials containing 5 wt.% of ash display compression strength and absorption at 28 d of same magnitude as the reference composition; conversely, progressive increase of ash cause a continuous decline of materials performances. Conversely, samples tested after 180 d display a marked decline of compression strength, as a consequence of potassium elution and consequent alkali-silica reaction against materials under curing.

  12. Ideal compressive strength of fcc Co, Ni, and Ni-rich alloys along the <001 > direction: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breidi, A.; Fries, S. G.; Ruban, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    We perform density functional theory based first-principles calculations to identify promising alloying elements (X ) capable of enhancing the compressive uniaxial theoretical (ideal) strength of the fcc Ni-matrix along the <001 > direction. The alloying element belongs to a wide range of 3 d ,4 d , and 5 d series with nominal composition of 6.25 at. %. Additionally, a full elastic study is carried to investigate the ideal strength of fcc Ni and fcc Co. Our results indicate that the most desirable alloying elements are those with half d -band filling, namely, Os, Ir, Re, and Ru.

  13. Linear dimensional change, compressive strength and detail reproduction in type IV dental stone dried at room temperature and in a microwave oven.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcos Aurélio Bomfim da; Vitti, Rafael Pino; Consani, Simonides; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek

    2012-01-01

    The type IV dental stone is widely used for the fabrication of dyes and master casts for fixed and removable partial prostheses. It is typically normal to wait at least 24 hours for the casts to dry prior to beginning the laboratory procedures. The waiting time has been shown to be greatly reduced by using microwave drying. This study evaluated the influence of drying techniques at room temperature and microwave oven on the linear dimensional change, compressive strength and detail reproduction in type IV dental stones. Three type IV dental stone brands were selected; elite Rock, Shera Premium and Durone IV. Two different drying protocols were tested in 4 groups (n=10); G-room temperature (25±4 ºC) dried for 2 hours; G2--room temperature dried for 24 hours; G3-room temperature dried for 7 days and G4--microwave oven dried at 800 W for 5 minutes and after 2 hours at room temperature. After drying, the samples were assayed for dimensional charges. The sample surface was submitted to the ImageTool 3.0 software for compressive strength in a universal testing machine with a cell load of 50 KN at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minutes and the detail reproduction was analyzed with a stereomicroscope at 25x magnification. The statistical analysis of the linear dimensional change and compressive strength data were conducted by the ANOVA test followed by the Tukey test (p<0.05). Detailed reproduction values were reported in percentages. For the compressive strength test, Elite Rock and Durone IV did not present significant differences between G2 and G4, while Shera Premium did not present differences between G3 and G4. The best reproduction levels were observed for G3. Dental stone microwave oven drying showed a linear dimensional change similar to after room temperature drying for 24 hours and 7 days. The compressive strength of the stone dried in the microwave oven was similar to those dried at room temperature for 24 hours, with the exception of Shera Premium, which had

  14. Linear dimensional change, compressive strength and detail reproduction in type IV dental stone dried at room temperature and in a microwave oven

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Marcos Aurélio Bomfim; VITTI, Rafael Pino; CONSANI, Simonides; SINHORETI, Mário Alexandre Coelho; MESQUITA, Marcelo Ferraz; CONSANI, Rafael Leonardo Xediek

    2012-01-01

    The type IV dental stone is widely used for the fabrication of dyes and master casts for fixed and removable partial prostheses. It is typically normal to wait at least 24 hours for the casts to dry prior to beginning the laboratory procedures. The waiting time has been shown to be greatly reduced by using microwave drying. Objective This study evaluated the influence of drying techniques at room temperature and microwave oven on the linear dimensional change, compressive strength and detail reproduction in type IV dental stones. Material and Methods Three type IV dental stone brands were selected; Elite Rock, Shera Premium and Durone IV. Two different drying protocols were tested in 4 groups (n=10); G1 - room temperature (25±4ºC) dried for 2 hours; G2 - room temperature dried for 24 hours; G3 - room temperature dried for 7 days and G4 - microwave oven dried at 800 W for 5 minutes and after 2 hours at room temperature. After drying, the samples were assayed for dimensional charges. The sample surface was submitted to the ImageTool 3.0 software for compressive strength in a universal testing machine with a cell load of 50 KN at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minutes and the detail reproduction was analyzed with a stereomicroscope at 25x magnification. The statistical analysis of the linear dimensional change and compressive strength data were conducted by the ANOVA test followed by the Tukey test (p<0.05). Detailed reproduction values were reported in percentages. Results For the compressive strength test, Elite Rock and Durone IV did not present significant differences between G2 and G4, while Shera Premium did not present differences between G3 and G4. The best reproduction levels were observed for G3. Conclusions Dental stone microwave oven drying showed a linear dimensional change similar to after room temperature drying for 24 hours and 7 days. The compressive strength of the stone dried in the microwave oven was similar to those dried at room temperature for 24

  15. Smart cement modified with iron oxide nanoparticles to enhance the piezoresistive behavior and compressive strength for oil well applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Mohammed, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, smart cement with a 0.38 water-to-cement ratio was modified with iron oxide nanoparticles (NanoFe2O3) to have better sensing properties, so that the behavior can be monitored at various stages of construction and during the service life of wells. A series of experiments evaluated the piezoresistive smart cement behavior with and without NanoFe2O3 in order to identify the most reliable sensing properties that can also be relatively easily monitored. Tests were performed on the smart cement from the time of mixing to a hardened state behavior. When oil well cement (Class H) was modified with 0.1% of conductive filler, the piezoresistive behavior of the hardened smart cement was substantially improved without affecting the setting properties of the cement. During the initial setting the electrical resistivity changed with time based on the amount of NanoFe2O3 used to modify the smart oil well cement. A new quantification concept has been developed to characterize the smart cement curing based on electrical resistivity changes in the first 24 h of curing. Addition of 1% NanoFe2O3 increased the compressive strength of the smart cement by 26% and 40% after 1 day and 28 days of curing respectively. The modulus of elasticity of the smart cement increased with the addition of 1% NanoFe2O3 by 29% and 28% after 1 day and 28 days of curing respectively. A nonlinear curing model was used to predict the changes in electrical resistivity with curing time. The piezoresistivity of smart cement with NanoFe2O3 was over 750 times higher than the unmodified cement depending on the curing time and nanoparticle content. Also the nonlinear stress-strain and stress-change in resistivity relationships predicated the experimental results very well. Effects of curing time and NanoFe2O3 content on the model parameters have been quantified using a nonlinear model.

  16. Specimen size effects on the compressive strength and Weibull modulus of nuclear graphite of different coke particle size: IG-110 and NBG-18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Se-Hwan

    2013-05-01

    The effects of specimen size on the compressive strength and Weibull modulus were investigated for nuclear graphite of different coke particle sizes: IG-110 and NBG-18 (average coke particle size for IG-110: 25 μm, NBG-18: 300 μm). Two types of cylindrical specimens, i.e., where the diameter to length ratio was 1:2 (ASTM C 695-91 type specimen, 1:2 specimen) or 1:1 (1:1 specimen), were prepared for six diameters (3, 4, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm) and tested at room temperature (compressive strain rate: 2.08 × 10-4 s-1). Anisotropy was considered during specimen preparation for NBG-18. The results showed that the effects of specimen size appeared negligible for the compressive strength, but grade-dependent for the Weibull modulus. In view of specimen miniaturization, deviations from the ASTM C 695-91 specimen size requirements require an investigation into the effects of size for the grade of graphite of interest, and the specimen size effects should be considered for Weibull modulus determination.

  17. Interfacial strength of compression-molded specimens between PMMA powder and PMMA/MMA monomer solution-treated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powder.

    PubMed

    Park, K D; Park, J B

    2000-01-01

    The interface between bone cement and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been considered a weak link of cemented UHMWPE acetabular cup in total hip replacement (THR). For the improvement of this weak interface, adhesion between the UHMWPE acetabular cup and bone cement made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has been investigated in our laboratory. Virgin UHMWPE powders were treated with methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer and PMMA/MMA solution. The treated UHMWPE powders were then compression-molded with virgin UHMWPE powders or PMMA powders, creating two different interfaces, i. e., treated/virgin UHMWPE powder and treated UHMWPE/PMMA powder. For the present study, the interfacial strengths between PMMA powder and the treated UHMWPE power were investigated following the same protocol previously set. The maximum interfacial strength was 17.0 +/- 0.25MPa with the same molding condition of 166.5 degrees C, 38.7 MPa and l h. In addition to the molding condition, we tested the strengths for the treated UHMWPE powders, which have different ratios between PMMA/MMA solution and MMA-treated UHMWPE powders. Significant differences on the interfacial strengths resulted due to the ratio change; more PMMA in the PMMA/MMA solution-treated UHMWPE powder exhibited higher interfacial strength. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) pictures showed that the interface is composed of three major portions: PMMA powder, UHMWPE, and coated PMMA, indicating strong mechanical interlocking of UHMWPE and PMMA powder matrix and chemical bonding between PMMA powder and the precoated PMMA onto the UHMWPE. In addition, another interfacial strength between PMMA powder, which is equivalent to the outermost part of the cup, and bone cement was investigated. The average strength reached up to 42.4 +/- 3.6 MPa, close to the tensile strength of bone cement itself.

  18. Elastic moduli and strength of nanocrystalline cubic BC2N from x-ray diffraction under nonhydrostatic compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Haini; He, Duanwei; Duffy, Thomas S.; Zhao, Yusheng

    2009-01-01

    The stress behavior of nanocrystalline cubic boron carbon nitride (c-BC2N) was investigated using radial and axial x-ray diffractions in the diamond-anvil cell under nonhydrostatic compression up to ~100 GPa. The radial x-ray diffraction (RXRD) data yield a bulk modulus K0=276±20GPa with a fixed pressure derivative K0'=3.4 at ψ=54.7° , which corresponds to the hydrostatic compression curve. The bulk modulus obtained from axial x-ray diffraction (AXRD) gives a value of 420±11GPa . A comparative study of the observed compression curves from radial and axial diffractions shows that the ruby-fluorescence pressure scale may reflect the maximum stress under nonhydrostatic compression. It was found that nanocrystalline c-BC2N sample could support a maximum differential stress of ~38 GPa when it started to yield at ~66 GPa under uniaxial compression. Moreover, the aggregate elastic moduli of the nanocrystalline c-BC2N have been determined from the RXRD data at high pressures.

  19. Molecular-Level Study of the Effect of Prior Axial Compression/Torsion on the Axial-Tensile Strength of PPTA Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Yavari, R.; Ramaswami, S.; Snipes, J. S.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.

    2013-11-01

    A comprehensive all-atom molecular-level computational investigation is carried out in order to identify and quantify: (i) the effect of prior longitudinal-compressive or axial-torsional loading on the longitudinal-tensile behavior of p-phenylene terephthalamide (PPTA) fibrils/fibers; and (ii) the role various microstructural/topological defects play in affecting this behavior. Experimental and computational results available in the relevant open literature were utilized to construct various defects within the molecular-level model and to assign the concentration to these defects consistent with the values generally encountered under "prototypical" PPTA-polymer synthesis and fiber fabrication conditions. When quantifying the effect of the prior longitudinal-compressive/axial-torsional loading on the longitudinal-tensile behavior of PPTA fibrils, the stochastic nature of the size/potency of these defects was taken into account. The results obtained revealed that: (a) due to the stochastic nature of the defect type, concentration/number density and size/potency, the PPTA fibril/fiber longitudinal-tensile strength is a statistical quantity possessing a characteristic probability density function; (b) application of the prior axial compression or axial torsion to the PPTA imperfect single-crystalline fibrils degrades their longitudinal-tensile strength and only slightly modifies the associated probability density function; and (c) introduction of the fibril/fiber interfaces into the computational analyses showed that prior axial torsion can induce major changes in the material microstructure, causing significant reductions in the PPTA-fiber longitudinal-tensile strength and appreciable changes in the associated probability density function.

  20. Effects of augmented trunk stabilization with external compression support on shoulder and scapular muscle activity and maximum strength during isometric shoulder abduction.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Suhn-yeop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of augmented trunk stabilization with external compression support (ECS) on the electromyography (EMG) activity of shoulder and scapular muscles and shoulder abductor strength during isometric shoulder abduction. Twenty-six women volunteered for the study. Surface EMG was used to monitor the activity of the upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA), and middle deltoid (MD), and shoulder abductor strength was measured using a dynamometer during three experimental conditions: (1) no external support (condition-1), (2) pelvic support (condition-2), and (3) pelvic and thoracic supports (condition-3) in an active therapeutic movement device. EMG activities were significantly lower for UT and higher for MD during condition 3 than during condition 1 (p < 0.05). The MD/UT ratio was significantly higher during condition 3 than during conditions 1 and 2, and higher during condition 2 than during condition 1 (p < 0.05). Shoulder abductor strength was significantly higher during condition 3 than during condition 1 (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that augmented trunk stabilization with the ECS may be advantageous with regard to reducing the compensatory muscle effort of the UT during isometric shoulder abduction and increasing shoulder abductor strength.

  1. Loading simulation of lumbar spine vertebrae during a compression test using the finite elements method and trabecular bone strength properties, determined by means of nanoindentations.

    PubMed

    Bouzakis, K D; Mitsi, S; Michailidis, N; Mirisidis, I; Mesomeris, G; Maliaris, G; Korlos, A; Kapetanos, G; Antonarakos, P; Anagnostidis, K

    2004-06-01

    The mechanical strength properties of lumbar spine vertebrae are of great importance in a wide range of applications. Herein, through nanoindentations and appropriate evaluation of the corresponding results, trabecular bone struts stress-strain characteristics can be determined. In the frame of the present paper, an L2 fresh cadaveric vertebra, from which posterior elements were removed, was subjected to compression. With the aid of developed finite elements method based algorithms, the cortical shell and the cancellous core bulk elasticity moduli and stresses were determined, whereas the tested vertebra geometrical model used in these algorithms was considered as having a compound structure, consisting of the cancellous bone surrounded by the cortical shell. Moreover nanoindentations were conducted and an appropriate evaluation method of the obtained results was applied to extract stress-strain curves of individual lumbar spine vertebra trabecular bone struts. These data were used in the mathematical description of the vertebrae compression test. The vertebral cancellous bone structure was simulated by a beam elements network, possessing an equivalent porosity and different stiffnesses in vertical and horizontal direction. Thus, the measured course of the compression load versus the occurring specimen deformation was verified.

  2. Strength Restoration of Cracked Sandstone and Coal under a Uniaxial Compression Test and Correlated Damage Source Location Based on Acoustic Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaowei; Zhang, Nong; Zheng, Xigui; Pan, Dongjiang

    2015-01-01

    Underground rock masses have shown a general trend of natural balance over billions of years of ground movement. Nonetheless, man-made underground constructions disturb this balance and cause rock stability failure. Fractured rock masses are frequently encountered in underground constructions, and this study aims to restore the strength of rock masses that have experienced considerable fracturing under uniaxial compression. Coal and sandstone from a deep-buried coal mine were chosen as experimental subjects; they were crushed by uniaxial compression and then carefully restored by a chemical adhesive called MEYCO 364 with an innovative self-made device. Finally, the restored specimens were crushed once again by uniaxial compression. Axial stress, axial strain, circumferential strain, and volumetric strain data for the entire process were fully captured and are discussed here. An acoustic emission (AE) testing system was adopted to cooperate with the uniaxial compression system to provide better definitions for crack closure thresholds, crack initiation thresholds, crack damage thresholds, and three-dimensional damage source locations in intact and restored specimens. Several remarkable findings were obtained. The restoration effects of coal are considerably better than those of sandstone because the strength recovery coefficient of the former is 1.20, whereas that of the latter is 0.33, which indicates that MEYCO 364 is particularly valid for fractured rocks whose initial intact peak stress is less than that of MEYCO 364. Secondary cracked traces of restored sandstone almost follow the cracked traces of the initial intact sandstone, and the final failure is mainly caused by decoupling between the adhesive and the rock mass. However, cracked traces of restored coal only partially follow the traces of intact coal, with the final failure of the restored coal being caused by both bonding interface decoupling and self-breakage in coal. Three-dimensional damage source

  3. Strength Restoration of Cracked Sandstone and Coal under a Uniaxial Compression Test and Correlated Damage Source Location Based on Acoustic Emissions.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaowei; Zhang, Nong; Zheng, Xigui; Pan, Dongjiang

    2015-01-01

    Underground rock masses have shown a general trend of natural balance over billions of years of ground movement. Nonetheless, man-made underground constructions disturb this balance and cause rock stability failure. Fractured rock masses are frequently encountered in underground constructions, and this study aims to restore the strength of rock masses that have experienced considerable fracturing under uniaxial compression. Coal and sandstone from a deep-buried coal mine were chosen as experimental subjects; they were crushed by uniaxial compression and then carefully restored by a chemical adhesive called MEYCO 364 with an innovative self-made device. Finally, the restored specimens were crushed once again by uniaxial compression. Axial stress, axial strain, circumferential strain, and volumetric strain data for the entire process were fully captured and are discussed here. An acoustic emission (AE) testing system was adopted to cooperate with the uniaxial compression system to provide better definitions for crack closure thresholds, crack initiation thresholds, crack damage thresholds, and three-dimensional damage source locations in intact and restored specimens. Several remarkable findings were obtained. The restoration effects of coal are considerably better than those of sandstone because the strength recovery coefficient of the former is 1.20, whereas that of the latter is 0.33, which indicates that MEYCO 364 is particularly valid for fractured rocks whose initial intact peak stress is less than that of MEYCO 364. Secondary cracked traces of restored sandstone almost follow the cracked traces of the initial intact sandstone, and the final failure is mainly caused by decoupling between the adhesive and the rock mass. However, cracked traces of restored coal only partially follow the traces of intact coal, with the final failure of the restored coal being caused by both bonding interface decoupling and self-breakage in coal. Three-dimensional damage source

  4. Evaluation of critical resolved shear strength and deformation mode in proton-irradiated austenitic stainless steel using micro-compression tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyung-Ha; Ko, Eunsol; Kwon, Junhyun; Hwang, Seong Sik; Shin, Chansun

    2016-03-01

    Micro-compression tests were applied to evaluate the changes in the strength and deformation mode of proton-irradiated commercial austenitic stainless steel. Proton irradiation generated small dots at low dose levels and Frank loops at high dose levels. The increase in critical resolved shear stresses (CRSS) was measured from micro-compression of pillars and the Schmid factor calculated from the measured loading direction. The magnitudes of the CRSS increase were in good agreement with the values calculated from the barrier hardening model using the measured size and density of radiation defects. The deformation mode changed upon increasing the irradiation dose level. At a low radiation dose level, work hardening and smooth flow behavior were observed. Increasing the dose level resulted in the flow behavior changing to a distinct heterogeneous flow, yielding a few large strain bursts in the stress-strain curves. The change in the deformation mode was related to the formation and propagation of defect-free slip bands. The effect of the orientation of the pillar or loading direction on the strengths is discussed.

  5. Optimization and influence of parameter affecting the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate: using full factorial design approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Thulasirajan; Purushothaman, Revathi

    2017-07-01

    There are several parameters that influence the properties of geopolymer concrete, which contains recycled concrete aggregate as the coarse aggregate. In the present study, the vital parameters affecting the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate are analyzedby varying four parameters with two levels using full factorial design in statistical software Minitab® 17. The objective of the present work is to gain an idea on the optimization, main parameter effects, their interactions and the predicted response of the model generated using factorial design. The parameters such as molarity of sodium hydroxide (8M and 12M), curing time (6hrs and 24 hrs), curing temperature (60°C and 90°C) and percentage of recycled concrete aggregate (0% and 100%) are considered. The results show that the curing time, molarity of sodium hydroxide and curing temperature were the orderly significant parameters and the percentage of Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) was statistically insignificant in the production of geopolymer concrete. Thus, it may be noticeable that the RCA content had negligible effect on the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete. The expected responses from the generated model showed a satisfactory and rational agreement to the experimental data with the R2 value of 97.70%. Thus, geopolymer concrete comprising recycled concrete aggregate can solve the major social and environmental concerns such as the depletion of the naturally available aggregate sources and disposal of construction and demolition waste into the landfill.

  6. Compressive strength and resistance to chloride ion penetration and carbonation of recycled aggregate concrete with varying amount of fly ash and fine recycled aggregate.

    PubMed

    Sim, Jongsung; Park, Cheolwoo

    2011-11-01

    Construction and demolition waste has been dramatically increased in the last decade, and social and environmental concerns on the recycling have consequently been increased. Recent technology has greatly improved the recycling process for waste concrete. This study investigates the fundamental characteristics of concrete using recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) for its application to structural concrete members. The specimens used 100% coarse RCA, various replacement levels of natural aggregate with fine RCA, and several levels of fly ash addition. Compressive strength of mortar and concrete which used RCA gradually decreased as the amount of the recycled materials increased. Regardless of curing conditions and fly ash addition, the 28 days strength of the recycled aggregate concrete was greater than the design strength, 40 MPa, with a complete replacement of coarse aggregate and a replacement level of natural fine aggregate by fine RCA up to 60%. The recycled aggregate concrete achieved sufficient resistance to the chloride ion penetration. The measured carbonation depth did not indicate a clear relationship to the fine RCA replacement ratio but the recycled aggregate concrete could also attain adequate carbonation resistance. Based on the results from the experimental investigations, it is believed that the recycled aggregate concrete can be successfully applied to structural concrete members. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Room-Temperature Compressive Deformation Behavior of High-Strength Ti-15V-3Al-3Cr-3Sn-1Nb-1Zr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaohui; Liu, Quanming; Yang, Haiying; Liu, Shifeng

    2017-07-01

    The characteristics of room-temperature compressive deformation of a new high-strength metastable beta titanium alloy Ti-15V-3Al-3Cr-3Sn-1Nb-1Zr (Ti-26) were investigated using the Gleeble-3800 thermo-mechanical simulator at strain rates of 0.001 0.1 S-1 and height reductions of 20-60%. The results show that discontinuous yielding appears at a strain rate of 0.1 S-1 and a height reduction of 60% from 0.06 true strain to 0.12 true strain. The yield strength was found to be sensitive to the strain rate (0.001 0.1 S-1), while the ultimate strength was just the opposite, but higher strain rates produce a discontinuous yielding phenomenon. With increasing height reductions and strain rates, the initially equiaxial grains evolve into fibrous grains and the larger the height reductions and strain rates are, the more significant the elongation of the beta grains is. For small height reductions, the dominant deformation mechanisms are dislocation slip ({110}<111> slip system) and twinning deformation ({332}<113> twinning system); the grain rotation during the twining deformation process can adjust the crystallographic orientation, relieving stress concentration and stimulating additional slip. At large height reductions, the minor volume fraction of twins are completely engulfed by slip lines, and the dominant deformation mechanism changes to dislocation slip.

  8. Effect of solution heat treatment on the internal architecture and compressive strength of an AlMg4.7Si8 alloy☆

    PubMed Central

    Tolnai, D.; Requena, G.; Cloetens, P.; Lendvai, J.; Degischer, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of the microstructure of an AlMg4.7Si8 alloy is investigated by scanning electron microscopy and ex situ synchrotron tomography in as-cast condition and subsequent solution treatments for 1 h and 25 h at 540 °C, respectively. The eutectic Mg2Si phase, which presents a highly interconnected structure in the as-cast condition, undergoes significant morphological changes during the solution heat treatment. Statistical analyses of the particle distribution, the sphericity, the mean curvatures and Gaussian curvatures describe the disintegration of the interconnected seaweed-like structure followed by the rounding of the disintegrated fractions of the eutectic branches quantitatively. The ternary eutectic Si resulting from the Si-surplus to the stoichiometric Mg2Si ratio of the alloy undergoes similar changes. The morphological evolution during solution heat treatment is correlated with results of elevated temperature compression tests at 300 °C. The elevated temperature compressive strength is more sensitive to the degree of interconnectivity of the three dimensional Mg2Si network than to the shape of the individual particles. PMID:24244073

  9. Effect of Water-Cement Ratio on Linear Shrinkage, Cohesion, Friction Angle and Compressive Strength of Expansive Black Clay of Gombe State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochepo, J.; Ogwola, O.; Masbeye, O.

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluates the effect of water-cement ratio on linear shrinkage strain, cohesion, friction angle and unconfined compressive strength of expansive black clay of Gombe state in Nigeria. The soil was remolded with predetermined amount of water and then mixed with cement slurry which was design so as to obtain cement contents of 4, 8 and 12%. The remolding water content (w) and the water content of the cement slurry was design so as to obtain a clay-water-cement mixture with water content equal to the optimum mixing clay-water content. The specimen for linear shrinkage strain, cohesion, friction angle and unconfined compressive strength were then prepared and cured for 7, 14 and 28 days before the various tests were conducted. The results obtained show that LSS increased with W/C ratio and decreased with curing periods. Cohesion increased with W/C ratio and decreased with curing periods and cement content while the soil friction angle decreased with W/C ratio and increased with curing period and cement content. UCS decreased with increase in W/C ratio for all cement content and increased with curing period and cement contents. Statistical analysis using ANOVA was carried out to evaluate the relative effect of W/C ratio, cement content and curing period on LSS, C, θ, and UCS. The results shows that the effect of both W/C ratio, cement content and curing period are statistically significant at 5% level with values of F calculated all greater than F critical for all the properties investigated. However from the calculated F values, the effect of W/C ratio was found to be more statistically significant than the effect of curing periods and cement content while the effect of curing period was found to be more statistically significant than the effect of cement content on LSS, C, θ, and UCS respectively.

  10. The Effect of Different Mixing Methods on the Flow Rate and Compressive Strength of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium-Enriched Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shahriar; Ghasemi, Negin; Rahimi, Saeed; Yavari, Hamid Reza; Samiei, Mohammad; Janani, Maryam; Bahari, Mahmood; Moheb, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Flow rate (FR) and compressive strength (CS) are important properties of endodontic biomaterials that may be affected by various mixing methods. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of different mixing methods on these properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Materials and methods: Hand, amalgamator and ultrasonic techniques were used to mix both biomaterials. Then 0.5 mL of each mixture was placed on a glass slab to measure FR. The second glass slab (100 g) was placed on the samples and 180 sec after the initiation of mixing a 100-g force was applied on it for 10 min. After 10 min, the load was removed, and the minimum and maximum diameters of the sample disks were measured. To measure the CS, 6 sample of each group were placed in steel molds and were then stored in distilled water for 21 h and 21 days. Afterwards, the CS test was performed. Data were analyzed with multi-variant ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: There were significant differences in FR of MTA and CEM cement with different mixing techniques (P<0.05). In the MTA group, none of the mixing techniques exhibited a significant effect on CS (P>0.05); however, in CEM group the CS at 21-h and 21-day intervals was higher with the hand technique (P<0.05). Conclusion: Mixing methods affected the flowability of both biomaterials and compressive strength of CEM cement. PMID:25598811

  11. Dynamic Strength Analysis of Tantalum using a Multimode Rippled Target under Laser Driven Quasi-Isentropic Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Ping; Cavallo, Robert; Park, Hye-Sook; Plechaty, Chris; Prisbrey, Shon; Wilson, Mike; Maddox, Brian; Blobaum, Kerri; May, Robert

    2012-10-01

    We present results from a material strength analysis of tantalum using a multimode rippled target under quasi-isentropic plasma loading at pressure greater than 100GPa and strain rate above 106 s-1. The results are compared with test data measured at Omega Laser. A conventional approach [1,2] utilizes the RTI (Rayleigh-Taylor Instability) mechanism to infer material strength from the growth of a single sinusoidal mode pre-imposed on a target. This method was proven reliable [2,3], but there is room for improvement in efficiency. By deploying an initial perturbation with two or more sinusoidal modes superimposed onto a single target, we are able to collect more test data in a single experiment. Presented in this paper are the verification of a multimode approach against single mode; mode coupling development during the loading sequence; the behavior of induced modes; and the detection of those modes in both simulation and test measurements.[4pt] [1] B.A. Remington et at., Material Science and Technology, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2006[0pt] [2] H.S. Park et al., PRL. 104, 135504 (2010)[0pt] [3] N. R. Barton et al., J. of Applied Physics, 109, 073501, 2011

  12. Elevated Temperature Compressive Strength Properties of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened NiAl After Cryo-milling and Roasting in Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Grahle, Peter; Arzt, Eduard; Hebsur, Mohan

    1998-01-01

    In an effort to superimpose two different elevated temperature strengthening mechanisms in NiAl, several lots of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) NiAl powder have been cryo-milled in liquid nitrogen to introduce AlN particles at the grain boundaries. As an alternative to cryo-milling, one lot of ODS NiAl was roasted in nitrogen to produce AlN. Both techniques resulted in hot extruded AlN-strengthened, ODS NiAl alloys which were stronger than the base ODS NiAl between 1200 and 1400 K. However, neither the cryo-milled nor the N2-roasted ODS NiAl alloys were as strong as cryo-milled binary NiAl containing like amounts of AlN. The reason(s) for the relative weakness of cryo-milled ODS NiAl is not certain; however the lack of superior strength in N2-roasted ODS NiAl is probably due to its relatively large AlN particles.

  13. Compressive Strength Estimation of Marble Specimens using Acoustic Emission Hits in Time and Natural Time Domains: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hloupis, George; Stavrakas, Ilias; Vallianatos, Filippos; Triantis, Dimos

    2013-04-01

    The current study deals with preliminary results of characteristic patterns derived from acoustic emissions during compressional stress. Two loading cycles were applied to a specimen of 4cm x 4cm x 10 cm Dionysos marble while acoustic emissions (AE) were recorded using one acoustic sensor coupled at the expected direction of the main crack (at the center of the specimen). The produced time series comprised from the number of counts per AE hit under increasing and constant load. Processing took place in two domains: in conventional time domain (t), using multiresolution wavelet analysis for the study of temporal variation of the wavelet-coefficients' standard deviation (SDEV) [1] and in natural time domain (χ), using the variance (κ1) of natural-time transformed time-series [2,3]. Results in both cases, dictate that identification of the region where the increasing stress (σ), exceeds 40% of the ultimate compressional strength (σ*), is possible. More specific, in conventional time domain, the temporal evolution of SDEV presents a sharp change around σ* during first loading cycle and less than σ* during second loading cycle. In natural time domain, the κ1 value clearly oscillate around 0.07 at natural time indexes corresponding to σ* during first loading cycle. Merging both results leads to a preliminary observation that we have an identification of the time when the compressional stress exceeds σ*. References [1] Telesca, L., Hloupis, G., Nikolintaga, I., Vallianatos, F.,."Temporal patterns in southern Aegean seismicity revealed by the multiresolution wavelet analysis", Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, vol. 12, issue 8, pp 1418-1426, 2007 [2] P. A. Varotsos, N. V. Sarlis, and E. S. Skordas, "Natural Time Analysis: The New View of Time. Precursory Seismic Electric Signals, Earthquakes and other Complex Time-Series", Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011. [3] N. V. Sarlis, P. A. Varotsos, and E. S. Skordas, "Flux Avalances in

  14. An Improved Compressive Sensing and Received Signal Strength-Based Target Localization Algorithm with Unknown Target Population for Wireless Local Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Yu, Kegen; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Liang

    2017-05-30

    In this paper a two-phase compressive sensing (CS) and received signal strength (RSS)-based target localization approach is proposed to improve position accuracy by dealing with the unknown target population and the effect of grid dimensions on position error. In the coarse localization phase, by formulating target localization as a sparse signal recovery problem, grids with recovery vector components greater than a threshold are chosen as the candidate target grids. In the fine localization phase, by partitioning each candidate grid, the target position in a grid is iteratively refined by using the minimum residual error rule and the least-squares technique. When all the candidate target grids are iteratively partitioned and the measurement matrix is updated, the recovery vector is re-estimated. Threshold-based detection is employed again to determine the target grids and hence the target population. As a consequence, both the target population and the position estimation accuracy can be significantly improved. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves the best accuracy among all the algorithms compared.

  15. The use of the percentile method for searching empirical relationships between compression strength (UCS), Point Load (Is50) and Schmidt Hammer (RL) Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Giovanni; Bobbo, Luigi; Vessia, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    Is50 and RL indices are commonly used to indirectly estimate the compression strength of a rocky deposit by in situ and in laboratory devices. The widespread use of Point load and Schmidt hammer tests is due to the simplicity and the speediness of the execution of these tests. Their indices can be related to the UCS by means of the ordinary least square regression analyses. Several researchers suggest to take into account the lithology to build high correlated empirical expressions (R2 >0.8) to draw UCS from Is50 or RL values. Nevertheless, the lower and upper bounds of the UCS ranges of values that can be estimated by means of the two indirect indices are not clearly defined yet. Aydin (2009) stated that the Schmidt hammer test shall be used to assess the compression resistance of rocks characterized by UCS>12-20 MPa. On the other hand, the Point load measures can be performed on weak rocks but upper bound values for UCS are not suggested. In this paper, the empirical relationships between UCS, RL and Is50 are searched by means of the percentile method (Bruno et al. 2013). This method is based on looking for the best regression function, between measured data of UCS and one of the indirect indices, drawn from a subset sample of the couples of measures that are the percentile values. These values are taken from the original dataset of both measures by calculating the cumulative function. No hypothesis on the probability distribution of the sample is needed and the procedure shows to be robust with respect to odd values or outliers. In this study, the carbonate sedimentary rocks are investigated. According to the rock mass classification of Dobereiner and De Freitas (1986), the UCS values for the studied rocks range between 'extremely weak' to 'strong'. For the analyzed data, UCS varies between 1,18-270,70 MPa. Thus, through the percentile method the best empirical relationships UCS-Is50 and UCS-RL are plotted. Relationships between Is50 and RL are drawn, too

  16. Comparative evaluation of shear compressive bond strength between cross-linked acrylic resin denture base and cross-linked acrylic resin teeth with different modifcations of their ridge lap surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sadar, Leena; Dhume, Swaroop; Maniar, Neena; Prakash Patil, Jeevan; Rane, Prasad; Gandhewar, Mahesh

    2013-09-01

    A major problem commonly observed in denture wearer is the detachment of artifcial tooth/teeth from acrylic denture base. The problem was grave when porcelain teeth used along with the then available denture base materials. The bond formed was purely mechanical and hence debonding of teeth from denture base was a frequent occurrence. Inspite of chemical union between acrylic resin teeth and acrylic denture base material, detachment of teeth particularly anterior teeth is a frequent observation. The objective of the study is to study the effect of change in the surface treatment and surface confguration of ridge lap surface of the teeth on retention of cross-linked acrylic teeth on cross-linked acrylic resin denture base. Sixty specimens were tested for the shear compressive bond strength using instron universal testing machine in KN. Statistical analysis is used. The fndings were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and 't' test. Slight modifcation in the ridge lap surface of artifcial teeth alters the strength of the shear compressive bond. Sand papering of ridge lap surfaces improves the shear compressive bond then the one without any modifcation. Maximum shear compressive bond strength can be increased by application of monomer.

  17. Compression testing of ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sines, G.; Adams, M.

    1978-01-01

    The techniques for determining the compressive strengths of the rapidly developing family of super-strong, but brittle, materials is considered. The uniaxial column compression test is discussed, taking into account the loading block size mismatch, the loading block compliance mismatch, the load transmitting surfaces, and the eccentricity of loading. A description of the uniaxial hollow cylinder compression test is also provided, giving attention to premature failure from compliance tube splitting, stresses from compliance mismatch of the loading block, and premature failure from local rotations. The ring compression test is considered along with the hollow cylinder biaxial compression test.

  18. Data Compression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookstein, Abraham; Storer, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Introduces this issue, which contains papers from the 1991 Data Compression Conference, and defines data compression. The two primary functions of data compression are described, i.e., storage and communications; types of data using compression technology are discussed; compression methods are explained; and current areas of research are…

  19. Strength and elastic moduli of TiN from radial x-ray diffraction under nonhydrostatic compression up to 45 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Haihua; Peng, Fang; Mao, Ho-kwang; Shen, Guoyin; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Li, Zuo; Shu, Jinfu

    2010-07-23

    The high pressure behavior of titanium nitride (TiN) was investigated using synchrotron radial x-ray diffraction (RXRD) under nonhydrostatic compression up to 45.4 GPa in a diamond-anvil cell. We obtained the hydrostatic compression equation of state of TiN. Fitting to the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, the bulk modulus derived from nonhydrostatic compression data varies from 232 to 353 GPa, depending on angle {Psi}, the orientation of the diffraction planes with respect to the loading axis. The RXRD data obtained at {Psi} = 54.7{sup o} yield a bulk modulus K{sub 0} = 282 {+-} 9 GPa with pressure derivative K{prime}{sub 0} fixed at 4. We have analyzed the deformation mechanisms by analyzing the (111), (200), (220), (311), and (222) peaks in the x-ray diffraction under pressures. The ratio of uniaxial stress component to shear modulus t/G ranges from 0.007-0.027 at the pressure of 6.4-45.4 GPa. It was found that the TiN sample could support a maximum uniaxial stress component t of 8.6 GPa, when it started to yield at 45.4 GPa under uniaxial compression. And the aggregate elastic moduli of TiN at high pressure were determined from the synchrotron RXRD measurements.

  20. Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Effect on the Compressive Strength and Setting Time of Self-Compacted Concrete Paste as Cementitious Composites

    PubMed Central

    Arefi, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei-Zarchi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete were investigated after the addition of different amounts of ZnO nanoparticles. The zinc oxide nanoparticles, with an average particle size of about 30 nm, were synthesized and their properties studied with the help of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. The prepared nanoparticles were partially added to self-compacting concrete at different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0%), and the mechanical (flexural and split tensile) strength of the specimens measured after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, respectively. The present results have shown that the ZnO nanoparticles were able to improve the flexural strength of self-compacting concrete. The increased ZnO content of more than 0.2% could increase the flexural strength, and the maximum flexural and split tensile strength was observed after the addition of 0.5% nanoparticles. Finally, ZnO nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of the self-compacted concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and less-harmful pores, while increasing mechanical strength. PMID:22605981

  1. Compression and compression fatigue testing of composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, T. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of moisture and temperature on the fatigue and fracture response of composite laminates under compression loads were investigated. The structural laminates studied were an intermediate stiffness graphite-epoxy composite (a typical angle ply laimna liminate had a typical fan blade laminate). Full and half penetration slits and impact delaminations were the defects examined. Results are presented which show the effects of moisture on the fracture and fatigue strength at room temperature, 394 K (250 F), and 422 K (300 F). Static tests results show the effects of defect size and type on the compression-fracture strength under moisture and thermal environments. The cyclic tests results compare the fatigue lives and residual compression strength under compression only and under tension-compression fatigue loading.

  2. The Density and Compressibility of BaCO3-SrCO3-CaCO3-K2CO3-Na2CO3-Li2CO3 Liquids: New Measurements and a Systematic Trend with Cation Field Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurt, S. M.; Lange, R. A.; Ai, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The volumetric properties of multi-component carbonate liquids are required to extend thermodynamic models that describe partial melting of the deep mantle (e.g. pMELTS; Ghiorso et al., 2003) to carbonate-bearing lithologies. Carbonate in the mantle is an important reservoir of carbon, which is released to the atmosphere as CO2 through volcanism, and thus contributes to the carbon cycle. Although MgCO3 is the most important carbonate component in the mantle, it is not possible to directly measure the 1-bar density and compressibility of MgCO3 liquid because, like other alkaline-earth carbonates, it decomposes at a temperature lower than its melting temperature. Despite this challenge, Liu and Lange (2003) and O'Leary et al. (2015) showed that the one bar molar volume, thermal expansion and compressibility of the CaCO3 liquid component could be obtained by measuring the density and sound speeds of stable liquids in the CaCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary system at one bar. In this study, this same strategy is employed on SrCO3- and BaCO3-bearing alkali carbonate liquids. The density and sound speed of seven liquids in the SrCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary and three liquids in the BaCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary were measured from 739-1367K, with SrCO3 and BaCO3 concentrations ranging from 10-50 mol%. The density measurements were made using the double-bob Archimedean method and sound speeds were obtained with a frequency-sweep acoustic interferometer. The molar volume and sound speed measurements were used to calculate the isothermal compressibility of each liquid, and the results show the volumetric properties mix ideally with composition. The partial molar volume and compressibility of the SrCO3 and BaCO3 components are compared to those obtained for the CaCO3 component as a function of cation field strength. The results reveal a systematic trend that allows the partial molar volume and compressibility of the MgCO3 liquid component to be estimated.

  3. Investigation on fatigue strength of a shaft with diameter enlarged partially by combination of a cyclic bending load with an axial compressive load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Kuwahara, Y.; Okabe, N.; Ogi, K.; Ikuta, F.

    2009-12-01

    This paper investigates fatigue strength and existence of mechanical damage experimentally and analytically. In particular, first, we carry out rotary bending fatigue tests and investigate fatigue strength for smooth specimens and specimen processed using the working method. Secondly, we measure Vickers hardness value to investigate strain hardening, and observe microstructure to investigate microstructure change in the diameter-enlargement part. Finally, we simulate stress and strain distribution in the processed part during the processing, using finite element method (FEM), and calculate stress concentration rate and plastic strain. And we predict the existence of mechanical damage in the processed part during the processing experimentally and numerical-analytically. The results of the experiments and analyses indicate that the fatigue damage is not generated in the processed part during the processing in the discussed range of the diameter-enlargement rate D/D0<1.8, through comparing with the smooth specimens.

  4. Investigation on fatigue strength of a shaft with diameter enlarged partially by combination of a cyclic bending load with an axial compressive load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Kuwahara, Y.; Okabe, N.; Ogi, K.; Ikuta, F.

    2010-03-01

    This paper investigates fatigue strength and existence of mechanical damage experimentally and analytically. In particular, first, we carry out rotary bending fatigue tests and investigate fatigue strength for smooth specimens and specimen processed using the working method. Secondly, we measure Vickers hardness value to investigate strain hardening, and observe microstructure to investigate microstructure change in the diameter-enlargement part. Finally, we simulate stress and strain distribution in the processed part during the processing, using finite element method (FEM), and calculate stress concentration rate and plastic strain. And we predict the existence of mechanical damage in the processed part during the processing experimentally and numerical-analytically. The results of the experiments and analyses indicate that the fatigue damage is not generated in the processed part during the processing in the discussed range of the diameter-enlargement rate D/D0<1.8, through comparing with the smooth specimens.

  5. Outstanding compressive creep strength in Cr/Ir-codoped (Mo0.85Nb0.15)Si2 crystals with the unique cross-lamellar microstructure.

    PubMed

    Hagihara, Koji; Ikenishi, Takaaki; Araki, Haruka; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2017-06-21

    A (Mo0.85Nb0.15)Si2 crystal with an oriented, lamellar, C40/C11b two-phase microstructure is a promising ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) structural material, but its low room-temperature fracture toughness and low high-temperature strength prevent its practical application. As a possibility to overcome these problems, we first found a development of unique "cross-lamellar microstructure", by the cooping of Cr and Ir. The cross-lamellar microstructure consists of a rod-like C11b-phase grains that extend along a direction perpendicular to the lamellar interface in addition to the C40/C11b fine lamellae. In this study, the effectiveness of the cross-lamellar microstructure for improving the high-temperature creep deformation property, being the most essential for UHT materials, was examined by using the oriented crystals. The creep rate significantly reduced along a loading orientation parallel to the lamellar interface. Furthermore, the degradation in creep strength for other loading orientation that is not parallel to the lamellar interface, which has been a serious problem up to now, was also suppressed. The results demonstrated that the simultaneous improvement of high-temperature creep strength and room temperature fracture toughness can be first accomplished by the development of unique cross-lamellar microstructure, which opens a potential avenue for the development of novel UHT materials as alternatives to existing Ni-based superalloys.

  6. A comparison of the compressive strength of various distal locking screw options in the treatment of tibia fractures with intramedullary nails.

    PubMed

    Xavier, F; Goldwyn, E; Hayes, W; Carrer, A; Elkhechen, R; Berdichevsky, M; Goldman, A; Urban, W; Saha, S

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of distal metaphyseal tibia fractures is often challenging. Newer tibial intramedullary (IM) nails are designed with a wider variety of distal locking options to offer greater stability in treating these fractures. In this study we attempted to determine the most biomechanically stable number and configuration of distal locking screws when treating distal metaphyseal tibia fractures with IM nails. A transverse osteotomy was created 4 cm from the tibial plafond in identical composite saw bones models (Type 43A fracture) as well as in human cadaveric bones. Each specimen was nailed using a tibial nail (Stryker T2). Distal locking was performed in one of the three configurations: (a) Group I: two screws in the medial lateral (ML) direction; (b) Group II: one ML screw and one screw in the anterior posterior (AP) direction; (c) Group 111: two ML screws and one AP screw. The specimens were then mounted onto a uniaxial material testing machine (Instron) and tested in compression. Our results showed that there was no statistical difference in the load-carrying capacity of Group 1 and Group II. This suggests that the treating surgeon can choose either of these two configurations depending on the wound or other considerations without sacrificing the compressive load-carrying capacity of the IM nail fixation. The load-carrying capacity of the Group III samples with these locking screws was higher than those of Group I & II, although this difference was not statistically significant. This work is being continued to compare the load-carrying capacity of the bone samples with the cortical thickness of bone. We also plan to examine the relationship between the load-carrying capacity of these surgical constructs with the bone mineral density of the metaphysis of these tibial specimens.

  7. DNABIT Compress - Genome compression algorithm.

    PubMed

    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam

    2011-01-22

    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, "DNABIT Compress" for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that "DNABIT Compress" algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases.

  8. Compressive and tensile failure at high fluid pressure where preexisting fractures have cohesive strength, with application to the San Andreas fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.

    1996-01-01

    In thrusting and strike-slip situations, when the maximum principal horizontal stress S1 acts nearly normal to a fault (a misoriented fault, such as the San Andreas), pore-fluid pressure > the lithostatic load, Pf > Sv, is required to reactivate movement on that fault. Pf > Sv may be achieved without causing hydraulic tensile fracturing if (1) previously existing cracks have regained cohesive strength by chemical processes, (2) subcritical crack growth has been blunted, and (3) the least principal horizontal stress S3 nearly equals Sv. Where Pf > Sv has been attained within a misaligned fault, increasing the stress difference (S1 - S3) at constant Pf > Sv will not lead to shear failure, while a decrease in (S1 - S3) can lead to shear failure of that fault. However, where the cohesive strength of material in a broad misaligned fault zone is less than that of the surrounding intact rock, increasing (S1 - S3) while Pf > Sv can result in shear failure of fractures at near optimum angles to S1, but confined within this weak fault zone. If this faulting results in the local short-lived attainment of Pf > Sv (cataclastic deformation and frictional heating overcoming dilation) and a simultaneous decrease in (S1 - S3), this combination of effects can trigger movement along the main trace of the misaligned fault. When increasing Pf results in hydraulic failure, anisotropy in tensile strength or fracture toughness resulting from foliation within faults allows fractures to propagate along the planes of weakness rather than across the foliation perpendicular to S3.

  9. Space-time compressive imaging.

    PubMed

    Treeaporn, Vicha; Ashok, Amit; Neifeld, Mark A

    2012-02-01

    Compressive imaging systems typically exploit the spatial correlation of the scene to facilitate a lower dimensional measurement relative to a conventional imaging system. In natural time-varying scenes there is a high degree of temporal correlation that may also be exploited to further reduce the number of measurements. In this work we analyze space-time compressive imaging using Karhunen-Loève (KL) projections for the read-noise-limited measurement case. Based on a comprehensive simulation study, we show that a KL-based space-time compressive imager offers higher compression relative to space-only compressive imaging. For a relative noise strength of 10% and reconstruction error of 10%, we find that space-time compressive imaging with 8×8×16 spatiotemporal blocks yields about 292× compression compared to a conventional imager, while space-only compressive imaging provides only 32× compression. Additionally, under high read-noise conditions, a space-time compressive imaging system yields lower reconstruction error than a conventional imaging system due to the multiplexing advantage. We also discuss three electro-optic space-time compressive imaging architecture classes, including charge-domain processing by a smart focal plane array (FPA). Space-time compressive imaging using a smart FPA provides an alternative method to capture the nonredundant portions of time-varying scenes.

  10. Effect of compressibility on the hypervelocity penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, W. J.; Chen, X. W.; Chen, P.

    2017-06-01

    We further consider the effect of rod strength by employing the compressible penetration model to study the effect of compressibility on hypervelocity penetration. Meanwhile, we define different instances of penetration efficiency in various modified models and compare these penetration efficiencies to identify the effects of different factors in the compressible model. To systematically discuss the effect of compressibility in different metallic rod-target combinations, we construct three cases, i.e., the penetrations by the more compressible rod into the less compressible target, rod into the analogously compressible target, and the less compressible rod into the more compressible target. The effects of volumetric strain, internal energy, and strength on the penetration efficiency are analyzed simultaneously. It indicates that the compressibility of the rod and target increases the pressure at the rod/target interface. The more compressible rod/target has larger volumetric strain and higher internal energy. Both the larger volumetric strain and higher strength enhance the penetration or anti-penetration ability. On the other hand, the higher internal energy weakens the penetration or anti-penetration ability. The two trends conflict, but the volumetric strain dominates in the variation of the penetration efficiency, which would not approach the hydrodynamic limit if the rod and target are not analogously compressible. However, if the compressibility of the rod and target is analogous, it has little effect on the penetration efficiency.

  11. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Bradley, Jonathan N.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%.

  12. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

    1998-07-07

    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique are disclosed. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%. 21 figs.

  13. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

    1998-03-10

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique is disclosed. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method. 11 figs.

  14. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Bradley, Jonathan N.

    1998-01-01

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method.

  15. Compressive Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Se Hoon

    Compressive holography estimates images from incomplete data by using sparsity priors. Compressive holography combines digital holography and compressive sensing. Digital holography consists of computational image estimation from data captured by an electronic focal plane array. Compressive sensing enables accurate data reconstruction by prior knowledge on desired signal. Computational and optical co-design optimally supports compressive holography in the joint computational and optical domain. This dissertation explores two examples of compressive holography: estimation of 3D tomographic images from 2D data and estimation of images from under sampled apertures. Compressive holography achieves single shot holographic tomography using decompressive inference. In general, 3D image reconstruction suffers from underdetermined measurements with a 2D detector. Specifically, single shot holographic tomography shows the uniqueness problem in the axial direction because the inversion is ill-posed. Compressive sensing alleviates the ill-posed problem by enforcing some sparsity constraints. Holographic tomography is applied for video-rate microscopic imaging and diffuse object imaging. In diffuse object imaging, sparsity priors are not valid in coherent image basis due to speckle. So incoherent image estimation is designed to hold the sparsity in incoherent image basis by support of multiple speckle realizations. High pixel count holography achieves high resolution and wide field-of-view imaging. Coherent aperture synthesis can be one method to increase the aperture size of a detector. Scanning-based synthetic aperture confronts a multivariable global optimization problem due to time-space measurement errors. A hierarchical estimation strategy divides the global problem into multiple local problems with support of computational and optical co-design. Compressive sparse aperture holography can be another method. Compressive sparse sampling collects most of significant field

  16. The Influence of Testing Procedures on Uniaxial Compressive Strength Prediction of Carbonate Rocks from Equotip Hardness Tester (EHT) and Proposal of a New Testing Methodology: Hybrid Dynamic Hardness (HDH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, Nurdan Günes

    2013-01-01

    The Equotip hardness tester (EHT) is a portable and non-destructive instrument used mainly for the dynamic rebound hardness testing of metals. Although various versions of the `single impacts' and `repeated impacts' testing procedures have been employed by different authors for different applications, it is not yet known whether a particular testing procedure is more relevant for a specific application in rock engineering. To be able to contribute to the subject, the present study was carried out to determine the suitability of different rebound testing procedures with this instrument for uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) estimations of some selected carbonate rocks. To achieve this goal, as well as four different existing rebound testing procedures, a newly proposed testing methodology involving the parameter hybrid dynamic hardness (HDH) was also employed. The statistical analyses performed on the experimental data, on the whole, showed that the test procedures which are based on single impacts test procedures outperformed the repeated impacts test procedures in terms of UCS prediction accuracy. The prediction capability of the newly introduced testing methodology was found to be superior to those of other procedures considered in this work, suggesting that it could be an efficient tool in practice for preliminary estimates of rock strength. The statistical analyses also indicated that, in practical applications of the EHT using different test procedures, it may be possible to predict the UCS more accurately when apparent density data is available. For the range of specimen sizes considered, no clear evidence of size effect was observed in the mean rebound values. The argument raised by some other authors that the EHT might not be a convenient instrument for the dynamic rebound hardness determination of relatively high-porosity rocks was not confirmed in this study.

  17. Hand-Strength Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Elliot, Joe

    1987-01-01

    Special grip-strength meter designed for accurate, reproducible measurement of hand rehabilitation. Four strain gauges connected in Wheatstone bridge to measure deflection caused by gripping hand. Compressive force exerted by hand transmitted to measuring beams. Beams therefore deflected or strained, and mechanical strain sensed by strain gauges and converted into electrical signal. After amplification and conditioning, signal displayed on LED as measure of gripping strength of hand.

  18. Composite lamina compressive properties using the Wyoming combined loading compression test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, Peter Mark

    The determination of lamina compressive strength and modulus using the Wyoming Combined Loading Compression (CLC) test method was investigated. In this test method an untabbed [90/0]ns cross-ply test coupon is tested in uniaxial compression using the CLC test fixture. The longitudinal modulus and strength of the 0°-plies are determined by applying a back-out factor, calculated using Classical Lamination Theory, to the measured longitudinal laminate modulus and strength. A parametric study revealed that specimen quality, load train alignment, and fixture dimensional tolerances have a large impact on the measured compressive properties. Thus, a significant amount of time was dedicated to developing specimen fabrication and testing procedures to minimize variations in the measured compressive properties. A comparative study of the CLC and IITRI test fixtures showed that the CLC test fixture is superior to the IITRI fixture in many ways. Although the compressive properties measured using these two fixtures are often statistically equivalent, the CLC test fixture is easier to use, less expensive to fabricate, and much less massive than the IITRI fixture. In a second portion of the comparative study, the 0°-ply compressive strength obtained using [90/0]ns cross-ply test specimens was compared to the 0°-ply compressive strength obtained using quasi-isotropic test specimens. This revealed that the 0°-ply compressive strength was independent of the laminate orientation. This "backed-out" 0°-ply compressive strength is then by definition the "design value" for the strength of the composite material in compression. The present study showed that valid "design values" for the compressive strength of laminated composite materials can be obtained using the CLC test method. This was verified by testing two classes of structural components in compression, filament-wound cylinders, and honeycomb sandwich beams. The compressive strength of the 0°-plies at failure in the

  19. [New Developments in Compression Treatment].

    PubMed

    Reich-Schupke, Stefanie; Protz, Kerstin; Dissemond, Joachim; Rabe, Eberhard

    2017-05-01

    Patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease who show an ankle arterial pressure of minimum 60 mmHg can be decongested by use of special padded bandages. Afterwards, medical compression stockings (class 1) with high strength and less elasticity are recommended. Mobile patients seem to benefit from progressive compression therapy with highest pressure above the calf. Compression after uncomplicated interventions of varicose veins or spider veins tends to be modified to a short and excentric compression in patients without risk factors. Valid datas are not available yet. Adaptive compression bandages show pros concerning efficiency, economy and more comfort for patients with edemas or ulcers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Compression strength of composite primary structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric R.

    1994-01-01

    The linear elastic response is determined for an internally pressurized, long circular cylindrical shell stiffened on the inside by a regular arrangement of identical stringers and identical rings. Periodicity of this configuration permits the analysis of a portion of the shell wall centered over a generic stringer-ring joint; i.e., a unit cell model. The stiffeners are modeled as discrete beams, and the stringer is assumed to have a symmetrical cross section and the ring an asymmetrical section. Asymmetery causes out-of-plane bending and torsion of the ring. Displacements are assumed as truncated double Fourier series plus simple terms in the axial coordinate to account for the closed and pressure vessel effect (a non-periodic effect). The interacting line loads between the stiffeners and the inside shell wall are Lagrange multipliers in the formulation, and they are also assumed as truncated Fourier series. Displacement continuity constraints between the stiffeners and shell along the contact lines are satisfied point-wise. Equilibrium is imposed by the principle of virtual work. A composite material crown panel from the fuselage of a large transport aircraft is the numerical example. The distributions of the interacting line loads, and the out-of-plane bending moment and torque in the ring, are strongly dependent on modeling the deformations due to transverse shear and cross-sectional warping of the ring in torsion. This paper contains the results from the semiannual report on research on 'Pressure Pillowing of an Orthogonally Stiffened Cylindrical Shell'. The results of the new work are illustrated in the included appendix.

  1. Compression Strength of Composite Primary Structural Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric R.; Starnes, James H., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The focus of research activities under NASA Grant NAG-1-2035 was the response and failure of thin-walled structural components. The research is applicable to the primary load carrying structure of flight vehicles, with particular emphasis on fuselage and wing'structure. Analyses and tests were performed that are applicable to the following structural components an aft pressure bulkhead, or a composite pressure dome, pressure cabin damage containment, and fuselage frames subject to crash-type loads.

  2. Compression strength of composite primary structural components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Eric R.

    1993-10-01

    Two projects are summarized. The first project is entitled 'Stiffener Crippling Inititated by Delaminations' and its objective is to develop a computational model of the stiffener specimens that includes the capability to predict the interlaminar stress response at the flange free edge in postbuckling. The second is entitled 'Pressure Pillowing of an Orthogonally Stiffened Cylindrical Shell'. A paper written on this project is included.

  3. Compression strength of composite primary structural components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Eric R.

    1994-12-01

    The linear elastic response is determined for an internally pressurized, long circular cylindrical shell stiffened on the inside by a regular arrangement of identical stringers and identical rings. Periodicity of this configuration permits the analysis of a portion of the shell wall centered over a generic stringer-ring joint; i.e., a unit cell model. The stiffeners are modeled as discrete beams, and the stringer is assumed to have a symmetrical cross section and the ring an asymmetrical section. Asymmetery causes out-of-plane bending and torsion of the ring. Displacements are assumed as truncated double Fourier series plus simple terms in the axial coordinate to account for the closed and pressure vessel effect (a non-periodic effect). The interacting line loads between the stiffeners and the inside shell wall are Lagrange multipliers in the formulation, and they are also assumed as truncated Fourier series. Displacement continuity constraints between the stiffeners and shell along the contact lines are satisfied point-wise. Equilibrium is imposed by the principle of virtual work. A composite material crown panel from the fuselage of a large transport aircraft is the numerical example. The distributions of the interacting line loads, and the out-of-plane bending moment and torque in the ring, are strongly dependent on modeling the deformations due to transverse shear and cross-sectional warping of the ring in torsion. This paper contains the results from the semiannual report on research on 'Pressure Pillowing of an Orthogonally Stiffened Cylindrical Shell'. The results of the new work are illustrated in the included appendix.

  4. Compression strength of composite primary structural components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Eric R.

    1993-10-01

    Two projects are summarized in this report. The first project is entitled 'Stiffener Crippling Initiated by Delamination', and the second is entitled 'Pressure Pillowing of an Orthogonally Stiffened Cylindrical Shell.' The objective of the first project is to develop a computational model of the stiffener specimens that includes the capability to predict the interlaminar stress response at the flange free edge in postbuckling. The objectives of the second project are to analyze the concentration of interacting loads at the stiffener intersection and to study the pillowing of the skin.

  5. Compression strength of composite primary structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    Two projects are summarized in this report. The first project is entitled 'Stiffener Crippling Initiated by Delamination', and the second is entitled 'Pressure Pillowing of an Orthogonally Stiffened Cylindrical Shell.' The objective of the first project is to develop a computational model of the stiffener specimens that includes the capability to predict the interlaminar stress response at the flange free edge in postbuckling. The objectives of the second project are to analyze the concentration of interacting loads at the stiffener intersection and to study the pillowing of the skin.

  6. Stress analysis of shear/compression test

    SciTech Connect

    Nishijima, S.; Okada, T.; Ueno, S.

    1997-06-01

    Stress analysis has been made on the glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) subjected to the combined shear and compression stresses by means of finite element method. The two types of experimental set up were analyzed, that is parallel and series method where the specimen were compressed by tilted jigs which enable to apply the combined stresses, to the specimen. Modified Tsai-Hill criterion was employed to judge the failure under the combined stresses that is the shear strength under the compressive stress. The different failure envelopes were obtained between the two set ups. In the parallel system the shear strength once increased with compressive stress then decreased. On the contrary in the series system the shear strength decreased monotonicly with compressive stress. The difference is caused by the different stress distribution due to the different constraint conditions. The basic parameters which control the failure under the combined stresses will be discussed.

  7. Video Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Optivision developed two PC-compatible boards and associated software under a Goddard Space Flight Center Small Business Innovation Research grant for NASA applications in areas such as telerobotics, telesciences and spaceborne experimentation. From this technology, the company used its own funds to develop commercial products, the OPTIVideo MPEG Encoder and Decoder, which are used for realtime video compression and decompression. They are used in commercial applications including interactive video databases and video transmission. The encoder converts video source material to a compressed digital form that can be stored or transmitted, and the decoder decompresses bit streams to provide high quality playback.

  8. Compression of Composite Materials: A Review,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    Evaluation of the Unidirectional Compressive Strength of Carbon Fibre - Reinforced Plastic ," Composites, Vol 12 No. 4, October 1981. 18. Shuart, M. J., "An...Behaviour of Carbon Fibre - Reinforced Plastic I Laminates," Composites, Vol. 15 No. 3, July 1984. " t 69. Ramkumar, R. L., "Compression Fatigue Behavior

  9. Compression stockings

    MedlinePlus

    ... knee bend. Compression Stockings Can Be Hard to Put on If it's hard for you to put on the stockings, try these tips: Apply lotion ... your legs, but let it dry before you put on the stockings. Use a little baby powder ...

  10. Shear strength of metals under uniaxial deformation and pure shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latypov, F. T.; Mayer, A. E.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamic shear strength of perfect monocrystalline metals using the molecular dynamics simulation. Three types of deformation (single shear, uniaxial compression and tension) are investigated for five metals of different crystallographic systems (fcc, bcc and hcp). A strong dependence of the calculated shear strength on the deformation type is observed. In the case of bcc (iron) and hcp (titanium) metals, the maximal shear strength is achieved at the uniaxial compression, while the minimal shear strength is observed at the uniaxial tension. In the case of fcc metals (aluminum, copper, nickel) the largest strength is achieved at the pure shear, the lowest strength is obtained at the uniaxial compression.

  11. Truss-core corrugation for compressive loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Randall C. (Inventor); Jackson, Robert (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A corrugated panel structure for supporting compressive loads is described which includes curved cap strips separated by truss-core web segments. The truss-core web segments are formed from first and second flat panels with a corrugated filler in between them. The corrugated filler extends in the direction of the compressive load. As a result, all components of the panel structure have a compressive load carrying capability resulting in a high strength-to-weight ratio when the compressive load is limiting. Application to rocket and aircraft structures is suggested.

  12. Truss-core corrugation for compressive loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Randall C.; Jackson, Robert

    1988-09-01

    A corrugated panel structure for supporting compressive loads is described which includes curved cap strips separated by truss-core web segments. The truss-core web segments are formed from first and second flat panels with a corrugated filler in between them. The corrugated filler extends in the direction of the compressive load. As a result, all components of the panel structure have a compressive load carrying capability resulting in a high strength-to-weight ratio when the compressive load is limiting. Application to rocket and aircraft structures is suggested.

  13. Solid iron compressed up to 560 GPa.

    PubMed

    Ping, Y; Coppari, F; Hicks, D G; Yaakobi, B; Fratanduono, D E; Hamel, S; Eggert, J H; Rygg, J R; Smith, R F; Swift, D C; Braun, D G; Boehly, T R; Collins, G W

    2013-08-09

    Dynamic compression by multiple shocks is used to compress iron up to 560 GPa (5.6 Mbar), the highest solid-state pressure yet attained for iron in the laboratory. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy offers simultaneous density, temperature, and local-structure measurements for the compressed iron. The data show that the close-packed structure of iron is stable up to 560 GPa, the temperature at peak compression is significantly higher than expected from pure compressive work, and the dynamic strength of iron is many times greater than the static strength based on lower pressure data. The results provide the first constraint on the melting line of iron above 400 GPa.

  14. A study of compressibility and compactibility of directly compressible tableting materials containing tramadol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Mužíková, Jitka; Kubíčková, Alena

    2016-09-01

    The paper evaluates and compares the compressibility and compactibility of directly compressible tableting materials for the preparation of hydrophilic gel matrix tablets containing tramadol hydrochloride and the coprocessed dry binders Prosolv® SMCC 90 and Disintequik™ MCC 25. The selected types of hypromellose are Methocel™ Premium K4M and Methocel™ Premium K100M in 30 and 50 % concentrations, the lubricant being magnesium stearate in a 1 % concentration. Compressibility is evaluated by means of the energy profile of compression process and compactibility by the tensile strength of tablets. The values of total energy of compression and plasticity were higher in the tableting materials containing Prosolv® SMCC 90 than in those containing Disintequik™ MCC 25. Tramadol slightly decreased the values of total energy of compression and plasticity. Tableting materials containing Prosolv® SMCC 90 yielded stronger tablets. Tramadol decreased the strength of tablets from both coprocessed dry binders.

  15. Compressed convolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Franz; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the concept of compressed convolution, a technique to convolve a given data set with a large number of non-orthogonal kernels. In typical applications our technique drastically reduces the effective number of computations. The new method is applicable to convolutions with symmetric and asymmetric kernels and can be easily controlled for an optimal trade-off between speed and accuracy. It is based on linear compression of the collection of kernels into a small number of coefficients in an optimal eigenbasis. The final result can then be decompressed in constant time for each desired convolved output. The method is fully general and suitable for a wide variety of problems. We give explicit examples in the context of simulation challenges for upcoming multi-kilo-detector cosmic microwave background (CMB) missions. For a CMB experiment with detectors with similar beam properties, we demonstrate that the algorithm can decrease the costs of beam convolution by two to three orders of magnitude with negligible loss of accuracy. Likewise, it has the potential to allow the reduction of disk space required to store signal simulations by a similar amount. Applications in other areas of astrophysics and beyond are optimal searches for a large number of templates in noisy data, e.g. from a parametrized family of gravitational wave templates; or calculating convolutions with highly overcomplete wavelet dictionaries, e.g. in methods designed to uncover sparse signal representations.

  16. IMPACT STRENGTH OF GLASS AND GLASS CERAMIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bless, S.; Tolman, J.

    2009-12-28

    Strength of glass and glass ceramic was measured with a bar impact technique. High-speed movies show regions of tensile and compressive failure. The borosilicate glass had a compressive strength of at least 2.2 GPa, and the glass ceramic at least 4 GPa. However, the BSG was much stronger in tension than GC. In ballistic tests, the BSG was the superior armor.

  17. Recent Advances in Studies of the Strength of Rocks Under True Triaxial Compression Conditions / POSTĘPY W Badaniach Nad WYTRZYMAŁOŚCIĄ SKAŁ W Warunkach Prawdziwego TRÓJOSIOWEGO ŚCISKANIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwaśniewski, Marek

    2013-12-01

    The results of true triaxial compression tests carried out by K. Mogi at the University of Tokyo, M. Takahashi at the Geological Survey of Japan and B. Haimson at the University of Wisconsin are summarized and the effect of the intermediate principal stress on the ultimate strength of rocks is discussed in the first part of the paper. Then, the Huber-Mises-Hencky failure theory, which was generalized by Nádai and further modified by Mogi to explain the stress-dependency of both the brittle fracturing and the ductile flow of rocks, is revisited. In the main part of the paper, the results of recent experimental studies carried out on samples of a Coal-Measure sandstone from the strata of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin under true triaxial compression conditions are presented. The studies focused on the effect of, independently, confining pressure, intermediate principal stress and minimum principal stress on the ultimate strength of this rock. The paper closes with a presentation and discussion of a general failure criterion that is capable of predicting the ultimate strength of rocks under both axisymmetric and true triaxial (asymmetric) compressive stress conditions. W pierwszej części artykułu podsumowano wyniki badań eksperymentalnych na prawdziwe trójosiowe ściskanie przeprowadzonych przez K. Mogiego z Uniwersytetu Tokijskiego, M. Takahashiego z Japońskiego Instytutu Geologicznego i B. Haimsona z Uniwersytetu Wisconsin i omówiono wpływ pośredniego naprężenia głównego na wytrzymałość graniczną skał. Następnie, przypomniano uogólnioną przez Nádai'a hipotezę wytężeniową Hubera-Misesa-Hencky'ego, którą przed laty zmodyfikował Mogi żeby wyjaśnić zależność granicznego stycznego naprężenia oktaedrycznego od tzw. efektywnego naprężenia średniego dla, oddzielnie, skał zachowujących się krucho i skał doznających przy ściskaniu ciągliwego płynięcia. W głównej części artykułu przedstawiono wyniki najnowszych bada

  18. Compression behavior of unidirectional fibrous composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, J. H.; Chamis, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    The longitudinal compression behavior of unidirectional fiber composites is investigated using a modified Celanese test method with thick and thin test specimens. The test data obtained are interpreted using the stress/strain curves from back-to-back strain gages, examination of fracture surfaces by scanning electron microscope, and predictive equations for distinct failure modes including fiber compression failure, Euler buckling, delamination, and flexure. The results show that the longitudinal compression fracture is induced by a combination of delamination, flexure, and fiber tier breaks. No distinct fracture surface characteristics can be associated with unique failure modes. An equation is described which can be used to extract the longitudinal compression strength knowing the longitudinal tensile and flexural strengths of the same composite system.

  19. Shear Strength Behavior of Human Trabecular Bone

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Arnav; Gupta, Atul; Bayraktar, Harun H.; Kwon, Ronald Y.; Keaveny, Tony M.

    2012-01-01

    The shear strength of human trabecular bone may influence overall bone strength under fall loading conditions and failure at bone-implant interfaces. Here, we sought to compare shear and compressive yield strengths of human trabecular bone and elucidate the underlying failure mechanisms. We analyzed 54 specimens (5-mm cubes), all aligned with the main trabecular orientation and spanning four anatomic sites, 44 different cadavers, and a wide range of bone volume fraction (0.06–0.38). Micro-CT-based non-linear finite element analysis was used to assess the compressive and shear strengths and the spatial distribution of yielded tissue; the tissue-level constitutive model allowed for kinematic non-linearity and yielding with strength asymmetry. We found that the computed values of both the shear and compressive strengths depended on bone volume fraction via power law relations having an exponent of 1.7 (R2=0.95 shear; R2=0.97 compression). The ratio of shear to compressive strengths (mean ± SD, 0.44 ± 0.16) did not depend on bone volume fraction (p=0.24) but did depend on microarchitecture, most notably the intra-trabecular standard deviation in trabecular spacing (R2=0.23, p<0.005). For shear, the main tissue-level failure mode was tensile yield of the obliquely oriented trabeculae. By contrast, for compression, specimens having low bone volume fraction failed primarily by large-deformation-related tensile yield of horizontal trabeculae and those having high bone volume failed primarily by compressive yield of vertical trabeculae. We conclude that human trabecular bone is generally much weaker in shear than compression at the apparent level, reflecting different failure mechanisms at the tissue level. PMID:22884967

  20. Compressive response of Kevlar/epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, J.R.; Teply, J.L.

    1988-03-01

    A mathematical model is developed from the principle of minimum potential energy to determine the longitudinal compressive response of unidirectional fiber composites. A theoretical study based on this model is conducted to assess the influence of local fiber misalignment and the nonlinear shear deformation of the matrix. Numerical results are compared with experiments to verify this study; it appears that the predicted compressive response coincides well with experimental results. It is also shown that the compressive strength of Kevlar/epoxy is dominated by local shear failure. 12 references.

  1. Optimization of radar pulse compression processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Samuel M.; Kim, Woonkyung M.; Lee, Myung-Su

    1997-06-01

    We propose an optimal radar pulse compression technique and evaluate its performance in the presence of Doppler shift. The traditional pulse compression using Barker code increases the signal strength by transmitting a Barker coded long pulse. The received signal is then processed by an appropriate correlation processing. This Barker code radar pulse compression enhances the detection sensitivity while maintaining the range resolution of a single chip of the Barker coded long pulse. But unfortunately, the technique suffers from the addition of range sidelobes which sometimes will mask weak targets in the vicinity of larger targets. Our proposed optimal algorithm completely eliminates the sidelobes at the cost of additional processing.

  2. Turbulence in Compressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lecture notes for the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) Special Course on 'Turbulence in Compressible Flows' have been assembled in this report. The following topics were covered: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers, Compressible Turbulent Free Shear Layers, Turbulent Combustion, DNS/LES and RANS Simulations of Compressible Turbulent Flows, and Case Studies of Applications of Turbulence Models in Aerospace.

  3. Turbulence in Compressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lecture notes for the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) Special Course on 'Turbulence in Compressible Flows' have been assembled in this report. The following topics were covered: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers, Compressible Turbulent Free Shear Layers, Turbulent Combustion, DNS/LES and RANS Simulations of Compressible Turbulent Flows, and Case Studies of Applications of Turbulence Models in Aerospace.

  4. Strength Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londeree, Ben R.

    1981-01-01

    Postural deviations resulting from strength and flexibility imbalances include swayback, scoliosis, and rounded shoulders. Screening tests are one method for identifying strength problems. Tests for the evaluation of postural problems are described, and exercises are presented for the strengthening of muscles. (JN)

  5. Strength Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londeree, Ben R.

    1981-01-01

    Postural deviations resulting from strength and flexibility imbalances include swayback, scoliosis, and rounded shoulders. Screening tests are one method for identifying strength problems. Tests for the evaluation of postural problems are described, and exercises are presented for the strengthening of muscles. (JN)

  6. Benchtop comparison of a novel dynamic compression screw to a standard cortical screw: compression integrity and gap size over time during simulated resorption.

    PubMed

    Kinmon, Kyle; Garzon, Desiree; Tacktill, Jordan; Vassello, Wayne

    2013-06-01

    Literature reports the incidence of failed isolated foot and ankle fusions as up to 23%. A contributing factor is the natural bone resorption, which occurs resulting in loss of compression and gapping at the fusion site when standard static compression plates and screws are used. However, an innovative dynamic compression screw may provide lasting compression despite resorption. This benchtop study shows that the FxDEVICES spring-loaded dynamic POGO screw maintains more compression and more consistent compression rate during simulated resorption, as compared with a standard compression screw. The novel screw maintained much greater compression strength within the first millimeter of simulated resorption (13.57 vs 4.38 lb) and maintained greater compression strength at the test completion (1.14 vs 0 lb). The novel screw revealed a more consistent resorption rate over the duration of the simulation. Clinically, this may result in more stability and improved fusion rates.

  7. Effect of insulating concrete forms in concrete compresive strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Jerez, Silvio R.

    The subject presented in this thesis is the effect of Insulating Concrete Forms (ICF's) on concrete compressive strength. This work seeks to identify if concrete cured in ICF's has an effect in compressive strength due to the thermal insulation provided by the forms. Modern construction is moving to energy efficient buildings and ICF's is becoming more popular in new developments. The thesis used a concrete mixture and a mortar mixture to investigate the effects of ICF's on concrete compressive strength. After the experimentations were performed, it was concluded that the ICF's do affect concrete strength. It was found that the forms increase concrete strength without the need for additional curing water. An increase of 50% in strength at 56 days was obtained. It was concluded that the longer concrete cures inside ICF's, the higher strength it reaches, and that ICF's effect on concrete strength is proportional to volume of concrete.

  8. Impact Strength of Glass and Glass Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bless, Stephan; Tolman, John

    2009-06-01

    Bar impact tests, using the techniques described elsewhere in this symposium, were used to measure compressive and tensile strengths of borosilicate glass, soda lime glass, and glass ceramic. The glass ceramic was 25% crystalline spinel, furnished by Corning, Inc. There are two measures of compressive strength: the peak stress that can be transmitted in unconfined compression and the steady-state strength. For both glasses, these values were similar, being about 1.8 and 1.5 GPa, respectively. The glass ceramic was almost 50% stronger. Tensile failure in the glass and glass ceramic takes places via surface flaws, and thus tensile strength is an extrinsic---as opposed to intrinsic---property.

  9. Importance of Tensile Strength on the Shear Behavior of Discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazvinian, A. H.; Azinfar, M. J.; Geranmayeh Vaneghi, R.

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the shear behavior of discontinuities possessing two different rock wall types with distinct separate compressive strengths was investigated. The designed profiles consisted of regular artificial joints molded by five types of plaster mortars, each representing a distinct uniaxial compressive strength. The compressive strengths of plaster specimens ranged from 5.9 to 19.5 MPa. These specimens were molded considering a regular triangular asperity profile and were designed so as to achieve joint walls with different strength material combinations. The results showed that the shear behavior of discontinuities possessing different joint wall compressive strengths (DDJCS) tested under constant normal load (CNL) conditions is the same as those possessing identical joint wall strengths, but the shear strength of DDJCS is governed by minor joint wall compressive strength. In addition, it was measured that the predicted values obtained by Barton's empirical criterion are greater than the experimental results. The finding indicates that there is a correlation between the joint roughness coefficient (JRC), normal stress, and mechanical strength. It was observed that the mode of failure of asperities is either pure tensile, pure shear, or a combination of both. Therefore, Barton's strength criterion, which considers the compressive strength of joint walls, was modified by substituting the compressive strength with the tensile strength. The validity of the modified criterion was examined by the comparison of the predicted shear values with the laboratory shear test results reported by Grasselli (Ph.D. thesis n.2404, Civil Engineering Department, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2001). These comparisons infer that the modified criterion can predict the shear strength of joints more precisely.

  10. Equipment and Protocols for Quasi-Static and Dynamic Tests of Very-High-Strength Concrete (VHSC) and High-Strength High-Ductility Concrete (HSHDC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    Compressive strength tests were conducted on VHSC and HSHDC. VHSC specimens were cast as 102x203 mm (4x8 in.) cylinders due to the size of steel ...compressive stress of HSHDC cubes as 166 MPa (24.1 ksi) (Ranade et al. 2013). Based on the data presented in Table 5.1, average compressive strength is 6.6...thicknesses of aluminum or steel with rupture pressures estimated based on material strengths and thicknesses. Although this provides a uniform pressure

  11. Strength Training

    MedlinePlus

    ... strengthens your heart and lungs. When you strength train with weights, you're using your muscles to ... see there are lots of different ways to train with weights. Try a few good basic routines ...

  12. Strength deterioration of high strength concrete in sulfate environment

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.S.; Suh, J.K.; Lee, J.H.; Shin, Y.S.

    1999-09-01

    Sulfate in soil and groundwater may cause damage to the concrete in underground structures. In this paper, laboratory tests were performed to assess the damage of chemical attack by magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate on normal and high strength concretes. The selected solutions were pure water and 10% sulfate solutions (sodium and magnesium), which were determined by consideration of the soil environment in Korea. The parameters in experimental programs were water-binder ratio, silica fume content, and the compressive strength of concrete. Observed differences in the characteristics between normal and high strength concretes are discussed, and a scheme for maximizing the resistance of high strength concrete against various kinds of sulfates is suggested.

  13. Learning in compressed space.

    PubMed

    Fabisch, Alexander; Kassahun, Yohannes; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Kirchner, Frank

    2013-06-01

    We examine two methods which are used to deal with complex machine learning problems: compressed sensing and model compression. We discuss both methods in the context of feed-forward artificial neural networks and develop the backpropagation method in compressed parameter space. We further show that compressing the weights of a layer of a multilayer perceptron is equivalent to compressing the input of the layer. Based on this theoretical framework, we will use orthogonal functions and especially random projections for compression and perform experiments in supervised and reinforcement learning to demonstrate that the presented methods reduce training time significantly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Compression in leg ulcer treatment: inelastic compression.

    PubMed

    Mosti, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Compression therapy is extremely effective in promoting ulcer healing. Which material to use, if elastic or inelastic, is still a matter of debate. This paper will provide an overview on the recent findings in compression therapy mainly for venous or mixed ulcers which are the great majority of leg ulcers. In this paper it will be demonstrated that inelastic compression has been proved to be significantly more effective than elastic compression in reducing venous reflux, increasing venous pumping function and decreasing ambulatory venous hypertension. In addition it is comfortable, well accepted by patients and achieved an extremely high healing rate in venous ulcers. With reduced pressure inelastic compression is able to improve venous pumping function in patients with mixed ulcers without affecting but improving the arterial inflow. It will be also clearly shown that studies claiming a better effect of elastic compression compared to inelastic in favouring healing rate have significant methodological flaws making their conclusions at least doubtful. In conclusion inelastic- is significantly more effective than elastic compression in reducing ambulatory venous hypertension which is the main pathophysiological determinant of venous ulcers and demonstrated to be very effective in getting ulcer healing. New multicentric, randomized and controlled studies, without methodological flaws, will be necessary to prove that elastic- is at least as effective as inelastic compression or, maybe, more effective. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Probabilistic simulation of uncertainties in composite uniaxial strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Stock, T. A.

    1990-01-01

    Probabilistic composite micromechanics methods are developed that simulate uncertainties in unidirectional fiber composite strengths. These methods are in the form of computational procedures using composite mechanics with Monte Carlo simulation. The variables for which uncertainties are accounted include constituent strengths and their respective scatter. A graphite/epoxy unidirectional composite (ply) is studied to illustrate the procedure and its effectiveness to formally estimate the probable scatter in the composite uniaxial strengths. The results show that ply longitudinal tensile and compressive, transverse compressive and intralaminar shear strengths are not sensitive to single fiber anomalies (breaks, intergacial disbonds, matrix microcracks); however, the ply transverse tensile strength is.

  16. In-situ rock strength determination for blasting purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, D.K.; Jain, A.

    1994-12-31

    Compressive strength of rocks is often required by mining engineers and quarrying authorities for blasting operations. Uniaxial compressive strength of rocks can be predicted with reasonable accuracy with the help of point load strength tests which can be easily conducted at site by the field staff, simultaneously as the cores are recovered from drilling operations. A number of diametral point load tests and uniaxial compressive strength tests have been conducted on the specimens of different rock types under air dried, and saturated condition as well to study the effect of ground water saturation on strength. It has been observed that due to saturation uniaxial compressive strength and point load strength get reduced to a maximum of 32 and 29 percent respectively. It has also been observed that uniaxial strength is sixteen times the point load strength in air dried as well as saturated condition. However, this factor used for calculating uniaxial compressive strength may be reduced to a lower value for the safety of miners in field blasting operations.

  17. Microbunching and RF Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ferrario, M.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2010-05-23

    Velocity bunching (or RF compression) represents a promising technique complementary to magnetic compression to achieve the high peak current required in the linac drivers for FELs. Here we report on recent progress aimed at characterizing the RF compression from the point of view of the microbunching instability. We emphasize the development of a linear theory for the gain function of the instability and its validation against macroparticle simulations that represents a useful tool in the evaluation of the compression schemes for FEL sources.

  18. High Strength Lightweight Nanocomposite from Domestic Solid Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masturi, Swardhani, Anggi Puspita; Sustini, Euis; Bukit, Minsyahril; Mora, Khairurrijal, Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

    2010-10-01

    The issue of waste problems needs innovative efforts to solve. One of them is solid waste utilization as nanocomposite using polyurethane (PU) polymer as matrix. Beside using solid waste as filler, nanosilica is also added to improve the material strength of composite-produced. These materials were mixed by simple mixing with variative compositions, and then hot-pressed at 30 MPa and 100° C for 30 minutes. From compressive strength test, it was found that composite with composition 2:8 of PU and solid waste has optimum compressive strength, i.e. 160 MPa. Into this optimum composition, nanosilica then is added to improve the compressive strength and found that at composition 1:40:160 of nanosilica, PU and solid waste, the composite has optimum compressive strength 200 MPa, or increases 25% of that without nanosilica. The composite-produced is also lightweight material with the density is 0.69 g/cm.

  19. Compressed gas manifold

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrand, Richard J.; Wozniak, John J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  20. Compressible turbulent mixing: Effects of compressibility.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qionglin

    2016-04-01

    We studied by numerical simulations the effects of compressibility on passive scalar transport in stationary compressible turbulence. The turbulent Mach number varied from zero to unity. The difference in driven forcing was the magnitude ratio of compressive to solenoidal modes. In the inertial range, the scalar spectrum followed the k^{-5/3} scaling and suffered negligible influence from the compressibility. The growth of the Mach number showed (1) a first reduction and second enhancement in the transfer of scalar flux; (2) an increase in the skewness and flatness of the scalar derivative and a decrease in the mixed skewness and flatness of the velocity-scalar derivatives; (3) a first stronger and second weaker intermittency of scalar relative to that of velocity; and (4) an increase in the intermittency parameter which measures the intermittency of scalar in the dissipative range. Furthermore, the growth of the compressive mode of forcing indicated (1) a decrease in the intermittency parameter and (2) less efficiency in enhancing scalar mixing. The visualization of scalar dissipation showed that, in the solenoidal-forced flow, the field was filled with the small-scale, highly convoluted structures, while in the compressive-forced flow, the field was exhibited as the regions dominated by the large-scale motions of rarefaction and compression.

  1. Micromechanics of compression failures in open hole composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, E. Gail; Bradley, Walter L.

    1987-01-01

    The high strength-to-weight ratio of composite materials is ideally suited for aerospace applications where they already are used in commercial and military aircraft secondary structures and will soon be used for heavily loaded primary structures. One area impeding the widespread application of composites is their inherent weakness in compressive strength when compared to the tensile properties of the same material. Furthermore, these airframe designs typically contain many bolted or riveted joints, as well as electrical and hydraulic control lines. These applications produce areas of stress concentration, and thus, further complicate the compression failure problem. Open hole compression failures which represent a typical failure mode for composite materials are addressed.

  2. Compression failure of angle-ply laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peel, Larry D.; Hyer, Michael W.; Shuart, Mark J.

    1991-01-01

    The present work deals with modes and mechanisms of failure in compression of angle-ply laminates. Experimental results were obtained from 42 angle-ply IM7/8551-7a specimens with a lay-up of ((plus or minus theta)/(plus or minus theta)) sub 6s where theta, the off-axis angle, ranged from 0 degrees to 90 degrees. The results showed four failure modes, these modes being a function of off-axis angle. Failure modes include fiber compression, inplane transverse tension, inplane shear, and inplane transverse compression. Excessive interlaminar shear strain was also considered as an important mode of failure. At low off-axis angles, experimentally observed values were considerably lower than published strengths. It was determined that laminate imperfections in the form of layer waviness could be a major factor in reducing compression strength. Previously developed linear buckling and geometrically nonlinear theories were used, with modifications and enhancements, to examine the influence of layer waviness on compression response. The wavy layer is described by a wave amplitude and a wave length. Linear elastic stress-strain response is assumed. The geometrically nonlinear theory, in conjunction with the maximum stress failure criterion, was used to predict compression failure and failure modes for the angle-ply laminates. A range of wave length and amplitudes were used. It was found that for 0 less than or equal to theta less than or equal to 15 degrees failure was most likely due to fiber compression. For 15 degrees less than theta less than or equal to 35 degrees, failure was most likely due to inplane transverse tension. For 35 degrees less than theta less than or equal to 70 degrees, failure was most likely due to inplane shear. For theta less than 70 degrees, failure was most likely due to inplane transverse compression. The fiber compression and transverse tension failure modes depended more heavily on wave length than on wave amplitude. Thus using a single

  3. [Evidence of compression therapy].

    PubMed

    Konschake, W; Valesky, E; Stege, H; Jünger, M

    2017-08-01

    Medical compression therapy is widely used to treat phlebologic diseases. Compression bandages as well as compression stockings are used. Compression has been identified to be an effective conservative therapy for the healing of venous ulcers and other indications. Thus, the evidence for the use of medical compression therapy and for which indications is presented. Review and systematic presentation of the evidence-based use of compression. The current literature, guidelines, and consensus statements were searched and the indications for compression therapy are presented. There is a high level of evidence that compression therapy is effective to heal venous ulcers and to prevent recurrent ulcers. The use of compression bandages and hosiery after interventional and surgical procedures for varicose veins is based on experience but not on randomized controlled trials. According to clinical experience, the healing of inflammatory skin diseases (e.g., erythema nodosum, pyoderma gangrenosum, necrobiosis lipoidica, cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and psoriasis of the extremities) is supported by compression therapy. Compression therapy in patients suffering from venous ulcers is highly recommended.

  4. Tensile strength of bovine trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, S J; Hayes, W C; Stone, J L; Beaupré, G S

    1985-01-01

    Data on the tensile and compressive properties of trabecular bone are needed to define input parameters and failure criteria for modeling total joint replacements. To help resolve differences in reports comparing tensile and compressive properties of trabecular bone, we have developed new methods, based on porous foam technology, for tensile testing of fresh/frozen trabecular bone specimens. Using bovine trabecular bone from an isotropic region from the proximal humerus as a model material, we measured ultimate strengths in tension and compression for two groups of 24 specimens each. The average ultimate strength in tension was 7.6 +/- 2.2 (95% C.I.) MPa and in compression was 12.4 +/- 3.2 MPa. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.013) and was not related to density differences between the test groups (p = 0.28). Strength was related by a power-law function of the local apparent density, but, even accounting for density influences, isotropic bovine trabecular bone exhibits significantly lower strengths in tension than in compression.

  5. Buckling and crumpling of a compressed thin-walled box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallinen, Tuomas; Åström, Jan; Timonen, Jussi

    2010-03-01

    Vertical compression of an elastic thin-walled box is explored. Such a compression displays three successive regimes: linear, buckled and collapsed. Analogy of the buckled regime to thin-film blisters is demonstrated. The compression force is shown to reach its maximum at the end of that regime, after which the box collapses displaying features (e.g. ridges) typical of crumpling of thin sheets. These qualitative findings are confirmed by numerical simulations based on a discrete element method, and implications are drawn on the box compression strength.

  6. Compression failure mechanisms of composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, H. T.; Sohi, M.; Moon, S.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental and analytical study was conducted to delineate the compression failure mechanisms of composite structures. The present report summarizes further results on kink band formation in unidirectional composites. In order to assess the compressive strengths and failure modes of fibers them selves, a fiber bundle was embedded in epoxy casting and tested in compression. A total of six different fibers were used together with two resins of different stiffnesses. The failure of highly anisotropic fibers such as Kevlar 49 and P-75 graphite was due to kinking of fibrils. However, the remaining fibers--T300 and T700 graphite, E-glass, and alumina--failed by localized microbuckling. Compressive strengths of the latter group of fibers were not fully utilized in their respective composite. In addition, acoustic emission monitoring revealed that fiber-matrix debonding did not occur gradually but suddenly at final failure. The kink band formation in unidirectional composites under compression was studied analytically and through microscopy. The material combinations selected include seven graphite/epoxy composites, two graphite/thermoplastic resin composites, one Kevlar 49/epoxy composite and one S-glass/epoxy composite.

  7. Compressive Failure of Fiber Composites under Multi-Axial Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, Shiladitya; Waas, Anthony M.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the compressive strength of a fiber reinforced lamina under multi-axial stress states. An equilibrium analysis is carried out in which a kinked band of rotated fibers, described by two angles, is sandwiched between two regions in which the fibers are nominally straight. Proportional multi-axial stress states are examined. The analysis includes the possibility of bifurcation from the current equilibrium state. The compressive strength of the lamina is contingent upon either attaining a load maximum in the equilibrium response or satisfaction of a bifurcation condition, whichever occurs first. The results show that for uniaxial loading a non-zero kink band angle beta produces the minimum limit load. For multi-axial loading, different proportional loading paths show regimes of bifurcation dominated and limit load dominated behavior. The present results are able to capture the beneficial effect of transverse compression in raising the composite compressive strength as observed in experiments.

  8. Compressive failure of fiber composites under multi-axial loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Shiladitya; Waas, Anthony M.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    2006-03-01

    This paper examines the compressive strength of a fiber reinforced lamina under multi-axial stress states. An equilibrium analysis is carried out in which a kinked band of rotated fibers, described by two angles, is sandwiched between two regions in which the fibers are nominally straight. Proportional multi-axial stress states are examined. The analysis includes the possibility of bifurcation from the current equilibrium state. The compressive strength of the lamina is contingent upon either attaining a load maximum in the equilibrium response or satisfaction of a bifurcation condition, whichever occurs first. The results show that for uniaxial loading a non-zero kink band angle β produces the minimum limit load. For multi-axial loading, different proportional loading paths show regimes of bifurcation dominated and limit load dominated behavior. The present results are able to capture the beneficial effect of transverse compression in raising the composite compressive strength as observed in experiments.

  9. Compressive Failure of Fiber Composites under Multi-Axial Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, Shiladitya; Waas, Anthony M.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the compressive strength of a fiber reinforced lamina under multi-axial stress states. An equilibrium analysis is carried out in which a kinked band of rotated fibers, described by two angles, is sandwiched between two regions in which the fibers are nominally straight. Proportional multi-axial stress states are examined. The analysis includes the possibility of bifurcation from the current equilibrium state. The compressive strength of the lamina is contingent upon either attaining a load maximum in the equilibrium response or satisfaction of a bifurcation condition, whichever occurs first. The results show that for uniaxial loading a non-zero kink band angle beta produces the minimum limit load. For multi-axial loading, different proportional loading paths show regimes of bifurcation dominated and limit load dominated behavior. The present results are able to capture the beneficial effect of transverse compression in raising the composite compressive strength as observed in experiments.

  10. Compression of non-sterile green wood chips as an aid to fungal pretreatment (biopulping)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E.L.; Olsen, K.K.

    1996-10-01

    Wood chips colonized by white rot fungi provide pulps with higher strength properties and reduced energy inputs. Compression of fresh wood chips causes changes which enhance the growth of biopulping; fungi without the need for wood heating, nutrient addition, or specialized bioreactor conditions. Hardwood (aspen) chips inoculated at compression and baled had a 16% reduction in acid lignin and provided kraft pulp with up to 80% higher burst strength as well as a 33% reduction in beating time to desired freeness. Compression and inoculation of green jack pine chips reduced refiner energy requirements and improved colonization by two biopulping fungi. Compression benefit to paper strength was also noted for presteamed pine chips.

  11. Ice Engineering: Elastic Property Studies on Compressive and Flexural Sea Ice Specimens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    compression tests should be performed on brackish- water ice (1-Lo-2-ppt salinity) to complete the compressive strength laboratory effort. These tests... Ripling . Strength and Structure of Engineering Materials, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966. 5. I. Hawkes and M. Mellor

  12. Uniaxial compression test series on Bullfrog Tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R H; Jones, A K; Nimick, K G

    1982-04-01

    Nineteen uniaxial compressive experiments were performed on samples of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff, obtained from drillhole USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. The water saturated samples were deformed at a nominal strain rate of 10{sup -5} sec{sup -1}, atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Resultant unconfined compressive strengths, axial strains to failure, Young`s moduli and Poisson`s ratios ranged from 4.63 to 153. MPa, .0028 to .0058, 2.03 to 28.9 GPa and .08 to .16, respectively.

  13. Mechanical strength and stability of lithium aluminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimhall, J. L.

    1992-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigated the strength and resistance to thermal shock of lithium aluminate annular pellets. The room temperature, axial compressive fracture strength of pellets made at Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems (WAES) varied from 80 to 133 ksi. The strength at 430 C (806 F) was to 30 to 40 percent lower. The strength at 900 C (1652 F) showed a wide variation with one measurement near 90 ksi. These strength values are consistent with other data and predictions made in the literature when the grain size and porosity of the microstructure are taken into account. In diametral compression tests, the fracture strengths were much lower due to the existence of tensile stresses in some pellet regions from this type of loading. However, the fracture stresses were still generally higher than those reported in the literature; this fracture resistance probably reflects the better quality of the pellets tested in this study. Measurements on pellets made at PNL indicated lower strengths compared to the WAES material. This strength difference could be accounted for by different processing technologies: material made at PNL was cold-pressed and sintered with high porosity whereas the WAES material was isostatically hot-pressed with high density. Thermal shocking of the material by ramping to 900 C in two minutes did not have an observable effect on the microstructure or the strength of any of the pellets.

  14. Cohesive strength of iron ore granules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Rafael Jaimes; Berger, Nicolas; Izard, Edouard; Douce, Jean-François; Koltsov, Alexey; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Azema, Emilien; Nezamabadi, Saeid; van Loo, Frédéric; Pellenq, Roland; Radjai, Farhang

    2017-06-01

    We present an experimental and numerical investigation of the mechanical strength of crude iron ore (Hematite) granules in which capillary bonds between primary particles are the source of internal cohesion. The strength is measured by subjecting the granules to vertical compression between two plates. We show that the behavior of the granules is ductile with a well-defined plastic threshold which increases with the amount of water. It is found that the compressive strength scales with capillary cohesion with a pre-factor that is nearly independent of size polydispersity for the investigated range of parameters but increases with friction coefficient between primary particles. This weak dependence may be attributed to the class of fine particles which, due to their large number, behaves as a cohesive matrix that controls the strength of the granule.

  15. Electromechanical behavior of carbon nanotube fibers under transverse compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Lu, Weibang; Sockalingam, Subramani; Gu, Bohong; Sun, Baozhong; Gillespie, John W.; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    2017-03-01

    Although in most cases carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers experience axial stretch or compression, they can also be subjected to transverse compression, for example, under impact loading. In this paper, the electromechanical properties of both aerogel-spun and dry-spun CNT fibers under quasi-static transverse compressive loading are investigated for the first time. Transverse compression shows a nonlinear and inelastic behavior. The compressive modulus/strength of the aerogel-spun and dry-spun CNT fibers are about 0.21 GPa/0.796 GPa and 1.73 GPa/1.036 GPa, respectively. The electrical resistance goes through three stages during transverse compressive loading/unloading: initially it decreases, then it increases during the loading, and finally it decreases upon unloading. This study extends our knowledge of the overall properties of CNT fibers, and will be helpful in promoting their engineering applications.

  16. Parallel image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reif, John H.

    1987-01-01

    A parallel compression algorithm for the 16,384 processor MPP machine was developed. The serial version of the algorithm can be viewed as a combination of on-line dynamic lossless test compression techniques (which employ simple learning strategies) and vector quantization. These concepts are described. How these concepts are combined to form a new strategy for performing dynamic on-line lossy compression is discussed. Finally, the implementation of this algorithm in a massively parallel fashion on the MPP is discussed.

  17. HYDRODYNAMIC COMPRESSIVE FORGING.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    HYDRODYNAMICS), (*FORGING, COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES, LUBRICANTS, PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), DIES, TENSILE PROPERTIES, MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS , STRAIN...MECHANICS), BERYLLIUM ALLOYS , NICKEL ALLOYS , CASTING ALLOYS , PRESSURE, FAILURE(MECHANICS).

  18. Attitude Strength.

    PubMed

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  19. Effects of Nesting on Compression-Loaded 2-D Woven Textile Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Daniel OHare; Breiling, Kurtis B.; Verhulst, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Layer nesting was investigated in five harness satin weave textile composite laminates under static compression loading. Two carbon/epoxy material systems, AS4/3501-6 and IM7/8551-7A were considered. Laminates were fabricated with three idealized nesting cases: stacked, split-span and diagonal. Similar compression strength reductions due to the effects of idealized nesting were identified for each material. The diagonal nesting geometry produced the largest reduction in static strength when compared to the compression strength of a conventional textile composite. All three nesting cases produced reductions in strength and ultimate strain due to the effects of idealized nesting. Finite element results showed consistent strength reduction trends for the idealized nesting cases, however the magnitudes of compressive strengths were overpredicted.

  20. Benchmark dataset for Whole Genome sequence compression.

    PubMed

    C L, Biji; Nair, Achuthsankar

    2016-05-16

    The research in DNA data compression lacks a standard dataset to test out compression tools specific to DNA. This paper argues that the current state of achievement in DNA compression is unable to be bench marked in the absence of such scientifically compiled whole genome sequence dataset and proposes a bench mark dataset using multistage sampling procedure. Considering the genome sequence of organisms available in the National Centre for Biotechnology and Information (NCBI) as the universe, the proposed dataset selects 1105 prokaryotes, 200 plasmids, 164 viruses and 65 eukaryotes. This paper reports the results of using 3 established tools on the newly compiled dataset and show that their strength and weakness are evident only with a comparison based on the scientifically compiled bench mark data set.

  1. Shock compression properties of silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Kipp, M.E.

    1993-07-01

    An investigation of the shock compression and release properties of silicon carbide ceramic has been performed. A series of planar impact experiments has been completed in which stationary target discs of ceramic were struck by plates of either similar ceramic or other appropriate material at velocities up to 2.2 km/s with a propellant gun facility. The particle velocity history at the interface between the back of the target ceramic and a lithium-fluoride window material was measured with laser velocity interferometry (VISAR). Impact stresses achieved in these experiments range between about 10 and 50 GPa. Numerical solutions and analytic methods were used to determine the dynamic compression and release stress-strain behavior of the ceramic. Further analysis of the data was performed to determine dynamic strength and compressibility properties of silicon carbide.

  2. Is leg compression beneficial for alpine skiers?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the effects of different levels of compression (0, 20 and 40 mmHg) produced by leg garments on selected psycho-physiological measures of performance while exposed to passive vibration (60 Hz, amplitude 4-6 mm) and performing 3-min of alpine skiing tuck position. Methods Prior to, during and following the experiment the electromygraphic (EMG) activity of different muscles, cardio-respiratory data, changes in total hemoglobin, tissue oxygenation and oscillatory movement of m. vastus lateralis, blood lactate and perceptual data of 12 highly trained alpine skiers were recorded. Maximal isometric knee extension and flexion strength, balance, and jumping performance were assessed before and after the experiment. Results The knee angle (−10°) and oscillatory movement (−20-25.5%) were lower with compression (P < 0.05 in all cases). The EMG activities of the tibialis anterior (20.2-28.9%), gastrocnemius medialis (4.9-15.1%), rectus femoris (9.6-23.5%), and vastus medialis (13.1-13.7%) muscles were all elevated by compression (P < 0.05 in all cases). Total hemoglobin was maintained during the 3-min period of simulated skiing with 20 or 40 mmHg compression, but the tissue saturation index was lower (P < 0.05) than with no compression. No differences in respiratory parameters, heart rate or blood lactate concentration were observed with or maximal isometric knee extension and flexion strength, balance, and jumping performance following simulated skiing for 3 min in the downhill tuck position were the same as in the absence of compression. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that with leg compression, alpine skiers could maintain a deeper tuck position with less perceived exertion and greater deoxygenation of the vastus lateralis muscle, with no differences in whole-body oxygen consumption or blood lactate concentration. These changes occurred without compromising maximal leg strength, jumping performance or balance

  3. Effect of coarse aggregate type on mechanical properties of concretes with different strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Oezturan, T.; Cecen, C.

    1997-02-01

    Tests were carried out to study the effect of the type of coarse aggregate on the compressive, flexural and splitting tensile strength on concrete produced at different strength levels. Concretes with 28 day target compressive strengths of 30, 60 and 90 MPa were produced using basalt, limestone and gravel coarse aggregates. The gravel aggregate concrete with 90 MPa target strength was also replicated by using a cement of higher strength, keeping the other parameters same. Twenty eight day test results have indicated that, in high strength concrete, basalt produced the highest, whereas gravel gave the lowest compressive strengths. Normal strength concretes made with basalt and gravel gave similar compressive strengths while the concrete containing limestone attained somewhat higher strength. Higher tensile strengths were obtained with crushed basalt and limestone compared to the gravel aggregate when used in high strength concrete. In the replicate mixture, approximately 30 percent increase in flexural and splitting tensile strengths were obtained as a result of using a stronger cement, while the compressive strength was not affected at all.

  4. Work of Fracture of Composites in Axial Compression - Measurement and Origins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) indicates that theories based on the Rosen model do not adequately explain variations in compressive strength with... reinforced plastic (GRP) composites, and looks at failure initiation and propagation modes and the amounts of energy involved. Figures of between 5 and...tension, Chaplin attempts to investigate the variation in compressive strength with notch depth for high strength carbon fibre (CFRP) and E-glass fibre

  5. Rate dependent of strength in metallic glasses at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y. W.; Bian, X. L.; Wu, S. W.; Hussain, I.; Jia, Y. D.; Yi, J.; Wang, G.

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the strength at the macroscale and the elastic deformation as well as shear cracking behavior at the microscale of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is investigated. The temperatures of 298 K and 77 K as well as the strain rate ranging from 10−6 s−1 to 10−2 s−1 are applied to the BMGs, in which the mechanical responses of the BMGs are profiled through the compression tests. The yield strength is associated with the activation of the elementary deformation unit, which is insensitive to the strain rate. The maximum compressive strength is linked to the crack propagation during shear fracture process, which is influenced by the strain rate. The cryogenic temperature of 77 K significantly improves the yield strength and the maximum compressive strength of the BMGs. PMID:27270688

  6. Increase in Strength of Partially Stabilized Zirconia After Shot Peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Koji; Iwanaka, Kae; Osada, Toshio; Koike, Hitonobu

    2015-09-01

    The effects of shot peening (SP) on the strength of partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) were studied. The compressive residual stress, apparent fracture toughness ( K C), and bending strength values of specimens subjected to SP were investigated. Results of x-ray diffraction analyses showed that SP introduced large compressive residual stress in specimens. As a result, the K C and bending strength values of specimens having semi-elliptical pre-cracks on their surfaces increased significantly. Shot-peened specimens having surface pre-cracks with lengths less than 140 µm exhibited strength comparable to that of smooth specimens and fractured outside the pre-crack zone, indicating that the pre-cracks were rendered harmless by SP. Thus, the introduction of a compressive residual stress by SP is an effective technique for increasing the strength of PSZ.

  7. Compression Ratio Adjuster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    New mechanism alters compression ratio of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression ratios are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.

  8. 26. Central compression lock, north span facing north. Compression lock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Central compression lock, north span facing north. Compression lock locks two spans together at highest point. There are three compression locks. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Fractal image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnsley, Michael F.; Sloan, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    Fractals are geometric or data structures which do not simplify under magnification. Fractal Image Compression is a technique which associates a fractal to an image. On the one hand, the fractal can be described in terms of a few succinct rules, while on the other, the fractal contains much or all of the image information. Since the rules are described with less bits of data than the image, compression results. Data compression with fractals is an approach to reach high compression ratios for large data streams related to images. The high compression ratios are attained at a cost of large amounts of computation. Both lossless and lossy modes are supported by the technique. The technique is stable in that small errors in codes lead to small errors in image data. Applications to the NASA mission are discussed.

  10. Negative linear compressibility.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Andrew B; Goodwin, Andrew L

    2015-08-28

    While all materials reduce their intrinsic volume under hydrostatic (uniform) compression, a select few actually expand along one or more directions during this process of densification. As rare as it is counterintuitive, such "negative compressibility" behaviour has application in the design of pressure sensors, artificial muscles and actuators. The recent discovery of surprisingly strong and persistent negative compressibility effects in a variety of new families of materials has ignited the field. Here we review the phenomenology of negative compressibility in this context of materials diversity, placing particular emphasis on the common structural motifs that recur amongst known examples. Our goal is to present a mechanistic understanding of negative compressibility that will help inform a clear strategy for future materials design.

  11. Fracture in Compression of Brittle Solids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    Metals 52 * 7 COMPRESSIVE FRACTURE IN COMPOSITES 53 8 NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION 57 Introduction 57 Acoustic Probing Techniques 58 . Other NDE Techniques...rocks, concrete, glass, ceramics, ultra-high-strength metallic alloys with very limited tensile ductility, and certain composites (e.g., cemented...Martin Marietta Corporation 9700 Soutih Cass Avenue Director. Center for 1450 South Rolling Road Argonne. 1L 60439 Composite Materials Baltimore, MD

  12. Shear Strength of Aluminum Oxynitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandekar, Dattatraya P.; Vaughan, Brian A. M.; Proud, William G.

    2007-06-01

    Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) is a transparent, polycrystalline cubic spinel. The results of investigations^1-4 on shock response of AlON permit determination of the equation of state, and shear strength retained under shock compression. Whereas the values of the HEL of AlON holds no surprises, the inelastic response of AlON reported in Ref. 1-4 differ significantly and is stress dependent. The results of Ref. 1-2 show that AlON retains a shear strength of 3 to 4 GPa when shocked up to around 20 GPa, but the results of Ref, 3-4 seem to suggest a possible loss of shear strength when shocked to 16 GPa and beyond. Our analysis examines the observed differences in the inelastic response of AlON reported in these four studies . 1. J. U. Cazamias, et. al., in Fundamental Issues and Applications of Shock-Wave and High Strain Rate Phenomena, Eds. Staudhammer, Murr, and Meyers, Elsevier, NY, 173 (2001). 2. B. A. M. Vaughn, et.al., Shock Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, Report SP/1092 (2001) 3. T. Sekine, et.al., J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4803 (2003). 4. T. F. Thornhill, et.al., Shock Compression of Matter-2005, Eds. Furnish, Elert, Russell, White, AIP, NY, 143 (2006).

  13. Adhesive strength of autologous fibrin glue.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, H; Hirozane, K; Kamiya, A

    2000-03-01

    To establish an easy and rapid method for measuring the adhesive strength of fibrin glue and to clarify the factor(s) most affecting the strength, a study was made on the effect of the concentration of plasma components on the strength of cryoprecipitate (Cryo) prepared from a subject's own autologous plasma to be used as fibrin glue. The adhesive strength of the Cryo was measured with various supporting materials instead of animal skin using a tester of tension and compression. The results were as follows: (1) the strength of Cryo applied to ground flat glass (4 cm2) was significantly greater than that applied to clear glass, clear plastic, or smooth and flat wood chips; (2) the adhesive strength of Cryo depended on the concentration of thrombin with the optimal concentration being 50 units/ml; (3) the concentration of CaCl2 did not affect the adhesive strength of Cryo; (4) the adhesive reaction was dependent on the temperature and the adhesive strength more quickly reached a steady state at 37 degrees C than at lower temperature; (5) the adhesive strength was correlated well with the total concentration of fibrinogen and fibronectin. These results indicate that the adhesive strength of Cryo can be easily and quickly evaluated using a tester and ground glass with thrombin at 50 units/ml, and that the adhesive strength of Cryo can be predicted from the total concentration of fibrinogen and fibronectin.

  14. Analysis of compressive fracture in rock using statistical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, S.C.

    1994-12-01

    Fracture of rock in compression is analyzed using a field-theory model, and the processes of crack coalescence and fracture formation and the effect of grain-scale heterogeneities on macroscopic behavior of rock are studied. The model is based on observations of fracture in laboratory compression tests, and incorporates assumptions developed using fracture mechanics analysis of rock fracture. The model represents grains as discrete sites, and uses superposition of continuum and crack-interaction stresses to create cracks at these sites. The sites are also used to introduce local heterogeneity. Clusters of cracked sites can be analyzed using percolation theory. Stress-strain curves for simulated uniaxial tests were analyzed by studying the location of cracked sites, and partitioning of strain energy for selected intervals. Results show that the model implicitly predicts both development of shear-type fracture surfaces and a strength-vs-size relation that are similar to those observed for real rocks. Results of a parameter-sensitivity analysis indicate that heterogeneity in the local stresses, attributed to the shape and loading of individual grains, has a first-order effect on strength, and that increasing local stress heterogeneity lowers compressive strength following an inverse power law. Peak strength decreased with increasing lattice size and decreasing mean site strength, and was independent of site-strength distribution. A model for rock fracture based on a nearest-neighbor algorithm for stress redistribution is also presented and used to simulate laboratory compression tests, with promising results.

  15. Strength Characteristics of Groundnut Leaf/Stem Ash (GLSA) Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oseni, O. W.; Audu, M. T.

    2016-09-01

    The compressive strength properties of concrete are substantial factors in the design and construction of concrete structures. Compressive strength directly affects the degree to which the concrete can be able to carry a load over time. These changes are complemented by deflections, cracks etc., in the structural elements of concrete. This research investigated the effect of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA) on the compressive strength of concrete at 0%, 5 %, 10 % and 15 % replacements of cement. The effect of the water-cement ratio on properties such as the compressive strength, slump, flow and workability properties of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA) mixes with OPC were evaluated to determine whether they are acceptable for use in concrete structural elements. A normal concrete mix with cement at 100 % (i.e., GLSA at 0%) with concrete grade C25 that can attain an average strength of 25 N/mm2 at 28 days was used as a control at design water-cement ratios of 0.65 and grading of (0.5-32) mm from fine to coarse aggregates was tested for: (1) compressive strength, and the (2) slump and flow Test. The results and observations showed that the concrete mixes from GLSA at 5 - 15 % ratios exhibit: pozzolanic properties and GLSA could be used as a partial replacement for cement at these percentage mix ratios compared with the control concrete; an increase in the water-cement ratio showed a significant decrease in the compressive strength and an increase in workability. Therefore, it is important that all concrete mixes exude an acceptably designed water-cement ratio for compressive strength characteristics for use in structures, water-cement ratio is a significant factor.