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Sample records for compton diode detectors

  1. Compton imager using room temperature silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurfess, James D.; Novikova, Elena I.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Wulf, Eric A.

    2007-08-01

    We have been developing a multi-layer Compton Gamma Ray Imager using position-sensitive, intrinsic silicon detectors. Advantages of this approach include room temperature operation, reduced Doppler broadening, and use of conventional silicon fabrication technologies. We have obtained results on the imaging performance of a multi-layer instrument where each layer consists of a 2×2 array of double-sided strip detectors. Each detector is 63 mm×63 mm×2 mm thick and has 64 strips providing a strip pitch of approximately 0.9 mm. The detectors were fabricated by SINTEF ICT (Oslo Norway) from 100 mm diameter wafers. The use of large arrays of silicon detectors appears especially advantageous for applications that require excellent sensitivity, spectral resolution and imaging such as gamma ray astrophysics, detection of special nuclear materials, and medical imaging. The multiple Compton interactions (three or more) in the low-Z silicon enable the energy and direction of the incident gamma ray to be determined without full deposition of the incident gamma-ray energy in the detector. The performance of large volume instruments for various applications are presented, including an instrument under consideration for NASA's Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) mission and applications to Homeland Security. Technology developments that could further extend the sensitivity and performance of silicon Compton Imagers are presented, including the use of low-energy (few hundred keV) electron tracking within novel silicon detectors and the potential for a wafer-bonding approach to produce thicker, position-sensitive silicon detectors with an associated reduction of required electronics and instrument cost.

  2. Preliminary Results on Compton Electrons in Silicon Drift Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conka-Nurdan, T.; Nurdan, K.; Laihem, K.; Walenta, A. H.; Fiorini, C.; Freisleben, B.; Hornel, N.; Pavel, N. A.; Struder, L.

    2004-10-01

    Silicon drift detectors (SDD) with on-chip electronics have found many applications in different fields. A detector system has recently been designed and built to study the electrons from Compton scatter events in such a detector. The reconstruction of the Compton electrons is a crucial issue for Compton imaging. The equipment consists of a monolithic array of 19 channel SDDs and an Anger camera. Photons emitted from a finely collimated source undergo Compton scattering within the SDD where the recoil electron is absorbed. The scattered photon is subsequently observed by photoelectric absorption in the second detector. The coincidence events are used to get the energy, position, and direction of the Compton electrons. Because the on-chip transistors provide the first stage amplification, the SDDs provide outstanding noise performance and fast shaping, so that very good energy resolution can be obtained even at room temperature. The drift detectors require a relatively low number of readout channels for large detector areas. Custom-designed analog and digital electronics provide fast readout of the SDDs. The equipment is designed such that the measurements can be done in all detector orientations and kinematical conditions. The first results obtained with this detector system will be presented in this paper.

  3. Gamma-spectrometry with Compton suppressed detectors arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Schueck, C.; Hannachi, F.; Chapman, R.; Lisle, J.C.; Mo, J.N.; Paul, E.; Love, D.J.G.; Nolan, P.J.; Nelson, A.H.; Walker, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent results of experiments performed with two different Compton-suppressed detectors arrays in Daresbury and Berkeley (/sup 163,164/Yb and /sup 154/Er, respectively), are presented together with a brief description of the national French array presently under construction in Strasbourg. 25 refs., 15 figs.

  4. Testing of the BGO Compton-suppression detectors for gammasphere

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Ahmad, I.; Annan, G.A.

    1995-08-01

    Gammasphere, the national {gamma}-ray facility, when completed will consist of 110 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors. The bismuth germanate (BGO) Compton-suppression detector system for each Ge detector consists of one tapered hexagonal BGO side shield and one slotted BGO back plug. Due to the geometry of the array, three types of annular shields are required. These types are referred to as B, C and D, and the array consists of 60, 30 and 20 of these units, respectively. Shield types B, C and D have a hexagonal geometry. They are divided into six optically separate sections, each with its own pair of photomultiplier tubes. Argonne assumed responsibility for the procurement and testing of the BGO Compton-suppression units. We received all detectors from the two vendors. In the past year, twenty-four of the B-type detectors were delivered to Stony Brook for evaluation tests. Since the number of crystals to test is quite large (six per detector), we involved undergraduate students working at ANL under the Department of Educational Programs (DEP) in this effort. The quality of students was excellent, and they played a major role in the performance testing of these detectors. Ninety-nine of the hexagonal side shields and 112 backplug detectors were shipped to LBL for use in Gammasphere. The remaining detectors did not meet the performance criteria when they were first delivered and tested and are either at the vendor being repaired or were returned to us for retesting. We anticipate that the remaining detectors will be ready for use in Gammasphere within the next few months.

  5. Algorithms to identify detector Compton scatter in PET modules

    SciTech Connect

    Comanor, K.A.; Virador, P.R.G.; Moses, W.W.

    1996-08-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulation, the authors investigate algorithms to identify and correct for detector Compton scatter in hypothetical PET modules with 3 x 3 x 30 mm BGO crystals coupled to individual photosensors. Rather than assume a particular design, they study three classes of detectors: (1) with energy resolution limited by counting statistics, (2) with energy resolution limited by electronic noise, and (3) with depth of interaction (DOI) measurement capability. For the first two classes, selecting the channel with the highest signal as the crystal of interaction yields a 22--25% misidentification fraction (MIF) for all reasonable noise fwhm to signal (N/S) ratios (i.e. < 0.5 at 511 keV). Algorithms that attempt to correctly position events that undergo forward Compton scatter using only energy information can reduce the MIF to 12%, and can be easily realized with counting statistics limited detectors but can only be achieved with very low noise values for noise limited detectors. When using position of interaction to identify forward scatter, a MIF of 12% can be obtained if the detector has good energy and position resolution.

  6. Compton rejection for HPGe detectors via real-time pulse shape analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beckedahl, D; Blair, J J; Friensehner, A; Kammeraad, J E; Kreek, S A; Payne, B; Schmid, G J

    1998-07-31

    A Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-developed pulse shape analysis (PSA) technique which performs real-time Compton suppression in High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors without the use of anti-coincidence detectors is described. Some preliminary measurements of a variety of sources with a standard HPGe detector system and our prototype PSA algorithm have been made and indicate that a reduction in Compton continuum can be achieved via PSA. These measurements represent an initial assessment of the effectiveness of the prototype PSA system for the improvement of spectral quality and future improvements are expected. Additional work is progressing to optimize the effectiveness of the algorithm for Compton rejection in standard HPGe detectors. Work is also progressing to extend the methodology to segmented HPGe detectors which could potentially yield significantly better Compton rejection and gamma-ray ima

  7. X-Rays Compton Detectors For Biomedical Application

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Paolo; Fontana, Cristiano Lino; Moschini, Giuliano; Baldazzi, Giuseppe; Navarria, Francesco; Battistella, Andrea; Bello, Michele; Bollini, Dante; Bonvicini, Valter; Rashevsky, Alexander; Zampa, Gianluigi; Zampa, Nicola; Vacchi, Andrea; Gennaro, Gisella; Uzunov, Nikolay

    2011-06-01

    Collimators are usually needed to image sources emitting X-rays that cannot be focused. Alternately, one may employ a Compton Camera (CC) and measure the direction of the incident X-ray by letting it interact with a thin solid, liquid or gaseous material (Tracker) and determine the scattering angle. With respect to collimated cameras, CCs allow higher gamma-ray efficiency in spite of lighter geometry, and may feature comparable spatial resolution. CCs are better when the X-ray energy is high and small setups are required. We review current applications of CCs to Gamma Ray Astronomy and Biomedical systems stressing advantages and drawbacks. As an example, we focus on a particular CC we are developing, which is designed to image small animals administered with marked pharmaceuticals, and assess the bio-distribution and targeting capability of these latter. This camera has to address some requirements: relatively high activity of the imaged objects; detection of gamma-rays of different energies that may range from 140 keV (Tc99m) to 511 keV; presence of gamma and beta radiation with energies up to 2 MeV in case of 188Re. The camera consists of a thin position-sensitive Silicon Drift Detector as Tracker, and a further downstream position-sensitive system employing scintillating crystals and a multi-anode photo-multiplier (Calorimeter). The choice of crystal, pixel size, and detector geometry has been driven by measurements and simulations with the tracking code GEANT4. Spatial resolution, efficiency and scope are discussed.

  8. Sensitivity booster for DOI-PET scanner by utilizing Compton scattering events between detector blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-11-01

    In a conventional PET scanner, coincidence events are measured with a limited energy window for detection of photoelectric events in order to reject Compton scatter events that occur in a patient, but Compton scatter events caused in detector crystals are also rejected. Scatter events within the patient causes scatter coincidences, but inter crystal scattering (ICS) events have useful information for determining an activity distribution. Some researchers have reported the feasibility of PET scanners based on a Compton camera for tracing ICS into the detector. However, these scanners require expensive semiconductor detectors for high-energy resolution. In the Anger-type block detector, single photons interacting with multiple detectors can be obtained for each interacting position and complete information can be gotten just as for photoelectric events in the single detector. ICS events in the single detector have been used to get coincidence, but single photons interacting with multiple detectors have not been used to get coincidence. In this work, we evaluated effect of sensitivity improvement using Compton kinetics in several types of DOI-PET scanners. The proposed method promises to improve the sensitivity using coincidence events of single photons interacting with multiple detectors, which are identified as the first interaction (FI). FI estimation accuracy can be improved to determine FI validity from the correlation between Compton scatter angles calculated on the coincidence line-of-response. We simulated an animal PET scanner consisting of 42 detectors. Each detector block consists of three types of scintillator crystals (LSO, GSO and GAGG). After the simulation, coincidence events are added as information for several depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolutions. From the simulation results, we concluded the proposed method promises to improve the sensitivity considerably when effective atomic number of a scintillator is low. Also, we showed that FI estimate

  9. Inverse Compton Scattering as a Diagnostic Tool for the Measurement of Electron Beam Energies in Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critchley, A. D. J.

    2003-10-01

    The main emphasis of the diode research project at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) UK is to produce small diameter radiographic spot sizes at high dose to improve the resolution of the transmission radiographs taken during hydrodynamic experiments. Experimental measurements of conditions within the diodes of Pulsed Power driven flash x-ray machines are vital to provide a benchmark for electromagnetic PIC codes such as LSP which are used to develop new diode designs. The potential use of inverse Compton scattering (ICS) as a diagnostic technique in the determination of electron energies within the diode has been investigated. The interaction of a laser beam with a beam of high-energy electrons will create an ICS spectrum of photons. Theoretically, one should be able to glean information on the energies and positions of the electrons from the energy spectrum and differential cross section of the scattered photons. The feasibility of fielding this technique on various diode designs has been explored, and an experimental setup with the greatest likelihood of success is proposed.

  10. A measurement method of a detector response function for monochromatic electrons based on the Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhlanov, S. V.; Bazlov, N. V.; Derbin, A. V.; Drachnev, I. S.; Kayunov, A. S.; Muratova, V. N.; Semenov, D. A.; Unzhakov, E. V.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present a method of scintillation detector energy calibration using the gamma-rays. The technique is based on the Compton scattering of gamma-rays in a scintillation detector and subsequent photoelectric absorption of the scattered photon in the Ge-detector. The novelty of this method is that the source of gamma rays, the germanium and scintillation detectors are immediately arranged adjacent to each other. The method presents an effective solution for the detectors consisting of a low atomic number materials, when the ratio between Compton effect and photoelectric absorption is large and the mean path of gamma-rays is comparable to the size of the detector. The technique can be used for the precision measurements of the scintillator light yield dependence on the electron energy.

  11. Impact of Compton scatter on material decomposition using a photon counting spectral detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Cale; Park, Chan-Soo; Fredette, Nathaniel R.; Das, Mini

    2017-03-01

    Photon counting spectral detectors are being investigated to allow better discrimination of multiple materials by collecting spectral data for every detector pixel. The process of material decomposition or discrimination starts with an accurate estimation of energy dependent attenuation of the composite object. Photoelectric effect and Compton scattering are two important constituents of the attenuation. Compton scattering while results in a loss of primary photon, also results in an increase in photon counts in the lower ene1rgy bins via multiple orders of scatter. This contribution to each energy bin may change with material properties, thickness and x-ray energies. There has been little investigation into the effect of this increase in counts at lower energies due to presence of these Compton scattered photons using photon counting detectors. Our investigations show that it is important to account for this effect in spectral decomposition problems.

  12. Characterization of a module with pixelated CdTe detectors for possible PET, PEM and compton camera applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariño-Estrada, G.; Chmeissani, M.; de Lorenzo, G.; Puigdengoles, C.; Martínez, R.; Cabruja, E.

    2014-05-01

    We present the measurement of the energy resolution and the impact of charge sharing for a pixel CdTe detector. This detector will be used in a novel conceptual design for diagnostic systems in the field of nuclear medicine such as positron emission tomography (PET), positron emission mammography (PEM) and Compton camera. The detector dimensions are 10 mm × 10 mm × 2 mm and with a pixel pitch of 1 mm × 1 mm. The pixel CdTe detector is a Schottky diode and it was tested at a bias of -1000 V. The VATAGP7.1 frontend ASIC was used for the readout of the pixel detector and the corresponding single channel electronic noise was found to be σ < 2 keV for all the pixels. We have achieved an energy resolution, FWHM/Epeak, of 7.1%, 4.5% and 0.98% for 59.5, 122 and 511 keV respectively. The study of the charge sharing shows that 16% of the events deposit part of their energy in the adjacent pixel.

  13. A simple algorithm for estimation of source-to-detector distance in Compton imaging.

    PubMed

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W; Sullivan, John P; Tornga, Shawn R; Brumby, Steven P

    2008-12-01

    Compton imaging is used to predict the location of gamma-emitting radiation sources. The X and Y coordinates of the source can be obtained using a back-projected image and a two-dimensional peak-finding algorithm. The emphasis of this work is to estimate the source-to-detector distance (Z). The algorithm presented uses the solid angle subtended by the reconstructed image at various source-to-detector distances. This algorithm was validated using both measured data from the prototype Compton imager (PCI) constructed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and simulated data of the same imager. Results show this method can be applied successfully to estimate Z, and it provides a way of determining Z without prior knowledge of the source location. This method is faster than the methods that employ maximum likelihood method because it is based on simple back projections of Compton scatter data.

  14. Compton imaging with a highly-segmented, position-sensitive HPGe detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbach, T.; Hirsch, R.; Reiter, P.; Birkenbach, B.; Bruyneel, B.; Eberth, J.; Gernhäuser, R.; Hess, H.; Lewandowski, L.; Maier, L.; Schlarb, M.; Weiler, B.; Winkel, M.

    2017-02-01

    A Compton camera based on a highly-segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and a double-sided silicon-strip detector (DSSD) was developed, tested, and put into operation; the origin of γ radiation was determined successfully. The Compton camera is operated in two different modes. Coincidences from Compton-scattered γ-ray events between DSSD and HPGe detector allow for best angular resolution; while the high-efficiency mode takes advantage of the position sensitivity of the highly-segmented HPGe detector. In this mode the setup is sensitive to the whole 4π solid angle. The interaction-point positions in the 36-fold segmented large-volume HPGe detector are determined by pulse-shape analysis (PSA) of all HPGe detector signals. Imaging algorithms were developed for each mode and successfully implemented. The angular resolution sensitively depends on parameters such as geometry, selected multiplicity and interaction-point distances. Best results were obtained taking into account the crosstalk properties, the time alignment of the signals and the distance metric for the PSA for both operation modes. An angular resolution between 13.8° and 19.1°, depending on the minimal interaction-point distance for the high-efficiency mode at an energy of 1275 keV, was achieved. In the coincidence mode, an increased angular resolution of 4.6° was determined for the same γ-ray energy.

  15. High-Resolution Compton-Suppressed CZT Detector for Fission Products Identification

    SciTech Connect

    R. Aryaeinejd; J. K. Hartwell; Wade W. Scates

    2004-10-01

    Room temperature semiconductor CdZnTe (CZT) detectors are currently limited to total detector volumes of 1-2 cm3, which is dictated by the poor charge transport characteristics. Because of this size limitation one of the problems in accurately determining isotope identification is the enormous background from the Compton scattering events. Eliminating this background will not only increase the sensitivity and accuracy of measurements but also help us to resolve peaks buried under the background and peaks in close vicinity of others. We are currently developing a fission products detection system based on the Compton-suppressed CZT detector. In this application, the detection system is required to operate in high radiation fields. Therefore, a small 10x10x5 mm3 CZT detector is placed inside the center of a well-shielded 3" in diameter by 3" long Nal detector. So far we have been able to successfully reduce the Compton background by a factor of 5.4 for a 137Cs spectrum. This reduction of background will definitely enhance the quality of the gamma-ray spectrum in the information-rich energy range below 1 MeV, which consequently increases the detection sensitivity. In this work, we will discuss the performance of this detection system as well as its applications.

  16. Design and First Results of the CoDeX Liquid-Xenon Compton-Imaging Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, Brian; Cahn, Sidney; Bernard, Ethan; Boulton, Elizabeth; Destefano, Nicholas; Edwards, Blair; Hackenburg, Ariana; Horn, Markus; Larsen, Nicole; Nikkel, James; Wahl, Christopher; Gai, Moshe; McKinsey, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    CoDeX (Compton-imaging Detector in Xenon) is an R&D Compton gamma-ray imaging detector that uses 30 kg of xenon in a two-phase time projection chamber. Time projection relative to the initial scintillation signal provides the vertical interaction positions, and either PMT-sensed gas electroluminescence or a charge-sensitive amplifier quantifies the drifted ionization signal. Detector features to enable Compton imaging are a pair of instrumented wire grids added to sense the horizontal position of clouds of drifted electrons that traverse the detector. Each wire is individually amplified in the cold xenon environment. Design choices addressing the thermodynamic and xenon purity constraints of this system will be discussed. We will also discuss the mechanical designs, engineering challenges, and performance of this Compton-imaging detector.

  17. Development of a Compton camera for medical applications based on silicon strip and scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimmer, J.; Ley, J.-L.; Abellan, C.; Cachemiche, J.-P.; Caponetto, L.; Chen, X.; Dahoumane, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Freud, N.; Joly, B.; Lambert, D.; Lestand, L.; Létang, J. M.; Magne, M.; Mathez, H.; Maxim, V.; Montarou, G.; Morel, C.; Pinto, M.; Ray, C.; Reithinger, V.; Testa, E.; Zoccarato, Y.

    2015-07-01

    A Compton camera is being developed for the purpose of ion-range monitoring during hadrontherapy via the detection of prompt-gamma rays. The system consists of a scintillating fiber beam tagging hodoscope, a stack of double sided silicon strip detectors (90×90×2 mm3, 2×64 strips) as scatter detectors, as well as bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors (38×35×30 mm3, 100 blocks) as absorbers. The individual components will be described, together with the status of their characterization.

  18. Evaluation of detector material and radiation source position on Compton camera's ability for multitracer imaging.

    PubMed

    Uche, C Z; Round, W H; Cree, M J

    2012-09-01

    We present a study on the effects of detector material, radionuclide source and source position on the Compton camera aimed at realistic characterization of the camera's performance in multitracer imaging as it relates to brain imaging. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation software was used to model the physics of radiation transport and interactions with matter. Silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) detectors were evaluated for the scatterer, and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) and cerium-doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr(3):Ce) were considered for the absorber. Image quality analyses suggest that the use of Si as the scatterer and CZT as the absorber would be preferred. Nevertheless, two simulated Compton camera models (Si/CZT and Si/LaBr(3):Ce Compton cameras) that are considered in this study demonstrated good capabilities for multitracer imaging in that four radiotracers within the nuclear medicine energy range are clearly visualized by the cameras. It is found however that beyond a range difference of about 2 cm for (113m)In and (18)F radiotracers in a brain phantom, there may be a need to rotate the Compton camera for efficient brain imaging.

  19. Gamma-ray imaging with a Si/CsI(Tl) Compton detector.

    PubMed

    Hoover, A S; Sullivan, J P; Baird, B; Brumby, S P; Kippen, R M; McCluskey, C W; Rawool-Sullivan, M W; Sorensen, E B

    2006-12-01

    We present results from Compton imaging of gamma-ray sources using an instrument constructed from thin silicon scattering detectors and CsI(Tl) absorbing detectors. We have successfully imaged single and double point sources for several common radioactive isotopes ((137)Cs, (60)Co, (22)Na, (54)Mn). The measured angular resolution is 11.6( composite function) FWHM at 662keV. In parallel with the hardware effort, a GEANT4-based simulation code was developed. Comparisons between real and simulated data are discussed.

  20. Applications of Gas Imaging Micro-Well Detectors to an Advanced Compton Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloser, P. F.; Hunter, S. D.; Ryan, J. M.; McConnell, M. L.; Miller, R. S.; Jackson, T. N.; Bai, B.; Jung, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present a concept for an Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) based on the use of pixelized gas micro-well detectors to form a three-dimensional electron track imager. A micro-well detector consists of an array of individual micro-patterned proportional counters opposite a planar drift electrode. When combined with thin film transistor array readouts, large gas volumes may be imaged with very good spatial and energy resolution at reasonable cost. The third dimension is determined by timing the drift of the ionization electrons. The primary advantage of this approach is the excellent tracking of the Compton recoil electron that is possible in a gas volume. Such good electron tracking allows us to reduce the point spread function of a single incident photon dramatically, greatly improving the imaging capability and sensitivity. The polarization sensitivity, which relies on events with large Compton scattering angles, is particularly enhanced. We describe a possible ACT implementation of this technique, in which the gas tracking volume is surrounded by a CsI calorimeter, and present our plans to build and test a small prototype over the next three years.

  1. Studies of Nuclear Structure using Radioactive Decay and a Large Array of Compton Suppressed Ge Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, John L.

    2000-11-01

    Radioactive decay has long played a role in contributing to the elucidation of nuclear structure. However compared to in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy, which has been combined with the extraordinary power of multi-detector arrays, radioactive decay scheme studies have been carried out usually with rather modest detector set-ups (two detectors, no Compton suppression). An extensive program to rectify this situation has been initiated using the "8-PI spectrometer"[1]. This is an array of 20 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors with exceptional stability and peak-to-total ratio. Experiments performed[2] recently at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, to better characterize nuclear deformation properties and the onset of deformation in nuclei, will be described. Future plans for the study of nuclei far from beta stability at the TRIUMF/ISAC Facility using the 8-PI spectrometer will also be outlined. [1] J.P.Martin et al., Nucl.Instr.Meth. A 257, 301 (1987). [2] See, e.g., W.D.Kulp et al. Bull.Am.Phys.Soc. 44, 63 (1999); W.D.Kulp et al., ibid., Williamsburg Meeting, Oct 4-7 (2000).

  2. Millimeter Wave Metal-Insulator-Metal Detector/Mixer Diode.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    AO-A138 391 MILLIMETER WAVE METAL-INSULATOR- METAL DETECTOR /MIXER 1/1 DIODE(VI NORTH CAROLIN A AGRICULTURAL A NO TECHNI CA L STATE UNIV GREENSRO. C TV...163-A I V AFWAL-TR-83-1179 MILLIMETER WAVE METAL-INSULATOR- METAL DETECTOR /MIXER DIODE CHUNG YU NORTH CAROLINA A&T STATE UNIVERSITY GREENSBORO, NORTH...TITLE (ad subsorle.I S. TYPE CrjflT&PEO OER MILLIMETER WAVE May, 1981--July, 1983 METAL-INSULATOR- METAL DETECTOR /MIXER G. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  3. Positional calibrations of the germanium double sided strip detectors for the Compton spectrometer and imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowell, A.; Boggs, S.; Chiu, J. L.; Kierans, C.; McBride, S.; Tseng, C. H.; Zoglauer, A.; Amman, M.; Chang, H. K.; Jean, P.; Lin, C. H.; Sleator, C.; Tomsick, J.; von Ballmoos, P.; Yang, C. Y.

    2016-08-01

    The Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI) is a medium energy gamma ray (0.2 - 10 MeV) imager designed to observe high-energy processes in the universe from a high altitude balloon platform. At its core, COSI is comprised of twelve high purity germanium double sided strip detectors which measure particle interaction energies and locations with high precision. This manuscript focuses on the positional calibrations of the COSI detectors. The interaction depth in a detector is inferred from the charge collection time difference between the two sides of the detector. We outline our previous approach to this depth calibration and also describe a new approach we have recently developed. Two dimensional localization of interactions along the faces of the detector (x and y) is straightforward, as the location of the triggering strips is simply used. However, we describe a possible technique to improve the x/y position resolution beyond the detector strip pitch of 2 mm. With the current positional calibrations, COSI achieves an angular resolution of 5.6 +/- 0.1 degrees at 662 keV, close to our expectations from simulations.

  4. The millimeter wave super-Schottky diode detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, A. H.; Pedersen, R. J.; Mccoll, M.; Dickman, R. L.; Wilson, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    The 31 and 92 GHz measurements of the superconductor-Schottky diode extended to millimeter wavelengths by a redesign of the semiconductor interface are reported. Diodes were fabricated by pulse electroplating Pb on 2 x 10 to the 19th/cu cm p-Ga-As etched with HCl; a thin Au overplate is deposited to protect the Pb film from degradation and to improve its lifetime. The noise performance was almost ideal at 31 and 92 GHz; it was concluded that this diode is a quantum-limited-detector at 31 GHz, with excessive parasitic losses at 92 GHz.

  5. DSSD detectors development PACT, a new space Compton telescope at the horizon 2025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, P.; Khalil, M.; Dolgorouki, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Oger, R.; Bréelle, E.

    2015-07-01

    PACT is a Pair and Compton telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV . It will be devoted to the detection of radioactivity lines from present and past supernova explosions, the observation of thousands of new blazars, and the study of polarized radiations from gamma-ray bursts, pulsars and accreting black holes. It will reach a sensitivity of one to two orders of magnitude lower than COMPTEL/CGRO (e.g. about 50 times lower for the broad-band, survey sensitivity at 1 MeV after 5 years). The PACT telescope is based upon three main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker, a crystal-based calorimeter (e.g. CeBr3), and an anticoincidence detector made of plastic scintillator panels. Prototypes of the Silicon detector planes have been optimized and are currently tested in the APC laboratory.

  6. Rubicon - a New Diode Array Detector System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Kaler, T.; Rudolph, R.; Tug, H.

    A photon-counting system with a 512-channel parallel output digital image tube is presented. Electronics developed separately for each detector channel as well as data aquisition are optimized for low power consumption and high counting rates. This detector, characterized by wide dynamic range, very low noise and high photometric accuracy, is especially suitable for spectrophotometry and calibrations.

  7. Iterative Monte Carlo simulation with the Compton kinematics-based GEB in a plastic scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chankyu; Kim, Yewon; Moon, Myungkook; Cho, Gyuseong

    2015-09-01

    Plastic scintillators have been used for gamma ray detection in the fields of dosimetry and homeland security because of their desired characteristics such as a fast decay time, a low production cost, availability in a large-scale, and a tissue-equivalence. Gaussian energy broadening (GEB) in MCNP simulation is an effective treatment for tallies to calculate the broadened response function of a detector similarly to measured spectra. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of a photopeak has been generally used to compute input parameters required for the GEB treatment. However, it is hard to find the photopeak in measured gamma spectra with plastic scintillators so that computation of the input parameters for the GEB has to be taken with another way. In this study, an iterative method for the GEB treated MCNP simulation to calculate the response function of a plastic scintillator is suggested. Instead of the photopeak, Compton maximum and Compton edge were used to estimate energy broadening in the measured spectra and to determine the GEB parameters. In a demonstration with a CsI(Tl) scintillator, the proposed iterative simulation showed the similar gamma spectra to the existing method using photopeaks. The proposed method was then applied to a polystyrene scintillator, and the simulation result were in agreement with the measured spectra with only a little iteration.

  8. Thick silicon microstrip detectors simulation for PACT: Pair and Compton Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, M.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Tatischeff, V.; Dolgorouky, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Breelle, E.

    2016-11-01

    PACT is a space borne Pair and Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It is based upon two main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker and a crystal-based calorimeter. In this paper we will explain the imaging technique of PACT as a Multi-layered Compton telescope (0.1-10 MeV) and its major improvements over its predecessor COMPTEL. Then we will present a simulation study to optimize the silicon tracker of PACT. This tracker is formed of thousands of identical silicon double sided strip detectors (DSSDs). We have developed a simulation model (using SILVACO) to simulate the DSSD performance while varying its thickness, impurity concentration of the bulk material, electrode pitch, and electrode width. We will present a comprehensive overview of the impact of each varied parameter on the DSSD performance, in view of the application to PACT. The considered DSSD parameters are its depletion voltage, capacitance, and leakage current. After the selection of the PACT DSSD, we will present a simulation of the performance of the PACT telescope in the 0.1-10 MeV range.

  9. An Avalanche Diode Electron Detector for Observing NEET

    SciTech Connect

    Kishimoto, Shunji

    2004-05-12

    Nuclear excitation by electron transition (NEET) occurs in atomic inner-shell ionization if the nuclear excitation and the electron transition have nearly the same energy and a common multipolarity. We successfully observed the NEET on 197Au and on 193Ir using a silicon avalanche diode electron detector. The detector was used to find internal conversion electrons emitted from excited nuclei in time spectroscopy with a time gate method. Some nuclear resonant levels, including 8.410 keV on 169Tm and 80.577 keV on 166Er, were also observed with the detector.

  10. Spectrometry and dosimetry of fast neutrons using pin diode detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki Dizaji, H.; Kakavand, T.; Abbasi Davani, F.

    2014-03-01

    Elastic scattering of light nuclei, especially hydrogen, is widely used for detection of fast neutrons. Semiconductor devices based on silicon detectors are frequently used for different radiation detections. In this work, a neutron spectrometer consisting of a pin diode coupled with a polyethylene converter and aluminum degrader layers has been developed. Aluminum layers are used as discriminators of different neutron energies for detectors. The response of the converter-degrader-pin diode configuration, the optimum thickness of the converter and the degrader layers have been extracted using MCNP and SRIM simulation codes. The possibility of using this type of detector for fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry has been investigated. A fairly good agreement was seen between neutron energy spectrum and dose obtained from our configurations and these specifications from an 241Am-Be neutron source.

  11. Low Noise Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detector for Multiple-Compton Gamma-ray Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Hiroyasu

    2002-12-03

    A Semiconductor Multiple-Compton Telescope (SMCT) is being developed to explore the gamma-ray universe in an energy band 0.1-20 MeV, which is not well covered by the present or near-future gamma-ray telescopes. The key feature of the SMCT is the high energy resolution that is crucial for high angular resolution and high background rejection capability. We have developed prototype modules for a low noise Double-sided Silicon Strip Detector (DSSD) system which is an essential element of the SMCT. The geometry of the DSSD is optimized to achieve the lowest noise possible. A new front-end VLSI device optimized for low noise operation is also developed. We report on the design and test results of the prototype system. We have reached an energy resolution of 1.3 keV (FWHM) for 60 keV and 122 keV at 0 C.

  12. Application of AXUV diode detectors at ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bernert, M. Eich, T.; Burckhart, A.; Fuchs, J. C.; Giannone, L.; Kallenbach, A.; McDermott, R. M.; Sieglin, B.

    2014-03-15

    In the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, a radiation measurement for a wide spectral range, based on semiconductor detectors, with 256 lines of sight and a time resolution of 5μs was recently installed. In combination with the foil based bolometry, it is now possible to estimate the absolutely calibrated radiated power of the plasma on fast timescales. This work introduces this diagnostic based on AXUV (Absolute eXtended UltraViolet) n-on-p diodes made by International Radiation Detectors, Inc. The measurement and the degradation of the diodes in a tokamak environment is shown. Even though the AXUV diodes are developed to have a constant sensitivity for all photon energies (1 eV-8 keV), degradation leads to a photon energy dependence of the sensitivity. The foil bolometry, which is restricted to a time resolution of less than 1 kHz, offers a basis for a time dependent calibration of the diodes. The measurements of the quasi-calibrated diodes are compared with the foil bolometry and found to be accurate on the kHz time scale. Therefore, it is assumed, that the corrected values are also valid for the highest time resolution (200 kHz). With this improved diagnostic setup, the radiation induced by edge localized modes is analyzed on fast timescales.

  13. Evaluation of Compton gamma camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe detectors

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, Y.; Chmeissani, M.; Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.

    2014-01-01

    A proposed Compton camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe is simulated and evaluated in order to establish its feasibility and expected performance in real laboratory tests. The system is based on module units containing a 2×4 array of square CdTe detectors of 10×10 mm2 area and 2 mm thickness. The detectors are pixelated and stacked forming a 3D detector with voxel sizes of 2 × 1 × 2 mm3. The camera performance is simulated with Geant4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations(GAMOS) and the Origin Ensemble(OE) algorithm is used for the image reconstruction. The simulation shows that the camera can operate with up to 104 Bq source activities with equal efficiency and is completely saturated at 109 Bq. The efficiency of the system is evaluated using a simulated 18F point source phantom in the center of the Field-of-View (FOV) achieving an intrinsic efficiency of 0.4 counts per second per kilobecquerel. The spatial resolution measured from the point spread function (PSF) shows a FWHM of 1.5 mm along the direction perpendicular to the scatterer, making it possible to distinguish two points at 3 mm separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 8. PMID:24932209

  14. Evaluation of Compton gamma camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe detectors.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Y; Chmeissani, M; Kolstein, M; De Lorenzo, G

    2014-06-01

    A proposed Compton camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe is simulated and evaluated in order to establish its feasibility and expected performance in real laboratory tests. The system is based on module units containing a 2×4 array of square CdTe detectors of 10×10 mm(2) area and 2 mm thickness. The detectors are pixelated and stacked forming a 3D detector with voxel sizes of 2 × 1 × 2 mm(3). The camera performance is simulated with Geant4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations(GAMOS) and the Origin Ensemble(OE) algorithm is used for the image reconstruction. The simulation shows that the camera can operate with up to 10(4) Bq source activities with equal efficiency and is completely saturated at 10(9) Bq. The efficiency of the system is evaluated using a simulated (18)F point source phantom in the center of the Field-of-View (FOV) achieving an intrinsic efficiency of 0.4 counts per second per kilobecquerel. The spatial resolution measured from the point spread function (PSF) shows a FWHM of 1.5 mm along the direction perpendicular to the scatterer, making it possible to distinguish two points at 3 mm separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 8.

  15. Mini Compton Camera Based on an Array of Virtual Frisch-Grid CdZnTe Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wonho; Bolotnikov, Aleksey; Lee, Taewoong; Camarda, Giuseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Gul, Rubi; Hossain, Anwar; Utpal, Roy; Yang, Ge; James, Ralph

    2016-02-15

    In this study, we constructed a mini Compton camera based on an array of CdZnTe detectors and assessed its spectral and imaging properties. The entire array consisted of 6×6 Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors, each with a size of 6×6 ×15 mm3. Since it is easier and more practical to grow small CdZnTe crystals rather than large monolithic ones, constructing a mosaic array of parallelepiped crystals can be an effective way to build a more efficient, large-volume detector. With the fully operational CdZnTe array, we measured the energy spectra for 133Ba -, 137Cs -, 60Co-radiation sources; we also located these sources using a Compton imaging approach. Although the Compton camera was small enough to hand-carry, its intrinsic efficiency was several orders higher than those generated in previous researches using spatially separated arrays, because our camera measured the interactions inside the CZT detector array, wherein the detector elements were positioned very close to each other. Lastly, the performance of our camera was compared with that based on a pixelated detector.

  16. Mini Compton Camera Based on an Array of Virtual Frisch-Grid CdZnTe Detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Wonho; Bolotnikov, Aleksey; Lee, Taewoong; ...

    2016-02-15

    In this study, we constructed a mini Compton camera based on an array of CdZnTe detectors and assessed its spectral and imaging properties. The entire array consisted of 6×6 Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors, each with a size of 6×6 ×15 mm3. Since it is easier and more practical to grow small CdZnTe crystals rather than large monolithic ones, constructing a mosaic array of parallelepiped crystals can be an effective way to build a more efficient, large-volume detector. With the fully operational CdZnTe array, we measured the energy spectra for 133Ba -, 137Cs -, 60Co-radiation sources; we also located these sources usingmore » a Compton imaging approach. Although the Compton camera was small enough to hand-carry, its intrinsic efficiency was several orders higher than those generated in previous researches using spatially separated arrays, because our camera measured the interactions inside the CZT detector array, wherein the detector elements were positioned very close to each other. Lastly, the performance of our camera was compared with that based on a pixelated detector.« less

  17. Flexible amorphous silicon PIN diode x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrs, Michael; Bawolek, Edward; Smith, Joseph T.; Raupp, Gregory B.; Morton, David

    2013-05-01

    A low temperature amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film transistor (TFT) and amorphous silicon PIN photodiode technology for flexible passive pixel detector arrays has been developed using active matrix display technology. The flexible detector arrays can be conformed to non-planar surfaces with the potential to detect x-rays or other radiation with an appropriate conversion layer. The thin, lightweight, and robust backplanes may enable the use of highly portable x-ray detectors for use in the battlefield or in remote locations. We have fabricated detector arrays up to 200 millimeters along the diagonal on a Gen II (370 mm x 470 mm rectangular substrate) using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) a-Si as the active layer and PECVD silicon nitride (SiN) as the gate dielectric and passivation. The a-Si based TFTs exhibited an effective saturation mobility of 0.7 cm2/V-s, which is adequate for most sensing applications. The PIN diode material was fabricated using a low stress amorphous silicon (a-Si) PECVD process. The PIN diode dark current was 1.7 pA/mm2, the diode ideality factor was 1.36, and the diode fill factor was 0.73. We report on the critical steps in the evolution of the backplane process from qualification of the low temperature (180°C) TFT and PIN diode process on the 150 mm pilot line, the transfer of the process to flexible plastic substrates, and finally a discussion and demonstration of the scale-up to the Gen II (370 x 470 mm) panel scale pilot line.

  18. Proposal for VEPP-4M beam energy measurement using magnetic spectrometer with Compton calibration and photon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminskiy, V. V.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Zhilich, V. N.

    2017-08-01

    A method for circular e-/e+ accelerator beam energy measurement is proposed. A coordinate of an electron (or a positron) in a focusing magnetic spectrometer built in a circular accelerator depends on its energy, two spectrometer parameters, and the circulating beam energy. The spectrometer parameters can be determined using minimum electron energies from Compton backscattering with two laser wavelengths, and a coordinate detector for photons. The photon detector is calibrated separately at well-known beam energy. The VEPP-4M collider has appropriate equipment for the method implementation: built-in focusing magnetic spectrometer, Compton calibration system with two lasers and a photon coordinate detector. Thus, the proposed technique could be implemented with minimum efforts; tests and further upgrade are planned. The beam energy can be defined with expected uncertainty better than 10-4.

  19. The detector response matrices of the burst and transient source experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Paciesas, William S.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Koshut, Tom M.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.; Horack, John M.; Lestrade, John Patrick

    1995-01-01

    The detector response matrices for the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) are described, including their creation and operation in data analysis. These response matrices are a detailed abstract representation of the gamma-ray detectors' operating characteristics that are needed for data analysis. They are constructed from an extensive set of calibration data coupled with a complex geometry electromagnetic cascade Monte Carlo simulation code. The calibration tests and simulation algorithm optimization are described. The characteristics of the BATSE detectors in the spacecraft environment are also described.

  20. Determination of phosphate using a highly sensitive paired emitter-detector diode photometric flow detector.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Martina; Lau, King Tong; Shepherd, Roderick; Slater, Conor; Diamond, Dermot

    2007-08-06

    The use of a novel inexpensive photometric device, a paired emitter-detector diode (PEDD) has been applied to the colorimetric determination of phosphate using the malachite green spectrophotometric method. The novel miniaturized flow detector applied within this manifold is a highly sensitive, low cost, miniaturized light emitting diode (LED) based detector. The optical flow cell was constructed from two LEDs, whereby one is the light source and the second is the light detector, with the LED light source forward biased and the LED detector reversed biased. The photocurrent generated by the LED light source discharges the junction capacitance of the detector diode from 5 V (logic 1) to 1.7 V (logic 0) and the time taken for this process to occur is measured using a simple timer circuit. The malachite green (MG) method employed for phosphate determination is based on the formation of a green molybdophosphoric acid complex, the intensity of which is directly related to phosphate concentration. Optimum analytical parameters such as reaction kinetics, reagent to sample concentration ratio and emitter wavelength intensity were investigated for the spectrophotometric method. Linear calibration plots that obeyed the Beer-Lambert law were obtained for phosphate in the range of 0.02-2 microM. The dynamic range, sensitivity and limits of detection are reported.

  1. Design and Modeling of a Compton-Suppressed Phoswich Detector for Radioxenon Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    modeled using MCNPX Version 2.5.0. The Compton suppression mechanism is integrated into the phoswich design to effectively reduce the Compton continuum...background radiation was modeled using MCNPX Version 2.5.0. The Compton suppression mechanism is integrated into the phoswich design to effectively reduce...be calculated through regions of interest corresponding to the four xenon radioisotopes in the 2D spectrum. An alternative solution to measure

  2. Effect of detector collimator and sample thickness on 0.662 MeV multiply Compton-scattered gamma rays.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurvinderjit; Sandhu, B S; Singh, Bhajan

    2006-03-01

    The simultaneous effect of detector collimator and sample thickness on 0.662 MeV multiply Compton-scattered gamma photons was studied experimentally. An intense collimated beam, obtained from 6-Ci (137)Cs source, is allowed to impinge on cylindrical aluminium samples of varying diameter and the scattered photons are detected by a 51 mm x 51 mm NaI(Tl) scintillation detector placed at 90 degrees to the incident beam. The full energy peak corresponding to singly scattered events is reconstructed analytically. The thickness at which the multiply scattered events saturate is determined for different detector collimators. The parameters like signal-to-noise ratio and multiply scatter fraction (MSF) have also been deduced and support the work carried out by Shengli et al. [2000. EGS4 simulation of Compton scattering for nondestructive testing. KEK proceedings 200-20, Tsukuba, Japan, pp. 216-223] and Barnea et al. [1995. A study of multiple scattering background in Compton scatter imaging. NDT & E International 28, 155-162] based upon Monte Carlo calculations.

  3. Determination of electron beam polarization using electron detector in Compton polarimeter with less than 1% statistical and systematic uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, Amrendra

    2015-05-01

    The Q-weak experiment aims to measure the weak charge of proton with a precision of 4.2%. The proposed precision on weak charge required a 2.5% measurement of the parity violating asymmetry in elastic electron - proton scattering. Polarimetry was the largest experimental contribution to this uncertainty and a new Compton polarimeter was installed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab to make the goal achievable. In this polarimeter the electron beam collides with green laser light in a low gain Fabry-Perot Cavity; the scattered electrons are detected in 4 planes of a novel diamond micro strip detector while the back scattered photons are detected in lead tungstate crystals. This diamond micro-strip detector is the first such device to be used as a tracking detector in a nuclear and particle physics experiment. The diamond detectors are read out using custom built electronic modules that include a preamplifier, a pulse shaping amplifier and a discriminator for each detector micro-strip. We use field programmable gate array based general purpose logic modules for event selection and histogramming. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations and data acquisition simulations were performed to estimate the systematic uncertainties. Additionally, the Moller and Compton polarimeters were cross calibrated at low electron beam currents using a series of interleaved measurements. In this dissertation, we describe all the subsystems of the Compton polarimeter with emphasis on the electron detector. We focus on the FPGA based data acquisition system built by the author and the data analysis methods implemented by the author. The simulations of the data acquisition and the polarimeter that helped rigorously establish the systematic uncertainties of the polarimeter are also elaborated, resulting in the first sub 1% measurement of low energy (?1 GeV) electron beam polarization with a Compton electron detector. We have demonstrated that diamond based micro-strip detectors can be used for tracking in a

  4. Si/CdTe Compton Telescope combined with Active Collimator as the Soft Gamma-ray Detector for the 'NeXT' mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazuhiro, N.; Tadayuki, T.; Shin, W.; Tune, K.; Greg, M.; Hiroyasu, T.; Yasushi, F.; Masaharu, N.; Motohide, K.; Kazuo, M.; Makoto, T.; Yukikatsu, T.; Jun, K.; NeXT SGD Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) is a new generation compton telescope aiming at an order of magnitude improvement of sensitivity at the energy band of 80-1000 keV. The SGD is proposed to be launched at 2010-11, onboard the Japanese new astronomy satellite ``NeXT." Novel idea of the SGD is to use a Si/CdTe semiconductor multi-layer compton telescope within the low background environment achieved by the deep active shield with a narrow opening angle. Because compton telescope hosts an imaging capability, any residual backgrounds, such as the activation of the main detector itself, can by rejected by requiring the compton scattering angle to be consistent with the opening angle of the shield, which is about 4 degree with current design. The key technologies of the SGD are the deep active shield which is a direct heritage of the Hard X-ray Detector onboard Astro-E2 mission, and the newly developed Si/CdTe compton telescope. Current design of the Si/CdTe compton telescope consists of 24 layers of 0.5 mm thick double-sided-silicon-strip-detector (DSSD) as a scatterer, surrounded by thin and thick CdTe pixel detectors with a total thickness of 5 mm as an absorber. The design is optimized for detecting gamma-rays at about 100-700 keV when operated at compton mode. We present the results from the first prototype of Si/CdTe compton telescope, made of a 300 um thick DSSD and 0.5 mm thick CdTe pixel detectors. We also present the estimated performance of the SGD with current design, and possible improvements in the future.

  5. Novel integrated paired emitter-detector diode (PEDD) as a miniaturized photometric detector in HPLC.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Martina; Lau, King-Tong; Shazmann, Benjamin; Shepherd, Roderick; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett; Diamond, Dermot

    2006-08-01

    A novel low power, low cost, highly sensitive, miniaturized light emitting diode (LED) based flow detector has been used as optical detector for the detection of sample components in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This colorimetric detector employs two LEDs, one operating in normal mode as a light source and the other is reverse biased to work as a light detector. Instead of measuring the photocurrent directly, a simple timer circuit is used to measure the time taken for the photocurrent generated by the emitter LED (lambda(max) 500 nm) to discharge the detector LED (lambda(max) 621 nm) from 5 V (logic 1) to 1.7 V (logic 0) to give digital output directly without using an A/D converter. Employing a post-column reagent method, a Nucleosil 100-7 column (functionalized with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) groups) was used to separate a mixture of transition metal complexes, manganese(II) and cobalt(II) in 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR). All optical measurements were taken by using both the in-built HPLC variable wavelength detector and the proposed paired-emitter-detector-diode (PEDD) optical detector configured in-line for data comparison. The concentration range investigated using the PEDD was found to give a linear response to the Mn(II) and Co(II) PAR complexes. The effects of flow rate and emitter LED light source intensity were investigated. Under optimised conditions the PEDD detector offered a linear range of 0.9-100 microM and LOD of 0.09 microM for Mn-PAR complex. A linear range of 0.2-100 microM and LOD of 0.09 microM for Co-PAR complex was achieved.

  6. Photo-detectors integrated with resonant tunneling diodes.

    PubMed

    Romeira, Bruno; Pessoa, Luis M; Salgado, Henrique M; Ironside, Charles N; Figueiredo, José M L

    2013-07-22

    We report on photo-detectors consisting of an optical waveguide that incorporates a resonant tunneling diode (RTD). Operating at wavelengths around 1.55 μm in the optical communications C band we achieve maximum sensitivities of around 0.29 A/W which is dependent on the bias voltage. This is due to the nature of RTD nonlinear current-voltage characteristic that has a negative differential resistance (NDR) region. The resonant tunneling diode photo-detector (RTD-PD) can be operated in either non-oscillating or oscillating regimes depending on the bias voltage quiescent point. The oscillating regime is apparent when the RTD-PD is biased in the NDR region giving rise to electrical gain and microwave self-sustained oscillations Taking advantage of the RTD's NDR distinctive characteristics, we demonstrate efficient detection of gigahertz (GHz) modulated optical carriers and optical control of a RTD GHz oscillator. RTD-PD based devices can have applications in generation and optical control of GHz low-phase noise oscillators, clock recovery systems, and fiber optic enabled radio frequency communication systems.

  7. Photo-Detectors Integrated with Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Romeira, Bruno; Pessoa, Luis M.; Salgado, Henrique M.; Ironside, Charles N.; Figueiredo, José M. L.

    2013-01-01

    We report on photo-detectors consisting of an optical waveguide that incorporates a resonant tunneling diode (RTD). Operating at wavelengths around 1.55 μm in the optical communications C band we achieve maximum sensitivities of around 0.29 A/W which is dependent on the bias voltage. This is due to the nature of RTD nonlinear current-voltage characteristic that has a negative differential resistance (NDR) region. The resonant tunneling diode photo-detector (RTD-PD) can be operated in either non-oscillating or oscillating regimes depending on the bias voltage quiescent point. The oscillating regime is apparent when the RTD-PD is biased in the NDR region giving rise to electrical gain and microwave self-sustained oscillations Taking advantage of the RTD's NDR distinctive characteristics, we demonstrate efficient detection of gigahertz (GHz) modulated optical carriers and optical control of a RTD GHz oscillator. RTD-PD based devices can have applications in generation and optical control of GHz low-phase noise oscillators, clock recovery systems, and fiber optic enabled radio frequency communication systems. PMID:23881142

  8. Compton-scattering measurement of diagnostic x-ray spectrum using high-resolution Schottky CdTe detector.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Koji; Matsumoto, Masao; Taniguchi, Akira

    2005-06-01

    The analysis of x-ray spectra is important for quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of radiographic systems. The aim of this study is to measure the diagnostic x-ray spectra under clinical conditions using a high-resolution Schottky CdTe detector. Under clinical conditions, the direct measurement of a diagnostic spectrum is difficult because of the high photon fluence rates that cause significant detector photon pile-up. An alternative way of measuring the output spectra from a tube is first to measure the 90 deg Compton scattered photons from a given sample. With this set-up detector, pile-up is not a problem. From the scattered spectrum one can then use an energy correction and the Klein-Nishina function to reconstruct the actual spectrum incident upon the scattering sample. The verification of whether our spectra measured by the Compton method are accurate was accomplished by comparing exposure rates calculated from the reconstructed spectra to those measured with an ionization chamber. We used aluminum (Al) filtration ranging in thickness from 0 to 6 mm. The half value layers (HVLs) obtained for a 70 kV beam were 2.78 mm via the ionization chamber measurements and 2.93 mm via the spectral measurements. For a 100 kV beam we obtained 3.98 and 4.32 mm. The small differences in HVLs obtained by both techniques suggest that Compton scatter spectroscopy with a Schottky CdTe detector is suitable for measuring the diagnostic x-ray spectra and useful for QA and QC of clinical x-ray equipment.

  9. Compton-scattering measurement of diagnostic x-ray spectrum using high-resolution Schottky CdTe detector.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Koji; Matsumoto, Masao; Taniguchi, Akira

    2005-06-01

    The analysis of x-ray spectra is important for quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of radiographic systems. The aim of this study is to measure the diagnostic x-ray spectra under clinical conditions using a high-resolution Schottky CdTe detector. Under clinical conditions, the direct measurement of a diagnostic spectrum is difficult because of the high photon fluence rates that cause significant detector photon pile-up. An alternative way of measuring the output spectra from a tube is first to measure the 90 deg Compton scattered photons from a given sample. With this set-up detector, pile-up is not a problem. From the scattered spectrum one can then use an energy correction and the Klein-Nishina function to reconstruct the actual spectrum incident upon the scattering sample. The verification of whether our spectra measured by the Compton method are accurate was accomplished by comparing exposure rates calculated from the reconstructed spectra to those measured with an ionization chamber. We used aluminum (Al) filtration ranging in thickness from 0 to 6 mm. The half value layers (HVLs) obtained for a 70 kV beam were 2.78 mm via the ionization chamber measurements and 2.93 mm via the spectral measurements. For a 100 kV beam we obtained 3.98 and 4.32 mm. The small differences in HVLs obtained by both techniques suggest that Compton scatter spectroscopy with a Schottky CdTe detector is suitable for measuring the diagnostic x-ray spectra and useful for QA and QC of clinical x-ray equipment. © 2005 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. Development of Gamma-Ray Compton Imager Using Room-Temperature 3-D Position Sensitive Semiconductor Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong He; David Whe; Glenn Knoll

    2003-05-14

    During the three years of this project, two 3-dimensional position sensitive CdZnTe spectrometers were upgraded in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. A prototype Compton-scattering gamma-ray imager was assembled using the two upgraded CdZnTe detectors. The performance of both gamma-ray spectrometers were individually tested. The angular resolution and detection sensitivity of the imaging system were measured using both a point and a line-shaped 137 Cs radiation source. The measurement results are consistent with that obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations performed during the early phase of the project.

  11. Development of silicon pad detectors and readout electronics for a Compton camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studen, A.; Cindro, V.; Clinthorne, N. H.; Czermak, A.; Dulinski, W.; Fuster, J.; Han, L.; Jalocha, P.; Kowal, M.; Kragh, T.; Lacasta, C.; Llosá, G.; Meier, D.; Mikuž, M.; Nygård, E.; Park, S. J.; Roe, S.; Rogers, W. L.; Sowicki, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wilderman, S. J.; Yoshioka, K.; Zhang, L.

    2003-03-01

    Applications in nuclear medicine and bio-medical engineering may profit using a Compton camera for imaging distributions of radio-isotope labelled tracers in organs and tissues. These applications require detection of photons using thick position-sensitive silicon sensors with the highest possible energy and good spatial resolution. In this paper, research and development on silicon pad sensors and associated readout electronics for a Compton camera are presented. First results with low-noise, self-triggering VATAGP ASIC's are reported. The measured energy resolution was 1.1 keV FWHM at room temperature for the 241Am photo-peak at 59.5 keV.

  12. Short range laser obstacle detector. [for surface vehicles using laser diode array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriger, W. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A short range obstacle detector for surface vehicles is described which utilizes an array of laser diodes. The diodes operate one at a time, with one diode for each adjacent azimuth sector. A vibrating mirror a short distance above the surface provides continuous scanning in elevation for all azimuth sectors. A diode laser is synchronized with the vibrating mirror to enable one diode laser to be fired, by pulses from a clock pulse source, a number of times during each elevation scan cycle. The time for a given pulse of light to be reflected from an obstacle and received is detected as a measure of range to the obstacle.

  13. Low energy gamma ray observations with the MPI-Compton telescope. [balloon-borne detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graml, F.; Penningsfeld, F. P.; Schoenfelder, V.

    1978-01-01

    Although the evaluation of data from the first balloon-flight of a large area Compton telescope is incomplete, two preliminary results are discussed. From the measured background spectrum at float altitude, the sensitivity of the telescope for the detection of cosmic gamma ray lines is estimated. The energy spectra is determined for an enhanced gamma ray flux observed from the direction of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151. A schematic drawing of the telescope is presented and discussed.

  14. Measuring multimegavolt pulsed voltages using Compton-generated electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Weber, B. V.; Pereira, N. R.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Stephanakis, S. J.; Young, F. C.

    2004-01-01

    The "Compton-Hall" voltmeter is a radiation-based voltage diagnostic that has been developed to measure voltages on high-power (TW) pulsed generators. The instrument collimates photons generated from bremsstrahlung produced in the diode onto an aluminum target to generate Compton-generated electrons. Permanent magnets bend the Compton electron orbits that escape the target toward a silicon pin diode detector. A GaAs photoconductive detector (PCD) detects photons that pass through the Compton target. The diode voltage is determined from the ratio of the electron dose in the pin detector to the x-ray dose in the PCD. The Integrated Tiger Series of electron-photon transport codes is used to determine the relationship between the measured dose ratio and the diode voltage. Variations in the electron beam's angle of incidence on the bremsstrahlung target produce changes in the shape of the photon spectrum that lead to large variations in the voltage inferred from the voltmeter. The voltage uncertainty is minimized when the voltmeter is fielded at an angle of 45° with respect to the bremsstrahlung target. In this position, the photon spectra for different angles of incidence all converge onto a single spectrum reducing the uncertainty in the voltage to less than 10% for voltages below 4 MV. Higher and lower voltages than the range considered in this article can be measured by adjusting the strength of the applied magnetic field or the position of the electron detector relative to the Compton target. The instrument was fielded on the Gamble II pulsed-power generator configured with a plasma opening switch. Measurements produced a time-dependent voltage with a peak (3.7 MV) that agrees with nuclear activation measurements and a pulse shape that is consistent with the measured radiation pulse shape.

  15. Measuring Multi-Megavolt Diode Voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, N. R.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Weber, B. V.; Commisso, R. J.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Stephanakis, S. J.

    2002-12-01

    The voltage in high-power diodes can be determined by measuring the Compton electrons generated by the diode's bremsstrahlung radiation. This technique is implemented with a Compton-Hall (C-H) voltmeter that collimates the bremsstrahlung onto a Compton target and bends the emitted Compton electron orbits off to the side with an applied magnetic field off to Si pin diode detectors. Voltage is determined from the ratio of the Compton electron dose to the forward x-ray dose. The instrument's calibration and response are determined from coupled electron/photon transport calculations. The applicable voltage range is tuned by adjusting the position of the electron detector relative to the Compton target or by varying the magnetic field strength. The instrument was used to obtain time-dependent voltage measurements for a pinched-beam diode whose voltage is enhanced by an upstream opening switch. In this case, plasmas and vacuum electron flow from the opening switch make it difficult to determine the voltage accurately from electrical measurements. The C-H voltmeter gives voltages that are significantly higher than those obtained from electrical measurements but are consistent with measurements of peak voltage based on nuclear activation of boron-nitride targets.

  16. Measurement of low energy ionization signals from Compton scattering in a charge-coupled device dark matter detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, K.; Kavner, A.; Chavarria, A. E.; Privitera, P.; Amidei, D.; Chou, T.-L.; Matalon, A.; Thomas, R.; Estrada, J.; Tiffenberg, J.; Molina, J.

    2017-08-01

    An important source of background in direct searches for low-mass dark matter particles are the energy deposits by small-angle scattering of environmental γ rays. We report detailed measurements of low-energy spectra from Compton scattering of γ rays in the bulk silicon of a charge-coupled device (CCD). Electron recoils produced by γ rays from 57Co and 241Am radioactive sources are measured between 60 eV and 4 keV. The observed spectra agree qualitatively with theoretical predictions, and characteristic spectral features associated with the atomic structure of the silicon target are accurately measured for the first time. A theoretically motivated parametrization of the data that describes the Compton spectrum at low energies for any incident γ -ray flux is derived. The result is directly applicable to background estimations for low-mass dark matter direct-detection experiments based on silicon detectors, in particular for the DAMIC experiment down to its current energy threshold.

  17. EVALUATION OF SILICON DIODES AS IN-SITU CRYOGENIC FIELD EMISSION DETECTORS FOR SRF CAVITY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng

    2012-07-01

    We performed in-situ cryogenic testing of four silicon diodes as possible candidates for field emission (FE) monitors of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities during qualification testing and in accelerator cryo-modules. We evaluated diodes from 2 companies - from Hamamatsu corporation model S1223-01; and from OSI Optoelectronics models OSD35-LR-A, XUV-50C, and FIL-UV20. The measurements were done by placing the diodes in superfluid liquid helium near the top of a field emitting 9-cell cavity during its vertical test. For each diode, we will discuss their viability as a 2K cryogenic detector for FE mapping of SRF cavities and the directionality of S1223-01 in such environments. We will also present calibration curves between the diodes and JLab's standard radiation detector placed above the Dewar's top plate.

  18. Ultra-violet light-emitting diode calibration system for timing large area scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, P. Yu; Runtso, M. F.; Naumov, P. P.; Maklyaev, E. F.; Kaplin, V. A.; Fomin, V. S.; Razzhivin, I. S.; Melikyan, Yu A.

    2017-01-01

    Timing large area plastic scintillation detectors are developing for the space gamma-ray telescopes now. For the in-flight calibration of these detectors the use of ultra-violet light-emitting diode, irradiating the 1 m long detector module at the center of its lateral side is suggested. The results of the measurements show the possibility of this calibration system implementation as for amplitude as for timing properties monitoring.

  19. A Compton scattering technique for concentration and fluid-fluid interface measurements using NaI(Tl) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tondon, Akash; Singh, Mohinder; Sandhu, B. S.; Singh, Bhajan

    2017-07-01

    The present work, an important application of Compton scattering, is aimed at presenting the use of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for the estimation of concentration (density), fluid-fluid interface level and presence of a foreign body (Al) in fluids. The measurements are made using a well collimated gamma photon beam, having energy of 662 keV, from 137Cs radioactive source. The scattered gamma photon flux is detected by a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector (dimensions 51 mm in diameter and 51 mm in thickness) placed at a scattering angle of 110° relative to the primary gamma ray beam. This method is quite sensitive to detect changes in concentration (density) of the order of 0.0153 g/cm3 in a given aqueous solution. Furthermore, the interface level and position of a foreign body in heterogeneous fluids are observed by monitoring changes in the recorded scattered intensity. The estimated fluid-fluid interface level and the level up to which the presence of a foreign body is detected is close to actual value.

  20. Design and Preliminary Monte Carlo Calculations of an Active Compton Suppressed LaBr3(Ce) Detector System for TRU Assay in Remote-Handled Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    J. Kulisek; J. K. Hartwell; M. E. McIlwain; R. P. Gardner

    2006-09-01

    Recent studies indicate LaBr3(Ce) scintillation detectors have desirable attributes, such as room temperature operability, which may make them viable alternatives as primary detectors (PD) in a Compton suppression spectrometer (CSS) used for remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste assay. A CSS with a LaBr3(Ce) PD has been designed and its expected performance evaluated using Monte Carlo analysis. The unique design of this unit minimizes the amount of "dead" material between the PD and the secondary guard detector. The analysis results indicate that this detector will have a relatively high Compton-suppression capability, with greater suppression ability for large angle-scattered photons in the PD. J. K. Hartwell1, M. E. McIlwain1, R. P. Gardner2, J. Kulisek3 1) Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 USA 2) North Carolina State University, Dept of Nuclear Eng., PO Box 7909, Raleigh, NC 27695 USA 3) Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 The US Department of Energy’s transuranic (TRU) waste inventory includes about 4,500 m3 of remote-handled TRU (RH-TRU) wastes. The RH-TRU waste stream is composed of a variety of containerized waste forms having a contact surface dose rate that exceeds 2 mSv/hr (200 mrem/hr) containing waste materials with a total TRU concentration greater than 3700 Bq/g (100 nCi/g). As part of a research project to investigate the use of active Compton-suppressed room-temperature gamma-ray detectors for direct non-destructive quantification of the TRU content of these RH-TRU wastes, we have designed and purchased a unique detector system using a LaBr3(Ce) primary detector and a NaI(Tl) suppression mantle. The expected detector performance has been modeled using MCNP-X [1] and CEARCPG [2], and incorporates certain design features modeled as important to active Compton suppression systems in previously-published work [3]. The unique detector system is sketched in Fig. 1. The ~25 mm diameter by 75 mm long LaBr3(Ce

  1. Performance evaluation of a lossy transmission lines based diode detector at cryogenic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, E.; Aja, B.; de la Fuente, L.; Artal, E.

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the design, fabrication, and performance analysis of a square-law Schottky diode detector based on lossy transmission lines working under cryogenic temperature (15 K). The design analysis of a microwave detector, based on a planar gallium-arsenide low effective Schottky barrier height diode, is reported, which is aimed for achieving large input return loss as well as flat sensitivity versus frequency. The designed circuit demonstrates good sensitivity, as well as a good return loss in a wide bandwidth at Ka-band, at both room (300 K) and cryogenic (15 K) temperatures. A good sensitivity of 1000 mV/mW and input return loss better than 12 dB have been achieved when it works as a zero-bias Schottky diode detector at room temperature, increasing the sensitivity up to a minimum of 2200 mV/mW, with the need of a DC bias current, at cryogenic temperature.

  2. Performance evaluation of a lossy transmission lines based diode detector at cryogenic temperature.

    PubMed

    Villa, E; Aja, B; de la Fuente, L; Artal, E

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the design, fabrication, and performance analysis of a square-law Schottky diode detector based on lossy transmission lines working under cryogenic temperature (15 K). The design analysis of a microwave detector, based on a planar gallium-arsenide low effective Schottky barrier height diode, is reported, which is aimed for achieving large input return loss as well as flat sensitivity versus frequency. The designed circuit demonstrates good sensitivity, as well as a good return loss in a wide bandwidth at Ka-band, at both room (300 K) and cryogenic (15 K) temperatures. A good sensitivity of 1000 mV/mW and input return loss better than 12 dB have been achieved when it works as a zero-bias Schottky diode detector at room temperature, increasing the sensitivity up to a minimum of 2200 mV/mW, with the need of a DC bias current, at cryogenic temperature.

  3. The effects of Doppler broadening and detector resolution on the performance of three-stage Compton cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Mackin, Dennis; Polf, Jerimy; Peterson, Steve; Beddar, Sam

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: The authors investigated how the characteristics of the detectors used in a three-stage Compton camera (CC) affect the CC's ability to accurately measure the emission distribution and energy spectrum of prompt gammas (PG) emitted by nuclear de-excitations during proton therapy. The detector characteristics they studied included the material (high-purity germanium [HPGe] and cadmium zinc telluride [CZT]), Doppler broadening (DB), and resolution (lateral, depth, and energy). Methods: The authors simulated three-stage HPGe and CZT CCs of various configurations, detecting gammas from point sources with energies ranging from 0.511 to 7.12 MeV. They also simulated a proton pencil beam irradiating a tissue target to study how the detector characteristics affect the PG data measured by CCs in a clinical proton therapy setting. They used three figures of merit: the distance of closest approach (DCA) and the point of closest approach (PCA) between the measured and actual position of the PG emission origin, and the calculated energy resolution. Results: For CCs with HPGe detectors, DB caused the DCA to be greater than 3 mm for 14% of the 6.13 MeV gammas and 20% of the 0.511 MeV gammas. For CCs with CZT detectors, DB caused the DCA to be greater than 3 mm for 18% of the 6.13 MeV gammas and 25% of the 0.511 MeV gammas. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the PCA in the z-caret direction for HPGe and CZT detectors ranged from 1.3 to 0.4 mm for gammas with incident energy ranging from 0.511 to 7.12 MeV. For CCs composed of HPGe detectors, the resolution of incident gamma energy calculated by the CC ranged from 6% to 1% for gammas with true incident energies from 0.511 to 7.12 MeV. For CCs composed of CZT detectors, the resolution of gamma energy calculated by the CC ranged from 10% to 1% for gammas with true incident energies from 0.511 to 7.12 MeV. For HPGe and CZT CCs in which all detector effect were included, the DCA was less than 3 mm for 75% and 68% of the

  4. The effects of Doppler broadening and detector resolution on the performance of three-stage Compton cameras

    PubMed Central

    Mackin, Dennis; Polf, Jerimy; Peterson, Steve; Beddar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated how the characteristics of the detectors used in a three-stage Compton camera (CC) affect the CC's ability to accurately measure the emission distribution and energy spectrum of prompt gammas (PG) emitted by nuclear de-excitations during proton therapy. The detector characteristics they studied included the material (high-purity germanium [HPGe] and cadmium zinc telluride [CZT]), Doppler broadening (DB), and resolution (lateral, depth, and energy). Methods: The authors simulated three-stage HPGe and CZT CCs of various configurations, detecting gammas from point sources with energies ranging from 0.511 to 7.12 MeV. They also simulated a proton pencil beam irradiating a tissue target to study how the detector characteristics affect the PG data measured by CCs in a clinical proton therapy setting. They used three figures of merit: the distance of closest approach (DCA) and the point of closest approach (PCA) between the measured and actual position of the PG emission origin, and the calculated energy resolution. Results: For CCs with HPGe detectors, DB caused the DCA to be greater than 3 mm for 14% of the 6.13 MeV gammas and 20% of the 0.511 MeV gammas. For CCs with CZT detectors, DB caused the DCA to be greater than 3 mm for 18% of the 6.13 MeV gammas and 25% of the 0.511 MeV gammas. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the PCA in the \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}\\hat z\\end{equation*} \\end{document}z^ direction for HPGe and CZT detectors ranged from 1.3 to 0.4 mm for gammas with incident energy ranging from 0.511 to 7.12 MeV. For CCs composed of HPGe detectors, the resolution of incident gamma energy calculated by the CC ranged from 6% to 1% for gammas with true incident energies from 0.511 to 7.12 Me

  5. Inverse Compton for Compton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suortti, Pekka

    2016-04-01

    A novel concept for a high resolution Compton spectrometer is introduced. 88 keV radiation from an Inverse Compton Compact Source is focused using crossed cylindrically bent Laue-type Si perfect crystals, and dispersed on the sample with a constant energy gradient. Dispersion is compensated exactly at a Ge crystal analyzer, so that the same wavelength shift is observed for all wavelengths of the incident beam. The ThomX source is used as a concrete example. Detailed dimensions and flux estimates at successive locations of the spectrometer are given, and the performance is compared with the dispersion compensating spectrometer at ID15 of the ESRF. The momentum resolution is better than 0.1 atomic units in both cases. The intensity of scattering with the compact source is an order of magnitude smaller, but still adequate for high resolution Compton profile measurements.

  6. Bandpass x-ray diode and x-ray multiplier detector

    DOEpatents

    Wang, C.L.

    1982-09-27

    An absorption-edge of an x-ray absorption filter and a quantum jump of a photocathode determine the bandpass characteristics of an x-ray diode detector. An anode, which collects the photoelectrons emitted by the photocathode, has enhanced amplification provided by photoelectron-multiplying means which include dynodes or a microchannel-plate electron-multiplier. Suppression of undesired high frequency response for a bandpass x-ray diode is provided by subtracting a signal representative of energies above the passband from a signal representative of the overall response of the bandpass diode.

  7. Performance of a Low Noise Front-end ASIC for Si/CdTe Detectors in Compton Gamma-ray Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, H

    2004-03-29

    Compton telescopes based on semiconductor technologies are being developed to explore the gamma-ray universe in an energy band 0.1-20 MeV, which is not well covered by the present or near-future gamma-ray telescopes. The key feature of such Compton telescopes is the high energy resolution that is crucial for high angular resolution and high background rejection capability. The energy resolution around 1 keV is required to approach physical limit of the angular resolution due to Doppler broadening. We have developed a low noise front-end ASIC (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit), VA32TA, to realize this goal for the readout of Double-sided Silicon Strip Detector (DSSD) and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) pixel detector which are essential elements of the semiconductor Compton telescope. We report on the design and test results of the VA32TA. We have reached an energy resolution of 1.3 keV (FWHM) for 60 keV and 122 keV at 0 C with a DSSD and 1.7 keV (FWHM) with a CdTe detector.

  8. The Light-Emitting Diode as a Light Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William H.; Hack, W. Nathan; Tran, Kiet; Vira, Zeeshan; Pickett, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    A light-emitting diode (LED) and operational amplifier can be used as an affordable method to provide a digital output indicating detection of an intense light source such as a laser beam or high-output LED. When coupled with a microcontroller, the combination can be used as a multiple photogate and timer for under $50. A similar circuit is used…

  9. The Light-Emitting Diode as a Light Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William H.; Hack, W. Nathan; Tran, Kiet; Vira, Zeeshan; Pickett, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    A light-emitting diode (LED) and operational amplifier can be used as an affordable method to provide a digital output indicating detection of an intense light source such as a laser beam or high-output LED. When coupled with a microcontroller, the combination can be used as a multiple photogate and timer for under $50. A similar circuit is used…

  10. Submicron nickel-oxide-gold tunnel diode detectors for rectennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoofring, A. B.; Kapoor, V. J.; Krawczonek, W.

    1989-01-01

    The characteristics of a metal-oxide-metal (MOM) tunnel diode made of nickel, nickel-oxide, and gold, designed and fabricated by standard integrated circuit technology for use in FIR rectennas, are presented. The MOM tunnel diode was formed by overlapping a 0.8-micron-wide layer of 1000-A of nickel, which was oxidized to form a thin layer of nickel oxide, with a 1500 A-thick layer of gold. The dc current-voltage characteristics of the MOM diode showed that the current dependence on voltage was linear about zero bias up to a bias of about 70 mV. The maximum detection of a low-level signal (10-mV ac) was determined to be at a dc voltage of 70 mV across the MOM diode. The rectified output signal due to a chopped 10.6-micron CO2 laser incident upon the rectenna device was found to increase with dc bias, with a maximum value of 1000 nV for a junction bias of 100 mV at room temperature.

  11. Development of a silicon diode detector for skin dosimetry in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vicoroski, Nikolina; Espinoza, Anthony; Duncan, Mitchell; Oborn, Bradley M; Carolan, Martin; Metcalfe, Peter; Menichelli, David; Perevertaylo, Vladimir L; Lerch, Michael L F; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B; Petasecca, Marco

    2017-07-11

    The aim of in vivo skin dosimetry was to measure the absorbed dose to the skin during radiotherapy, when treatment planning calculations cannot be relied on. It is of particularly importance in hypo-fractionated stereotactic modalities, where excessive dose can lead to severe skin toxicity. Currently, commercial diodes for such applications are with water equivalent depths ranging from 0.5 to 0.8 mm. In this study, we investigate a new detector for skin dosimetry based on a silicon epitaxial diode, referred to as the skin diode. The skin diode is manufactured on a thin epitaxial layer and packaged using the "drop-in" technology. It was characterized in terms of percentage depth dose, dose linearity, and dose rate dependence, and benchmarked against the Attix ionization chamber. The response of the skin diode in the build-up region of the percentage depth dose (PDD) curve of a 6 MV clinical photon beam was investigated. Geant4 radiation transport simulations were used to model the PDD in order to estimate the water equivalent measurement depth (WED) of the skin diode. Measured output factors using the skin diode were compared with the MOSkin detector and EBT3 film at 10 cm depth and at surface at isocenter of a water equivalent phantom. The intrinsic angular response of the skin diode was also quantified in charge particle equilibrium conditions (CPE) and at the surface of a solid water phantom. Finally, the radiation hardness of the skin diode up to an accumulated dose of 80 kGy using photons from a Co-60 gamma source was evaluated. The PDD curve measured with the skin diode was within 0.5% agreement of the equivalent Geant4 simulated curve. When placed at the phantom surface, the WED of the skin diode was estimated to be 0.075 ± 0.005 mm from Geant4 simulations and was confirmed using the response of a corrected Attix ionization chamber placed at water equivalent depth of 0.075 mm, with the measurement agreement to within 0.3%. The output factor measurements at

  12. Silicon diode detectors used in radiological physics measurements. Part I: Development of an energy compensating shield.

    PubMed

    Gager, L D; Wright, A E; Almond, P R

    1977-01-01

    Silicon diode detectors have the advantages of high resolution, large signal, and fast response, but lack the flat energy response of the Farmer ion chamber. A study was undertaken to develop a compensating shield for a diode which would make it suitable for use in the spectrum of energies produced by a high-energy radiation beam at depth in a phantom. The energy response of the unshielded diode was quantitated over a range of energies from 18.5 keV to 8 MeV. Shields of different thickness, density, and design were tested experimentally. A partial shield of high-Z material over a diode with miniaturized contacts produced a probe which duplicated the relative dose measurements of the Farmer chamber with less than 1% variation. Typical central axis depth-dose curves and a beam profile, measured with the chamber and the shielded and unshielded probe, are illustrated.

  13. Low-energy shelf response in thin energy-dispersive X-ray detectors from Compton scattering of hard X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel-Hart, N.; Elam, W. T.

    2017-08-01

    Silicon drift detectors have been successfully employed in both soft and hard X-ray spectroscopy. The response function to incident radiation at soft X-ray levels has been well studied and modeled, but less research has been published on response functions for these detectors to hard X-ray input spectra above 20 keV. When used with hard X-ray sources a significant low energy, non-peak response exists which can adversely affect detection limits for lighter elements in, for example, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. We present a numerical model that explains the non-peak response function of silicon drift detectors to hard X-rays based on incoherent Compton scattering within the detector volume. Experimental results are presented and numerically compared to model results.

  14. X-ray detectors based on GaN Schottky diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Duboz, Jean-Yves; Frayssinet, Eric; Chenot, Sebastien; Reverchon, Jean-Luc; Idir, Mourad

    2010-10-18

    GaN Schottky diodes have been fabricated and tested as x-ray detectors in the range from 6 to 21 keV. The spectral response has been measured and is compared to its theoretical value. The study of the response and its temporal dynamics as a function of the bias allows to identify a photovoltaic behavior at low bias and a photoconductive one at larger reverse biases. The GaN diode turned out to be linear as a function of the incident power. The noise and detectivity are given and discussed.

  15. Excitability and optical pulse generation in semiconductor lasers driven by resonant tunneling diode photo-detectors.

    PubMed

    Romeira, Bruno; Javaloyes, Julien; Ironside, Charles N; Figueiredo, José M L; Balle, Salvador; Piro, Oreste

    2013-09-09

    We demonstrate, experimentally and theoretically, excitable nanosecond optical pulses in optoelectronic integrated circuits operating at telecommunication wavelengths (1550 nm) comprising a nanoscale double barrier quantum well resonant tunneling diode (RTD) photo-detector driving a laser diode (LD). When perturbed either electrically or optically by an input signal above a certain threshold, the optoelectronic circuit generates short electrical and optical excitable pulses mimicking the spiking behavior of biological neurons. Interestingly, the asymmetric nonlinear characteristic of the RTD-LD allows for two different regimes where one obtain either single pulses or a burst of multiple pulses. The high-speed excitable response capabilities are promising for neurally inspired information applications in photonics.

  16. Extraction of depth-dependent perturbation factors for silicon diodes using a plastic scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lacroix, Frederic; Guillot, Mathieu; McEwen, Malcolm; Gingras, Luc; Beaulieu, Luc

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: This work presents the experimental extraction of the perturbation factor in megavoltage electron beams for three models of silicon diodes (IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded) using a plastic scintillation detector (PSD). Methods: The authors used a single scanning PSD mounted on a high-precision scanning tank to measure depth-dose curves in 6-, 12-, and 18-MeV clinical electron beams. They also measured depth-dose curves using the IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded diodes. The authors used the depth-dose curves measured with the PSD as a perturbation-free reference to extract the perturbation factors of the diodes. Results: The authors found that the perturbation factors for the diodes increased substantially with depth, especially for low-energy electron beams. The experimental results show the same trend as published Monte Carlo simulation results for the EFD diode; however, the perturbations measured experimentally were greater. They found that using an effective point of measurement (EPOM) placed slightly away from the source reduced the variation of perturbation factors with depth and that the optimal EPOM appears to be energy dependent. Conclusions: The manufacturer recommended EPOM appears to be incorrect at low electron energy (6 MeV). In addition, the perturbation factors for diodes may be greater than predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Bias and nonlinearity of ultraviolet calibration curves measured using diode-array detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Dose, E.V.; Guiochon, G. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-11-01

    Models for the dependence of diode-array UV chromatographic detector response on bandpass and on the shape of the absorbing sample's spectrum are presented. The equations derived comprise terms describing two sources of non-ideal response due to the polychromatic nature of the detected radiation. The bias, or deviation at low concentrations of the measured absorbance from the ideal, zero-bandwidth value, increases roughly as the product of the spectrum's local second derivative and the square of the bandwidth. Calibration curve nonlinearity at higher concentrations, present for monochromator-based detectors and transmittance-averaging diode-array detectors, is described quantitatively. These equations confirm that the calibration curves always bend downward when the sample's absorption spectrum varies at all within the bandpass. A distinction is drawn between transmittance-averaging and absorbance-averaging diode-array detectors. Experimental results illustrate the types of bias and nonlinearity seen in each class at the high concentrations of interest to preparative-scale liquid chromatography and quality-control applications.

  18. Defect-induced performance degradation of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, N.; Johnson, B. C.; Hoshino, N.; Ito, M.; Tsuchida, H.; Kojima, K.; Ohshima, T.

    2013-04-01

    The formation and evolution of defects in 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode high-energy particle detectors have been investigated and correlated with the detectors' properties. Low temperature annealing at 300 °C is found to significantly recover the charge collection efficiency as degraded by 1 MeV electron irradiation. At higher temperatures, an anneal-induced degradation in the detector's performance is observed. Current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements are used to ascertain the effect of defects on the detector performance. The latter reveals that the DLTS defect levels, EH1 and EH3, are related to the initial recovery of the charge collection efficiency.

  19. A car-borne highly sensitive near-IR diode-laser methane detector

    SciTech Connect

    Berezin, A G; Ershov, Oleg V; Shapovalov, Yu P

    2003-08-31

    A highly sensitive automated car-borne detector for measuring methane concentration in real time is designed, developed and tested under laboratory and field conditions. Measurements were made with the help of an uncooled tunable near-IR 1.65-{mu}m laser diode. The detector consists of a multipass optical cell with a 45-m long optical path and a base length of 0.5 m. The car-borne detector is intended for monitoring the methane concentration in air from the moving car to reveal the leakage of domestic gas. The sensitivity limit (standard deviation) under field conditions is 1 ppm (20 ppb under laboratory conditions) for a measuring time of 0.4 s. The measuring technique based on the detection of a single methane line ensured a high selectivity of methane detector relative to other gases. The methane detector can be easily modified for measuring other simple-molecule gases (e.g., CO, CO{sub 2}, HF, NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O) by replacing the diode laser and varying the parameters of the control program. (special issue devoted to the memory of academician a m prokhorov)

  20. Dosimetry of Gamma Knife and linac-based radiosurgery using radiochromic and diode detectors.

    PubMed

    Somigliana, A; Cattaneo, G M; Fiorino, C; Borelli, S; del Vecchio, A; Zonca, G; Pignoli, E; Loi, G; Calandrino, R; Marchesini, R

    1999-04-01

    In stereotactic radiosurgery the choice of appropriate detectors, whether for absolute or relative dosimetry, is very important due to the steep dose gradient and the incomplete lateral electronic equilibrium. For both linac-based and Leksell Gamma Knife radiosurgery units, we tested the use of calibrated radiochromic film to measure absolute doses and relative dose distributions. In addition a small diode was used to estimate the relative output factors. The data obtained using radiochromic and diode detectors were compared with measurements performed with other conventional methods of dosimetry, with calculated values by treatment planning systems and with data prestored in the treatment planning system supplied by the Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK) vendor. Two stereotactic radiosurgery techniques were considered: Leksell Gamma Knife (using gamma-rays from 60Co) and linac-based radiosurgery (LR) (6 MV x-rays). Different detectors were used for both relative and absolute dosimetry: relative output factors (OFs) were estimated by using radiochromic and radiographic films and a small diode; relative dose distributions in the axial and coronal planes of a spherical polystyrene phantom were measured using radiochromic film and calculated by two different treatment planning systems (TPSs). The absolute dose at the sphere centre was measured by radiochromic film and a small ionization chamber. An accurate selection of radiochromic film was made: samples of unexposed film showing a percentage standard deviation of less than 3% were used for relative dose profiles, and for absolute dose and OF evaluations this value was reduced to 1.5%. Moreover a proper calibration curve was made for each set of measurements. With regard to absolute doses, the results obtained with the ionization chamber are in good correlation with radiochromic film-generated data, for both LGK and LR, showing a dose difference of less than 1%. The output factor evaluations, performed using different methods

  1. An ultra-thin Schottky diode as a transmission particle detector for biological microbeams

    PubMed Central

    Harken, Andrew; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Attinger, Daniel; Brenner, David J.

    2013-01-01

    We fabricated ultrathin metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes for use as transmission particle detectors in the biological microbeam at Columbia University’s Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF). The RARAF microbeam can deliver a precise dose of ionizing radiation in cell nuclei with sub-micron precision. To ensure an accurate delivery of charged particles, the facility currently uses a commercial charged-particle detector placed after the sample. We present here a transmission detector that will be placed between the particle accelerator and the biological specimen, allowing the irradiation of samples that would otherwise block radiation from reaching a detector behind the sample. Four detectors were fabricated with co-planar gold and aluminum electrodes thermally evaporated onto etched n-type crystalline silicon substrates, with device thicknesses ranging from 8.5 μm – 13.5 μm. We show coincident detections and pulse-height distributions of charged particles in both the transmission detector and the commercial detector above it. Detections are demonstrated at a range of operating conditions, including incoming particle type, count rate, and beam location on the detectors. The 13.5 μm detector is shown to work best to detect 2.7 MeV protons (H+), and the 8.5 μm detector is shown to work best to detect 5.4 MeV alpha particles (4He++). The development of a transmission detector enables a range of new experiments to take place at RARAF on radiation-stopping samples such as thick tissues, targets that need immersion microscopy, and integrated microfluidic devices for handling larger quantities of cells and small organisms. PMID:24058378

  2. An ultra-thin Schottky diode as a transmission particle detector for biological microbeams.

    PubMed

    Grad, Michael; Harken, Andrew; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Attinger, Daniel; Brenner, David J

    2012-12-01

    We fabricated ultrathin metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes for use as transmission particle detectors in the biological microbeam at Columbia University's Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF). The RARAF microbeam can deliver a precise dose of ionizing radiation in cell nuclei with sub-micron precision. To ensure an accurate delivery of charged particles, the facility currently uses a commercial charged-particle detector placed after the sample. We present here a transmission detector that will be placed between the particle accelerator and the biological specimen, allowing the irradiation of samples that would otherwise block radiation from reaching a detector behind the sample. Four detectors were fabricated with co-planar gold and aluminum electrodes thermally evaporated onto etched n-type crystalline silicon substrates, with device thicknesses ranging from 8.5 μm - 13.5 μm. We show coincident detections and pulse-height distributions of charged particles in both the transmission detector and the commercial detector above it. Detections are demonstrated at a range of operating conditions, including incoming particle type, count rate, and beam location on the detectors. The 13.5 μm detector is shown to work best to detect 2.7 MeV protons (H(+)), and the 8.5 μm detector is shown to work best to detect 5.4 MeV alpha particles ((4)He(++)). The development of a transmission detector enables a range of new experiments to take place at RARAF on radiation-stopping samples such as thick tissues, targets that need immersion microscopy, and integrated microfluidic devices for handling larger quantities of cells and small organisms.

  3. Evaluation of the dosimetric properties of a diode detector for small field proton radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Grant A; Teran, Anthony V; Slater, Jerry D; Slater, James M; Wroe, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    The small fields and sharp gradients typically encountered in proton radiosurgery require high spatial resolution dosimetric measurements, especially below 1-2 cm diameters. Radiochromic film provides high resolution, but requires postprocessing and special handling. Promising alternatives are diode detectors with small sensitive volumes (SV) that are capable of high resolution and real-time dose acquisition. In this study we evaluated the PTW PR60020 proton dosimetry diode using radiation fields and beam energies relevant to radiosurgery applications. Energies of 127 and 157 MeV (9.7 to 15 cm range) and initial diameters of 8, 10, 12, and 20 mm were delivered using single-stage scattering and four modulations (0, 15, 30, and 60 mm) to a water tank in our treatment room. Depth dose and beam profile data were compared with PTW Markus N23343 ionization chamber, EBT2 Gafchromic film, and Monte Carlo simulations. Transverse dose profiles were measured using the diode in "edge-on" orientation or EBT2 film. Diode response was linear with respect to dose, uniform with dose rate, and showed an orientation-dependent (i.e., beam parallel to, or perpendicular to, detector axis) response of less than 1%. Diode vs. Markus depth-dose profiles, as well as Markus relative dose ratio vs. simulated dose-weighted average lineal energy plots, suggest that any LET-dependent diode response is negligible from particle entrance up to the very distal portion of the SOBP for the energies tested. Finally, while not possible with the ionization chamber due to partial volume effects, accurate diode depth-dose measurements of 8, 10, and 12 mm diameter beams were obtained compared to Monte Carlo simulations. Because of the small SV that allows measurements without partial volume effects and the capability of submillimeter resolution (in edge-on orientation) that is crucial for small fields and high-dose gradients (e.g., penumbra, distal edge), as well as negligible LET dependence over nearly the

  4. Blocked impurity band detectors applied to tunable diode laser spectroscopy in the 8- to 28-micron range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirota, J. Marcos; Reuter, Dennis C.; Mumma, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Blocked impurity band (BIB) detectors have allowed extension of highly sensitive tunable diode laser (TDL) spectroscopy to over 20 micron spectral region. BIB detectors present low noise equivalent power. Here the apparatus and its components are described and an example of molecular spectra is presented.

  5. Evaluation of the dosimetric properties of a diode detector for small field proton radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Grant A; Teran, Anthony V; Slater, Jerry D; Slater, James M; Wroe, Andrew J

    2015-11-08

    The small fields and sharp gradients typically encountered in proton radiosurgery require high spatial resolution dosimetric measurements, especially below 1-2 cm diameters. Radiochromic film provides high resolution, but requires postprocessing and special handling. Promising alternatives are diode detectors with small sensitive volumes (SV) that are capable of high resolution and real-time dose acquisition. In this study we evaluated the PTW PR60020 proton dosimetry diode using radiation fields and beam energies relevant to radiosurgery applications. Energies of 127 and 157 MeV (9.7 to 15 cm range) and initial diameters of 8, 10, 12, and 20mm were delivered using single-stage scattering and four modulations (0, 15, 30, and 60mm) to a water tank in our treatment room. Depth dose and beam profile data were compared with PTW Markus N23343 ionization chamber, EBT2 Gafchromic film, and Monte Carlo simulations. Transverse dose profiles were measured using the diode in "edge-on" orientation or EBT2 film. Diode response was linear with respect to dose, uniform with dose rate, and showed an orientation-dependent (i.e., beam parallel to, or perpendicular to, detector axis) response of less than 1%. Diodevs. Markus depth-dose profiles, as well as Markus relative dose ratio vs. simulated dose-weighted average lineal energy plots, suggest that any LET-dependent diode response is negligible from particle entrance up to the very distal portion of the SOBP for the energies tested. Finally, while not possible with the ionization chamber due to partial volume effects, accurate diode depth-dose measurements of 8, 10, and 12 mm diameter beams were obtained compared to Monte Carlo simulations. Because of the small SV that allows measurements without partial volume effects and the capability of submillimeter resolution (in edge-on orientation) that is crucial for small fields and high-dose gradients (e.g., penumbra, distal edge), as well as negligible LET dependence over nearly the

  6. Monte Carlo modelling of diode detectors for small field MV photon dosimetry: detector model simplification and the sensitivity of correction factors to source parameterization.

    PubMed

    Cranmer-Sargison, G; Weston, S; Evans, J A; Sidhu, N P; Thwaites, D I

    2012-08-21

    The goal of this work was to examine the use of simplified diode detector models within a recently proposed Monte Carlo (MC) based small field dosimetry formalism and to investigate the influence of electron source parameterization has on MC calculated correction factors. BEAMnrc was used to model Varian 6 MV jaw-collimated square field sizes down to 0.5 cm. The IBA stereotactic field diode (SFD), PTW T60016 (shielded) and PTW T60017 (un-shielded) diodes were modelled in DOSRZnrc and isocentric output ratios (OR(fclin)(detMC)) calculated at depths of d = 1.5, 5.0 and 10.0 cm. Simplified detector models were then tested by evaluating the percent difference in (OR(fclin)(detMC)) between the simplified and complete detector models. The influence of active volume dimension on simulated output ratio and response factor was also investigated. The sensitivity of each MC calculated replacement correction factor (k(fclin,fmsr)(Qclin,Qmsr)), as a function of electron FWHM between 0.100 and 0.150 cm and energy between 5.5 and 6.5 MeV, was investigated for the same set of small field sizes using the simplified detector models. The SFD diode can be approximated simply as a silicon chip in water, the T60016 shielded diode can be modelled as a chip in water plus the entire shielding geometry and the T60017 unshielded diode as a chip in water plus the filter plate located upstream. The detector-specific (k(fclin,fmsr)(Qclin,Qmsr)), required to correct measured output ratios using the SFD, T60016 and T60017 diode detectors are insensitive to incident electron energy between 5.5 and 6.5 MeV and spot size variation between FWHM = 0.100 and 0.150 cm. Three general conclusions come out of this work: (1) detector models can be simplified to produce OR(fclin)(detMC) to within 1.0% of those calculated using the complete geometry, where typically not only the silicon chip, but also any high density components close to the chip, such as scattering plates or shielding material is necessary

  7. Dosimetric Characteristics of a Two-Dimensional Diode Array Detector Irradiated with Passively Scattered Proton Beams

    PubMed Central

    Liengsawangwong, Praimakorn; Sahoo, Nanayan; Ding, Xiaoning; Lii, MingFwu; Gillin, Michale T.; Zhu, Xiaorong Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric characteristics of a two-dimensional (2D) diode array detector irradiated with passively scattered proton beams. Materials and Methods: A diode array detector, MapCHECK (Model 1175, Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL, USA) was characterized in passive-scattered proton beams. The relative sensitivity of the diodes and absolute dose calibration were determined using a 250 MeV beam. The pristine Bragg curves (PBCs) measured by MapCHECK diodes were compared with those of an ion chamber using a range shift method. The water-equivalent thickness (WET) of the diode array detector’s intrinsic buildup also was determined. The inverse square dependence, linearity, and other proton dosimetric quantities measured by MapCHECK were also compared with those of the ion chambers. The change in the absolute dose response of the MapCHECK as a function of accumulated radiation dose was used as an indicator of radiation damage to the diodes. 2D dose distribution with and without the compensator were measured and compared with the treatment planning system (TPS) calculations. Results: The WET of the MapCHECK diode’s buildup was determined to be 1.7 cm. The MapCHECK-measured PBC were virtually identical to those measured by a parallel-plate ion chamber for 160, 180, and 250 MeV proton beams. The inverse square results of the MapCHECK were within ±0.4% of the ion chamber results. The linearity of MapCHECK results was within 1% of those from the ion chamber as measured in the range between 10 and 300 MU. All other dosimetric quantities were within 1.3% of the ion chamber results. The 2D dose distributions for non-clinical fields without compensator and the patient treatment fields with the compensator were consistent with the TPS results. The absolute dose response of the MapCHECK was changed by 7.4% after an accumulated dose increased by 170 Gy. Conclusions: The MapCHECK is a convenient and useful tool for 2D dose distribution measurements using passively

  8. Crystal Compton Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Braverman, Joshua B.; Harrison, Mark J.; Hornback, Donald Eric; Fabris, Lorenzo; Newby, Jason

    2013-09-26

    Stand-off detection is one of the most important radiation detection capabilities for arms control and the control of illicit nuclear materials. For long range passive detection one requires a large detector and a means of “seeing through” the naturally occurring and varying background radiation, i.e. imaging. Arguably, Compton imaging is the best approach over much of the emission band suitable for long range detection. It provides not only imaging, but more information about the direction of incidence of each detected gamma-ray than the alternate approach of coded-aperture imaging. The directional information allows one to reduce the background and hence improve the sensitivity of a measurement. However, to make an efficient Compton imager requires localizing and measuring the simultaneous energy depositions when gamma-rays Compton scatter and are subsequently captured within a single, large detector volume. This concept has been demonstrated in semi-conductor detectors (HPGe, CZT, Si) but at ~ $1k/cm3 these materials are too expensive to build the large systems needed for standoff detection. Scintillator detectors, such as NaI(Tl), are two orders of magnitude less expensive and possess the energy resolution required to make such an imager. However, they do not currently have the ability to localize closely spaced, simultaneous energy depositions in a single large crystal. In this project we are applying a new technique that should, for the first time ever, allow cubic-millimeter event localization in a bulk scintillator crystal.

  9. The instrumentation of X-ray beam lines with PIN diode detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jach, Terrence

    1990-12-01

    Much of the X-ray work on synchrotron-radiation beam lines is still done using ion chambers as detectors. Silicon PIN photodiodes offer considerable advantages over ion chambers for many applications. In addition to greater efficiency over a wide energy range (1-20 keV), they possess a flat configuration, large areas, an absence of bias requirements, high dynamic range, and compatability with ultrahigh vacuum. We have characterized the properties of several commercial PIN photodiodes at X-ray energies, have had diodes commercially produced which were specialized for use in synchrotron beam lines, and have produced new photodiode devices for synchrotron-radiation applications. We review the performance of these devices over extended periods of time in beam-line control and as detectors in experiments.

  10. The response of a silicon diode designed for use as a detector for direct solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macome, M. A.; Mlatho, J. S. P.; McPherson, M.

    2007-11-01

    A low-cost direct solar radiation detector (DSRD) has been designed, characterized and calibrated. The detector was made of a simple silicon diode and then characterized with respect to spectral response, polar response and environmental stability. It was calibrated by using an Eppley normal incidence pyrheliometer (NIP) mounted on an Eppley power driven sun tracker (ST) whose axis is parallel to the Earth's axis of rotation. The DSRD and the NIP were mounted together on the ST. The results indicate that the DSRD follows the NIP very closely and can therefore be used in its place. The correlation between the DSRD and the NIP data is good with a correlation factor close to unity and a root mean square value close to zero.

  11. Absorbance detector based on a deep UV light emitting diode for narrow-column HPLC.

    PubMed

    Bui, Duy Anh; Bomastyk, Benjamin; Hauser, Peter C

    2013-10-01

    A detector for miniaturized HPLC based on deep UV emitting diodes and UV photodiodes was constructed. The measurement is accomplished by the transverse passage of the radiation from the light-emitting diode (LED) through fused-silica tubing with an internal diameter of 250 μm. The optical cell allows flexible alignment of the LED, tubing, and photodiode for optimization of the light throughput and has an aperture to block stray light. A beam splitter was employed to direct part of the emitted light to a reference photodiode and the Lambert-Beer law was emulated with a log-ratio amplifier circuitry. The detector was tested with two LEDs with emission bands at 280 and 255 nm and showed noise levels as low as 0.25 and 0.22 mAU, respectively. The photometric device was employed successfully in separations using a column of 1 mm inner diameter in isocratic as well as gradient elution. Good linearities over three orders of magnitude in concentration were achieved, and the precision of the measurements was better than 1% in all cases. Detection down to the low micromolar range was possible. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. InGaAs Schottky barrier diode array detectors integrated with broadband antenna (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dong Woo; Lee, Eui Su; Park, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Il-Min; Park, Kyung Hyun

    2017-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) waves have been actively studied for the applications of astronomy, communications, analytical science and bio-technologies due to their low energy and high frequency. For example, THz systems can carry more information with faster rates than GHz systems. Besides, THz waves can be applied to imaging, sensing, and spectroscopy. Furthermore, THz waves can be used for non-destructive and non-harmful tomography of living objects. In this reasons, Schottky barrier diodes (SBD) have been widely used as a THz detector for their ultrafast carrier transport, high responsivity, high sensitivity, and excellent noise equivalent power. Furthermore, SBD detectors envisage developing THz applications at low cost, excellent capability, and high yield. Since the major concerns in the THz detectors for THz imaging systems are the realizations of the real-time image acquisitions via a reduced acquisition time, rather than the conventional raster scans that obtains an image by pixel-by-pixel acquisitions, a line-scan based systems utilizes an array detector with an 1 × n SBD array is preferable. In this study, we fabricated the InGaAs based SBD array detectors with broadband antennas of log-spiral and square-spiral patterns. To optimize leakage current and ideality factor, the dependence to the doping levels of ohmic and Schottky layers have been investigated. In addition, the dependence to the capacitance and resistance to anode size are also examined as well. As a consequence, the real-time THz imaging with our InGaAs SBD array detector have been successfully obtained.

  13. Analyzing the performance of ArcCHECK diode array detector for VMAT plan

    PubMed Central

    Thiyagarajan, Rajesh; Nambiraj, Arunai; Sinha, Sujit Nath; Yadav, Girigesh; Kumar, Ashok; Subramani, Vikraman; Kothandaraman

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to evaluate performance of ArcCHECK diode array detector for the volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) patient specific quality assurance (QA). VMAT patient specific QA results were correlated with ion chamber measurement. Dose response of the ArcCHECK detector was studied. Background VMAT delivery technique improves the dose distribution. It is complex in nature and requires proper QA before its clinical implementation. ArcCHECK is a novel three dimensional dosimetry system. Materials and methods Twelve retrospective VMAT plans were calculated on ArcCHECK phantom. Point dose and dose map were measured simultaneously with ion chamber (IC-15) and ArcCHECK diode array detector, respectively. These measurements were compared with their respective TPS calculated values. Results The ion chamber measurements are in good agreement with TPS calculated doses. Mean difference between them is 0.50% with standard deviation of 0.51%. Concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) obtained for ion chamber measurements is 0.9996. These results demonstrate a strong correlation between the absolute dose predicted by our TPS and the measured dose. The CCC between ArcCHECK doses and TPS predictions on the CAX was found to be 0.9978. In gamma analysis of dose map, the mean passing rate was 98.53% for 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance to agreement. Conclusions The VMAT patient specific QA with an ion chamber and ArcCHECK phantom are consistent with the TPS calculated dose. Statistically good agreement was observed between ArcCHECK measured and TPS calculated. Hence, it can be used for routine VMAT QA. PMID:26900358

  14. SILICON DIODE AS AN ALPHA PARTICLE DETECTOR AND SPECTROMETER FOR DIRECT FIELD MEASUREMENTS.

    PubMed

    Ören, Ünal; Nilsson, Jonas; Herrnsdorf, Lars; Rääf, Christopher L; Mattsson, Sören

    2016-09-01

    A windowless silicon (Si) diode (4 mm(2)) was evaluated as alpha particle detector and spectrometer for field measurements. It was irradiated with alpha particles from a (241)Am (2.3 kBq) and a (210)Po (9 kBq) source at source-detector distances (SDD) of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.8 cm. The energy resolution in terms of full width at half maximum was 281, 148 and 113 keV for SDD of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.8 cm, respectively. The minimum detectable activity increased from 0.08 to 0.83 Bq when the SDD increased from 0.5 to 1.8 cm. The detector has the potential for several alpha spectrometric applications, such as monitoring for wound, skin and surface contamination at nuclear fuel facilities, nuclear power plants and facilities handling radioactive waste. Other areas are environmental surveys following releases of actinides at accidents in nuclear power plants and in connection with other radiological or nuclear scenarios.

  15. A Simple, Small-Scale Lego Colorimeter with a Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Used as Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asheim, Jonas; Kvittingen, Eivind V.; Kvittingen, Lise; Verley, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how to construct a simple, inexpensive, and robust colorimeter from a few Lego bricks, in which one light-emitting diode (LED) is used as a light source and a second LED as a light detector. The colorimeter is suited to various grades and curricula.

  16. A Simple, Small-Scale Lego Colorimeter with a Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Used as Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asheim, Jonas; Kvittingen, Eivind V.; Kvittingen, Lise; Verley, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how to construct a simple, inexpensive, and robust colorimeter from a few Lego bricks, in which one light-emitting diode (LED) is used as a light source and a second LED as a light detector. The colorimeter is suited to various grades and curricula.

  17. Correction of measured Gamma-Knife output factors for angular dependence of diode detectors and PinPoint ionization chamber.

    PubMed

    Hršak, Hrvoje; Majer, Marija; Grego, Timor; Bibić, Juraj; Heinrich, Zdravko

    2014-12-01

    Dosimetry for Gamma-Knife requires detectors with high spatial resolution and minimal angular dependence of response. Angular dependence and end effect time for p-type silicon detectors (PTW Diode P and Diode E) and PTW PinPoint ionization chamber were measured with Gamma-Knife beams. Weighted angular dependence correction factors were calculated for each detector. The Gamma-Knife output factors were corrected for angular dependence and end effect time. For Gamma-Knife beams angle range of 84°-54°. Diode P shows considerable angular dependence of 9% and 8% for the 18 mm and 14, 8, 4 mm collimator, respectively. For Diode E this dependence is about 4% for all collimators. PinPoint ionization chamber shows angular dependence of less than 3% for 18, 14 and 8 mm helmet and 10% for 4 mm collimator due to volumetric averaging effect in a small photon beam. Corrected output factors for 14 mm helmet are in very good agreement (within ±0.3%) with published data and values recommended by vendor (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden). For the 8 mm collimator diodes are still in good agreement with recommended values (within ±0.6%), while PinPoint gives 3% less value. For the 4 mm helmet Diodes P and E show over-response of 2.8% and 1.8%, respectively. For PinPoint chamber output factor of 4 mm collimator is 25% lower than Elekta value which is generally not consequence of angular dependence, but of volumetric averaging effect and lack of lateral electronic equilibrium. Diodes P and E represent good choice for Gamma-Knife dosimetry. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diamond detector versus silicon diode and ion chamber in photon beams of different energy and field size.

    PubMed

    Bucciolini, M; Buonamici, F Banci; Mazzocchi, S; De Angelis, C; Onori, S; Cirrone, G A P

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this work was to test the suitability of a PTW diamond detector for nonreference condition dosimetry in photon beams of different energy (6 and 25 MV) and field size (from 2.6 cm x 2.6 cm to 10 cm x 10 cm). Diamond behavior was compared to that of a Scanditronix p-type silicon diode and a Scanditronix RK ionization chamber. Measurements included output factors (OF). percentage depth doses (PDD) and dose profiles. OFs measured with diamond detector agreed within 1% with those measured with diode and RK chamber. Only at 25 MV, for the smallest field size, RK chamber underestimated OFs due to averaging effects in a pointed shaped beam profile. Agreement was found between PDDs measured with diamond detector and RK chamber for both 6 MV and 25 MV photons and down to 5 cm x 5 cm field size. For the 2.6 cm x 2.6 cm field size, at 25 MV, RK chamber underestimated doses at shallow depth and the difference progressively went to zero in the distal region. PDD curves measured with silicon diode and diamond detector agreed well for the 25 MV beam at all the field sizes. Conversely, the nontissue equivalence of silicon led, for the 6 MV beam, to a slight overestimation of the diode doses in the distal region, at all the field sizes. Penumbra and field width measurements gave values in agreement for all the detectors but with a systematic overestimate by RK measurements. The results obtained confirm that ion chamber is not a suitable detector when high spatial resolution is required. On the other hand, the small differences in the studied parameters, between diamond and silicon systems, do not lead to a significant advantage in the use of diamond detector for routine clinical dosimetry.

  19. Spin-torque diode radio-frequency detector with voltage tuned resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Skowroński, Witold Frankowski, Marek; Stobiecki, Tomasz; Wrona, Jerzy; Ogrodnik, Piotr; Barnaś, Józef

    2014-08-18

    We report on a voltage-tunable radio-frequency (RF) detector based on a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). The spin-torque diode effect is used to excite and/or detect RF oscillations in the magnetic free layer of the MTJ. In order to reduce the overall in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the free layer, we take advantage of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at the interface between ferromagnetic and insulating layers. The applied bias voltage is shown to have a significant influence on the magnetic anisotropy, and thus on the resonance frequency of the device. This influence also depends on the voltage polarity. The obtained results are accounted for in terms of the interplay of spin-transfer-torque and voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy effects.

  20. Light emitting diode induced chemiluminescence and its application as a detector for high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinfeng; Hu, Yiyu; Sun, Aimin; Lv, Yi; Hou, Xiandeng

    2009-12-18

    Some categories of compounds, including quinones, coumarins, flavins, and xanthene dyes, were found to produce strong chemiluminescence (CL) signals with luminol in sample solution under the irradiation of light emitting diodes (LED) with proper wavelengths. Based on this phenomenon, a compact photochemical reactor was constructed to develop a novel LED induced CL detector for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of related parameters including LED wavelength, luminol concentration, flow rate, pH, and eluents of HPLC were investigated in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detections (LODs) were in the range of 0.2-80 ng mL(-1). The applications and accuracy of the proposed method were validated by analyzing food samples such as milk powder, beer, candy and beverage with satisfactory results.

  1. Beam related response of in vivo diode detectors for external radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Baci, Syrja; Telhaj, Ervis; Malkaj, Partizan

    2016-03-25

    In Vivo Dosimetry (IVD) is a set of methods used in cancer treatment clinics to determine the real dose of radiation absorbed by target volume in a patient’s body. IVD has been widely implemented in radiotherapy treatment centers and is now recommended part of Quality Assurance program by many International health and radiation organizations. Because of cost and lack of specialized personnel, IVD has not been practiced as yet, in Albanian radiotherapy clinics. At Hygeia Hospital Tirana, patients are irradiated with high energy photons generated by Elekta Synergy Accelerators. We have recently started experimenting with the purpose of establishing an IVD practice at this hospital. The first set of experiments was aimed at calibration of diodes that are going to be used for IVD. PMMA, phantoms by PTW were used to calibrate p – type Si, semiconductor diode dosimeters, made by PTW Freiburg for entrance dose. Response of the detectors is affected by energy of the beam, accumulated radiation dose, dose rate, temperature, angle against the beam axis, etc. Here we present the work done for calculating calibration factor and correction factors of source to surface distance, field size, and beam incidence for the entrance dose for both 6 MV photon beam and 18 MV photon beam. Dependence of dosimeter response was found to be more pronounced with source to surface distance as compared to other variables investigated.

  2. Beam related response of in vivo diode detectors for external radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baci, Syrja; Telhaj, Ervis; Malkaj, Partizan

    2016-03-01

    In Vivo Dosimetry (IVD) is a set of methods used in cancer treatment clinics to determine the real dose of radiation absorbed by target volume in a patient's body. IVD has been widely implemented in radiotherapy treatment centers and is now recommended part of Quality Assurance program by many International health and radiation organizations. Because of cost and lack of specialized personnel, IVD has not been practiced as yet, in Albanian radiotherapy clinics. At Hygeia Hospital Tirana, patients are irradiated with high energy photons generated by Elekta Synergy Accelerators. We have recently started experimenting with the purpose of establishing an IVD practice at this hospital. The first set of experiments was aimed at calibration of diodes that are going to be used for IVD. PMMA, phantoms by PTW were used to calibrate p - type Si, semiconductor diode dosimeters, made by PTW Freiburg for entrance dose. Response of the detectors is affected by energy of the beam, accumulated radiation dose, dose rate, temperature, angle against the beam axis, etc. Here we present the work done for calculating calibration factor and correction factors of source to surface distance, field size, and beam incidence for the entrance dose for both 6 MV photon beam and 18 MV photon beam. Dependence of dosimeter response was found to be more pronounced with source to surface distance as compared to other variables investigated.

  3. An ultra low noise telecom wavelength free running single photon detector using negative feedback avalanche diode.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhizhong; Hamel, Deny R; Heinrichs, Aimee K; Jiang, Xudong; Itzler, Mark A; Jennewein, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    It is challenging to implement genuine free running single-photon detectors for the 1550 nm wavelength range with simultaneously high detection efficiency (DE), low dark noise, and good time resolution. We report a novel read out system for the signals from a negative feedback avalanche diode (NFAD) [M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, B. Nyman, and K. Slomkowski, "Quantum sensing and nanophotonic devices VI," Proc. SPIE 7222, 72221K (2009); X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, K. ODonnell, M. Entwistle, and K. Slomkowski, "Advanced photon counting techniques V," Proc. SPIE 8033, 80330K (2011); M. A. Itzler, X. Jiang, B. M. Onat, and K. Slomkowski, "Quantum sensing and nanophotonic devices VII," Proc. SPIE 7608, 760829 (2010)], which allows useful operation of these devices at a temperature of 193 K and results in very low darkcounts (∼100 counts per second (CPS)), good time jitter (∼30 ps), and good DE (∼10%). We characterized two NFADs with a time-correlation method using photons generated from weak coherent pulses and photon pairs produced by spontaneous parametric down conversion. The inferred detector efficiencies for both types of photon sources agree with each other. The best noise equivalent power of the device is estimated to be 8.1 × 10(-18) W Hz(-1/2), more than 10 times better than typical InP/InGaAs single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) show in free running mode. The afterpulsing probability was found to be less than 0.1% per ns at the optimized operating point. In addition, we studied the performance of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) using these detectors and develop a model for the quantum bit error rate that incorporates the afterpulsing coefficients. We verified experimentally that using these NFADs it is feasible to implement QKD over 400 km of telecom fiber. Our NFAD photon detector system is very simple, and is well suited for single-photon applications where ultra-low noise and free-running operation is required, and some afterpulsing

  4. Low pressure ion chromatography with a low cost paired emitter-detector diode based detector for the determination of alkaline earth metals in water samples.

    PubMed

    Barron, Leon; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Diamond, Dermot; O'Toole, Martina; Lau, King Tong; Paull, Brett

    2006-09-01

    The use of a low pressure ion chromatograph based upon short (25 mm x 4.6 mm) surfactant coated monolithic columns and a low cost paired emitter-detector diode (PEDD) based detector, for the determination of alkaline earth metals in aqueous matrices is presented. The system was applied to the separation of magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium in less than 7min using a 0.15M KCl mobile phase at pH 3, with post-column reaction detection at 570 nm using o-cresolphthalein complexone. A comparison of the performance of the PEDD detector with a standard laboratory absorbance detector is shown, with limits of detection for magnesium and calcium using the low cost PEDD detector equal to 0.16 and 0.23 mg L(-1), respectively. Finally, the developed system was used for the determination of calcium and magnesium in a commercial spring water sample.

  5. Background rejection capabilities of a Compton imaging telescope setup with a DSSD Ge planar detector and AGATA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doncel, M.; Quintana, B.; Gadea, A.; Recchia, F.; Farnea, E.

    2011-08-01

    In this work, we show the first Monte Carlo results about the performance of the Ge array which we propose for the DESPEC experiment at FAIR, when the background algorithm developed for AGATA is applied. The main objective of our study is to characterize the capabilities of the γ-spectroscopy system, made up of AGATA detectors in a semi-spherical distribution covering a 1π solid angle and a set of planar Ge detectors in a daisy configuration, to discriminate between γ sources placed at different locations.

  6. The Nuclear Compton Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, Steven E.; NCT Collaboration

    2011-09-01

    The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a balloon-borne soft gamma-ray (0.2-10 MeV) telescope designed to perform wide-field imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy, and novel polarization analysis of astrophysical sources. NCT employs a novel Compton telescope design, utilizing 12 high spectral resolution germanium detectors, with the ability to localize photon interaction in three dimensions. NCT underwent its first science flight from Fort Sumner, NM in Spring 2009, and was partially destroyed during a second launch attempt from Alice Spring, Australia in Spring 2010. We will present an overview of the NCT program, including results from the Spring 2009 flight, as well as status and plans for the NCT program.

  7. Design and testing of a unique active Compton-suppressed LaBr3(Ce) detector system for improved sensitivity assays of TRU in remote-handled TRU wastes

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Hartwell; M. E. McIlwain; J. A. Kulisek

    2007-10-01

    The US Department of Energy’s transuranic (TRU) waste inventory includes about 4,500 m3 of remote-handled TRU (RH-TRU) wastes composed of a variety of containerized waste forms having a contact surface dose rate that exceeds 2 mSv/hr (200 mrem/hr) containing waste materials with a total TRU concentration greater than 3700 Bq/g (100 nCi/g). As part of a research project to investigate the use of active Compton-suppressed room-temperature gamma-ray detectors for direct non-destructive quantification of the TRU content of these RH-TRU wastes, we have designed and purchased a unique detector system using a LaBr3(Ce) primary detector and a NaI(Tl) suppression mantle. The LaBr3(Ce) primary detector is a cylindrical unit ~25 mm in diameter by 76 mm long viewed by a 38 mm diameter photomultiplier. The NaI(Tl) suppression mantle (secondary detector) is 175 mm by 175 mm with a center well that accommodates the primary detector. An important feature of this arrangement is the lack of any “can” between the primary and secondary detectors. These primary and secondary detectors are optically isolated by a thin layer (.003") of aluminized kapton, but the hermetic seal and thus the aluminum can surrounds the outer boundary of the detector system envelope. The hermetic seal at the primary detector PMT is at the PMT wall. This arrangement virtually eliminates the “dead” material between the primary and secondary detectors, a feature that preliminary modeling indicated would substantially improve the Compton suppression capability of this device. This paper presents both the expected performance of this unit determined from modeling with MCNPX, and the performance measured in our laboratory with radioactive sources.

  8. Core-shell diode array for high performance particle detectors and imaging sensors: status of the development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, G.; Hübner, U.; Dellith, J.; Dellith, A.; Stolz, R.; Plentz, J.; Andrä, G.

    2017-02-01

    We propose a novel high performance radiation detector and imaging sensor by a ground-breaking core-shell diode array design. This novel core-shell diode array are expected to have superior performance respect to ultrahigh radiation hardness, high sensitivity, low power consumption, fast signal response and high spatial resolution simultaneously. These properties are highly desired in fundamental research such as high energy physics (HEP) at CERN, astronomy and future x-ray based protein crystallography at x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) etc.. This kind of detectors will provide solutions for these fundamental research fields currently limited by instrumentations. In this work, we report our progress on the development of core-shell diode array for the applications as high performance imaging sensors and particle detectors. We mainly present our results in the preparation of high aspect ratio regular silicon rods by metal assisted wet chemical etching technique. Nearly 200 μm deep and 2 μm width channels with high aspect ratio have been etched into silicon. This result will open many applications not only for the core-shell diode array, but also for a high density integration of 3D microelectronics devices.

  9. Dead layer on silicon p-i-n diode charged-particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, B. L.; Amsbaugh, John F.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H. C.; Bodine, L. I.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, Tom H.; Chaoui, Z.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, Peter J.; Enomoto, S.; Harms, F.; Harper, Gregory; Howe, M. A.; Martin, E. L.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, David; Petzold, Linda; Renschler, R.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wustling, S.; Wierman, K. J.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2014-04-21

    Abstract Semiconductor detectors in general have a dead layer at their surfaces that is either a result of natural or induced passivation, or is formed during the process of making a contact. Charged particles passing through this region produce ionization that is incompletely collected and recorded, which leads to departures from the ideal in both energy deposition and resolution. The silicon p-i-n diode used in the KATRIN neutrinomass experiment has such a dead layer. We have constructed a detailed Monte Carlo model for the passage of electrons from vacuum into a silicon detector, and compared the measured energy spectra to the predicted ones for a range of energies from 12 to 20 keV. The comparison provides experimental evidence that a substantial fraction of the ionization produced in the "dead" layer evidently escapes by discussion, with 46% being collected in the depletion zone and the balance being neutralized at the contact or by bulk recombination. The most elementary model of a thinner dead layer from which no charge is collected is strongly disfavored.

  10. Proximity detector circuits: an attractive alternative to tunnel diode oscillators for contactless measurements in pulsed magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Altarawneh, Moaz M; Mielke, Charles H

    2009-01-01

    A new radio frequency oscillator circuit based on a proximity detector integrated circuit is described as an alternative for the traditional tunnel diode oscillator used for pulsed magnetic field measurements at low temperatures. The new circuit has been successfully applied to measure the superconducting upper critical field in Ba{sub 0.55}K{sub 0.45}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystfl.ls up to 60 T. The new circuit design avoids many of the problems associated with tunnel diode circuits while keeping the advantages of contact less measurements in pulsed magnets.

  11. Next Generation Compton Telescope Design Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phlips, Bernard F.; Grove, J. Eric; Johnson, W. Neil; Woolf, Richard S.; Wulf, Eric A.

    2015-04-01

    The next generation Compton telescope faces many challenges in achieving the desired sensitivity in the 1-10 MeV energy band. Fine spectral and imaging performance point to the use of semiconducting detectors. Practical issues point to the use of scintillation detectors. We will discuss positive developments and disappointments encountered over the last few years of Compton Telescope development at NRL. This research is supported by the Chief of Naval Research.

  12. Characterization of a novel two dimensional diode array the ''magic plate'' as a radiation detector for radiation therapy treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J. H. D.; Fuduli, I.; Carolan, M.; Petasecca, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Perevertaylo, V. L.; Metcalfe, P.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) utilizes the technology of multileaf collimators to deliver highly modulated and complex radiation treatment. Dosimetric verification of the IMRT treatment requires the verification of the delivered dose distribution. Two dimensional ion chamber or diode arrays are gaining popularity as a dosimeter of choice due to their real time feedback compared to film dosimetry. This paper describes the characterization of a novel 2D diode array, which has been named the ''magic plate'' (MP). It was designed to function as a 2D transmission detector as well as a planar detector for dose distribution measurements in a solid water phantom for the dosimetric verification of IMRT treatment delivery. Methods: The prototype MP is an 11 x 11 detector array based on thin (50 {mu}m) epitaxial diode technology mounted on a 0.6 mm thick Kapton substrate using a proprietary ''drop-in'' technology developed by the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong. A full characterization of the detector was performed, including radiation damage study, dose per pulse effect, percent depth dose comparison with CC13 ion chamber and build up characteristics with a parallel plane ion chamber measurements, dose linearity, energy response and angular response. Results: Postirradiated magic plate diodes showed a reproducibility of 2.1%. The MP dose per pulse response decreased at higher dose rates while at lower dose rates the MP appears to be dose rate independent. The depth dose measurement of the MP agrees with ion chamber depth dose measurements to within 0.7% while dose linearity was excellent. MP showed angular response dependency due to the anisotropy of the silicon diode with the maximum variation in angular response of 10.8% at gantry angle 180 deg. Angular dependence was within 3.5% for the gantry angles {+-} 75 deg. The field size dependence of the MP at isocenter agrees with ion chamber measurement to within 1.1%. In

  13. UV-absorbance detector for HPLC based on a light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Stefan; Macka, Mirek; Hauser, Peter C

    2008-04-01

    A flow-through optical absorption detector for HPLC was constructed using a novel deep-UV light-emitting diode as radiation source with a peak emission wavelength of 255 nm. For measuring the transmitted intensity (a property correlated to Transmittance) a special UV-sensitive photodiode was employed. Besides the power source, no optical or electronic components other than an inexpensive operational amplifier and a few passive components were necessary. The performance of the detector was tested with three substances, namely nitrobenzene, benzoic acid and methyl benzoate, which were separated by gradient elution using an acetonitrile/water mixture and tetrabutylammonium hydrogensulfate as pH-buffer. Calibration curves for concentrations between 1.6 microg.mL(-1) and 400 microg.mL(-1) (nitrobenzene) and 8 microg.mL(-1) and 2.5 mg.mL(-1) (benzoic acid and methyl benzoate) were determined and coefficients of determination, r(2), of 0.9945, 0.9972 and 0.9996 were obtained for quadratic curve fits for the 3 compounds respectively. Relative standard deviations (n = 7) for peak areas were determined as 0.35% (nitrobenzene, 80 microg.mL(-1)), 0.27% (benzoic acid, 400 microg.mL(-1)) and 0.83% (methyl benzoate, 200 microg.mL(-1)). The lower limits of detection were found to be 750 ng.mL(-1), 5.8 microg.mL(-1) and 12 microg.mL(-1) for nitrobenzene, benzoic acid and methyl benzoate respectively.

  14. Capillary scale light emitting diode based multi-reflection absorbance detector.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Santosh K; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2007-12-19

    We describe a light emitting diode (LED) based multi-reflection capillary scale absorbance detector based on both square and round capillaries and compare their performance with a conventional single-pass on-tube detector. The optical path length is extended by silver coating, the external surface of the capillary. The reflective geometry has been reported to be less prone to artifacts induced by refractive index changes; we do find this to be true. Although the detection volume/illuminated volume is increased some, a multi-reflection cell based on a 180 microm bore capillary with a approximately 2-cm long illuminated volume shows over a 50-fold gain in signal-to-noise (S/N) compared to a single-pass on-tube configuration with the same capillary. The limit of detection (LOD) is 4.4 fmol (2.6 pg, 1 microL of 22.0 nM injected dye) BTB under pulseless (pneumatic) flow conditions. The cells behave as multipath devices where the effective path lengths are greater at low absorbance values. In our experiments, where non-coherent light is launched through optical fibers that are large compared to capillary bore dimensions, increase in the effective path length of the cell do not occur in a predictable fashion with the angle of incidence of the light beam. Although the effective path length almost linearly increases with increasing distance between the light entry and exit windows, the absolute values of the effective path lengths are always lower than this physical distance, suggesting that after some passage through the solution, light largely travels through or along the glass wall. Square capillaries have better light transmission and offer some performance advantages. Multi-reflection cells can indeed be of value for sensitive detection in microflow systems.

  15. Timelike Compton Scattering at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Paremuzyan, Rafayel G.

    2014-01-01

    It is demonstrated, that with exclusive final state, data from electron scattering experiments that are recorded with loose trigger requirements can be used to analyze photoproduction reactions. A preliminary results on Timelike Compton Scattering using the electroproduction data from the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab are presented. In particular, using final state (pe{sup -}e{sup +}) photoproduction of vector mesons and timelike photon is studied. Angular asymmetries in Timelike Compton Scattering region is compared with model predictions in the framework of Generalized Parton Distribution.

  16. Solid State pH Sensor Based on Light Emitting Diodes (LED) As Detector Platform

    PubMed Central

    Lau, King Tong; Shepherd, R.; Diamond, Danny; Diamond, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    A low-power, high sensitivity, very low-cost light emitting diode (LED)-based device developed for low-cost sensor networks was modified with bromocresol green membrane to work as a solid-state pH sensor. In this approach, a reverse-biased LED functioning as a photodiode is coupled with a second LED configured in conventional emission mode. A simple timer circuit measures how long (in microsecond) it takes for the photocurrent generated on the detector LED to discharge its capacitance from logic 1 (+5 V) to logic 0 (+1.7 V). The entire instrument provides an inherently digital output of light intensity measurements for a few cents. A light dependent resistor (LDR) modified with similar sensor membrane was also used as a comparison method. Both the LED sensor and the LDR sensor responded to various pH buffer solutions in a similar way to obtain sigmoidal curves expected of the dye. The pKa value obtained for the sensors was found to agree with the literature value.

  17. Standoff gas leak detectors based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frish, M. B.; Wainner, R. T.; Green, B. D.; Laderer, M. C.; Allen, M. G.

    2005-11-01

    Trace gas sensing and analysis by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) has become a robust and reliable technology accepted for industrial process monitoring and control, quality assurance, environmental sensing, plant safety, and infrastructure security. Sensors incorporating well-packaged wavelength-stabilized near-infrared (1.2 to 2.0 μm) laser sources sense over a dozen toxic or industrially-important gases. A large emerging application for TDLAS is standoff sensing of gas leaks, e.g. from natural gas pipelines. The Remote Methane Leak Detector (RMLD), a handheld standoff TDLAS leak survey tool that we developed, is replacing traditional leak detection tools that must be physically immersed within a leak to detect it. Employing a 10 mW 1.6 micron DFB laser, the RMLD illuminates a non-cooperative topographic surface, up to 30 m distant, and analyzes returned scattered light to deduce the presence of excess methane. The eye-safe, battery-powered, 6-pound handheld RMLD enhances walking pipeline survey rates by more than 30%. When combined with a spinning or rastering mirror, the RMLD serves as a platform for mobile leak mapping systems. Also, to enable high-altitude surveying and provide aerial disaster response, we are extending the standoff range to 3000 m by adding an EDFA to the laser transmitter.

  18. Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itzler, Mark A.; Jiang, Xudong; Entwistle, Mark; Slomkowski, Krystyna; Tosi, Alberto; Acerbi, Fabio; Zappa, Franco; Cova, Sergio

    2011-02-01

    In this Topical Review, we survey the state-of-the-art of single photon detectors based on avalanche diodes fabricated in the InGaAsP materials system for photon counting at near infrared wavelengths in the range from 0.9-1.6 µm. The fundamental trade-off between photon detection efficiency and dark count rate can now be managed with performance that adequately serves many applications, with low dark count rates of ∼1 kHz having been demonstrated at photon detection efficiencies of 20% for 25 µm diameter fiber-coupled devices with thermoelectric cooling. Timing jitter of less than 50 ps has been achieved, although device uniformity is shown to be essential in obtaining good jitter performance. Progress is also reported towards resolving the limitations imposed on photon counting rate by afterpulsing, with at least 50 MHz repetition frequencies demonstrated for 1 ns gated operation with afterpulsing limited to the range of 1-5%. We also present a discussion of future trends and challenges related to these devices organized according to the hierarchy of materials properties, device design concepts, signal processing and electronic circuitry, and multiplexing concepts. Whereas the materials properties of these devices may pose significant challenges for the foreseeable future, there has been considerable progress in device concepts and circuit solutions towards the present imperatives for higher counting rates and simpler device operation.

  19. Compton Polarization with Nustar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotti, Simone; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin; Perri, Matteo; Puccetti, Simonetta

    In this study we assess the NuSTAR capabilities to detect polarized signals in the Compton regime, through the use of Monte Carlo simulations and comparison with observational data. Both NuSTAR focal plane detectors are equipped with high resolution pixilated CZT arrays, sensitive in the energy range 2.5-80 keV. These units have intrinsic polarization capabilities due to their high quality factor, very low background and scattering angles of ~90°, which is ideal for incident photon energies below 100 keV. However the sensitivity is limited by the very low efficiency of the CZT for Compton interactions and by intrinsic readout systematics, such as charge sharing between pixels. An additional source of degradation is the incompleteness of double events information in the science telemetry. We estimated the Minimum Detectable Polarization of cosmic sources as a function of intensity, and the results obtained were validated through the comparison with the first actual data from the Crab Nebula and Cygnus X-1. We also evaluated the count rate and the background expected for polarization measurements, comparing our estimates with the data measured in flight. Our simulations reproduce well the actual NuSTAR data, showing that the focal plane detectors should be able to detect polarization from highly polarized sources like the Crab and other potential bright sources, dominated by synchrotron and/or SSC emission. The background for polarization measurements was found to be negligible.

  20. Dose Rate Linearity in 4H-SiC Schottky Diode-Based Detectors at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, N. S.; Wright, N. G.; Horsfall, A. B.

    2017-07-01

    The outstanding material properties make silicon carbide radiation hard and this ability has enabled it to be demonstrated in a range of detector structures for deployment in extreme environments, including those where the ability to tolerate high radiation dose is imperative. This includes applications in space and nuclear environments, where the ability to detect highly energetic radiation is important. In contrast, detectors used in medical treatment, such as imaging and radiotherapy, use a range of radiation dose rates and energies for both particulate and photonic radiation. Here, we report the response and dose rate linearity of detectors fabricated from silicon carbide to dose rates in the range of 0.185 mGy · min-1, typical of those used for medical imaging. The data show that the radiation detected current originates within the depletion region of the detector and that the response is linearly dependent on the volume of the space charge region. The realization of a vertical detector structure, coupled with the high quality of epitaxial layers, has resulted in a high dose sensitivity of the detector that is highly linear. The temperature dependence of the characteristics indicates that silicon carbide Schottky diode-based detectors offer a performance suitable for medical applications at temperatures below 100 °C without the need for external cooling.

  1. A low-cost light-emitting diode induced fluorescence detector for capillary electrophoresis based on an orthogonal optical arrangement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng-Bo; Pan, Jian-Zhang; Zhang, Ting; Fang, Qun

    2009-05-15

    In this work, a simple and low-cost miniaturized light-emitting diode induced fluorescence (LED-IF) detector based on an orthogonal optical arrangement for capillary electrophoresis (CE) was developed, using a blue concave light-emitting diode (LED) as excitation source and a photodiode as photodetector. A lens obtained from a waste DVD-ROM was used to focus the LED light beam into an approximately 80 microm spot. Fluorescence was collected with an ocular obtained from a pen microscope at 45 degrees angle, and passed through a band-pass filter to a photodiode detector. The performance of the LED-IF detector was demonstrated in CE separations using sodium fluorescein and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled amino acids as model samples. The limit of detection for sodium fluorescein was 0.92 microM with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3. The total cost of the LED-IF detector was less than $ 50.

  2. Observation of Nonlinear Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kotseroglou, T.

    2003-12-19

    This experiment tests Quantum Electrodynamics in the strong field regime. Nonlinear Compton scattering has been observed during the interaction of a 46.6 GeV electron beam with a 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} laser beam. The strength of the field achieved was measured by the parameter {eta} = e{var_epsilon}{sub rms}/{omega}mc = 0.6. Data were collected with infrared and green laser photons and circularly polarized laser light. The timing stabilization achieved between the picosecond laser and electron pulses has {sigma}{sub rms} = 2 ps. A strong signal of electrons that absorbed up to 4 infrared photons (or up to 3 green photons) at the same point in space and time, while emitting a single gamma ray, was observed. The energy spectra of the scattered electrons and the nonlinear dependence of the electron yield on the field strength agreed with the simulation over 3 orders of magnitude. The detector could not resolve the nonlinear Compton scattering from the multiple single Compton scattering which produced rates of scattered electrons of the same order of magnitude. Nevertheless, a simulation has studied this difference and concluded that the scattered electron rates observed could not be accounted for only by multiple ordinary Compton scattering; nonlinear Compton scattering processes are dominant for n {ge} 3.

  3. Shot-noise-limited dual-beam detector for atmospheric trace-gas monitoring with near-infrared diode lasers.

    PubMed

    Durry, G; Pouchet, I; Amarouche, N; Danguy, T; Megie, G

    2000-10-20

    A dual-beam detector is used to measure atmospheric trace species by differential absorption spectroscopy with commercial near-infrared InGaAs laser diodes. It is implemented on the Spectromètre à Diodes Laser Accordables, a balloonborne tunable diode laser spectrometer devoted to the in situ monitoring of CH4 and H2O. The dual-beam detector is made of simple analogical subtractor circuits combined with InGaAs photodiodes. The detection strategy consists in taking the balanced analogical difference between the reference and the sample signals detected at the input and the output of an open optical multipass cell to apply the full dynamic range of the measurements (16 digits) to the weak molecular absorption information. The obtained sensitivity approaches the shot-noise limit. With a 56-m optical cell, the detection limit obtained when the spectra is recorded within 8 ms is approximately 10(-4) (expressed in absorbance units). The design and performances of both a simple subtractor and an upgraded feedback subtractor circuit are discussed with regard to atmospheric in situ CH4 absorption spectra measured in the 1.653-microm region. Mixing ratios are obtained from the absorption spectra by application of a nonlinear least-squares fit to the full molecular line shape in conjunction with in situ P and T measurements.

  4. A Self-Synchronized Optoelectronic Oscillator based on an RTD Photo-Detector and a Laser Diode.

    PubMed

    Romeira, Bruno; Seunarine, Kris; Ironside, Charles N; Kelly, Anthony E; Figueiredo, José M L

    2011-08-15

    We propose and demonstrate a simple and stable low-phase noise optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) that uses a laser diode, an optical fiber delay line and a resonant tunneling diode (RTD) free-running oscillator that is monolithic integrated with a waveguide photo-detector. The RTD-OEO exhibits single-side band phase noise power below -100 dBc/Hz with more than 30 dB noise suppression at 10 kHz from the center free-running frequency for fiber loop lengths around 1.2 km. The oscillator power consumption is below 0.55 W, and can be controlled either by the injected optical power or the fiber delay line. The RTD-OEO stability is achieved without using other high-speed optical/optoelectronic components and amplification.

  5. A Self-Synchronized Optoelectronic Oscillator based on an RTD Photo-Detector and a Laser Diode

    PubMed Central

    Romeira, Bruno; Seunarine, Kris; Ironside, Charles N.; Kelly, Anthony E.; Figueiredo, José M. L.

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a simple and stable low-phase noise optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) that uses a laser diode, an optical fiber delay line and a resonant tunneling diode (RTD) free-running oscillator that is monolithic integrated with a waveguide photo-detector. The RTD-OEO exhibits single-side band phase noise power below −100 dBc/Hz with more than 30 dB noise suppression at 10 kHz from the center free-running frequency for fiber loop lengths around 1.2 km. The oscillator power consumption is below 0.55 W, and can be controlled either by the injected optical power or the fiber delay line. The RTD-OEO stability is achieved without using other high-speed optical/optoelectronic components and amplification. PMID:23814452

  6. Comparison study of MOSFET detectors and diodes for entrance in vivo dosimetry in 18 MV x-ray beams.

    PubMed

    Jornet, N; Carrasco, P; Jurado, D; Ruiz, A; Eudaldo, T; Ribas, M

    2004-09-01

    The feasibility of dual bias dual metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) for entrance in vivo dose measurements in high energy x-rays beams (18 MV) was investigated. A comparison with commercially available diodes for in vivo dosimetry for the same energy range was performed. As MOSFETs are sold without an integrated build-up cap, different caps were tested: 3 cm bolus, 2 cm bolus, 2 cm hemispherical cap of a water equivalent material (Plastic Water) and a metallic hemispherical cap. This metallic build-up cap is the same as the one that is mounted on the in vivo diode used in this study. Intrinsic precision and response linearity with dose were determined for MOSFETs and diodes. They were then calibrated for entrance in vivo dosimetry in an 18 MV x-ray beam. Calibration included determination of the calibration factor in standard reference conditions and of the correction factors (CF) when irradiation conditions differed from those of reference. Correction factors for field size, source surface distance, wedge, and temperature were determined. Sensitivity variation with accumulated dose and the lifetime of both types of detectors were also studied. Finally, the uncertainties of entrance in vivo measurements using MOSFET and diodes were discussed. Intrinsic precision for MOSFETs for the high sensitivity mode was 0.7% (1 s.d.) as compared to the 0.05% (1 s.d.) for the studied diodes. The linearity of the response with dose was excellent (R2 = 1.000) for both in vivo dosimetry systems. The absolute values of the studied correction factors for the MOSFETs when covered by the different build-up caps were of the same order of those determined for the diodes. However, the uncertainties of the correction factors for MOSFETs were significantly higher than for diodes. Although the intrinsic precision and the uncertainty on the CF was higher for MOSFET detectors than for the studied diodes, the total uncertainty in entrance dose determination, once they

  7. Results from a 64-pixel PIN-diode detector system for low-energy beta-electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuestling, Sascha; Fraenkle, F.; Habermehl, F.; Renschler, P.; Steidl, M.

    2010-12-01

    The KATRIN neutrino mass experiment is based on a precise energy measurement (Δ E/ E=5×10 -5) of electrons emerging from tritium beta decay ( Emax=18.6 keV). This is done by a large electrostatic retarding spectrometer (MAC-E Filter), which is followed by an electron detector. Key requirements for this detector are a large sensitive area (˜80 cm 2), a certain energy resolution (Δ E=600 eV @ 18.6 keV) but also a certain spatial resolution (˜3 mm), which leads to a multi-pixel design. As a tentative design on the way to the final detector, but also for operational service on the so-called pre-spectrometer experiment, a detector system with a reduced size (16 cm 2) and a reduced pixel number (64), making use of a monolithic segmented silicon PIN diode, was designed and built. While the design and very first measurements have been presented in Wuestling et al. [6], this publication shows the operational performance of the detector system. The robust concept of the electronics allowed adaptation to mechanically different experimental setups. The spacial resolution of the detector system proved to be essential in examining Penning trap induced background and other effects in the pre-spectrometer experiment. The detector performance test runs include energy resolution and calibration, background rates, correlation between pixels (crosstalk), spatially resolved rate analysis, and a dead-layer measurement [7]. The detector allows for background searches with a sensitivity as low as 1.3×10 -3 cps/cm 2 in the energy range of 20 keV. This allows the pre-spectrometer to be characterized with e-gun illumination with a signal to background ratio of better than 10 5 and the search for ultra low Penning discharge emissions.

  8. SPEIR: A Ge Compton Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Mihailescu, L; Vetter, K M; Burks, M T; Hull, E L; Craig, W W

    2004-02-11

    The SPEctroscopic Imager for {gamma}-Rays (SPEIR) is a new concept of a compact {gamma}-ray imaging system of high efficiency and spectroscopic resolution with a 4-{pi} field-of-view. The system behind this concept employs double-sided segmented planar Ge detectors accompanied by the use of list-mode photon reconstruction methods to create a sensitive, compact Compton scatter camera.

  9. Connecting Compton and Gravitational Compton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstein, Barry R.

    2017-01-01

    The study of Compton scattering—S + γ → S + γ—at MAMI and elsewhere has led to a relatively successful understanding of proton structure via its polarizabilities. The recent observation of gravitational radiation observed by LIGO has raised the need for a parallel understanding of gravitational Compton scattering—S + g → S + g—and we show here how it can be obtained from ordinary Compton scattering by use of the double copy theorem.

  10. Absorbance detector for high performance liquid chromatography based on a deep-UV light-emitting diode at 235nm.

    PubMed

    da Silveira Petruci, João Flavio; Liebetanz, Michael G; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves; Hauser, Peter C

    2017-08-25

    In this communication, we describe a flow-through optical absorption detector for HPLC using for the first time a deep-UV light-emitting diode with an emission band at 235nm as light source. The detector is also comprised of a UV-sensitive photodiode positioned to enable measurement of radiation through a flow-through cuvette with round aperture of 1mm diameter and optical path length of 10mm, and a second one positioned as reference photodiode; a beam splitter and a power supply. The absorbance was measured and related to the analyte concentration by emulating the Lambert-Beer law with a log-ratio amplifier circuitry. This detector showed noise levels of 0.30mAU, which is comparable with our previous LED-based detectors employing LEDs at 280 and 255nm. The detector was coupled to a HPLC system and successfully evaluated for the determination of the anti-diabetic drugs pioglitazone and glimepiride in an isocratic separation and the benzodiazepines flurazepam, oxazepam and clobazam in a gradient elution. Good linearities (r>0.99), a precision better than 0.85% and limits of detection at sub-ppm levels were achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Using Compton scattering for random coincidence rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolstein, M.; Chmeissani, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) project presents a new approach for the design of nuclear medicine imaging devices by using highly segmented pixel CdTe sensors. CdTe detectors can achieve an energy resolution of ≈ 1% FWHM at 511 keV and can be easily segmented into submillimeter sized voxels for optimal spatial resolution. These features help in rejecting a large part of the scattered events from the PET coincidence sample in order to obtain high quality images. Another contribution to the background are random events, i.e., hits caused by two independent gammas without a common origin. Given that 60% of 511 keV photons undergo Compton scattering in CdTe (i.e. 84% of all coincidence events have at least one Compton scattering gamma), we present a simulation study on the possibility to use the Compton scattering information of at least one of the coincident gammas within the detector to reject random coincidences. The idea uses the fact that if a gamma undergoes Compton scattering in the detector, it will cause two hits in the pixel detectors. The first hit corresponds to the Compton scattering process. The second hit shall correspond to the photoelectric absorption of the remaining energy of the gamma. With the energy deposition of the first hit, one can calculate the Compton scattering angle. By measuring the hit location of the coincident gamma, we can construct the geometric angle, under the assumption that both gammas come from the same origin. Using the difference between the Compton scattering angle and the geometric angle, random events can be rejected.

  12. Development of the large-area silicon PIN diode with 2 millimeter-thick depletion layer for hard x-ray detector (HXD) on board ASTRO-E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Kubo, S.; Murakami, Toshio; Ota, Naomi; Ozawa, Hideki; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Iyomoto, Naoko; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Kubota, Aya; Makishima, Kazuo; Tamura, Takayuki; Tashiro, Makoto

    1997-07-01

    ASTRO-E is the next Japanese x-ray satellite to be launched in the year 2000. It carries three high-energy astrophysical experiments, including the hard x-ray detector (HXD) which is unique in covering the wide energy band from 10 keV to 700 keV with an extremely low background. The HXD is a compound-eye detector, employing 16 GSO/BGO well-type phoswich scintillation counters together with 64 silicon PIN detectors. The scintillation counters cover an energy range of 40 - 700 keV, while the PIN diodes fill the intermediate energy range from 10 keV to 70 keV with an energy resolution about 3 keV. In this paper, we report on the developments of the large area, thick silicon PIN diodes. In order to achieve a high quantum efficiency up to 70 keV with a high energy resolution, we utilize a double stack of silicon PIN diodes, each 20 by 20 mm(superscript 2) in size and 2 mm thick. Signals from the two diodes are summed into a single output. Four of these stacks (or eight diodes) are placed inside the deep BGO active-shield well of a phoswich counter, to achieve an extremely low background environment. Thus, the HXD utilizes 64 stacked silicon PIN detectors, achieving a total geometrical collecting area of 256 cm(superscript 2). We have developed the 2 mm thick silicon PIN diodes which have low leakage current, a low capacitance, and a high breakdown voltage to meet the requirements of our goal. Through various trials in fabricating PIN diodes with different structures, we have found optimal design parameters, such as mask design of the surface p(superscript +) layer and the implantation process.

  13. Performance of the IBIS Compton mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segreto, Alberto

    2004-10-01

    The IBIS instrument launched on board the ESA INTEGRAL observatory on October 2002 is a coded mask telescope composed by two position sensitive detection planes, one with 16384 Cadmium Telluride pixels (ISGRI) and the other with 4096 Caesium Iodide pixels (PICsIT). Events detected in coincidence in the two detector layers are flagged as generated by Compton scattered photons and can be then processed and filtered using the Compton kinematic equations. The analysis of these data is, however, quite complex, mainly due to the presence of a great number of fake events generated by random coincidences between uncorrelated ISGRI and PICsIT events; if this component is not subtracted with great accuracy, false source detections can be produced. In this work, we present the performance (spectral and imaging) obtainable from the IBIS Compton data, by analyzing ground calibration acquisitions. We also analyze the IBIS Compton flight data relative to the Crab observation, to determine its scientific capabilities.

  14. Fabrication, characterization and simulation of 4H-SiC Schottky diode alpha particle detectors for pyroprocessing actinide monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Timothy Richard

    Pyroprocessing is a method of using high-temperature molten salts and electric fields to separate and collect fuel isotopes of used nuclear fuel. It has been has been tested in the U.S. at Idaho National Laboratory as a key step in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. One technical problem with the pyroprocessing method is a lack of knowledge regarding the actinide concentrations in the salt bath during operation, since on-line techniques for measuring these concentrations are not presently available. 4H-SiC Schottky diode detectors can potentially fulfill this need. Such detectors would operate in contact with the molten salt, and measure concentrations via alpha-particle spectroscopy. This work seeks to fabricate and characterize 4H-SiC Schottky diode detectors at high temperature, model the alpha particle spectrum expected in a molten salt, and model the operation of the detectors to confirm the physics of operation is as expected. In this work, 4H-SiC Schottky diode detectors were fabricated at OSU Nanotech West. After fabrication, these detectors were characterized using both I-V curves and Am-241 alpha-particle energy spectra. All measurements were made as a function of temperature, from room temperature up to 500°C. The average energy required to create an electron-hole pair was observed to decrease with an increase of temperature, due to a decrease of both the 4H-SiC bandgap and non-linear energy loss terms. Furthermore, the FWHM of the spectra was observed to be dependent on the leakage current at a certain temperature, and not dependent on the temperature itself. Secondly, the alpha particle energy spectrum in the pyroprocessing environment was modeled using SRIM. The molten salt was modeled in 3 different geometries, with or without a protective cover material on top of the detector. Due to the loss of alpha-particle energy in the molten salt itself, a high-energy alpha emitter may completely cover the spectrum from a lower-energy alpha emitter. Each of the

  15. Development of CdTe pixel detectors combined with an aluminum Schottky diode sensor and photon-counting ASICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyokawa, H.; Saji, C.; Kawase, M.; Wu, S.; Furukawa, Y.; Kajiwara, K.; Sato, M.; Hirono, T.; Shiro, A.; Shobu, T.; Suenaga, A.; Ikeda, H.

    2017-01-01

    We have been developing CdTe pixel detectors combined with a Schottky diode sensor and photon-counting ASICs. The hybrid pixel detector was designed with a pixel size of 200 μ m by 200 μm and an area of 19 mm by 20 mm or 38.2 mm by 40.2 mm. The photon-counting ASIC, SP8-04F10K, has a preamplifier, a shaper, 3-level window-type discriminators and a 24-bits counter in each pixel. The single-chip detector with 100 by 95 pixels successfully operated with a photon-counting mode selecting X-ray energy with the window comparator and stable operation was realized at 20 degrees C. We have performed a feasibility study for a white X-ray microbeam experiment. Laue diffraction patterns were measured during the scan of the irradiated position in a silicon steel sample. The grain boundaries were identified by using the differentials between adjacent images at each position.

  16. The assessment of geometrical effects on Compton profile measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gigante, G.E.; Hanson, A.L.

    1988-10-01

    Energy dispersive measurements of Compton scattered x rays for analyses have become important with the development of high efficiency, high energy resolution detectors for 50--200 keV x rays. The Compton scattered x ray peak is an inherently broad peak resulting in part from the momentum distribution of the target electrons, referred to as the Compton profile. Hence, information from the width of the Compton peak can be used to study the momentum distribution. The actual peak width also depends on geometrical and attenuation effects. We have begun to assess the geometrical effects and present some of the results. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Silicon PIN diode based electron-gamma coincidence detector system for Noble Gases monitoring.

    PubMed

    Khrustalev, K; Popov, V Yu; Popov, Yu S

    2017-08-01

    We present a new second generation SiPIN based electron-photon coincidence detector system developed by Lares Ltd. for use in the Noble Gas measurement systems of the International Monitoring System and the On-site Inspection verification regimes of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The SiPIN provide superior energy resolution for electrons. Our work describes the improvements made in the second generation detector cells and the potential use of such detector systems for other applications such as In-Situ Kr-85 measurements for non-proliferation purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in extracts of Curculiginis Rhizoma by HPLC-diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Bian, Qingya; Yang, Hui; Chan, Chi-On; Jin, Dengping; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah; Chen, Sibao

    2013-01-01

    Curculiginis Rhizoma (Curculigo orchioides GAERTN.) is a well-known Chinese herbal medicine, as well as an important Rasayana drug in India. Current criteria of quality control on this herb are to quantitatively analyze single compound curculigoside, which fail to comprehensively evaluate quality of this herb. In this paper, a simple and reliable HPLC coupled with diode array detector (DAD) method was developed to evaluate the quality of Curculiginis Rhizoma through establishing chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneously quantitating four phenolic compounds, orcinol glucoside, orcinol, 2,6-dimethoxybenzoic acid and curculigoside. The fingerprint displayed eleven common peaks, and the similarity index of different samples was in a range of 0.890-0.977. Validation of the method was acceptable, with 96.03-102.82% accuracy in recovery test and inter and intra-day precisions were less than 2%. This developed method by having a combination of chromatographic fingerprint and quantitation analysis could be applied to the quality control of Curculiginis Rhizoma.

  19. Blocked impurity band detectors applied to tunable diode laser spectroscopy in the 8- to 28-micron range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirota, J. M.; Reuter, Dennis C.; Mumma, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    A novel tunable diode laser spectrometer operating at 8-28 microns is described. A blocked impurity band Si:As chip is employed as detector. This device operates in this wavelength range with high detectivity and adequate frequency response for the high-sensitivity techniques used. A combination of sweep averaging and second-harmonic detection at 22 kHz yielded signal-to-noise ratios of 1200 at wavelengths above 20 microns. The sensitivity and spectral resolution achieved are an order of magnitude better than those of Fourier instruments in this range, with an improvement in instrument time response of about 3000. Several molecular bands of CO2 and N2O are observed for what is, to our knowledge, the first time with this instrument. Examples of spectral line measurements are presented.

  20. [Determination of acetylsalicylic and salicylic acid in tablets using high-performance liquid chromatography and a diode array detector].

    PubMed

    Nikolić, M; Petrović, D

    1991-01-01

    A fast and sensitive method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and products of salicylic acid (SA) hydrolysis in tablets has been elaborated. Extraction was done with the mixture of methanol: formic acid (98:2 v/v) and separation of the components was achieved by using the colon of Ultropac Lichrosorb RP-18, 10 um, 4 cm x 250 mm and diode array detector. The mobile phase of methanol:water: :mol/1 H3PO4 (60:35:5) v/v, pP = 2.6 and safe flow of 1 ml/min were used. Follow up of chromatographic separation of ASA, SA and internal standard beta-naphtole (ITS) was performed at the wave length of 290 microns. The threshold of ASA was 0.5 mg/ml and of SA 0.0025 mg/ml.

  1. A new modeling and simulation method for important statistical performance prediction of single photon avalanche diode detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yue; Xiang, Ping; Xie, Xiaopeng; Huang, Yang

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a new modeling and simulation method to predict the important statistical performance of single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detectors, including photon detection efficiency (PDE), dark count rate (DCR) and afterpulsing probability (AP). Three local electric field models are derived for the PDE, DCR and AP calculations, which show analytical dependence of key parameters such as avalanche triggering probability, impact ionization rate and electric field distributions that can be directly obtained from Geiger mode Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation. The model calculation results are proven to be in good agreement with the reported experimental data in the open literature, suggesting that the proposed modeling and simulation method is very suitable for the prediction of SPAD statistical performance.

  2. [The detection of isoniazide in the cadaveric blood and plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with a diode matrix detector].

    PubMed

    Melent'ev, A B; Lavrent'eva, A V

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the analytical procedure for the rapid detection of isoniazide in the cadaveric blood and plasma using high performance liquid chromatography with a diode matrix detector (HPLC-DAD). The method is designed for toxicological and forensic medical analyses. The preliminary preparation of the samples includes protein precipitation with trichloroacetic acid, formation of isoniazide derivatives with cinnamic aldehyde, and chromatographic analysis on an Eclipse XDB-C18 column with registration of absorption at a wavelength of 340 nm. The mobile phase is a mixture of methanol and 0.05 M ammonium acetate buffer (50:50 v/v), pH 3.8. The detection limit is 0.5 mcg/ml in plasma and 1 mcg/ml in blood hemolizate. The qualitative determination is possible in a concentration range from 2 to 200 mcg/ml. Mean square deviation does not exceed 12% in a concentration interval from 2 to 50 mcg/ml.

  3. Study of Generalized Parton Distributions and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on the nucleon with the CLAS and CLAS12 detectors at the Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Guegan, Baptiste

    2012-11-01

    The exclusive leptoproduction of a real photon is considered to be the "cleanest" way to access the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD). This process is called Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) lN {yields} lN{gamma} , and is sensitive to all the four GPDs. Measuring the DVCS cross section is one of the main goals of this thesis. In this thesis, we present the work performed to extract on a wide phase-space the DVCS cross-section from the JLab data at a beam energy of 6 GeV.

  4. Nuclear radiation detectors based on a matrix of ion-implanted p-i-n diodes on undoped GaAs epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Baryshnikov, F. M.; Britvich, G. I.; Chernykh, A. V.; Chernykh, S. V.; Chubenko, A. P.; Didenko, S. I.; Koltsov, G. I.

    2012-11-06

    Samples of nuclear detectors which represent matrices of p-i-n diodes were fabricated based on undoped gallium arsenide epitaxial layers by ion implantation technology. The detectors have a size of the active area of 0.4 Multiplication-Sign 0.4 and 0.9 Multiplication-Sign 0.9 cm{sup 2}. Electrical characteristics of fabricated detectors and results of measurements of fast neutrons spectra of {sup 241}Am-Be source by the recoil protons method are discussed.

  5. Compton tomography system

    DOEpatents

    Grubsky, Victor; Romanoov, Volodymyr; Shoemaker, Keith; Patton, Edward Matthew; Jannson, Tomasz

    2016-02-02

    A Compton tomography system comprises an x-ray source configured to produce a planar x-ray beam. The beam irradiates a slice of an object to be imaged, producing Compton-scattered x-rays. The Compton-scattered x-rays are imaged by an x-ray camera. Translation of the object with respect to the source and camera or vice versa allows three-dimensional object imaging.

  6. Study of Compton vs. Photoelectric Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J B; Johnson, S C; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Beiersdorfer, P

    2004-07-09

    We have studied how often incoming photons interact via a Compton interaction and/or a photoelectric interaction as a function of energy and detector material Results are using a 1m{sup 3} detector, and discrete energy photons from 0.1 MeV up to 10 MeV. Essentially all of the lower energy photons interact at least once in a detector of this size. This is not the case at higher energies. Each detector, photon energy combination was simulated with 2000 photons.

  7. SiC Schottky Diode Detectors for Measurement of Actinide Concentrations from Alpha Activities in Molten Salt Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Windl, Wolfgang; Blue, Thomas

    2013-01-28

    In this project, we have designed a 4H-SiC Schottky diode detector device in order to monitor actinide concentrations in extreme environments, such as present in pyroprocessing of spent fuel. For the first time, we have demonstrated high temperature operation of such a device up to 500 °C in successfully detecting alpha particles. We have used Am-241 as an alpha source for our laboratory experiments. Along with the experiments, we have developed a multiscale model to study the phenomena controlling the device behavior and to be able to predict the device performance. Our multiscale model consists of ab initio modeling to understand defect energetics and their effect on electronic structure and carrier mobility in the material. Further, we have developed the basis for a damage evolution model incorporating the outputs from ab initio model in order to predict respective defect concentrations in the device material. Finally, a fully equipped TCAD-based device model has been developed to study the phenomena controlling the device behavior. Using this model, we have proven our concept that the detector is capable of performing alpha detection in a salt bath with the mixtures of actinides present in a pyroprocessing environment.

  8. A facile light-emitting-diode induced fluorescence detector coupled to an integrated microfluidic device for microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Li, Xin-chun; Zhang, Wen; Pan, Jian-bin; Chen, Zuan-guang

    2011-05-30

    In this paper, a compact and inexpensive light emitting diode induced fluorescence (LED-IF) detector with simplified optical configuration was developed and assembled in an integrated microfluidic device for microscale electrophoresis. The facile detector mainly consisted of an LED, a focusing pinhole, an emission filter and a photodiode, and was encapsulated in the upper layer of an aluminum alloy device with two layers. At the bottom layer, integrated circuit (IC) was assembled to manipulate the voltage for sample injection and separation, LED emission and signal amplifying. A high-power LED with fan-shaped heat sink was used as excitation source. The excitation light was focused by a 1.1mm diameter pinhole fabricated in a thin piece of silver foil, and the obtained sensitivity was about 3 times as high as that using electrode plate. Other important parameters including LED driven current, fluorescence collection angle and detection distance have also been investigated. Under optimal conditions, considerable high-response of 0.09 fmol and 0.18 fmol mass detection limits at 0.37 nL injection volume for sodium fluorescein (SF) and FITC was achieved, respectively. This device has been successfully employed to separate penicillamine (PA) enantiomers. Due to such significant features as low-cost, integration, miniaturization, and ease of commercialization, the presented microfluidic device may hold great promise for clinical diagnostics and bioanalytical applications.

  9. Sequential injection system for simultaneous determination of sucrose and phosphate in cola drinks using paired emitter-detector diode sensor.

    PubMed

    Saetear, Phoonthawee; Khamtau, Kittiwut; Ratanawimarnwong, Nuanlaor; Sereenonchai, Kamonthip; Nacapricha, Duangjai

    2013-10-15

    This work presents the simultaneous determination of sucrose and phosphate by using sequential injection (SI) system with a low cost paired emitter-detector diode (PEDD) light sensor. The PEDD uses two 890 nm LEDs. Measurement of sucrose in Brix unit was carried out based on the detection of light refraction occurring at the liquid interface (the schlieren effect) between the sucrose solution and water. Phosphate was measured from the formation of calcium phosphate with turbidimetric detection. With careful design of the loading sequence and volume (sample--precipitating reagent--sample), simultaneous detection of sucrose and phosphate was accomplished with the single PEDD detector. At the optimized condition, linear calibrations from 1 to 7 Brix sucrose and from 50 to 200mg PO4(3-)L(-1) were obtained. Good precision at lower than 2% RSD (n=10) for both analytes with satisfactory throughput of 21 injections h(-1) was achieved. The method was successfully applied for the determination of sucrose and phosphate in cola drinks. The proposed method is readily applicable for automation and is found to be an alternative method to conventional procedures for on-line quality control process in cola drink industry. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A compact and highly sensitive light-emitting diode-induced fluorescence detector for capillary flow systems.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xuhui; Wu, Dapeng; Guan, Yafeng

    2012-01-15

    A compact and highly sensitive light-emitting diode-induced fluorescence detector (LED-FD) was constructed and evaluated. The LED excitation beam was restricted by a 200 μm diameter pinhole on a 55 μm thick lighttight film. The LED, excitation filter, pinhole, and capillary flow cell were placed tightly against each other without either optical lens or excitation fiber. The performance of the LED-FD was evaluated by flow injection analysis (FIA) of sodium fluorescein solution. The limit of detection (LOD) was determined as 0.75 nM (SNR=3). Compared with our previous work, a 3.5-fold enhancement on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was obtained. The system exhibited linear responses in the concentration range of 2-200 nM (R=0.9993). The error of repeatability was within 2.0% R.S.D. on peak height in a ten-repeated injection of 5 nM solution. The reproducibility between devices was within 2.2% R.S.D. on peak height of 10nM fluorescein solution. Finally, the LED-FD was compared with commercial fluorescence detector, and similar fluorescence signal intensity was obtained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analytic reconstruction of Compton scattering tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiajun; Chi, Zheru; Wang, Yuanmei

    1999-08-01

    Compton scattering can be used to determine the electron densities of tissues for medical applications and those of materials for industrial applications. Much work has been devoted in solving the reconstruction problem. Norton proposed an analytic transform method for the reconstruction of Compton scattering tomography [J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2007 (1994)]. However, it is difficult to relate the response function presented by Norton to the measurement quantity. The aim of this article is to present an improved form of the detector response function which corresponds to the actual measurement and to verify the validation of the transform method for this problem.

  12. Blazar Compton Efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, J. A.; Browne, I. W. A.; Peel, M. W.

    2012-03-01

    The Fermi gamma-ray space telescope has dramatically increased the number of gamma-ray blazars known and means that for the first time, a large sample of blazars selected by the strength of their inverse Compton emission exists. We have cross-identified the blazars listed in the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) with the CRATES radio catalogue. Using the 8.4 GHz flux density as a proxy for the jet power, we have computed their Compton efficiencies, a measure of the ability of the jet to convert the power in the ultrarelativistic jet electrons into gamma-rays through the inverse Compton process. We have compared the Compton efficiencies of the two blazar subsets, BL Lacs and FSRQs, and find no evidence that they are different. We also do not find an anti-correlation between Compton efficiency and synchrotron peak frequency.

  13. Characteristics of p-i-n diodes basing on displacement damage detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Sun; Qi, Guo; Xin, Yu; Cheng-Fa, He; Wei-Lei, Shi; Xing-Yao, Zhang

    2017-10-01

    A displacement damage detector is designed and its characteristics are tested with 10 MeV proton irradiation. The testing result shows that the detector's readout changes linearly with the fluence of proton beam up to 1012 proton/cm2. However, a significant damage enhancement factor has been observed for 1.8 MeV electron irradiation when the classic non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) is used for calculating equivalent displacement damage. Since the prediction based on classical NIEL model cannot fit low energy incident well, low energy particles induced displacement damage mechanism, defect generation, recombination and effective NIEL modification is discussed by molecular dynamics (MD) model. The effective NIEL is validated by measuring the detector's response under 1.8 MeV electron irradiation. The equivalent displacement damage between different particles is discussed through scaling factor, damage factor, and damage enhancement factor. By this method, the application of degradation function can be expanded to low energy particles by using effective NIEL.

  14. Quantification of lycopene in the processed tomato-based products by means of the light-emitting diode (LED) and compact photoacoustic (PA) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicanic, D.; Skenderović, H.; Marković, K.; Dóka, O.; Pichler, L.; Pichler, G.; Luterotti, S.

    2010-03-01

    The combined use of a high power light emitting diode (LED) and the compact photoacoustic (PA) detector offers the possibility for a rapid (no extraction needed), accurate (precision 1.5%) and inexpensive quantification of lycopene in different products derived from the thermally processed tomatoes. The concentration of lycopene in selected products ranges from a few mg to several tens mg per 100 g fresh weight. The HPLC was used as the well established reference method.

  15. Spectral light measurements in microbenthic phototrophic communities with a fiber-optic microprobe coupled to a sensitive diode array detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehl, M. ); Joergensen, B.B. )

    1992-12-01

    A diode array detector system for microscale light measurements with fiber-optic microprobes was developed; it measures intensities of 400-900-nm light over >6 orders of magnitude with a spectral resolution of 2-5 nm. Fiber-optic microprobes to measure field radiance or scalar irradiance were coupled to the detector system and used for spectral light measurements in hypersaline microbial mats and in laminated phototrophic communities of coastal sediments. The vertical distribution of major photopigments of microalgae, cyanobacteria, and anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria could be identified from extinction maxima in measured radiance spectra at 430-550 nm (Chl a and carotenoids), 620-625 nm (phycocyanin), 675 nm (Chl a), 745-750 nm (BChl c), 800-810 nm, and 860-880 nm (BChl a). Scalar irradiance spectra exhibited a different spectral composition and a higher light intensity at the sediment surface as compared to incident light. IR light thus reached 200% of incident at the sediment surface. Maximal light penetration was found for IR light, whereas visible light was strongly attenuated in the upper 0-2 mm of the sediment. Measurements of photon scalar irradiance (400-700 nm) were combined with microelectrode measurements of oxygenic photosynthesis in the coastal sediment. With an incident light intensity of 200 [mu]Einst m[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1], photon scalar irradiance reached a maximum of 283 [mu]Einst m[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1] at the sediment surface. The lower boundary of the euphotic zone was 2.2 mm below the surface at a light intensity of 12 [mu]Einst m[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1]. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Feasibility Study of Compton Scattering Enhanced Multiple Pinhole Imager for Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Meng, L. J.; Rogers, W. L.; Clinthorne, N. H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of a Compton scattering enhanced (CSE) multiple pinhole imaging system for gamma rays with energy of 140keV or higher. This system consists of a multiple-pinhole collimator, a position sensitive scintillation detector as used in standard Gamma camera, and a Silicon pad detector array, inserted between the collimator and the scintillation detector. The problem of multiplexing, normally associated with multiple pinhole system, is reduced by using the extra information from the detected Compton scattering events. In order to compensate for the sensitivity loss, due to the low probability of detecting Compton scattered events, the proposed detector is designed to collect both Compton scattering and Non-Compton events. It has been shown that with properly selected pinhole spacing, the proposed detector design leads to an improved image quality.

  17. Analysis of factors affecting the light collection efficiency in CT detector: CWO+PIN diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Sung W.; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Ho K.; Cho, Gyuseong; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Goh, Sung Min; Lee, Yoon; Park, Jung Byung

    2002-05-01

    The solid-state detector(SSD) for X-CT consists of photodiode coupled to CdWO4$(CWO. It is important to maximize the light collection in respect of a patient's dose, radiation effect and X-ray efficiency. The factors affecting the light collection efficiency are analyzed and optimized by using experimental data and appropriate simulation code. Quantum nomogram is used to investigate the signal propagation characteristics of optimally designed solid-state detector and to ensure at which stage quantum sink occurs. This paper shows that the part of SSD, the CWO of treatment with ground top/ground side yields higher quanta than that of ground top/polish side, which is different from the result of previous studies. We also shows that optimum thickness of SiN passivation and p-layer is 0.12mm and 0.1mm, respectively. From the quantum nomogram calculated for optimal design, it is predicted that the most serious signal degradation occurs at the photodiode.

  18. Simultaneous determination of four neuroprotective compounds of Tilia amurensis by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bohyung; Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tilia amurensis consists of various compounds, such as flavonoids and terpenoids. Objective: A simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with the diode array detector (DAD) method has been established for simultaneous determination of epicatechin, nudiposide, lyoniside, and scopoletin isolated from Tilia amurensis. Materials and Methods: Optimum separations were obtained with a SHISEIDO C18 column by gradient eluton, with 0.1% Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) water-methanol as the mobile phase. The gradient elution system was completed within 40 minutes. The flow rate and detection wavelength were 1 mL/minute, 205 nm, 250 nm, and 280 nm, respectively. Results: Validation of the analytical method was evaluated by linearity, precision, and the accuracy test. The calibration curve was linear over the established range with R2 > 0.997. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.01-15.20 μg/mL and 0.03-46.06 μg/mL. The method exhibited an intraday and interday precision range of 96.25-105.66% and 93.52-109.92%, respectively (RSD <2.80%). The recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) of the four compounds in Tilia amurensis were in the range of 90.42-104.84% and 0.2-2.58%. Conclusion: This developed method was accurate and reliable for the quality evaluation of the four compounds isolated from Tilia amurensis. PMID:25210303

  19. Screening method for the determination of tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones in animal drinking water by liquid chromatography with diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Patyra, E; Kowalczyk, E; Grelik, A; Przeniosło-Siwczyńska, M; Kwiatek, K

    2015-01-01

    A liquid chromatography - diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) procedure has been developed for the determination of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), chlorotetracycline (CTC), doxycycline (DC), enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), sarafloxacin (SAR) and flumequine (FLU) residues in animal drinking water. This method was applied to animal drinking water. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up on an Oasis HLB cartridge allowed an extract suitable for liquid chromatographic analysis to be obtained. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 analytical column, using gradient elution with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid - acetonitrile - methanol at 30°C. The flow-rate was 0.7 mL/min and the eluate was analysed at 330 nm. The whole procedure was evaluated according to the requirements of the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, determining specificity, decision limit (CCα), detection capacity (CCβ), limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision and accuracy during validation of the method. The recoveries of TCs and FQs from spiked samples at the levels of 10, 100 and 1000 μg/L were higher than 82%. The developed method based on HPLC-DAD has been applied for the determination of four tetracyclines and four fluoroquinolones in animal drinking water samples.

  20. Application of RP-HPLC-diode array detector after SPE to the determination of pesticides in pepper samples.

    PubMed

    Tuzimski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The application of HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) after SPE for identification and quantitative analysis of pesticides in red and green pepper samples is demonstrated. An HPLC procedure on an RP column (C18) was developed for analysis of selected pesticides from different chemical groups: metamitron, metalaxyl, linuron, and prometryn. Average recoveries for C18 Polar Plus cartridges and solvents by the proposed RP-HPLC-DAD method after SPE are presented. Average recoveries from the spiked samples and the SDs were 22.5 +/- 2.2, 138.0 +/- 4.1, 78.6 +/- 2.8, and 109.2 +/- 2.3% for metamitron, metalaxyl, linuron, and prometryn, respectively, at concentrations of 7 microg/g in the plant material. The efficiency of the SPE procedure was evaluated using real food samples. The quantities of prometryn, linuron, metalaxyl, and metamitron determined were in the ranges of 0.02-2.24 microg/g (n = 24), 0.08-1.01 microg/g (n = 9), 1.61-2.28 microg/g (n=4), and 0.05-1.07 microg/g (n = 3), respectively, in plant material sampled in 2011. The method was validated for precision, repeatability, and accuracy.

  1. Overview of the Nuclear Compton Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Becker, Daniel A.; Liu, Z.; Boggs, S. E.; NCT Collaboration

    2008-03-01

    The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a balloon-borne soft gamma-ray (0.2-10 MeV) telescope designed to study astrophysical sources of nuclear line emission and polarization. It consists of twelve high spectral resolution 3D Germanium Detectors that track gamma-ray Compton scatter interactions. Tracking technologies provide dramatic improvements in Compton efficiency and sensitivity: with less than 1% of the detector volume of COMPTEL, NCT achieves a similar effective area. NCT is breaking new ground in the measurement of polarized gamma-ray emission from astrophysical sources, while simultaneously providing a testing platform for novel event analysis, background reduction, and imaging techniques for modern Compton telescopes. NCT is currently being prepared for a 36-hour flight from New Mexico in September 2008, followed by a long duration flight from Australia in December 2009. On these science flights, NCT will map the galactic positron annihilation, Al-26, and Fe-60 emission, and perform a discovery study of polarization from all classes of gamma-ray sources. We will present an overview of the NCT instrument and the planned flight program.

  2. Detection of 14 MeV neutrons in high temperature environment up to 500 deg. C using 4H-SiC based diode detector

    SciTech Connect

    Szalkai, D.; Klix, A.; Ferone, R.; Issa, F.; Ottaviani, L.; Vervisch, V.; Gehre, D.; Lyoussi, A.

    2015-07-01

    In reactor technology and industrial applications detection of fast and thermal neutrons plays a crucial role in getting relevant information about the reactor environment and neutron yield. The inevitable elevated temperatures make neutron yield measurements problematic. Out of the currently available semiconductors 4H-SiC seems to be the most suitable neutron detector material under extreme conditions due to its high heat and radiation resistance, large band-gap and lower cost of production than in case of competing diamond detectors. In the framework of the European I-Smart project, optimal {sup 4}H-SiC diode geometries were developed for high temperature neutron detection and have been tested with 14 MeV fast neutrons supplied by a deuterium-tritium neutron generator with an average neutron flux of 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} n/(s*cm{sup 2}) at Neutron Laboratory of the Technical University of Dresden in Germany from room temperatures up to several hundred degrees Celsius. Based on the results of the diode measurements, detector geometries appear to play a crucial role for high temperature measurements up to 500 deg. C. Experimental set-ups using SiC detectors were constructed to simulate operation in the harsh environmental conditions found in the tritium breeding blanket of the ITER fusion reactor, which is planned to be the location of neutron flux characterization measurements in the near future. (authors)

  3. Miniature Raman spectroscopy utilizing stabilized diode lasers and 2D CMOS detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auz, Bryan; Bonvallet, Joseph; Rodriguez, John; Olmstead, Ty

    2017-02-01

    A miniature Raman spectrometer was designed in a rapid development cycle (< 4 months) to investigate the performance capabilities achievable with two dimensional (2D) CMOS detectors found in cell phone camera modules and commercial off the shelf optics (COTS). This paper examines the design considerations and tradeoffs made during the development cycle. The final system developed measures 40 mm in length, 40 mm in width, 15 mm tall and couples directly with the cell phone camera optics. Two variants were made: one with an excitation wavelength of 638 nm and the other with a 785 nm excitation wavelength. Raman spectra of the following samples were gathered at both excitations: Toluene, Cyclohexane, Bis(MSB), Aspirin, Urea, and Ammonium Nitrate. The system obtained a resolution of 40 cm-1. The spectra produced at 785 nm excitation required integration times of up to 10 times longer than the 1.5 seconds at 638 nm, however, contained reduced stray light and less fluorescence which led to an overall cleaner signal.

  4. All-sky Compton imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Ballmoos, Peter; Boggs, Steven E.; Jean, Pierre; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    The All-Sky Compton Imager (ASCI) is a mission concept for MeV Gamma-Ray astronomy. It consists of a compact array of cross-strip germanium detectors, shielded only by a plastic anticoicidence, and weighting less than 100 kg. Situated on a deployable structure at a distance of 10 m from the spacecraft orbiting at L2 or in a HEO, the ASCI not only avoids albedo- and spacecraft-induced background, but it benefits from a continuous all-sky exposure. The modest effective area is more than compensated by the 4 π field-of-view. Despite its small size, ASCI's γ-ray line sensitivity after its nominal lifetime of 3 years is ~ 10-6 ph cm-2 s-1 at 1 MeV for every γ-ray source in the sky. With its high spectral and 3-D spatial resolution, the ASCI will perform sensitive γray spectroscopy and polarimetry in the energy band 100 keV-10 MeV. The All-Sky Compton Imager is particularly well suited to the task of measuring the Cosmic Gamma-Ray Background - and simultaneously covering the wide range of science topics in gamma-ray astronomy.

  5. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    F.X. Girod

    2007-12-17

    The beam spin asymmetries of the reaction ep -> epg in the Bjorken regime were measured over a wide kinematical domain using the CLAS detector and a new lead-tungstate calorimeter. Through the interference of the Bethe-Heitler process with Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering, those asymmetries provide constraints for the nucleon Generalized Parton Distributions models. The observed shapes are in agreement with twist-2 dominance predictions.

  6. Portable compton gamma-ray detection system

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S.; Oldaker, Mark E.

    2008-03-04

    A Compton scattered gamma-ray detector system. The system comprises a gamma-ray spectrometer and an annular array of individual scintillators. The scintillators are positioned so that they are arrayed around the gamma-ray spectrometer. The annular array of individual scintillators includes a first scintillator. A radiation shield is positioned around the first scintillator. A multi-channel analyzer is operatively connected to the gamma-ray spectrometer and the annular array of individual scintillators.

  7. Paired emitter-detector diode detection with dual wavelength monitoring for enhanced sensitivity to transition metals in ion chromatography with post-column reaction.

    PubMed

    O' Toole, Martina; Barron, Leon; Shepherd, Roderick; Paull, Brett; Nesterenko, Pavel; Diamond, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    The combination of post-column derivatisation and visible detection are regularly employed in ion chromatography (IC) to detect poorly absorbing species. Although this mode is often highly sensitive, one disadvantage is the increase in repeating baseline artifacts associated with out-of-sync pumping systems. The work presented here will demonstrate the use of a second generation design paired emitter-detector diode (PEDD-II) detection mode offering enhanced sensitivity to transition metals in IC by markedly reducing this problem and also by improving signal noise. First generation designs demonstrated the use of a single integrated PEDD detector cell as a simple, small (15 x 5 mm), highly sensitive, low cost photometric detector for the detection of metals in IC. The basic principle of this detection mode lies in the employment of two linear light emitting diodes (LEDs), one operating in normal mode as a light source and the other in reverse bias serving as a light detector. The second generation PEDD-II design showed increased sensitivity for Mn(II)- and Co(II)-2-(pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) complexes as a result of two simultaneously acquiring detection cells--one analytical PEDD cell and one reference PEDD cell. Therefore, the PEDD-II employs two wavelengths whereby one monitors the analyte reaction product and the second monitors a wavelength close to the isosbestic point. The optimum LED wavelength to be used for the analytical cell was investigated to maximise peak response. The fabrication process for both the analytical and reference PEDD cells was validated by determining the reproducibility of detectors within a batch. The reproducibility and sensitivity of the PEDD-II detector was then investigated using signals obtained from both intra- and inter-day chromatograms.

  8. A novel liquid chromatography method using diode-array detector for the determination of oleuropein in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Tiziana; Vicentini, Lorenza; Boschetti, Silvia; Andreatta, Paolo; Gatti, Rita

    2016-09-10

    A simple and fast chromatographic method using ultraviolet diode-array detector (UV-DAD) was developed for the automatic high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of the title of oleuropein in a new dietary supplements in form of effervescent granules. The chromatographic separations were performed on a C18 core-shell column with detection at λ=232nm. The mobile phase consisted of deionized water with 0.1% TFA and acetonitrile under gradient conditions at a flow-rate of 0.8mL/min. Oleuropein and oleuroside present in the raw material were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The validation of the analytical procedure has been performed determining the following parameters: specificity, linearity, repeatability, reproducibility, accuracy, limit of quantification (LOQ), stability of the standard and sample solutions. Linear response was observed in fortified placebo solutions (determination coefficient: 0.9998). Intra-day precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) was ≤5.0% for peak area and for retention times (tR) without significant differences between intra- and inter-day data. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) was about 5μg/mL and 9pmol/inject. Oleuropein recovery studies gave good results (99.9%) with a R.S.D. of 0.5%. The speed of analysis and the stability of the solutions with a fluctuation Δ (%) ≤2.0 at room temperature means an undoubted advantage of the method allowing the simultaneous preparation of many samples and consecutive chromatographic analyses by using an autosampler. The developed method is suitable for the quality control of oleuropein in raw material and industrial products. The method can be applied in any analytical laboratory not requiring a sophisticated instrumentation.

  9. Determination of pesticides in sunflower seeds by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Tuzimski, Tomasz; Rejczak, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The application of RP-HPLC with a diode array detector for identification and quantitative analysis of pesticides in sunflower seed samples is demonstrated. An HPLC procedure on C18 RP column has been developed for analysis of selected pesticides from different chemical groups: simazine, isoproturon, terbuthylazine, linuron, captan, terbutryn, procymidone, fenitrothion, clofentezine, and bromopropylate. We investigated the possibility of expanding the scope of the four analyte extraction procedures for isolation of pesticides from plant matrixes with high levels of lipids. The following procedures were tested: A, ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (UAE) and SPE; B, dispersive-SPE (d-SPE); C, UAE and d-SPE; and D, UAE/SPE/d-SPE. Average recoveries from spiked samples at different concentrations in the range from 0.1 to 1.40 microg/g in the plant materials and the SDs for C18 cartridges and solvents by the proposed RP-HPLC-DAD method after the extraction procedures are also presented. The efficiency of procedures A-D was evaluated using real food samples from Hungary, Bulgaria, and Poland. The quantity of terbuthylazine determined was in the range of 7.1-12.7 ng/g (n = 6), whereas the quantity of procymidone determined was in the range of 3.7-5.7 ng/g (n = 3) in plant materials. The quantities of pesticides determined in sunflower seeds were below the maximum residue levels (excluding captan) established in the European Union legislation. The method was validated for precision and accuracy.

  10. Quantification of maltol in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) products by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun Cheol; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Young-Chan; Rhee, Young Kyoung; Choi, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Young-Chul; Cho, Chang-Won

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maltol, as a type of phenolic compounds, is produced by the browning reaction during the high-temperature treatment of ginseng. Thus, maltol can be used as a marker for the quality control of various ginseng products manufactured by high-temperature treatment including red ginseng. For the quantification of maltol in Korean ginseng products, an effective high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed. Materials and Methods: The HPLC-DAD method for maltol quantification coupled with a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method was developed and validated in terms of linearity, precision, and accuracy. An HPLC separation was performed on a C18 column. Results: The LLE methods and HPLC running conditions for maltol quantification were optimized. The calibration curve of the maltol exhibited good linearity (R2 = 1.00). The limit of detection value of maltol was 0.26 μg/mL, and the limit of quantification value was 0.79 μg/mL. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the data of the intra- and inter-day experiments were <1.27% and 0.61%, respectively. The results of the recovery test were 101.35–101.75% with an RSD value of 0.21–1.65%. The developed method was applied successfully to quantify the maltol in three ginseng products manufactured by different methods. Conclusion: The results of validation demonstrated that the proposed HPLC-DAD method was useful for the quantification of maltol in various ginseng products. PMID:26246746

  11. Simulation for CZT Compton PET (Maximization of the efficiency for PET using Compton event)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Changyeon; Lee, Wonho; Lee, Taewoong

    2011-10-01

    Multiple interactions in positron emission tomography (PET) using scintillators are generally treated as noise events because each interacted position and energy of the multiple interactions cannot be obtained individually and the sequence of multiple scattering is not fully known. Therefore, the first interaction position, which is the crucial information for a PET image reconstruction, cannot be determined correctly. However, in the case of a pixelized semiconductor detector, such as CdZnTe, each specific position and energy information of multiple interactions can be obtained. Moreover, for the emission of two 511 keV radiations in PET, if one radiation deposits all the energy in one position (photoelectric effect) and the other radiation undergoes Compton scattering followed by the photoelectric effect, the sequence of Compton scattering followed by the photoelectric effect can be determined using the Compton scattering formula. Hence, the correct position of Compton scattering can be determined, and the Compton scattering effect, which is discarded in conventional PET systems can be recovered in the new system reported in this study. The PET system in this study, which was simulated using GATE 5.0 code, was composed of 20 mm×10 mm×10 mm CdZnTe detectors consisting of 1 mm×0.5 mm×2.5 mm pixels. The angular uncertainties caused by Doppler broadening, pixelization effect and energy broadening were estimated and compared. The pixelized effect was the main factor in increasing the angular uncertainty and was strongly dependent on the distance between the 1st and 2nd interaction positions. The effect of energy broadening to an angular resolution less than expected and that of Doppler broadening was minimal. The number of Compton events was double that of the photoelectric effect assuming full energy absorption. Therefore, the detection efficiency of this new PET system can be improved greatly because both the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering are

  12. Timelike Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    T. Horn, Y. Illieva, F. J. Klein, P. Nadel‐Turonski, R. Paremuzyan, S. Stepanyan

    2011-10-01

    Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) have become a key concept in our studies of hadron structure in QCD. The measurement of suitable experimental observables and the extraction of GPDs from these data is one of the high priority 12 GeV programs at Jefferson Lab. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) is generally thought of as the most promising channel for probing GPDs in the valence quark region. However, the inverse process, Timelike Compton Scattering (TCS) can provide an important complementary measurement, in particular of the real part of the Compton amplitude and power corrections at intermediate values of Q2. The first studies of TCS using real tagged and quasi-real untagged photons were performed in Hall B at Jefferson Lab.

  13. The development of a Compton lung densitometer

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Madden, N.W.; Simon, D.S.

    1988-11-01

    A field instrument is being developed for the non-invasive determination of absolute lung density using unique Compton backscattering techniques. A system consisting of a monoenergetic gamma-ray beam and a shielded high resolution high-purity-germanium (HPGe) detector in a close-coupled geometry is designed to minimize errors due to multiple scattering and uncontrollable attenuation in the chestwall. Results of studies on system performance with phantoms, the optimization of detectors, and the fabrication of a practical gamma-ray source are presented. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Detectors

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan; Allander, Krag

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

  15. Compton scattering by nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hütt, M.-Th.; L'vov, A. I.; Milstein, A. I.; Schumacher, M.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of Compton scattering by even-even nuclei from giant-resonance to nucleon-resonance energies and the status of experimental and theoretical researches in this field are outlined. The description of Compton scattering by nuclei starts from different complementary approaches, namely from second-order S-matrix and from dispersion theories. Making use of these, it is possible to incorporate into the predicted nuclear scattering amplitudes all the information available from other channels, viz. photon-nucleon and photon-meson channels, and to efficiently make use of models of the nucleon, the nucleus and the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The total photoabsorption cross section constrains the nuclear scattering amplitude in the forward direction. The specific information obtained from Compton scattering therefore stems from the angular dependence of the nuclear scattering amplitude, providing detailed insight into the dynamics of the nuclear and nucleon degrees of freedom and into the interplay between them. Nuclear Compton scattering in the giant-resonance energy-region provides information on the dynamical properties of the in-medium mass of the nucleon. Most prominently, the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon in the nuclear medium can be extracted from nuclear Compton scattering data obtained in the quasi-deuteron energy-region. In our description of this latter process special emphasis is laid upon the exploration of many-body and two-body effects entering into the nuclear dynamics. Recent results are presented for two-body effects due to the mesonic seagull amplitude and due to the excitation of nucleon internal degrees of freedom accompanied by meson exchanges. Due to these studies the in-medium electromagnetic polarizabilities are by now well understood, whereas the understanding of nuclear Compton scattering in the Δ-resonance range is only at the beginning. Furthermore, phenomenological methods how to include retardation effects in the

  16. Compton scattering overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V

    2008-12-01

    An overview of linear and nonlinear Compton scattering is presented, along with a comparison with Thomson scattering. Two distinct processes play important roles in the nonlinear regime: multi-photon interactions, leading to the generation of harmonics, and radiation pressure, yielding a downshift of the radiated spectral features. These mechanisms, their influence on the source brightness, and different modeling strategies are also briefly discussed.

  17. Imaging Performance of the Si/Ge Hybrid Compton Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, M; Chivers, D; Cork, C; Cunningham, M; Fabris, L; Gunter, D; Hull, E; Lange, D; Manini, H; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Niedermayr, T; Valentine, J; Vetter, K; Wright, D

    2005-11-10

    The point spread function (PSF) of a fully-instrumented silicon/germanium Compton telescope has been measured as a function of energy and angle. Overall, the resolution ranged from 3{sup o} to 4{sup o} FWHM over most of the energy range and field of view. The various contributions to the resolution have been quantified. These contributions include the energy uncertainty and position uncertainty of the detector; source energy; Doppler broadening; and the 1/r broadening characteristic of Compton back-projection. Furthermore, a distortion of the PSF is observed for sources imaged off-axis from the detector. These contributions are discussed and compared to theory and simulations.

  18. Hybrid Compton camera/coded aperture imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Mihailescu, Lucian [Livermore, CA; Vetter, Kai M [Alameda, CA

    2012-04-10

    A system in one embodiment includes an array of radiation detectors; and an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to an expected trajectory of incoming radiation. A method in another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of radiation detectors; detecting the incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing at least one of Compton imaging using at least the imagers and coded aperture imaging using at least the imagers. A method in yet another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind an array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing Compton imaging using at least the imagers.

  19. Quality evaluation of Radix Stemonae through simultaneous quantification of bioactive alkaloids by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and evaporative light scattering detectors.

    PubMed

    Li, Song-Lin; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Hon, Po-Ming; Cheng, Ling; Xu, Hong-Xi; Greger, Harald; But, Paul Pui-Hay; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2007-10-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-DAD-ELSD) method was developed to simultaneously quantify six major bioactive alkaloids belonging to different structure types in Radix Stemonae, Bai-Bu in Chinese, a traditionally used antitussive and insecticidal medicinal material in China and other countries of Southeast Asia. Diode array detector (DAD) with the wavelengths at 307 and 260 nm was used to monitor the conjugated system of protostemonine (2) and maistemonine (4), respectively, whereas evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was employed to detect croomine (1), stemoninine (3), neotuberostemonine (5) and tuberostemonine (6), the other four analytes with no or poor chromophores. The assay was validated to be sensitive, precise and accurate, with a detection limit of 3.64-0.04 microg/mL depending on the individual analytes. The overall intra- and inter-day variations were less than 9.3%, and the overall recoveries higher than 91.2%, respectively. The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were better than 0.996 for all analytes. The newly established method was successfully utilized to determine six major components in the genuine sources of Radix Stemonae: Stemona japonica, S. sessilifolia and S. tuberosa. Significant variations of contents of these components were demonstrated in samples of these three species. This simple, rapid, low-cost and reliable method is suitable for the routine quality control of herbal medicines containing bioactive components with different structure types such as Radix Stemonae.

  20. Performance of a 4H-SiC Schottky diode as a compact sized detector for neutron pulse form measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Meng; Jiang, Yong; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Yi; Gao, Hui; Liu, Xiaobo; Du, Jinfeng; Zou, Dehui; Fan, Xiaoqiang; Gan, Lei; Peng, Cheng; Lu, Yi; Lei, Jiarong

    2015-01-01

    4H-silicon carbide (4H-SiC) detectors are desirable for neutron pulse form measurement for their compact size, excellent radiation resistance and hydrogen free composition. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of a 4H-SiC detector to measure the pulse form of a neutron burst. A 4H-SiC detector is fabricated and tested in the pulsed neutron field of the Chinese Fast Burst Reactor II (CFBR II). Important parameters such as the breeding period and the FWHM of the neutron pulse are derived from the experimental result of the 4H-SiC detector. These parameters agree well with those from a plastic scintillator detector. The divergences are only 0.5%, demonstrating that the 4H-SiC detector can yield a high fidelity time profile of the CFBR II pulse. The difference in peak centroid of alpha spectra is negligible for the 4H-SiC detector even after 18 reactor pulses (a neutron fluence of 8.41×1012 cm-2), confirming the excellent radiation hardness of the 4H-SiC detector in pulsed neutron field. This study therefore indicates that 4H-SiC detectors can be usable as a compact sized detector to measure neutron pulses.

  1. An electromagnetic calorimeter for the JLab real compton scattering experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. J.; Shahinyan, A.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Annand, J. R. M.; Chang, T.-H.; Chudakov, E.; Danagoulian, A.; Degtyarenko, P.; Egiyan, K.; Gilman, R.; Gorbenko, V.; Hines, J.; Hovhannisyan, E.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; de Jager, C. W.; Ketikyan, A.; Mamyan, V. H.; Michaels, R.; Nathan, A. M.; Nelyubin, V.; Rachek, I.; Roedelbrom, M.; Petrosyan, A.; Pomatsalyuk, R.; Popov, V.; Segal, J.; Shestakov, Y.; Templon, J.; Voskanyan, H.

    2011-07-01

    A lead-glass hodoscope calorimeter that was constructed for use in the Jefferson Lab Real Compton Scattering experiment is described. The detector provides a measurement of the coordinates and the energy of scattered photons in the GeV energy range with resolutions of 5 mm and 6%/ √{Eγ GeV}. Features of both the detector design and its performance in the high luminosity environment during the experiment are presented.

  2. Results of a Si/Cdte Compton Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Oonuki, Kousuke; Tanaka, Takaaki; Watanabe, Shin; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Mitani, Takefumi; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Nomachi, Masaharu; /Sagamihara, Inst. Space Astron. Sci. /Tokyo U. /SLAC /Hiroshima U. /Osaka U.

    2005-09-23

    We have been developing a semiconductor Compton telescope to explore the universe in the energy band from several tens of keV to a few MeV. We use a Si strip and CdTe pixel detector for the Compton telescope to cover an energy range from 60 keV. For energies above several hundred keV, the higher efficiency of CdTe semiconductor in comparison with Si is expected to play an important role as an absorber and a scatterer. In order to demonstrate the spectral and imaging capability of a CdTe-based Compton Telescope, we have developed a Compton telescope consisting of a stack of CdTe pixel detectors as a small scale prototype. With this prototype, we succeeded in reconstructing images and spectra by solving the Compton equation from 122 keV to 662 keV. The energy resolution (FWHM) of reconstructed spectra is 7.3 keV at 511 keV and 3.1 keV at 122 keV, respectively. The angular resolution obtained at 511 keV is measured to be 12.2{sup o}(FWHM).

  3. Charge transport properties of p-CdTe/n-CdTe/n{sup +}-Si diode-type nuclear radiation detectors based on metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy-grown epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Niraula, M.; Yasuda, K.; Wajima, Y.; Yamashita, H.; Tsukamoto, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Matsumoto, M.; Takai, N.; Tsukamoto, Y.; Agata, Y.

    2013-10-28

    Charge transport properties of p-CdTe/n-CdTe/n{sup +}-Si diode-type nuclear radiation detectors, fabricated by growing p-and n-type CdTe epilayers on (211) n{sup +}-Si substrates using metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE), were studied by analyzing current-voltage characteristics measured at various temperatures. The diode fabricated shows good rectification properties, however, both forward and reverse biased currents deviate from their ideal behavior. The forward current exhibits typical feature of multi-step tunneling at lower biases; however, becomes space charge limited type when the bias is increased. On the other hand, the reverse current exhibits thermally activated tunneling-type current. It was found that trapping centers at the p-CdTe/n-CdTe junction, which were formed due to the growth induced defects, determine the currents of this diode, and hence limit the performance of the nuclear radiation detectors developed.

  4. Elastic pion Compton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalewski, R.V.; Berg, D.; Chandlee, C.; Cihangir, S.; Ferbel, T.; Huston, J.; Jensen, T.; Kornberg, R.; Lobkowicz, F.; Ohshima, T.

    1984-03-01

    We present evidence for elastic pion Compton scattering as observed via the Primakoff process on nulcear targets. We find production cross sections for ..pi../sup -/A..--> pi../sup -/..gamma..A on lead and copper of 0.249 +- 0.027 and 0.029 +- 0.006 mb, respectively, in agreement with the values expected from the one-photon-exchange mechanism of 0.268 +- 0.018 and 0.035 +- 0.004 mb in the region of our experimental acceptance. This reaction provides a clean test of the Primakoff formalism.

  5. Energy and coincidence time resolution measurements of CdTe detectors for PET

    PubMed Central

    Ariño, G.; Chmeissani, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Puigdengoles, C.; Cabruja, E.; Calderón, Y.; Kolstein, M.; Macias-Montero, J.G.; Martinez, R.; Mikhaylova, E.; Uzun, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the characterization of 2 mm thick CdTe diode detector with Schottky contacts to be employed in a novel conceptual design of PET scanner. Results at −8°C with an applied bias voltage of −1000 V/mm show a 1.2% FWHM energy resolution at 511 keV. Coincidence time resolution has been measured by triggering on the preamplifier output signal to improve the timing resolution of the detector. Results at the same bias and temperature conditions show a FWHM of 6 ns with a minimum acceptance energy of 500 keV. These results show that pixelated CdTe Schottky diode is an excellent candidate for the development of next generation nuclear medical imaging devices such as PET, Compton gamma cameras, and especially PET-MRI hybrid systems when used in a magnetic field immune configuration. PMID:23750177

  6. Energy and coincidence time resolution measurements of CdTe detectors for PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariño, G.; Chmeissani, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Puigdengoles, C.; Cabruja, E.; Calderón, Y.; Kolstein, M.; Macias-Montero, J. G.; Martinez, R.; Mikhaylova, E.; Uzun, D.

    2013-02-01

    We report on the characterization of 2 mm thick CdTe diode detector with Schottky contacts to be employed in a novel conceptual design of PET scanner. Results at -8°C with an applied bias voltage of -1000 V/mm show a 1.2% FWHM energy resolution at 511 keV. Coincidence time resolution has been measured by triggering on the preamplifier output signal to improve the timing resolution of the detector. Results at the same bias and temperature conditions show a FWHM of 6 ns with a minimum acceptance energy of 500 keV. These results show that pixelated CdTe Schottky diode is an excellent candidate for the development of next generation nuclear medical imaging devices such as PET, Compton gamma cameras, and especially PET-MRI hybrid systems when used in a magnetic field immune configuration.

  7. Energy and coincidence time resolution measurements of CdTe detectors for PET.

    PubMed

    Ariño, G; Chmeissani, M; De Lorenzo, G; Puigdengoles, C; Cabruja, E; Calderón, Y; Kolstein, M; Macias-Montero, J G; Martinez, R; Mikhaylova, E; Uzun, D

    2013-02-01

    We report on the characterization of 2 mm thick CdTe diode detector with Schottky contacts to be employed in a novel conceptual design of PET scanner. Results at -8°C with an applied bias voltage of -1000 V/mm show a 1.2% FWHM energy resolution at 511 keV. Coincidence time resolution has been measured by triggering on the preamplifier output signal to improve the timing resolution of the detector. Results at the same bias and temperature conditions show a FWHM of 6 ns with a minimum acceptance energy of 500 keV. These results show that pixelated CdTe Schottky diode is an excellent candidate for the development of next generation nuclear medical imaging devices such as PET, Compton gamma cameras, and especially PET-MRI hybrid systems when used in a magnetic field immune configuration.

  8. Using second-order calibration method based on trilinear decomposition algorithms coupled with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector for determination of quinolones in honey samples.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Jie; Wu, Hai-Long; Shao, Sheng-Zhi; Kang, Chao; Zhao, Juan; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Shao-Hua; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2011-09-15

    A novel strategy that combines the second-order calibration method based on the trilinear decomposition algorithms with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was developed to mathematically separate the overlapped peaks and to quantify quinolones in honey samples. The HPLC-DAD data were obtained within a short time in isocratic mode. The developed method could be applied to determine 12 quinolones at the same time even in the presence of uncalibrated interfering components in complex background. To access the performance of the proposed strategy for the determination of quinolones in honey samples, the figures of merit were employed. The limits of quantitation for all analytes were within the range 1.2-56.7 μg kg(-1). The work presented in this paper illustrated the suitability and interesting potential of combining second-order calibration method with second-order analytical instrument for multi-residue analysis in honey samples.

  9. Hard modeling methods for the curve resolution of data from liquid chromatography with a diode array detector and on-flow liquid chromatography with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wasim, Mohammad; Brereton, Richard G

    2006-01-01

    Hard modeling methods have been performed on data from high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (LC-DAD) and on-flow liquid chromatography with 1H nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (LC-NMR). Four methods have been used to optimize parameters to model concentration profiles, three of which belong to classical optimization methods (the simplex method of Nelder-Mead, sequential quadratic programming approach, and Levenberg-Marquardt method), and the fourth is the application of genetic algorithms using real-value encoding. Only classical methods worked well for LC-DAD data, while all of the methods produced good results when LC-NMR data were divided into small spectral windows of peak clusters and parameters were optimized over each window.

  10. Analysis of Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds in Aromatic Plants by RP-HPLC Coupled to Diode Array Detector (DAD) and GC-MS after Silylation

    PubMed Central

    Proestos, Charalampos; Komaitis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The following aromatic plants of Greek origin, Origanum dictamnus (dictamus), Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus), Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), Mellisa officinalis L. (balm mint) and Sideritis cretica (mountain tea), were examined for the content of phenolic substances. Reversed phase HPLC coupled to diode array detector (DAD) was used for the analysis of the plant extracts. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method (GC-MS) was also used for identification of phenolic compounds after silylation. The most abundant phenolic acids were: gallic acid (1.5–2.6 mg/100 g dry sample), ferulic acid (0.34–6.9 mg/100 g dry sample) and caffeic acid (1.0–13.8 mg/100 g dry sample). (+)-Catechin and (−)-epicatechin were the main flavonoids identified in oregano and mountain tea. Quercetin was detected only in eucalyptus and mountain tea. PMID:28239100

  11. Simultaneous extraction and analysis by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and mass spectrometric detectors of bixin and phenolic compounds from annatto seeds.

    PubMed

    Chisté, Renan Campos; Yamashita, Fábio; Gozzo, Fábio Cesar; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti

    2011-01-07

    This study was designed to identify and quantify the carotenoids and phenolic compounds from annatto seeds using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and mass spectrometer detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). Furthermore, using response surface methodology, an optimized procedure for simultaneous extraction of these compounds was established. In addition to bixin, known to be the main carotenoid in annatto seeds, hypolaetin and a caffeoyl acid derivative were identified as the main phenolic compounds. The optimized procedure involved 15 extractions using acetone:methanol:water (50:40:10, v/v/v) as solvent, a solid-liquid ratio of 1:9 (m/v) and an extraction time of 5 min. Validation data indicated that the HPLC method proposed provided good linearity, sensitivity, procedure accuracy, system precision and suggested its suitability for the simultaneous analysis of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in annatto seeds.

  12. A deuterium-labelling mass spectrometry-tandem diode-array detector screening method for rapid discovery of naturally occurring electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Luo, Liping; Ma, Zhongjun

    2011-07-01

    Because electrophiles regulate many signalling pathways in cells, by modifying cysteine residues in proteins, they have a wide range of biological activity. In this study, a deuterium-labelling mass spectrometry-tandem diode-array detector (MS-DAD) screening method was established for rapid discovery of naturally occurring electrophiles. Glutathione (GSH) was used as a probe and incubated with natural product extracts. To distinguish different types of electrophile, incubation was performed in two reaction solvents, H(2)O and D(2)O. Ten types of naturally occurring electrophile were chosen, on the basis of their properties, to undergo the screening assay. By using this screening method, we successfully discovered the bioactive electrophile 4-hydroxyderricin in an ethanol extract of Angelica keiskei. This electrophile had potent NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)-inducing activity at a concentration of 20 μmol L(-1).

  13. Diode Structure for Microwave and Infrared Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcorn, George; Leinteran, Charles; Chiang, Bing

    1987-01-01

    Microwave signals switched or modulated optically. Planar diode with transparent cathode made in BaAs, Si, and InSb versions. Depending on specific configuration and material, such diode used for optical modulation of microwave signal or as infrared detector. Transparent cathode fabricated on GaAs diode so diode illuminates to generate and control short-circuit current.

  14. SU-E-T-446: Evaluation of the Dosimetric Properties of a Diode Detector to Proton Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Teran, A; McAuley, G; Slater, J M; Slater, J D; Wroe, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To test the PTW PR60020 proton dosimetry diode in radiation fields relevant to proton radiosurgery applications and evaluate its suitability as a high resolution, real time dosimetry device. Methods: Data was collected using our standard nominal radiosurgery energies of 126 MeV and 155 MeV through a single stage scattering system, corresponding to a range of 9.7 and 15 cm in water respectively. Various beam modulations were tested as part of this study. Depth dose and beam profile measurements were completed with the PTW PR60020 dosimetry diode with comparative measurements using a PTW Markus ionization chamber and EBT2 Gafchromic film. Monte Carlo simulations were also completed for comparison. Results: The single 1 mm{sup 2} by 20 μm thick sensitive volume allowed for high spatial resolution measurements while maintaining sufficient sensitive volume to ensure that measurements could be completed without excessive beam delivery. Depth dose profiles exhibited negligible LET dependence which typically impacts film and other solid state dosimetry devices, while beam ranges measured with the PTW diode were within 1 mm of ion chamber data. In an edge on arrangement beam profiles were also measured within 0.5 mm full-width at half-maximum at various depths as compared to film and simulation data. Conclusion: The PTW PR60020 proved to be a very useful radiation metrology apparatus for proton radiosurgery applications. Its waterproof and rugged construction allowed for easy deployment in phantoms or water tanks that are commonly used in proton radiosurgery QA. Dosimetrically, the diode exhibited negligible LET dependence as a function of depth, while in edge on arrangement to the incident proton beam it facilitated the measurement of beam profiles with a spatial resolution comparable to both Monte Carlo and film measurements. This project was sponsored in part by funding from the Department of Defense (DOD# W81XWH-BAA-10-1)

  15. Diode and phosphor soft x-ray detectors: Studies of surface recombination, damage, and intensity effects in conversion efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Husk, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The author has measured the linearity of ZnS:Ag and Y[sub 2]O[sub 2]S:Eu over some 9 orders of magnitude of intensity. The photons-out per photon-in, [open quote]absolute quantum efficiency[close quote], of Y[sub 2]O[sub 2]S:Eu was found to be linear over this range while the expected nonlinearity of ZnS:Ag was measured in terms of absolute flux. The absolute quantum efficiency of 4 photodiodes was measured in the soft x-ray regime. The structure in the efficiency vs energy curves for the diodes was explained through the use of a model that involves carrier diffusion length, thickness of the surface layer, bulk gain of the diode, reflection coefficient and surface recombination velocity. The stability of the diodes of soft x-ray flux was also measured. Further he has measured the quantum efficiency of sodium salicylate from 70 to 280 eV. He has been able to fit a model to this efficiency using carrier diffusion length, bulk gain of the diode, the reflection coefficient and surface recombination velocity. By extending this model to low energies the author has explained the different shapes of the efficiency curves reported in the literature as being due to different surface recombination velocities. He has also explained the low energy [open quote]damage[close quote] reported in the literature as being due to changing surface recombination velocity. In addition, he has measured a change in the bulk quantum efficiency that involves second-order kinetics of the incident flux. Finally the author also measured the absolute quantum efficiency of 16 phosphors over the range from [approximately]20 to 500 eV. The stability as a function of intensity over various ranges has also been measured.

  16. Recent Results From a Si/CdTe Semiconductor Compton Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Watanabe, S.; Takeda, S.; Oonuki, K.; Mitani, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Takashima, T.; Takahashi, T.; Tajima, H.; Sawamoto, N.; Fukazawa, Y.; Nomachi, M.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Tokyo U. /SLAC /Hiroshima U. /Osaka U.

    2007-01-23

    We are developing a Compton telescope based on high resolution Si and CdTe detectors for astrophysical observations in sub-MeV/MeV gamma-ray region. Recently, we constructed a prototype Compton telescope which consists of six layers of double-sided Si strip detectors and CdTe pixel detectors to demonstrate the basic performance of this new technology. By irradiating the detector with gamma-rays from radio isotope sources, we have succeeded in Compton reconstruction of images and spectra. The obtained angular resolution is 3.9{sup o} (FWHM) at 511 keV, and the energy resolution is 14 keV (FWHM) at the same energy. In addition to the conventional Compton reconstruction, i.e., drawing cones in the sky, we also demonstrated a full reconstruction by tracking Compton recoil electrons using the signals detected in successive Si layers. By irradiating {sup 137}Cs source, we successfully obtained an image and a spectrum of 662 keV line emission with this method. As a next step, development of larger double-sided Si strip detectors with a size of 4 cm x 4 cm is underway to improve the effective area of the Compton telescope. We are also developing a new low-noise analog ASIC to handle the increasing number of channels. Initial results from these two new technologies are presented in this paper as well.

  17. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosten, Sylvester; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The European Muon Collaboration (EMC) observed the first signs of a modification of the partonic structure of the nucleon when present in a nuclear medium. The precise nature of these effects, as well as their underlying cause, is yet to be determined. The generalized parton distribution (GPD) framework provides a powerful tool to study the partonic structure of nucleons inside a nucleus. Hard exclusive leptoproduction of a real photon off a nucleon, deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS), is presently considered the cleanest experimental access to the GPDs, through the Compton form factors (CFFs). This is especially the case for scattering off the spin-zero helium nucleus, where only a single CFF contributes to the process. The real and imaginary parts of this CFF can be constrained through the beam-spin asymmetry (BSA). We will present the first measurements of the DVCS process off 4He using the CEBAF 6 GeV polarized electron beam and the CLAS detector at JLab. The CLAS detector was supplemented with an inner electromagnetic calorimeter for photons produced at small angles, as well as a radial time projection chamber (RTPC) to detect low-energy recoil nuclei. This setup allowed for a clean measurement of the BSA in both the coherent and incoherent channels.

  18. Single-laboratory validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic-diode array detector-fluorescence detector/mass spectrometric method for simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins in multivitamin dietary tablets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Atkinson, Renata; Wolf, Wayne R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a single-laboratory validated (SLV) method using high-performance liquid chromatography with different detectors [diode array detector (DAD); fluorescence detector (FLD); and mass spectrometry (MS)] for determination of 7 B-complex vitamins (B1-thiamin, B2-riboflavin, B3-nicotinamide, B6-pyridoxine, B9-folic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin) and vitamin C in multivitamin/multimineral dietary supplements. The method involves the use of a reversed-phase octadecylsilyl column (4 microm, 250 x 2.0 mm id) and a gradient mobile phase profile. Gradient elution was performed at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. After a 5 min isocratic elution at 100% A (0.1% formic acid in water), a linear gradient to 50% A and 50% B (0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile) at 15 min was employed. Detection was performed with a DAD as well as either an FLD or a triple-quadrupole MS detector in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. SLV was performed using Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3280 Multivitamin/Multimineral Tablets, being developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, with support by the Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health. Phosphate buffer (10 mM, pH 2.0) extracts of the NIST SRM 3280 were analyzed by the liquid chromatographic (LC)-DAD-FLDIMS method. Following extraction, the method does not require any sample cleanup/preconcentration steps except centrifugation and filtration.

  19. Single-Laboratory Validation of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic-Diode Array Detector-Fluorescence Detector/Mass Spectrometric Method for Simultaneous Determination of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Multivitamin Dietary Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei; Atkinson, Renata; Wolf, Wayne R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a single-laboratory validated (SLV) method using high-performance liquid chromatography with different detectors [diode array detector (DAD); fluorescence detector (FLD); and mass spectrometry (MS)] for determination of 7 B-complex vitamins (B1-thiamin, B2-riboflavin, B3-nicotinamide, B6-pyridoxine, B9-folic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin) and vitamin C in multivitamin/multimineral dietary supplements. The method involves the use of a reversed-phase octadecylsilyl column (4 µm, 250 × 2.0 mm id) and a gradient mobile phase profile. Gradient elution was performed at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. After a 5 min isocratic elution at 100% A (0.1% formic acid in water), a linear gradient to 50% A and 50% B (0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile) at 15 min was employed. Detection was performed with a DAD as well as either an FLD or a triple-quadrupole MS detector in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. SLV was performed using Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3280 Multivitamin/Multimineral Tablets, being developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, with support by the Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health. Phosphate buffer (10 mM, pH 2.0) extracts of the NIST SRM 3280 were analyzed by the liquid chromatographic (LC)-DAD-FLD/MS method. Following extraction, the method does not require any sample cleanup/preconcentration steps except centrifugation and filtration. PMID:19485230

  20. Laser-induced breakdown spectra in the infrared region from 750 to 2000 nm using a cooled InGaAs diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Radziemski, Leon J; Cremers, David A; Bostian, Melissa; Chinni, Rosemarie C; Navarro-Northrup, Claudia

    2007-11-01

    Emissions from a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) plasma were examined in the region from 750 nm to 2000 nm. A Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and 75 mJ per pulse were used to initiate the plasma. The detector was an InGaAs 1024 element diode array cooled to -100 degrees C. An f/4 spectrometer with gratings blazed for this region was used as the dispersive element. Survey spectra of soils, uranium, and other selected samples were taken in air and in a flow cell purged with argon at a local pressure of 0.84 x 10(5) Pa. Strong infrared lines of neutral aluminum, carbon, potassium, silicon, sulfur, and uranium, as well as once ionized lines of calcium, were observed out to 1670 nm. For potassium, the detection limits of the infrared (IR) system were compared with those obtained from a standard intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) spectrometer arrangement, using the 766-770 nm doublet. Detection limits with the IR system were twice as high as those obtained from the ICCD detector.

  1. Separation of transition metals on a poly-iminodiacetic acid grafted polymeric resin column with post-column reaction detection utilising a paired emitter-detector diode system.

    PubMed

    Barron, Leon; O'Toole, Martina; Diamond, Dermot; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2008-12-05

    The selectivity, retention and separation of transition metals on a short (2 mm x 50 mm) column packed with a poly-iminodiacetic acid functionalised polymer 10 microm resin (Dionex ProPac IMAC-10) are presented. This stationary phase, typically used for the separation of proteins, is composed of long chain poly-iminodiacetic acid groups grafted to a hydrophilic layer surrounding a 10 microm polymeric bead. Through the use of a combination of a multi-step pH and picolinic acid gradient, the separation of magnesium, iron, cobalt, cadmium, zinc, lead and copper was possible, followed by post-column reaction with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) and absorbance detection at 510 nm using a novel and inexpensive optical detector, comprised of two light emitting diodes with one acting as a light source and the other as a detector. Column efficiency for selective transition metals was in excess of N=10,000, with the baseline separation of seven metal cations in <3 min possible under optimised conditions. Detection limits of between 5 and 81 microg/L were possible based upon a 50 microL injection volume.

  2. A sensitive and versatile detector for atmospheric NO2 and NOx based on blue diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Hendrik; Dubé, William P; Lerner, Brian M; Wagner, Nicholas L; Williams, Eric J; Brown, Steven S

    2009-10-15

    A sensitive, small detector was developed for atmospheric NO2 and NOx concentration measurements. NO2 is directly detected by laser diode based cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) at 404 nm. The sum of NO and NO2 (=NOx) is simultaneously measured in a second cavity by quantitative conversion of ambient NO to NO2 in excess ozone. Interferences due to absorption by other trace gases at 404 nm, such as ozone and water vapor, are either negligible or small and are easily quantified. The limit of detection is 22 pptv (2sigma precision) for NO2 at 1 s time resolution. The conversion efficiency of NO to NO2 is 99% in excess O3. The accuracy of the NO2 measurement is mainly limited by the NO2 absorption cross section to +/-3%. Because of the formation of undetectable higher nitrogen oxides in subsequent reactions of NO2 with ozone in the NOx channel, the (1sigma) accuracy of the NOx measurement is increased to approximately +/-5% depending on the level of NOx. The new instrument was designed to be easily deployed in the field with respect to size, weight and consumables. Measurements were validated against a photolysis/chemiluminescence detector during six days of sampling ambient air with colocated inlets. The data sets for NO2, NO and NOx exhibit high correlation and good agreement within the combined accuracies of both methods. Linear fits for all three species give similar slopes of 0.99 in ambient air.

  3. GAMCOTE: a prototype for an advanced Compton Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Séréville, N.; Tatischeff, V.; Laurent, P.; Bertoli, W.; Brulin, G.; Dormard, J.-J.; Dosme, N.; Faul, T.; Genolini, B.; Gibelin, L.; Gostojić, A.; Grave, X.; Hamadache, C.; Karkour, N.; Kiener, J.; Lafay, X.; Legay, E.; Limousin, O.; Linget, D.; Maier, D.; Oger, R.; Peyré, J.; Rauly, E.; Rosier, P.; Santos, C.; Torrentó, A.-S.; Le Ven, V.; Wanlin, E.

    2016-07-01

    Astronomy in the MeV gamma-ray band (0.1 - 100 MeV) holds a rich promise for elucidating many fundamental questions concerning the most violent cosmic phenomena. The next generation of gamma-ray space instrument could be a Compton and pair-creation telescope made of two main parts: a silicon tracker optimized for Compton scattering of cosmic gamma rays and a calorimeter that absorbs the scattered photons. We present here the first results of GAMCOTE, a GAMma-ray COmpton TElescope prototype which includes thick double sided silicon strip detectors coupled to a LaBr3:Ce crystal read by a 64 multi-anode photomultiplier tube.

  4. Compton suppressed LaBr3 detection system for use in nondestructive spent fuel assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, S.; Heidrich, B.; Ünlü, K.

    2015-06-01

    Current methods for safeguarding and accounting for spent nuclear fuel in reprocessing facilities are extremely resource and time intensive. The incorporation of autonomous passive gamma-ray detectors into the procedure could make the process significantly less burdensome. In measured gamma-ray spectra from spent nuclear fuel, the Compton continuum from dominant fission product photopeaks obscure the lower energy lines from other isotopes. The application of Compton suppression to gamma-ray measurements of spent fuel may reduce this effect and allow other less intense, lower energy peaks to be detected, potentially improving the accuracy of multivariate analysis algorithms. Compton suppressed spectroscopic measurements of spent nuclear fuel using HPGe, LaBr3, and NaI(Tl) primary detectors were performed. Irradiated fuel was measured in two configurations: as intact fuel elements viewed through a collimator and as feed solutions in a laboratory to simulate the measurement of a dissolved process stream. These two configurations allowed the direct assessment and quantification of the differences in measured gamma-ray spectra from the application of Compton suppression. In the first configuration, several irradiated fuel elements of varying cooling times from the Penn State Breazeale Reactor spent fuel inventory were measured using the three collimated Compton suppression systems. In the second geometry, Compton suppressed measurements of two samples of Approved Test Material commercial fuel elements were recorded inside the guard detector annulus to simulate the siphoning of small quantities from the main process stream for long dwell measurement periods. Compton suppression was found to improve measured gamma-ray spectra of spent fuel for multivariate analysis by notably lowering the Compton continuum from dominant photopeaks such as 137Cs and 140La, due to scattered interactions in the detector, which allowed more spectral features to be resolved. There was a

  5. A planar, chip-based, dual-beam refractometer using an integrated organic light-emitting diode (OLED) light source and organic photovoltaic (OPV) detectors.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Erin L; Veneman, P Alex; Simmonds, Adam; Zacher, Brian; Huebner, Daniel; Saavedra, S Scott; Armstrong, Neal R

    2010-04-01

    We present a simple chip-based refractometer with a central organic light-emitting diode (OLED) light source and two opposed organic photovoltaic (OPV) detectors on an internal reflection element (IRE) substrate, creating a true dual-beam sensor platform. For first-generation platforms, we demonstrate the use of a single heterojunction OLED based on electroluminescence from an Alq(3)/TPD heterojunction (tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum/N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine) and light detection with planar heterojunction pentacene/C(60) OPVs. The sensor utilizes the considerable fraction of emitted light from conventional thin-film OLEDs that is coupled into guided modes in the IRE, instead of into the forward (display) direction. A ray-optics description is used to describe light throughput and efficiency-limiting factors for light coupling from the OLED into the substrate modes, light traversing through the IRE substrate, and light coupling into the OPV detectors. The arrangement of the OLED at the center of the chip provides for two sensing regions: a "sample" channel and a "reference" channel, with detection of light by independent OPV detectors. This configuration allows for normalization of the sensor response against fluctuations in OLED light output, stability, and local fluctuations (temperature) that might influence sensor response. The dual-beam configuration permits significantly enhanced sensitivity to refractive index changes, relative to single-beam protocols, and is easily integrated into a field-portable instrumentation package. Changes in refractive index (DeltaRI) between 10(-2) and 10(-3) RI units could be detected for single beam operation, with sensitivity increased to DeltaRI approximately 10(-4) RI units when the dual-beam configuration is employed.

  6. A Planar, Chip-Based, Dual-Beam Refractometer Using an Integrated Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) Light Source and Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Erin L.; Veneman, P. Alex; Simmonds, Adam; Zacher, Brian; Huebner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple chip-based refractometer with a central organic light emitting diode (OLED) light source and two opposed organic photovoltaic (OPV) detectors on an internal reflection element (IRE) substrate, creating a true dual-beam sensor platform. For first-generation platforms, we demonstrate the use of a single heterojunction OLED based on electroluminescence emission from an Alq3/TPD heterojunction (tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum/N,N′-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine) and light detection with planar heterojunction pentacene/C60 OPVs. The sensor utilizes the considerable fraction of emitted light from conventional thin film OLEDs that is coupled into guided modes in the IRE instead of into the forward (display) direction. A ray-optics description is used to describe light throughput and efficiency-limiting factors for light coupling from the OLED into the substrate modes, light traversing through the IRE substrate, and light coupling into the OPV detectors. The arrangement of the OLED at the center of the chip provides for two sensing regions, a “sample” and “reference” channel, with detection of light by independent OPV detectors. This configuration allows for normalization of the sensor response against fluctuations in OLED light output, stability, and local fluctuations (temperature) which might influence sensor response. The dual beam configuration permits significantly enhanced sensitivity to refractive index changes relative to single-beam protocols, and is easily integrated into a field-portable instrumentation package. Changes in refractive index (ΔR.I.) between 10−2 and 10−3 R.I. units could be detected for single channel operation, with sensitivity increased to ΔR.I. ≈ 10−4 units when the dual beam configuration is employed. PMID:20218580

  7. Fluorescence-suppressed time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of pharmaceuticals using complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector.

    PubMed

    Rojalin, Tatu; Kurki, Lauri; Laaksonen, Timo; Viitala, Tapani; Kostamovaara, Juha; Gordon, Keith C; Galvis, Leonardo; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Strachan, Clare J; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we utilize a short-wavelength, 532-nm picosecond pulsed laser coupled with a time-gated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector to acquire Raman spectra of several drugs of interest. With this approach, we are able to reveal previously unseen Raman features and suppress the fluorescence background of these drugs. Compared to traditional Raman setups, the present time-resolved technique has two major improvements. First, it is possible to overcome the strong fluorescence background that usually interferes with the much weaker Raman spectra. Second, using the high photon energy excitation light source, we are able to generate a stronger Raman signal compared to traditional instruments. In addition, observations in the time domain can be performed, thus enabling new capabilities in the field of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. With this system, we demonstrate for the first time the possibility of recording fluorescence-suppressed Raman spectra of solid, amorphous and crystalline, and non-photoluminescent and photoluminescent drugs such as caffeine, ranitidine hydrochloride, and indomethacin (amorphous and crystalline forms). The raw data acquired by utilizing only the picosecond pulsed laser and a CMOS SPAD detector could be used for identifying the compounds directly without any data processing. Moreover, to validate the accuracy of this time-resolved technique, we present density functional theory (DFT) calculations for a widely used gastric acid inhibitor, ranitidine hydrochloride. The obtained time-resolved Raman peaks were identified based on the calculations and existing literature. Raman spectra using non-time-resolved setups with continuous-wave 785- and 532-nm excitation lasers were used as reference data. Overall, this demonstration of time-resolved Raman and fluorescence measurements with a CMOS SPAD detector shows promise in diverse areas, including fundamental chemical research, the

  8. Large-Scale Compton Imaging for Wide-Area Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, D J; Manini, H A; Wright, D M

    2006-03-01

    We study the performance of a large-scale Compton imaging detector placed in a low-flying aircraft, used to search wide areas for rad/nuc threat sources. In this paper we investigate the performance potential of equipping aerial platforms with gamma-ray detectors that have photon sensitivity up to a few MeV. We simulate the detector performance, and present receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for a benchmark scenario using a {sup 137}Cs source. The analysis uses a realistic environmental background energy spectrum and includes air attenuation.

  9. Fluorometric flow-immunoassay for alkylphenol polyethoxylates on a microchip containing a fluorescence detector comprised of an organic light emitting diode and an organic photodiode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Yahiro, Masayuki; Adachi, Chihaya; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2015-03-01

    A compact fluorescence detector was constructed on a microchip from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) as the light source and an organic photodiode (OPD) as the photo-detector and was used in an immunoassay for alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APE). The OLED based on a terbium complex emitted a sharp light at the main wavelength of 546 nm with a full width at half maximum of 9 nm. The incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the OPD fabricated with Fullerene 70 (C70) and tris[4-(5-phenylthiopen-2-yl)phenyl]-amine (TPTPA) was approximately 44% for light at a wavelength of 586 nm. The performance of the fluorescence detector was evaluated for the determination of resorufin (λ(em)=586 nm) and the photocurrent of the OPD due to the fluorescence of resorufin was proportional to the concentration of resorufin in the range from 0 to 18 µM with a detection limit (S/N=3) of 0.6 µM. The fluorescence detector was successfully utilized in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for APE, where an anti-APE antibody was immobilized on the surface of the channel of the Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip or on the surface of magnetic microbeads. After an immunoreaction with a sample solution of APE containing a horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled APE, the fluorescence of resorufin generated just after introduction of a mixed solution of Amplex Red and H2O2 was measured using the fluorescence detector. The calibration curve for the photocurrent signals of the OPD due to the fluorescence of resorufin against the logarithmic concentration of APE was sigmoidal in shape. The detection limits defined as IC80 were ca. 1 ppb and ca. 2 ppb, respectively, for the methods using the anti-APE antibody immobilized on the surface of the microchannel and in the case where the antibody was immobilized on the surface of magnetic microbeads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Miniaturized time-resolved Raman spectrometer for planetary science based on a fast single photon avalanche diode detector array.

    PubMed

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Alerstam, Erik; Maruyama, Yuki; Cochrane, Corey J; Rossman, George R

    2016-02-01

    We present recent developments in time-resolved Raman spectroscopy instrumentation and measurement techniques for in situ planetary surface exploration, leading to improved performance and identification of minerals and organics. The time-resolved Raman spectrometer uses a 532 nm pulsed microchip laser source synchronized with a single photon avalanche diode array to achieve sub-nanosecond time resolution. This instrument can detect Raman spectral signatures from a wide variety of minerals and organics relevant to planetary science while eliminating pervasive background interference caused by fluorescence. We present an overview of the instrument design and operation and demonstrate high signal-to-noise ratio Raman spectra for several relevant samples of sulfates, clays, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Finally, we present an instrument design suitable for operation on a rover or lander and discuss future directions that promise great advancement in capability.

  11. Qualitative and quantitative determination of polyacetylenes in different Bupleurum species by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai-Qiang; Su, Juan; Zhang, Xi; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2011-02-25

    Polyacetylenes are main toxic ingredients in Bupleurum longiradiatum, a poisonous plant that has ever been misused as substitutes for Chaihu (Bupleuri Radix). For the first time, a high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detector and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine polyacetylenes in Bupleurum species. All references, including two new polyacetylenes, were isolated from B. longiradiatum and purified using a semi-preparation HPLC chromatography. The analysis was performed on a TSKgel ODS-100V C18 column (3 μm, 150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.) using a gradient system of acetonitrile and water, with diode array detection (254 nm). The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection and quantification. A total of 27 Bupleurum samples were examined with this method, which showed a great variety in the distribution and contents of the polyacetylenes. It was found that polyacetylenes (1-8) were the main ingredients in B. longiradiatum, while a few kinds of polyacetylenes (5-8) were also identified in B. smithii, B. smithii var. parvifolium, B. bicaule and B. angustissimum. However, no polyacetylenes (1-9) were detected in the authentic Chaihu samples and the other Bupleurum species. The results indicated that the toxic B. longiradiatum could readily be distinguished from other medicinal Bupleurum species based on the polyacetylene profiles, and the guidelines and quality control of polyacetylenes for Chaihu are useful. The acute toxicity of the ethanol extract of B. longiradiatum and its fractions was also investigated.

  12. Simple modification of Compton polarimeter to redirect synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benesch, J.; Franklin, G. B.; Quinn, B. P.; Paschke, K. D.

    2015-11-01

    Synchrotron radiation produced as an electron beam passes through a bending magnet is a significant source of background in many experiments. Using modeling, we show that simple modifications of the magnet geometry can reduce this background by orders of magnitude in some circumstances. Specifically, we examine possible modifications of the four dipole magnets used in Jefferson Lab's Hall A Compton polarimeter chicane. This Compton polarimeter has been a crucial part of experiments with polarized beams and the next generation of experiments will utilize increased beam energies, up to 11 GeV, requiring a corresponding increase in Compton dipole field to 1.5 T. In consequence, the synchrotron radiation (SR) from the dipole chicane will be greatly increased. Three possible modifications of the chicane dipoles are studied; each design moves about 2% of the integrated bending field to provide a gentle bend in critical regions along the beam trajectory which, in turn, greatly reduces the synchrotron radiation within the acceptance of the Compton polarimeter photon detector. Each of the modifications studied also softens the SR energy spectrum at the detector sufficiently to allow shielding with 5 mm of lead. Simulations show that these designs are each capable of reducing the background signal due to SR by three orders of magnitude. The three designs considered vary in their need for vacuum vessel changes and in their effectiveness.

  13. Simple modification of Compton polarimeter to redirect synchrotron radiation

    DOE PAGES

    Benesch, Jay F.; Franklin, Gregg B.; Quinn, Brian P.; ...

    2015-11-30

    Synchrotron radiation produced as an electron beam passes through a bending magnet is a significant source of background in many experiments. Using modeling, we show that simple modifications of the magnet geometry can reduce this background by orders of magnitude in some circumstances. Specifically, we examine possible modifications of the four dipole magnets used in Jefferson Lab’s Hall A Compton polarimeter chicane. This Compton polarimeter has been a crucial part of experiments with polarized beams and the next generation of experiments will utilize increased beam energies, up to 11 GeV, requiring a corresponding increase in Compton dipole field to 1.5more » T. In consequence, the synchrotron radiation (SR) from the dipole chicane will be greatly increased. Three possible modifications of the chicane dipoles are studied; each design moves about 2% of the integrated bending field to provide a gentle bend in critical regions along the beam trajectory which, in turn, greatly reduces the synchrotron radiation within the acceptance of the Compton polarimeter photon detector. Each of the modifications studied also softens the SR energy spectrum at the detector sufficiently to allow shielding with 5 mm of lead. Simulations show that these designs are each capable of reducing the background signal due to SR by three orders of magnitude. The three designs considered vary in their need for vacuum vessel changes and in their effectiveness.« less

  14. Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2007-03-01

    We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities.

  15. Using MCNP for Compton Scattering Calculations with BGO Scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Board, Jeremy; Womble, Phillip; Barzilov, Alexander

    2007-04-01

    Compton scattering is the process wherein photons scatter on the electrons within a material. In a detector, some of these scattered photons leave the detector with only part of their full energy. This creates a continuum which changes the signal to noise ratio with a gamma ray spectrum. For high resolution detectors such as high purity Ge (HPGe) solid state gamma ray detectors, a secondary detector surrounds the HPGe. The purpose of the secondary detector (made of a high Z material) is to detect the scattered photons. When both detectors have coincident photon events, a special circuit stops the data acquisition from acquiring the signal from the HPGe. Our goal is to design the optimal Compton ``suppressor'' using bismuth germinate scintillators for gamma rays whose energies are much larger than 1 MeV. Currently such suppressors are designed for energies less than 2 MeV. We are using the Monte Carlo N-particle code to calculate the amount of photon scattering in the HPGe into geometry of BGO surrounding the HPGe crystal. We are estimating both photon and electron fluence through the volume of BGO.

  16. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Compounds in the Pulp and Seed of Sea Buckthorn

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lu; Wen, E; Upur, Halmuart; Tian, Shuge

    2017-01-01

    Context: Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) as a traditional Chinese medicinal plant has various uses in Xinjiang. Objective: A reversed-phase rapid-resolution liquid-chromatography method with diode array detector was developed for simultaneous determination of protocatechuic acid, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin in the pulp and seed of sea buckthorn, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for promoting metabolism and treating scurvy and other diseases. Settings and design: Compounds were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm; USA) with gradient elution using methanol and 0.4% phosphoric acid (v/v) at 1.0 mL/min. Detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. Materials and Methods: The fruits of wild sea buckthorn were collected from Wushi County in Aksu, Xinjiang Province. Statistical performances: The RSD of precision test of the five compounds were in the range of 0.60-2.22%, and the average recoveries ranged from 97.36% to 101.19%. Good linearity between specific chromatographic peak and component qualities were observed in the investigated ranges for all the analytes (R2 > 0.9997). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of five active components in sea buckthorn samples from Aksu in Xinjiang. Conclusions: The proposed method is simple, fast, sensitive, accurate, and suitable for quantitative assessment of the pulp and seed of sea buckthorn. SUMMARY Quantitative analysis method of protocatechuic acid, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin in the extract of sea buckthorn pulp and seed is developed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) diode array detection.This method is simple and accurate; has strong specificity, good precision, and high recovery rate; and provides a reliable basis for further development of the substances in the pulp and seed of sea buckthorn.The method is widely used for content determination of active ingredients or physiologically

  17. Reverse Phase-ultra Flow Liquid Chromatography-diode Array Detector Quantification of Anticancerous and Antidiabetic Drug Mangiferin from 11 Species of Swertia from India

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, Parthraj R.; Gaikwad, Nikhil B.; Panda, Subhasis; Hegde, Harsha V.; Pai, Sandeep R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Genus Swertia is valued for its great medicinal potential, mainly Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) H. Karst. is used in traditional medicine for a wide range of diseases. Mangiferin one of xanthoids is referred with enormous pharmacological potentials. Objective: The aim of the study was to quantify and compare the anticancerous and antidiabetic drug mangiferin from 11 Swertia species from India. The study also evaluates hierarchical relationships between the species based on mangiferin content using multivariate analysis. Materials and Methods: The reverse phase-ultra flow liquid chromatography-diode array detector analyses was performed and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Lichrospher 100, C18e (5 μm) column (250–4.6 mm). Mobile phase consisting of 0.2% triethylamine (pH-4 with O-phosphoric acid) and acetonitrile (85:15) was used for separation with injection volume 20 μL and detection wave length at 257 nm. Results: Results indicated that concentration of mangiferin has been found to vary largely between Swertia species collected from different regions. Content of mangiferin was found to be highest in Swertia minor compared to other Swertia species studied herein from the Western Ghats and Himalayan region also. The same was also evident in the multivariate analysis, wherein S. chirayita, S. minor and Swertia paniculata made a separate clade. Conclusion: Conclusively, the work herein provides insights of mangiferin content from 11 Swertia species of India and also presents their hierarchical relationships. To best of the knowledge this is the first report of higher content of mangiferin from any Swertia species. SUMMARY The present study quantifies and compares mangiferin in 11 species of Swertia from India. The study also evaluates hierarchical relationships between the species based on mangiferin content using multivariate analysis. The mangiferin content was highest in S. minor compared to the studied Swertia species. To the

  18. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Compounds in the Pulp and Seed of Sea Buckthorn.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu; Wen, E; Upur, Halmuart; Tian, Shuge

    2017-01-01

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) as a traditional Chinese medicinal plant has various uses in Xinjiang. A reversed-phase rapid-resolution liquid-chromatography method with diode array detector was developed for simultaneous determination of protocatechuic acid, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin in the pulp and seed of sea buckthorn, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for promoting metabolism and treating scurvy and other diseases. Compounds were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm; USA) with gradient elution using methanol and 0.4% phosphoric acid (v/v) at 1.0 mL/min. Detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. The fruits of wild sea buckthorn were collected from Wushi County in Aksu, Xinjiang Province. The RSD of precision test of the five compounds were in the range of 0.60-2.22%, and the average recoveries ranged from 97.36% to 101.19%. Good linearity between specific chromatographic peak and component qualities were observed in the investigated ranges for all the analytes (R(2) > 0.9997). The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of five active components in sea buckthorn samples from Aksu in Xinjiang. The proposed method is simple, fast, sensitive, accurate, and suitable for quantitative assessment of the pulp and seed of sea buckthorn. Quantitative analysis method of protocatechuic acid, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin in the extract of sea buckthorn pulp and seed is developed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) diode array detection.This method is simple and accurate; has strong specificity, good precision, and high recovery rate; and provides a reliable basis for further development of the substances in the pulp and seed of sea buckthorn.The method is widely used for content determination of active ingredients or physiologically active components in traditional Chinese medicine and its preparation Abbreviation used: PR: protocatechuic acid, RU

  19. Image Artifacts Resulting from Gamma-Ray Tracking Algorithms Used with Compton Imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, Carolyn E.; He, Zhong

    2005-10-01

    For Compton imaging it is necessary to determine the sequence of gamma-ray interactions in a single detector or array of detectors. This can be done by time-of-flight measurements if the interactions are sufficiently far apart. However, in small detectors the time between interactions can be too small to measure, and other means of gamma-ray sequencing must be used. In this work, several popular sequencing algorithms are reviewed for sequences with two observed events and three or more observed events in the detector. These algorithms can result in poor imaging resolution and introduce artifacts in the backprojection images. The effects of gamma-ray tracking algorithms on Compton imaging are explored in the context of the 4π Compton imager built by the University of Michigan.

  20. A Compton imaging device for radioactive material detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, A. S.; Baird, W.; Kippen, R. Marc; Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini; Sullivan, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    The most serious terrorist threat we face today may come from radiological dispersion devices and unsecured nuclear weapons. It is imperative for national security that we develop and implement radiation detection technology capable of locating and tracking nuclear material moving across and within our borders. Many radionuclides emit gamma rays in the 0.2-3 MeV range. Unfortunately, current gamma ray detection technology is inadequate for providing precise and efficient measurements of localized radioactive sources. Common detectors available today suffer from large background rates and have only minimal ability to localize the position of the source without the use of mechanical collimators, which reduces efficiency. Imaging detectors using the Compton scattering process have the potential to provide greatly improved sensitivity through their ability to reject off-source background. We are developing a prototype device to demonstrate the Compton imaging technology. The detector consists of several layers of pixelated silicon detectors followed by an array of CsI crystals coupled to photodiodes. Here we present the concept of our detector design and results from Monte Carlo simulations of our prototype detector. Development of technologies for detecting and characterizing radiation from various nuclear materials is important for many fields, including homeland security, astrophysics, and medical imaging. Unfortunately, in many cases we now largely use detection technologies that were developed in the 1960s. While sufficient for some purposes, these technologies have proved inadequate for remote sensing of radioactive nuclear materials - a crucial capability required for enhanced homeland security. Passive gamma ray detection is the most direct means of providing this capability, but current detectors are severely limited in sensitivity and detection range due to confusion from off-source backgrounds, and they cannot precisely localize sources when they are

  1. Extraction and Quantification of Tryptophan and Kynurenine from Cultured Cells and Media Using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) System Equipped with an Ultra-Sensitive Diode Array Detector

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeffrey; Stewart, Benjamin; Weiss, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of the involvement of tryptophan and its metabolite, kynurenine, in various biological processes including cancer is constantly expanding. Analysis of cell extracts and culture media can allow for quick snapshots of the metabolic fluctuations occurring in vitro. Here, we describe a method for metabolite extraction from mammalian cells and analysis of extracted metabolites and cell culture media by HPLC with detection using an ultra-sensitive diode array detector. PMID:27213172

  2. Study on photon sensitivity of silicon diodes related to materials used for shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, T.

    1999-08-01

    Large area silicon diodes used in electronic neutron dosemeters have a significant over-response to X- and gamma-rays, highly non-linear at photon energies below 200 keV. This over-response to photons is proportional to the diode's active area and strongly affects the neutron sensitivity of such dosemeters. Since silicon diodes are sensitive to light and electromagnetic fields, most diode detector assemblies are provided with a shielding, sometimes also used as radiation filter. In this paper, the influence of materials covering the diode's active area is investigated using the MCNP-4A code by estimating the photon induced pulses in a typical silicon wafer (300 μm thickness and 1 cm diameter) when provided with a front case cover. There have been simulated small-size diode front covers made of several materials with low neutron interaction cross-sections like aluminium, TEFLON, iron and lead. The estimated number of induced pulses in the silicon wafer is calculated for each type of shielding at normal photon incidence for several photon energies from 9.8 keV up to 1.15 MeV and compared with that in a bare silicon wafer. The simulated pulse height spectra show the origin of the photon-induced pulses in silicon for each material used as protective cover: the photoelectric effect for low Z front case materials at low-energy incident photons (up to about 65 keV) and the Compton and build-up effects for high Z case materials at higher photon energies. A simple means to lower and flatten the photon response of silicon diodes over an extended X- and gamma rays energy range is proposed by designing a composed photon filter.

  3. The electromagnetic calorimeter in JLab Real Compton Scattering Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Shahinyan; Eugene Chudakov; A. Danagoulian; P. Degtyarenko; K. Egiyan; V. Gorbenko; J. Hines; E. Hovhannisyan; Ch. Hyde; C.W. de Jager; A. Ketikyan; V. Mamyan; R. Michaels; A.M. Nathan; V. Nelyubin; I. Rachek; M. Roedelbrom; A. Petrosyan; R. Pomatsalyuk; V. Popov; J. Segal; Yu. Shestakov; J. Templon; H. Voskanyan; B. Wojtsekhowski

    2007-04-16

    A hodoscope calorimeter comprising of 704 lead-glass blocks is described. The calorimeter was constructed for use in the JLab Real Compton Scattering experiment. The detector provides a measurement of the coordinates and the energy of scattered photons in the GeV energy range with resolutions of 5 mm and 6\\%/$\\sqrt{E_\\gamma \\, [GeV]}$, respectively. Design features and performance parameters during the experiment are presented.

  4. Method and apparatus for measuring lung density by Compton backscattering

    DOEpatents

    Loo, Billy W.; Goulding, Frederick S.

    1991-01-01

    The density of the lung of a patient suffering from pulmonary edema is monitored by irradiating the lung by a single collimated beam of monochromatic photons and measuring the energies of photons Compton backscattered from the lung by a single high-resolution, high-purity germanium detector. A compact system geometry and a unique data extraction scheme are utilized to monimize systematic errors due to the presence of the chestwall and multiple scattering.

  5. Method and apparatus for measuring lung density by Compton backscattering

    DOEpatents

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.

    1988-03-11

    The density of the lung of a patient suffering from pulmonary edema is monitored by irradiating the lung by a single collimated beam of monochromatic photons and measuring the energies of photons compton back-scattered from the lung by a single high-resolution, high-purity germanium detector. A compact system geometry and a unique data extraction scheme are utilized to minimize systematic errors due to the presence of the chestwall and multiple scattering. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Coded-Aperture Compton Camera for Gamma-Ray Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farber, Aaron M.; Williams, John G.

    2016-02-01

    A novel gamma-ray imaging system is demonstrated, by means of Monte Carlo simulation. Previous designs have used either a coded aperture or Compton scattering system to image a gamma-ray source. By taking advantage of characteristics of each of these systems a new design can be implemented that does not require a pixelated stopping detector. Use of the system is illustrated for a simulated radiation survey in a decontamination and decommissioning operation.

  7. Evaluation of Drying Process on the Composition of Black Pepper Ethanolic Extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography With Diode Array Detector

    PubMed Central

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Hejazi, Hoda; Ramezani, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Background Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is one of the well-known spices extensively used worldwide especially in India, and Southeast Asia. The presence of alkaloids in the pepper, namely, piperine and its three stereoisomers, isopiperine, chavicine and isochavicine are well noticed. Objectives The current study evaluated the effect of lyophilization and oven drying on the stability and decomposition of constituents of black pepper ethanolic extract. Materials and Methods In the current study ethanolic extract of black pepper obtained by maceration method was dried using two methods. The effect of freeze and oven drying on the chemical composition of the extract especially piperine and its three isomers were evaluated by HPLC analysis of the ethanolic extract before and after drying processes using diode array detector. The UV Vis spectra of the peaks at piperine retention time before and after each drying methods indicated maximum absorbance at 341.2 nm corresponding to standard piperine. Results The results indicated a decrease in intensity of the chromatogram peaks at approximately all retention times after freeze drying, indicating a few percent loss of piperine and its isomers upon lyophilization. Two impurity peaks were completely removed from the extract. Conclusions In oven dried samples two of the piperine stereoisomers were completely removed from the extract and the intensity of piperine peak was increased. PMID:24624176

  8. Analysis of EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food supplements using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ultraviolet, diode array or fluorescence detector.

    PubMed

    Danyi, Sophie; Brose, François; Brasseur, Catherine; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan; Pussemier, Luc; Robbens, Johan; De Saeger, Sarah; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2009-02-09

    High performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ultraviolet, diode array or fluorescence detector (HPLC/UV-FLD) has been used to set up a method to detect the 15(+1) EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food supplements covering the categories of dried plants and plant extracts excluding oily products. A mini validation was performed and the following parameters have been determined: limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, recovery and linearity. They were in close agreement with quality criteria described in the Commission Regulation (EC) No 333/2007 concerning the PAH benzo[a]pyrene in foodstuffs, except the not fluorescent cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene for which the UV detection leads to a higher limit of detection. Analysis of twenty commercial food supplements covering mainly the class of dried plants was performed to evaluate their PAHs contamination levels and to test the applicability of the method to various plant matrices. Fifty percent of analyzed samples showed concentration exceeding 2 microgkg(-1) for one or more PAHs.

  9. Simple, cost-effective and sensitive liquid chromatography diode array detector method for simultaneous determination of eight sulfonylurea herbicides in soya milk samples.

    PubMed

    Rejczak, Tomasz; Tuzimski, Tomasz

    2016-11-18

    In this study authors propose a simple, cost-effective and sensitive liquid chromatography diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for the simultaneous determination of eight sulfonylurea herbicides (oxasulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron, rimsulfuron, chlorsulfuron, mesosulfuron-methyl, amidosulfuron and bensulfuron-methyl) in soya milk samples. QuEChERS-based extraction procedure presents good performance for all of the analytes with recoveries in the range of 61-108% and relative standard deviations (RSD%) less than 15%. No significant matrix effect was observed thanks to application of effective zirconium-dioxide based sorbent (Z-Sep). Method LOQs for all investigated analytes were set at satisfactory low value of 10ngmL(-1) of food product. The procedure was evaluated in terms of natural samples analysis. Chlorsulfuron was determined at concentration of 14.2ngmL(-1) of soya milk product, which was qualitatively confirmed via LC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The most important steps of procedure optimization are presented.

  10. Evaluation of drying process on the composition of black pepper ethanolic extract by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Hejazi, Hoda; Ramezani, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is one of the well-known spices extensively used worldwide especially in India, and Southeast Asia. The presence of alkaloids in the pepper, namely, piperine and its three stereoisomers, isopiperine, chavicine and isochavicine are well noticed. The current study evaluated the effect of lyophilization and oven drying on the stability and decomposition of constituents of black pepper ethanolic extract. In the current study ethanolic extract of black pepper obtained by maceration method was dried using two methods. The effect of freeze and oven drying on the chemical composition of the extract especially piperine and its three isomers were evaluated by HPLC analysis of the ethanolic extract before and after drying processes using diode array detector. The UV Vis spectra of the peaks at piperine retention time before and after each drying methods indicated maximum absorbance at 341.2 nm corresponding to standard piperine. The results indicated a decrease in intensity of the chromatogram peaks at approximately all retention times after freeze drying, indicating a few percent loss of piperine and its isomers upon lyophilization. Two impurity peaks were completely removed from the extract. In oven dried samples two of the piperine stereoisomers were completely removed from the extract and the intensity of piperine peak was increased.

  11. Rapid and simple method for the determination of emodin in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lian-Xin; Wang, Jing-Bo; Hu, Li-Xue; Zhao, Jiang-Lin; Xiang, Da-Bing; Zou, Liang; Zhao, Gang

    2013-01-30

    A simple and rapid method for determining emodin, an active factor presented in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) has been developed. Emodin was separated from an extract of buckwheat on a Kromasil-ODS C(18) (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5 μm) column. The separation is achieved within 15 min on the ODS column. Emodin can be quantified using an external standard method detecting at 436 nm. Good linearity is obtained with a correlation coefficient exceeding 0.9992. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification are 5.7 and 19 μg/L, respectively. This method shows good reproducibility for the quantification of the emodin with a relative standard deviation value of 4.3%. Under optimized extraction conditions, the recovery of emodin was calculated as >90%. The validated method is successfully applied to quantify the emodin in tartary buckwheat and its products.

  12. Development and validation of carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran analysis by high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) for forensic Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Vagner; Hazarbassanov, Nicolle Queiroz; de Siqueira, Adriana; Florio, Jorge Camilo; Ciscato, Claudia Helena Pastor; Maiorka, Paulo Cesar; Fukushima, André Rinaldi; de Souza Spinosa, Helenice

    2017-09-14

    Agricultural pesticides used with the criminal intent to intoxicate domestic and wild animals are a serious concern in Veterinary Medicine. In order to identify the pesticide carbofuran and its metabolite 3- hydroxycarbofuran in animals suspected of exogenous intoxication a high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated in stomach contents, liver, vitreous humor and blood. The method was evaluated using biological samples from seven different animal species. The following parameters of analytical validation were evaluated: linearity, precision, accuracy, selectivity, recovery and matrix effect. The method was linear at the range of 6.25-100μg/mL and the correlation coefficient (r(2)) values were >0.9811 for all matrices. The precision and accuracy of the method was determined by coefficient of variation (CV) and the relative standard deviation error (RSE), and both were less than 15%. Recovery ranged from 74.29 to 100.1% for carbofuran and from 64.72 to 100.61% for 3-hydroxycarbofuran. There were no significant interfering peaks or matrix effects. This method was suitable for detecting 25 positive cases for carbofuran amongst a total of 64 animal samples suspected of poisoning brought to the Toxicology Diagnostic Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Sao Paulo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Simultaneous determination of ten bioactive compaounds from the roots of Cynanchum paniculatum by using high performance liquid chromatography coupled-diode array detector

    PubMed Central

    Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Bohyoung; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Ma, Choong Je

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cynanchum paniculatum Kitagawa belongs to Asclepiadaceae and was used in traditional medicine to invigorate blood, alleviate edema, relieve pain, and relieve toxicity for a long time. Objective: A novel and reliable high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector method has been established for simultaneous determination of 10 bioactive compounds isolated from Cynanchum paniculatum Kitagawa, one of the herbal medicines. Materials and Methods: The chromatography analysis was performed on a SHISEIDO C18 column (S-5 μm, 4.6 mm I.D. × 250 mm) at 35°C with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1ml/min and UV detection at 210, 230, and 280 nm. Results: The method was validated for linearity, precision, and accuracy. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 > 0.9996). Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) fell in the ranges 0.01 - 0.28 μg/ml and 0.04 - 0.83 μg/ml, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the intra- and inter- day test, precision test were within 1.92% and 2.43%, respectively. The mean recovery of all ranged from 92.82 to 107.96% with RSD values 0.12 - 2.18%. Conclusion: The results of validation appeared that this established method was very accurate and stabilized for the quantification of 10 bioactive compounds isolated from C. paniculatum. PMID:23060698

  14. Development of a rapid resolution liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the determination of three compounds in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam from different origins of Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shuge; Yu, Qian; Wang, Dongdong; Upur, Halmuart

    2012-10-01

    As a traditional Uygur medicinal plant, Z. clinopodioides Lam has various uses in Xinjiang. A reversed-phase rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RP-RRLC) method with diode array detector (DAD) was developed for simultaneous determination of diosmin, linarin, and pulegone from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam, a widely used in traditional Uygur medicine for treating heart disease, high blood pressure, and other diseases. Compounds were separated on a XDB-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 1.8 μm) with gradient elution using methanol and 1% aqueous acetic acid (v/v) at 0.9 mL/min. he detection wavelength was set at 270 nm. Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. were collected from ten different origins in Xinjiang, including the Ban fang ditch, Tuoli, the Altay mountains, Terks, Xiata Road, Zhaosu Highway, Guozigou, Fukang, Jimsar, Wulabo. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of all three compounds were less than 0.89% and the average recoveries ranged from 97.4 to 104.1%. There were highly significant linear correlations between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of three active components in Z. clinopodioides Lam. samples from different locations in Xinjiang. The proposed method is simple, consistent, accurate, and could be utilized as a quality control method for Z. clinopodioides Lam.

  15. Quantitative analysis and chromatographic fingerprinting of the semen zizyphi spinosae by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector.

    PubMed

    Niu, Chunyan; Zhang, Jinlan

    2011-11-01

    A simple and sensitive method was developed and validated for fingerprint analysis of semen zizyphi spinosae (SZS) and simultaneous determination of six flavonoids in SZS by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode-array detector (DAD). The analysis was performed on an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 RRHD column. The column was maintained at 40°C and the eluents were monitored with DAD at 270 nm. A gradient elution of acetonitrile and water containing 20 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate was used. The solvent flow rate was 0.4 mL/min. The method was validated. Standard calibration curves showed good linear behaviors (r=1.000) in the range of 0.33-201.00 μg/mL. Acceptable intra-day precision (RSD<1.9%), inter-day precision (RSD<4.0%), repeatability (RSD<4.1%) and recovery in the range of 97.4-104% were obtained. The validated method was successfully applied to obtain the chromatographic fingerprints and the contents of six flavonoids in 23 samples of SZS. The principal component analysis (PCA) had been applied for the chromatographic fingerprint analysis and quantitative analysis of six flavonoids to classify and discriminate the 23 samples of SZS. These results demonstrated that the method was very suitable in the analysis and quality control of SZS. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Simultaneous determination three phytosterol compounds, campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in Artemisia apiacea by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array ultraviolet/visible detector

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiwoo; Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

    2015-01-01

    Background: Artemisia apiacea is a traditional herbal medicine using treatment of eczema and jaundice in Eastern Asia, including China, Korea, and Japan. Objective: An accurate and sensitive analysis method using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array ultraviolet/visible detector and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of three phytosterol compounds, campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in A. apiacea was established. Materials and Methods: The analytes were separated on a Shiseido C18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm I.D. ×250 mm) with gradient elution of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and detection wavelengths were set at 205 and 254 nm. Results: Validation of the method was performed to demonstrate its linearity, precision and accuracy. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9994). The limits of detection and limits of quantification were within the ranges 0.55–7.07 μg/mL and 1.67–21.44 μg/mL, respectively. And, the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision were <2.93%. The recoveries were found to be in the range of 90.03–104.91%. Conclusion: The developed method has been successfully applied to the analysis for quality control of campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in A. apiacea. PMID:25829768

  17. Development of electron-tracking Compton imaging system with 30-μm SOI pixel sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshihara, Y.; Shimazoe, K.; Mizumachi, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Kamada, K.; Takeda, A.; Tsuru, T.; Arai, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Compton imaging is a useful method to localize gamma sources without using mechanical collimators. In conventional Compton imaging, the incident directions of gamma rays are estimated in a cone for each event by analyzing the sequence of interactions of each gamma ray followed by Compton kinematics. Since the information of the ejection directions of the recoil electrons is lost, many artifacts in the shape of cone traces are generated, which reduces signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and angular resolution. We have developed an advanced Compton imaging system with the capability of tracking recoil electrons by using a combination of a trigger-mode silicon-on-insulator (SOI) pixel detector and a GAGG detector. This system covers the 660-1330 keV energy range for localization of contamination nuclides such as 137Cs and 134Cs inside the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. The ejection directions of recoil electrons caused by Compton scattering are detected on the micro-pixelated SOI detector, which can theoretically be used to determine the incident directions of the gamma rays in a line for each event and can reduce the appearance of artifacts. We obtained 2-D reconstructed images from the first iteration of the proposed system for 137Cs, and the SNR and angular resolution were enhanced compared with those of conventional Compton imaging systems.

  18. Measurement and simulation of a Compton suppression system for safeguards application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Kyu; Seo, Hee; Won, Byung-Hee; Lee, Chaehun; Shin, Hee-Sung; Na, Sang-Ho; Song, Dae-Yong; Kim, Ho-Dong; Park, Geun-Il; Park, Se-Hwan

    2015-11-01

    Plutonium (Pu) contents in spent nuclear fuels, recovered uranium (U) or uranium/transuranium (U/TRU) products must be measured in order to secure the safeguardability of a pyroprocessing facility. Self-induced X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and gamma-ray spectroscopy are useful techniques for determining Pu-to-U ratios and Pu isotope ratios of spent fuel. Photon measurements of spent nuclear fuel by using high-resolution spectrometers such as high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors show a large continuum background in the low-energy region, which is due in large part to Compton scattering of energetic gamma rays. This paper proposes a Compton suppression system for reducing of the Compton continuum background. In the present study, the system was configured by using an HPGe main detector and a BGO (bismuth germanate: Bi4Ge3O12) guard detector. The system performances for gamma-ray measurement and XRF were evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations and measurements of the radiation source. The Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) simulations were performed using the same geometry as for the experiments, and considered, for exact results, the production of secondary electrons and photons. As a performance test of the Compton suppression system, the peak-to-Compton ratio, which is a figure of merit to evaluate the gamma-ray detection, was enhanced by a factor of three or more when the Compton suppression system was used.

  19. Infrared hot carrier diode mixer.

    PubMed

    Aukerman, L W; Erler, J W

    1977-11-01

    Detection of a 54.3-GHz beatnote at 10.6 microm has been observed with a hot carrier diode mixer. The diode consists of a "cat whisker" antenna, which forms an ohmic point contact to n-InAs. The mechanism of this room-temperature detector is described as the "thermoelectric effect" of hot carriers.

  20. GRETINA as a Compton Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, P. C.; Weisshaar, D.; Gade, A.; Wiens, A.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Campbell, C. M.; Clark, R. M.; Crawford, H. L.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I. Y.; Rissanen, J.; Tabor, S. L.; Tripathi, V.; Albers, M.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Carpenter, M. P.; David, H. M.; Lauritsen, T.; Zhu, S.; Chowdhury, P.; Lister, C. J.; Merchan, E.; Prasher, V. S.; Miller, D.

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of GRETINA as a polarimeter using the tracking technique has been done by examing the gamma-rays emitted from polarized states following the 24Mg(p,p') reaction. Here we consider GRETINA as a traditional Compton polarimeter, where the intensity of the scattered radiation measured between physical detecting elements is used to determine its polarization sensitivity using techniques developed over the past decades. This provides a direct basic measure of the linear polarization of the array independent of the signal-decomposition and tracking algorithms, and directly comparable to traditional Compton polarimeters. The performance of GRETINA as a traditional Compton-polarimeter will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science and Office of Nuclear Physics under Contracts Number DE-AC02-05CH11231(LBNL) and Number DE-AC02-06CH11357(ANL).

  1. Status and Perspectives of Compton Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajima, Ryoichi

    Generation of high-energy photons via collision of relativistic electron and laser beams is known as inverse Compton scattering or laser Compton scattering. Compton sources, photon sources based on Compton scattering, have been developed in the world to realize high-flux/high-brightness X-ray/gamma-ray sources and exploit applications with energy-tunable and narrow-bandwidth photon beams from these sources. Recent progress of electron accelerator and laser technologies will open a new era in Compton sources. An electron beam of small emittance and high-average current contributes to improving spectral brightness of Compton scattered photons. Flux of generating photons is also increased by a high-power laser together with apparatus such as laser enhancement cavity. We overview the current status of Compton sources including an experiment carried out at the Compact ERL, which is the first demonstration of Compton scattering by combination of an energy-recovery linac and a laser enhancement cavity.

  2. The Compton Observatory Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrader, Chris R. (Editor); Gehrels, Neil (Editor); Dennis, Brian (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Compton Observatory Science Workshop was held in Annapolis, Maryland on September 23-25, 1991. The primary purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas and information among scientists with interests in various areas of high energy astrophysics, with emphasis on the scientific capabilities of the Compton Observatory. Early scientific results, as well as reports on in-flight instrument performance and calibrations are presented. Guest investigator data products, analysis techniques, and associated software were discussed. Scientific topics covered included active galaxies, cosmic gamma ray bursts, solar physics, pulsars, novae, supernovae, galactic binary sources, and diffuse galactic and extragalactic emission.

  3. Monte Carlo simulated corrections for beam commissioning measurements with circular and MLC shaped fields on the CyberKnife M6 System: a study including diode, microchamber, point scintillator, and synthetic microdiamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francescon, P.; Kilby, W.; Noll, J. M.; Masi, L.; Satariano, N.; Russo, S.

    2017-02-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate correction factors for output factor (OF), percentage depth-dose (PDD), and off-axis ratio (OAR) measurements with the CyberKnife M6 System. These include the first such data for the InCise MLC. Simulated detectors include diodes, air-filled microchambers, a synthetic microdiamond detector, and point scintillator. Individual perturbation factors were also evaluated. OF corrections show similar trends to previous studies. With a 5 mm fixed collimator the diode correction to convert a measured OF to the corresponding point dose ratio varies between  ‑6.1% and  ‑3.5% for the diode models evaluated, while in a 7.6 mm  ×  7.7 mm MLC field these are  ‑4.5% to  ‑1.8%. The corresponding microchamber corrections are  +9.9% to  +10.7% and  +3.5% to  +4.0%. The microdiamond corrections have a maximum of  ‑1.4% for the 7.5 mm and 10 mm collimators. The scintillator corrections are  <1% in all beams. Measured OF showed uncorrected inter-detector differences  >15%, reducing to  <3% after correction. PDD corrections at d  >  d max were  <2% for all detectors except IBA Razor where a maximum 4% correction was observed at 300 mm depth. OAR corrections were smaller inside the field than outside. At the beam edge microchamber OAR corrections were up to 15%, mainly caused by density perturbations, which blurs the measured penumbra. With larger beams and depths, PTW and IBA diode corrections outside the beam were up to 20% while the Edge detector needed smaller corrections although these did vary with orientation. These effects are most noticeable for large field size and depth, where they are dominated by fluence and stopping power perturbations. The microdiamond OAR corrections were  <3% outside the beam. This paper provides OF corrections that can be used for commissioning new CyberKnife M6 Systems and retrospectively checking estimated

  4. First-Generation Hybrid Compact Compton Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M; Burks, M; Chivers, D; Cork, C; Fabris, L; Gunter, D; Krings, T; Lange, D; Hull, E; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Niedermayr, T; Protic, D; Valentine, J; Vetter, K; Wright, D

    2005-11-07

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are pursuing the development of a gamma-ray imaging system using the Compton effect. We have built our first generation hybrid Compton imaging system, and we have conducted initial calibration and image measurements using this system. In this paper, we present the details of the hybrid Compton imaging system and initial calibration and image measurements.

  5. SU-E-T-223: Investigation of the Accuracy of Two-Dimensional Dose Distributions Measurement From High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Ir-192 Source Using Multiple-Diode-Array Detector (MapCheck2)

    SciTech Connect

    Taguenang, J; De La Fuente, T Herman; Ahmad, S; Ali, I

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric accuracy of multiple-diode-array detector (Mapcheck2) for high-dose-rate brachytherapy Ir-192 source. The two-dimensional (2D) dose distributions measured with MapCheck2 were validated with EBT2 Gafchromic film measurement and AAPM task-group- 43 (TG-43) modeling. Methods: 2D-dose distributions from Ir-192 source were measured with MapCheck2 and EBT2-films. MapCheck2 response was corrected for effects: directional dependence, diode and phantom heterogeneity. Optical density growth of the film was controlled by synchronized scanning of the film exposed to Ir-192 and calibration films exposed to 6 MV linac beams. Similarly, MapCheck2 response was calibrated to dose using 6 MV beams. An empirical model was developed for the dose distributions measured with Mapcheck2 that considered directional, diode and phantom heterogeneity corrections. The dose deposited in solid-state-detectors was modeled using a cavity theory model for the diode. This model was then validated with measurements using EBT2-films and calculations with TG-43. Results: The response of MapCheck2 has been corrected for different effects including: (a) directional dependence of 0–20% over angular range 0o–90o, (b) phantom heterogeneity (3%) and (c) diode heterogeneity (9%). The corrected dose distributions measured with MapCheck2 agreed well with the measured dose distributions from EBT2-film and with calculations using TG-43 within 5% over a wide range of dose levels and rates. The advantages of MapCheck2 include less noisy, linear and stable response compared with film. The response of MapCheck2 exposed to 192Ir-source showed no energy dependence similar to its response to MV energy beam. Detection spatial-resolution of individual diodes was 0.8×0.8 mm2, however, 2DMapCheck2 resolution is limited by distance between diodes (7.07 mm). Conclusion: The dose distribution measured with MapCheck2 agreed well within 5% with that measured using EBT2-films; and

  6. Study of Compton suppression for use in spent nuclear fuel assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Sarah

    The focus of this study has been to assess Compton suppressed gamma-ray detection systems for the multivariate analysis of spent nuclear fuel. This objective has been achieved using direct measurement of samples of irradiated fuel elements in two geometrical configurations with Compton suppression systems. In order to address the objective to quantify the number of additionally resolvable photopeaks, direct Compton suppressed spectroscopic measurements of spent nuclear fuel in two configurations were performed: as intact fuel elements and as dissolved feed solutions. These measurements directly assessed and quantified the differences in measured gamma-ray spectrum from the application of Compton suppression. Several irradiated fuel elements of varying cooling time from the Penn State Breazeale Reactor spent fuel inventory were measured using three Compton suppression systems that utilized different primary detectors: HPGe, LaBr3, and NaI(Tl). The application of Compton suppression using a LaBr3 primary detector to the measurement of the current core fuel element, which presented the highest count rate, allowed four additional spectral features to be resolved. In comparison, the HPGe-CSS was able to resolve eight additional photopeaks as compared to the standalone HPGe measurement. Measurements with the NaI(Tl) primary detector were unable to resolve any additional peaks, due to its relatively low resolution. Samples of Approved Test Material (ATM) commercial fuel elements were obtained from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The samples had been processed using the beginning stages of the PUREX method and represented the unseparated feed solution from a reprocessing facility. Compton suppressed measurements of the ATM fuel samples were recorded inside the guard detector annulus, to simulate the siphoning of small quantities from the main process stream for long dwell measurement periods. Photopeak losses were observed in the measurements of the dissolved ATM

  7. Determination and confirmation of isopropyl p-toluenesulfonate in cosmetics by HPLC-diode array detector method and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Tay, B Y P; Yung, S C; Teoh, T Y

    2016-12-01

    Isopropyl p-toluenesulfonate (IPTS) is a potentially genotoxic by-product formed during the esterification of palm oil-based palmitic and palm kernel oil-based myristic acid with isopropanol to produce isopropyl palmitate or isopropyl myristate. There are no methods described for the analysis of IPTS in cosmetic products. In this work, we have established a simple, precise and accurate method to determine the presence and level of IPTS in various finished cosmetic products which contain palm-based esters in their formulations. An Agilent 1200 series high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) unit using a diode-array detector (DAD) has been employed and optimized to detect IPTS in cosmetic products. For the separation, a reverse-phase Hypersil Gold C8 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm i.d. 250 mm) 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate buffer 50 : 50, (v/v) solution in acetonitrile as mobile phase, in isocratic mode and a flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1) were used. A second method using a gas chromatography/mass selective detector GC-MSD was also developed to confirm the IPTS identity in the cosmetic products. Recoveries of IPTS from cosmetic matrices such as a lotion, cleansing milk and a cream ranged from 94.0% to 101.1% with <5% relative standard deviation (%RSD) showing good accuracy and repeatability of the method. The six-point calibration curves (determined over the range 0.5-50 μg mL(-1) ) have a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 (based on HPLC peak area) and 0.9998 (based on HPLC peak height). The intra- and interday precisions (measured by the %RSD) of the method were <2% and <5%, respectively, indicating that the developed method is reliable, precise and reproducible. The detection and quantification limit of the method were found to be 0.5 μg mL(-1) and 1.6 μg mL(-1) , respectively. Analyses of 83 commercial cosmetics showed no presence of IPTS. The validation data indicated that this method was suitable for the quantitative analysis of IPTS in commercial

  8. Identification of the position of mono-O-glucuronide of flavones and flavonols by analyzing shift in online UV spectrum (lambdamax) generated from an online diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rashim; Wu, Baojian; Tang, Lan; Liu, Zhongqiu; Hu, Ming

    2010-09-08

    The beneficial pharmacological effects of flavonoids such as chemoprevention against cancer, aging, and heart diseases are severely limited due to their extensive in vivo glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). UGTs showed regiospecificity (i.e., position preference) in the glucuronidation of the flavonoids based on the substrate's chemical structure. In this paper, glucuronide(s) of 36 flavones and flavonols were generated using an in vitro glucuronidation reaction. UPLC/MS/MS was used to confirm the degree (mono- or di-) of glucuronidation in flavonoids with up to four hydroxyl groups. UV spectra of flavonoids and their respective mono-O-glucuronides were generated using UPLC with an online diode array detector. Analysis of the extent of shift in spectra of glucuronides in band I (300-385 nm) and band II (240-280 nm) regions as reflected by changes in lambdamax value was used to identify the position of glucuronidation. The data showed that glucuronidation of the 3- and 4'-hydroxyls resulted in band I lambdamax hypsochromic shifts (or blue shift) of 13-30 and 5-10 nm, respectively. Glucuronidation of the 5-hydroxyl group caused a band II lambdamax hypsochromic shift of 5-10 nm. In contrast, glucuronidation of the 7-hydroxyl group did not cause any lambdamax change in band I or II lambdamax, whereas glucuronidation of the 6-hydroxyl group did not cause predictable changes in lambdamax values. The paper demonstrated for the first time that a rapid and robust analysis method using lambdamax changes in online UV spectra can be used to pinpoint region-specific glucuronidation of flavones and flavonols with hydroxyl groups at the 4'-, 3-, 5-, and/or 7-position(s).

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Marcetia DC species (Melastomataceae) and analysis of its flavonoids by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled-diode array detector

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Tonny Cley Campos; de Sena, Amanda Reges; dos Santos Silva, Tânia Regina; dos Santos, Andrea Karla Almeida; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Branco, Alexsandro

    2012-01-01

    Background: Marcetia genera currently comprises 29 species, with approximately 90% inhabiting Bahia (Brazil), and most are endemic to the highlands of the Chapada Diamantina (Bahia). Among the species, only M. taxifolia (A.St.-Hil.) DC. populates Brazil (state of Roraima to Paraná) and also Venezuela, Colombia, and Guyana. Objective: This work evaluated the antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of three species of Marcetia (Marcetia canescens Naud., M. macrophylla Wurdack, and M. taxifolia A.StHil) against several microorganism. In addition, the flavonoids were analyzed in extracts by HPLC-DAD. Materials and methods: The tests were made using Gram-positive (three strains of Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (two strains of Escherichia coli, a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and another of Salmonella choleraesius) bacteria resistant and nonresistant to antibiotics and yeasts (two strains of Candida albicans and one of C. parapsilosis) by the disk diffusion method. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed on the above extracts to isolate flavonoids, which were subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Results: Results showed that extracts inhibited the Gram-positive bacteria and yeast. The hexane extracts possessed the lowest activity, while the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts were more active. Conclusion: Marcetia taxifolia was more effective (active against 10 microorganisms studied), and only its methanol extract inhibited Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesius). SPE and HPLC-DAD analysis showed that M. canescens and M. macrophylla contain glycosylated flavonoids, while the majority of extracts from M. taxifolia were aglycone flavonoids. PMID:23060695

  10. Development and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds in abnormal savda munziq decoction

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shuge; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xuejia; Upur, Halmuart

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Given the high-effectiveness and low-toxicity of abnormal savda munziq (ASMQ), its herbal formulation has long been used in traditional Uyghur medicine to treat complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Settings and Design: ASMQ decoction by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector was successfully developed for the simultaneous quality assessment of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, rosmarinic acid, and luteolin. The six phenolic compounds were separated on an Agilent TC-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm) by gradient elution using 0.3% aqueous formic acid (v/v) and 0.3% methanol formic acid (v/v) at 1.0 mL/min. Materials and Methods: The plant material was separately ground and mixed at the following ratios (10): Cordia dichotoma (10.6), Anchusa italic (10.6), Euphorbia humifusa (4.9), Adiantum capillus-veneris (4.9), Ziziphus jujube (4.9), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (7.1), Foeniculum vulgare (4.9), Lavandula angustifolia (4.9), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (4.9), and Alhagi pseudoalhagi (42.3). Statistical Analysis Used: The precisions of all six compounds were <0.60%, and the average recoveries ranged from 99.39% to 104.85%. Highly significant linear correlations were found between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of six active components in ASMQ. Conclusions: Given the simplicity, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of the method, it can be utilized as a quality control approach to simultaneously determining the six phenolic compounds in AMSQ. PMID:25709227

  11. Intelligent peak deconvolution through in-depth study of the data matrix from liquid chromatography coupled with a photo-diode array detector applied to pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Arase, Shuntaro; Horie, Kanta; Kato, Takashi; Noda, Akira; Mito, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Yanagisawa, Toshinobu

    2016-10-21

    Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method was investigated for its potential to accelerate pharmaceutical research and development. The fast and efficient separation of complex mixtures consisting of multiple components, including impurities as well as major drug substances, remains a challenging application for liquid chromatography in the field of pharmaceutical analysis. In this paper we suggest an integrated analysis algorithm functioning on a matrix of data generated from HPLC coupled with photo-diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) and consisting of the mathematical program for the developed multivariate curve resolution method using an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm with a bidirectional exponentially modified Gaussian (BEMG) model function as a constraint for chromatograms and numerous PDA spectra aligned with time axis. The algorithm provided less than ±1.0% error between true and separated peak area values at resolution (Rs) of 0.6 using simulation data for a three-component mixture with an elution order of a/b/c with similarity (a/b)=0.8410, (b/c)=0.9123 and (a/c)=0.9809 of spectra at peak apex. This software concept provides fast and robust separation analysis even when method development efforts fail to achieve complete separation of the target peaks. Additionally, this approach is potentially applicable to peak deconvolution, allowing quantitative analysis of co-eluted compounds having exactly the same molecular weight. This is complementary to the use of LC-MS to perform quantitative analysis on co-eluted compounds using selected ions to differentiate the proportion of response attributable to each compound.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of an alkaloid fraction from Piper longum L. using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuiyong; Fan, Yunpeng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-05-10

    In a previous research, an alkaloid fraction and 18 alkaloid compounds were prepared from Piper longum L. by series of purification process. In this paper, a qualitative and quantitative analysis method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS) was developed to evaluate the alkaloid fraction. Qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was firstly completed by UHPLC-DAD method and 18 amide alkaloid compounds were identified. A further qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was accomplished by UHPLC-MS/MS method. Another 25 amide alkaloids were identified according to their characteristic ions and neutral losses. At last, a quantitative method for the alkaloid fraction was established using four marker compounds including piperine, pipernonatine, guineensine and N-isobutyl-2E,4E-octadecadienamide. After the validation of this method, the contents of above four marker compounds in the alkaloid fraction were 57.5mg/g, 65.6mg/g, 17.7mg/g and 23.9mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the relative response factors of other three compounds to piperine were calculated. A comparative study between external standard quantification and relative response factor quantification proved no remarkable difference. UHPLC-DAD-MS method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the characterization of the alkaloid fraction from P. longum L. and the result proved that the quality of alkaloid fraction was efficiently improved after appropriate purification. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  14. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  15. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-06-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  16. Performance of MACACO Compton telescope for ion-beam therapy monitoring: first test with proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solevi, Paola; Muñoz, Enrique; Solaz, Carles; Trovato, Marco; Dendooven, Peter; Gillam, John E.; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F.; Rafecas, Magdalena; Torres-Espallardo, Irene; Llosá, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    In order to exploit the advantages of ion-beam therapy in a clinical setting, delivery verification techniques are necessary to detect deviations from the planned treatment. Efforts are currently oriented towards the development of devices for real-time range monitoring. Among the different detector concepts proposed, Compton cameras are employed to detect prompt gammas and represent a valid candidate for real-time range verification. We present the first on-beam test of MACACO, a Compton telescope (multi-layer Compton camera) based on lanthanum bromide crystals and silicon photo-multipliers. The Compton telescope was first characterized through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The detector linearity was measured employing 22Na and Am-Be sources, obtaining about 10% deviation from linearity at 3.44 MeV. A spectral image reconstruction algorithm was tested on synthetic data. Point-like sources emitting gamma rays with energy between 2 and 7 MeV were reconstructed with 3-5 mm resolution. The two-layer Compton telescope was employed to measure radiation emitted from a beam of 150 MeV protons impinging on a cylindrical PMMA target. Bragg-peak shifts were achieved via adjustment of the PMMA target location and the resulting measurements used during image reconstruction. Reconstructed Bragg peak profiles proved sufficient to observe peak-location differences within 10 mm demonstrating the potential of the MACACO Compton Telescope as a monitoring device for ion-beam therapy.

  17. Performance of MACACO Compton telescope for ion-beam therapy monitoring: first test with proton beams.

    PubMed

    Solevi, Paola; Muñoz, Enrique; Solaz, Carles; Trovato, Marco; Dendooven, Peter; Gillam, John E; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F; Rafecas, Magdalena; Torres-Espallardo, Irene; Llosá, Gabriela

    2016-07-21

    In order to exploit the advantages of ion-beam therapy in a clinical setting, delivery verification techniques are necessary to detect deviations from the planned treatment. Efforts are currently oriented towards the development of devices for real-time range monitoring. Among the different detector concepts proposed, Compton cameras are employed to detect prompt gammas and represent a valid candidate for real-time range verification. We present the first on-beam test of MACACO, a Compton telescope (multi-layer Compton camera) based on lanthanum bromide crystals and silicon photo-multipliers. The Compton telescope was first characterized through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The detector linearity was measured employing (22)Na and Am-Be sources, obtaining about 10% deviation from linearity at 3.44 MeV. A spectral image reconstruction algorithm was tested on synthetic data. Point-like sources emitting gamma rays with energy between 2 and 7 MeV were reconstructed with 3-5 mm resolution. The two-layer Compton telescope was employed to measure radiation emitted from a beam of 150 MeV protons impinging on a cylindrical PMMA target. Bragg-peak shifts were achieved via adjustment of the PMMA target location and the resulting measurements used during image reconstruction. Reconstructed Bragg peak profiles proved sufficient to observe peak-location differences within 10 mm demonstrating the potential of the MACACO Compton Telescope as a monitoring device for ion-beam therapy.

  18. Monte Carlo modelling of single and multiple Compton scattering profiles in a concrete material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akar Tarim, U.; Ozmutlu, E. N.; Gurler, O.; Yalcin, S.; Gundogdu, O.; Sharaf, J. M.; Bradley, D. A.

    2013-04-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation study has been conducted of 60Co photons Compton scattered in concrete, illustrating the degraded energy spectra of gamma-ray radiation. Results are produced representing a NaI(Tl) detector model. We were able to analyse energy distributions of photons that reach the detector system after suffering several successive Compton scatterings in the target. The predicted decrease in intensity of single- and multiple-scattering peaks with increase in thickness of the target medium are in good agreement with experimental observations and findings reported by others.

  19. "Stereo Compton cameras" for the 3-D localization of radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, K.; Kataoka, J.; Nishiyama, T.; Fujita, T.; Kishimoto, A.; Ohsuka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Adachi, S.; Hirayanagi, M.; Uchiyama, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kato, T.

    2014-11-01

    The Compton camera is a viable and convenient tool used to visualize the distribution of radioactive isotopes that emit gamma rays. After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in 2011, there is a particularly urgent need to develop "gamma cameras", which can visualize the distribution of such radioisotopes. In response, we propose a portable Compton camera, which comprises 3-D position-sensitive GAGG scintillators coupled with thin monolithic MPPC arrays. The pulse-height ratio of two MPPC-arrays allocated at both ends of the scintillator block determines the depth of interaction (DOI), which dramatically improves the position resolution of the scintillation detectors. We report on the detailed optimization of the detector design, based on Geant4 simulation. The results indicate that detection efficiency reaches up to 0.54%, or more than 10 times that of other cameras being tested in Fukushima, along with a moderate angular resolution of 8.1° (FWHM). By applying the triangular surveying method, we also propose a new concept for the stereo measurement of gamma rays by using two Compton cameras, thus enabling the 3-D positional measurement of radioactive isotopes for the first time. From one point source simulation data, we ensured that the source position and the distance to the same could be determined typically to within 2 meters' accuracy and we also confirmed that more than two sources are clearly separated by the event selection from two point sources of simulation data.

  20. The Compton Polarimeter in Hall C of Jefferson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Amrendra

    2013-04-01

    A new Compton polarimeter was installed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab and used during the Qweak experiment which aims to measure the weak charge of proton with a precision of 4.1%. In this polarimeter the electron beam collides with green laser light stored in a low gain Fabry-Perot Cavity; the scattered electrons are detected in 4 planes of a novel diamond micro strip detector while the back scattered photons are detected in a lead tungstate crystal. We extract the beam polarization by fitting the experimental asymmetry for each detector strip to the corresponding asymmetry calculated in QED. During the experiment, we took data to cross-calibrate Moller and Compton polarimeters in Hall C. We will share our preliminary conclusions from this comparison. In this talk, we will also present the results from Monte Carlo studies performed to estimate the systematic uncertainties of the polarization measurement along with comparing results from two independent extraction of the polarization involving very different time scales. The Compton polarimeter has achieved the design goals of 1% statistical uncertainty per hour and we expect to achieve less than 1% systematic uncertainty.

  1. Photon detector system

    DOEpatents

    Ekstrom, Philip A.

    1981-01-01

    A photon detector includes a semiconductor device, such as a Schottky barrier diode, which has an avalanche breakdown characteristic. The diode is cooled to cryogenic temperatures to eliminate thermally generated charge carriers from the device. The diode is then biased to a voltage level exceeding the avalanche breakdown threshold level such that, upon receipt of a photon, avalanche breakdown occurs. This breakdown is detected by appropriate circuitry which thereafter reduces the diode bias potential to a level below the avalanche breakdown threshold level to terminate the avalanche condition. Subsequently, the bias potential is reapplied to the diode in preparation for detection of a subsequently received photon.

  2. New Compton densitometer for measuring pulmonary edema

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.; Simon, D.S.

    1985-10-01

    Pulmonary edema is the pathological increase of extravascular lung water found most often in patients with congestive heart failure and other critically ill patients who suffer from intravenous fluid overload. A non-invasive lung density monitor that is accurate, easily portable, safe and inexpensive is needed for clinical evaluation of pulmonary edema. Other researchers who have employed Compton scattering techniques generally used systems of extended size and detectors with poor energy resolution. This has resulted in significant systematic biases from multiply-scattered photons and larger errors in counting statistics at a given radiation dose to the patient. We are proposing a patented approach in which only backscattered photons are measured with a high-resolution HPGe detector in a compact system geometry. By proper design and a unique data extraction scheme, effects of the variable chest wall on lung density measurements are minimized. Preliminary test results indicate that with a radioactive source of under 30 GBq, it should be possible to make an accurate lung density measurement in one minute, with a risk of radiation exposure to the patient a thousand times smaller than that from a typical chest x-ray. The ability to make safe, frequent lung density measurements could be very helpful for monitoring the course of P.E. at the hospital bedside or outpatient clinics, and for evaluating the efficacy of therapy in clinical research. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Performance evaluation of MACACO: a multilayer Compton camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Enrique; Barrio, John; Etxebeste, Ane; Ortega, Pablo G.; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F.; Solaz, Carles; Llosá, Gabriela

    2017-09-01

    Compton imaging devices have been proposed and studied for a wide range of applications. We have developed a Compton camera prototype which can be operated with two or three detector layers based on monolithic lanthanum bromide (LaBr3 ) crystals coupled to silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), to be used for proton range verification in hadron therapy. In this work, we present the results obtained with our prototype in laboratory tests with radioactive sources and in simulation studies. Images of a 22 Na and an 88 Y radioactive sources have been successfully reconstructed. The full width half maximum of the reconstructed images is below 4 mm for a 22 Na source at a distance of 5 cm.

  4. Performance evaluation of MACACO: a multilayer Compton camera.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Enrique; Barrio, John; Etxebeste, Ane; Ortega, Pablo G; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F; Solaz, Carles; Llosá, Gabriela

    2017-08-22

    Compton imaging devices have been proposed and studied for a wide range of applications. We have developed a Compton camera prototype which can be operated with two or three detector layers based on monolithic lanthanum bromide ([Formula: see text]) crystals coupled to silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), to be used for proton range verification in hadron therapy. In this work, we present the results obtained with our prototype in laboratory tests with radioactive sources and in simulation studies. Images of a [Formula: see text]Na and an [Formula: see text]Y radioactive sources have been successfully reconstructed. The full width half maximum of the reconstructed images is below 4 mm for a [Formula: see text]Na source at a distance of 5 cm.

  5. Precise polarization measurements via detection of compton scattered electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Tvaskis, Vladas; Dutta, Dipangkar; Gaskell, David J.; Narayan, Amrendra

    2014-01-01

    The Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab aims to make a 4% measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic scattering at very low Q{sup 2} of a longitudinally polarized electron beam off a proton target. One of the dominant experimental systematic uncertainties in Qweak will result from determining the beam polarization. A new Compton polarimeter was installed in the fall of 2010 to provide a non-invasive and continuous monitoring of the electron beam polarization in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The Compton-scattered electrons are detected in four planes of diamond micro-strip detectors. We have achieved the design goals of <1% statistical uncertainty per hour and expect to achieve <1% systematic uncertainty.

  6. Noise evaluation of Compton camera imaging for proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Ortega, P G; Torres-Espallardo, I; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Gillam, J E; Lacasta, C; Llosá, G; Oliver, J F; Sala, P R; Solevi, P; Rafecas, M

    2015-03-07

    Compton Cameras emerged as an alternative for real-time dose monitoring techniques for Particle Therapy (PT), based on the detection of prompt-gammas. As a consequence of the Compton scattering process, the gamma origin point can be restricted onto the surface of a cone (Compton cone). Through image reconstruction techniques, the distribution of the gamma emitters can be estimated, using cone-surfaces backprojections of the Compton cones through the image space, along with more sophisticated statistical methods to improve the image quality. To calculate the Compton cone required for image reconstruction, either two interactions, the last being photoelectric absorption, or three scatter interactions are needed. Because of the high energy of the photons in PT the first option might not be adequate, as the photon is not absorbed in general. However, the second option is less efficient. That is the reason to resort to spectral reconstructions, where the incoming γ energy is considered as a variable in the reconstruction inverse problem. Jointly with prompt gamma, secondary neutrons and scattered photons, not strongly correlated with the dose map, can also reach the imaging detector and produce false events. These events deteriorate the image quality. Also, high intensity beams can produce particle accumulation in the camera, which lead to an increase of random coincidences, meaning events which gather measurements from different incoming particles. The noise scenario is expected to be different if double or triple events are used, and consequently, the reconstructed images can be affected differently by spurious data. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of false events in the reconstructed image, evaluating their impact in the determination of the beam particle ranges. A simulation study that includes misidentified events (neutrons and random coincidences) in the final image of a Compton Telescope for PT monitoring is presented. The complete chain of

  7. Noise evaluation of Compton camera imaging for proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, P. G.; Torres-Espallardo, I.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Gillam, J. E.; Lacasta, C.; Llosá, G.; Oliver, J. F.; Sala, P. R.; Solevi, P.; Rafecas, M.

    2015-02-01

    Compton Cameras emerged as an alternative for real-time dose monitoring techniques for Particle Therapy (PT), based on the detection of prompt-gammas. As a consequence of the Compton scattering process, the gamma origin point can be restricted onto the surface of a cone (Compton cone). Through image reconstruction techniques, the distribution of the gamma emitters can be estimated, using cone-surfaces backprojections of the Compton cones through the image space, along with more sophisticated statistical methods to improve the image quality. To calculate the Compton cone required for image reconstruction, either two interactions, the last being photoelectric absorption, or three scatter interactions are needed. Because of the high energy of the photons in PT the first option might not be adequate, as the photon is not absorbed in general. However, the second option is less efficient. That is the reason to resort to spectral reconstructions, where the incoming γ energy is considered as a variable in the reconstruction inverse problem. Jointly with prompt gamma, secondary neutrons and scattered photons, not strongly correlated with the dose map, can also reach the imaging detector and produce false events. These events deteriorate the image quality. Also, high intensity beams can produce particle accumulation in the camera, which lead to an increase of random coincidences, meaning events which gather measurements from different incoming particles. The noise scenario is expected to be different if double or triple events are used, and consequently, the reconstructed images can be affected differently by spurious data. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of false events in the reconstructed image, evaluating their impact in the determination of the beam particle ranges. A simulation study that includes misidentified events (neutrons and random coincidences) in the final image of a Compton Telescope for PT monitoring is presented. The complete chain of

  8. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P. ); Gatti, E. )

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and x-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; classical semiconductor diode detectors; and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Calibrated feedback for laser diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, P.G.

    1986-04-22

    A method is described of calibrating the feedback output from the feedback light detector of the laser diode of an optical disk drive of a laser light pen which consists of mounting a first and a second resistor in a laser light pen; connecting the first resistor between the feedback light detector and ground; connecting the second resistor between the feedback light detector and a feedback output; operating the laser diode to produce a predetermined light power output; adjusting the resistance of the first resistor to produce a predetermined voltage at the feedback output; and adjusting the resistance of the second resistor to produce a predetermined impedance at the feedback output.

  10. Double Compton scatter telescope calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayton, B.; Simone, J.; Green, M.; Long, J.; Zanrosso, E.; Zych, A. D.; White, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Calibration techniques for a medium energy gamma ray telescope are described. Gain calibration using Compton edge spectra involves comparisons of pulse height spectra with spectra simulated by a Monte Carlo computer code which includes Compton scattering and pair production, plural scattering and variable energy resolution, and cell size. The telescope considered comprises 56 cells of liquid scintillator in four size groups, with a total liquid volume of 325 l; each cell has its own photomultiplier tube. Energy and angular resolutions and the PMT gain calibration procedure are verified with double scatter data for monoenergetic gamma rays at a known location. Detection probabilities for any cell combination in the two telescope arrays are calculated per steradian as a function of the scattering for a number of different energies with a Van de Graaff accelerator.

  11. Double Compton scatter telescope calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayton, B.; Simone, J.; Green, M.; Long, J.; Zanrosso, E.; Zych, A. D.; White, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Calibration techniques for a medium energy gamma ray telescope are described. Gain calibration using Compton edge spectra involves comparisons of pulse height spectra with spectra simulated by a Monte Carlo computer code which includes Compton scattering and pair production, plural scattering and variable energy resolution, and cell size. The telescope considered comprises 56 cells of liquid scintillator in four size groups, with a total liquid volume of 325 l; each cell has its own photomultiplier tube. Energy and angular resolutions and the PMT gain calibration procedure are verified with double scatter data for monoenergetic gamma rays at a known location. Detection probabilities for any cell combination in the two telescope arrays are calculated per steradian as a function of the scattering for a number of different energies with a Van de Graaff accelerator.

  12. A Compton-suppression detection system for use in manganese bath measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghal-Eh, N.; Doostizadeh, H.; Hazami, Z.; Doust-Mohammadi, V.

    2015-07-01

    The manganese sulfate bath technique is a standard tool for neutron source strength measurement (Park et al., 2005). However, the dominate Compton continuum of most sodium iodide scintillators used in manganese bath systems (MBSs) does not allow the precise identification of induced gamma rays required for such measurements. In this research, to resolve this problem, a Compton-suppression system has been proposed which consists of a 2 in. by 2 in. NaI(Tl) right cylindrical scintillator as the main and a set of eight rectangular NE102 plastic scintillators of 12×12×15 cm3 dimensions as suppression detectors. Both detectors operate in anti-coincidence circuit to suppress the Compton continuum. The proposed system has been simulated with the MCNPX code with two different approaches and the corresponding measurements with 137Cs gamma-ray source and neutron-activated MnSO4 solution have been undertaken that give rise to a promising agreement.

  13. Compton Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft,Gerd Priebe

    2011-01-01

    When a relativistic electron beam interacts with a high-field laser beam, intense and highly collimated electromagnetic radiation will be generated through Compton scattering. Through relativistic upshifting and the relativistic Doppler effect, highly energetic polarized photons are radiated along the electron beam motion when the electrons interact with the laser light. For example, X-ray radiation can be obtained when optical lasers are scattered from electrons of tens-of-MeV beam energy. Because of the desirable properties of the radiation produced, many groups around the world have been designing, building, and utilizing Compton sources for a wide variety of purposes. In this review article, we discuss the generation and properties of the scattered radiation, the types of Compton source devices that have been constructed to date, and the prospects of radiation sources of this general type. Due to the possibilities of producing hard electromagnetic radiation in a device that is small compared to the alternative storage ring sources, it is foreseen that large numbers of such sources may be constructed in the future.

  14. Compton polarimeter for 10–30 keV x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, S.; Beilmann, C.; Shah, C.; Tashenov, S.

    2015-09-15

    We present a simple and versatile polarimeter for x rays in the energy range of 10–30 keV. It uses Compton scattering in low-Z materials such as beryllium or boron carbide. The azimuthal distribution of the scattered x rays is sampled by an array of 12 silicon PIN diodes operated at room temperature. We evaluated the polarimetry performance using Monte-Carlo simulations and show experimental results.

  15. Compton polarimeter for 10-30 keV x rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, S.; Beilmann, C.; Shah, C.; Tashenov, S.

    2015-09-01

    We present a simple and versatile polarimeter for x rays in the energy range of 10-30 keV. It uses Compton scattering in low-Z materials such as beryllium or boron carbide. The azimuthal distribution of the scattered x rays is sampled by an array of 12 silicon PIN diodes operated at room temperature. We evaluated the polarimetry performance using Monte-Carlo simulations and show experimental results.

  16. Verification of Compton Collision and Klein-Nishina Formulas--An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singhal, R. P.; Burns, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment to verify the Compton collision formula and the angular dependance of the Klein-Nishina formula. Equipment used is a 1-mCi(137)Cs source, 2x2 in. NaI detector and a multichannel analyzer. Suitable for honor undergraduates. (Author/GA)

  17. Verification of Compton Collision and Klein-Nishina Formulas--An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singhal, R. P.; Burns, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment to verify the Compton collision formula and the angular dependance of the Klein-Nishina formula. Equipment used is a 1-mCi(137)Cs source, 2x2 in. NaI detector and a multichannel analyzer. Suitable for honor undergraduates. (Author/GA)

  18. Perforated diode neutron sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, Walter J.

    A novel design of neutron sensor was investigated and developed. The perforated, or micro-structured, diode neutron sensor is a concept that has the potential to enhance neutron sensitivity of a common solid-state sensor configuration. The common thin-film coated diode neutron sensor is the only semiconductor-based neutron sensor that has proven feasible for commercial use. However, the thin-film coating restricts neutron counting efficiency and severely limits the usefulness of the sensor. This research has shown that the perforated design, when properly implemented, can increase the neutron counting efficiency by greater than a factor of 4. Methods developed in this work enable detectors to be fabricated to meet needs such as miniaturization, portability, ruggedness, and adaptability. The new detectors may be used for unique applications such as neutron imaging or the search for special nuclear materials. The research and developments described in the work include the successful fabrication of variant perforated diode neutron detector designs, general explanations of fundamental radiation detector design (with added focus on neutron detection and compactness), as well as descriptive theory and sensor design modeling useful in predicting performance of these unique solid-state radiation sensors. Several aspects in design, fabrication, and operational performance have been considered and tested including neutron counting efficiency, gamma-ray response, perforation shapes and depths, and silicon processing variations. Finally, the successfully proven technology was applied to a 1-dimensional neutron sensor array system.

  19. DETECTION AND IMAGING OF THE CRAB NEBULA WITH THE NUCLEAR COMPTON TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Bandstra, M. S.; Bellm, E. C.; Boggs, S. E.; Perez-Becker, D.; Zoglauer, A.; Chang, H.-K.; Chiu, J.-L.; Liang, J.-S.; Chang, Y.-H.; Liu, Z.-K.; Hung, W.-C.; Huang, M.-H. A.; Chiang, S. J.; Run, R.-S.; Lin, C.-H.; Amman, M.; Luke, P. N.; Jean, P.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Wunderer, C. B.

    2011-09-01

    The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a balloon-borne Compton telescope designed for the study of astrophysical sources in the soft gamma-ray regime (200 keV-20 MeV). NCT's 10 high-purity germanium crossed-strip detectors measure the deposited energies and three-dimensional positions of gamma-ray interactions in the sensitive volume, and this information is used to restrict the initial photon to a circle on the sky using the Compton scatter technique. Thus NCT is able to perform spectroscopy, imaging, and polarization analysis on soft gamma-ray sources. NCT is one of the next generation of Compton telescopes-the so-called compact Compton telescopes (CCTs)-which can achieve effective areas comparable to the Imaging Compton Telescope's with an instrument that is a fraction of the size. The Crab Nebula was the primary target for the second flight of the NCT instrument, which occurred on 2009 May 17 and 18 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico. Analysis of 29.3 ks of data from the flight reveals an image of the Crab at a significance of 4{sigma}. This is the first reported detection of an astrophysical source by a CCT.

  20. Detection and Imaging of the Crab Nebula with the Nuclear Compton Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandstra, M. S.; Bellm, E. C.; Boggs, S. E.; Perez-Becker, D.; Zoglauer, A.; Chang, H.-K.; Chiu, J.-L.; Liang, J.-S.; Chang, Y.-H.; Liu, Z.-K.; Hung, W.-C.; Huang, M.-H. A.; Chiang, S. J.; Run, R.-S.; Lin, C.-H.; Amman, M.; Luke, P. N.; Jean, P.; von Ballmoos, P.; Wunderer, C. B.

    2011-09-01

    The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a balloon-borne Compton telescope designed for the study of astrophysical sources in the soft gamma-ray regime (200 keV-20 MeV). NCT's 10 high-purity germanium crossed-strip detectors measure the deposited energies and three-dimensional positions of gamma-ray interactions in the sensitive volume, and this information is used to restrict the initial photon to a circle on the sky using the Compton scatter technique. Thus NCT is able to perform spectroscopy, imaging, and polarization analysis on soft gamma-ray sources. NCT is one of the next generation of Compton telescopes—the so-called compact Compton telescopes (CCTs)—which can achieve effective areas comparable to the Imaging Compton Telescope's with an instrument that is a fraction of the size. The Crab Nebula was the primary target for the second flight of the NCT instrument, which occurred on 2009 May 17 and 18 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico. Analysis of 29.3 ks of data from the flight reveals an image of the Crab at a significance of 4σ. This is the first reported detection of an astrophysical source by a CCT.

  1. Study of Compton scattering of gamma rays from atomic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B.

    2011-12-01

    In the present work, measurements are made on the intensity and angular distribution of Compton scattered gamma rays of energy 279 keV from K-shell electrons of tin at scattering angles ranging from 30° to 150° and also determined the K-shell to free electron differential collision, absorption and scattering cross section ratio. For this purpose, two NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors working in coincidence with 30 nsec resolving time are used to record the events. The experimental results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data.

  2. Optimizing a three-stage Compton camera for measuring prompt gamma rays emitted during proton radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, S W; Robertson, D; Polf, J

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the use of a three-stage Compton camera to measure secondary prompt gamma rays emitted from patients treated with proton beam radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was (1) to develop an optimal three-stage Compton camera specifically designed to measure prompt gamma rays emitted from tissue and (2) to determine the feasibility of using this optimized Compton camera design to measure and image prompt gamma rays emitted during proton beam irradiation. The three-stage Compton camera was modeled in Geant4 as three high-purity germanium detector stages arranged in parallel-plane geometry. Initially, an isotropic gamma source ranging from 0 to 15 MeV was used to determine lateral width and thickness of the detector stages that provided the optimal detection efficiency. Then, the gamma source was replaced by a proton beam irradiating a tissue phantom to calculate the overall efficiency of the optimized camera for detecting emitted prompt gammas. The overall calculated efficiencies varied from ~10−6 to 10−3 prompt gammas detected per proton incident on the tissue phantom for several variations of the optimal camera design studied. Based on the overall efficiency results, we believe it feasible that a three-stage Compton camera could detect a sufficient number of prompt gammas to allow measurement and imaging of prompt gamma emission during proton radiotherapy. PMID:21048295

  3. Optimizing a three-stage Compton camera for measuring prompt gamma rays emitted during proton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, S. W.; Robertson, D.; Polf, J.

    2010-11-01

    In this work, we investigate the use of a three-stage Compton camera to measure secondary prompt gamma rays emitted from patients treated with proton beam radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was (1) to develop an optimal three-stage Compton camera specifically designed to measure prompt gamma rays emitted from tissue and (2) to determine the feasibility of using this optimized Compton camera design to measure and image prompt gamma rays emitted during proton beam irradiation. The three-stage Compton camera was modeled in Geant4 as three high-purity germanium detector stages arranged in parallel-plane geometry. Initially, an isotropic gamma source ranging from 0 to 15 MeV was used to determine lateral width and thickness of the detector stages that provided the optimal detection efficiency. Then, the gamma source was replaced by a proton beam irradiating a tissue phantom to calculate the overall efficiency of the optimized camera for detecting emitted prompt gammas. The overall calculated efficiencies varied from ~10-6 to 10-3 prompt gammas detected per proton incident on the tissue phantom for several variations of the optimal camera design studied. Based on the overall efficiency results, we believe it feasible that a three-stage Compton camera could detect a sufficient number of prompt gammas to allow measurement and imaging of prompt gamma emission during proton radiotherapy.

  4. Optimizing a three-stage Compton camera for measuring prompt gamma rays emitted during proton radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Peterson, S W; Robertson, D; Polf, J

    2010-11-21

    In this work, we investigate the use of a three-stage Compton camera to measure secondary prompt gamma rays emitted from patients treated with proton beam radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was (1) to develop an optimal three-stage Compton camera specifically designed to measure prompt gamma rays emitted from tissue and (2) to determine the feasibility of using this optimized Compton camera design to measure and image prompt gamma rays emitted during proton beam irradiation. The three-stage Compton camera was modeled in Geant4 as three high-purity germanium detector stages arranged in parallel-plane geometry. Initially, an isotropic gamma source ranging from 0 to 15 MeV was used to determine lateral width and thickness of the detector stages that provided the optimal detection efficiency. Then, the gamma source was replaced by a proton beam irradiating a tissue phantom to calculate the overall efficiency of the optimized camera for detecting emitted prompt gammas. The overall calculated efficiencies varied from ∼ 10(-6) to 10(-3) prompt gammas detected per proton incident on the tissue phantom for several variations of the optimal camera design studied. Based on the overall efficiency results, we believe it feasible that a three-stage Compton camera could detect a sufficient number of prompt gammas to allow measurement and imaging of prompt gamma emission during proton radiotherapy.

  5. SU-E-I-15: Quantitative Evaluation of Dose Distributions From Axial, Helical and Cone-Beam CT Imaging by Measurement Using a Two-Dimensional Diode-Array Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Chacko, M; Aldoohan, S; Sonnad, J; Ahmad, S; Ali, I

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate quantitatively dose distributions from helical, axial and cone-beam CT clinical imaging techniques by measurement using a two-dimensional (2D) diode-array detector. Methods: 2D-dose distributions from selected clinical protocols used for axial, helical and cone-beam CT imaging were measured using a diode-array detector (MapCheck2). The MapCheck2 is composed from solid state diode detectors that are arranged in horizontal and vertical lines with a spacing of 10 mm. A GE-Light-Speed CT-simulator was used to acquire axial and helical CT images and a kV on-board-imager integrated with a Varian TrueBeam-STx machine was used to acquire cone-beam CT (CBCT) images. Results: The dose distributions from axial, helical and cone-beam CT were non-uniform over the region-of-interest with strong spatial and angular dependence. In axial CT, a large dose gradient was measured that decreased from lateral sides to the middle of the phantom due to large superficial dose at the side of the phantom in comparison with larger beam attenuation at the center. The dose decreased at the superior and inferior regions in comparison to the center of the phantom in axial CT. An asymmetry was found between the right-left or superior-inferior sides of the phantom which possibly to angular dependence in the dose distributions. The dose level and distribution varied from one imaging technique into another. For the pelvis technique, axial CT deposited a mean dose of 3.67 cGy, helical CT deposited a mean dose of 1.59 cGy, and CBCT deposited a mean dose of 1.62 cGy. Conclusions: MapCheck2 provides a robust tool to measure directly 2D-dose distributions for CT imaging with high spatial resolution detectors in comparison with ionization chamber that provides a single point measurement or an average dose to the phantom. The dose distributions measured with MapCheck2 consider medium heterogeneity and can represent specific patient dose.

  6. The MEGA advanced Compton telescope project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloser, P. F.; Andritschke, R.; Kanbach, G.; Schönfelder, V.; Schopper, F.; Zoglauer, A.

    2002-07-01

    The goal of the Medium Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy (MEGA) telescope is to improve sensitivity at medium gamma-ray energies (0.4-50 MeV) by at least an order of magnitude over that of COMPTEL. This will be achieved with a new compact design that allows for a very wide field of view, permitting a sensitive all-sky survey and the monitoring of transient and variable sources. The key science objectives for MEGA include the investigation of cosmic high-energy particle accelerators, studies of nucleosynthesis sites using gamma-ray lines, and determination of the large-scale structure of galactic and cosmic diffuse background emission. MEGA records and images gamma-ray events by completely tracking both Compton and pair creation interactions in a tracker of double-sided silicon strip detectors and a calorimeter of CsI crystals able to resolve in three dimensions. We present initial laboratory calibration results from a small prototype MEGA telescope.

  7. 4π FOV compact Compton camera for nuclear material investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonho; Lee, Taewoong

    2011-10-01

    A compact Compton camera with a 4π field of view (FOV) was manufactured using the design parameters optimized with the effective choice of gamma-ray interaction order determined from a Monte Carlo simulation. The camera consisted of six CsI(Na) planar scintillators with a pixelized structure that was coupled to position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (H8500) consisting of multiple anodes connected to custom-made circuits. The size of the scintillator and each pixel was 4.4×4.4×0.5 and 0.2×0.2×0.5 cm, respectively. The total size of each detection module was only 5×5×6 cm and the distance between the detector modules was approximately 10 cm to maximize the camera performance, as calculated by the simulation. Therefore, the camera is quite portable for examining nuclear materials in areas, such as harbors or nuclear power plants. The non-uniformity of the multi-anode PMTs was corrected using a novel readout circuit. Amplitude information of the signals from the electronics attached to the scintillator-coupled multi-anode PMTs was collected using a data acquisition board (cDAQ-9178), and the timing information was sent to a FPGA (SPARTAN3E). The FPGA picked the rising edges of the timing signals, and compared the edges of the signals from six detection modules to select the coincident signal from a Compton pair only. The output of the FPGA triggered the DAQ board to send the effective Compton events to a computer. The Compton image was reconstructed, and the performance of the 4π FOV Compact camera was examined.

  8. A new cryogenic diode thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, S. S.; Swinehart, P. R.; Yeager, C. J.

    2002-05-01

    While the introduction of yet another cryogenic diode thermometer is not earth shattering, a new diode thermometer, the DT-600 series, recently introduced by Lake Shore Cryotronics, possesses three features that make it unique among commercial diode thermometers. First, these diodes have been probed at the chip level, allowing for the availability of a bare chip thermometer matching a standard curve-an important feature in situations where real estate is at a premium (IR detectors), or where in-situ calibration is difficult. Second, the thermometry industry has assumed that interchangeability should be best at low temperatures. Thus, good interchangeability at room temperatures implies a very good interchangeability at cryogenic temperature, resulting in a premium priced sensor. The DT-600 series diode thermometer is available in an interchangeability band comparable to platinum RTDs with the added advantage of interchangeability to 2 K. Third, and most important, the DT-600 series diode does not exhibit an instability in the I-V characteristic in the 8 K to 20 K temperature range that is observed in other commercial diode thermometer devices [1]. This paper presents performance characteristics for the DT-600 series diode thermometer along with a comparison of I-V curves for this device and other commercial diode thermometers exhibiting an I-V instability.

  9. Adaption of a PIN-diode detector as an online neutron monitor for the thermal column of the TRIGA research reactor.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Tobias; Blaickner, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    A BNCT online neutron monitoring system was tested in a TRIGA reactor, using a silicon PIN-diode with a conversion foil. The setup was tested with different reactor powers at the hot and cold ends of the irradiation channel, using activation foils to compare with measured fluxes. The results demonstrate good reproducibility and show a linear correlation between signal of the PIN-diode and neutron flux at all positions, demonstrating this approach to be suitable for online monitoring of the neutron flux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  11. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  12. BATSE spectroscopy detector calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, D.; Ford, L.; Matteson, J.; Lestrade, J. P.; Teegarden, B.; Schaefer, B.; Cline, T.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W.; Pendleton, G.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the channel-to-energy calibration of the Spectroscopy Detectors of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). These detectors consist of NaI(TI) crystals viewed by photomultiplier tubes whose output in turn is measured by a pulse height analyzer. The calibration of these detectors has been complicated by frequent gain changes and by nonlinearities specific to the BATSE detectors. Nonlinearities in the light output from the NaI crystal and in the pulse height analyzer are shifted relative to each other by changes in the gain of the photomultiplier tube. We present the analytical model which is the basis of our calibration methodology, and outline how the empirical coefficients in this approach were determined. We also describe the complications peculiar to the Spectroscopy Detectors, and how our understanding of the detectors' operation led us to a solution to these problems.

  13. Synchro-Compton emission from superluminal sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, Alan P.

    1987-01-01

    The application of synchro-Compton theory to real compact radio sources, the question of a self-Compton origin of the X-rays in radio-loud quasars and active galactic nuclei, and the phenomenology of superluminal motion are discussed in a review of research concerning synchro-Compton emission from superluminal sources. After examining the basic synchro-Compton theory of ideal sources, applications of the theory to real sources is discussed. It is concluded that the Compton problem and total energy requirements are not substantially mitigated by considering source structures more complicated than the multiple, uniform-component model used by most investigators. Also, alternatives to the standard model of superluminal motion are discussed, focusing on the assumptions usually made when interpreting superluminal sources.

  14. Synchro-Compton emission from superluminal sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, Alan P.

    1987-01-01

    The application of synchro-Compton theory to real compact radio sources, the question of a self-Compton origin of the X-rays in radio-loud quasars and active galactic nuclei, and the phenomenology of superluminal motion are discussed in a review of research concerning synchro-Compton emission from superluminal sources. After examining the basic synchro-Compton theory of ideal sources, applications of the theory to real sources is discussed. It is concluded that the Compton problem and total energy requirements are not substantially mitigated by considering source structures more complicated than the multiple, uniform-component model used by most investigators. Also, alternatives to the standard model of superluminal motion are discussed, focusing on the assumptions usually made when interpreting superluminal sources.

  15. A Compton camera prototype for prompt gamma medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Aldawood, S.; Böhmer, M.; Bortfeldt, J.; Castelhano, I.; Dedes, G.; Fiedler, F.; Gernhäuser, R.; Golnik, C.; Helmbrecht, S.; Hueso-González, F.; Kolff, H. v. d.; Kormoll, T.; Lang, C.; Liprandi, S.; Lutter, R.; Marinšek, T.; Maier, L.; Pausch, G.; Petzoldt, J.; Römer, K.; Schaart, D.; Parodi, K.

    2016-05-01

    Compton camera prototype for a position-sensitive detection of prompt γ rays from proton-induced nuclear reactions is being developed in Garching. The detector system allows to track the Comptonscattered electrons. The camera consists of a monolithic LaBr3:Ce scintillation absorber crystal, read out by a multi-anode PMT, preceded by a stacked array of 6 double-sided silicon strip detectors acting as scatterers. The LaBr3:Ce crystal has been characterized with radioactive sources. Online commissioning measurements were performed with a pulsed deuteron beam at the Garching Tandem accelerator and with a clinical proton beam at the OncoRay facility in Dresden. The determination of the interaction point of the photons in the monolithic crystal was investigated.

  16. Hybrid coded aperture and Compton imaging using an active mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, L. J.; Wallace, M. S.; Galassi, M. C.; Hoover, A. S.; Mocko, M.; Palmer, D. M.; Tornga, S. R.; Kippen, R. M.; Hynes, M. V.; Toolin, M. J.; Harris, B.; McElroy, J. E.; Wakeford, D.; Lanza, R. C.; Horn, B. K. P.; Wehe, D. K.

    2009-09-01

    The trimodal imager (TMI) images gamma-ray sources from a mobile platform using both coded aperture (CA) and Compton imaging (CI) modalities. In this paper we will discuss development and performance of image reconstruction algorithms for the TMI. In order to develop algorithms in parallel with detector hardware we are using a GEANT4 [J. Allison, K. Amako, J. Apostolakis, H. Araujo, P.A. Dubois, M. Asai, G. Barrand, R. Capra, S. Chauvie, R. Chytracek, G. Cirrone, G. Cooperman, G. Cosmo, G. Cuttone, G. Daquino, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-53 (1) (2006) 270] based simulation package to produce realistic data sets for code development. The simulation code incorporates detailed detector modeling, contributions from natural background radiation, and validation of simulation results against measured data. Maximum likelihood algorithms for both imaging methods are discussed, as well as a hybrid imaging algorithm wherein CA and CI information is fused to generate a higher fidelity reconstruction.

  17. CsI Calorimeter for a Compton-Pair Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Eric J.

    We propose to build and test a hodoscopic CsI(Tl) scintillating-crystal calorimeter for a medium-energy γ-ray Compton and pair telescope. The design and technical approach for this calorimeter relies deeply on heritage from the Fermi LAT CsI Calorimeter, but it dramatically improves the low-energy performance of that design by reading out the scintillation light with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), making the technology developed for Fermi applicable in the Compton regime. While such a hodoscopic calorimeter is useful for an entire class of medium-energy γ-ray telescope designs, we propose to build it explicitly to support beam tests and balloon flight of the Proto-ComPair telescope, the development and construction of which was funded in a four-year APRA program beginning in 2015 ("ComPair: Steps to a Medium Energy γ-ray Mission" with PI J. McEnery of GSFC). That award did not include funding for its CsI calorimeter subsystem, and this proposal is intended to cover that gap. ComPair is a MIDEX-class instrument concept to perform a high-sensitivity survey of the γ-ray sky from 0.5 MeV to 500 MeV. ComPair is designed to provide a dramatic increase in sensitivity relative to previous instruments in this energy range (predominantly INTEGRAL/SPI and Compton COMPTEL), with the same transformative sensitivity increase – and corresponding scientific return– that the Fermi Large Area Telescope provided relative to Compton EGRET. To enable transformative science over a broad range of MeV energies and with a wide field of view, ComPair is a combined Compton telescope and pair telescope employing a silicon-strip tracker (for Compton scattering and pair conversion and tracking) and a solid-state CdZnTe calorimeter (for Compton absorption) and CsI calorimeter (for pair calorimetry), surrounded by a plastic scintillator anti-coincidence detector. Under the current proposal, we will complete the detailed design, assembly, and test of the CsI calorimeter for the risk

  18. Demonstrating the Light-Emitting Diode.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple inexpensive circuit which can be used to quickly demonstrate the basic function and versatility of the solid state diode. Can be used to demonstrate the light-emitting diode (LED) as a light emitter, temperature sensor, light detector with both a linear and logarithmic response, and charge storage device. (JRH)

  19. Demonstrating the Light-Emitting Diode.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple inexpensive circuit which can be used to quickly demonstrate the basic function and versatility of the solid state diode. Can be used to demonstrate the light-emitting diode (LED) as a light emitter, temperature sensor, light detector with both a linear and logarithmic response, and charge storage device. (JRH)

  20. Compton sources for the observation of elastic photon-photon scattering events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micieli, D.; Drebot, I.; Bacci, A.; Milotti, E.; Petrillo, V.; Conti, M. Rossetti; Rossi, A. R.; Tassi, E.; Serafini, L.

    2016-09-01

    We present the design of a photon-photon collider based on conventional Compton gamma sources for the observation of elastic γ γ scattering. Two symmetric electron beams, generated by photocathodes and accelerated in linacs, produce two primary gamma rays through Compton backscattering with two high energy lasers. The elastic photon-photon scattering is analyzed by start-to-end simulations from the photocathodes to the detector. A new Monte Carlo code has been developed ad hoc for the counting of the QED events. Realistic numbers of the secondary gamma yield, obtained by using the parameters of existing or approved Compton devices, a discussion of the feasibility of the experiment and of the nature of the background are presented.

  1. First Results in the Development of a Compton Probe Prototype for Prostate Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llosá, G.

    2004-07-01

    Compton imaging offers the possibility to improve significantly prostate imaging. Current radiotracer techniques, such as PET, SPECT or planar scintigraphy, suffer from photon attenuation in the tissue, poor resolution or low efficiency. The development of a Compton probe employing silicon as scatter detector makes possible to obtain a considerable benefit over present instrumentation. Electronic collimation overcomes the resolution-efficiency tradeoff imposed by mechanical collimators, and due to its near field operation, both high resolution and high counting efficiency can be achieved. Silicon pad sensors and low noise electronics are being optimized for this application. A Compton probe prototype has been developed, proving its viability and enabling further steps towards the construction of a clinical prototype.

  2. A Compton scattering technique to determine wood density and locating defects in it

    SciTech Connect

    Tondon, Akash Sandhu, B. S.; Singh, Bhajan; Singh, Mohinder

    2015-08-28

    A Compton scattering technique is presented to determine density and void location in the given wooden samples. The technique uses a well collimated gamma ray beam from {sup 137}Cs along with the NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. First, a linear relationship is established between Compton scattered intensity and known density of chemical compounds, and then density of the wood is determined from this linear relation. In another experiment, the ability of penetration of gamma rays is explored to detect voids in wooden (low Z) sample. The sudden reduction in the Compton scattered intensities agrees well with the position and size of voids in the wooden sample. It is concluded that wood density and the voids of size ∼ 4 mm and more can be detected easily by this method.

  3. Spatial resolution measurements of the advanced radiographic capability x-ray imaging system at energies relevant to Compton radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G. N. Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Holder, J. P.; Hargrove, D.; Bradley, D. K.; Lumbard, A.; Cruz, J. G.; Piston, K.; Bell, P. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Felker, B.; Rekow, V.; Allen, F. V.; Lee, J. J.; Romano, E.

    2016-11-15

    Compton radiography provides a means to measure the integrity, ρR and symmetry of the DT fuel in an inertial confinement fusion implosion near peak compression. Upcoming experiments at the National Ignition Facility will use the ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) laser to drive backlighter sources for Compton radiography experiments and will use the newly commissioned AXIS (ARC X-ray Imaging System) instrument as the detector. AXIS uses a dual-MCP (micro-channel plate) to provide gating and high DQE at the 40–200 keV x-ray range required for Compton radiography, but introduces many effects that contribute to the spatial resolution. Experiments were performed at energies relevant to Compton radiography to begin characterization of the spatial resolution of the AXIS diagnostic.

  4. Spatial resolution measurements of the advanced radiographic capability x-ray imaging system at energies relevant to Compton radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G. N.; Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Holder, J. P.; Hargrove, D.; Bradley, D. K.; Lumbard, A.; Cruz, J. G.; Piston, K.; Lee, J. J.; Romano, E.; Bell, P. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Felker, B.; Rekow, V.; Allen, F. V.

    2016-11-01

    Compton radiography provides a means to measure the integrity, ρR and symmetry of the DT fuel in an inertial confinement fusion implosion near peak compression. Upcoming experiments at the National Ignition Facility will use the ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) laser to drive backlighter sources for Compton radiography experiments and will use the newly commissioned AXIS (ARC X-ray Imaging System) instrument as the detector. AXIS uses a dual-MCP (micro-channel plate) to provide gating and high DQE at the 40-200 keV x-ray range required for Compton radiography, but introduces many effects that contribute to the spatial resolution. Experiments were performed at energies relevant to Compton radiography to begin characterization of the spatial resolution of the AXIS diagnostic.

  5. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence in accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, J.; Blaes, O. M.

    2016-06-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent `wave' temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, radiation viscous dissipation is suppressed, and the evolution of local photon spectra can be understood in terms of compression and expansion of the strongly coupled photon and gas fluids. We discuss the consequences of these effects for self-consistently resolving and interpreting turbulent Comptonization in spectral calculations in radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of high luminosity accretion flows.

  6. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) was launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on 5 April 1991. The spacecraft and instruments are in good health and returning exciting results. The mission provides nearly six orders of magnitude in spectral coverage, from 30 keV to 30 GeV, with sensitivity over the entire range an order of magnitude better than that of previous observations. The 16,000 kilogram observatory contains four instruments on a stabilized platform. The mission began normal operations on 16 May 1991 and is now over half-way through a full-sky survey. The mission duration is expected to be from six to ten years. A Science Support Center has been established at Goddard Space Flight Center for the purpose of supporting a vigorous Guest Investigator Program. New scientific results to date include: (1) the establishment of the isotropy, combined with spatial inhomogeneity, of the distribution of gamma-ray bursts in the sky; (2) the discovery of intense high energy (100 MeV) gamma-ray emission from 3C 279 and other quasars and BL Lac objects, making these the most distant and luminous gamma-ray sources ever detected; (3) one of the first images of a gamma-ray burst; (4) the observation of intense nuclear and position-annihilation gamma-ray lines and neutrons from several large solar flares; and (5) the detection of a third gamma-ray pulsar, plus several other transient and pulsing hard X-ray sources.

  7. Analysis of the influence of processing of stir-baking with glycyrrhizae on the main components of Euodiae Fructus by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jue; Wu, Xin; Cao, Gang; Chen, Xiaocheng

    2014-01-01

    Euodiae Fructus is one of the most commonly used Chinese herbs in China. Specifically, the crude Euodiae Fructus and its processed products of Gancao Zhi Pin are used clinically for the treatment of different diseases. In order to improve the quality control standard and evaluate the crude and processed Euodiae Fructus, in this study, a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method was developed for the simultaneous determination of five major compounds in Euodiae Fructus. The results indicated that the five components had significant linear relation (r(2) ≥ 0.9997) between the peak area and the injected concentration. The average recoveries of the five components were in the range from 97.38% to 102.56%. Overall intra- and inter-day variations were less than 1.36%. The developed method can be applied to the intrinsic quality control of crude and processed Euodiae Fructus.

  8. Simultaneous quantitation of 14 active components in Yinchenhao decoction with an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector: Method development and ingredient analysis of different commonly prepared samples.

    PubMed

    Yi, YaXiong; Zhang, Yong; Ding, Yue; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Tong; Zhao, Yuan; Xu, XiaoJun; Zhang, YuXin

    2016-11-01

    J. Sep. Sci. 2016, 39, 4147-4157 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201600284 Yinchenhao decoction (YCHD) is a famous Chinese herbal formula recorded in the Shang Han Lun which was prescribed by Zhongjing Zhang during 150-219 AD. A novel quantitative analysis method was developed, based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector for the simultaneous determination of 14 main active components in Yinchenhao decoction. Furthermore, the method has been applied for compositional difference analysis of the 14 components in eight normal extraction samples of Yinchenhao decoction, with the aid of hierarchical clustering analysis and similarity analysis. The present research could help hospital, factory and lab choose the best way to make Yinchenhao decoction with better efficacy.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in Chinese medicinal preparation Dan-Lou tablet by ultra high performance liquid chromatography/diode-array detector/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dong, Juan; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Xiumei; Chang, Yanxu; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Peng

    2013-06-01

    A rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography/diode-array detector/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF) method and a ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector (UPLC-DAD) method were developed for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the major chemical constituents in Dan-Lou tablet. Sixty-eight compounds including flavonoids, phenolic acids, tanshinones, protostane triterpenoids, lactones, and paeoniflorins were unambiguously or tentatively identified by comparing their retention times and accurate mass measurement in 40min with references or literature data. Among them, 19 compounds: gallic acid, danshensu, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, 3'-hydroxy puerarin, puerarin, 3'-methoxy puerarin, mirificin, daidzin, paeoniflorin, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, naringin, genistin, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid A, formononetin, calycosin, cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA were further quantified in 30min as marker substances. It was found that the calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity (R(2)>0.9997) within the test ranges. The overall limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.0073-0.34μg/mL and 0.022-1.04μg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and inter-day precisions were below 1.90% and 2.85%, respectively. The results of repeatability were less than 2.74%. The sample was stable for at least 48h. The mean recovery rates ranged from 95.5% to 105% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 2.96%. The results showed that the developed quantitative method was linear, sensitive, and precise for quality control of Dan-Lou tablet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of flavonoid glycosides in pigeon pea leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector with pentafluorophenyl column.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Fu, Yu-jie; Zu, Yuan-gang; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Zhao, Chun-jian; Li, Chun-ying; Zhang, Lin; Wei, Zuo-fu

    2012-11-01

    In this study, an ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector with a pentafluorophenyl column for the extraction and quantification of eight flavonoid glycosides in pigeon pea leaves is described. Compared with conventional extraction methods, ILMAE is a more effective and environment friendly method for the extraction of nature compounds from herbal plants. Nine different types of ionic liquids with different cations and anions were investigated. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation had significant effects on the extraction of flavonoid glycosides, and 1.0 M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C4MIM]Br) solution was selected as solvent. In addition, the extraction procedures were also optimized using a series of single-factor experiments. The optimum parameters were obtained as follows: extraction temperature 60°C, liquid-solid ratio 20:1 mL/g and extraction time 13 min. Moreover, an HPLC method using pentafluorophenyl column was established and validated. Good linearity was observed with the regression coefficients (r(2)) more than 0.999. The limit of detection (LODs) (S/N = 3) and limit of quantification (LOQs) (S/N = 10) for the components were less than 0.41 and 1.47 μg/mL, respectively. The inter- and intraday precisions that were used to evaluate the reproducibility and relative standard deviation (RSD) values were less than 4.57%. The recoveries were between 97.26 and 102.69%. The method was successfully used for the analysis of samples of pigeon pea leaves. In conclusion, the developed ILMAE-HPLC-diode array detector using pentafluorophenyl column method can be applied for quality control of pigeon pea leaves and related medicinal products. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Sensitive determination of sulfonamides in environmental water by capillary electrophoresis coupled with both silvering detection window and in-capillary optical fiber light-emitting diode-induced fluorescence detector.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hongyun; Wu, Yu; Duan, Zhijuan; Yang, Feng; Yuan, Hongyan; Xiao, Dan

    2017-02-01

    A new detector, silvering detection window and in-capillary optical fiber light-emitting diode-induced fluorescence detector (SDW-ICOF-LED-IFD), is introduced for capillary electrophoresis (CE). The strategy of the work was that half surface of the detection window was coated with silver mirror, which could reflect the undetected fluorescence to the photomultiplier tube to be detected, consequently enhancing the detection sensitivity. Sulfonamides (SAs) are important antibiotics that achieved great applications in many fields. However, they pose a serious threat on the environment and human health when they enter into the environment. The SDW-ICOF-LED-IFD-CE system was used to determine fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled sulfadoxine (SDM), sulfaguanidine (SGD) and sulfamonomethoxine sodium (SMM-Na) in environmental water. The detection results obtained by the SDW-ICOF-LED-IFD-CE system were compared to those acquired by the CE with in-capillary optical fiber light-emitting diode-induced fluorescence detection (ICOF-LED-IFD-CE). The limits of detection (LODs) of SDW-ICOF-LED-IFD-CE and ICOF-LED-IFD-CE were 1.0-2.0 nM and 2.5-7.7 nM (S/N = 3), respectively. The intraday (n = 6) and interday (n = 6) precision of migration time and corresponding peak area for both types of CE were all less than 0.86% and 3.68%, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was judged by employing standard addition method, and recoveries obtained were in the range of 92.5-102.9%. The results indicated that the sensitivity of the SDW-ICOF-LED-IFD-CE system was improved, and that its reproducibility and accuracy were satisfactory. It was successfully applied to analyze SAs in environmental water. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. External Compton Scattering in Blazar Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, Justin

    2017-08-01

    In many low-peaked blazars, especially flat spectrum radio quasars, it is thought that the gamma-rays are produced through the Compton scattering of seed photons external to the jet, most likely from the broad line region and dust torus. I will present detailed, realistic models of broad line regions and dust tori, useful for computation of Compton scattering. I will discuss the location of the gamma-ray emitting region in the context of Compton-scattering of these seed radiation fields.

  13. Nano-scale NiSi and n-type silicon based Schottky barrier diode as a near infra-red detector for room temperature operation

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, S.; Midya, K.; Duttagupta, S. P.; Ramakrishnan, D.

    2014-09-28

    The fabrication of nano-scale NiSi/n-Si Schottky barrier diode by rapid thermal annealing process is reported. The characterization of the nano-scale NiSi film was performed using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The thickness of the film (27 nm) has been measured by cross-sectional Secondary Electron Microscopy and XPS based depth profile method. Current–voltage (I–V) characteristics show an excellent rectification ratio (I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} = 10⁵) at a bias voltage of ±1 V. The diode ideality factor is 1.28. The barrier height was also determined independently based on I–V (0.62 eV) and high frequency capacitance–voltage technique (0.76 eV), and the correlation between them has explained. The diode photo-response was measured in the range of 1.35–2.5 μm under different reverse bias conditions (0.0–1.0 V). The response is observed to increase with increasing reverse bias. From the photo-responsivity study, the zero bias barrier height was determined to be 0.54 eV.

  14. Development of a compact scintillator-based high-resolution Compton camera for molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, A.; Kataoka, J.; Koide, A.; Sueoka, K.; Iwamoto, Y.; Taya, T.; Ohsuka, S.

    2017-02-01

    The Compton camera, which shows gamma-ray distribution utilizing the kinematics of Compton scattering, is a promising detector capable of imaging across a wide range of energy. In this study, we aim to construct a small-animal molecular imaging system in a wide energy range by using the Compton camera. We developed a compact medical Compton camera based on a Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:GAGG) scintillator and multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC). A basic performance confirmed that for 662 keV, the typical energy resolution was 7.4 % (FWHM) and the angular resolution was 4.5° (FWHM). We then used the medical Compton camera to conduct imaging experiments based on a 3-D imaging reconstruction algorithm using the multi-angle data acquisition method. The result confirmed that for a 137Cs point source at a distance of 4 cm, the image had a spatial resolution of 3.1 mm (FWHM). Furthermore, we succeeded in producing 3-D multi-color image of different simultaneous energy sources (22Na [511 keV], 137Cs [662 keV], and 54Mn [834 keV]).

  15. The Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI) Superpressure Balloon Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, Steven E.

    2014-08-01

    The Compton Spectrometer and Image (COSI) is a ULDB-borne soft gamma-ray telescope (0.2-5 MeV) designed to probe the origins of Galactic positrons, uncover sites of nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy, and perform pioneering studies of gamma-ray polarization in a number of source classes. COSI uses a compact Compton telescope design, resulting from a decade of development under NASA’s ROSES program - a modern take on techniques successfully pioneered by COMPTEL on CGRO. COSI performs groundbreaking science by combining improvements in sensitivity, spectral resolution, and sky coverage. The COSI instrument and flight systems have been designed for flight on NASA’s 18 MCF superpressure balloon (SPB). We are now beginning a series science flights to fulfill the COSI science goals: a SPB in 2014 from Antarctica, followed by two 100-day ULDB flights from New Zealand.COSI is a wide-field survey telescope designed to perform imaging, spectroscopy, and polarization measurements. It employs a novel Compton telescope design utilizing a compact array of cross-strip germanium detectors (GeDs) to resolve individual gamma-ray interactions with high spectral and spatial resolution. The COSI array is housed in a common vacuum cryostat cooled by a mechanical cryocooler. An active CsI Shield encloses the cryostat on the sides and bottom. The FoV of the instrument covers 25% of the full sky at a given moment.The COSI instrument builds upon considerable heritage from the previous Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) balloon instrument that underwent a successful technology demonstration flight in June 2005 from Fort Sumner, NM, a successful “first light” science flight from Fort Sumner in May 2009, and a launch campaign from Alice Springs, Australia in June 2010, where it unfortunately suffered a launch mishap. COSI has been upgraded from the previous NCT instrument by conversion to a detector configuration optimized for polarization sensitivity and addition of a cryocooler to remove

  16. COSI: The Compton Spectrometer and Imager Science Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsick, John; Jean, Pierre; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Boggs, Steven; Zoglauer, A.; Von Ballmoos, Peter; Amman, Mark; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Chang, Yuan-Hann.; Chou, Yi; Kierans, Carolyn; Lin, Chih-Hsun.; Lowell, Alex; Shang, Jie-Rou.; Tseng, Chao-Hsiung; Yang, Chien-Ying

    The Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI), which was formerly known as the Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT), is a balloon-borne soft gamma-ray telescope (0.2-5 MeV) designed to probe the origins of Galactic positrons, uncover sites of nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy, and perform pioneering studies of gamma-ray polarization in a number of source classes. COSI uses a compact Compton telescope design, resulting from a decade of development under NASA's ROSES program - a modern take on techniques successfully pioneered by COMPTEL on CGRO. We have rebuilt the COSI instrument and flight systems, upgraded for balloon flights and improved polarization sensitivity. We will present the redesign of COSI and the overall goals of the 5-year science program. Three science flights are planned to fulfill the COSI science goals: an LDB in 2014 from Antarctica on a superpressure balloon (SuperCOSI), followed by two 100-day ULDB flights from New Zealand. COSI is a wide-field survey telescope designed to perform imaging, spectroscopy, and polarization measurements. It employs a novel Compton telescope design utilizing a compact array of cross-strip germanium detectors (GeDs) to resolve individual gamma-ray interactions with high spectral and spatial resolution. The COSI array is housed in a common vacuum cryostat cooled by a mechanical cryocooler. An active CsI shield encloses the cryostat on the sides and bottom. The FoV of the instrument covers 25% of the full sky at a given moment. The COSI instrument is mature, building upon considerable heritage from the previous NCT balloon instrument that underwent a successful technology demonstration flight in June 2005 from Fort Sumner, NM, a successful "first light" science flight from Fort Sumner in May 2009, and quickly turned around and delivered on time for a launch campaign from Alice Springs, Australia in June 2010, where it unfortunately suffered a launch mishap. The NCT instrument and Flight System are being rebuilt under the NASA

  17. LArGe: Background suppression using liquid argon (LAr) scintillation for 0 νββ decay search with enriched germanium (Ge) detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Marco, M.; Peiffer, P.; Schönert, S.

    2007-10-01

    Measurements with a bare p-type high purity germanium diode (HPGe) submerged in a 19 kg liquid argon (LAr) scintillation detector at MPIK-Heidelberg are reported. The liquid argon-germanium system (LArGe) is operated as a 4 π anti-Compton spectrometer to suppress backgrounds in the HPGe. This R&D is carried out in the framework of the Gerda experiment which searches for 0 νββ decays with HPGe detectors enriched in 76Ge. The goal of this work is to develop a novel method to discriminate backgrounds in 0 νββ search which would ultimately allow to investigate the effective neutrino mass free of background events down to the inverse mass hierarchy scale. Other applications in low-background counting are expected.

  18. Small-angle Compton Scattering to Determine the Depth of a Radioactive Source in Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, R. B.; Gunn, C. A.; Chiang, L. G.; Valiga, R. E.; Cantrell, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    A gamma-ray peak in a spectrum is often accompanied by a discontinuity in the Compton continuum at the peak. The Compton continuum results from Compton scattering in the detector. The discontinuity at a peak results from small-angle Compton scattering by the gamma rays in matter situated directly between the gamma-ray source and the detector. The magnitude of this discontinuity with respect to the gamma-ray peak is therefore an indicator of the amount of material or shielding between the gamma-ray source and the detector. This small-angle scattering was used to determine the depth of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) solution standards in a concrete floor mockup. The empirical results of the use of this small-angle scattering discontinuity in a concrete floor experiment will be described. A Monte Carlo calculation of the experiment will also be described. In addition, the depth determined from small-angle scattering was used in conjunction with differential attenuation to more accurately measure the uranium content of the mockup. Following these empirical results, the theory of small-angle scattering will be discussed. The magnitude of the discontinuity compared to the peak count rate is directly related to the depth of the gamma-ray source in matter. This relation can be described by relatively simple mathematical expressions. This is the first instance that we are aware of in which the small-angle Compton scattering has been used to determine the depth of a radioactive source. Furthermore this is the first development of the theoretical expressions for the magnitude of the small-angle scattering discontinuity.

  19. Using triple gamma coincidences with a pixelated semiconductor Compton-PET scanner: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolstein, M.; Chmeissani, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project presents a novel design using pixelated semiconductor detectors for nuclear medicine applications to achieve the intrinsic image quality limits set by physics. The conceptual design can be extended to a Compton gamma camera. The use of a pixelated CdTe detector with voxel sizes of 1 × 1 × 2 mm3 guarantees optimal energy and spatial resolution. However, the limited time resolution of semiconductor detectors makes it impossible to use Time Of Flight (TOF) with VIP PET. TOF is used in order to improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR) by using only the most probable portion of the Line-Of-Response (LOR) instead of its entire length. To overcome the limitation of CdTe time resolution, we present in this article a simulation study using β+-γ emitting isotopes with a Compton-PET scanner. When the β+ annihilates with an electron it produces two gammas which produce a LOR in the PET scanner, while the additional gamma, when scattered in the scatter detector, provides a Compton cone that intersects with the aforementioned LOR. The intersection indicates, within a few mm of uncertainty along the LOR, the origin of the beta-gamma decay. Hence, one can limit the part of the LOR used by the image reconstruction algorithm.

  20. Calibration of the Compton Spectrometer and Imager in preparation for the 2014 balloon campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kierans, C. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Lowell, A.; Tomsick, J.; Zoglauer, A.; Amman, M.; Chiu, J.-L.; Chang, H.-K.; Lin, C.-H.; Jean, P.; von Ballmoos, P.; Yang, C.-Y.; Shang, J.-R.; Tseng, C.-H.; Chou, Y.; Chang, Y.-H.

    2014-07-01

    The Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI) is a balloon-borne soft gamma-ray (0.2-5 MeV) telescope designed to perform wide-field imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy, and novel polarization measurements of astrophysical sources. COSI employs a compact Compton telescope design, utilizing 12 cross-strip germanium detectors to track the path of incident photons, where position and energy deposits from Compton interactions allow for a reconstruction of the source position in the sky, an inherent measure of the linear polarization, and significant background reduction. The instrument has recently been rebuilt with an updated and optimized design; the polarization sensitivity and effective area have increased due to a change in detector configuration, and the new lightweight gondola is suited to fly on ultra-long duration flights with the addition of a mechanical cryocooler system. COSI is planning to launch from the Long Duration Balloon site at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, in December 2014, where our primary science goal will be to measure gamma-ray burst (GRB) polarization. In preparation for the 2014 campaign, we have performed preliminary calibrations of the energy and 3-D position of interactions within the detector, and simulations of the angular resolution and detector efficiency of the integrated instrument. In this paper we will present the science goals for the 2014 COSI campaign and the techniques and results of the preliminary calibrations.

  1. Estimation of Compton imager using single 3D position-sensitive LYSO scintillator: Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taewoong; Lee, Hyounggun; Kim, Younghak; Lee, Wonho

    2017-07-01

    The performance of a Compton imager using a single three-dimensional position-sensitive LYSO scintillator detector was estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation. The Compton imager consisted of a single LYSO scintillator with a pixelized structure. The size of the scintillator and each pixel were 1.3 × 1.3 × 1.3 cm3 and 0.3 × 0.3 × 0.3 cm3, respectively. The order of γ-ray interactions was determined based on the deposited energies in each detector. After the determination of the interaction sequence, various types of reconstruction algorithms such as simple back-projection, filtered back-projection, and list-mode maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (LM-MLEM) were applied and compared with each other in terms of their angular resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for several γ-ray energies. The LM-MLEM reconstruction algorithm exhibited the best performance for Compton imaging in maintaining high angular resolution and SNR. The two sources of 137Cs (662 keV) could be distinguishable if they were more than 17° apart. The reconstructed Compton images showed the precise position and distribution of various radiation isotopes, which demonstrated the feasibility of the monitoring of nuclear materials in homeland security and radioactive waste management applications.

  2. Neutron Compton scattering from selectively deuterated acetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanderlingh, U. N.; Fielding, A. L.; Middendorf, H. D.

    With the aim of developing the application of neutron Compton scattering (NCS) to molecular systems of biophysical interest, we are using the Compton spectrometer EVS at ISIS to characterize the momentum distribution of protons in peptide groups. In this contribution we present NCS measurements of the recoil peak (Compton profile) due to the amide proton in otherwise fully deuterated acetanilide (ACN), a widely studied model system for H-bonding and energy transfer in biomolecules. We obtain values for the average width of the potential well of the amide proton and its mean kinetic energy. Deviations from the Gaussian form of the Compton profile, analyzed on the basis of an expansion due to Sears, provide data relating to the Laplacian of the proton potential.

  3. RELATIVISTIC ACCRETION MEDIATED BY TURBULENT COMPTONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Socrates, Aristotle E-mail: socrates@astro.princeton.ed

    2010-08-10

    Black hole and neutron star accretion flows display unusually high levels of hard coronal emission in comparison to all other optically thick, gravitationally bound, turbulent astrophysical systems. Since these flows sit in deep relativistic gravitational potentials, their random bulk motions approach the speed of light, therefore allowing turbulent Comptonization to be an important effect. We show that the inevitable production of hard X-ray photons results from turbulent Comptonization in the limit where the turbulence is trans-sonic and the accretion power approaches the Eddington limit. In this regime, the turbulent Compton y-parameter approaches unity and the turbulent Compton temperature is a significant fraction of the electron rest mass energy, in agreement with the observed phenomena.

  4. Hidden baryons: The physics of Compton composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Frederick J.

    2016-06-01

    A large fraction of the mass-energy of the Universe appears to be composed of Compton composites. How is it then that these composites are not frequently observed in experiments? This paper addresses this question, and others, by reviewing recent publications that: 1) introduced Compton composites, 2) showed how and where they are formed and 3) explained how they interact with other systems. Though ubiquitous in many physical situations, Compton composites are almost completely hidden in experiments due to their unique interaction characteristics. Still, their presence has been indirectly observed, though not interpreted as such until recently. Looking to the future, direct-detection experiments are proposed that could verify the composites' components. It is with deep sadness that I dedicate this paper to my mentor, collaborator, and friend, Dr. John R. Reitz, who passed away within days of the publication of our paper “Compton Composites Late in the Early Universe”.

  5. Analysis of a proposed Compton backscatter imaging technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J.; Jacoby, B.

    1992-12-01

    Imaging techniques which require access to only one side of the object being viewed are potentially useful in situations where conventional projection radiography and tomography cannot be applied, such as looking for voids in a large container where access to the back of the object is inconvenient or even impossible. One-sided imaging techniques are currently being used in nondestructive evaluation of surfaces and shallow subsurface structures. In this work we present both analytical calculations and detailed Monte Carlo simulations aimed at assessing the capability of a proposed Compton backscatter imaging technique designed to detect and characterize voids located several centimeters below the surface of a solid. The proposed technique, based on a scheme suggested by Farmer and Collins, encodes the spatial position and structure of voids in a solid in the energy spectrum of the Compton-scattered photons as recorded by a high resolution detector. Our calculations model a {sup 137}Cs source projecting a 1 mm{sup 2} pencil beam of 662 keV gammas into a target slab at an incident angle of 45{degrees} and a collimated detector (also oriented at 45{degrees} with respect to the surface) which views the beam path at a central angle of 90{degrees}. The detector collimator is modeled here as a triangular slit viewing a 2.54 cm (1.000``) segment of the beam path at a depth of 2 cm below the surface of the slab. Our results suggest that the proposed technique should be capable of an absolute position resolution of {approx} 0.25 mm ({approx} 0.010``) for isolated voids and an overall object resolution of {approx} 1.00 Ip/mm ({approx} 0.04``). The predicted signal contrast for voids packed with various contraband materials will be discussed as well as multiple scattering contributions to the predicted yields.

  6. Energy measurement of electron beams by Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppel, Cynthia

    1995-01-01

    A method has been proposed to utilize the well-known Compton scattering process as a tool to measure the centroid energy of a high energy electron beam at the 0.01% level. It is suggested to use the Compton scattering of an infrared laser off the electron beam, and then to measure the energy of the scattered gamma-rays very precisely using solid-state detectors. The technique proposed is applicable for electron beams with energies from 200 MeV to 16 GeV using presently available lasers. This technique was judged to be the most viable of all those proposed for beam energy measurements at the nearby Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). Plans for a prototype test of the technique are underway, where the main issues are the possible photon backgrounds associated with an electron accelerator and the electron and laser beam stabilities and diagnostics. The bulk of my ASEE summer research has been spent utilizing the expertise of the staff at the Aerospace Electronics Systems Division at LaRC to assist in the design of the test. Investigations were made regarding window and mirror transmission and radiation damage issues, remote movement of elements in ultra-high vacuum conditions, etc. The prototype test of the proposed laser backscattering method is planned for this December.

  7. Energy measurement of electron beams by Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppel, Cynthia

    1995-01-01

    A method has been proposed to utilize the well-known Compton scattering process as a tool to measure the centroid energy of a high energy electron beam at the 0.01% level. It is suggested to use the Compton scattering of an infrared laser off the electron beam, and then to measure the energy of the scattered gamma-rays very precisely using solid-state detectors. The technique proposed is applicable for electron beams with energies from 200 MeV to 16 GeV using presently available lasers. This technique was judged to be the most viable of all those proposed for beam energy measurements at the nearby Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). Plans for a prototype test of the technique are underway, where the main issues are the possible photon backgrounds associated with an electron accelerator and the electron and laser beam stabilities and diagnostics. The bulk of my ASEE summer research has been spent utilizing the expertise of the staff at the Aerospace Electronics Systems Division at LaRC to assist in the design of the test. Investigations were made regarding window and mirror transmission and radiation damage issues, remote movement of elements in ultra-high vacuum conditions, etc. The prototype test of the proposed laser backscattering method is planned for this December.

  8. Design Considerations Of A Compton Camera For Low Energy Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, L. J.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Grint, A. N.; Lazarus, I.; Judson, D. S.; Nolan, P. J.; Oxley, D. C.; Simpson, J.

    2009-12-01

    Development of a Compton camera for low energy medical imaging applications is underway. The ProSPECTus project aims to utilize position sensitive detectors to generate high quality images using electronic collimation. This method has the potential to significantly increase the imaging efficiency compared with mechanically collimated SPECT systems, a highly desirable improvement on clinical systems. Design considerations encompass the geometrical optimisation and evaluation of image quality from the system which is to be built and assessed.

  9. A photon calorimeter using lead tungstate crystals for the CEBAF HAll A Compton polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    D. Neyret; T. Pussieux; T. Auger; M. Baylac; E. Burtin; C. Cavata; R. Chipaux; S. Escoffier; N. Falletto; J. Jardillier; S. Kerhoas; D. Lhuillier; F. Marie; C. Veyssiere; J. Ahrens; R. Beck; M. Lang

    2000-05-01

    A new Compton polarimeter is built on the CEBAF Hall A electron beam line. Performances of 10% resolution and 1% calibration are required for the photon calorimeter of this polarimeter. This calorimeter is built with lead tungstate scintillators coming from the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter R&D. Beam tests of this detector have been made using the tagged photon beam line at MAMI, Mainz, and a resolution of 1.76%+2.75%/v+0.41%/E has been measured.

  10. Design Considerations Of A Compton Camera For Low Energy Medical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, L. J.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Grint, A. N.; Judson, D. S.; Nolan, P. J.; Oxley, D. C.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J.

    2009-12-02

    Development of a Compton camera for low energy medical imaging applications is underway. The ProSPECTus project aims to utilize position sensitive detectors to generate high quality images using electronic collimation. This method has the potential to significantly increase the imaging efficiency compared with mechanically collimated SPECT systems, a highly desirable improvement on clinical systems. Design considerations encompass the geometrical optimisation and evaluation of image quality from the system which is to be built and assessed.

  11. Coincidence corrected efficiency calibration of Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aucott, Timothy; Brand, Alexander; DiPrete, David

    2015-04-20

    The authors present a reliable method to calibrate the full-energy efficiency and the coincidence correction factors using a commonly-available mixed source gamma standard. This is accomplished by measuring the peak areas from both summing and non-summing decay schemes and simultaneously fitting both the full-energy efficiency, as well as the total efficiency, as functions of energy. By using known decay schemes, these functions can then be used to provide correction factors for other nuclides not included in the calibration standard.

  12. Gamma-ray momentum reconstruction from Compton electron trajectories by filtered back-projection

    DOE PAGES

    Haefner, A.; Gunter, D.; Plimley, B.; ...

    2014-11-03

    Gamma-ray imaging utilizing Compton scattering has traditionally relied on measuring coincident gamma-ray interactions to map directional information of the source distribution. This coincidence requirement makes it an inherently inefficient process. We present an approach to gamma-ray reconstruction from Compton scattering that requires only a single electron tracking detector, thus removing the coincidence requirement. From the Compton scattered electron momentum distribution, our algorithm analytically computes the incident photon's correlated direction and energy distributions. Because this method maps the source energy and location, it is useful in applications, where prior information about the source distribution is unknown. We demonstrate this method withmore » electron tracks measured in a scientific Si charge coupled device. While this method was demonstrated with electron tracks in a Si-based detector, it is applicable to any detector that can measure electron direction and energy, or equivalently the electron momentum. For example, it can increase the sensitivity to obtain energy and direction in gas-based systems that suffer from limited efficiency.« less

  13. Gamma-ray momentum reconstruction from Compton electron trajectories by filtered back-projection

    SciTech Connect

    Haefner, A.; Gunter, D.; Plimley, B.; Pavlovsky, R.; Vetter, K.

    2014-11-03

    Gamma-ray imaging utilizing Compton scattering has traditionally relied on measuring coincident gamma-ray interactions to map directional information of the source distribution. This coincidence requirement makes it an inherently inefficient process. We present an approach to gamma-ray reconstruction from Compton scattering that requires only a single electron tracking detector, thus removing the coincidence requirement. From the Compton scattered electron momentum distribution, our algorithm analytically computes the incident photon's correlated direction and energy distributions. Because this method maps the source energy and location, it is useful in applications, where prior information about the source distribution is unknown. We demonstrate this method with electron tracks measured in a scientific Si charge coupled device. While this method was demonstrated with electron tracks in a Si-based detector, it is applicable to any detector that can measure electron direction and energy, or equivalently the electron momentum. For example, it can increase the sensitivity to obtain energy and direction in gas-based systems that suffer from limited efficiency.

  14. The impact of the number of projections on image quality in Compton scatter tomography.

    PubMed

    Chighvinadze, Tamar; Pistorius, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The availability of high resolution, energy discriminating photon counting detectors should make it possible to use Compton scattered photons to improve the diagnostic capability of computed tomography (CT). With high, spatial and energy resolution detectors Compton scatter tomography (CST) images of adequate quality can be obtained with a single projection. In practice, the limitations of realistic detectors require multiple projections for good quality images. The relationship between the number of projections used for reconstruction and the reconstructed image quality obtained for conventional CT does not necessarily apply to multi-projection Compton scatter tomography (MPCST). The purpose of this work was to investigate the dependence of the reconstructed image quality on the number of projections for MPCST. Analytical simulations and reconstructions were used to evaluate the contrast and spatial resolution for images reconstructed with one to 720 projections. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and the modulation transfer functions (MTF) demonstrated that the contrast increases monotonically with the number of projections while spatial resolution was independent of the number of projections. The contrast initially increases rapidly with projection number, becoming more gradual as the number of projections increase, with the rate of change being a function of fluence. The number of projections required to asymptotically approach the maximum contrast decreases as the fluence increases, with no indication of an optimal value for the range of fluences and projections investigated. For the projections considered, an increase in the number of projections increases the CNR even though the number of photons per projection decreases.

  15. Sparse view Compton scatter tomography with energy resolved data: experimental and simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmal, Abdulla; Tracey, Brian H.; Rezaee, Hamideh; Miller, Eric L.; Schubert, Jeffrey R.; Denker, Jeff; Couture, Aaron

    2017-05-01

    X-ray inspection systems play a critical role in many non-destructive testing and security applications, with systems typically measuring attenuation during transmission along straight-line paths connecting sources and detectors. Computed tomography (CT) systems can provide higher-quality images than single- or dual-view systems, but the need to measure many projections through the scene increases system complexity and cost. We seek to maximize the image quality of sparse-view (few-view) systems by combining attenuation data with measurements of Compton-scattered photons, that deflect after scattering and arrive at detectors via broken ray paths that provide additional sampling of the scene. The work below presents experimental validation of a singlescatter forward model for Compton-scatter data measured with energy-resolving detectors, and demonstrates a reconstruction algorithm that combines both attenuation and scatter measurements. The results suggest that including Compton-scattered data in the reconstruction process can improve image quality for few-view systems.

  16. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of Four Major Flavonol Glycosides in the Leaves of Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roemer (Chinese Toon) from Various Origins by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Liting; Cao, Yaqi; Gu, Qinying; Yang, Huan; Tam, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roemer is an endemic species of Toona genus native to Asian area. Its dried leaves are applied in the treatment of many diseases; however, few investigations have been reported for the quantitative analysis and comparison of major bioactive flavonol glycosides in the leaves harvested from various origins. Objective: To quantitatively analyze four major flavonol glycosides including rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside, and kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside in the leaves from different production sites and classify them according to the content of these glycosides. Materials and Methods: A high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for their simultaneous determination was developed and validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, stability, and repeatability. Moreover, the method established was then employed to explore the difference in the content of these four glycosides in raw materials. Finally, a hierarchical clustering analysis was performed to classify 11 voucher specimens. Results: The separation was performed on a Waters XBridge Shield RP18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) kept at 35°C, and acetonitrile and H2O containing 0.30% trifluoroacetic acid as mobile phase was driven at 1.0 mL/min during the analysis. Ten microliters of solution were injected and 254 nm was selected to monitor the separation. A strong linear relationship between the peak area and concentration of four analytes was observed. And, the method was also validated to be repeatable, stable, precise, and accurate. Conclusion: An efficient and reliable HPLC-DAD method was established and applied in the assays for the samples from 11 origins successfully. Moreover, the content of those flavonol glycosides varied much among different batches, and the flavonoids could be considered as biomarkers to control the quality of Chinese Toon. SUMMARY Four major flavonol glycosides in the leaves

  17. Carbon-Nanotube Schottky Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish; Wong, Eric; Schlecht, Erich; Hunt, Brian; Siegel, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Schottky diodes based on semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes are being developed as essential components of the next generation of submillimeter-wave sensors and sources. Initial performance predictions have shown that the performance characteristics of these devices can exceed those of the state-of-the-art solid-state Schottky diodes that have been the components of choice for room-temperature submillimeter-wave sensors for more than 50 years. For state-of-the-art Schottky diodes used as detectors at frequencies above a few hundred gigahertz, the inherent parasitic capacitances associated with their semiconductor junction areas and the resistances associated with low electron mobilities limit achievable sensitivity. The performance of such a detector falls off approximately exponentially with frequency above 500 GHz. Moreover, when used as frequency multipliers for generating signals, state-of-the-art solid-state Schottky diodes exhibit extremely low efficiencies, generally putting out only micro-watts of power at frequencies up to 1.5 THz. The shortcomings of the state-of-the-art solid-state Schottky diodes can be overcome by exploiting the unique electronic properties of semiconducting carbon nanotubes. A single-walled carbon nanotube can be metallic or semiconducting, depending on its chirality, and exhibits high electron mobility (recently reported to be approx.= 2x10(exp 5)sq cm/V-s) and low parasitic capacitance. Because of the narrowness of nanotubes, Schottky diodes based on carbon nanotubes have ultra-small junction areas (of the order of a few square nanometers) and consequent junction capacitances of the order of 10(exp -18) F, which translates to cutoff frequency >5 THz. Because the turn-on power levels of these devices are very low (of the order of nano-watts), the input power levels needed for pumping local oscillators containing these devices should be lower than those needed for local oscillators containing state-of-the-art solid

  18. Investigation of ACC/CCI tunnel diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupian, Gary W.; Chotkevys, Gerald P.

    1993-11-01

    A tunnel-diode RF detector failed in DMSP system-level testing. An investigation was initiated by the prime contractor (Aerojet) with the assistance of The Aerospace Corporation. Destructive physical analyses carried out by Aerospace's Electronics Technology Center and by a commercial laboratory at the direction of Aerojet revealed a number of problems in the manufacturing process. Aerojet and Aerospace personnel visited the manufacturers of the detector module and the diodes and made recommendations that reduced or eliminated many of these difficulties. A search of the literature indicated that mechanical stress in the mesa region of the tunnel diodes was known to cause degradation and further suggested that elevated-temperature exposure would effectively screen out defective devices. Aerospace recommended such a screen. The implementation of this screen and the measures taken to clean up the manufacturer's process have greatly improved the reliability of the tunnel-diode detectors. The efficacy of the steps taken has been demonstrated clearly by comparison of electrical test results on the old and the improved components. Some time after our evaluation of the DMSP diodes, Aerospace was asked by NASA to examine diodes from the same vendor used for detectors on the AMSU/A mission.

  19. Imaging through Compton scattering and pair creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfelder, Volker; Kanbach, Gottfried

    Compton telescopes and pair-creation telescopes are the most successful instruments used in space-based γ-ray astronomy in the energy range from ≈ 0.3 MeV to u8776 30 GeV. The principles of measurement of both kinds of telescopes are explained and an overview of early Compton and pair telescopes is given. The properties and capabilities of COMPTEL and EGRET aboard NASA"s CGRO are described. These two instruments have performed the first-ever all-sky survey in γ-ray astronomy above 1 MeV. The other two CGRO instruments OSSE and BATSE have complemented these surveys towards lower energies (for this purpose, the omnidirectionally sensitive BATSE instrument used its capability to monitor hard X-ray sources >20 keV by means of Earth occultation). Finally, the outlook for future Compton and pair creation telescopes is given.

  20. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: mission status.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) is the second in NASA's series of Great Observatories. Compton has now been operating for over two and a half years, and has given a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made and continue to be made. The authors describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments and the observing programs for the first three years of the mission. During Phases 2 and 3 of the mission a Guest Investigator program has been in progress with the Guest Observers' time share increasing from 30% to over 50% for the later mission phases.

  1. High-resolution CdTe detectors with application to various fields (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Orita, Tadashi; Arai, Yasuo; Sugawara, Hirotaka; Tomaru, Ryota; Katsuragawa, Miho; Sato, Goro; Watanabe, Shin; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Furenlid, Lars R.; Barber, H. Bradford

    2016-10-01

    High-quality CdTe semiconductor detectors with both fine position resolution and high energy resolution hold great promise to improve measurement in various hard X-ray and gamma-ray imaging fields. ISAS/JAXA has been developing CdTe imaging detectors to meet scientific demands in latest celestial observation and severe environmental limitation (power consumption, vibration, radiation) in space for over 15 years. The energy resolution of imaging detectors with a CdTe Schottky diode of In/CdTe/Pt or Al/CdTe/Pt contact is a highlight of our development. We can extremely reduce a leakage current of devises, meaning it allows us to supply higher bias voltage to collect charges. The 3.2cm-wide and 0.75mm-thick CdTe double-sided strip detector with a strip pitch of 250 µm has been successfully established and was mounted in the latest Japanese X-ray satellite. The energy resolution measured in the test on ground was 2.1 keV (FWHM) at 59.5 keV. The detector with much finer resolution of 60 µm is ready, and it was actually used in the FOXSI rocket mission to observe hard X-ray from the sun. In this talk, we will focus on our research activities to apply space sensor technologies to such various imaging fields as medical imaging. Recent development of CdTe detectors, imaging module with pinhole and coded-mask collimators, and experimental study of response to hard X-rays and gamma-rays are presented. The talk also includes research of the Compton camera which has a configuration of accumulated Si and CdTe imaging detectors.

  2. Vertex detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lueth, V.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10{sup {minus}13} s, among them the {tau} lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation.

  3. Compton scattering for spectroscopic detection of ultra-fast, high flux, broad energy range X-rays.

    PubMed

    Cipiccia, S; Wiggins, S M; Maneuski, D; Brunetti, E; Vieux, G; Yang, X; Issac, R C; Welsh, G H; Anania, M; Islam, M R; Ersfeld, B; Montgomery, R; Smith, G; Hoek, M; Hamilton, D J; Lemos, N R C; Symes, D R; Rajeev, P P; Shea, V O; Dias, J M; Jaroszynski, D A

    2013-11-01

    Compton side-scattering has been used to simultaneously downshift the energy of keV to MeV energy range photons while attenuating their flux to enable single-shot, spectrally resolved, measurements of high flux X-ray sources to be undertaken. To demonstrate the technique a 1 mm thick pixelated cadmium telluride detector has been used to measure spectra of Compton side-scattered radiation from a Cobalt-60 laboratory source and a high flux, high peak brilliance X-ray source of betatron radiation from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator.

  4. Compton scattering for spectroscopic detection of ultra-fast, high flux, broad energy range X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiccia, S.; Wiggins, S. M.; Brunetti, E.; Vieux, G.; Yang, X.; Welsh, G. H.; Anania, M.; Islam, M. R.; Ersfeld, B.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Maneuski, D.; Montgomery, R.; Smith, G.; Hoek, M.; Hamilton, D. J.; Shea, V. O.; Issac, R. C.; Lemos, N. R. C.; Dias, J. M.; and others

    2013-11-15

    Compton side-scattering has been used to simultaneously downshift the energy of keV to MeV energy range photons while attenuating their flux to enable single-shot, spectrally resolved, measurements of high flux X-ray sources to be undertaken. To demonstrate the technique a 1 mm thick pixelated cadmium telluride detector has been used to measure spectra of Compton side-scattered radiation from a Cobalt-60 laboratory source and a high flux, high peak brilliance X-ray source of betatron radiation from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator.

  5. Timelike Compton Scattering - A First Look (CLAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel Nadel-Turonski

    2009-12-01

    A major goal of the 12 GeV upgrade at Jefferson Lab is to map out the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) in the valence region. This is primarily done through Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), which provides the simplest and cleanest way of accessing the GPDs. However, the “inverse” process, Timelike Compton Scattering (TCS), can provide an important complement, in particular formeasuring the real part of the amplitude and understanding corrections at finite Q2. The first measurements of TCS have recently been carried out in Hall B at Jefferson Lab, using both tagged and untagged photon beams.

  6. Quasi-thermal comptonization and GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Celotti, A.

    1999-09-01

    Quasi-thermal Comptonization in internal shocks formed between relativistic shells can account for the high energy emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRB). This is the dominant cooling mechanism if the typical energy of the emitting particles is achieved either through the balance between heating and cooling or as a result of electron-positron (e(+/-) ) pair production. Both processes yield sub/mildly relativistic energies. In this case the synchrotron spectrum is self-absorbed, providing the seed photons for the Comptonization process, whose spectrum is flat [F(nu ) ~ const], ending either in an exponential cutoff or a Wien peak.

  7. Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Guest Investigator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a final report for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Guest Investigator Program from 06/01/91-07/31/97. The topics include: 1) Solar Flare Neutron Spectra and Accelerated Ions; 2) Gamma Ray Lines From The Orion Complex; 3) Implications of Nuclear Line Emission From The Orion Complex; 4) Possible Sites of Nuclear Line Emission From Massive OB Associations; 5) Gamma-Ray Burst Repitition and BATSE Position Uncertainties; 6) Effects of Compton Scattering on BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Spectra; and 7) Selection Biases on the Spectral and Temporal Distribution of Gamma Ray Bursts.

  8. The effect of dose rate dependence of p-type silicon detectors on linac relative dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, D; Li, X A; Cygler, J; Gerig, L

    1997-06-01

    Cumulative radiation damage to silicon semiconductor diode detectors can induce dose rate dependent sensitivity, a concern in the pulsed beam of a linac. Two p-Si diode photon detectors were used in this study, diodes A and B. Both were preirradiated by the supplier to 5 kGy, with diode A receiving an estimated 8 kGy from measurements, and diode B, 25 kGy. At 6 MV, the PDD measured with diode B was lower (by 4.4% at a depth of 25 cm) than diode A. Using SSD to vary the dose per pulse from 0.02 to 0.64 mGy/pulse, diode A was dose rate independent (within 2%), while the sensitivity of diode B changed by 13%. Silicon diode detectors should be checked regularly against ionization chambers in the pulsed beam of a linac, especially older high-resistivity diodes that have accumulated dose from high-energy photon beams.

  9. Data Diode

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-07

    The Data Diode is a data security technology that can be deployed within an organization's defense-in-depth computer network strategy for information assurance. For internal security, the software creates an environment within the network where an organization's approved users can work freely inside an enclave of protected data, but file transfers out of the enclave is restricted. For external security, once a network intruder has penetrated the network, the intruder is able to "see" the protected data, but is unable to download the actual data. During the time it takes for the intruder to search for a way around the obstacle created by the Data Diode, the network's intrusion detection technologies can locate and thwart the malicious intent of the intruder. Development of the Data Diode technology was made possible by funding from the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA).

  10. Determination of sulfadiazine in Jiaozhou Bay using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector.

    PubMed

    Lian, Ziru; He, Xingliang; Wang, Jiangtao

    2014-04-15

    A highly selective sample cleanup procedure featuring molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) was developed for the isolation and determination of sulfadiazine (SDZ) in seawater samples from Jiaozhou Bay, China. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared using SDZ as the template molecule and methacrylic acid as the functional monomer. The MIP was used as a selective sorbent for the solid-phase extraction of SDZ. An off-line MISPE method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection was established for the analysis of SDZ. Good linearity of the MISPE column for SDZ standard solutions was obtained within 0-200μgL(-1) (R(2)>0.99). The recoveries of spiked seawater samples were satisfactory as high as 88%. Finally, seven samples in Jiaozhou Bay were determined and there was no sulfadiazine found except #2 and #5 sample. The concentrations were respectively 0.33μgL(-1) and 0.28μgL(-1), and the relative standard deviations were 1.35% and 4.13% (n=3).

  11. Rapid separation and determination of process-related substances of paracetamol using reversed-phase HPLC with photo diode array as a detector.

    PubMed

    Rao, R Nageswara; Narasaraju, A

    2006-02-01

    A simple and rapid gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous separation and determination of paracetamol and its related compounds in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations has been developed. As many as nine process impurities and one degradation product of paracetamol have been separated on a Symmetry C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm i.d., particle size 5 microm) with gradient elution using 0.01 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile as mobile phase and photo diode array detection at 215 nm. The chromatographic behavior of all the compounds was examined under variable compositions of different solvents, temperatures, buffer concentrations and pH values. The correlation coefficients for calibration curves for paracetamol as well as impurities were in the range of 0.9951 - 0.9994. The proposed RP-LC method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial formulations; the recoveries of paracetamol were in the range of 99-101%. The method could be of use not only for rapid and routine evaluation of the quality of paracetamol in bulk drug manufacturing units but also for detection of its impurities in pharmaceutical formulations.

  12. Identification of protein binders in works of art by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector analysis of their tryptic digests.

    PubMed

    Fremout, Wim; Sanyova, Jana; Saverwyns, Steven; Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc

    2009-04-01

    Proteins in works of art are generally determined by the relative amounts of amino acids. This method, however, implies a loss of information on the protein structure and its modifications. Consequently, we propose a method based on the analysis of trypsin digests using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) UV diode array detection (DAD) for painting binder studies. All reaction steps are done in the same vial; no extraction methods or sample transfer is needed, reducing the risk of sample losses. A collection of pure binders (collagen, ovalbumin, yolk and casein) as well as homemade and historical paint samples have been investigated with this method. Chromatograms of unknowns at 214 nm and 280 nm are compared with those of the reference samples as a fingerprint. There is a good agreement between many peptides, but others seem to have been lost or their retention time shifted due to small compositional changes because of ageing and degradation of the paint. The results are comparable with the results of other techniques used for binder identification on the same samples, with the additional advantage of differentiation between egg yolk and glair.

  13. Second-order capillary electrophoresis diode array detector data modeled with the Tucker3 algorithm: A novel strategy for Argentinean white wine discrimination respect to grape variety.

    PubMed

    Azcarate, Silvana M; de Araújo Gomes, Adriano; Vera-Candioti, Luciana; Cesar Ugulino de Araújo, Mário; Camiña, José M; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2016-07-01

    Data obtained by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection (CE-DAD) were modeled with the purpose to discriminate Argentinean white wines samples produced from three grape varieties (Torrontés, Chardonnay, and Sauvignon blanc). Thirty-eight samples of commercial white wine from four wine-producing provinces of Argentina (Mendoza, San Juan, Salta, and Rio Negro) were analyzed. CE-DAD matrices with dimensions of 421 elution times (from 1.17 to 7.39 minutes) × 71 wavelengths (from 227 to 367 nm) were joined in a three way data array and decomposed by Tucker3 method under non-negativity constraint, employing 18, 18 and six factors in the modes 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Using the scores of Tucker model, it was possible to discriminate samples of Argentinean white wine by linear discriminant analysis and Kernel linear discriminant analysis. Core element analysis of the Tucker3 model allows identifying the loading profiles in spectral mode related to Argentinean white wine samples.

  14. White LEDs as broad spectrum light sources for spectrophotometry: demonstration in the visible spectrum range in a diode-array spectrophotometric detector.

    PubMed

    Piasecki, Tomasz; Breadmore, Michael C; Macka, Mirek

    2010-11-01

    Although traditional lamps, such as deuterium lamps, are suitable for bench-top instrumentation, their compatibility with the requirements of modern miniaturized instrumentation is limited. This study investigates the option of utilizing solid-state light source technology, namely white LEDs, as a broad band spectrum source for spectrophotometry. Several white light LEDs of both RGB and white phosphorus have been characterized in terms of their emission spectra and energy output and a white phosphorus Luxeon LED was then chosen for demonstration as a light source for visible-spectrum spectrophotometry conducted in CE. The Luxeon LED was fixed onto the base of a dismounted deuterium (D(2) ) lamp so that the light-emitting spot was geometrically positioned exactly where the light-emitting spot of the original D(2) lamp is placed. In this manner, the detector of a commercial CE instrument equipped with a DAD was not modified in any way. As the detector hardware and electronics remained the same, the change of the deuterium lamp for the Luxeon white LED allowed a direct comparison of their performances. Several anionic dyes as model analytes with absorption maxima between 450 and 600 nm were separated by CE in an electrolyte of 0.01 mol/L sodium tetraborate. The absorbance baseline noise as the key parameter was 5 × lower for the white LED lamp, showing clearly superior performance to the deuterium lamp in the available, i.e. visible part of the spectrum.

  15. BURNOUT RESISTANT X-BAND HOT CARRIER DETECTORS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    DETECTORS, *FAILURE(ELECTRONICS), SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES, X BAND, VOLTAGE, SILICON, DIOXIDES, SEEBECK EFFECT , CHARGE CARRIERS, PALLADIUM ALLOYS, ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE, GALLIUM ALLOYS, ARSENIDES, DIELECTRICS, RECTIFIERS, VIDEO AMPLIFIERS.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of Radix Paeoniae Alba sulfur-fumigated with different durations and purchased from herbal markets: simultaneous determination of twelve components belonging to three chemical types by improved high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ming; Liu, Huan-Huan; Xu, Jun; Wang, Chun-Ru; Lu, Ming; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Li, You-Bin; Li, Song-Lin

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a improved high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for simultaneous quantification of twelve major components belonging to three chemical types was developed and validated, and was applied to quantitatively compare the quality of Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) sulfur-fumigated with different durations and purchased from commercial herbal markets. The contents of paeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, oxypaeoniflorin, benzoic acid and paeonol decreased whereas that of paeoniflorin sulfonate increased in RPA with the extending of sulfur-fumigation duration. Different levels of paeoniflorin sulfonate were determined in ten of seventeen commercial RPA samples, indicating that these ten samples may be sulfur-fumigated with different durations. Moreover, the relative standard deviation of the contents of each component was higher in the commercial sulfur-fumigated RPA samples than that in commercial non-fumigated RPA samples, and the percentage of the total average content of monoterpene glycosides in the determined analytes was higher in the decoctions of commercial sulfur-fumigated RPA than that in commercial non-fumigated RPA samples. All these results suggested that the established method was precise, accurate and sensitive enough for the global quality evaluation of sulfur-fumigated RPA, and sulfur-fumigation can not only change the proportions of bioactive components, but also cause the reduction of the quality consistency of both raw materials and aqueous decoctions of RPA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Whole column fluorescence imaging on a microchip by using a programmed organic light emitting diode array as a spatial-scanning light source and a single photomultiplier tube as detector.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kangning; Liang, Qionglin; Yao, Bo; Luo, Guoan; Wang, Liduo; Gao, Yudi; Wang, Yiming; Qiu, Yong

    2007-11-01

    A novel miniaturized, integrated whole-column imaging detection (WCID) system on a microchip is presented. In this system, a program controlled organic light emitting diode (OLED) array was used as a spatial-scanning light source, to achieve imaging by the time sequence of the excited fluorescence. By this mechanism, a photomultiplier tube (PMT) instead of a charge coupled detector (CCD) can be applied to the imaging. Unlike conventional systems, no lenses, fibers or any mechanical components are required either. The novel flat light source provides uniform excitation light without size limitations and outputs a stronger power by pulse driving. The scanning mode greatly reduced the power consumption of the light source, which is valuable for a portable system. Meanwhile, this novel simplified system has a broader linear range, higher sensitivity and higher efficiency in data collection. Isoelectric focusing of R-phycoerythrin (PE) and monitoring of the overall process with WCID were performed on this system. The limit of detection (LOD) was 38 ng mL(-1) or 3.2 pg at 85 nL per column injection of PE. The system provides a technique for WCID capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) on chip and can be used for throughput analysis.

  18. Application of a validated method in the stability study of colistin sulfate and methylparaben in a veterinary suspension formulation by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; García-Montoya, Encarna; Orriols, Anna; Miñarro, Montse; Ticó, Josep Ramon; Suñé-Negre, Josep Maria

    2007-01-01

    A methodology following International Cooperation on Harmonization for Veterinary Products (VICH) guidelines for the stability evaluation of colistin sulfate in a nonaqueous suspension pharmaceutical dosage form for veterinary use (via their drinking water) is described. This method monitors the percentage of colistin sulfate during the stability study of the preparation in drinking water and establishes the shelf life of the final product by a new high-performance liquid chromatography method which was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of colistin sulfate [colistin A (Polymixin E1) and colistin B (Polymixin E2)] and methylparaben (Nipagin) using a diode array detector (DAD). The method uses a Kromasil C18 column and isocratic elution. The mobile phase consisted of an acetonitrile-sodium sulfate anhydrous solution (25 + 75) pumped at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The DAD was set at 215 nm. The validation study was carried out according to the VICH guidelines in order to prove that the new analytical method meets the reliability characteristics, which include the fundamental criteria for validation: selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and sensitivity. The method was applied during the quality control or stability studies of the suspension dosage form in order to quantify the drug (colistin) and preservative, and proved to be suitable for rapid and reliable quality control.

  19. Rapid Identification and Simultaneous Quantification of Multiple Constituents in Nao-Shuan-Tong Capsule by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography/Diode-Array Detector/Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Panlin; Su, Weiwei; Xie, Chengshi; Zeng, Xuan; Peng, Wei; Liu, Menghua

    2015-07-01

    A rapid and high-sensitive ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with a diode-array detector and a quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) method was established and validated for the chemical profiling of Nao-shuan-tong capsule (NSTC) and simultaneous quantification of five major constituents. A total of 59 components including monoterpene glycosides, flavonoids, sesquiterpenoids, ketosteroids, thiophenes, organic acids and alkaloids were identified or tentatively characterized in NSTC based on the accurate mass and tandem MS behavior. Five major bioactive constituents were chosen as the chemical indexes of holistic quality evaluation and quantified simultaneously. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r(2) > 0.9991) in the range 25.2-510, 145-2,900, 1.84-36.8, 2.61-52.2 and 3.25-26.2 μg/mL for gastrodin, paeoniflorin, typhaneoside, β-ecdysterone and isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside, respectively. It also showed good precision, stability and accuracy for quantification of these five compounds. The limit of detections and limit of quantitations for the analytes ranged from 0.14 to 1.09 μg/mL and from 0.47 to 3.63 μg/mL, respectively. The validated quantification method was applied to analyze 10 batches of commercial NSTC. These results will provide a basis for quality control of the production process and the further pharmacological study in vivo of NSTC.

  20. An approach to develop binary chromatographic fingerprints of the total alkaloids from Caulophyllum robustum by high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiping; Hu, Zhen; He, Langchong

    2007-04-11

    An approach was proposed to develop binary chromatographic fingerprints by means of high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector (HPLC/DAD) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). HPLC fingerprint and GC/MS fingerprint that, respectively, represent chemical characteristics of aporphinoid and quinolizidine alkaloids of the total alkaloids from Caulophyllum robustum were developed, which were used to construct binary chromatographic fingerprints of the total alkaloids. Moreover, the authentication and validation of the binary fingerprints were performed. Then, a data-level information fusion method was employed to capture the chemical information encoded in two chromatographic fingerprints. Finally, based on the fusion results, the quality of 10 batches of the total alkaloids samples was further evaluated by similarity measure and cluster analysis method. In comparison with conventional fingerprint, the binary chromatographic fingerprints which represent the characteristics of more constitutions can comprehensively and properly reveal the quality characteristics of the total alkaloids. The binary chromatographic fingerprints can reach more objective conclusions in the practice of quality control of the total alkaloids. In conclusion, the binary chromatographic fingerprints are suitable for quality control of the total alkaloids. The presented approach is a powerful and meaningful tool to comprehensively conduct the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

  1. Analysis and improved characterization of minor antioxidants from leaves of Malus doumeri using a combination of major constituents' knockout with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huading; Hu, Xin; Chen, Xiaoqin; Shi, Shuyun; Jiang, Xinyu; Liang, Xuejuan; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Shuihan

    2015-06-12

    Due to the complexity of natural products, efficient identification of bioactive compounds, especially for minor compounds, would require a huge effort. Here, we developed an effective strategy based on combining major constituents' knockout with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS) to comprehensively identify minor antioxidants in Malus doumeri, one of the longest known and most used tonic plant in Taiwan. First, five major compounds (I-V) in M. doumeri were knocked out by two-step stepwise high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). Second, minor antioxidants were screened by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-HPLC (DPPH-HPLC) assay. Third, structures of thirty minor antioxidants, including 11 dihydrochalcones, 4 flavanones, 3 flavonols, 2 flavones, 3 aurones and 7 phenolic acids, were unambiguously or tentatively identified by matching their characteristic UV spectra, accurate mass signals and key diagnostic fragment ions with standards or previously reported compounds. Twenty-six of them, as far as was known, were discovered from M. doumeri for the first time. The results indicated that the proposed method was a useful approach to explore minor bioactive compounds from complex natural products.

  2. Profiling of components of rhizoma et radix polygoni cuspidati by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet diode-array detector and ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jinfeng; Wang, Min; Guo, Huimin; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zunjian; Song, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Rhizoma et Radix Polygoni Cuspidati (Huzhang in Chinese, HZ) is a traditional medicinal plant in China. Many of the components of HZ have been proved to be bioactive while it is difficult to conduct a comprehensive chemical profiling of HZ as a consequence of the absence of efficient separation system and sensitive detective means. We developed a simple and effective method for comprehensive characterization of constituents in HZ. Objective: To develop a simple and effective method to characterize the components in HZ and provide useful information for subsequent metabolic studies of HZ. Materials and Methods: The components in HZ aqueous extract were characterized by using high performance liquid chromatography with UV diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-IT/TOF). Stilbenes, anthraquinones, gallates and tannins, naphthalenes and some other compounds were identified and confirmed by diagnostic fragment ions with accurate mass measurements, characteristic fragmentation pathways and relevant published literatures. Results: Among the 238 constituents detected in HZ, a total number of 74 constituents were identified unambiguously or tentatively, including 29 compounds reported for the first time in HZ. Conclusion: The identification and structure elucidation of these chemicals provided essential data for quality control and further in vivo metabolic studies of HZ. Key words: Polygonum cuspidatum, HPLC-DAD, HPLC-IT/TOF, qualitative analysis. PMID:26246723

  3. Simulation of background reduction and Compton suppression in a low-background HPGe spectrometer at a surface laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Shun-Li; Cai, Xiao; Wu, Zhen-Zhong; Liu, Yi; Xie, Yu-Guang; Yu, Bo-Xiang; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Fang, Jian; Sun, Xi-Lei; Sun, Li-Jun; Liu, Ying-Biao; Gao, Long; Zhang, Xuan; Zhao, Hang; Zhou, Li; Lü, Jun-Guang; Hu, Tao

    2015-08-01

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are well suited to analyse the radioactivity of samples. In order to reduce the environmental background for an ultra-low background HPGe spectrometer, low-activity lead and oxygen free copper are installed outside the probe to shield from gamma radiation, with an outer plastic scintillator to veto cosmic rays, and an anti-Compton detector to improve the peak-to-Compton ratio. Using Geant4 tools and taking into account a detailed description of the detector, we optimize the sizes of these detectors to reach the design requirements. A set of experimental data from an existing HPGe spectrometer was used to compare with the simulation. For the future low-background HPGe detector simulation, considering different thicknesses of BGO crystals and anti-coincidence efficiency, the simulation results show that the optimal BGO thickness is 5.5 cm, and the peak-to-Compton ratio of 40K is raised to 1000 when the anti-coincidence efficiency is 0.85. In the background simulation, 15 cm oxygen-free copper plus 10 cm lead can reduce the environmental gamma rays to 0.0024 cps/100 cm3 Ge (50 keV-2.8 MeV), which is about 10-5 of the environmental background.

  4. Terahertz sources and detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Thomas W.; Porterfield, David W.; Hesler, Jeffrey L.; Bishop, William L.; Kurtz, David S.; Hui, Kai

    2005-05-01

    Through the support of the US Army Research Office we are developing terahertz sources and detectors suitable for use in the spectroscopy of chemical and biological materials as well as for use in imaging systems to detect concealed weapons. Our technology relies on nonlinear diodes to translate the functionality achieved at microwave frequencies to the terahertz band. Basic building blocks that have been developed for this application include low-noise mixers, frequency multipliers, sideband generators and direct detectors. These components rely on planar Schottky diodes and integrated diode circuits and are therefore easy to assemble and robust. They require no mechanical tuners to achieve high efficiency and broad bandwidth. This paper will review the range of performance that has been achieved with these terahertz components and briefly discuss preliminary results achieved with a spectroscopy system and the development of sources for imaging systems.

  5. Investigating the Compton Effect with a Spreadsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinderman, Jesusa Valdez

    1992-01-01

    Describes a computer simulation of the Compton effect designed to lead students to discover (1) the relationship of the electron's final kinetic energy to its angle of scattering and (2) the relationship between the scattering angles of the outgoing electron and photon. (MDH)

  6. Modeling Compton Scattering in the Linear Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelmar, Rebeka

    2016-09-01

    Compton scattering is the collision of photons and electrons. This collision causes the photons to be scattered with increased energy and therefore can produce high-energy photons. These high-energy photons can be used in many other fields including phase contrast medical imaging and x-ray structure determination. Compton scattering is currently well understood for low-energy collisions; however, in order to accurately compute spectra of backscattered photons at higher energies relativistic considerations must be included in the calculations. The focus of this work is to adapt a current program for calculating Compton backscattered radiation spectra to improve its efficiency. This was done by first translating the program from Matlab to python. The next step was to implement a more efficient adaptive integration to replace the trapezoidal method. A new program was produced that operates at less than a half of the speed of the original. This is important because it allows for quicker analysis, and sets the stage for further optimization. The programs were developed using just one particle, while in reality there are thousands of particles involved in these collisions. This means that a more efficient program is essential to running these simulations. The development of this new and efficient program will lead to accurate modeling of Compton sources as well as their improved performance.

  7. The Compton effect: Transition to quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuewer, R. H.

    2000-11-01

    The discovery of the Compton effect at the end of 1922 was a decisive event in the transition to the new quantum mechanics of 1925-1926 because it stimulated physicists to examine anew the fundamental problem of the interaction between radiation and matter. I first discuss Albert Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis of 1905 and why physicists greeted it with extreme skepticism, despite Robert A. Millikan's confirmation of Einstein's equation of the photoelectric effect in 1915. I then follow in some detail the experimental and theoretical research program that Arthur Holly Compton pursued between 1916 and 1922 at the University of Minnesota, the Westinghouse Lamp Company, the Cavendish Laboratory, and Washington University that culminated in his discovery of the Compton effect. Surprisingly, Compton was not influenced directly by Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis, in contrast to Peter Debye and H.A. Kramers, who discovered the quantum theory of scattering independently. I close by discussing the most significant response to that discovery, the Bohr-Kramers-Slater theory of 1924, its experimental refutation, and its influence on the emerging new quantum mechanics.

  8. QCD Coherence in Direct Compton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoze, V. A.; Lebedev, A. I.; Vazdik, J. A.

    The color coherence effects are studied for direct processes of γp interactions at high energies using PYTHIA Monte-Carlo simulation and perturbative QCD approach. Sub-processes of QED and QCD Compton scattering on quarks leading to jet topology of photoproduction events are considered. It is shown that the coherence leads to drag phenomenon in the interjet region.

  9. Investigating the Compton Effect with a Spreadsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinderman, Jesusa Valdez

    1992-01-01

    Describes a computer simulation of the Compton effect designed to lead students to discover (1) the relationship of the electron's final kinetic energy to its angle of scattering and (2) the relationship between the scattering angles of the outgoing electron and photon. (MDH)

  10. SU-E-I-63: Performance Study of An Electron-Tracking Compton Camera for Medical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kabuki, S; Kimura, H; Kubo, H; Ogawa, K; Kunieda, E; Tanimori, T

    2012-06-01

    Conventional gamma-ray detector, PET and SPECT, have the limitation of energy and field of view. These limitations are major problems of studying for a new medical imaging. Therefore, we have developed the new imaging detector which is an electron-tracking Compton camera (ETCC). A reconstruction method of Compton camera (CC) is using the physics principle. Because of using physics principle, CC can have a wide energy dynamic range and wide field of view. Conventional CC, however, cannot catch Compton recoil electron tracks, and this is one of the reasons of low imaging power. We have developed a time projection chamber (TPC) using micro pixel chamber (μPIC) as the new detector for ETCC. The μPIC is 2-dimensional gaseous detector and this position resolution is less than 400 μm. Using this detector, ETCC can get electron tracks which are generated from Compton scattering. In this paper, we show the prototype ETCC performance and imaging results. ETCC achieved a wide energy dynamic range (200-1300keV) and wide field of view (3 steradian). Also we succeeded in imaging new imaging reagents using mice as follows; (1) F-18-FDG (511 keV) and I-131-MIBG (364 keV) simultaneous imaging for double clinical tracer imaging, (2) Zn-65- porphyrin (1116 keV) imaging for high energy gamma-ray imaging and, (3) imaging of some minerals (Mn-54, Zn-65) in mice and so on. And we succeeded in 3-D imaging which has imaged only one direction using one head camera. We have developed the ETCC for new medical imaging device and succeeded in imaging the some imaging reagents. We started to develop the new ETCC which can image the mouse within 30 min. Thus, this detector has the possibility of new medical imaging. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. A double photomultiplier Compton camera and its readout system for mice imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Cristiano Lino; Atroshchenko, Kostiantyn; Baldazzi, Giuseppe; Bello, Michele; Uzunov, Nikolay; Di Domenico, Giovanni Di

    2013-04-01

    We have designed a Compton Camera (CC) to image the bio-distribution of gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals in mice. A CC employs the "electronic collimation", i.e. a technique that traces the gamma-rays instead of selecting them with physical lead or tungsten collimators. To perform such a task, a CC measures the parameters of the Compton interaction that occurs in the device itself. At least two detectors are required: one (tracker), where the primary gamma undergoes a Compton interaction and a second one (calorimeter), in which the scattered gamma is completely absorbed. Eventually the polar angle and hence a "cone" of possible incident directions are obtained (event with "incomplete geometry"). Different solutions for the two detectors are proposed in the literature: our design foresees two similar Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PMT, Hamamatsu H8500). Each PMT has 64 output channels that are reduced to 4 using a charge multiplexed readout system, i.e. a Series Charge Multiplexing net of resistors. Triggering of the system is provided by the coincidence of fast signals extracted at the last dynode of the PMTs. Assets are the low cost and the simplicity of design and operation, having just one type of device; among drawbacks there is a lower resolution with respect to more sophisticated trackers and full 64 channels Readout. This paper does compare our design of our two-Hamamatsu CC to other solutions and shows how the spatial and energy accuracy is suitable for the inspection of radioactivity in mice.

  12. A double photomultiplier Compton camera and its readout system for mice imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, Cristiano Lino; Atroshchenko, Kostiantyn; Baldazzi, Giuseppe; Uzunov, Nikolay; Di Domenico, Giovanni

    2013-04-19

    We have designed a Compton Camera (CC) to image the bio-distribution of gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals in mice. A CC employs the 'electronic collimation', i.e. a technique that traces the gamma-rays instead of selecting them with physical lead or tungsten collimators. To perform such a task, a CC measures the parameters of the Compton interaction that occurs in the device itself. At least two detectors are required: one (tracker), where the primary gamma undergoes a Compton interaction and a second one (calorimeter), in which the scattered gamma is completely absorbed. Eventually the polar angle and hence a 'cone' of possible incident directions are obtained (event with 'incomplete geometry'). Different solutions for the two detectors are proposed in the literature: our design foresees two similar Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PMT, Hamamatsu H8500). Each PMT has 64 output channels that are reduced to 4 using a charge multiplexed readout system, i.e. a Series Charge Multiplexing net of resistors. Triggering of the system is provided by the coincidence of fast signals extracted at the last dynode of the PMTs. Assets are the low cost and the simplicity of design and operation, having just one type of device; among drawbacks there is a lower resolution with respect to more sophisticated trackers and full 64 channels Readout. This paper does compare our design of our two-Hamamatsu CC to other solutions and shows how the spatial and energy accuracy is suitable for the inspection of radioactivity in mice.

  13. AXIS: An instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G. N. Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Zacharias, R.; Felker, B.; Holder, J. P.; Allen, F. V.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D.; Montesanti, R.; Landen, O. L.

    2014-11-15

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV–200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition.

  14. AXIS: an instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF.

    PubMed

    Hall, G N; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Carpenter, A C; Palmer, N E; Zacharias, R; Felker, B; Holder, J P; Allen, F V; Bell, P M; Bradley, D; Montesanti, R; Landen, O L

    2014-11-01

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV-200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition.

  15. The upcoming balloon campaign of the Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, J.-L.; Boggs, S. E.; Chang, H.-K.; Tomsick, J. A.; Zoglauer, A.; Amman, M.; Chang, Y.-H.; Chou, Y.; Jean, P.; Kierans, C.; Lin, C.-H.; Lowell, A.; Shang, J.-R.; Tseng, C.-H.; von Ballmoos, P.; Yang, C.-Y.

    2015-06-01

    The Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI), formerly known as the Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT), is a balloon-borne soft gamma-ray telescope (0.2-5 MeV) designed to study astrophysical sources of nuclear-line emission and gamma-ray polarization. The heart of COSI is a compact array of cross-strip germanium detectors (GeDs), providing excellent spectral resolution ( 0.2 - 1 %) and the capability to track individual photon interactions with full 3D position resolution to 1.6 mm3. COSI is built upon considerable heritage from the previous NCT balloon instrument, which has flown successfully on two conventional balloon flights to date. The Crab Nebula was detected at a significance of 6σ in the second flight, which is the first reported detection of an astrophysical source by a compact Compton telescope. COSI has been upgraded from the previous NCT instrument to be an Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) payload, utilizing a new detector configuration optimized for polarization sensitivity and employing a mechanical cryocooler to remove consumables (LN2) for ULDB flights. The instrument is being integrated for a ULDB flight in December 2014 from Antarctica on a superpressure balloon. Here we will present the redesign of the instrument and our current progress in preparing for the flight.

  16. Development of an ASIC for Si/CdTe detectors in a radioactive substance visualizing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harayama, Atsushi; Takeda, Shin`ichiro; Sato, Goro; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2014-11-01

    We report on the recent development of a 64-channel analog front-end ASIC for a new gamma-ray imaging system designed to visualize radioactive substances. The imaging system employs a novel Compton camera which consists of silicon (Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) detectors. The ASIC is intended for the readout of pixel/pad detectors utilizing Si/CdTe as detector materials, and covers a dynamic range up to 1.4 MeV. The readout chip consists of 64 identical signal channels and was implemented with X-FAB 0.35 μm CMOS technology. Each channel contains a charge-sensitive amplifier, a pole-zero cancellation circuit, a low-pass filter, a comparator, and a sample-hold circuit, along with a Wilkinson-type A-to-D converter. We observed an equivalent noise charge of 500 e- and a noise slope of 5 e-/pF (r.m.s.) with a power consumption of 2.1 mW per channel. The chip works well when connected to Schottky CdTe diodes, and delivers spectra with good energy resolution, such as 12 keV (FWHM) at 662 keV and 24 keV (FWHM) at 1.33 MeV.

  17. Science Flight Program of the Nuclear Compton Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, Steven

    This is the lead proposal for this program. We are proposing a 5-year program to perform the scientific flight program of the Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT), consisting of a series of three (3) scientific balloon flights. NCT is a balloon-borne, wide-field telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky (0.2-5 MeV), performing high-resolution spectroscopy, wide-field imaging, and polarization measurements. NCT has been rebuilt as a ULDB payload under the current 2-year APRA grant. (In that proposal we stated our goal was to return at this point to propose the scientific flight program.) The NCT rebuild/upgrade is on budget and schedule to achieve flight-ready status in Fall 2013. Science: NCT will map the Galactic positron annihilation emission, shedding more light on the mysterious concentration of this emission uncovered by INTEGRAL. NCT will survey Galactic nucleosynthesis and the role of supernova and other stellar populations in the creation and evolution of the elements. NCT will map 26-Al and positron annihilation with unprecedented sensitivity and uniform exposure, perform the first mapping of 60-Fe, search for young, hidden supernova remnants through 44-Ti emission, and enable a host of other nuclear astrophysics studies. NCT will also study compact objects (in our Galaxy and AGN) and GRBs, providing novel measurements of polarization as well as detailed spectra and light curves. Design: NCT is an array of germanium gamma-ray detectors configured in a compact, wide-field Compton telescope configuration. The array is shielded on the sides and bottom by an active anticoincidence shield but is open to the 25% of the sky above for imaging, spectroscopy, and polarization measurements. The instrument is mounted on a zenith-pointed gondola, sweeping out ~50% of the sky each day. This instrument builds off the Compton telescope technique pioneered by COMPTEL on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. However, by utilizing modern germanium semiconductor strip detectors

  18. Novel design of a parallax free Compton enhanced PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braem, A.; Chamizo, M.; Chesi, E.; Colonna, N.; Cusanno, F.; De Leo, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Joram, C.; Marrone, S.; Mathot, S.; Nappi, E.; Schoenahl, F.; Seguinot, J.; Weilhammer, P.; Zaidi, H.

    2004-06-01

    Molecular imaging by PET is a powerful tool in modern clinical practice for cancer diagnosis. Nevertheless, improvements are needed with respect to the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the technique for its application to specific human organs (breast, prostate, brain, etc.), and to small animals. Presently, commercial PET scanners do not detect the depth of interaction of photons in scintillators, which results in a not negligible parallax error. We describe here a novel concept of PET scanner design that provides full three-dimensional (3D) gamma reconstruction with high spatial resolution over the total detector volume, free of parallax errors. It uses matrices of long scintillators read at both ends by hybrid photon detectors. This so-called 3D axial concept also enhances the gamma detection efficiency since it allows one to reconstruct a significant fraction of Compton scattered events. In this note, we describe the concept, a possible design and the expected performance of this new PET device. We also report about first characterization measurements of 10 cm long YAP:Ce scintillation crystals.

  19. Realistic simulation of the Space-borne Compton Polarimeter POLAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hualin

    2016-07-01

    POLAR is a compact wide field space-borne detector dedicated for precise measurements of the linear polarization of hard x-rays emitted by transient sources. Its energy range sensitivity is optimized for the detection of the prompt emission of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). POLAR is developed by an international collaboration of China, Switzerland and Poland. It is planned to be launched into space in 2016 onboard the Chinese space laboratory TG2. The energy range of POLAR spans between 50 keV and 500 keV. POLAR detects gamma rays with an array of 1600 plastic scintillator bars read out by 25 muti-anode PMTs (MAPMTs). Polarization measurements use Compton scattering process and are based on detection of energy depositions in the scintillator bars. Reconstruction of the polarization degree and polarization angle of GRBs requires comparison of experimental modulation curves with realistic simulations of the full instrument response. In this paper we present a method to model and parameterize the detector response including efficiency of the light collection, contributions from crosstalk and non-uniformity of MAPMTs as well as dependency on low energy detection thresholds and noise from readout electronics. The performance of POLAR for determination of polarization is predicted with such realistic simulations and carefully cross-checked with dedicated laboratory tests.

  20. Pocket-size microwave radiation hazard detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolbly, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Inexpensive lightweight unit is easily carried in coat pocket or attached to belt, detector sounds alarm in presence of dangerous microwave radiation levels. Unit consists of antenna, detector, level sensor, keyed oscillator, and speaker. Antenna may be single equiangular spiral or set of orthogonal slot dipoles. Signal detector is simple diode in small package.

  1. The Advanced Scintillator Compton Telescope (ASCOT) balloon project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloser, Peter F.; Sharma, Tejaswita; Legere, Jason S.; Bancroft, Christopher M.; McConnell, Mark L.; Ryan, James M.; Wright, Alex M.

    2016-07-01

    We describe a project to develop new medium-energy gamma-ray instrumentation by constructing and flying a balloon-borne Compton telescope using advanced scintillator materials combined with silicon photomultiplier readouts. There is a need in high-energy astronomy for a medium-energy gamma-ray mission covering the energy range from approximately 0.4 - 20 MeV to follow the success of the COMPTEL instrument on CGRO. We believe that directly building on the legacy of COMPTEL, using relatively robust, low-cost, off-the-shelf technologies, is the most promising path for such a mission. Fortunately, high-performance scintillators, such as Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), Cerium Bromide (CeBr3), and p-terphenyl, and compact readout devices, such as silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), are already commercially available and capable of meeting this need. We have conducted two balloon flights of prototype instruments to test these technologies. The first, in 2011, demonstrated that a Compton telescope consisting of an liquid organic scintillator scattering layer and a LaBr3 calorimeter effectively rejects background under balloon-flight conditions, using time-of-flight (ToF) discrimination. The second, in 2014, showed that a telescope using an organic stilbene crystal scattering element and a LaBr3 calorimeter with SiPM readouts can achieve similar ToF performance. We are now constructing a much larger balloon instrument, an Advanced Scintillator Compton Telescope (ASCOT) with SiPM readout, with the goal of imaging the Crab Nebula at MeV energies in a one-day flight. We expect a 4σ detection up to 1 MeV in a single transit. We present calibration results of the first detector modules, and updated simulations of the balloon instrument sensitivity. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the energy, timing, and position resolution of this technology are sufficient to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity in the mediumenergy gamma-ray band, were it to be

  2. Design Guidelines for a Double Scattering Compton Camera for Prompt-γ Imaging During Ion Beam Therapy: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, M.-H.; Chevallier, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Freud, N.; Henriquet, P.; Le Foulher, F.; Letang, J. M.; Montarou, G.; Ray, C.; Roellinghoff, F.; Testa, E.; Testa, M.; Walenta, A. H.

    2011-02-01

    In hadrontherapy in order to fully take advantage of the assets of the ion irradiation, the position of the Bragg peak has to be monitored accurately. Here, we investigate a monitoring method relying on the detection in real time of the prompt γ emitted quasi instantaneously during the nuclear fragmentation processes. Our detection system combines a beam hodoscope and a double scattering Compton camera. The prompt-γ emission points are reconstructed by intersecting the ion trajectories given by the hodoscope and the Compton cones reconstructed with the camera. We propose here to study in terms of point spread function and efficiency the theoretical feasibility of the emission points reconstruction with our set-up in the case of a photon point source in air. First we analyze the nature of all the interactions which are likely to produce an energy deposit in the three detectors of the camera. It is underlined that upper energy thresholds in both scatter detectors are required in order to select mainly Compton events (one Compton interaction in each scatter detector and one interaction in the absorber detector). Then, we study the influence of various parameters such as the photon energy and the inter-detector distances on the Compton camera response. These studies are carried out by means of Geant4 simulations. We use a source with a spectrum corresponding to the prompt-γ spectrum emitted during the carbon ion irradiation of a water phantom. In the current configuration, the spatial resolution of the Compton camera is about 6 mm (Full Width at Half Maximum) and the detection efficiency 10-5. Finally, provided the detection efficiency is increased, the clinical applicability of our system is considered.

  3. Observation of pulsed x-ray trains produced by laser-electron Compton scatterings

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Washio, Masakazu; Araki, Sakae; Fukuda, Masafumi; Higashi, Yasuo; Honda, Yosuke; Omori, Tsunehiko; Taniguchi, Takashi; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji; Sasao, Noboru

    2009-12-15

    X-ray generation based on laser-electron Compton scattering is one attractive method to achieve a compact laboratory-sized high-brightness x-ray source. We have designed, built, and tested such a source; it combines a 50 MeV multibunch electron linac with a mode-locked 1064 nm laser stored and amplified in a Fabry-Perot optical cavity. We directly observed trains of pulsed x rays using a microchannel plate detector; the resultant yield was found to be 1.2x10{sup 5} Hz in good agreement with prediction. We believe that the result has demonstrated good feasibility of linac-based compact x-ray sources via laser-electron Compton scatterings.

  4. Simulation study of the backward-scattering effect in Compton imager.

    PubMed

    Xiaofeng, Guo; Qingpei, Xiang; Dongfeng, Tian; Yi, Wang; Fanhua, Hao; Yingzeng, Zhang; Chengsheng, Chu; Na, Liang

    2017-03-22

    In the field of nuclear medicine, nuclear security and astrophysics, Compton imaging is a promising technique for gamma-ray source imaging. We are developing a Compton imager using two layers of CdZnTe pixel array detectors. In this paper, the backward-scattering effect within such imagers is numerically studied using Geant4 Monte Carlo Package. From images reconstructed based on forward-scattering and backward-scattering imaging events, the imaging precision was investigated in a comparative analysis, in regard to energy resolution and position resolution. Furthermore, to establish a method to use backward-scattering imaging events properly so that the imaging efficiency can be significantly improved, the difference between reconstruction from forward-scattering and backward-scattering imaging events was analyzed to uncover a causal mechanism.

  5. Prospects for the 2014/2015 Nuclear Compton Telescope balloon campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowell, A.; Boggs, S.; Zoglauer, A.; Barriere, N.; Amman, M.; Luke, P.; von Ballmoos, P.; Jean, P.; Chang, H. K.; Chiu, J. L.; Liang, J. S.

    2012-09-01

    The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a balloon-borne soft γ-ray (0.2-10 MeV) telescope designed to perform wide-field imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy, and novel polarization analysis of astrophysical sources. NCT employs a novel Compton telescope design, utilizing 12 high spectral resolution germanium detectors, with the ability to localize photon interaction in three dimensions. NCT underwent its first science flight from Fort Sumner, NM in Spring 2009, and was partially destroyed during a second launch attempt from Alice Spring, Australia in Spring 2010. We have begun the rebuilding process and are using this as an opportunity to update and optimize various aspects of NCT. The cryostat which houses the 12 germanium detectors is being redesigned so as to accommodate the detectors in a new configuration, which will increase the effective area and improve the on-axis performance as well as polarization sensitivity of NCT. We will be replacing the liquid nitrogen detector cooling system with a cryocooler system which will allow for long duration flights. Various structural changes to NCT, such as the use of an all new gondola, will affect the physical layout of the electronics and instrument subsystems. We expect to return to flight readiness by Fall 2013, at which point we will recommence science flights. We will discuss science goals for the rebuilt NCT as well as proposed flight campaigns.

  6. The first demonstration of the concept of "narrow-FOV Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton camera"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinohe, Yuto; Uchida, Yuusuke; Watanabe, Shin; Edahiro, Ikumi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kawano, Takafumi; Ohno, Masanori; Ohta, Masayuki; Takeda, Shin`ichiro; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Katsuragawa, Miho; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Odaka, Hirokazu; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Yuasa, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD), to be deployed on board the ASTRO-H satellite, has been developed to provide the highest sensitivity observations of celestial sources in the energy band of 60-600 keV by employing a detector concept which uses a Compton camera whose field-of-view is restricted by a BGO shield to a few degree (narrow-FOV Compton camera). In this concept, the background from outside the FOV can be heavily suppressed by constraining the incident direction of the gamma ray reconstructed by the Compton camera to be consistent with the narrow FOV. We, for the first time, demonstrate the validity of the concept using background data taken during the thermal vacuum test and the low-temperature environment test of the flight model of SGD on ground. We show that the measured background level is suppressed to less than 10% by combining the event rejection using the anti-coincidence trigger of the active BGO shield and by using Compton event reconstruction techniques. More than 75% of the signals from the field-of-view are retained against the background rejection, which clearly demonstrates the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio. The estimated effective area of 22.8 cm2 meets the mission requirement even though not all of the operational parameters of the instrument have been fully optimized yet.

  7. Compton-Pair Production Space Telescope: Extending Fermi-LAT Discoveries into MeV Gamma-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, Regina; ComPair Team

    2016-01-01

    The gamma-ray energy range from several hundred keV to a hundred MeV has remained largely unexplored, since the observations by instruments on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991- 2000) and on INTEGRAL (since 2002). Accurate measurements in this energy range are critical for answering a broad range of astrophysical questions, but they are particularly challenging because this range encompasses the Compton scattering/pairproduction transition zone (~10 MeV) where the interaction cross section is minimized. These interaction processes require different optimizations in both detection and event reconstruction. We are developing a MIDEX-scale wide-aperture discovery mission, Compton-Pair Production Space Telescope (ComPair), to investigate the energy range from 200 keV to >500 MeV with high energy and angular resolution and with sensitivity approaching a factor of 20-50 better than COMPTEL. This instrument will be capable of measuring both Compton-scattering events at lower energy and pair-production events at higher energy. ComPair will build on the heritage of successful space missions including Fermi-LAT, CGRO, INTEGRAL, AGILE, AMS and PAMELA, and will utilize well-developed space-qualified detector technologies including Si-strip and CdZnTe-strip detectors, heavy inorganic scintillators, and plastic scintillators.

  8. Sensitive characterization of polyphenolic antioxidants in Polygonatum odoratum by selective solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin; Zhao, Huading; Shi, Shuyun; Li, Hui; Zhou, Xiaoling; Jiao, Feipeng; Jiang, Xinyu; Peng, Dongming; Chen, Xiaoqin

    2015-08-10

    The complexity of natural products always leads to the co-elution of interfering compounds with bioactive compounds, which then has a detrimental effect on structural elucidation. Here, a new method, based on selective solid phase extraction combined with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) spiking and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS), is described for sensitive screening, selective extraction and identification of polyphenolic antioxidants in Polygonatum odoratum. First, 25 polyphenolic antioxidants (1-25) were screened by DPPH spiking with HPLC. Second, polydopamine coated Fe3O4 microspheres (Fe3O4@PDA) were prepared to selectively extract target antioxidants with extraction efficiency from 55% to 100% when the amount of Fe3O4@PDA, extraction time, desorption solvent and time were 10mg, 20 min, acetonitrile, and 5 min. Third, 25 antioxidants (10 cinnamides and 15 homoisoflavanones) were identified by HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS. Furthermore, the DPPH scavenging activities of purified compounds (IC50, 1.6-32.8 μg/mL) validated the method. Among the identified antioxidants, four of them (12, 13, 18 and 19) were new compounds, four of them (2, 4, 8 and 14) were first obtained from family Liliaceae, five of them (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9) were first reported in genus Polygonatum, while one compound (24) was first identified in this species. The results indicated that the proposed method was an efficient and sensitive approach to explore polyphenolic antioxidants from complex natural products.

  9. One- and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector fingerprints of complex substances: a comparison of classification performance of similar, complex Rhizoma Curcumae samples with the aid of chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yongnian; Mei, Minghua; Kokot, Serge

    2012-01-27

    Many complex natural or synthetic products are analysed either by the GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) or HPLC-DAD (high performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector) technique, each of which produces a one-dimensional fingerprint for a given sample. This may be used for classification of different batches of a product. GC-MS and HPLC-DAD analyses of complex, similar substances represented by the three common types of the TCM (traditional Chinese medicine), Rhizoma Curcumae were analysed in the form of one- and two-dimensional matrices firstly with the use of PCA (Principal component analysis), which showed a reasonable separation of the samples for each technique. However, the separation patterns were rather different for each analytical method, and PCA of the combined data matrix showed improved discrimination of the three types of object; close associations between the GC-MS and HPLC-DAD variables were observed. LDA (linear discriminant analysis), BP-ANN (back propagation-artificial neural networks) and LS-SVM (least squares-support vector machine) chemometrics methods were then applied to classify the training and prediction sets. For one-dimensional matrices, all training models indicated that several samples would be misclassified; the same was observed for each prediction set. However, by comparison, in the analysis of the combined matrix, all models gave 100% classification with the training set, and the LS-SVM calibration also produced a 100% result for prediction, with the BP-ANN calibration closely behind. This has important implications for comparing complex substances such as the TCMs because clearly the one-dimensional data matrices alone produce inferior results for training and prediction as compared to the combined data matrix models. Thus, product samples may be misclassified with the use of the one-dimensional data because of insufficient information.

  10. Validated reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the quantitation of Rutin, a natural immunostimulant for improving survival in aquaculture practice, in toonea sinensis folium

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yuping; Yin, Huawu; Chen, Bin; Xia, Guohua; Yang, Huan; Jia, Xiaobin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rutin is a bioflavonoid of strong immunostimulating activity from the Toonea Sinensis Folium, which has shown a significant ability to increase the survival rate of white shrimp with bacterial infection. However, no method for the quantitation of this active ingredient in the herb has been reported to date. Materials and Methods: A reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD) method was developed to quantify Rutin in the Toonea Sinensis Folium, with the HPLC conditions optimized, followed by validation for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), repeatability, and stability. Then, the established method was used to determine the content of Rutin in two samples. Results: The separation was performed on a Waters XBridge Shield RP18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) kept at 25°C, and acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% acetate acid (18:82, v / v)-composed mobile phase was constantly driven at 1.0 mL / minute during the analysis. Twenty microliters of sample solution or standard solution were injected into the HPLC system and 254 nm was selected to monitor the separation. A strong linear relationship between the peak area and concentration of Rutin was observed within the range of 0.01044 – 0.2610 mg / mL (r2 = 1.0000). The LOD was 0.03915 μg / mL, and recovery of Rutin was from 97.6 to 99.6%. In addition, the method was also validated to be repeatable, stable, precise, and accurate. Conclusions: An efficient and reliable RP-HPLC-DAD method was established, which could be used for routine analysis of Rutin in Toonea Sinensis Folium and to assist in the quality control of this herb. PMID:22438663

  11. Using of liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector for determination of naphthoquinones in plants and for investigation of influence of pH of cultivation medium on content of plumbagin in Dionaea muscipula.

    PubMed

    Babula, Petr; Mikelova, Radka; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Havel, Ladislav; Sladky, Zdenek

    2006-09-14

    The interest of many investigators in naphthoquinones is due to their broad-range of biological actions from phytotoxic to fungicidal. The main aim of this work was to investigate the influence of different pH values of cultivation medium on naphthoquinone content in Dionaea muscipula. For this purpose, we optimized the simultaneous analysis of the most commonly occurring naphthoquinones (1,4-naphthoquinone, lawsone, juglone and plumbagin) by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The most suitable chromatographic conditions were as follows: mobile phase: 0.1 mol l-1 acetic acid:methanol in ratio of 33:67 (%, v/v), flow rate: 0.75 ml min-1 and temperature: 42 degrees C. Moreover, we looked for the most suitable technique for preparation of plant samples (D. muscipula, Juglans regia, Paulownia tomentosa, Impatience glandulifera, Impatience parviflora, Drosera rotundifolia, Drosera spathulata and Drosera capensis) due to their consequent analysis by HPLC-DAD. It clearly follows from the results obtained that sonication were the most suitable technique for preparation of J. regia plants. We also checked the recoveries of the determined naphthoquinones, which were from 96 to 104%. Finally, we investigated the changes in content of plumbagin in D. muscipula plants according to different pH of cultivation medium. The content increased with increasing pH up to 5 and, then, changed gradually. The lower content of plumbagin at lower pH values was of interest to us. Therefore, we determined the content of this naphthoquinone in the cultivation medium, what has not been studied before. We discovered that the lower tissue content of plumbagin was due to secretion of this naphthoquinone into the cultivation medium.

  12. Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of phenolic compounds in Aloe barbadensis Mill by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-ion trap-time-of-flight and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofang; Ding, Wenjing; Zhong, Jiasheng; Wan, Jinzhi; Xie, Zhiyong

    2013-06-01

    An effective and comprehensive method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of phenolic compounds in the dried exudate of Aloe barbadensis Mill by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-ion trap-time-of-flight (LCMS-IT-TOF) and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Qualitative analysis of all the compounds presented in A. barbadensis Mill was performed on LCMS-IT-TOF, and the diagnostic fragmentation patterns of different types of phenolic compounds (chromones, phenyl pyrones, naphthalene derivative, anthrones and anthraquinones) were discussed on the basis of ESI-IT-TOF MS of components in A. barbadensis Mill and eleven authentic standards. Under the optimal HPLC-DAD chromatographic conditions, quantification of 11 typical phenolic compounds in 15 batches of A. barbadensis Mill was achieved on an Agilent TC-C18 column using gradient elution with a solvent system of methanol and water at a flow rate of 1.0mLmin(-1) and detected at 230nm. All calibration curves exhibited good linear relationship (r(2)>0.9991). The relative standard deviation values for intraday precision were less than 2% with accuracies between 98.21% and 104.57%. The recoveries of the eleven analytes ranged from 97.53 to 105.00% with RSDs less than 2%. This is the first simultaneous characterization and quantitative determination of multiple phenolic compounds in A. barbadensis Mill from locally grown cultivars in China by LCMS-IT-TOF and HPLC-DAD, which can be applied to standardize the quality of A. barbadensis Mill and the future design of nutraceutical and cosmetic preparations.

  13. High-speed counter-current chromatography coupled online to high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry for purification, analysis and identification of target compounds from natural products.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xuejuan; Zhang, Yuping; Chen, Wei; Cai, Ping; Zhang, Shuihan; Chen, Xiaoqin; Shi, Shuyun

    2015-03-13

    A challenge in coupling high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) online with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for purity analysis was their time incompatibility. Consequently, HSCCC-HPLC was conducted by either controlling HPLC analysis time and HSCCC flow rate or using stop-and-go scheme. For natural products containing compounds with a wide range of polarities, the former would optimize experimental conditions, while the latter required more time. Here, a novel HSCCC-HPLC-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (HSCCC-HPLC-DAD-MS) was developed for undisrupted purification, analysis and identification of multi-compounds from natural products. Two six-port injection valves and a six-port switching valve were used as interface for collecting key HSCCC effluents alternatively for HPLC-DAD-MS analysis and identification. The ethyl acetate extract of Malus doumeri was performed on the hyphenated system to verify its efficacy. Five main flavonoids, 3-hydroxyphloridzin (1), phloridzin (2), 4',6'-dihydroxyhydrochalcone-2'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, first found in M. doumeri), phloretin (4), and chrysin (5), were purified with purities over 99% by extrusion elution and/or stepwise elution mode in two-step HSCCC, and 25mM ammonium acetate solution was selected instead of water to depress emulsification in the first HSCCC. The online system shortened manipulation time largely compared with off-line analysis procedure and stop-and-go scheme. The results indicated that the present method could serve as a simple, rapid and effective way to achieve target compounds with high purity from natural products.

  14. Simple tunnel diode circuit for accurate zero crossing timing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metz, A. J.

    1969-01-01

    Tunnel diode circuit, capable of timing the zero crossing point of bipolar pulses, provides effective design for a fast crossing detector. It combines a nonlinear load line with the diode to detect the zero crossing of a wide range of input waveshapes.

  15. Electronic considerations for externally segmented germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Landis, D. A.; Goulding, F. S.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Malone, D. F.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The dominant background source for germanium gamma ray detector spectrometers used for some astrophysics observations is internal beta decay. Externally segmented germanium gamma ray coaxial detectors can identify beta decay by localizing the event. Energetic gamma rays interact in the germanium detector by multiple Compton interactions while beta decay is a local process. In order to recognize the difference between gamma rays and beta decay events, the external electrode (outside of detector) is electrically partitioned. The instrumentation of these external segments and the consequence with respect to the spectrometer energy signal is examined.

  16. Electronic considerations for externally segmented germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Landis, D. A.; Goulding, F. S.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Malone, D. F.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The dominant background source for germanium gamma ray detector spectrometers used for some astrophysics observations is internal beta decay. Externally segmented germanium gamma ray coaxial detectors can identify beta decay by localizing the event. Energetic gamma rays interact in the germanium detector by multiple Compton interactions while beta decay is a local process. In order to recognize the difference between gamma rays and beta decay events, the external electrode (outside of detector) is electrically partitioned. The instrumentation of these external segments and the consequence with respect to the spectrometer energy signal is examined.

  17. New results from Compton spectrometer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Amanda; Espy, Michelle; Haines, Todd; Webb, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    Over the past three years, a Compton spectrometer has successfully measured the x-ray spectra of intense radiographic sources. In this method, a collimated beam of x-rays incident on a convertor foil ejects Compton electrons. A collimator in the entrance to the spectrometer selects the forward-scattered electrons, which enter the magnetic field region of the spectrometer. The position of the electrons at the magnet's focal plane is proportional to the square root of their momentum, allowing the x-ray spectrum to be reconstructed. The spectrometer is a neodymium-iron magnet which measures spectra in the less than 1 MeV to 20 MeV energy range. In addition, a new spectrometer has been constructed that is a samarium-cobalt magnet with a calculated energy range of 50 keV to 4 MeV. The spectrometers have been fielded at both continuous and pulsed power facilities. Recent experimental results will be presented.

  18. Compton scattering in strong magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Joseph K.; Harding, Alice K.

    1986-01-01

    The relativistic cross section for Compton scattering by electrons in strong magnetic fields is derived. The results confirm and extend earlier work which has treated only transitions to the lowest or first excited Landau levels. For the teragauss field strengths expected in neutron star magnetospheres, the relative rates for excited state transitions are found to be significant, especially for incident photon energies several times the cyclotron frequency. Since these transitions must result in the rapid emission of one or more cyclotron photons as well as the Compton-scattered photon, the scattering process actually becomes a photon 'splitting' mechanism which acts to soften hard photon spectra, and also provides a specific mechanism for populating higher Landau levels in the electron distribution function. The results should be significant for models of gamma-ray bursters and pulsating X-ray sources.

  19. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  20. Electron Trajectory Reconstruction for Advanced Compton Imaging of Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plimley, Brian Christopher

    Gamma-ray imaging is useful for detecting, characterizing, and localizing sources in a variety of fields, including nuclear physics, security, nuclear accident response, nuclear medicine, and astronomy. Compton imaging in particular provides sensitivity to weak sources and good angular resolution in a large field of view. However, the photon origin in a single event sequence is normally only limited to the surface of a cone. If the initial direction of the Compton-scattered electron can be measured, the cone can be reduced to a cone segment with width depending on the uncertainty in the direction measurement, providing a corresponding increase in imaging sensitivity. Measurement of the electron's initial direction in an efficient detection material requires very fine position resolution due to the electron's short range and tortuous path. A thick (650 mum), fully-depleted charge-coupled device (CCD) developed for infrared astronomy has 10.5-mum position resolution in two dimensions, enabling the initial trajectory measurement of electrons of energy as low as 100 keV. This is the first time the initial trajectories of electrons of such low energies have been measured in a solid material. In this work, the CCD's efficacy as a gamma-ray detector is demonstrated experimentally, using a reconstruction algorithm to measure the initial electron direction from the CCD track image. In addition, models of fast electron interaction physics, charge transport and readout were used to generate modeled tracks with known initial direction. These modeled tracks allowed the development and refinement of the reconstruction algorithm. The angular sensitivity of the reconstruction algorithm is evaluated extensively with models for tracks below 480 keV, showing a FWHM as low as 20° in the pixel plane, and 30° RMS sensitivity to the magnitude of the out-of-plane angle. The measurement of the trajectories of electrons with energies as low as 100 keV have the potential to make electron

  1. Coded-aperture Compton camera for gamma-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farber, Aaron M.

    This dissertation describes the development of a novel gamma-ray imaging system concept and presents results from Monte Carlo simulations of the new design. Current designs for large field-of-view gamma cameras suitable for homeland security applications implement either a coded aperture or a Compton scattering geometry to image a gamma-ray source. Both of these systems require large, expensive position-sensitive detectors in order to work effectively. By combining characteristics of both of these systems, a new design can be implemented that does not require such expensive detectors and that can be scaled down to a portable size. This new system has significant promise in homeland security, astronomy, botany and other fields, while future iterations may prove useful in medical imaging, other biological sciences and other areas, such as non-destructive testing. A proof-of-principle study of the new gamma-ray imaging system has been performed by Monte Carlo simulation. Various reconstruction methods have been explored and compared. General-Purpose Graphics-Processor-Unit (GPGPU) computation has also been incorporated. The resulting code is a primary design tool for exploring variables such as detector spacing, material selection and thickness and pixel geometry. The advancement of the system from a simple 1-dimensional simulation to a full 3-dimensional model is described. Methods of image reconstruction are discussed and results of simulations consisting of both a 4 x 4 and a 16 x 16 object space mesh have been presented. A discussion of the limitations and potential areas of further study is also presented.

  2. Resonant Compton Physics for Magnetar Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ickes, Jesse; Gonthier, Peter L.; Eiles, Matthew; Baring, Matthew G.

    2016-01-01

    Various telescopes including RXTE, INTEGRAL, Suzaku, and Fermi have detected steady non-thermal X-ray emission in the 10 - 200 keV band from strongly magnetic neutron stars known as magnetars. Magnetic inverse Compton scattering is believed to be the leading candidate for the production of this intense X-ray radiation. Scattering at ultra-relativistic energies leads to attractive simplifications in the analytics of the magnetic Compton cross section. We have recently addressed such a case by developing compact analytic expressions using correct spin-dependent widths acquired through the implementation of Sokolov & Ternov basis states, focusing specifically on ground-state-ground-state scattering. Compton scattering in magnetar magnetospheres can cool electrons down to mildly relativistic energies. Moreover, soft gamma-ray flaring in magnetars may involve strong Comptonization in expanding clouds of mildly relativistic pairs. Such environs necessitate the development of more general magnetic scattering cross sections, in which the incoming photons acquire substantial incident angles relative to the field in the rest frame of the electron leading to arbitrary Landau excitations of the intermediate and final states. Due to the rapid transitions of the excited-state to the ground-state, the initial electron is still assumed to be in the ground state. The cross sections treat the plethora of harmonic resonances associated with various cyclotron transitions between Landau states. Polarization and spin dependence of the cross section for the four scattering modes is compared to the cross section obtained with spin-averaged widths. We present numerical results to show the comparisons to highlight the role of the spin-dependent widths of the resonances. The findings presented here will have applications to various neutron star problems, including computation of Eddington luminosities and polarization mode-switching rates in transient magnetar fireballs.

  3. Virtual Compton Scattering: Results from Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    L. Van Hoorebeke

    2003-05-01

    Virtual Compton Scattering o013 the proton has been studied at Q 2 -values of 1:0 and 1:9 (GeV=c) 2 in Hall A at the Thomas Je013erson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). Data were taken below and above the pion production threshold as well as in the resonance region. Results obtained below pion threshold at Q 2 = 1:0 (GeV=c) 2 are presented in this paper.

  4. Nonlinear Brightness Optimization in Compton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartemann, Fred V.; Wu, Sheldon S. Q.

    2013-07-01

    In Compton scattering light sources, a laser pulse is scattered by a relativistic electron beam to generate tunable x and gamma rays. Because of the inhomogeneous nature of the incident radiation, the relativistic Lorentz boost of the electrons is modulated by the ponderomotive force during the interaction, leading to intrinsic spectral broadening and brightness limitations. These effects are discussed, along with an optimization strategy to properly balance the laser bandwidth, diffraction, and nonlinear ponderomotive force.

  5. Nonlinear Brightness Optimization in Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, Fred V.; Wu, Sheldon S. Q.

    2013-07-26

    In Compton scattering light sources, a laser pulse is scattered by a relativistic electron beam to generate tunable x and gamma rays. Because of the inhomogeneous nature of the incident radiation, the relativistic Lorentz boost of the electrons is modulated by the ponderomotive force during the interaction, leading to intrinsic spectral broadening and brightness limitations. We discuss these effects, along with an optimization strategy to properly balance the laser bandwidth, diffraction, and nonlinear ponderomotive force.

  6. Nonlinear brightness optimization in compton scattering.

    PubMed

    Hartemann, Fred V; Wu, Sheldon S Q

    2013-07-26

    In Compton scattering light sources, a laser pulse is scattered by a relativistic electron beam to generate tunable x and gamma rays. Because of the inhomogeneous nature of the incident radiation, the relativistic Lorentz boost of the electrons is modulated by the ponderomotive force during the interaction, leading to intrinsic spectral broadening and brightness limitations. These effects are discussed, along with an optimization strategy to properly balance the laser bandwidth, diffraction, and nonlinear ponderomotive force.

  7. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Voutier, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) is the golden exclusive channel for the study of the partonic structure of hadrons, within the universal framework of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This paper presents the aim and general ideas of the DVCS experimental program off nuclei at the Jefferson Laboratory. The benefits of the study of the coherent and incoherent channels to the understanding of the EMC (European Muon Collaboration) effect are discussed, along with the case of nuclear targets to access neutron GPDs.

  8. Laser pulsing in linear Compton scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Krafft, G. A.; Johnson, E.; Deitrick, K.; ...

    2016-12-16

    Previous work on calculating energy spectra from Compton scattering events has either neglected considering the pulsed structure of the incident laser beam, or has calculated these effects in an approximate way subject to criticism. In this paper, this problem has been reconsidered within a linear plane wave model for the incident laser beam. By performing the proper Lorentz transformation of the Klein-Nishina scattering cross section, a spectrum calculation can be created which allows the electron beam energy spread and emittance effects on the spectrum to be accurately calculated, essentially by summing over the emission of each individual electron. Such anmore » approach has the obvious advantage that it is easily integrated with a particle distribution generated by particle tracking, allowing precise calculations of spectra for realistic particle distributions in collision. The method is used to predict the energy spectrum of radiation passing through an aperture for the proposed Old Dominion University inverse Compton source. In addition, as discussed in the body of the paper, many of the results allow easy scaling estimates to be made of the expected spectrum. A misconception in the literature on Compton scattering of circularly polarized beams is corrected and recorded.« less

  9. Helium Compton Form Factor Measurements at CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Voutier, Eric J.-M.

    2013-07-01

    The distribution of the parton content of nuclei, as encoded via the generalized parton distributions (GPDs), can be accessed via the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) process contributing to the cross section for leptoproduction of real photons. Similarly to the scattering of light by a material, DVCS provides information about the dynamics and the spatial structure of hadrons. The sensitivity of this process to the lepton beam polarization allows to single-out the DVCS amplitude in terms of Compton form factors that contain GPDs information. The beam spin asymmetry of the $^4$He($\\vec {\\mathrm e}$,e$' \\gamma ^4$He) process was measured in the experimental Hall B of the Jefferson Laboratory to extract the real and imaginary parts of the twist-2 Compton form factor of the $^4$He nucleus. The experimental results reported here demonstrate the relevance of this method for such a goal, and suggest the dominance of the Bethe-Heitler amplitude to the unpolarized process in the kinematic range explored by the experiment.

  10. THEORY OF COMPTON SCATTERING BY ANISOTROPIC ELECTRONS

    SciTech Connect

    Poutanen, Juri; Vurm, Indrek E-mail: indrek.vurm@oulu.f

    2010-08-15

    Compton scattering plays an important role in various astrophysical objects such as accreting black holes and neutron stars, pulsars, relativistic jets, and clusters of galaxies, as well as the early universe. In most of the calculations, it is assumed that the electrons have isotropic angular distribution in some frame. However, there are situations where the anisotropy may be significant due to the bulk motions, or where there is anisotropic cooling by synchrotron radiation or an anisotropic source of seed soft photons. Here we develop an analytical theory of Compton scattering by anisotropic distribution of electrons that can significantly simplify the calculations. Assuming that the electron angular distribution can be represented by a second-order polynomial over the cosine of some angle (dipole and quadrupole anisotropies), we integrate the exact Klein-Nishina cross section over the angles. Exact analytical and approximate formulae valid for any photon and electron energies are derived for the redistribution functions describing Compton scattering of photons with arbitrary angular distribution by anisotropic electrons. The analytical expressions for the corresponding photon scattering cross section on such electrons, as well as the mean energy of scattered photons, its dispersion, and radiation pressure force are also derived. We apply the developed formalism to the accurate calculations of the thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effects for arbitrary electron distributions.

  11. Moderate temperature detector development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marciniec, J. W.; Briggs, R. J.; Sood, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    P-side backside reflecting constant, photodiode characterization, and photodiode diffusion and G-R currents were investigated in an effort to develop an 8 m to 12 m infrared quantum detector using mercury cadmium telluride. Anodization, phosphorus implantation, and the graded band gap concept were approaches considered for backside formation. Variable thickness diodes were fabricated with a back surface anodic oxide to investigate the effect of this surface preparation on the diffusion limited zero bias impedance. A modeling technique was refined to thoroughly model diode characteristics. Values for the surface recombination velocity in the depletion region were obtained. These values were improved by implementing better surface damage removal techniques.

  12. GAMMASPHERE: Timing and signal processing aspects of the BGO Compton shield

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.; Madden, N.; Maier, M.; Yaver, H.

    1993-10-01

    We describe the design of the signal processing system and considerations involved in the timing performance of the BGO scintillator Compton shield that surrounds each of the 110 large germanium detectors used in the geodesic array covering the complete sphere surrounding the target in GAMMASPHERE. It is shown that the main timing limitation results from the statistics of photoelectron emission from the photocathode of the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) that observe the light from the scintillators and that achieving the required timing demands triggering on the first photoelectron. The circuits to do this for a single detector assembly must be able to deal with signals from 14 PMTs associated with the 7 elements of the scintillator shield surrounding each germanium detector.

  13. Compton-Pair Production Space Telescope: Extending Fermi-LAT Discoveries into MeV Gamma-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew; ComPair Team

    2016-03-01

    The keV-MeV gamma-ray energy range has remained largely unexplored over the last decade despite offering an exciting window into many astrophysical questions. This energy range is particularly challenging because it is firmly in the Compton-dominated regime where the interaction cross section is minimized. We are developing a MIDEX-scale wide-aperture discovery mission, Compton-Pair Production Space Telescope (ComPair), to investigate the energy range from 200 keV to >500 MeV with good energy and angular resolution and with sensitivity approaching a factor of 20-50 better than previous instruments. ComPair will build on the heritage of successful space missions including Fermi-LAT, AGILE, AMS and PAMELA, and will use well-developed space-qualified detector technologies including Si-strip and CdZnTe-strip detectors, heavy inorganic scintillators, and plastic scintillators. on behalf of the ComPair Team.

  14. Advanced Source Deconvolution Methods for Compton Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoglauer, Andreas

    The next generation of space telescopes utilizing Compton scattering for astrophysical observations is destined to one day unravel the mysteries behind Galactic nucleosynthesis, to determine the origin of the positron annihilation excess near the Galactic center, and to uncover the hidden emission mechanisms behind gamma-ray bursts. Besides astrophysics, Compton telescopes are establishing themselves in heliophysics, planetary sciences, medical imaging, accelerator physics, and environmental monitoring. Since the COMPTEL days, great advances in the achievable energy and position resolution were possible, creating an extremely vast, but also extremely sparsely sampled data space. Unfortunately, the optimum way to analyze the data from the next generation of Compton telescopes has not yet been found, which can retrieve all source parameters (location, spectrum, polarization, flux) and achieves the best possible resolution and sensitivity at the same time. This is especially important for all sciences objectives looking at the inner Galaxy: the large amount of expected sources, the high background (internal and Galactic diffuse emission), and the limited angular resolution, make it the most taxing case for data analysis. In general, two key challenges exist: First, what are the best data space representations to answer the specific science questions? Second, what is the best way to deconvolve the data to fully retrieve the source parameters? For modern Compton telescopes, the existing data space representations can either correctly reconstruct the absolute flux (binned mode) or achieve the best possible resolution (list-mode), both together were not possible up to now. Here we propose to develop a two-stage hybrid reconstruction method which combines the best aspects of both. Using a proof-of-concept implementation we can for the first time show that it is possible to alternate during each deconvolution step between a binned-mode approach to get the flux right and a

  15. The GEANT low energy Compton scattering (GLECS) package for use in simulating advanced Compton telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippen, R. Marc

    2004-02-01

    Compton γ-ray imaging is inherently based on the assumption of γ-rays scattering with free electrons. In reality, the non-zero momentum of target electrons bound in atoms blurs this ideal scattering response in a process known as Doppler broadening. The design and understanding of advanced Compton telescopes, thus, depends critically on the ability to accurately account for Doppler broadening effects. For this purpose, a Monte Carlo package that simulates detailed Doppler broadening has been developed for use with the powerful, general-purpose GEANT3 and GEANT4 radiation transport codes. This paper describes the design of this package, and illustrates results of comparison with selected experimental data.

  16. Spin momentum density of Nd using Compton spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sahariya, Jagrati; Dashora, Alpa; Mund, H. S.; Ahuja, B. L.; Tiwari, Shailja; Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y.

    2013-02-05

    Spin momentum density of Nd has been measured at 6K temperature using magnetic Compton scattering. The individual contribution of different electronic states, in the formation of total spin moment, is deduced from the analysis of magnetic Compton profile. The electron-specific spin moments deduced from the experimental Compton data are compared with the theoretical results obtained from full potential linearized augmented plane wave method and are found to be in good agreement.

  17. First coincidences in pre-clinical Compton camera prototype for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studen, A.; Burdette, D.; Chesi, E.; Cindro, V.; Clinthorne, N. H.; Dulinski, W.; Fuster, J.; Han, L.; Kagan, H.; Lacasta, C.; Llosá, G.; Marques, A. C.; Malakhov, N.; Meier, D.; Mikuž, M.; Park, S. J.; Roe, S.; Rogers, W. L.; Steinberg, J.; Weilhammer, P.; Wilderman, S. J.; Zhang, L.; Žontar, D.

    2004-09-01

    Compton collimated imaging may improve the detection of gamma rays emitted by radioisotopes used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We present a crude prototype consisting of a single 500μm thick, 256 pad silicon detector with pad size of 1.4×1.4mm2, combined with a 15×15×1cm3 NaI scintillator crystal coupled to a set of 20 photo multipliers. Emphasis is placed on the performance of the silicon detector and the associated read-out electronics, which has so far proved to be the most challenging part of the set-up. Results were obtained using the VATAGP3, 128 channel low-noise self-triggering ASIC as the silicon detector's front-end. The noise distribution (σ) of the spectroscopic outputs gave an equivalent noise charge (ENC) with a mean value of <σ>=137e with a spread of 10e, corresponding to an energy resolution of 1.15keV FWHM for the scattered electron energy. Threshold settings above 8.2keV were required for stable operation of the trigger. Coincident Compton scatter events in both modules were observed for photons emitted by 57Co source with principal gamma ray energies of 122 and 136keV.

  18. Requirements for a Compton camera for in vivo range verification of proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohling, H.; Priegnitz, M.; Schoene, S.; Schumann, A.; Enghardt, W.; Hueso-González, F.; Pausch, G.; Fiedler, F.

    2017-04-01

    To ensure the optimal outcome of proton therapy, in vivo range verification is highly desired. Prompt γ-ray imaging (PGI) is a possible approach for in vivo range monitoring. For PGI, dedicated detection systems, e.g. Compton cameras, are currently under investigation. The presented paper deals with substantial requirements regarding hardware and software that a Compton camera used in clinical routine has to meet. By means of GEANT4 simulations, we investigate the load on the detectors and the percentage of background expected in a realistic irradiation and we simulate γ-ray detections subsequently used as input data for the reconstruction. By reconstructing events from simulated sources of well-defined geometry, we show that large-area detectors are favourable. We investigate reconstruction results in dependence of the number of events. Finally, an end-to-end test for a realistic patient scenario is presented: starting with a treatment plan, the γ-ray emissions are calculated, the detector response is modelled, and the image reconstruction is performed. By this, the complexity of the system is shown, and requirements and limitations regarding precision and costs are determined.

  19. The use of Compton scattering in detecting anomaly in soil-possible use in pyromaterial detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedin, Ahmad Firdaus Zainal; Ibrahim, Noorddin; Zabidi, Noriza Ahmad; Demon, Siti Zulaikha Ngah

    2016-01-01

    The Compton scattering is able to determine the signature of land mine detection based on dependency of density anomaly and energy change of scattered photons. In this study, 4.43 MeV gamma of the Am-Be source was used to perform Compton scattering. Two detectors were placed between source with distance of 8 cm and radius of 1.9 cm. Detectors of thallium-doped sodium iodide NaI(TI) was used for detecting gamma ray. There are 9 anomalies used in this simulation. The physical of anomaly is in cylinder form with radius of 10 cm and 8.9 cm height. The anomaly is buried 5 cm deep in the bed soil measured 80 cm radius and 53.5 cm height. Monte Carlo methods indicated the scattering of photons is directly proportional to density of anomalies. The difference between detector response with anomaly and without anomaly namely contrast ratio values are in a linear relationship with density of anomalies. Anomalies of air, wood and water give positive contrast ratio values whereas explosive, sand, concrete, graphite, limestone and polyethylene give negative contrast ratio values. Overall, the contrast ratio values are greater than 2 % for all anomalies. The strong contrast ratios result a good detection capability and distinction between anomalies.

  20. The use of Compton scattering in detecting anomaly in soil-possible use in pyromaterial detection

    SciTech Connect

    Abedin, Ahmad Firdaus Zainal; Ibrahim, Noorddin; Zabidi, Noriza Ahmad; Demon, Siti Zulaikha Ngah

    2016-01-22

    The Compton scattering is able to determine the signature of land mine detection based on dependency of density anomaly and energy change of scattered photons. In this study, 4.43 MeV gamma of the Am-Be source was used to perform Compton scattering. Two detectors were placed between source with distance of 8 cm and radius of 1.9 cm. Detectors of thallium-doped sodium iodide NaI(TI) was used for detecting gamma ray. There are 9 anomalies used in this simulation. The physical of anomaly is in cylinder form with radius of 10 cm and 8.9 cm height. The anomaly is buried 5 cm deep in the bed soil measured 80 cm radius and 53.5 cm height. Monte Carlo methods indicated the scattering of photons is directly proportional to density of anomalies. The difference between detector response with anomaly and without anomaly namely contrast ratio values are in a linear relationship with density of anomalies. Anomalies of air, wood and water give positive contrast ratio values whereas explosive, sand, concrete, graphite, limestone and polyethylene give negative contrast ratio values. Overall, the contrast ratio values are greater than 2 % for all anomalies. The strong contrast ratios result a good detection capability and distinction between anomalies.

  1. Radiation damage effects on solid state detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trainor, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Totally depleted silicon diodes are discussed which are used as nuclear particle detectors in investigations of galactic and solar cosmic radiation and trapped radiation. A study of radiation and chemical effects on the diodes was conducted. Work on electron and proton irradiation of surface barrier detectors with thicknesses up to 1 mm was completed, and work on lithium-drifted silicon devices with thicknesses of several millimeters was begun.

  2. A novel Compton camera design featuring a rear-panel shield for substantial noise reduction in gamma-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Fujita, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Taya, T.; Ohsuka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Hirayanagi, M.; Sakurai, N.; Adachi, S.; Uchiyama, T.

    2014-12-01

    After the Japanese nuclear disaster in 2011, large amounts of radioactive isotopes were released and still remain a serious problem in Japan. Consequently, various gamma cameras are being developed to help identify radiation hotspots and ensure effective decontamination operation. The Compton camera utilizes the kinematics of Compton scattering to contract images without using a mechanical collimator, and features a wide field of view. For instance, we have developed a novel Compton camera that features a small size (13 × 14 × 15 cm3) and light weight (1.9 kg), but which also achieves high sensitivity thanks to Ce:GAGG scintillators optically coupled wiith MPPC arrays. By definition, in such a Compton camera, gamma rays are expected to scatter in the ``scatterer'' and then be fully absorbed in the ``absorber'' (in what is called a forward-scattered event). However, high energy gamma rays often interact with the detector in the opposite direction - initially scattered in the absorber and then absorbed in the scatterer - in what is called a ``back-scattered'' event. Any contamination of such back-scattered events is known to substantially degrade the quality of gamma-ray images, but determining the order of gamma-ray interaction based solely on energy deposits in the scatterer and absorber is quite difficult. For this reason, we propose a novel yet simple Compton camera design that includes a rear-panel shield (a few mm thick) consisting of W or Pb located just behind the scatterer. Since the energy of scattered gamma rays in back-scattered events is much lower than that in forward-scattered events, we can effectively discriminate and reduce back-scattered events to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the images. This paper presents our detailed optimization of the rear-panel shield using Geant4 simulation, and describes a demonstration test using our Compton camera.

  3. Initial results from OSSE on the Compton Observatory. [Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. N.; Kurfess, J. D.; Purcell, W. R.; Matz, S. M.; Ulmer, M. P.; Strickman, M. S.; Murphy, R. J.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Kinzer, R. L.; Share, G. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) was launched on NASA's Compton Observatory on 1991 April 5. OSSE uses large area scintillation detectors to undertake gamma-ray line and continuum observations in the 0.05-10 MeV energy range. During the first months of the mission, OSSE has obtained observations on a number of high priority sources including AGNs, SN1991T, the galactic center region, and several discrete galactic sources. The capabilities and performance of OSSE are discussed and initial results for several of the early observations are presented.

  4. Initial results from OSSE on the Compton Observatory. [Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. N.; Kurfess, J. D.; Purcell, W. R.; Matz, S. M.; Ulmer, M. P.; Strickman, M. S.; Murphy, R. J.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Kinzer, R. L.; Share, G. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) was launched on NASA's Compton Observatory on 1991 April 5. OSSE uses large area scintillation detectors to undertake gamma-ray line and continuum observations in the 0.05-10 MeV energy range. During the first months of the mission, OSSE has obtained observations on a number of high priority sources including AGNs, SN1991T, the galactic center region, and several discrete galactic sources. The capabilities and performance of OSSE are discussed and initial results for several of the early observations are presented.

  5. Giant spin-torque diode sensitivity in the absence of bias magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Bin; Carpentieri, Mario; Hao, Xiaojie; Jiang, Hongwen; Katine, Jordan A.; Krivorotov, Ilya N.; Ocker, Berthold; Langer, Juergen; Wang, Kang L.; Zhang, Baoshun; Azzerboni, Bruno; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Finocchio, Giovanni; Zeng, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    Microwave detectors based on the spin-torque diode effect are among the key emerging spintronic devices. By utilizing the spin of electrons in addition to charge, they have the potential to overcome the theoretical performance limits of their semiconductor (Schottky) counterparts. However, so far, practical implementations of spin-diode microwave detectors have been limited by the necessity to apply a magnetic field. Here, we demonstrate nanoscale magnetic tunnel junction microwave detectors, exhibiting high-detection sensitivity of 75,400 mV mW−1 at room temperature without any external bias fields, and for low-input power (micro-Watts or lower). This sensitivity is significantly larger than both state-of-the-art Schottky diode detectors and existing spintronic diodes. Micromagnetic simulations and measurements reveal the essential role of injection locking to achieve this sensitivity performance. This mechanism may provide a pathway to enable further performance improvement of spin-torque diode microwave detectors. PMID:27052973

  6. Feasibility study of Compton cameras for x-ray fluorescence computed tomography with humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernekohl, Don; Ahmad, Moiz; Chinn, Garry; Xing, Lei

    2016-12-01

    X-ray fluorescence imaging is a promising imaging technique able to depict the spatial distributions of low amounts of molecular agents in vivo. Currently, the translation of the technique to preclinical and clinical applications is hindered by long scanning times as objects are scanned with flux-limited narrow pencil beams. The study presents a novel imaging approach combining x-ray fluorescence imaging with Compton imaging. Compton cameras leverage the imaging performance of XFCT and abolish the need for pencil beam excitation. The study examines the potential of this new imaging approach on the base of Monte-Carlo simulations. In the work, it is first presented that the particular option of slice/fan-beam x-ray excitation has advantages in image reconstruction in regard of processing time and image quality compared to traditional volumetric Compton imaging. In a second experiment, the feasibility of the approach for clinical applications with tracer agents made from gold nano-particles is examined in a simulated lung scan scenario. The high energy of characteristic x-ray photons from gold is advantageous for deep tissue penetration and has lower angular blurring in the Compton camera. It is found that Doppler broadening in the first detector stage of the Compton camera adds the largest contribution on the angular blurring; physically limiting the spatial resolution. Following the analysis of the results from the spatial resolution test, resolutions in the order of one centimeter are achievable with the approach in the center of the lung. The concept of Compton imaging allows one to distinguish to some extent between scattered photons and x-ray fluorescent photons based on their difference in emission position. The results predict that molecular sensitivities down to 240 pM l-1 for 5 mm diameter lesions at 15 mGy for 50 nm diameter gold nano-particles are achievable. A 45-fold speed up time for data acquisition compared to traditional pencil beam XFCT could

  7. Deeply virtual Compton Scattering cross section measured with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Guegan, Baptistse

    2014-09-01

    The Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) provide a new description of nucleon structure in terms of its elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. Including and extending the information provided by the form factors and the parton distribution functions, they describe the correlation between the transverse position and the longitudinal momentum fraction of the partons in the nucleon. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), the electroproduction of a real photon on a single quark in the nucleon eN --> e'N'g, is the exclusive process most directly interpretable in terms of GPDs. A dedicated experiment to study DVCS with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab has been carried out using a 5.9-GeV polarized electron beam and an unpolarized hydrogen target, allowing us to collect DVCS events in the widest kinematic range ever explored in the valence region : 1.0 < Q2 < 4.6 GeV2, 0.1 < xB < 0.58 and 0.09 < -t < 2.0 GeV2. In this paper, we show preliminary results of unpolarized cross sections and of polarized cross section differences for the DVCS channel.

  8. FRONT-END ASIC FOR A SILICON COMPTON TELESCOPE.

    SciTech Connect

    DE GERONIMO,G.; FRIED, J.; FROST, E.; PHLIPS, B.; VERNON, E.; WULF, E.A.

    2007-10-27

    We describe a front-end application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) developed for a silicon Compton telescope. Composed of 32 channels, it reads out signals in both polarities from each side of a Silicon strip sensor, 2 mm thick 27 cm long, characterized by a strip capacitance of 30 pF. Each front-end channel provides low-noise charge amplification, shaping with a stabilized baseline, discrimination, and peak detection with an analog memory. The channels can process events simultaneously, and the read out is sparsified. The charge amplifier makes uses a dual-cascode configuration and dual-polarity adaptive reset, The low-hysteresis discriminator and the multi-phase peak detector process signals with a dynamic range in excess of four hundred. An equivalent noise charge (ENC) below 200 electrons was measured at 30 pF, with a slope of about 4.5 electrons/pF at a peaking time of 4 {micro}s. With a total dissipated power of 5 mW the channel covers an energy range up to 3.2 MeV.

  9. Polarized Compton Scattering Experiments at the Mainz Microtron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Interactions between an electromagnetic wave and a proton are described at the basic level by the mass, charge, and anomalous magnetic moment of the proton. Such a description, however, assumes a point-like particle, something the proton is certainly not. The internal structure of the proton leads to higher order terms, such as the scalar and vector polarizabilities, in the interaction. To study these polarizabilities, a multi-experiment program has been undertaken at the Mainz Microtron to measure observables in Compton scattering that exhibit dependence on these parameters. This program has made use of the A2 tagged photon beam, with either a linear or circular polarization, proton targets of either unpolarized LH2 or frozen-spin butanol with transverse or longitudinal polarization, as well as the nearly 4 π detection capability of the Crystal Ball and TAPS detectors. The first of these measurements, the double-polarization asymmetry Σ2 x, also the first of its kind, has already been published. Measurements of the beam asymmetry Σ3 and another double-polarization asymmetry Σ2 z have also been performed and are in various stages of analysis and publication. This talk will discuss the status of these measurements, as well as various fitting studies that are being performed with the data in hand, and plans for future measurements. on behalf of the A2 collaboration at MAMI.

  10. EXTERNAL COMPTON EMISSION IN BLAZARS OF NONLINEAR SYNCHROTRON SELF-COMPTON-COOLED ELECTRONS

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharias, Michael; Schlickeiser, Reinhard E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de

    2012-12-20

    The origin of the high-energy component in spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of blazars is still something of a mystery. While BL Lac objects can be successfully modeled within the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scenario, the SED of low-peaked flat spectrum radio quasars is more difficult to reproduce. Their high-energy component needs the abundance of strong external photon sources, giving rise to stronger cooling via the inverse Compton (IC) channel, and thus to a powerful component in the SED. Recently, we have been able to show that such a powerful inverse Compton component can also be achieved within the SSC framework. This, however, is only possible if the electrons cool by SSC, which results in a nonlinear process, since the cooling depends on an energy integral over the electrons. In this paper, we aim to compare the nonlinear SSC framework with the external Compton (EC) output by calculating analytically the EC component with the underlying electron distribution being either linearly or nonlinearly cooled. Due to the additional linear cooling of the electrons with the external photons, higher number densities of electrons are required to achieve nonlinear cooling, resulting in more powerful IC components. If the electrons initially cool nonlinearly, the resulting SED can exhibit a dominant SSC over the EC component. However, this dominance depends strongly on the input parameters. We conclude that, with the correct time-dependent treatment, the SSC component should be taken into account in modeling blazar flares.

  11. Test of Compton camera components for prompt gamma imaging at the ELBE bremsstrahlung beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso-González, F.; Golnik, C.; Berthel, M.; Dreyer, A.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Heidel, K.; Kormoll, T.; Rohling, H.; Schöne, S.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.; Pausch, G.

    2014-05-01

    In the context of ion beam therapy, particle range verification is a major challenge for the quality assurance of the treatment. One approach is the measurement of the prompt gamma rays resulting from the tissue irradiation. A Compton camera based on several position sensitive gamma ray detectors, together with an imaging algorithm, is expected to reconstruct the prompt gamma ray emission density map, which is correlated with the dose distribution. At OncoRay and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), a Compton camera setup is being developed consisting of two scatter planes: two CdZnTe (CZT) cross strip detectors, and an absorber consisting of one Lu2SiO5 (LSO) block detector. The data acquisition is based on VME electronics and handled by software developed on the ROOT framework. The setup has been tested at the linear electron accelerator ELBE at HZDR, which is used in this experiment to produce bunched bremsstrahlung photons with up to 12.5 MeV energy and a repetition rate of 13 MHz. Their spectrum has similarities with the shape expected from prompt gamma rays in the clinical environment, and the flux is also bunched with the accelerator frequency. The charge sharing effect of the CZT detector is studied qualitatively for different energy ranges. The LSO detector pixel discrimination resolution is analyzed and it shows a trend to improve for high energy depositions. The time correlation between the pulsed prompt photons and the measured detector signals, to be used for background suppression, exhibits a time resolution of 3 ns FWHM for the CZT detector and of 2 ns for the LSO detector. A time walk correction and pixel-wise calibration is applied for the LSO detector, whose resolution improves up to 630 ps. In conclusion, the detector setup is suitable for time-resolved background suppression in pulsed clinical particle accelerators. Ongoing tasks are the quantitative comparison with simulations and the test of imaging algorithms. Experiments at proton

  12. Experimental confirmation of neoclassical Compton scattering theory

    SciTech Connect

    Aristov, V. V.; Yakunin, S. N.; Despotuli, A. A.

    2013-12-15

    Incoherent X-ray scattering spectra of diamond and silicon crystals recorded on the BESSY-2 electron storage ring have been analyzed. All spectral features are described well in terms of the neoclassical scattering theory without consideration for the hypotheses accepted in quantum electrodynamics. It is noted that the accepted tabular data on the intensity ratio between the Compton and Rayleigh spectral components may significantly differ from the experimental values. It is concluded that the development of the general theory (considering coherent scattering, incoherent scattering, and Bragg diffraction) must be continued.

  13. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off the Neutron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazouz, M.; Camsonne, A.; Camacho, C. Muñoz; Ferdi, C.; Gavalian, G.; Kuchina, E.; Amarian, M.; Aniol, K. A.; Beaumel, M.; Benaoum, H.; Bertin, P.; Brossard, M.; Chen, J.-P.; Chudakov, E.; Craver, B.; Cusanno, F.; de Jager, C. W.; Deur, A.; Feuerbach, R.; Fieschi, J.-M.; Frullani, S.; Garçon, M.; Garibaldi, F.; Gayou, O.; Gilman, R.; Gomez, J.; Gueye, P.; Guichon, P. A. M.; Guillon, B.; Hansen, O.; Hayes, D.; Higinbotham, D.; Holmstrom, T.; Hyde, C. E.; Ibrahim, H.; Igarashi, R.; Jiang, X.; Jo, H. S.; Kaufman, L. J.; Kelleher, A.; Kolarkar, A.; Kumbartzki, G.; Laveissiere, G.; Lerose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Liyanage, N.; Lu, H.-J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Meziani, Z.-E.; McCormick, K.; Michaels, R.; Michel, B.; Moffit, B.; Monaghan, P.; Nanda, S.; Nelyubin, V.; Potokar, M.; Qiang, Y.; Ransome, R. D.; Réal, J.-S.; Reitz, B.; Roblin, Y.; Roche, J.; Sabatié, F.; Saha, A.; Sirca, S.; Slifer, K.; Solvignon, P.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Ulmer, P. E.; Voutier, E.; Wang, K.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.

    2007-12-01

    The present experiment exploits the interference between the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) and the Bethe-Heitler processes to extract the imaginary part of DVCS amplitudes on the neutron and on the deuteron from the helicity-dependent D(e→,e'γ)X cross section measured at Q2=1.9GeV2 and xB=0.36. We extract a linear combination of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) particularly sensitive to Eq, the least constrained GPD. A model dependent constraint on the contribution of the up and down quarks to the nucleon spin is deduced.

  14. Deeply virtual compton scattering off the neutron.

    PubMed

    Mazouz, M; Camsonne, A; Camacho, C Muñoz; Ferdi, C; Gavalian, G; Kuchina, E; Amarian, M; Aniol, K A; Beaumel, M; Benaoum, H; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Chen, J-P; Chudakov, E; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; de Jager, C W; Deur, A; Feuerbach, R; Fieschi, J-M; Frullani, S; Garçon, M; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilman, R; Gomez, J; Gueye, P; Guichon, P A M; Guillon, B; Hansen, O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; Jiang, X; Jo, H S; Kaufman, L J; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; Laveissiere, G; Lerose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Lu, H-J; Margaziotis, D J; Meziani, Z-E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R; Michel, B; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P; Nanda, S; Nelyubin, V; Potokar, M; Qiang, Y; Ransome, R D; Réal, J-S; Reitz, B; Roblin, Y; Roche, J; Sabatié, F; Saha, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Ulmer, P E; Voutier, E; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2007-12-14

    The present experiment exploits the interference between the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) and the Bethe-Heitler processes to extract the imaginary part of DVCS amplitudes on the neutron and on the deuteron from the helicity-dependent D(e,e'gamma)X cross section measured at Q2=1.9 GeV2 and xB=0.36. We extract a linear combination of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) particularly sensitive to E_{q}, the least constrained GPD. A model dependent constraint on the contribution of the up and down quarks to the nucleon spin is deduced.

  15. Simulated performance of a germanium Compton telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, Steven E.; Jean, Pierre

    2001-09-01

    To build upon the goals of the upcoming INTEGRAL mission, the next generation soft γ-ray (0.2-20 MeV) observatory will require improved sensitivity to nuclear line emission while maintaining high spectral resolution. We present the simulated performance of a germanium Compton telescope (GCT) design, which will allow a factor of ten improvement in sensitivity over INTEGRAL/SPI. We also discuss a number of issues concerning reconstruction techniques and event cuts, and demonstrate how these affect the overall performance of the telescope.

  16. Deeply virtual Compton scattering and nucleon structure

    SciTech Connect

    M. Garcon

    2006-11-01

    Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) is the tool of choice to study Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD) in the nucleon. After a general introduction to the subject, a review of experimental results from various facilities is given. Following the first encouraging results, new generation dedicated experiments now allow unprecedented precision and kinematical coverage. Several new results were presented during the conference, showing significant progress in this relatively new field. Prospects for future experiments are presented. The path for the experimental determination of GPDs appears now open.

  17. Biophysical applications of neutron Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanderlingh, U. N.; Albergamo, F.; Hayward, R. L.; Middendorf, H. D.

    Neutron Compton scattering (NCS) can be applied to measuring nuclear momentum distributions and potential parameters in molecules of biophysical interest. We discuss the analysis of NCS spectra from peptide models, focusing on the characterisation of the amide proton dynamics in terms of the width of the H-bond potential well, its Laplacian, and the mean kinetic energy of the proton. The Sears expansion is used to quantify deviations from the high-Q limit (impulse approximation), and line-shape asymmetry parameters are evaluated in terms of Hermite polynomials. Results on NCS from selectively deuterated acetanilide are used to illustrate this approach.

  18. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off the Neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Mazouz, M.; Guillon, B.; Real, J.-S.; Voutier, E.

    2007-12-14

    The present experiment exploits the interference between the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) and the Bethe-Heitler processes to extract the imaginary part of DVCS amplitudes on the neutron and on the deuteron from the helicity-dependent D(e-vector,e{sup '}{gamma})X cross section measured at Q{sup 2}=1.9 GeV{sup 2} and x{sub B}=0.36. We extract a linear combination of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) particularly sensitive to E{sub q}, the least constrained GPD. A model dependent constraint on the contribution of the up and down quarks to the nucleon spin is deduced.

  19. Optimization of a multiple-scattering Compton camera as a photon-tracking imager for 6-MV photon therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taewoong; Yoon, Changyeon; Lee, Wonho

    2014-06-01

    During radiation therapy, the irradiated position and the energy deposited in a patient must be monitored. In general, calculations before photon exposure or 2D measurements of the transmitted photons have been widely used for making dose estimates. In this paper, we propose a real-time 3D dose measurement using Compton imaging technology. On the basis of the Monte-Carlo method, we designed a multiple-scattering Compton camera system (MSCC) with semiconductor and scintillation detectors. The MSCC was constructed with two semiconductor detectors as scattering detectors and a cadmium-tungstate (CWO) scintillator detector as an absorber detector. The two planar semiconductor arrays, and the CWO array consisted of 40 × 40 pixels, each with a size of 1 × 1 × ɛ mm3, where ɛ is the variable thickness of the detectors. The design parameters, such as the types of semiconductors, detector thicknesses and distances between detectors, were optimized on the basis of the detection efficiency and angular resolution of reconstructed images for a point source. Under the optimized conditions, uncertainty factors in geometry and energy were estimated for various inter-detector distances. We used a source corresponding to photons scattered from a water phantom exposed to 6-MeV peak X-rays. According to our simulation results, the figure of merit, reached its maximum value when the inter-detector distance was 3 cm. In order to achieve a high FOM, we chose 1 cm as the optimum thickness for the scattering and absorbed detectors. A cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detector showed the best performance among the simulated semiconductors. The position uncertainty caused by the pixelization effect was the major factor in degrading the angular resolution of the reconstructed images, and the degradation caused by energy broadening was less than expected. The angular uncertainties caused by Doppler broadening and incorrect sequencing were minimal compared with that of pixelization. Our

  20. A novel automated hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography method using diode-array detector/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for analysis of sodium risedronate and related degradation products in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Tiziana; Vicentini, Lorenza; Boschetti, Silvia; Andreatta, Paolo; Gatti, Rita

    2014-10-24

    A simple, sensitive and fast hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method using ultraviolet diode-array detector (UV-DAD)/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the automated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of sodium risedronate (SR) and its degradation products in new pharmaceuticals. The chromatographic separations were performed on Ascentis Express HILIC 2.7μm (150mm×2.1mm, i.d.) stainless steel column (fused core). The mobile phase consisted of formate buffer solution (pH 3.4; 0.03M)/acetonitrile 42:58 and 45:55 (v/v) for granules for oral solution and effervescent tablet analysis, respectively, at a flow-rate of 0.2mL/min, setting the wavelength at 262nm. Stability characteristics of SR were evaluated by performing stress test studies. The main degradation product formed under oxidation conditions corresponding to sodium hydrogen (1-hydroxy-2-(1-oxidopyridin-3-yl)-1-phosphonoethyl)phosphonate was characterized by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The validation parameters such as linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision and selectivity were found to be highly satisfactory. Linear responses were observed in standard and in fortified placebo solutions. Intra-day precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) was ≤1.1% for peak area and ≤0.2% for retention times (tR) without significant differences between intra- and inter-day data. Recovery studies showed good results for all the examined compounds (from 98.7 to 101.0%) with RSD ranging from 0.6 to 0.7%. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were 1 and 3ng/mL, respectively. The high stability of standard and sample solutions at room temperature means an undoubted advantage of the method allowing the simultaneous preparation of many samples and consecutive chromatographic analyses by using an autosampler. The developed stability indicating

  1. Performance and future prospects of CVD diamond micro-strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.

    2013-10-01

    Particle detectors made from artificial diamond are far less vulnerable to radiation damage than any other detector type and therefore hold great promise for nuclear and particle physics experiments. We have built a set of diamond micro-strip detectors that were used by the QWeak experiment at Jefferson Lab, as recoil electron detector in a Compton polarimeter. These are the first diamond detectors to be used as tracking detectors in a nuclear and particle physics experiment. We discuss the performance of these detectors over the past two years of running. We show preliminary results and evaluate the radiation hardness of these detectors.

  2. Universal EUV in-band intensity detector

    DOEpatents

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2004-08-24

    Extreme ultraviolet light is detected using a universal in-band detector for detecting extreme ultraviolet radiation that includes: (a) an EUV sensitive photodiode having a diode active area that generates a current responsive to EUV radiation; (b) one or more mirrors that reflects EUV radiation having a defined wavelength(s) to the diode active area; and (c) a mask defining a pinhole that is positioned above the diode active area, wherein EUV radiation passing through the pinhole is restricted substantially to illuminating the diode active area.

  3. Elastic Compton Scattering from 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margaryan, Arman; Griesshammer, Harald W.; Phillips, Daniel R.; Strandberg, Bruno; McGovern, Judith A.; Shukla, Deepshikha

    2017-01-01

    We study elastic Compton scattering on 3He using chiral effective field theory (χEFT) at photon energies from 60 MeV to approximately 120 MeV. Experiments to measure this process have been proposed for both MAMI at Mainz and the HI γS facility at TUNL. I will present the revised results of a full calculation at third order in the expansion (O (Q3)). The amplitude involves a sum of both one- and two-nucleon Compton-scattering mechanisms. We have recently computed the fourth-order two-nucleon diagrams. The numerical impact they have on the cross-section results will be discussed. I will also present results in which amplitudes used so far are augmented by the leading effects from Δ (1232) degrees of freedom, a step which has already been performed for the proton and deuteron processes. Both cross sections and doubly-polarized asymmetries will be presented, and the sensitivity of these observables to the values of neutron scalar and spin polarizabilities will be assessed. This material is based upon work supported in part by DOE and George Washington University.

  4. Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    2000-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  5. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    1998-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  6. Laser pulsing in linear Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, G. A.; Johnson, E.; Deitrick, K.; Terzić, B.; Kelmar, R.; Hodges, T.; Melnitchouk, W.; Delayen, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Previous work on calculating energy spectra from Compton scattering events has either neglected considering the pulsed structure of the incident laser beam, or has calculated these effects in an approximate way subject to criticism. In this paper, this problem has been reconsidered within a linear plane wave model for the incident laser beam. By performing the proper Lorentz transformation of the Klein-Nishina scattering cross section, a spectrum calculation can be created which allows the electron beam energy spread and emittance effects on the spectrum to be accurately calculated, essentially by summing over the emission of each individual electron. Such an approach has the obvious advantage that it is easily integrated with a particle distribution generated by particle tracking, allowing precise calculations of spectra for realistic particle distributions "in collision." The method is used to predict the energy spectrum of radiation passing through an aperture for the proposed Old Dominion University inverse Compton source. Many of the results allow easy scaling estimates to be made of the expected spectrum.

  7. Compton scattering measurements from dense plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Glenzer, S. H.; Neumayer, P.; Doppner, T.; ...

    2008-06-12

    Here, Compton scattering techniques have been developed for accurate measurements of densities and temperatures in dense plasmas. One future challenge is the application of this technique to characterize compressed matter on the National Ignition Facility where hydrogen and beryllium will approach extremely dense states of matter of up to 1000 g/cc. In this regime, the density, compressibility, and capsule fuel adiabat may be directly measured from the Compton scattered spectrum of a high-energy x-ray line source. Specifically, the scattered spectra directly reflect the electron velocity distribution. In non-degenerate plasmas, the width provides an accurate measure of the electron temperatures, whilemore » in partially Fermi degenerate systems that occur in laser-compressed matter it provides the Fermi energy and hence the electron density. Both of these regimes have been accessed in experiments at the Omega laser by employing isochorically heated solid-density beryllium and moderately compressed beryllium foil targets. In the latter experiment, compressions by a factor of 3 at pressures of 40 Mbar have been measured in excellent agreement with radiation hydrodynamic modeling.« less

  8. Recent results from Compton spectrometer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Amanda E.; Espy, Michelle A.; Haines, Todd J.; Webb, Timothy J.

    2016-09-01

    During the previous three years, a Compton spectrometer has successfully measured the x-ray spectra of both continuous and flash radiographic sources. In this method, a collimated beam of x-rays incident on a convertor foil ejects Compton electrons. A collimator in the entrance to the spectrometer selects the forward-scattered electrons, which enter the magnetic field region of the spectrometer. The position of the electrons at the magnet's focal plane is proportional to the square root of their momentum, allowing the x-ray spectrum to be reconstructed. The spectrometer is a neodymium-iron magnet which measures spectra in the <1 MeV to 20 MeV energy range. The energy resolution of the spectrometer was experimentally tested with the 44 MeV Short-Pulse Electron LINAC at the Idaho Accelerator Center. The measured values are mostly consistent with the design specification and historical values of the greater of 1% or 0.1 MeV. Experimental results from this study are presented in these proceedings.

  9. Recent results from the Compton Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Michelson, P.F.; Hansen, W.W.

    1994-12-01

    The Compton Observatory is an orbiting astronomical observatory for gamma-ray astronomy that covers the energy range from about 30 keV to 30 GeV. The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET), one of four instruments on-board, is capable of detecting and imaging gamma radiation from cosmic sources in the energy range from approximately 20 MeV to 30 GeV. After about one month of tests and calibration following the April 1991 launch, a 15-month all sky survey was begun. This survey is now complete and the Compton Observatory is well into Phase II of its observing program which includes guest investigator observations. Among the highlights from the all-sky survey discussed in this presentation are the following: detection of five pulsars with emission above 100 MeV; detection of more than 24 active galaxies, the most distant at redshift greater than two; detection of many high latitude, unidentified gamma-ray sources, some showing significant time variability; detection of at least two high energy gamma-ray bursts, with emission in one case extending to at least 1 GeV. EGRET has also detected gamma-ray emission from solar flares up to energies of at least 2 GeV and has observed gamma-rays from the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  10. Deeply virtual Compton scattering at Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Biselli, Angela S.

    2016-08-01

    The generalized parton distributions (GPDs) have emerged as a universal tool to describe hadrons in terms of their elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. Deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) on a proton or neutron ($N$), $e N \\rightarrow e' N' \\gamma$, is the process more directly interpretable in terms of GPDs. The amplitudes of DVCS and Bethe-Heitler, the process where a photon is emitted by either the incident or scattered electron, can be accessed via cross-section measurements or exploiting their interference which gives rise to spin asymmetries. Spin asymmetries, cross sections and cross-section differences can be connected to different combinations of the four leading-twist GPDs (${H}$, ${E}$, ${\\tilde{H}}$, ${\\tilde{E}}$) for each quark flavors, depending on the observable and on the type of target. This paper gives an overview of recent experimental results obtained for DVCS at Jefferson Laboratory in the halls A and B. Several experiments have been done extracting DVCS observables over large kinematics regions. Multiple measurements with overlapping kinematic regions allow to perform a quasi-model independent extraction of the Compton form factors, which are GPDs integrals, revealing a 3D image of the nucleon.

  11. Compton effect thermally activated depolarization dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1978-01-01

    A dosimetry technique for high-energy gamma radiation or X-radiation employs the Compton effect in conjunction with radiation-induced thermally activated depolarization phenomena. A dielectric material is disposed between two electrodes which are electrically short circuited to produce a dosimeter which is then exposed to the gamma or X radiation. The gamma or X-radiation impinging on the dosimeter interacts with the dielectric material directly or with the metal composing the electrode to produce Compton electrons which are emitted preferentially in the direction in which the radiation was traveling. A portion of these electrons becomes trapped in the dielectric material, consequently inducing a stable electrical polarization in the dielectric material. Subsequent heating of the exposed dosimeter to the point of onset of ionic conductivity with the electrodes still shorted through an ammeter causes the dielectric material to depolarize, and the depolarization signal so emitted can be measured and is proportional to the dose of radiation received by the dosimeter.

  12. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

    1998-10-20

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

  13. A Compton filter to improve photopeak intensity evaluation in gamma ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, P. C. L.; Dantas, C. C.; Lira, C. A. B. O.; dos Santos, V. A.

    2004-11-01

    A procedure for filtering the photopeak intensity from the Compton continuum interference is described. A continuum energy region of up to 0.478 and the 0.662 MeV photopeak are well defined in a cesium-137 theoretical spectrum. The filter was applied to a high intensity Compton region in the gamma spectrum obtained by the attenuation measurements in laboratory experiments. A Cs-137 (γ = 0.662 MeV) source, of 4 m Ci, steel tubes and a NaI detector was utilized for measuring the catalyst density in a collimated gamma beam. Such an assembly simulates the measuring conditions for gamma tomography in the riser of a FCC-fluid catalyst cracking unit. A Canberra multichannel data acquisition, records the gamma spectrum whose data file is exported to the Matlab software. Following the spectrum reconstruction, the peak area evaluation in both systems, shows a good agreement. Based on the Fourier transform equation, a filtering method for the photopeak, using Matlab functions, was developed. By means of a lowpass filter that lets the low frequencies pass, but not the high frequencies. The filtering results in a significant reduction in the interference from the Compton effect on the photopeak. For little interference and also for a high continuum background under a nonsymmetrical photopeak the filtering works. After the filtering process the peak becomes fairly similar to a Gaussian curve and the liquid counts are enhanced. The associated standard deviation decreases by a factor of 4, while the resolution of the 0.662 MeV photopeak, is kept within detector characteristics.

  14. Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1992-12-31

    Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups: Classical semiconductor diode detectors and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported.

  15. Data acquisition and analysis for the energy-subtraction Compton scatter camera for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamzin, Murat Kamilevich

    In response to the shortcomings of the Anger camera currently being used in conventional SPECT, particularly the trade-off between sensitivity and spatial resolution, a novel energy-subtraction Compton scatter camera, or the ESCSC, has been proposed. A successful clinical implementation of the ESCSC could revolutionize the field of SPECT. Features of this camera include utilization of silicon and CdZnTe detectors in primary and secondary detector systems, list-mode time stamping data acquisition, modular architecture, and post-acquisition data analysis. Previous ESCSC studies were based on Monte Carlo modeling. The objective of this work is to test the theoretical framework developed in previous studies by developing the data acquisition and analysis techniques necessary to implement the ESCSC. The camera model working in list-mode with time stamping was successfully built and tested thus confirming potential of the ESCSC that was predicted in previous simulation studies. The obtained data were processed during the post-acquisition data analysis based on preferred event selection criteria. Along with the construction of a camera model and proving the approach, the post-acquisition data analysis was further extended to include preferred event weighting based on the likelihood of a preferred event to be a true preferred event. While formulated to show ESCSC capabilities, the results of this study are important for any Compton scatter camera implementation as well as for coincidence data acquisition systems in general.

  16. Design of a Compton camera for 3D prompt-γ imaging during ion beam therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roellinghoff, F.; Richard, M.-H.; Chevallier, M.; Constanzo, J.; Dauvergne, D.; Freud, N.; Henriquet, P.; Le Foulher, F.; Létang, J. M.; Montarou, G.; Ray, C.; Testa, E.; Testa, M.; Walenta, A. H.

    2011-08-01

    We investigate, by means of Geant4 simulations, a real-time method to control the position of the Bragg peak during ion therapy, based on a Compton camera in combination with a beam tagging device (hodoscope) in order to detect the prompt gamma emitted during nuclear fragmentation. The proposed set-up consists of a stack of 2 mm thick silicon strip detectors and a LYSO absorber detector. The γ emission points are reconstructed analytically by intersecting the ion trajectories given by the beam hodoscope and the Compton cones given by the camera. The camera response to a polychromatic point source in air is analyzed with regard to both spatial resolution and detection efficiency. Various geometrical configurations of the camera have been tested. In the proposed configuration, for a typical polychromatic photon point source, the spatial resolution of the camera is about 8.3 mm FWHM and the detection efficiency 2.5×10-4 (reconstructable photons/emitted photons in 4π). Finally, the clinical applicability of our system is considered and possible starting points for further developments of a prototype are discussed.

  17. A Maximum NEC Criterion for Compton Collimation to Accurately Identify True Coincidences in PET

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, Garry; Levin, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we propose a new method to increase the accuracy of identifying true coincidence events for positron emission tomography (PET). This approach requires 3-D detectors with the ability to position each photon interaction in multi-interaction photon events. When multiple interactions occur in the detector, the incident direction of the photon can be estimated using the Compton scatter kinematics (Compton Collimation). If the difference between the estimated incident direction of the photon relative to a second, coincident photon lies within a certain angular range around colinearity, the line of response between the two photons is identified as a true coincidence and used for image reconstruction. We present an algorithm for choosing the incident photon direction window threshold that maximizes the noise equivalent counts of the PET system. For simulated data, the direction window removed 56%–67% of random coincidences while retaining > 94% of true coincidences from image reconstruction as well as accurately extracted 70% of true coincidences from multiple coincidences. PMID:21317079

  18. Detection and Localization of Money Bills Concealed Behind Wooden Walls Using Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Wart, Jason A. van; Hussein, Esam M.A.; Waller, Edward J

    2005-05-15

    This work presents a portable device for detecting visually obscured contraband money bills that may be hidden within conventional household walls for the purpose of avoiding confiscation. The device utilizes the Compton backscattering of photons emitted from a collimated {sup 241}Am source. The scattered photons are detected with a thin NaI(Tl) detector, either over a wide field of view for surface scanning of the wall or within a confined view field for depth scanning. The design of the device was optimized for best density contrast and highest count rate for a given source activity. It was shown that the minimum detectable amount of contraband, with >95% confidence level, is 86 paper bills. The contraband was detectable when hidden in household walls made of gyprock or wooden paneling, even when masked by higher density materials such as metallic piping. The device's capability exceeded those of commercially available density-based portable contraband detectors.

  19. Novel Photon Detectors for RICH Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, Jaroslav

    2003-01-08

    The paper describes recent developments in Photon Detectors useful for the Cherenkov Ring Imaging Applications (RICH). We discuss the Multi-anode PMTs, HPDs with PIN and APD diode readout, APDs working in a Geiger mode, and the gaseous multi-pattern detectors. The paper emphasizes their timing properties. We give equal chance to fragile, not yet entirely proven ideas.

  20. Can small field diode correction factors be applied universally?

    PubMed

    Liu, Paul Z Y; Suchowerska, Natalka; McKenzie, David R

    2014-09-01

    Diode detectors are commonly used in dosimetry, but have been reported to over-respond in small fields. Diode correction factors have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study is to determine whether correction factors for a given diode type can be universally applied over a range of irradiation conditions including beams of different qualities. A mathematical relation of diode over-response as a function of the field size was developed using previously published experimental data in which diodes were compared to an air core scintillation dosimeter. Correction factors calculated from the mathematical relation were then compared those available in the literature. The mathematical relation established between diode over-response and the field size was found to predict the measured diode correction factors for fields between 5 and 30 mm in width. The average deviation between measured and predicted over-response was 0.32% for IBA SFD and PTW Type E diodes. Diode over-response was found to be not strongly dependent on the type of linac, the method of collimation or the measurement depth. The mathematical relation was found to agree with published diode correction factors derived from Monte Carlo simulations and measurements, indicating that correction factors are robust in their transportability between different radiation beams. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Investigation of ACC/CCI Tunnel Diodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    with several other components on a small circuit board and sealed in a cylindrical tube. The sealed tube is 0.515 in. long and 0.187 in. in diameter...were on hand during most of this worL Hi-Rel deprocessed the failed device [lot date code (LDC) 8910, S/N 30] and carried out both optical and electron... deprocessed the module and removed the diode assembly. During a trip to ACCICCI, two other MM2 diodes, still installed in detector modules, were

  2. Synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission from blazar jets - III. Compton-dominant blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, William J.; Cotter, Garret

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we develop the extended jet model of Potter & Cotter to model the simultaneous multiwavelength spectra of six Compton-dominant blazars. We include an accelerating parabolic base transitioning to a slowly decelerating conical jet with a geometry set by observations of M87 and consistent with simulations and theory. We investigate several jet models and find that the optically thick to thin synchrotron break in the radio spectrum requires the jet to first come into equipartition at large distances along the jet, consistent with the observed transition from parabolic to conical at 105Rs in the jet of M87. We confirm this result analytically and calculate the expected frequency core-shift relations for the models under consideration. We find that a parabolic jet transitioning to a ballistic conical jet at 105Rs, which starts in equipartition and becomes more particle dominated at larger distances, fits the multiwavelength data of the six blazars well, whilst an adiabatic equipartition conical section requires very large bulk Lorentz factors to reproduce the Compton dominance of the blazars. We find that all these blazars require high power (>1039 W), high bulk Lorentz factor (>20) jets observed close to the line of sight (<2°) as we expect from the blazar sequence and consistent with the results from Paper II. The inverse-Compton emission in our fits is due to inverse-Compton scattering of high-redshift cosmic microwave background photons at large distances along the jet due to the high bulk Lorentz factors of the jets. We postulate a new interpretation of the blazar sequence based on the radius of the transition region of the jet (where the jet is brightest in synchrotron emission) scaling linearly with black hole mass.

  3. Compton-Pair Production Space Telescope (ComPair) for MeV Gamma-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The gamma-ray energy range from a few hundred keV to a few hundred MeV has remained largely unexplored, mainly due to the challenging nature of the measurements, since the pioneering, but limited, observations by COMPTEL on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991- 2000). This energy range is a transition region between thermal and nonthermal processes, and accurate measurements are critical for answering a broad range of astrophysical questions. We are developing a MIDEX-scale wide-aperture discovery mission, ComPair (Compton-Pair Production Space Telescope), to investigate the energy range from 200 keV to > 500 MeV with high energy and angular resolution and with sensitivity approaching a factor of 100 better than COMPTEL. This instrument will be equally capable to detect both Compton-scattering events at lower energy and pair-production events at higher energy. ComPair will build on the heritage of successful space missions including Fermi LAT, AGILE, AMS and PAMELA, and will utilize well-developed space-qualified detector technologies including Si-strip and CdZnTe-strip detectors, heavy inorganic scintillators, and plastic scintillators.

  4. Study of the polarimetric performance of a Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton camera for the Hitomi satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuta, Junichiro; Edahiro, Ikumi; Watanabe, Shin; Odaka, Hirokazu; Uchida, Yusuke; Uchida, Nagomi; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Habata, Sho; Ichinohe, Yuto; Kitaguchi, Takao; Ohno, Masanori; Ohta, Masayuki; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Yuasa, Takayuki; Itou, Masayoshi

    2016-12-01

    Gamma-ray polarization offers a unique probe into the geometry of the γ-ray emission process in celestial objects. The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) onboard the X-ray observatory Hitomi is a Si/CdTe Compton camera and is expected to be an excellent polarimeter, as well as a highly sensitive spectrometer due to its good angular coverage and resolution for Compton scattering. A beam test of the final-prototype for the SGD Compton camera was conducted to demonstrate its polarimetric capability and to verify and calibrate the Monte Carlo simulation of the instrument. The modulation factor of the SGD prototype camera, evaluated for the inner and outer parts of the CdTe sensors as absorbers, was measured to be 0.649-0.701 (inner part) and 0.637-0.653 (outer part) at 122.2 keV and 0.610-0.651 (inner part) and 0.564-0.592 (outer part) at 194.5 keV at varying polarization angles with respect to the detector. This indicates that the relative systematic uncertainty of the modulation factor is as small as ∼ 3 % .

  5. X-ray generation by inverse Compton scattering at the superconducting RF test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Hirotaka; Akemoto, Mitsuo; Arai, Yasuo; Araki, Sakae; Aryshev, Alexander; Fukuda, Masafumi; Fukuda, Shigeki; Haba, Junji; Hara, Kazufumi; Hayano, Hitoshi; Higashi, Yasuo; Honda, Yosuke; Honma, Teruya; Kako, Eiji; Kojima, Yuji; Kondo, Yoshinari; Lekomtsev, Konstantin; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Michizono, Shinichiro; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Nakai, Hirotaka; Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Nakanishi, Kota; Noguchi, Shuichi; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Sato, Masato; Shevelev, Mikhail; Shishido, Toshio; Takenaka, Tateru; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Urakawa, Junji; Watanabe, Ken; Yamaguchi, Seiya; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Yasuchika; Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Hosoda, Seiichi; Iijima, Hokuto; Kuriki, Masao; Tanaka, Ryuta; Kuramoto, Ayaka; Omet, Mathieu; Takeda, Ayaki

    2015-02-01

    Quasi-monochromatic X-rays with high brightness have a broad range of applications in fields such as life sciences, bio-, medical applications, and microlithography. One method for generating such X-rays is via inverse Compton scattering (ICS). X-ray generation experiments using ICS were carried out at the superconducting RF test facility (STF) accelerator at KEK. A new beam line, newly developed four-mirror optical cavity system, and new X-ray detector system were prepared for experiments downstream section of the STF electron accelerator. Amplified pulsed photons were accumulated into a four-mirror optical cavity and collided with an incoming 40 MeV electron beam. The generated X-rays were detected using a microchannel plate (MCP) detector for X-ray yield measurements and a new silicon-on-insulator (SOI) detector system for energy measurements. The detected X-ray yield by the MCP detector was 1756.8±272.2 photons/(244 electron bunches). To extrapolate this result to 1 ms train length under 5 Hz operations, 4.60×105 photons/1%-bandwidth were obtained. The peak X-ray energy, which was confirmed by the SOI detector, was 29 keV, and this is consistent with ICS X-rays.

  6. Deuteron Compton scattering: a random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grießhammer, H. W.

    2005-05-01

    In this sketch, some recent developments in Compton scattering off the deuteron are reviewed. The strong energy-dependence of the scalar magnetic dipole polarisability βM1 turns out to be crucial to understand the data from Saskatoon at 94 MeV. Chiral Effective Field Theory is used to extract the static iso-scalar dipole polarisabilities as ᾱs = 12.6 ± 1.4stat ± 1.0wavefu and β¯s = 2.3 ± 1.7stat ± 0.8wavefu, in units of 10-4 fm3. Therefore, proton and neutron polarisabilities are identical within error bars. For details and a better list of references, consult e.g. Refs. [1, 2].

  7. Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchuk, M. I.; L'vov, A. I.

    2000-07-01

    Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data.

  8. The Compton Mirror in NGC 4151

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poutanen, Juri; Sikora, Marek; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Magdziarz, Pawel

    1996-01-01

    We show that the sharp cutoff in the hard X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151, unusual for Seyfert 1 galaxies, can be reconciled with the average Seyfert 1 spectrum if we assume that the central source is completely hidden from our line of sight by the thick part of the accretion disk or by the broad emission-line clouds. The observed X-ray radiation is produced by scattering of the Seyfert 1 type spectrum in the higher, cooler parts of the accretion disk corona, or in a wind. A sharp cutoff appears as a result of the Compton recoil effect. This model naturally explains a discrepancy regarding the inclination of the central source, inferred to be low (face-on) from observations of the iron K-alpha emission line, but inferred to be high on the basis of optical and UV observations.

  9. Compton scattering vertex for massive scalar QED

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Concha-Sanchez, Y.; Delbourgo, R.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E.

    2009-08-15

    We investigate the Compton scattering vertex of charged scalars and photons in scalar quantum electrodynamics (SQED). We carry out its nonperturbative construction consistent with Ward-Fradkin-Green-Takahashi identity which relates 3-point vertices to the 4-point ones. There is an undetermined part which is transverse to one or both the external photons, and needs to be evaluated through perturbation theory. We present in detail how the transverse part at the 1-loop order can be evaluated for completely general kinematics of momenta involved in covariant gauges and dimensions. This involves the calculation of genuine 4-point functions with three massive propagators, the most nontrivial integrals reported in this paper. We also discuss possible applications of our results.

  10. BLAZAR FLARES FROM COMPTON DRAGGED SHELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, Omri; Levinson, Amir

    2015-08-10

    We compute the dynamics and emission of dissipative shells that are subject to a strong Compton drag, under simplifying assumptions about the dissipation mechanism. We show that under conditions prevailing in blazars, substantial deceleration is anticipated on sub-parsec and parsec scales in cases of rapid dissipation. Such episodes may be the origin of some of the flaring activity occasionally observed in gamma-ray blazars. The shape of the light curves thereby produced reflects the geometry of the emitting surface if the deceleration is very rapid, or the dynamics of the shell if the deceleration is delayed, or initially more gradual, owing, e.g., to continuous injection of energy and momentum.

  11. Nucleon Compton scattering in the Dyson-Schwinger approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichmann, Gernot; Fischer, Christian S.

    2013-02-01

    We analyze the nucleon’s Compton scattering amplitude in the Dyson-Schwinger/Faddeev approach. We calculate a subset of diagrams that implements the nonperturbative handbag contribution as well as all t-channel resonances. At the quark level, these ingredients are represented by the quark Compton vertex whose analytic properties we study in detail. We derive a general form for a fermion two-photon vertex that is consistent with its Ward-Takahashi identities and free of kinematic singularities, and we relate its transverse part to the on-shell nucleon Compton amplitude. We solve an inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation for the quark Compton vertex in rainbow-ladder truncation and implement it in the nucleon Compton scattering amplitude. The remaining ingredients are the dressed quark propagator and the nucleon’s bound-state amplitude which are consistently solved from Dyson-Schwinger and covariant Faddeev equations. We verify numerically that the resulting quark Compton vertex and nucleon Compton amplitude both reproduce the πγγ transition form factor when the pion pole in the t channel is approached.

  12. Compton Radiation for Nuclear Waste Management and Transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulyak, E.; Urakawa, J.

    2015-10-01

    Compton inverse radiation is emitted in the process of backscattering of the laser pulses off the relativistic electrons. This radiation possesses high spectral density and high energy of photons--in hard x-ray up to gammaray energy range--with moderate electron energies (hundreds of MeV up to 1 GeV) due to short wavelength of the laser radiation. The Compton radiation is well collimated: emitting within a narrow cone along the electron beam. A distinct property of the Compton inverse radiation is a steep high-energy cutoff of the spectrum and the maximal intensity just below the cutoff. The Compton sources can attain: spectral density up to 1014 gammas/(s 0.1%bandwidth) in MeV range of energies, and spectral brightness up to 1020 gammas/(smm2mr2 0.1% bw). Applicability of Compton sources for nuclear waste management and detection of radioisotopes and fissionable nuclides are discussed in the report. Also application limits of Compton gamma sources for transmutation of radioactive isotopes are estimated. A recently proposed subtracting method, in which two sets of data obtained by irradiating the object by the Compton beams with slightly different maximal energies are compared, will enhance resolution of detection radioactive elements at the 'atomic' (hundreds of keV) and the 'nuclear' (a few MeV) photon energies.

  13. Nucleon Compton Scaterring in the perturbative Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Richard

    2004-11-01

    Results of perturbative calculation for nucleon Compton scattering are presented. The calculations consider both the case of the incoming photon being real and the case of the incoming photon being virtual. Hard scattering amplitudes are calculated using a software package developed at NC State Universityfootnote[1]A. Pang and C.-R. Ji, Computers in Physics Vol 9 (No. 6), Nov/Dec 1995 p589-593footnote[2]A. Pang and C.-R. Ji, J. Comp. Phys. 115, 267 (1994). The integrations required to calculate total cross section are made following the approach of Kronfeld and Nizicfootnote[3]A. Kronfeld and B. Nizic, Phys. Rev. D 44, 3445 (1991). Poles are split into a real principal part plus an imaginary delta function. The delta functions are evaluated explicitly by hand; principal part integrations are evaluated numerically, after making a variable transformation to render the integrand finite over the range of integration. For the real photon case, there are five previous calculations to consider, each of which produced a different result.^3footnote[4]E. Maina and G. Farrar, Phys. Lett. B 206, 120 (1988).footnote[5]G. Farrar and H. Zhang, Phys. Rev. D 41, 3348 (1990).footnote[6]M. Vanderhaeghen, P. Guichon, and J. Van de Wiele, presented at workshop on virtual Compton scattering, Clermont-Ferrand, France, 1996.footnote[7]T. Brooks and L. Dixon, Phys. Rev. D 62, 114021 (2000). There is an agreement with the results of Brooks and Dixon.^7 For the virtual photon case, the new result is compared with that of Farrar and Zhang.^5 Since there are differences, we discuss which result is more believable and why. For the deeply virtual case (DVCS), comparison is made with other non-pertubative methods using GPDs.

  14. Virtual Nucleon Compton Scattering in Perturbative QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Richard; Ji, Chueng-Ryong

    2004-10-01

    Results of perturbative calculation for nucleon Compton scattering are presented. The calculations consider both the case of the incoming photon being real and the case of the incoming photon being virtual. Hard scattering amplitudes are calculated using a software package developed at NC State University footnote[1]A. Pang and C.-R. Ji, Computers in Physics Vol 9 (No. 6), Nov/Dec 1995 p589-593footnote[2]A. Pang and C.-R. Ji, J. Comp. Phys. 115, 267 (1994). The integrations required to calculate total cross section are made following the approach of Kronfeld and Nizicfootnote[3]A. Kronfeld and B. Nizic, Phys. Rev. D 44, 3445 (1991). Poles are split into a real principal part plus an imaginary delta function. The delta functions are evaluated explicitly by hand; principal part integrations are evaluated numerically, after making a variable transformation to render the integrand finite over the range of integration. For the real photon case, there are five previous calculations to consider, each of which produced a different resultfootnote[3]A. Kronfeld and B. Nizic, Phys. Rev. D 44, 3445 (1991)footnote[4]E. Maina and G. Farrar, Phys. Lett. B 206, 120 (1988)footnote[5]G. Farrar and H. Zhang, Phys. Rev. D 41, 3348 (1990)footnote[6]M. Vanderhaeghen, P. Guichon, and J. Van de Wiele, presented at workshop on virtual Compton scattering, Clermont-Ferrand, France, 1996footnote[7]T. Brooks and L. Dixon, Phys. Rev. D 62, 114021 (2000). There is an agreement with the results of Brooks and Dixonfootnote[7]T. Brooks and L. Dixon, Phys. Rev. D 62, 114021 (2000). For the virtual photon case, the new result is compared with that of Farrar and Zhang footnote[5]G. Farrar and H. Zhang, Phys. Rev. D 41, 3348 (1990). Since there are differences, we discuss which result is more believable and why. For the deeply virtual case (DVCS), comparison is made with other non-pertubative methods using GPDs.

  15. First demonstration of real-time gamma imaging by using a handheld Compton camera for particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taya, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Iwamoto, Y.; Koide, A.; Nishio, T.; Kabuki, S.; Inaniwa, T.

    2016-09-01

    The use of real-time gamma imaging for cancer treatment in particle therapy is expected to improve the accuracy of the treatment beam delivery. In this study, we demonstrated the imaging of gamma rays generated by the nuclear interactions during proton irradiation, using a handheld Compton camera (14 cm×15 cm×16 cm, 2.5 kg) based on scintillation detectors. The angular resolution of this Compton camera is ∼8° at full width at half maximum (FWHM) for a 137Cs source. We measured the energy spectra of the gamma rays using a LaBr3(Ce) scintillator and photomultiplier tube, and using the handheld Compton camera, performed image reconstruction when using a 70 MeV proton beam to irradiate a water, Ca(OH)2, and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom. In the energy spectra of all three phantoms, we found an obvious peak at 511 keV, which was derived from annihilation gamma rays, and in the energy spectrum of the PMMA phantom, we found another peak at 718 keV, which contains some of the prompt gamma rays produced from 10B. Therefore, we evaluated the peak positions of the projection from the reconstructed images of the PMMA phantom. The differences between the peak positions and the Bragg peak position calculated using simulation are 7 mm±2 mm and 3 mm±8 mm, respectively. Although we could quickly acquire online gamma imaging of both of the energy ranges during proton irradiation, we cannot arrive at a clear conclusion that prompt gamma rays sufficiently trace the Bragg peak from these results because of the uncertainty given by the spatial resolution of the Compton camera. We will develop a high-resolution Compton camera in the near future for further study.

  16. Header For Laser Diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A. R.; Spadin, Paul L.

    1990-01-01

    Header designed to contain laser diode. Output combined incoherently with outputs of other laser diodes in grating laser-beam combiner in optical communication system. Provides electrical connections to laser diode, cooling to thermally stabilize laser operation, and optomechanical adjustments that steer and focus laser beam. Range of adjustments provides for correction of worst-case decentering and defocusing of laser beam encountered with laser diodes. Mechanical configuration made simple to promote stability and keep cost low.

  17. Virtual deep Compton scattering from Hall A at Jefferson Laboratory; Diffusion Compton profondement virtuelle dans le Hall A au Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Camacho, Carlos Munoz

    2005-12-14

    Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), introduced in the late 90s, provide a universal description of hadrons in terms of the underlying degrees of freedom of Quantum Chromodynamics: quarks and gluons. GPDs appear in a wide variety of hard exclusive reactions and the advent of high luminosity accelerator facilities has made the study of GPDs accessible to experiment. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) is the golden process involving GPDs. The first dedicated DVCS experiment ran in the Hall A of Jefferson Lab in Fall 2004. An electromagnetic calorimeter and a plastic scintillator detector were constructed for this experiment, together with specific electronics and acquisition system. The experiment preparation, data taking and analysis are described in this document. Results on the absolute cross section difference for opposite beam helicities provide the first measurement of a linear combination of GPDs as a function of the momentum transfer to the nucleon.

  18. Analysis of shielding materials in a Compton spectrometer applied to x-ray tube quality control using Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, S; Ródenas, J; Verdú, G; Villaescusa, J I

    2005-01-01

    A realistic characterisation of the primary beam is very important for the quality control of X-ray tubes. The most accurate technique to assess the actual photon spectrum is X-ray spectrometry. Some difficulties arising in the spectrum determination can be avoided using a Compton spectrometer. Simulation models are useful tools to know the effect of some operational parameters, such as collimation of primary beam, relative position of focus and detector, and the influence of shielding materials. A simulation model has been developed using the MCNP code, based on the Monte Carlo method, in order to reproduce a commercial Compton spectrometer. In this work, the model developed is applied to analyse the influence on measurements of shielding materials present in the spectrometer.

  19. Diode and Diode Circuits, a Programmed Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balabanian, Norman; Kirwin, Gerald J.

    This programed text on diode and diode circuits was developed under contract with the United States Office of Education as Number 4 in a series of materials for use in an electrical engineering sequence. It is intended as a supplement to a regular text and other instructional material. (DH)

  20. Evaluation of a multistage CdZnTe Compton camera for prompt γ imaging for proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleskey, M.; Kaye, W.; Mackin, D. S.; Beddar, S.; He, Z.; Polf, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    A new detector system, Polaris J from H3D, has been evaluated for its potential application as a Compton camera (CC) imaging device for prompt γ rays (PGs) emitted during proton radiation therapy (RT) for the purpose of dose range verification. This detector system consists of four independent CdZnTe detector stages and a coincidence module, allowing the user to construct a Compton camera in different geometrical configurations and to accept both double and triple scatter events. Energy resolution for the 662 keV line from 137Cs was found to be 9.7 keV FWHM. The raw absolute efficiencies for double and triple scatter events were 2.2 ×10-5 and 5.8 ×10-7, respectively, for γs from a 60Co source. The position resolution for the reconstruction of a point source from the measured CC data was about 2 mm. Overall, due to the low efficiency of the Polaris J CC, the current system was deemed not viable for imaging PGs emitted during proton RT treatment delivery. However, using a validated Monte Carlo model of the CC, we found that by increasing the size of the detectors and placing them in a two stage configuration, the efficiency could be increased to a level to make PG imaging possible during proton RT.

  1. The COMPTON Observatory: Reflections on its origins and history

    SciTech Connect

    Kniffen, D. A.; Gehrels, N.

    1997-05-10

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) was planned as a mission to make the first comprehensive study of the gamma-ray sky over the full gamma-ray spectrum. It followed on the heels of two successful small astronomy satellites with high energy gamma-ray telescopes, SAS-2 and COS-B, and the High Energy Astronomical Observatory (HEAO) with low-energy gamma-ray detectors. The guideline was to cover the spectrum from the high energy limit of the x-ray domain to the highest energies for which a detectable flux might be reasonably observed. The objective was to include transients as well as persistent sources. The efforts to get such a mission approved stands as a model for developing a consensus of the scientific community for a mission involving a relatively small community of observers. A broad and vigorous guest investigator program was a key element in this effort. The results of the guest investigator program are testimony to the wisdom of this plan. The great success of GRO (now the Compton Observatory) was a result of the dedicated efforts of a few individuals and a project management team that understood how to work with scientists. In spite of increasing budgetary pressure and long delays beyond their control, the project management brought GRO to its successful launch with a minimum of cost growth resulting from the delays. This development period set the stage for what has been one of the most successful scientific programs in NASA's history. The very exciting results presented at this conference by a very broad community of scientists is a testimony to the dedicated efforts of a small group of visionaries with the foresight to see the potential of such a mission.

  2. Observations of GRB 990123 by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, M. S.; Band, D. L.; Kippen, R. M.; Preece, R. D.; Kouveliotou, C.; vanParadijs, J.; Share, G. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Matz, S. M.; Connors, A.

    1999-01-01

    GRB 990123 was the first burst from which simultaneous optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray emission was detected; its afterglow has been followed by an extensive set of radio, optical, and X-ray observations. We have studied the gamma-ray burst itself as observed by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detectors. We find that gamma-ray fluxes are not correlated with the simultaneous optical observations and that the gamma-ray spectra cannot be extrapolated simply to the optical fluxes. The burst is well fitted by the standard four-parameter GRB function, with the exception that excess emission compared with this function is observed below approx. 15 keV during some time intervals. The burst is characterized by the typical hard-to-soft and hardness-intensity correlation spectral evolution patterns. The energy of the peak of the vf (sub v), spectrum, E (sub p), reaches an unusually high value during the first intensity spike, 1470 plus or minus 110 keV, and then falls to approx. 300 keV during the tail of the burst. The high-energy spectrum above approx. 1 MeV is consistent with a power law with a photon index of about -3. By fluence, GRB 990123 is brighter than all but 0.4% of the GRBs observed with BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment), clearly placing it on the -3/2 power-law portion of the intensity distribution. However, the redshift measured for the afterglow is inconsistent with the Euclidean interpretation of the -3/2 power law. Using the redshift value of greater than or equal to 1.61 and assuming isotropic emission, the gamma-ray energy exceeds 10 (exp 54) ergs.

  3. Material efficiency studies for a Compton camera designed to measure characteristic prompt gamma rays emitted during proton beam radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Daniel; Polf, Jerimy C; Peterson, Steve W; Gillin, Michael T; Beddar, Sam

    2011-05-21

    Prompt gamma rays emitted from biological tissues during proton irradiation carry dosimetric and spectroscopic information that can assist with treatment verification and provide an indication of the biological response of the irradiated tissues. Compton cameras are capable of determining the origin and energy of gamma rays. However, prompt gamma monitoring during proton therapy requires new Compton camera designs that perform well at the high gamma energies produced when tissues are bombarded with therapeutic protons. In this study we optimize the materials and geometry of a three-stage Compton camera for prompt gamma detection and calculate the theoretical efficiency of such a detector. The materials evaluated in this study include germanium, bismuth germanate (BGO), NaI, xenon, silicon and lanthanum bromide (LaBr(3)). For each material, the dimensions of each detector stage were optimized to produce the maximum number of relevant interactions. These results were used to predict the efficiency of various multi-material cameras. The theoretical detection efficiencies of the most promising multi-material cameras were then calculated for the photons emitted from a tissue-equivalent phantom irradiated by therapeutic proton beams ranging from 50 to 250 MeV. The optimized detector stages had a lateral extent of 10 × 10 cm(2) with the thickness of the initial two stages dependent on the detector material. The thickness of the third stage was fixed at 10 cm regardless of material. The most efficient single-material cameras were composed of germanium (3 cm) and BGO (2.5 cm). These cameras exhibited efficiencies of 1.15 × 10(-4) and 9.58 × 10(-5) per incident proton, respectively. The most efficient multi-material camera design consisted of two initial stages of germanium (3 cm) and a final stage of BGO, resulting in a theoretical efficiency of 1.26 × 10(-4) per incident proton.

  4. Material efficiency studies for a Compton camera designed to measure characteristic prompt gamma rays emitted during proton beam radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Daniel; Polf, Jerimy C; Peterson, Steve W; Gillin, Michael T; Beddar, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Prompt gamma rays emitted from biological tissues during proton irradiation carry dosimetric and spectroscopic information that can assist with treatment verification and provide an indication of the biological response of the irradiated tissues. Compton cameras are capable of determining the origin and energy of gamma rays. However, prompt gamma monitoring during proton therapy requires new Compton camera designs that perform well at the high gamma energies produced when tissues are bombarded with therapeutic protons. In this study we optimize the materials and geometry of a three-stage Compton camera for prompt gamma detection and calculate the theoretical efficiency of such a detector. The materials evaluated in this study include germanium, bismuth germanate (BGO), NaI, xenon, silicon and lanthanum bromide (LaBr3). For each material, the dimensions of each detector stage were optimized to produce the maximum number of relevant interactions. These results were used to predict the efficiency of various multi-material cameras. The theoretical detection efficiencies of the most promising multi-material cameras were then calculated for the photons emitted from a tissue-equivalent phantom irradiated by therapeutic proton beams ranging from 50 to 250 MeV. The optimized detector stages had a lateral extent of 10 × 10 cm2 with the thickness of the initial two stages dependent on the detector material. The thickness of the third stage was fixed at 10 cm regardless of material. The most efficient single-material cameras were composed of germanium (3 cm) and BGO (2.5 cm). These cameras exhibited efficiencies of 1.15 × 10−4 and 9.58 × 10−5 per incident proton, respectively. The most efficient multi-material camera design consisted of two initial stages of germanium (3 cm) and a final stage of BGO, resulting in a theoretical efficiency of 1.26 × 10−4 per incident proton. PMID:21508442

  5. Improved Multinuclide Imaging of Special Nuclear Material Using a High Purity Germanium Double Sided Strip Detector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    gamma emitting source. By replacing the converging hole collimator with a second detector array (as in a Compton camera ) to improve detector...88 Input Logic Module Performance ..............................................................................89 Digital Gamma Finder...efficiency of the system. This problem should be overcome by the addition of an input logic module that will maintain consistent timing information

  6. GaAs solid state detectors for physics at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Beaumont, S.P. . Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering); Bertin, R.; Zichichi, A. ); Booth, C.N.; Buttar, C.; Combley, F.H.; Dogru, M.; Hou, Y. . Dept. of Physics); Carraresi, L.; Colocci, M.; Francescato, A.; Nuti, M.; Peifer, P.G.; Tartoni, N.; Vanni, V.; Vinattieri, A. . Dipt. di Fisica INFN, Florence ); Cindolo, F.; Auria, S.D.; Papa, C. del; Fiori, F.; Lisowski, B.; O'Shea, V. . Dipt. of Fisica INFN, Bologna ); Edwards, M.; Seller, P.H.; Shankar, K.; Sharp, P.H. ); Nava, F.; Ottaviani, P. . Dipt. di Fiscia INFN, Modena ); Lynch, J.G.; Matheson, J.; Raine, C.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Smith, K.M.; Have, I. ten; Turbull, R.M. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Foster, F.; Jones, B.; Santana,

    1993-08-01

    Progress with Schottky diode and p i n diode GaAs detectors for minimum ionizing particles is reported here. The radiation hardness and potential speed of simple diodes is shown to be more than competitive with silicon detectors. A discussion is given of the present understanding of the charge transport mechanism in the detectors as it influences their charge collection efficiency. Early results from micro-strip detectors are also described, (which are relevant for high radiation regions of LHC detectors near the beam pipe and in the forward region).

  7. Characterization of resonant tunneling diodes for microwave and millimeter-wave detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehdi, I.; East, J. R.; Haddad, G. I.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report on the direct detection capabilities of resonant tunneling diodes in the 10-100 GHz range. An open circuit voltage sensitivity of 1750 mV/mW (in Ka-band) was measured. This is higher than the sensitivity of comparatively based commercially available solid-state detectors. The detector properties are a strong function of diode bias and the measured tangential signal sensitivity (-32 dBm at Ka-band with 1-MHz bandwidth) and the dynamic range (25 dB) of the diode are smaller compared to other solid-state detectors.

  8. Evaluation of list-mode ordered subset expectation maximization image reconstruction for pixelated solid-state compton gamma camera with large number of channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Chmeissani, M.

    2014-04-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project intends to show the advantages of using pixelated solid-state technology for nuclear medicine applications. It proposes designs for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and Compton gamma camera detectors with a large number of signal channels (of the order of 106). For Compton camera, especially with a large number of readout channels, image reconstruction presents a big challenge. In this work, results are presented for the List-Mode Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (LM-OSEM) image reconstruction algorithm on simulated data with the VIP Compton camera design. For the simulation, all realistic contributions to the spatial resolution are taken into account, including the Doppler broadening effect. The results show that even with a straightforward implementation of LM-OSEM, good images can be obtained for the proposed Compton camera design. Results are shown for various phantoms, including extended sources and with a distance between the field of view and the first detector plane equal to 100 mm which corresponds to a realistic nuclear medicine environment.

  9. Compton Profile Study of Intermetallic Ti3Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, V.; Sharma, G.; Mishra, M. C.; Joshi, K. B.; Sharma, B. K.

    2011-10-01

    The Compton scattering measurement on intermetallic alloy Ti3Al is reported in this work. The measurement is made using 59.54 keV gamma-rays from Am241 source. Theoretical calculation of Compton profile is also performed employing CRYSTAL code within the framework of density functional theory to compare with the measurement. The theoretical profile of the alloy is also synthesized following the superposition model taking the published Compton profiles of elemental solids from the APW method. The experimental study of charge transfer in the alloys has also been done by performing the experimental Compton profile measurements on Ti and Al following the superposition model and charge transfer from Al to Ti is clearly seen on the alloy formation.

  10. Investigation of Compton profiles of molecular methane and ethane

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiao-Li; Xu, Long-Quan; Kang, Xu; Liu, Ya-Wei; Ni, Dong-Dong; Zhu, Lin-Fan; Yang, Ke Ma, Yong-Peng; Yan, Shuai

    2015-02-28

    The Compton profiles of methane and ethane molecules have been determined at an incident photon energy of 20 keV based on the third generation synchrotron radiation, and the statistical accuracy of 0.2% is achieved near p{sub z} = 0. The density functional theory with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set was used to calculate the Compton profiles of methane and ethane. The present experimental Compton profiles are in better agreement with the theoretical calculations in the whole p{sub z} region than the previous experimental results, which indicates that the present experimental Compton profiles are accurate enough to serve as the benchmark data for methane and ethane molecules.

  11. Compton Profile Study of Intermetallic Ti{sub 3}Al

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, V.; Sharma, G.; Mishra, M. C.; Sharma, B. K.; Joshi, K. B.

    2011-10-20

    The Compton scattering measurement on intermetallic alloy Ti{sub 3}Al is reported in this work. The measurement is made using 59.54 keV gamma-rays from Am{sup 241} source. Theoretical calculation of Compton profile is also performed employing CRYSTAL code within the framework of density functional theory to compare with the measurement. The theoretical profile of the alloy is also synthesized following the superposition model taking the published Compton profiles of elemental solids from the APW method. The experimental study of charge transfer in the alloys has also been done by performing the experimental Compton profile measurements on Ti and Al following the superposition model and charge transfer from Al to Ti is clearly seen on the alloy formation.

  12. Compton scatter imaging: A tool for historical exploration.

    PubMed

    Harding, G; Harding, E

    2010-06-01

    This review discusses the principles and technological realisation of a technique, termed Compton scatter imaging (CSI), which is based on spatially resolved detection of Compton scattered X-rays. The applicational focus of this review is to objects of historical interest. Following a historical survey of CSI, a description is given of the major characteristics of Compton X-ray scatter. In particular back-scattered X-rays allow massive objects to be imaged, which would otherwise be too absorbing for the conventional transmission X-ray technique. The ComScan (an acronym for Compton scatter scanner) is a commercially available backscatter imaging system, which is discussed here in some detail. ComScan images from some artefacts of historical interest, namely a fresco, an Egyptian mummy and a mediaeval clasp are presented and their use in historical analysis is indicated. The utility of scientific and technical advance for not only exploring history, but also restoring it, is briefly discussed.

  13. Laser Diode Ignition (LDI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kass, William J.; Andrews, Larry A.; Boney, Craig M.; Chow, Weng W.; Clements, James W.; Merson, John A.; Salas, F. Jim; Williams, Randy J.; Hinkle, Lane R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the Laser Diode Ignition (LDI) program at Sandia National Labs. One watt laser diodes have been characterized for use with a single explosive actuator. Extensive measurements of the effect of electrostatic discharge (ESD) pulses on the laser diode optical output have been made. Characterization of optical fiber and connectors over temperature has been done. Multiple laser diodes have been packaged to ignite multiple explosive devices and an eight element laser diode array has been recently tested by igniting eight explosive devices at predetermined 100 ms intervals.

  14. Laser Diode Ignition (LDI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kass, William J.; Andrews, Larry A.; Boney, Craig M.; Chow, Weng W.; Clements, James W.; Merson, John A.; Salas, F. Jim; Williams, Randy J.; Hinkle, Lane R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the Laser Diode Ignition (LDI) program at Sandia National Labs. One watt laser diodes have been characterized for use with a single explosive actuator. Extensive measurements of the effect of electrostatic discharge (ESD) pulses on the laser diode optical output have been made. Characterization of optical fiber and connectors over temperature has been done. Multiple laser diodes have been packaged to ignite multiple explosive devices and an eight element laser diode array has been recently tested by igniting eight explosive devices at predetermined 100 ms intervals.

  15. Lighting with laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Chandrajit; Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve; Roth, Bernhard

    2013-08-01

    Contemporary white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are much more efficient than compact fluorescent lamps and hence are rapidly capturing the market for general illumination. LEDs are also replacing halogen lamps or even newer xenon based lamps in automotive headlamps. Because laser diodes are inherently much brighter and often more efficient than corresponding LEDs, there is great research interest in developing laser diode based illumination systems. Operating at higher current densities and with smaller form factors, laser diodes may outperform LEDs in the future. This article reviews the possibilities and challenges in the integration of visible laser diodes in future illumination systems.

  16. New Transfer Theory Relationships for Signal and Noise Analyses of X-Ray Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    rays in radiograhic screen using CCD camera (equipment 11-5) Write paper describing generalized cross-spectral density term and comparison of...deposits energy into the detector, primarily by photo-electric and Compton interactions. Image noise is directly related to the number of interacting...electric and Compton interactions, should be - and can be - represented as linear and shift-invariant random point processes. This was important because it

  17. Performance, Goals, and Status of the Upcoming Nuclear Compton Telescope Balloon Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowell, Alexander; Barriere, N.; Boggs, S. E.; Tomsick, J.; von Doetinchem, P.; Zoglauer, A.; Amman, M.; Luke, P.; Jean, P.; von Ballmoos, P.; Chang, H.; Chiu, J.; Yang, C.; Shang, J.; Lin, C. H.; Chou, Y.; Chang, Y. H.

    2013-04-01

    The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a wide-field gamma-ray imager utilizing state of the art, cross-strip germanium detectors for Compton imaging of astrophysical sources. NCT underwent a prototype flight in 2005 to verify the instrumental background, and a first-light ConUS flight in 2009 which resulted in a detection of the Crab nebula as a verification of the instrument sensitivity. Unfortunately, a launch mishap during NCT's first science campaign in 2010 left the instrument largely destroyed. A rebuild of the NCT instrument is currently underway with an expected return to flight readiness in late 2013. The rebuilt NCT detector system is comprised of twelve high-purity germanium detectors and an active CsI scintillator shield. The cryogenics system has been redesigned and now employs a cryocooler, which, along with an all-new, low-mass gondola, qualifies NCT to fly on the Ultra Long Duration balloon (ULDB) platform. ULDB flights may last up to 100 days, effectively improving NCT's sensitivity over the course of a flight and opening up new science opportunities. The NCT collaboration is currently proposing to NASA for the science flight program, which will include an LDB flight from Kiruna, Sweden in 2014 and a ULDB flight from Wanaka, New Zealand in 2016. MEGAlib/GEANT4 simulations of the instrument were performed for the two launch scenarios and the instrument performance was determined. Primary science goals for the NCT balloon flights include mapping of the galactic bulge/disk positron annihilation line at 511 keV in order to shed light on the positron source(s), mapping of 26Al (1.809 MeV) and 60Fe (1.173 MeV and 1.333 MeV) emission to uncover the galactic history of core-collapse supernovae, and detection and measurement of polarization from gamma-ray bursts.

  18. Quasi-free Compton scattering and the polarizabilities of the neutron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossert, K.; Camen, M.; Wissmann, F.; Ahrens, J.; Annand, J. R. M.; Arends, H.-J.; Beck, R.; Caselotti, G.; Grabmayr, P.; Jahn, O.; Jennewein, P.; Levchuk, M. I.; L'vov, A. I.; McGeorge, J. C.; Natter, A.; Olmos de León, V.; Petrun'kin, V. A.; Rosner, G.; Schumacher, M.; Seitz, B.; Smend, F.; Thomas, A.; Weihofen, W.; Zapadtka, F.

    Differential cross-sections for quasi-free Compton scattering from the proton and neutron bound in the deuteron have been measured using the Glasgow/Mainz photon tagging spectrometer at the Mainz MAMI accelerator together with the Mainz [48]cm ;SPMOslash; × [64]cm NaI(Tl) photon detector and the Göttingen SENECA recoil detector. The data cover photon energies ranging from [200]MeV to [400]MeV at θLABγ = 136.2°. Liquid deuterium and hydrogen targets allowed direct comparison of free and quasi-free scattering from the proton. The neutron detection efficiency of the SENECA detector was measured via the reaction p(γ,π+n). The ``free'' proton Compton scattering cross-sections extracted from the bound proton data are in reasonable agreement with those for the free proton which gives confidence in the method to extract the differential cross-section for free scattering from quasi-free data. Differential cross-sections on the free neutron have been extracted and the difference of the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the neutron has been determined to be αn - βn = 9.8+/-3.6(stat)+2.1-1.1(syst)+/-2.2(model) in units of [10-4]fm3. In combination with the polarizability sum αn + βn = 15.2+/-0.5 deduced from photoabsorption data, the neutron electric and magnetic polarizabilities, αn = 12.5+/-1.8(stat)+1.1-0.6(syst)+/-1.1(model) and βn = 2.7+/-1.8(stat)+0.6-1.1(syst)+/-1.1(model) are obtained. The backward spin polarizability of the neutron was determined to be γ(n)π = (58.6+/-4.0)×10-4fm4.

  19. Detection and dosimetry studies on the response of silicon diodes to an 241Am-Be source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfi, Y.; Zaki Dizaji, H.; Abbasi Davani, F.

    2014-06-01

    Silicon diode detectors show potential for the development of an active personal dosimeter for neutron and photon radiation. Photons interact with the constituents of the diode detector and produce electrons. Fast neutrons interact with the constituents of the diode detector and converter, producing recoil nuclei and causing (n,α) and (n,p) reactions. These photon- and neutron-induced charged particles contribute to the response of diode detectors. In this work, a silicon pin diode was used as a detector to produce pulses created by photon and neutron. A polyethylene fast neutron converter was used as a recoil proton source in front of the detector. The total registered photon and neutron efficiency and the partial contributions of the efficiency, due to interactions with the diode and converter, were calculated. The results show that the efficiency of the converter-diode is a function of the incident photon and neutron energy. The optimized thicknesses of the converter for neutron detection and neutron dosimetry were found to be 1 mm and 0.1 mm respectively. The neutron records caused by the (n,α) and (n,p) reactions were negligible. The photon records were strongly dependent upon the energy and the depletion layer of the diode. The photons and neutrons efficiency of the diode-based dosimeter was calculated by the MCNPX code, and the results were in good agreement with experimental results for photons and neutrons from an 241Am-Be source.

  20. Unified ab initio treatment of attosecond photoionization and Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudin, G. L.; Bondar, D. I.; Patchkovskii, S.; Corkum, P. B.; Bandrauk, A. D.

    2009-10-01

    We present a new theoretical approach to attosecond laser-assisted photo- and Compton ionization. Attosecond x-ray absorption and scattering are described by \\hat{\\mathscr{S}}^{(1,2)} -matrices, which are coherent superpositions of 'monochromatic' \\skew{3}\\hat{S}^{(1,2)} -matrices in a laser-modified Furry representation. Besides refining the existing theory of the soft x-ray photoelectron attosecond streak camera and spectral phase interferometry (ASC and ASPI), we formulate a theory of hard x-ray photoelectron and Compton ASC and ASPI. The resulting scheme has a simple structure and leads to closed-form expressions for ionization amplitudes. We investigate Compton electron interference in the separable Coulomb-Volkov continuum with both Coulomb and laser fields treated non-perturbatively. We find that at laser-field intensities below 1013 Wcm-2 normalized Compton lines almost coincide with the lines obtained in the laser-free regime. At higher intensities, attosecond interferences survive integration over electron momenta, and feature prominently in the Compton lines themselves. We define a regime where the electron ground-state density can be measured with controllable accuracy in an attosecond time interval. The new theory provides a firm basis for extracting photo- and Compton electron phases and atomic and molecular wavefunctions from experimental data.