Science.gov

Sample records for compulsory service programmes

  1. Compulsory service programmes for recruiting health workers in remote and rural areas: do they work?

    PubMed Central

    Mullan, Fitzhugh; Payne, Perry W; Ross, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Compulsory service programmes have been used worldwide as a way to deploy and retain a professional health workforce within countries. Other names for these programmes include ”obligatory”, ”mandatory”, ”required” and ”requisite.” All these different programme names refer to a country’s law or policy that governs the mandatory deployment and retention of a heath worker in the underserved and/or rural areas of the country for a certain period of time. This study identified three different types of compulsory service programmes in 70 countries. These programmes are all governed by some type of regulation, ranging from a parliamentary law to a policy within the ministry of health. Depending on the country, doctors, nurses, midwives and all types of professional allied health workers are required to participate in the programme. Some of the compliance-enforcement measures include withholding full registration until obligations are completed, withholding degree and salary, or imposing large fines. This paper aims to explain these programmes more clearly, to identify countries that have or had such programmes, to develop a typology for the different kinds and to discuss the programmes in the light of important issues that are related to policy concepts and implementation. As governments consider the cost of investment in health professionals’ education, the loss of health professionals to emigration and the lack of health workers in many geographic areas, they are using compulsory service requirements as a way to deploy and retain the health workforce. PMID:20461136

  2. Perceptions of and attitudes to the compulsory community service programme for therapists in KwaZulu-Natal.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nasim Banu; Knight, Stephen; Esterhuizen, Tonya

    2009-01-01

    The success of Community Service programmes initiated globally to recruit health care professionals to provide services in under-served or rural areas depends largely on their attitudes, understanding of the programme's objectives, preparedness for working in these areas and their adaptability. This study assessed rehabilitation therapists' perception and attitude on commencement and completion of their compulsory Community Service programme in KwaZulu-Natal in 2005. Repeat observational cross sectional studies were conducted. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by all therapists on commencement and after completion of their Community Service. The proportion of therapists who indicated that they would work in the public sector in future declined from 50% at onset to 35% by exit and fewer (24%) said they would work in a rural area. Collecting a rural allowance was not associated (p = 0.78) with an expressed interest to work in a rural area or remain at the same institution (p = 0.32). There were significant differences in support and supervision provided between the professional groups (p < 0.001). Particular concerns centred on limited infrastructural support, supervision, training, resources available and language barriers in delivering a better rehabilitation service. Despite the challenges faced, Community Service therapists felt that they had made a difference and that their experience had been personally and professionally rewarding.

  3. On the Impact of Government Policy on Programme Design in New Zealand Post-Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govers, Elly

    2010-01-01

    The impact of national education policies on programme design practice in post-compulsory education tends to be marginalised in scholarly literature. This paper reviews and analyses the literature to explore how neo-liberalist discourses introduced in tertiary education and qualifications policies in New Zealand since 1989 continue to influence…

  4. Second Chance Programmes: A Response to Educational Needs in Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asin, Antonio Sanchez; Peinado, Jose Luis Boix

    2008-01-01

    This paper asks whether the integrated training provision currently offered through the different Spanish Second Chance Programmes (SCPs) constitutes a valid response to the educational needs and deficits known to exist among those young people who do not satisfactorily complete the Compulsory Secondary Education stage (ESO). The objectives of the…

  5. Second Chance Programmes: A Response to Educational Needs in Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asin, Antonio Sanchez; Peinado, Jose Luis Boix

    2008-01-01

    This paper asks whether the integrated training provision currently offered through the different Spanish Second Chance Programmes (SCPs) constitutes a valid response to the educational needs and deficits known to exist among those young people who do not satisfactorily complete the Compulsory Secondary Education stage (ESO). The objectives of the…

  6. On the Impact of Government Policy on Programme Design in New Zealand Post-Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govers, Elly

    2010-01-01

    The impact of national education policies on programme design practice in post-compulsory education tends to be marginalised in scholarly literature. This paper reviews and analyses the literature to explore how neo-liberalist discourses introduced in tertiary education and qualifications policies in New Zealand since 1989 continue to influence…

  7. 49 CFR 510.3 - Compulsory process, the service thereof, claims for confidential treatment, and terms of compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compulsory process, the service thereof, claims... OF TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION GATHERING POWERS § 510.3 Compulsory process, the service thereof...; (2) Information gathering hearings; (3) Administrative depositions; (4) General or special orders...

  8. 49 CFR 510.3 - Compulsory process, the service thereof, claims for confidential treatment, and terms of compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory process, the service thereof, claims... OF TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION GATHERING POWERS § 510.3 Compulsory process, the service thereof... the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act, as amended, 15 U.S.C. 1901 et seq.: (1)...

  9. Service-user and carer perspectives on compliance and compulsory treatment in community mental health services.

    PubMed

    Gault, Iris

    2009-09-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study analyzing service-user (SU) and carer perspectives on medication compliance and their experience of compulsory treatment. Eleven SUs and eight carers were interviewed. The research is set against the background of changes to mental health legislation in England, in the form of Supervised Community Treatment. This signals a change in community mental health practice and urges a reconsideration of concepts such as compliance, concordance and coercion. These concepts are discussed in the context of legislative changes and in relation to the perspectives of service-SUs and carers. Five themes emerged from qualitative interview data, analysed using an adapted form of grounded theory: loss of credible identity, playing the game, medicalization, therapeutic competence and incompetence and increased control. The findings suggest that SUs are initially reluctant to comply with mental health treatment, but do eventually accept the need for treatment; they also stress the significance of respectful relationships with professionals and the importance of communicative competence.

  10. Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Scott; McPhee, Julia C; Schluter, Philip J; Zinn, Caryn; Smith, Richard; Schofield, Grant

    2011-11-15

    Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6) from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control) aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary. Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day-1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013). This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days). In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day-1, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007) and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day-1, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027) on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial results.

  11. Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. Methods The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6) from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control) aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary. Results Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day-1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013). This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days). In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day-1, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007) and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day-1, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027) on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Conclusions Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial results. PMID:22085440

  12. Smoking Behavior Change During Compulsory Military Service in Israel, 1987-2011.

    PubMed

    Zarka, Salman; Levine, Hagai; Rozhavski, Vladislav; Sela, Tamar; Bar-Ze'ev, Yael; Molina-Hazan, Vered; Rosen, Laura J

    2017-01-23

    Smoking in military settings is of major concern. We aimed to assess the association between personal, family, and military factors and smoking behavior change during compulsory military service in Israel. Participants were soldiers recruited between 1987 and 2008 who were interviewed at recruitment and reinterviewed at discharge (1987-2011) (total: 29 189; males:15 136; females:14 053). The primary outcome variables were smoking initiation during service among nonsmokers at recruitment, and cessation during service among smokers at recruitment. We examined potential predictors of change, and trends by calendar year. Smoking prevalence increased by 39.4% during military service (recruitment: 26.2%, discharge: 36.5%). 18.4% of nonsmoking recruits initiated smoking, and 12.4% of smoking recruits quit smoking between recruitment and discharge. There was no observed trend in initiation between 1987 and 2011. The strongest predictor of smoking initiation among nonsmokers at recruitment was smoking history (former vs. never-smoker, odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval [CI

  13. Reading Acquisition among 5- to 6-Year-Old Children in the Programme of Compulsory Preparation for School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarina, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    In the context of compulsory education for 5-6 year-old children, the question about reading acquisition is one of fundamental concerns for both pre-school teachers and parents. This article examines the methods of reading acquisition frequently applied in preschool, discusses the situation and teachers' view of reading acquisition in pre-school…

  14. XML does Real Programmers a Service

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian

    2008-09-01

    As the sun slowly sets of this first decade of the new millenium, it seems appropriate to update the sojourn of the real programmers as they adapt to their ever changing technical and business environment. Real Programmers were perfectly characterized and differentiated from their quiche-eating, Pascal programming brethren in Ed Post’s seminal “Real Programmers Don’t Use Pascal” (Datamation, 1983). My follow-up ("Real programmers do use Delphi," Software, IEEE , vol.12, no.6, pp.8, 10, 12-, Nov 1995) charted their evolution from FORTRAN-only programmers to embracing a wider range of mainstream languages and tools that still afforded ample opportunity for creativity, game-playing, irregular work hours, and importantly, long-term job security.

  15. Creating Effective Civic Engagement Policy for Adolescents: Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluations of Compulsory Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Ailsa; Pancer, S. Mark; Brown, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    For high school community service programs to have a positive impact on subsequent civic engagement, students must volunteer in a sustained manner and must evaluate their volunteering experiences positively. Using a survey with 1,293 respondents and 100 semistructured interviews with past participants of the mandatory community service program…

  16. Programmability and service creation for multimedia networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lazar, A.A.; Lim, Koon-Seng

    1996-12-31

    The Binding Architecture is an open architecture for building multimedia networks that must guarantee Quality of Service (QOS). In this paper, we explore the notion of a service in the Binding Architecture and propose a conceptual model for building scalable multimedia distribution services based on it. We begin first by examining the relation between resources, their abstractions and the services that can be built from them and use this to derive a general model for binding. Based on this model, we identify a general set of capabilities required for building any multimedia distribution service. We also describe how these capabilities can be incorporated into our view of the service creation process. Finally, we augment our discussion with the description of an example service which we have developed using this paradigm.

  17. "The C Words": Clitorises, Childhood and Challenging Compulsory Heterosexuality Discourses with Pre-Service Primary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Greg; Chiarolli, Steph; Pallotta-Chiarolli, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on accidental ethnographic research. It arose unexpectedly out of the everyday teaching of first-year pre-service primary teachers at an Australian university. Via narrative, self-reflexivity, and student responses, we explore the interwoven workings of heteronormative, gendernormative and misogynist discourses when a chapter…

  18. Freedom Isn’t Free: A Study of Compulsory Military Service in the United States Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    service that requires high school graduates to serve one year between high school and college. It is effective in Europe, where teens work in a variety...authorized to enlist high school dropouts who do not have a General Educational Development (GED) credential. This new recruiting plan is called “Army...Drew. 2006. A breaking point for military? Philadelphia Enquirer. (26 January 2006). Chenelly, Joseph R. 2005. Open door for high school dropouts

  19. [Studies on prenosological diagnostics of health of armed forces personnel on compulsory military service].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Federal budget scientific institution "Nizhny Novgorod research institute for hygiene and occupational pathology", Federal service of supervision in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers and wellbeing of the person. The authors have evaluated physical development of contract military persons divided in following age groups (under 30, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, over 50 years old), according to morphofunctional indices, index of functional measurement in human organism, pathological affection. Obtained data give evidence about presence of health risk factors in all observed groups. Preventive measures are the most necessary in 1 and 2 groups. The highest health risk group is age group of 35-39 years old.

  20. Self-Stigma and Quality of Life among People with Mental Illness Who Receive Compulsory Community Treatment Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, James

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between self-stigma and quality of life over a one year time period for 71 people with mental illness who were receiving compulsory community mental health treatment. It was hypothesized that, over time, self-stigma would have the direct effect of eroding quality of life among people with…

  1. Self-Stigma and Quality of Life among People with Mental Illness Who Receive Compulsory Community Treatment Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, James

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between self-stigma and quality of life over a one year time period for 71 people with mental illness who were receiving compulsory community mental health treatment. It was hypothesized that, over time, self-stigma would have the direct effect of eroding quality of life among people with…

  2. Developing and Implementing an Accreditation Scheme for Disability Services Staff in Post-Compulsory Education in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Alan

    2015-01-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK), policy and provision for students with disabilities in post-compulsory education has made considerable progress in a relatively short time. This growth has been aided by several factors, arguably the most significant being the introduction of legal requirements in 1995. Many institutions and organisations have tried to…

  3. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Perceptions of Mathematics Courses in a Science Teacher Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Incikabi, Lutfi; Serin, Mehmet Koray

    2017-01-01

    Most science departments offer compulsory mathematics courses to their students with the expectation that students can apply their experience from the mathematics courses to other fields of study, including science. The current study first aims to investigate the views of pre-service science teachers of science-teaching preparation degrees and…

  4. Preferred HIV testing services and programme characteristics among clients of a rapid HIV testing programme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the current context of diversity and coexistence of HIV testing approaches, limited information exists on test recipient’s views of HIV testing services and programme attributes that could ease the testing process and make it more appealing for at risk individuals who don’t know their HIV status. This study analyzed ratings given to different testing sites and programme characteristics that might facilitate testing. Methods We analyzed data from 3120 persons attending a mobile HIV testing programme located on a central street in the gay district of Madrid. Results 64% were men (of which, 55% had had sex with other men), 59.5% were <30 years, 35.4% foreigners, 50.6% had a university degree,71.7% a regular employment, 59.3% reported multiple partners and inconsistent condom use and 56.5% had been tested for HIV. Non Governmental Organizations and specific HIV/STI centres received the maximum rating from over 60% of participants, followed by self-testing (38.9%). Pharmacies (20.8%) and hospital emergency departments (14.2%) were the worst valued testing sites. Over 80% gave the highest rating to having immediate test results, not needing a previous appointment, and free testing, while less than 50% gave the maximum rating to privacy and anonymity. Conclusions HIV testing services that don’t require an appointment, based on free tests with rapid results are most valued by a young, not socially marginalized but high risk sexual exposure population. On the contrary, issues traditionally highly valued by health care providers or AIDS social organizations (privacy and anonymity) are much less valued. PMID:23987230

  5. Health Problems during Compulsory Military Service Predict Disability Retirement: A Register-Based Study on Secular Trends during 40 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Frilander, Heikki; Lallukka, Tea; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Heliövaara, Markku; Solovieva, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Disability retirement causes a significant burden on the society and affects the well-being of individuals. Early health problems as determinants of disability retirement have received little attention. The objective was to study, whether interrupting compulsory military service is an early indicator of disability retirement among Finnish men and whether seeking medical advice during military service increases the risk of all-cause disability retirement and disability retirement due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases. We also looked at secular trends in these associations. We examined a nationally representative sample of 2069 men, who had entered military service during 1967–1996. We linked military service health records with cause-specific register data on disability retirement from 1968 to 2008. Secular trends were explored in three service time strata. We used the Cox regression model to estimate proportional hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. During the follow-up time altogether 140 (6.8%) men retired due to disability, mental disorders being the most common cause. The men who interrupted service had a remarkably higher cumulative incidence of disability retirement (18.9%). The associations between seeking medical advice during military service and all-cause disability retirement were similar across the three service time cohorts (overall hazard ratio 1.40 per one standard deviation of the number of visits; 95% confidence interval 1.26–1.56). Visits due to mental problems predicted disability retirement due to mental disorders in the men who served between 1987 and 1996 and a tendency for a similar cause-specific association was seen for musculoskeletal diseases in the men who served in 1967–1976. In conclusion, health problems—in particular mental problems—during late adolescence are strong determinants of disability retirement. Call-up examinations and military service provide access to the entire age cohort of men

  6. Facilitating a transition from compulsory detention of people who use drugs towards voluntary community-based drug dependence treatment and support services in Asia.

    PubMed

    Tanguay, Pascal; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Aramrattana, Apinun; Wodak, Alex; Thomson, Nicholas; Ali, Robert; Vumbaca, Gino; Lai, Gloria; Chabungbam, Anand

    2015-10-16

    Evidence indicates that detention of people who use drugs in compulsory centers in the name of treatment is common in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The expansion of such practices has been costly, has not generated positive health outcomes, and has not reduced supply or demand for illicit drugs. United Nations agencies have convened several consultations with government and civil society stakeholders in order to facilitate a transition to voluntary evidence- and community-based drug dependence treatment and support services. In an effort to support such efforts, an informal group of experts proposes a three-step process to initiate and accelerate national-level transitions. Specifically, the working group recommends the establishment of a national multisectoral decision-making committee to oversee the development of national transition plans, drug policy reform to eliminate barriers to community-based drug dependence treatment and support services, and the integration of community-based drug dependence treatment in existing national health and social service systems.In parallel, the working group recommends that national-level transitions should be guided by overarching principles, including ethics, human rights, meaningful involvement of affected communities, and client safety, as well as good governance, transparency, and accountability. The transition also represents an opportunity to review the roles and responsibilities of various agencies across the public health and public security sectors in order to balance the workload and ensure positive results. The need to accelerate national-level transitions to voluntary community-based drug dependence treatment and support services is compelling--on economic, medical, sustainable community development, and ethical grounds--as extensively documented in the literature. In this context, the expert working group fully endorses initiation of a transition

  7. Compulsory Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohliger, John, Comp.; Rosenberg, Joel, Comp.

    A preliminary bibliography for a seminar on compulsory adult education is presented. A total of 231 annotated entries are given. Entries are divided into four categories: (1) compulsory adult education in general; (2) concepts significant to adult education, including lifelong education, permanent education, the educative society, the knowledge…

  8. Improvement in maternal health literacy among pregnant women who did not complete compulsory education: policy implications for community care services.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Mayumi; Nakamura, Keiko; Takano, Takehito

    2005-05-01

    This paper examined factors that influence the improvement in maternal health literacy among pregnant women in Paraguay, including those who did not complete compulsory education but participated in a community-based antenatal care program. Structured interviews were conducted to evaluate the pregnant women's maternal health literacy during their first, second, and third visits to the program in the Caazapa Region. The associations between individual maternal health knowledge scores and its gains, healthcare personnel capabilities, available health facility equipment, community social network, and living environment were analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The mean maternal health knowledge score from 124 women who completed three-consecutive assessments increased between the first and third interviews. Higher capabilities of healthcare personnel and better living environment were significantly related to gains in the maternal health knowledge score (p<0.01). Wider application of a community-based antenatal care program to meet the needs of those who are functionally illiterate in the standard language of the country, training for community healthcare personnel to improve capabilities, and resources for social network in the community would contribute to the improvement in maternal health literacy.

  9. Are we ready to abrogate compulsory vaccinations for children?

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Domenico; Tafuri, Silvio; Fortunato, Francesca; Cozza, Vanessa; Germinario, Cinzia A; Prato, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and hepatitis B is compulsory for infants countrywide, except in Veneto region where since 2007 Health Authorities have experimented the suspension of mandatory vaccination. In light of the recent discussion on the potential abrogation in other regions, we explored the opinion of family pediatricians who play a crucial role in promoting immunization programmes in Italy. In November 2009, we interviewed by phone the family pediatricians working in Puglia region using a standardised, ad hoc and piloted questionnaire. Of the 596 contacted, 502 (84.2%) completed the questionnaire (54% female, median age = 52 y). Among the respondents, 72 (14.3%) would agree on the hypothesis of abrogation. This judgment was associated with having a good opinion on the level of awareness of the importance of vaccinations in the general public (OR = 6.6; 95% CI: 3.6–12.1) and having the perception of adequate organization of Vaccination Services in supporting the abrogation (OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.7–5.9). Family pediatricians appeared really sceptical about the abrogation of compulsory vaccination that could be hypothesized only increasing public awareness, communication skills and capability of Vaccination Services personnel in offering vaccinations. PMID:25483528

  10. Are we ready to abrogate compulsory vaccinations for children?

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Domenico; Tafuri, Silvio; Fortunato, Francesca; Cozza, Vanessa; Germinario, Cinzia A; Prato, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and hepatitis B is compulsory for infants countrywide, except in Veneto region where since 2007 Health Authorities have experimented the suspension of mandatory vaccination. In light of the recent discussion on the potential abrogation in other regions, we explored the opinion of family pediatricians who play a crucial role in promoting immunization programmes in Italy. In November 2009, we interviewed by phone the family pediatricians working in Puglia region using a standardised, ad hoc and piloted questionnaire. Of the 596 contacted, 502 (84.2%) completed the questionnaire (54% female, median age = 52 y). Among the respondents, 72 (14.3%) would agree on the hypothesis of abrogation. This judgment was associated with having a good opinion on the level of awareness of the importance of vaccinations in the general public (OR = 6.6; 95% CI: 3.6-12.1) and having the perception of adequate organization of Vaccination Services in supporting the abrogation (OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.7-5.9). Family pediatricians appeared really sceptical about the abrogation of compulsory vaccination that could be hypothesized only increasing public awareness, communication skills and capability of Vaccination Services personnel in offering vaccinations.

  11. 47 CFR 80.59 - Compulsory ship inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.59 Compulsory ship inspections. (a) Inspection of ships subject to the Communications Act or the Safety Convention. (1) The FCC will not normally...

  12. 47 CFR 80.59 - Compulsory ship inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.59 Compulsory ship inspections. (a) Inspection of ships subject to the Communications Act or the Safety Convention. (1) The FCC will not normally...

  13. 47 CFR 80.59 - Compulsory ship inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.59 Compulsory ship inspections. (a) Inspection of ships subject to the Communications Act or the Safety Convention. (1) The FCC will not normally...

  14. 47 CFR 80.59 - Compulsory ship inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.59 Compulsory ship inspections. (a) Inspection of ships subject to the Communications Act or the Safety Convention. (1) The FCC will not normally...

  15. 47 CFR 80.59 - Compulsory ship inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.59 Compulsory ship inspections. (a) Inspection of ships subject to the Communications Act or the Safety Convention. (1) The FCC will not normally...

  16. A Comparative Study of Two Pre-Service Teacher Preparation Programmes in the USA and Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.; Duffield, Stacy K.; Glava, Adina E.; Glava, Catalin C.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an overall exploratory comparison of two specific pre-service teacher preparation programmes at two research-intensive institutions of higher education in the USA and Romania. The main conclusions suggest that US and Romanian teacher candidates differ very little in their ratings of their respective programmes in terms of…

  17. International Patterns in Principal Preparation: Commonalities and Variations in Pre-Service Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Bryant, Darren; Lee, Moosung

    2013-01-01

    This article illuminates major features of high-quality leadership programmes across different education systems. We do so by focusing on capturing commonalities and variations in high-quality pre-service programmes from five differing societies, all of which are high-performing education systems. To this end, we first delineate key profiles of…

  18. Relationship between anxiety and medical disorders among compulsory military service candidates between the years 1998-2013.

    PubMed

    Shelef, Leah; Dotan, Shron; Kaminsky, Dan; Kedem, Ron; Margulis, Alexander; Hassidim, Ayal

    2016-10-30

    One of the most common psychiatric diagnoses among adolescents is anxiety disorder. Many of the anxiety symptoms are expressed physiologically, and therefore can mimic other medical conditions. The aim of this study was to examine the association between anxiety disorders and other medical conditions sharing common symptoms with anxiety (MDSCSA: Irritable Bowel Syndrome, asthma, migraine and hyperhidrosis). The study was based on the national database of the candidates for military service in Israel. Data for the years 1998-2013 was retrieved to create the study dataset. The final cohort population was comprised of 1,229,461 military service candidates. Anxiety prevalence and its association with other medical conditions sharing the same symptoms was examined in the cohort. The results showed significant statistical association between anxiety and IBS, asthma, migraine and hyperhidrosis. These findings support the fact that there is a clear association between anxiety disorder and the examined medical conditions. Moreover, in the military setting, the primary care physician has an important role in giving a correct diagnosis for soldiers presenting with symptoms that can be regarded both to anxiety and to other physical illnesses.

  19. Service impact of a national clinical leadership development programme: findings from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Fealy, Gerard M; McNamara, Martin S; Casey, Mary; O'Connor, Tom; Patton, Declan; Doyle, Louise; Quinlan, Christina

    2015-04-01

    The study reported here was part of a larger study, which evaluated a national clinical leadership development programme with reference to resources, participant experiences, participant outcomes and service impact. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the programme's service impact. Clinical leadership development develops competencies that are expressed in context. The outcomes of clinical leadership development occur at individual, departmental and organisational levels. The methods used to evaluate the service impact were focus groups, group interviews and individual interviews. Seventy participants provided data in 18 separate qualitative data collection events. The data contained numerous accounts of service development activities, initiated by programme participants, which improved service and/or improved the culture of the work setting. Clinical leadership development programmes that incorporate a deliberate service impact element can result in identifiable positive service outcomes. The nuanced relationship between leader development and service development warrants further investigation. This study demonstrates that clinical leadership development can impact on service in distinct and identifiable ways. Clinical leadership development programmes should focus on the setting in which the leadership competencies will be demonstrated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Community-level impact of the reproductive health vouchers programme on service utilization in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Obare, Francis; Warren, Charlotte; Njuki, Rebecca; Abuya, Timothy; Sunday, Joseph; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines community-level association between exposure to the reproductive health vouchers programme in Kenya and utilization of services. The data are from a household survey conducted among 2527 women (15-49 years) from voucher and comparable non-voucher sites. Analysis entails cross-tabulations with Chi-square tests and significant tests of proportions as well as estimation of multi-level logit models to predict service utilization by exposure to the programme. The results show that for births occurring after the voucher programme began, women from communities that had been exposed to the programme since 2006 were significantly more likely to have delivered at a health facility and to have received skilled care during delivery compared with those from communities that had not been exposed to the programme at all. There were, however, no significant differences in the timing of first trimester utilization of antenatal care (ANC) and making four or more ANC visits by exposure to the programme. In addition, poor women were significantly less likely to have used safe motherhood services (health facility delivery, skilled delivery care and postnatal care) compared with their non-poor counterparts regardless of exposure to the programme. Nonetheless, a significantly higher proportion of poor women from communities that had been exposed to the programme since 2006 used the services compared with their poor counterparts from communities that had not been exposed to the programme at all. The findings suggest that the programme is associated with increased health facility deliveries and skilled delivery care especially among poor women. However, it has had limited community-level impact on the first trimester timing of antenatal care use and making four or more visits, which remain a challenge despite the high proportion of women in the country that make at least one antenatal care visit during pregnancy.

  1. New Zealand's BIZ Training Programme: Service Provider Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Claire; Tweed, David; Lewis, Kate

    2003-01-01

    Following a review of assistance provision to New Zealand small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in 1998, the government established the BIZ programme. The purpose of the new initiative was to build management capability amongst SMEs by providing them with free access to a business needs assessment, followed by training and seminars, one-on-one…

  2. Effective Teacher? Student Self-Evaluation of Development and Progress on a Teacher Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gossman, Peter; Horder, Sue

    2016-01-01

    This article examines 28 teachers' views about their teacher education requirements. The participants were enrolled on a one-year full-time pre-service teacher education programme with a focus on post-compulsory education and training. The study examines how student teachers' self-evaluations against aspects of teaching professional practice…

  3. Policy and Practice of Pre-Service and In-Service Teacher Training Programmes and Facilities in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyebade, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviewed policy provisions for "pre-service" and "in-service" teacher training programmes and facilities in Nigeria. It also presented reviews on legislations, agencies involved in teacher affairs management in Nigeria, using the historical and case study approach. Data on teaching qualifications of University of…

  4. Variation in compulsory psychiatric inpatient admission in England: a cross-classified, multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Weich, Scott; McBride, Orla; Twigg, Liz; Duncan, Craig; Keown, Patrick; Crepaz-Keay, David; Cyhlarova, Eva; Parsons, Helen; Scott, Jan; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2017-08-01

    to be admitted compulsorily than were white patients (odds ratio [OR] 2·94, 95% CI 2·90-2·98). Compulsory admission was greater in more deprived areas (OR 1·22, 1·18-1·27) and in areas with more non-white residents (OR 1·51, 1·43-1·59), after adjusting for confounders. Rates of compulsory admission to inpatient psychiatric beds vary significantly between local areas and services, independent of patient, area, and service characteristics. Compulsory admission rates seem to reflect local factors, especially socioeconomic and ethnic population composition. Understanding how these factors condition access to, and use of, mental health care is likely to be important for developing interventions to reduce compulsion. National Institute for Health Research Health Services and Delivery Research Programme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ideology and Programme for the National Service Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Anselm

    1975-01-01

    The objective of the National Service Scheme in India is to arouse social consciousness among university and college students and to provide opportunities to be of service to the country while undergoing college education. (Author/PG)

  6. Going global in physical therapist education: International Service-Learning in US-based programmes.

    PubMed

    Pechak, Celia; Thompson, Mary

    2011-12-01

     Internationalization is expanding its presence in higher education in the United States. Reflecting this trend that includes incorporating global perspectives in the curricula, physical therapist education programmes increasingly offer international opportunities such as International Service-Learning (ISL) to their students. Service-learning, a teaching strategy that integrates community service with structured learning activities, has gained broad acceptance in health professions education including physical therapy, and is therefore the focus of this paper. The specific purposes of this paper were to identify and analyse the commonalities that existed among established ISL programmes within physical therapist education programmes in terms of structures and processes, and to consider its broader implications for physical therapist education.   A descriptive, exploratory study was performed using grounded theory. Snowball and purposive, theoretical sampling yielded 14 faculty members with experience in international service, international learning or ISL in physical therapist education programmes. Faculty were interviewed by phone. Interview transcriptions and course documents were analysed applying grounded theory methodology. Data from eight programmes which met the operational definition of established ISL were used to address the purposes of this paper.   Five phases of establishing an ISL programme were identified: development, design, implementation, evaluation, and enhancement. Although no single model exists for ISL in physical therapist education; commonalities in structures and processes were identified in each phase. However, attention to service objectives and outcomes is lacking.   While analysis revealed that each programme shared commonalities and demonstrated differences in structures and processes compared with the other programmes, the study demonstrated a general lack of focus on formal community outcomes which raises ethical

  7. Preparing Pre-Service Teachers as Emancipatory and Participatory Action Researchers in a Teacher Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esau, Omar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I analyse the potential that participatory action research holds for educating pre-service teachers to become more critically reflective and socially conscious. I also describe the rationale for and process of engaging pre-service teachers in their teacher education programme. Involving these candidate teachers in participatory…

  8. Variations in Primary Teachers' Responses and Development during Three Major Science In-Service Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Tina; Pell, Anthony; Hingley, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on how different types of teachers responded to in-service aimed at developing investigative-based science education (IBSE) in primary schools, and the extent to which they applied their new skills in the classroom. Common items from evaluation questionnaires allowed data to be combined from three major in-service programmes.…

  9. Evaluation of service users' experiences of participating in an exercise programme at the Western Australian State Forensic Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Wynaden, Dianne; Barr, Lesley; Omari, Omar; Fulton, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    Approximately 210 patients are admitted each year to the Western Australian State Forensic Mental Health Service, and most present with psychotic illness, along with other physical and mental comorbidities. In 2010, a healthy lifestyle programme, which included a formal exercise programme coordinated by an exercise physiologist, was introduced at the service. A self-report questionnaire was developed to obtain feedback on the programme, and 56 patients completed the questionnaire during the 6-month evaluation period. As well as providing patients with access to regular physical activity, the programme also supports the recovery philosophy, where patients work in partnership with forensic mental health staff. Overall, patients reported that the programme assisted them to manage their psychiatric symptoms, as well as improving their level of fitness, confidence, and self-esteem. In addition, patients received education about the importance of regular exercise to their mental health, and the role exercise plays in preventing chronic illness and obesity. While the benefits of exercise on mental health outcomes for people with depression and anxiety are well established, this evaluation adds to the evidence that such programmes provide similar benefits to people who have a psychotic illness and are hospitalized in an acute secure setting.

  10. [Quality as perceived by people using hospitals in the Colombian health service network restructuring programme].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Arana, Gustavo A; Bello-Parías, León D; Londoño-Pimienta, Jaime L

    2008-01-01

    Establishing a quality base-line as perceived by hospital users, subject to intervention by the health-service restructuring, redesign and modernisation programme. 4 021 users were interviewed face-to-face in August 2006 from a sample of hospitals from the programme using an instrument already validated for measuring health service users' perception of quality (PECASUSS). The interviewees (38,7 % mean age, 70 % women, 60 % affiliated to the subsided system, 55 % from stratum 1 and 53 % attended in general consultation) scored mostly as good or very good 16 different aspects perceived of the quality of services. Mean user quality score was 3,98 (0,8 SD) on a score ranging from 0,0 (bad) to 5,0 (excellent). Quality was generally rated as good as perceived by people using the hospital programme. The humanised treatment received from the medical staff was given the highest score regarding quality of attention received by the interviewees.

  11. A staff support programme for rural hospitals in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Shah, Sharada; Shakya, Rabina; Sundar Chansi, Bal; Shah, Kashim; Munday, Daniel; Eyal, Nir; Hayes, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    District hospitals in Nepal struggle to provide essential services such as caesarean sections. Retention of health workers is critical to the delivery of long-term, quality health-care services. To promote retention and enhance performance in rural public hospitals, the Government of Nepal and the Nick Simons Institute progressively implemented a rural staff support programme in remote hospitals. After competitive selection for a compulsory-service scholarship and training, family practice doctors who could do basic surgery, orthopaedics and obstetrics were hired under a binding three-year contract in each participating hospital. Comfortable living quarters and an Internet connection were provided for the resident doctors; in-service training for all staff and capacity development for each hospital's management committee were provided. Nepal's mountainous landscape, poverty and inequitable rural/urban distribution of health workers pose barriers to adequate health care. Between 2011 and 2015 family practice doctors were maintained in all seven programme hospitals. All hospitals became providers of comprehensive emergency obstetric care and served more patients. Compared with hospitals not within the programme, deliveries increased significantly (203% versus 71% increase, respectively; P = 0.002). The programme recently expanded to 14 hospitals. A package of human resource supports can improve the retention of doctors and the use of remote hospitals. Factors contributing to the success of this programme were compulsory-service scholarship, central personnel management, performance-based incentives and the provision of comfortable living quarters.

  12. Managing Tensions in a Service-Learning Programme: Some Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maistry, S. M.; Ramdhani, J.

    2010-01-01

    Service learning as a strategy for raising awareness amongst university students of their responsibilities to the community is rapidly gaining currency in higher education institutions in South Africa. High levels of unemployment and striking economic inequality have been an unfortunate feature of South African society for several decades. Since…

  13. Preventing compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient care through psycho-education and crisis focused monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    procedures (control group). 200 patients each will be assigned to the intervention group or to the control group. Detailed follow-up assessments of service use, psychopathology and patient perceptions are scheduled 12 and 24 months after discharge. Discussion Innovative interventions have to be established to prevent patients with mental disorders from undergoing the experience of compulsory admission and, with regard to society as a whole, to reduce the costs of health care (and detention). The current study will allow for a prospective analysis of the effectiveness of an intervention programme, providing insight into processes and factors that determine involuntary placement. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN63162737. PMID:22946957

  14. Neglected tropical disease (NTD) control in health systems: the interface between programmes and general health services.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Bruno; Van Dormael, Monique; Pirard, Marjan; Cavalli, Anna; Kegels, Guy; Polman, Katja

    2011-09-01

    Disease control programmes are an intrinsic part of health systems. Neglected tropical disease (NTD) control is a clear case in point. While there is a growing consensus that NTD control and health services are linked, with important mutual impacts, little is known of what actually happens at the interface between the two entities. Here, we review the rationale, viewpoints and experiences of NTD control programmes regarding general health services, and vice versa, and compare their respective arguments. We discuss the interactions and interface between disease control and health systems, and present possible scenarios for health system strengthening by NTD- and other disease-specific programmes. Focusing on countries in sub-Saharan Africa, we suggest a number of principles that could pave the way for fruitful discussions and development of synergies.

  15. Supporting Pre-Service Teachers' Technology-Enabled Learning Design Thinking through Whole of Programme Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt; Highfield, Kate; Furney, Pam; Mowbray, Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains a development and evaluation project aimed at transforming two pre-service teacher education programmes at Macquarie University to more effectively cultivate students' technology-enabled learning design thinking. The process of transformation was based upon an explicit and sustained focus on developing university academics'…

  16. Pre-Service English Teachers' Perceptions of an Overseas Field Experience Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chi Cheung Ruby

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present a small group of pre-service English teachers' perceptions towards the overseas field experience programme jointly organised by a university in Canada and the teacher trainer institute in Hong Kong. The study involved seven Canadian Year 3 and 4 B.Ed. TESL students who participated in the investigated eight-week overseas…

  17. Implementation of the Care Programme Approach across Health and Social Services for Dual Diagnosis Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael; Humphrey, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Background: Care for clients with mental health problems and concurrent intellectual disability (dual diagnosis) is currently expected to be provided through the care programme approach (CPA), an approach to provide care to people with mental health problems in secondary mental health services. When CPA was originally introduced into UK mental…

  18. In-Service Training Programmes for Inclusive Education in Serbia--Offer and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matovic, Nataša; Spasenovic, Vera

    2015-01-01

    The initial education and in-service training of all educators, particularly teachers, play a vital role in strengthening competences necessary for implementing inclusive educational practice. This paper analyses offered and implemented inservice training programmes for educators in the field of inclusive education or, more precisely, for working…

  19. Supporting Pre-Service Teachers' Technology-Enabled Learning Design Thinking through Whole of Programme Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt; Highfield, Kate; Furney, Pam; Mowbray, Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains a development and evaluation project aimed at transforming two pre-service teacher education programmes at Macquarie University to more effectively cultivate students' technology-enabled learning design thinking. The process of transformation was based upon an explicit and sustained focus on developing university academics'…

  20. Implementation of the Care Programme Approach across Health and Social Services for Dual Diagnosis Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael; Humphrey, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Background: Care for clients with mental health problems and concurrent intellectual disability (dual diagnosis) is currently expected to be provided through the care programme approach (CPA), an approach to provide care to people with mental health problems in secondary mental health services. When CPA was originally introduced into UK mental…

  1. The Impact of the National Newborn Hearing Screening Programme on Educational Services in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Wendy; Young, Alys; Tattersall, Helen; Uus, Kai; Bamford, John

    2005-01-01

    This article presents results related to the impact on educational support services of the introduction of the first phase of the national Newborn Hearing Screening Programme (NHSP) in England. This study was funded by the Department of Health and undertaken as one element of a national evaluation of NHSP across a range of domains. It presents…

  2. 47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80... RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto...

  3. 47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80... RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto...

  4. Compulsory sterilisation in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tännsjö, Torbjörn

    1998-07-01

    In the Fall of 1997 the leading Swedish newspaper, Dagens Nyheter, created a media hype over the Swedish policy of compulsory sterilisation that had been in operation between 1935 and 1975. In the discussion that followed, the moral condemnation of our medical past was unanimous. However, the reasons for rejecting what had gone on were varied and mutually inconsistent. Three strands of criticism were common: the argument from autonomy, the argument from caution, and the argument from biological scepticism. In the paper it is argued that what point of departure you choose in your criticism of the past should be of consequence also for your ideas about present and future medical practice. In particular, if you rely on the argument from autonomy, you should be prepared to accept a liberal (present and future) use of reproductive techniques.

  5. Service and infrastructure needs to support recovery programmes for Indigenous community mental health consumers.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Jan M; Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Burmeister, Oliver K

    2017-04-01

    Mental health is a major concern in Indigenous communities, as Indigenous people experience poorer health outcomes generally, and poorer social and emotional well-being throughout their lives, compared to non-Indigenous populations. Interviews were conducted with 20 mental health workers from a housing assistance programme for Indigenous clients with mental illness. Service and infrastructure needs identified to support clients were classified under the following overarching theme 'supports along the road to recovery'. Subthemes were: (i) It is OK to seek help; (ii) linking in to the local community; (iii) trusting the workers; and (iv) help with goal setting and having activities that support their achievement. This paper highlights the importance of targeted housing and accommodation support programmes for Indigenous people to prevent homelessness, and the essential services and infrastructure required to support Indigenous clients' mental health needs. These insights may inform service review, workforce development, and further research. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  6. Clinical research and service centre: an institutional profile and programmes.

    PubMed

    Salam, M A

    1997-09-01

    The International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh's (ICDDR,B) Clinical Research and Service Center (CRSC) provides free treatment to diarrheal patients; provides preventive health care to children and mothers; conducts clinical research upon diarrheal diseases and related aspects of nutrition; and provides training to health care providers in managing diarrheal diseases and conducting clinical and operations research. 930,860 patients were treated at CRSC during 1987-96 and more than 110,000 patients are now being treated annually at the facility. While most CRSC patients come from Dhaka city and its suburbs, some also come from remote corners of the country. About 60% of the center's patients are children under age 5 years and most patients are socioeconomically disadvantaged. For example, almost half of patients' mothers have no formal education. The CRSC, commonly known as the Cholera Hospital, is unique in that about 94% of its patients are mainly cared for by trained nurses either in the Oral Rehydration Triage or Short Stay Ward of the hospital. About 40% of patients are discharged within 1-2 hours and 60% within 12 hours. Approximately 80% of the children attending the CRSC are malnourished. Mothers are taught how to improve the nutritional status of their children, simple ways to generate income for the family, and the merits of breast feeding.

  7. Assessing participation in a community-based health planning and services programme in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Community participation is increasingly seen as a pre-requisite for successful health service uptake. It is notoriously difficult to assess participation and little has been done to advance tools for the assessment of community participation. In this paper we illustrate an approach that combines a ‘social psychology of participation’ (theory) with ‘spider-grams’ (method) to assess participation and apply it to a Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) programme in rural Ghana. Methods We draw on data from 17 individual in-depth interviews, two focus group discussions and a community conversation with a mix of service users, providers and community health committee members. It was during the community conversation that stakeholders collectively evaluated community participation in the CHPS programme and drew up a spider-gram. Results Thematic analysis of our data shows that participation was sustained through the recognition and use of community resources, CHPS integration with pre-existing community structures, and alignment of CHPS services with community interests. However, male dominance and didactic community leadership and management styles undermined real opportunities for broad-based community empowerment, particularly of women, young people and marginalised men. Conclusion We conclude that combining the ‘spider-gram’ tool and the ‘social psychology of participation’ framework provide health professionals with a useful starting point for assessing community participation and developing recommendations for more participatory and empowering health care programmes. PMID:23803140

  8. Modelling the Perceived Value of Compulsory English Language Education in Undergraduate Non-Language Majors of Japanese Nationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Damian J.

    2012-01-01

    Adopting mixed methods of data collection and analysis, the current study models the "perceived value of compulsory English language education" in a sample of 138 undergraduate non-language majors of Japanese nationality at a national university in Japan. During the orientation period of a compulsory 15-week English language programme,…

  9. Modelling the Perceived Value of Compulsory English Language Education in Undergraduate Non-Language Majors of Japanese Nationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Damian J.

    2012-01-01

    Adopting mixed methods of data collection and analysis, the current study models the "perceived value of compulsory English language education" in a sample of 138 undergraduate non-language majors of Japanese nationality at a national university in Japan. During the orientation period of a compulsory 15-week English language programme,…

  10. Conceptualisation of knowledge construction in community service-learning programmes in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Mthembu, Sindi Z; Mtshali, Fikile G

    2013-01-01

    Practices in higher education have been criticised for not developing and preparing students for the expertise required in real environments. Literature reports that educational programmes tend to favour knowledge conformation rather than knowledge construction; however, community service learning (CSL) is a powerful pedagogical strategy that encourages students to make meaningful connections between the content in the classroom and real-life experiences as manifested by the communities. Through CSL, learning is achieved by the active construction of knowledge supported by multiple perspectives within meaningful real contexts, and the social interactions amongst students are seen to play a critical role in the processes of learning and cognition. This article reflects facilitators’ perspective of the knowledge construction process as used with students doing community service learning in basic nursing programmes. The aim of this article was to conceptualise the phenomenon of knowledge construction and thereby provide educators with a shared meaning and common understanding, and to analyse the interaction strategies utilised by nurse educators in the process of knowledge construction in community service-learning programmes in basic nursing education. A qualitative research approach based on a grounded theory research design was used in this article. Two nursing education institutions were purposively selected. Structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants. The results revealed that the knowledge construction in community service-learning programmes is conceptualised as having specific determinants, including the use of authentic health-related problems, academic coaching through scaffolding, academic discourse-dialogue, interactive learning in communities of learners, active learning, continuous reflection as well as collaborative and inquiry-based learning. Upon completion of an experience, students create and test generated knowledge in different

  11. Evaluation of the home and community-based services brain injury Medicaid Waiver Programme in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Cusick, Christopher P; Gerhart, Kenneth A; Mellick, David; Breese, Patricia; Towle, Victor; Whiteneck, Gale G

    2003-11-01

    To evaluate Colorado's Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Waiver programme in terms of functional, community integration and other key psychosocial outcomes. Results of telephone surveys of 66 TBI survivors who had received services through the Colorado Medicaid programme were compared with those of a matched sample not receiving such services. Participants were identified by Colorado's Medicaid programme and a control group was randomly selected from the population-based Colorado Traumatic Brain Injury Registry and Follow-up System. Groups were matched on Glasgow Coma Scale score at injury, age, gender,whether inpatient rehabilitation had been received and the number of years post-injury when the follow-up interview was conducted. All participants completed an extensive follow-up interview, which included CHART, the Sickness Impact Profile, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the SF-12 and questions on symptoms and service use. For four of the evaluated outcomes-relating to mental health problems (SF-12) and alcohol use-the Medicaid Waiver group had significantly fewer problems than the control group. In eight areas, the Waiver group demonstrated poorer outcomes than the control group. The Waiver group scored significantly lower on most measures of societal participation (measured by CHART), needed more help with IADLS (instrumental activities of daily living) and were less likely to be competitively employed. Additionally, Waiver recipients had significantly more case management, physical therapy and group home services and more second rehabilitation admissions than the control group. No significant differences were found for the remaining 62 outcomes that were evaluated. Although there were significant differences between the two groups in a few important areas, it is impossible to conclude that any outcome differences--or lack of differences---are attributable to the Waiver programme alone, since many important potential group differences could not be adequately

  12. 47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto...

  13. 47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto...

  14. 47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto...

  15. Monitoring and evaluating the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme: evaluating the variation in radiological performance between individual programmes using PPV-referral diagrams.

    PubMed

    Blanks, R G; Moss, S M; Wallis, M G

    2001-01-01

    A high quality breast cancer screening programme can be defined as one offering both a high cancer detection rate and a low referral rate of women for further investigation. Such a programme will have as few women as possible undergoing further investigations who do not have a final diagnosis of breast cancer--that is, a high positive predictive value of referral for further investigation. This paper introduces a graphical technique to illustrate individual programme performance. The graph plots positive predictive value of referral against referral rate, with the cancer detection rate expressed as "isobars" on the graph. Confidence limits can be expressed as "boxes" on the diagram. The graph not only illustrates programme performance but also enables suggestions to be made to improve performance. The definition of high quality screening is seen to have a subjective element as well as an objective element, as radiologists have to balance screening sensitivity with specificity. The technique is illustrated using data from the individual screening programmes in the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme for the screening year 1 April 1998 to 31 March 1999. The methodology could also be applied to other national screening programmes.

  16. Establishing a pharmacotherapy induced ototoxicity programme within a service-learning approach.

    PubMed

    Schellack, Natalie; Wium, Anna M; Ehlert, Katerina; van Aswegen, Yolande; Gous, Andries

    2015-06-17

    Pharmacotherapy-induced ototoxicity is growing, especially in developing countries such as South Africa. This highlights the importance of ototoxicity monitoring and management of hearing loss. This article focuses on the establishment of an ototoxicity clinic as a site for the implementation of a service-learning module in the Audiology programme. The clinic offers a unique opportunity of collaboration between pharmacists and an audiologist where pharmacotherapy-induced ototoxicity is uniquely monitored. The Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University (SMU) provides training to both the disciplines, audiology and pharmacy. The main aim of this article is to describe how ototoxicity monitoring is implemented in the curriculum within such an academic service-learning approach. Through service learning students develop a deeper understanding of course content, acquire new knowledge and engage in civic activity. It simultaneously provides a unique opportunity for interdisciplinary collaboration between the disciplines of audiology and pharmacy. The objectives for this programme are therefore to facilitate learning and to provide a service to the local community by identifying, preventing and monitoring medicine-induced hearing loss in in-hospital and out-patients; as well as to establish inter-disciplinary collaboration between the disciplines and stakeholders for more effective service delivery. The constant interdisciplinary teamwork between the audiologist, pharmacist, physician and nursing staff in the wards results in best practice and management of patients with ototoxic damage.

  17. Costs of family planning programmes in fourteen developing countries by method of service delivery.

    PubMed

    Barberis, M; Harvey, P D

    1997-04-01

    The cost effectiveness of several modes of family planning service delivery based on the cost per couple-year of protection (CYP), including commodity costs, is assessed for 1991-92 using programme and project data from fourteen developing countries (five in Africa, four in Asia, three in Latin America and two in the Middle East). More than 100 million CYP were provided through these family planning services during the 12 months studied. Sterilisation services provided both the highest volume (over 60% of total) and the lowest cost per CYP ($1.85). Social marketing programmes (CSM), delivering almost 9 million CYPs, had the next lowest cost per CYP on average ($2.14). Clinic-based services excluding sterilisation had an average cost of $6.10. The highest costs were for community-based distribution projects (0.7 million CYPs), which averaged $9.93, and clinic-based services with a community-based distribution component (almost 6 million CYPs), at a cost of $14.00 per CYP. Based on a weighted average, costs were lowest in the Middle East ($3.37 per CYP for all modes of delivery combined) and highest in Africa ($11.20).

  18. Art engagement and mental health: experiences of service users of a community-based arts programme at Tate Modern, London.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Eamonn; Weir, Hannele; Berridge, Emma-Jane; Ellis, Liz; Kyratsis, Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    To examine the experiences of mental health service users who took part in an arts-based programme at Tate Modern, a major London art gallery. Exploratory qualitative design. Data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews with 10 mental health service users who had taken part in a community-based programme at Tate Modern. Additionally, six art educators from Tate Modern were interviewed. Concepts that emerged from the text were identified using thematic analysis. All participants valued the gallery-based programme. The three overarching thematic areas were: the symbolic and physical context in which the programme workshops were located; the relational and social context of the programme workshops; and reflections on the relationship between the arts-based programme and subsequent mental health. Art galleries are increasingly seen to function as vehicles for popular education with mental health service users. This study adds to the growing body of evidence related to how mental health service users experience and reflect on arts-related programmes targeted at them. This study indicates that emphasis on how users experience gallery-based programmes may contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between art and mental health. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring the Links Between Visual Arts and Environmental Education: Experiences of Teachers Participating in an In-Service Training Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savva, Andri; Trimis, Eli; Zachariou, Aravella

    2004-01-01

    An in-service teachers' training programme was designed aiming to encourage art teachers to learn through theoretical and artistic experiential activities in a specific environmental setting (Lemithou environmental education centre, Cyprus). The programme was based on the use of the environment as an educational resource, and sought to develop…

  20. Exploring the Links Between Visual Arts and Environmental Education: Experiences of Teachers Participating in an In-Service Training Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savva, Andri; Trimis, Eli; Zachariou, Aravella

    2004-01-01

    An in-service teachers' training programme was designed aiming to encourage art teachers to learn through theoretical and artistic experiential activities in a specific environmental setting (Lemithou environmental education centre, Cyprus). The programme was based on the use of the environment as an educational resource, and sought to develop…

  1. Towards interprofessional family-oriented teamwork in primary services: the evaluation of an education programme.

    PubMed

    Larivaara, Pekka; Taanila, Anja

    2004-05-01

    A 2-year interprofessional family-oriented training programme for professionals working in the field of primary services (e.g. health care, social welfare, schools, day care) started in Oulu Province, Finland, in 2000. It aimed to provide the trainees with skills to work with families in interprofessional teams, to support them to cope better and to encourage them to develop new models for helping clients. Seventy-six trainees from 13 professions participated. This paper describes the structure, methods and the content of the programme and evaluates its success. Material was content analysed from participants' evaluations at the end of the programme and discussion during a focus group in which three trainees and three trainers participated. During the programme trainees' working methods moved from being detached experts towards client and family-orientation. Job satisfaction also improved. They began to appreciate interprofessional teamwork and found that client and family-oriented working methods supported families in using their own resources in solving problems. The study indicated that the sufficiently long process of education where the interprofessional collaboration has been put in practice already during the education is needed to change the theoretical framework and practical working methods of the trainees.

  2. Perceptions of an educational programme for registered nurses who work at non-major trauma services in Victoria, Australia: The Nursing Emergency eXternal Trauma Programme.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Sharyn; Cross, Rachel; Decker, Kelly; Mitra, Biswadev

    2017-08-01

    Emergency nurses working in non-Major Trauma Service (non-MTS) facilities face the challenge of providing immediate care to seriously injured patients, despite infrequent presentations at their workplace. A one-day education programme endorsed by the Australian College of Nursing was developed to provide contemporary trauma education for nurses. The aim of this study was to report participants' perceptions of their experience of this programme. Peer reviewed lesson plans were developed to guide educational activities. Of 32 participants, 24 consented to and completed pre and post-programme surveys. Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used to report study findings. Most participants were nurses with greater than two years' experience in Emergency Nursing (92%). Trauma patient transfers each year from a non-MTS to a Major Trauma Service occurred infrequently; eight nurses (33.3%) reported greater than10 trauma transfers per year. Participant expectations of the programme included personal growth, knowledge acquisition, increased confidence and a focus on technical skills. Participants reported the day to be worthwhile and valuable; improved confidence, increased knowledge, and the opportunity to discuss current evidence based practice were highly regarded. Recommendations for future programmes included extending to two days and include burns and more complex pathophysiology. With centralisation of trauma care to major trauma services, frequent and continuing education of nurses is essential. Nurses from non-Major Trauma Service facilities in Victoria found this programme worthwhile as they gained knowledge and skills and increased confidence to care for trauma patients. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving vision awareness in autism services: Evaluation of a dedicated education programme for support practitioners.

    PubMed

    Long, Joseph J; Butchart, Maggie; Brown, Michael; Bain, Janice; McMillan, Anne; Karatzias, Thanos

    2017-02-20

    The research reported here sought to evaluate whether a dedicated education programme in vision awareness improved the knowledge and skills of autism support practitioners in identifying visual impairment in autistic people with intellectual disabilities and providing better support to those individuals identified as visually impaired. Researchers undertook a mixed methods evaluation. A survey questionnaire was devised and administered before and after training and focus groups were undertaken in order to gain qualitative data relating how practitioners implemented their learning in practice. Knowledge confidence and practice confidence scores of participants were significantly improved by the programme, which maintained its impact one year on. Practitioners reported increased access to optometry, changes to support practice and improvements to service environments as a result of the training. Autism support practitioners' skills in identifying and supporting people with visual impairments were demonstrably enhanced through dedicated vision training. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Student Perceptions of Academic Service Learning: Using Mixed Content Analysis to Examine the Effectiveness of the International Baccalaureate Creativity, Action, Service Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatziconstantis, Christos; Kolympari, Tania

    2016-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme for secondary education students requires the successful completion of the Creativity, Action, Service (CAS) component (more recently renamed Creativity, Activity, Service) which is based on the philosophy of experiential learning and Academic Service Learning. In this article, the technique of…

  5. Student Perceptions of Academic Service Learning: Using Mixed Content Analysis to Examine the Effectiveness of the International Baccalaureate Creativity, Action, Service Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatziconstantis, Christos; Kolympari, Tania

    2016-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme for secondary education students requires the successful completion of the Creativity, Action, Service (CAS) component (more recently renamed Creativity, Activity, Service) which is based on the philosophy of experiential learning and Academic Service Learning. In this article, the technique of…

  6. Evaluating the implementation of a national clinical programme for diabetes to standardise and improve services: a realist evaluation protocol.

    PubMed

    McHugh, S; Tracey, M L; Riordan, F; O'Neill, K; Mays, N; Kearney, P M

    2016-07-28

    Over the last three decades in response to the growing burden of diabetes, countries worldwide have developed national and regional multifaceted programmes to improve the monitoring and management of diabetes and to enhance the coordination of care within and across settings. In Ireland in 2010, against a backdrop of limited dedicated strategic planning and engrained variation in the type and level of diabetes care, a national programme was established to standardise and improve care for people with diabetes in Ireland, known as the National Diabetes Programme (NDP). The NDP comprises a range of organisational and service delivery changes to support evidence-based practices and policies. This realist evaluation protocol sets out the approach that will be used to identify and explain which aspects of the programme are working, for whom and in what circumstances to produce the outcomes intended. This mixed method realist evaluation will develop theories about the relationship between the context, mechanisms and outcomes of the diabetes programme. In stage 1, to identify the official programme theories, documentary analysis and qualitative interviews were conducted with national stakeholders involved in the design, development and management of the programme. In stage 2, as part of a multiple case study design with one case per administrative region in the health system, qualitative interviews are being conducted with frontline staff and service users to explore their responses to, and reasoning about, the programme's resources (mechanisms). Finally, administrative data will be used to examine intermediate implementation outcomes such as service uptake, acceptability, and fidelity to models of care. This evaluation is using the principles of realist evaluation to examine the implementation of a national programme to standardise and improve services for people with diabetes in Ireland. The concurrence of implementation and evaluation has enabled us to produce formative

  7. The case against libertarian arguments for compulsory vaccination.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Justin

    2017-04-21

    In a recent paper in this journal, Jason Brennan correctly notes that libertarians struggle to justify a policy of compulsory vaccination. The most straightforward argument that justifies compulsory vaccination is that such a policy promotes welfare. But libertarians cannot make this argument because they claim that the state is justified only in protecting negative rights, not in promoting welfare. I consider two representative libertarian attempts to justify compulsory vaccination, and I argue that such arguments are unsuccessful. They either fail to show that the state is justified in implementing the policy or overgeneralise. I suggest that Brennan's solution is especially well motivated insofar as it addresses the shortcomings of these arguments. Brennan argues that we violate the rights of others by participating in an activity that imposes an unacceptable collective risk of harm. Going unvaccinated is an activity that imposes an unacceptable collective risk of harm, and thus amounts to a rights violation. So, the state can implement a policy of compulsory vaccination I object, however, that Brennan's delineation of acceptable and unacceptable risk implicitly rests on classical liberal rather than libertarian principles; he justifies compulsory vaccination on the grounds that it promotes welfare. I also object that Brennan's argument would entail significant departures from libertarian institutional arrangements. This leaves libertarians with a choice: they can develop new arguments to demonstrate that their position is compatible with compulsory vaccination, or they can accept that their view entails the impermissibility of compulsory vaccination, and argue that this is not an unpalatable implication of their view. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. How equitable are community health worker programmes and which programme features influence equity of community health worker services? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Rosalind; Gomez, Woedem; Theobald, Sally; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2016-05-20

    Community health workers (CHWs) are uniquely placed to link communities with the health system, playing a role in improving the reach of health systems and bringing health services closer to hard-to-reach and marginalised groups. A systematic review was conducted to determine the extent of equity of CHW programmes and to identify intervention design factors which influence equity of health outcomes. In accordance with our published protocol, we systematically searched eight databases from 2004 to 2014 for quantitative and qualitative studies which assessed access, utilisation, quality or community empowerment following introduction of a CHW programme according to equity stratifiers (place of residence, gender, socio-economic position and disability). Thirty four papers met inclusion criteria. A thematic framework was applied and data extracted and managed, prior to charting and thematic analysis. To our knowledge this is the first systematic review that describes the extent of equity within CHW programmes and identifies CHW intervention design features which influence equity. CHW programmes were found to promote equity of access and utilisation for community health by reducing inequities relating to place of residence, gender, education and socio-economic position. CHWs can also contribute towards more equitable uptake of referrals at health facility level. There was no clear evidence for equitable quality of services provided by CHWs and limited information regarding the role of the CHW in generating community empowerment to respond to social determinants of health. Factors promoting greater equity of CHW services include recruitment of most poor community members as CHWs, close proximity of services to households, pre-existing social relationship with CHW, provision of home-based services, free service delivery, targeting of poor households, strengthened referral to facility, sensitisation and mobilisation of community. However, if CHW programmes are not well

  9. Operational Copernicus services - state of programme and the role of EO research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breger, Peter; Rohn, Michael; Pinty, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Year 2014 is a major milestone for the EU Copernicus programme (formerly GMES), for funding Europe's operational system of satellites and geo-information services. Copernicus services shall provide accurate, up-to-date and globally-available information related to the state of land, sea/ocean, atmosphere and climate change, as well as emergency response and security in support of European policies. 2014 sees the transition of services to fully operational state, looking back on some 10 years of development, evolving through research and making "laboratory" prototypes operational for the marine and atmosphere services. First integration of capabilities in dedicated GMES service projects started in early 2004 leading to operational maturity around 2011-2013. Several scientific and research challenges have been identified along the way, addressing very different stages of evolution, which need to be tackled collaborating with different partners and in different environments. The geoscience community and their funding programmes are faced with a range of opportunities arising from the presence of an operational space data and information programme such as Copernicus, a demand which also the EU research and innovation programme is striving to meet in Horizon 2020. The last ten years have shown how the step from research prototypes to operational service chains requires specific and dedicated attention to this innovation step, shaping validated and proven products to users' demands. Special efforts are required in order for users to accept the innovative potential which new laboratory products promise. Specific attention needs to be given to processes in the users' workflows which incorporate the EO information - a step which often is underestimated in the formulation of R&D plans. Service activities in a real-life environment, and the ever advancing new sensors set new research problems for researchers. The arrival of the Sentinel satellites will challenge running

  10. Evaluation of a Trauma-Focused CBT Training Programme for IAPT services.

    PubMed

    Murray, Hannah

    2017-09-01

    Therapists in Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services are often expected to treat complex presentations of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), such as individuals with multiple, prolonged or early life trauma histories and significant co-morbidity, for which they have received minimal training. Although high recovery rates for PTSD have been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials, these are not always replicated in routine practice, suggesting that training interventions are required to fill the research-practice gap. This study investigated the outcomes of a therapist training programme on treating PTSD with trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TF-CBT). Twenty therapists from ten IAPT services participated in the training, which consisted of workshops, webinars and consultation sessions over a 6-month period. Feedback indicated that participants found the training highly acceptable. PTSD knowledge and self- and supervisor-rated competence on TF-CBT measures improved following the training and improvements were maintained a year later. Client outcomes on a PTSD measure improved following the training. Participants reported attempts to disseminate learning from the course back to their teams. The findings indicate that the training programme was successful in improving TF-CBT knowledge, skills and outcomes for IAPT therapists. Tentative support for training 'trauma experts' within IAPT services was found, although institutional constraints and staff turnover may limit the sustainability of the model.

  11. Designing the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) as a service: Prioritising patients over administrative logic.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Jacob; Holt, Douglas B

    2014-01-01

    Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccination rates remain well below herd immunity in regions of many countries despite huge international resources devoted to both financing and access. We draw upon service marketing theory, organisational sociology, development anthropology and cultural consumer research to conduct an ethnographic study of vaccination delivery in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia - one such region. We find that Western public health sector policies are dominated by an administrative logic. Critical failures in delivery are produced by a system that obfuscates the on-the-ground problems that mothers face in trying to vaccinate their children, while instead prioritising administrative processes. Our ethnographic analysis of 83 mothers who had not vaccinated their children reveals key barriers to vaccination from a 'customer' perspective. While mothers value vaccination, it is a 'low involvement' good compared to the acute daily needs of a subsistence life. The costs imposed by poor service - such as uncaring staff with class hostilities, unpredictable and missed schedules and long waits - are too much and so they forego the service. Our service design framework illuminates specific service problems from the mother's perspective and points towards simple service innovations that could improve vaccination rates in regions that have poor uptake.

  12. Medication therapy management services in community pharmacy: a pilot programme in HIV specialty pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Rosenquist, Ashley; Best, Brookie M; Miller, Teresa A; Gilmer, Todd P; Hirsch, Jan D

    2010-12-01

    Pharmacist-provided medication therapy management services (MTMS) have been shown to increase patient's adherence to medications, improve health outcomes and reduce overall medical costs. The purpose of this study was to describe a pilot programme that provided pharmacy-based MTMS for patients with HIV/AIDS in the state of California, USA. Pharmacists from the 10 pilot pharmacies were surveyed using an online data collection tool. Information was collected to describe the types of MTMS offered, proportion of patients actively using specific MTMS, pharmacist beliefs regarding effect on patient outcomes and barriers to providing MTMS, ability to offer MTMS without pilot programme funding and specialized pharmacist or staff training. Each responding pharmacy (7 of 10) varied in the number of HIV/AIDS patients served and prescription volume. All pharmacists had completed HIV/AIDS-related continuing education programmes, and some had other advanced training. The type of MTMS being offered varied at each pharmacy with 'individualized counselling by a pharmacist when overuse or underuse was detected' and 'refill reminders by telephone' being actively used by the largest proportion of patients. Most, but not all, pharmacists cited reimbursement as a barrier to MTMS provision. Pharmacists believed the MTMS they provide resulted in improved satisfaction (patient and provider), medication usage, therapeutics response and patient quality of life. The type of MTMS offered, and proportion of patients actively using, varied among participating pilot pharmacies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Utilisation and Further Development of Space Science Results in the ESA SSA Programme Space Weather Service Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Alexi; Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Keil, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    ESA SSA Programme is approaching the end of its second period. Service development activities within the current period aim at advancing the SSA SWE Service Network from the initial utilisation of existing European assets toward development of these and new assets together with the associated coordination infrastructure necessary to provide consistently reliable services. The SSA SWE Service Network is based on a federated architecture where service provision is carried out by Expert Service Centres in the Programme Member States with overall coordination and helpdesk functions provided by a central node and coordination centre located at the Space Pole in Brussels, Belgium. The SSA SWE Service Network builds on the wealth of space weather expertise available within the Member States, and consequently, as the network continues to develop, emphasis will continue to be placed on building services based on demonstrated space science advances in key areas such as those highlighted by the COSPAR-ILWS Space Weather Roadmap, published in 2015. Activities supported by programmes including the ESA technology programmes, EC FP7 and H2020 have all demonstrated promising results, and the SSA SWE Network is actively investigating their potential application to SSA SWE Customer Requirements, and in many cases already adopting these as part of the suite of products provided via the Network to its registered users. This presentation will provide an overview of recent advances in the SSA SWE Service Network, emphasising the utilisation of scientific results within a pre-operational context. The presentation will show the layout of the federated Expert Service Centres, highlighting ongoing and upcoming service developments and provide a perspective on the service development plans for the next phase of the programme.

  14. Compulsory Attendance: An Analysis of Litigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddon, Leo Levy, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine court cases dealing with compulsory attendance laws, also known as compulsory education laws, for the purpose of establishing the issues, outcomes, and trends in compulsory attendance litigation. In this manner, school officials could be provided guidance on dealing with issues surrounding the attendance…

  15. Compulsory Schooling as Preventative Defense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    The question whether compulsory schooling is justifiable or not has been treated at considerable length by critics, defenders, and positions in-between. What these treatments--about paternalism and autonomy and institutionalization and more--have not directly analyzed is a question that precedes the issue of overall justification: the preliminary…

  16. Recent Developments in Compulsory Unionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchnick, Morton G.

    1993-01-01

    Looks at legal cases concerning the uses to which mandatory union dues are put. Considers the variety of approaches adopted in Switzerland, Spain, Belgium, and Germany and reviews how compulsory unionism has been treated in the courts in the United Kingdom, Denmark, the United States, and Canada. (JOW)

  17. Compulsory Schooling as Preventative Defense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    The question whether compulsory schooling is justifiable or not has been treated at considerable length by critics, defenders, and positions in-between. What these treatments--about paternalism and autonomy and institutionalization and more--have not directly analyzed is a question that precedes the issue of overall justification: the preliminary…

  18. Are Compulsory Attendance Laws Outdated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Howard M.

    1973-01-01

    Educators are increasingly critical of State compulsory education laws. Argues that these regulations do little to assure that the basic goals of schooling are achieved. Commenting briefly on this thesis are Sidney P. Marland, Jr., B. Frank Brown, John Brubacher, Paul Salmon, and Juanita Jones. (Author)

  19. Compulsory Medical Treatment of Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riga, Peter J.

    1976-01-01

    The compulsory medical treatment of adults is discussed with regard to the legal authority relevant to the problem. Attention is directed toward the "right to die" issue, the public interest and individual freedom of conscious or religion, and the courts' dealing with the freedom of the individual to control his own body. (LBH)

  20. Estimating costs of programme services and products using information provided in standard financial statements.

    PubMed Central

    Ellwein, L. B.; Thulasiraj, R. D.; Boulter, A. R.; Dhittal, S. P.

    1998-01-01

    The financial viability of programme services and product offerings requires that revenue exceeds expenses. Revenue includes payments for services and products as well as donor cash and in-kind contributions. Expenses reflect consumption of purchased or contributed time and materials and utilization (depreciation) of physical plant facilities and equipment. Standard financial reports contain this revenue and expense information, complemented when necessary by valuation and accounting of in-kind contributions. Since financial statements are prepared using consistent and accepted accounting practices, year-to-year and organization-to-organization comparisons can be made. The use of such financial information is illustrated in this article by determining the unit cost of cataract surgery in two hospitals in Nepal. The proportion of unit cost attributed to personnel, medical supplies, administrative materials, and depreciation varied significantly by institution. These variations are accounted for by examining differences in operational structure and capacity utilization. PMID:9868836

  1. A fuller picture: evaluating an art therapy programme in a multidisciplinary mental health service.

    PubMed

    Brady, Catherina; Moss, Hilary; Kelly, Brendan D

    2017-03-01

    Art therapy has a long history in mental healthcare, but requires an enhanced evidence base in order to better identify its precise role in contemporary services. This paper describes an evaluation of an art therapy programme in an acute adult psychiatry admission unit in Ireland. A mixed method research design was used. Quantitative data were collected through a survey of 35 staff members and 11 service users. Qualitative data included free text comments collected in the survey and individual feedback from service users. Both methods aimed to assess the role of art therapy as part of a multidisciplinary mental health service. Thematic content analysis was employed to analyse qualitative data. Staff demonstrated overwhelming support for art therapy as one element within multidisciplinary services available to patients in the acute psychiatry setting, Qualitative feedback associated art therapy with improvements in quality of life and individual support, and emphasised its role as a non-verbal intervention, especially useful for those who find talking therapy difficult. Creative self-expression is valued by staff and service users as part of the recovery process. Recommendations arising from the research include continuing the art therapy service, expanding it to include patients under rehabilitation, provision of information and education sessions to staff, and further research to identify other potential long-term effects. The low response of staff and small sample in this study, however, must be noted as limitations to these findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. An online survey of nurses' perceptions, knowledge and expectations of the National Health Service modernization programme.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Maria; Tidy, Natalie; Smith, Michael; Levy, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    We conducted an online survey to investigate nurses' perceptions, knowledge and expectations of the National Health Service (NHS) modernization programme in the UK. The questionnaire was available for 28 days via the Website of the Royal College of Nursing. The questionnaire was completed by 2020 nurses, midwives and health visitors working in all sectors of the health service in a wide range of specialties and environments of care. Less than one-quarter of respondents felt that they had adequate information about NHS information technology (IT) developments. In all, 528 (26%) said this was the first they had heard of the initiatives. Only 383 respondents (19%) felt adequately informed about the development of electronic health records; 470 (23%) felt inadequately informed and 456 (23%) had only heard something about it. The findings of this survey suggest that nursing staff are not widely aware of current IT plans and programmes in the NHS. They suggest that nurses also lack confidence in using advanced IT, which is compounded by lack of training.

  3. Service Quality and Students' Satisfaction with the Professional Teacher Development Programmes by Distance Mode in a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduaran, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the relationship between seven factors that described dimensions of education service quality and overall service quality on one hand, and students' satisfaction with the professional teacher development programmes by distance mode in a South African University on the other. We sought to find out whether students enrolled…

  4. Perception of Pre-Service Teachers' towards the Teaching Practice Programme in College of Technology Education, University of Education, Winneba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amankwah, Francis; Oti-Agyen, Philip; Sam, Francis Kwame

    2017-01-01

    The descriptive survey design was used to find out the perception of pre-service teachers on teaching practice (on-campus) as an initial teacher preparation programme in University of Education, Winneba. A simple random sampling was used to select 226 pre-service teachers from the College of Technology Education, Kumasi. Data for the study were…

  5. Service Quality and Students' Satisfaction with the Professional Teacher Development Programmes by Distance Mode in a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduaran, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the relationship between seven factors that described dimensions of education service quality and overall service quality on one hand, and students' satisfaction with the professional teacher development programmes by distance mode in a South African University on the other. We sought to find out whether students enrolled…

  6. The Cognitive, Social and Emotional Processes of Teacher Identity Construction in a Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Rui; Lee, Icy

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates how three Government-funded Normal Students constructed and reconstructed their identities in a pre-service teacher education programme in China. Drawing upon data from interviews, field observation and the pre-service teachers' written reflections, the study explores the cognitive, social and emotional processes of…

  7. Post Graduate Programme in Dietetics & Food Service Management (MSCDFSM) Programme of IGNOU: Access through the Lucknow Regional Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorothy, J. S.; Kumar, Ashwini

    2014-01-01

    Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) which was established initially as a Single mode Distance Teaching Institution (DTI) in the year 1985 opened its campus to face-to-face education in the year 2008 and thus now is a Dual mode Distance Teaching Institution (DTI). The Post Graduate Programme (Master of Science) in Dietetics and Food…

  8. Structures and Programme Supports for Creativity, Action, Service in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme: An Implementation Study in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robin Ann; Tanyu, Manolya; Perry, Stirling

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative multiple-case study examined the implementation of an experiential learning component of an academic curriculum in six high schools in Turkey. Structures and supports that influenced programme implementation were examined using an implementation framework adapted from Durlak and Dupre. The study describes how the experiential…

  9. Structures and Programme Supports for Creativity, Action, Service in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme: An Implementation Study in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robin Ann; Tanyu, Manolya; Perry, Stirling

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative multiple-case study examined the implementation of an experiential learning component of an academic curriculum in six high schools in Turkey. Structures and supports that influenced programme implementation were examined using an implementation framework adapted from Durlak and Dupre. The study describes how the experiential…

  10. Accessing the SEED genome databases via Web services API: tools for programmers.

    PubMed

    Disz, Terry; Akhter, Sajia; Cuevas, Daniel; Olson, Robert; Overbeek, Ross; Vonstein, Veronika; Stevens, Rick; Edwards, Robert A

    2010-06-14

    The SEED integrates many publicly available genome sequences into a single resource. The database contains accurate and up-to-date annotations based on the subsystems concept that leverages clustering between genomes and other clues to accurately and efficiently annotate microbial genomes. The backend is used as the foundation for many genome annotation tools, such as the Rapid Annotation using Subsystems Technology (RAST) server for whole genome annotation, the metagenomics RAST server for random community genome annotations, and the annotation clearinghouse for exchanging annotations from different resources. In addition to a web user interface, the SEED also provides Web services based API for programmatic access to the data in the SEED, allowing the development of third-party tools and mash-ups. The currently exposed Web services encompass over forty different methods for accessing data related to microbial genome annotations. The Web services provide comprehensive access to the database back end, allowing any programmer access to the most consistent and accurate genome annotations available. The Web services are deployed using a platform independent service-oriented approach that allows the user to choose the most suitable programming platform for their application. Example code demonstrate that Web services can be used to access the SEED using common bioinformatics programming languages such as Perl, Python, and Java. We present a novel approach to access the SEED database. Using Web services, a robust API for access to genomics data is provided, without requiring large volume downloads all at once. The API ensures timely access to the most current datasets available, including the new genomes as soon as they come online.

  11. Accessing the SEED Genome Databases via Web Services API: Tools for Programmers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The SEED integrates many publicly available genome sequences into a single resource. The database contains accurate and up-to-date annotations based on the subsystems concept that leverages clustering between genomes and other clues to accurately and efficiently annotate microbial genomes. The backend is used as the foundation for many genome annotation tools, such as the Rapid Annotation using Subsystems Technology (RAST) server for whole genome annotation, the metagenomics RAST server for random community genome annotations, and the annotation clearinghouse for exchanging annotations from different resources. In addition to a web user interface, the SEED also provides Web services based API for programmatic access to the data in the SEED, allowing the development of third-party tools and mash-ups. Results The currently exposed Web services encompass over forty different methods for accessing data related to microbial genome annotations. The Web services provide comprehensive access to the database back end, allowing any programmer access to the most consistent and accurate genome annotations available. The Web services are deployed using a platform independent service-oriented approach that allows the user to choose the most suitable programming platform for their application. Example code demonstrate that Web services can be used to access the SEED using common bioinformatics programming languages such as Perl, Python, and Java. Conclusions We present a novel approach to access the SEED database. Using Web services, a robust API for access to genomics data is provided, without requiring large volume downloads all at once. The API ensures timely access to the most current datasets available, including the new genomes as soon as they come online. PMID:20546611

  12. Psychosis 101: evaluating a training programme for northern and remote youth mental health service providers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chiachen; deRuiter, Wayne K; Howlett, Andrew; Hanson, Mark D; Dewa, Carolyn S

    2013-11-01

    Most of the early psychosis intervention (EPI) training has focused on family physicians participants. In Northern Ontario, there is a shortage of primary care. This paper will present evaluation results of a pilot training programme for rural and remote youth mental health service providers. A mixed methods approach was used. We evaluated a 2-day workshop about EPI for non-medical mental health workers delivered onsite and simultaneously by videoconferencing. There were 19 participants across four agencies. Seven were onsite and 12 were offsite. Participants' knowledge was measured using a validated questionnaire at pre-intervention and at 3-, 6- and 9-month follow up. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to evaluate knowledge acquisition between the two modes of training. At 6 months, focus group interviews were conducted to explore their experiences of the mode of intervention delivery and evaluation. Emerging themes were iteratively derived through a series of discussions involving independent coders. Only 15 complete datasets were available of the 19 original participants. Differences in knowledge acquisition between the two groups did not reach statistical difference. Six-month focus group data indicated that participants improved their relationship with EPI services and they were part of a strengthened network with other providers in the region. Post-intervention, the accuracy of referrals from participating agencies increased dramatically, with an increase in proportion of referrals who were eligible for EPI services. The follow-up process engaged participants in learning and re-engaged them with the material taught during the training session. The results about developing service partnerships and relationship with specialist services are encouraging for policy and service decision-makers to address mental health service needs in northern and remote areas. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Immunization coverage in India for areas served by the Integrated Child Development Services programme. The Integrated Child Development Services Consultants.

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, B. N.; Gandhi, N.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme was launched by the Indian government in October 1975 to provide a package of health, nutrition and informal educational services to mothers and children. In 1988 we studied the impact of ICDS on the immunization coverage of children aged 12-24 months and of mothers of infants in 19 rural, 8 tribal, and 9 urban ICDS projects that had been operational for more than 5 years. Complete coverage with BCG, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) and poliomyelitis vaccines was recorded for 65%, 63%, and 64% of children, respectively, in the ICDS population. By comparison, the coverage in the non-ICDS group was only 22% for BCG, 28% for DPT, and 27% for poliomyelitis. Complete immunization with tetanus toxoid was recorded for 68% of the mothers in the ICDS group and for 40% in the non-ICDS group. Coverage was greater in the urban and lower in the tribal projects. Scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, backward communities, and minorities (groups that have a high priority for social services) had immunization coverages in ICDS projects that were similar to those of higher castes. PMID:1394779

  14. Repeated entries to the Swedish addiction compulsory care system: a national register database study.

    PubMed

    Grahn, Robert; Lundgren, Lena M; Chassler, Deborah; Padyab, Mojgan

    2015-04-01

    This study identified and described specific client groups who have repeated entries to the Swedish addiction compulsory care system. Specifically, through the use of baseline data from the Swedish government Staten's Institutions Styrelse (SiS) database, for 2658 individuals who were assessed at their compulsory care intake interview by social workers in the national social welfare system between 2001 and 2009 the study identified the associations between specific predisposing, enabling and need characteristics and repeated addiction compulsory care entries. The logistic regression model identified that individuals whose children have been mandated to the child welfare system, who have experienced prior compulsory care including compulsory treatment through LVU (law (1990:52) with specific provision about care of young people under 18), and those who have been in prison are more likely to have two or more entries in the addiction compulsory care system compared to their counterparts. Individuals who have been mandated to compulsory care for their substance use disorder two or more times have significant multiple complex problems and repeated experiences of institutionalization. These individuals are a group in need of a well-coordinated and integrated system of aftercare services to reduce the likelihood of re-entry into addiction compulsory care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An evaluation of staff engagement programmes in four National Health Service Acute Trusts.

    PubMed

    Hewison, Alistair; Gale, Nicola; Yeats, Rowena; Shapiro, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the findings from an evaluation project conducted to investigate the impact of two staff engagement programmes introduced to four National Health Service (NHS) hospital Trusts in England. It seeks to examine this development in the context of current policy initiatives aimed at increasing the level of staff involvement in decision-making, and the related literature. A mixed-methods approach incorporating document analysis, interviews, a survey and appreciative inquiry, informed by the principles of impact evaluation design, was used. The main finding to emerge was that leadership was crucial if widespread staff engagement was to be achieved. Indeed, in some of the trusts the staff engagement programmes were seen as mechanisms for developing leadership capability. The programmes had greater impact when they were "championed" by the Chief Executive. Effective communication throughout the organisations was reported to be a prerequisite for staff engagement. Problems were identified at the level of middle management where the lack of confidence in engaging with staff was a barrier to implementation. The nature of the particular organisational context is crucial to the success of efforts to increase levels of staff engagement. The measures that were found to work in the trusts would need to be adapted and applied to best meet the needs of other organisations. Many health care organisations in England will need to harness the efforts of their workforce if they are to meet the significant challenges of dealing with financial restraint and increasing patient demand. This paper provides some insights on how this can be done.

  16. Who uses methadone services in China? Monitoring the world's largest methadone programme.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Sheena G; Wu, Zunyou; Rou, Keming; Pang, Lin; Luo, Wei; Wang, Changhe; Cao, Xiaobin; Yin, Wenyuan; Liu, Enwu; Mi, Guodong

    2015-01-01

    To describe the data collected by the Chinese methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) system and the characteristics of clients entering the programme. Descriptive study using routinely collected data from the MMT data management system for the period March 2004 and March 2010. All MMT clinics in China. Clients who enrolled for services between March 2004 and March 2010. Routinely collected data included: demographic information; drug use, sexual and criminal behaviours; status of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis; random urine-opiate test results; and the daily methadone dose received. Differences among clients by year were examined. During the period examined, there were 251,974 clients attending 684 clinics in 27 provinces. Overall, the mean age was 34.4 years, 83.8% were male, 70.2% were unemployed, 75% had ever injected drugs, 17% had shared needles and 7.4% were HIV-positive. The profile of clients changed over time, with fewer HIV-positive individuals, fewer injecting drug users, fewer needle-sharers, fewer females and fewer unemployed. Half the clients dropped out within 6 months. The average final dose received was 49.4 mg. The estimated probability of interrupting treatment before 6 months was 52.5%. The profile of clients enrolling in methadone maintenance treatment in China is continually changing and appears to be associated with reduced risk of HIV. High dropout in the programme may limit its effectiveness. The availability of a centralized, real-time data system was extremely useful for monitoring the progress of the Chinese methadone maintenance treatment programme. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Help for heroes? Evaluating a case management programme for ex-service personnel in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jon; Garthwaite, Kayleigh; Bambra, Clare

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the health and social needs of ex-service personnel, but the UK evidence base on interventions is small. This article presents the findings from an evaluation of a vocational case management programme co-funded by the National Health Service (NHS) to prevent ill health among ex-service personnel. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 15 ex-service personnel were conducted. Five interviews with case management staff were also undertaken. Data were transcribed, thematically coded and analysed using NVivo. Ex-service personnel valued the service and consistently highlighted 'being listened to', 'being made to feel valued by programme staff', 'having their problems taken seriously' and 'being treated as an individual' as the most valuable aspects of the programme. Respondents particularly valued the personal support that case managers provided and the environment in which the service was delivered. Case management is a viable way in which the military, health professionals and support services can provide ongoing support for ex-service personnel in transitioning successfully to civilian life. © Royal Society for Public Health 2014.

  18. [Methods in health services research. The example of the evaluation of the German disease management programmes].

    PubMed

    Morfeld, M; Wirtz, M

    2006-02-01

    According to the established definition of Pfaff, health services research analyses patients' path through the institutions of the health care system. The focus is on development, evaluation and implementation of innovative measures of health care. By increasing its quality health services research strives for an improvement of efficacy and efficiency of the health care system. In order to allow for an appropriate evaluation it is essential to differentiate between structure, process and outcome quality referring to (1) the health care system in its entirety, (2) specific health care units as well as (3) processes of communication in different settings. Health services research comprises a large array of scientific disciplines like public health, medicine, social sciences and social care. For the purpose of managing its tasks adequately a special combination of instruments and methodological procedures is needed. Thus, diverse techniques of evaluation research as well as special requirements for study designs and assessment procedures are of vital importance. The example of the German disease management programmes illustrates the methodical requirements for a scientific evaluation.

  19. The CORE Service Improvement Programme for mental health crisis resolution teams: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Fullarton, Kate; Lamb, Danielle; Johnston, Elaine; Onyett, Steve; Osborn, David; Ambler, Gareth; Marston, Louise; Hunter, Rachael; Mason, Oliver; Henderson, Claire; Goater, Nicky; Sullivan, Sarah A; Kelly, Kathleen; Gray, Richard; Nolan, Fiona; Pilling, Stephen; Bond, Gary; Johnson, Sonia

    2016-03-22

    As an alternative to hospital admission, crisis resolution teams (CRTs) provide intensive home treatment to people experiencing mental health crises. Trial evidence supports the effectiveness of the CRT model, but research suggests that the anticipated reductions in inpatient admissions and increased user satisfaction with acute care have been less than hoped for following the scaling up of CRTs nationally in England, as mandated by the National Health Service (NHS) Plan in 2000. The organisation and service delivery of the CRTs vary substantially. This may reflect the lack of a fully specified CRT model and the resources to enhance team model fidelity and to improve service quality. We will evaluate the impact of a CRT service improvement programme over a 1-year period on the service users' experiences of care, service use, staff well-being, and team model fidelity. Twenty-five CRTs from eight NHS Trusts across England will be recruited to this cluster-randomised trial: 15 CRTs will be randomised to receive the service improvement programme over a 1-year period, and ten CRTs will not receive the programme. Data will be collected from 15 service users and all clinical staff from each participating CRT at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Service use data will be collected from the services' electronic records systems for two 6-month periods: the period preceding and the period during months 7-12 of the intervention. The study's primary outcome is service user satisfaction with CRT care, measured using a client satisfaction questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include the following: perceived continuity of care, hospital admission rates and bed use, rates of readmission to acute care following CRT support, staff morale, job satisfaction, and general health. The adherence of the services to a model of best practice will be assessed at baseline and follow-up. Outcomes will be compared between the intervention and control teams, adjusting for baseline

  20. Introducing an enhanced recovery programme to an established totally intracorporeal robot-assisted radical cystectomy service.

    PubMed

    Collins, Justin W; Adding, Christofer; Hosseini, Abolfazl; Nyberg, Tommy; Pini, Giovannalberto; Dey, Linda; Wiklund, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of introducing an enhanced recovery programme (ERP) to an established robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) service. Data were prospectively collected on 221 consecutive patients undergoing totally intracorporeal RARC between December 2003 and May 2014. The ERP was specifically designed to support an evolving RARC service, where increasing proportions of patients requiring radical cystectomy underwent RARC. Patient demographics and outcomes before and after implementation of the ERP were compared. The primary endpoint was length of stay (LOS). Secondary outcomes included age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, preoperative staging, operative time, complications and readmissions. Differences in outcomes between patients before and after implementation of ERP were tested with the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test and quantile regression with backward selection. Following implementation of the ERP, the demographics of the patients (n = 135) changed, with median age increasing from 66 to 70 years (p < 0.01), higher ASA grade (p < 0.001), higher preoperative stage cancer (pT ≥ 2, p < 0.05) and increased likelihood of undergoing an ileal conduit diversion (p < 0.001). Median LOS before ERP was 9 days [interquartile range (IQR) 8-13 days] and after ERP was 8 days (IQR 6-10 days) (p < 0.001). ASA grade and neoadjuvant chemotherapy also affected LOS (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). There was no significant difference in 30 day complication rates, readmission rates or 90 day mortality, with 59% experiencing complications before ERP implementation and 57% after implementation. The majority of complications were low grade. Patient demographics changed as the RARC service evolved from selected patients to a general service. Despite worsening demographics, LOS decreased following ERP implementation. This evidence-based ERP safely standardized perioperative care, resulting in decreased LOS and decreased

  1. An evaluation of the HM prison service "thinking skills programme" using psychometric assessments.

    PubMed

    Gobbett, Matthew J; Sellen, Joselyn L

    2014-04-01

    The most widely implemented offending behaviour programme in the United Kingdom was Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS), a cognitive-behavioural group intervention that aimed to develop participant's general cognitive skills. A new offending behaviour programme has been developed to replace ETS: the Thinking Skills Programme (TSP). This study reports an evaluation of the effectiveness of TSP using psychometric assessments. Phasing of the two programmes created an opportunity to compare the two programmes consecutively. Forty participants, 20 from each programme, completed a range of psychometric measures to examine cognition, attitudes, and thinking styles. Analysis of pre- and post-programme psychometric results indicated that participants of TSP demonstrated improvements on 14 of the 15 scales, 9 of which were statistically significant. Effect sizes between pre-post results were generally greater for TSP than ETS, demonstrating that TSP had a more positive impact on the thinking styles and attitudes of participants than the ETS programme.

  2. Accessibility to tuberculosis control services and tuberculosis programme performance in southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Despite the expansion of health services and community-based interventions in Ethiopia, limited evidence exists about the distribution of and access to health facilities and their relationship with the performance of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We aim to assess the geographical distribution of and physical accessibility to TB control services and their relationship with TB case notification rates (CNRs) and treatment outcome in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia. We carried out an ecological study to assess physical accessibility to TB control facilities and the association of physical accessibility with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. We collected smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) cases treated during 2003-2012 from unit TB registers and TB service data such as availability of basic supplies for TB control and geographic locations of health services. We used ArcGIS 10.2 to measure the distance from each enumeration location to the nearest TB control facilities. A linear regression analysis was employed to assess factors associated with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. Over a decade the health service coverage (the health facility-to-population ratio) increased by 36% and the accessibility to TB control facilities also improved. Thus, the mean distance from TB control services was 7.6 km in 2003 (ranging from 1.8 to 25.5 km) between kebeles (the smallest administrative units) and had decreased to 3.2 km in 2012 (ranging from 1.5 to 12.4 km). In multivariate linear regression, as distance from TB diagnostic facilities (b-estimate=-0.25, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=-0.31, p<0.001) increased, the CNRs of TB decreased, whereas a higher population density was associated with increased TB CNRs. Similarly, distance to TB control facilities (b-estimate=-0.27, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=-0.30, p<0.001) were inversely associated with treatment success (proportion of treatment completed or cured cases). Accessibility to TB control services improved despite

  3. Accessibility to tuberculosis control services and tuberculosis programme performance in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the expansion of health services and community-based interventions in Ethiopia, limited evidence exists about the distribution of and access to health facilities and their relationship with the performance of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We aim to assess the geographical distribution of and physical accessibility to TB control services and their relationship with TB case notification rates (CNRs) and treatment outcome in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia. Design We carried out an ecological study to assess physical accessibility to TB control facilities and the association of physical accessibility with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. We collected smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) cases treated during 2003–2012 from unit TB registers and TB service data such as availability of basic supplies for TB control and geographic locations of health services. We used ArcGIS 10.2 to measure the distance from each enumeration location to the nearest TB control facilities. A linear regression analysis was employed to assess factors associated with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. Results Over a decade the health service coverage (the health facility–to-population ratio) increased by 36% and the accessibility to TB control facilities also improved. Thus, the mean distance from TB control services was 7.6 km in 2003 (ranging from 1.8 to 25.5 km) between kebeles (the smallest administrative units) and had decreased to 3.2 km in 2012 (ranging from 1.5 to 12.4 km). In multivariate linear regression, as distance from TB diagnostic facilities (b-estimate=−0.25, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=−0.31, p<0.001) increased, the CNRs of TB decreased, whereas a higher population density was associated with increased TB CNRs. Similarly, distance to TB control facilities (b-estimate=−0.27, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=−0.30, p<0.001) were inversely associated with treatment success (proportion of treatment completed or cured cases). Conclusions

  4. Arguments in favour of compulsory treatment of opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zunyou

    2013-02-01

    Twelve agencies of the United Nations, including the World Health Organization, have issued a joint statement that calls on Member States to replace the compulsory detention of people who use opioids in treatment centres with voluntary, evidence-informed and rights-based health and social services. The arguments in favour of this position fall into three broad categories: Compulsory treatment centres infringe on an individual's liberty, they put human beings at risk of harm, and evidence of their effectiveness against opioid dependence has not been generated. The United Nations statement underscores that although countries apply different criteria for sending individuals to compulsory treatment centres, detention often takes place without due process, legal safeguards or judicial review. This clearly violates internationally recognized human rights standards. Furthermore, people who are committed to these centres are often exposed to physical and sexual violence, forced labour and sub-standard living conditions. They are often denied health care, despite their heightened vulnerability to HIV infection and tuberculosis. Finally, there is no evidence, according to the statement, that these centres offer an environment that is conducive to recovery from opioid dependence or to the rehabilitation of commercial sex workers or of children who have suffered sexual exploitation, abuse or lack of care and protection. The author of this paper sets forth several arguments that counter the position taken by the United Nations and argues in favour of compulsory treatment within a broader harm reduction strategy aimed at protecting society as well as the individual concerned.

  5. Pre-Service Teachers' Entry onto a Physical Education Teacher Education Programme, and Associated Interests and Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, Ann Marie; MacPhail, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the reasons for pre-service teachers (PSTs) who choose to undertake a physical education teacher education (PETE) programme can inform teacher educators on how best to define teaching tasks, organize knowledge relevant to student learning and shape the perceptions of PSTs about teaching and learning (Calderhead, 1987). In this study,…

  6. Community Development Workers Programme: Mentoring for Social Transformation in the Public Service in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Hilary; Motlhake, Bona

    2008-01-01

    The new public sector community development workers (CDWs) programme was established in 2004 following ineffective service delivery through chronic under-spending on annual budgets in post-apartheid South Africa. CDWs receive training in learnerships within the National Skills Development Strategy to ensure access to and spending of local…

  7. Community Development Workers Programme: Mentoring for Social Transformation in the Public Service in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Hilary; Motlhake, Bona

    2008-01-01

    The new public sector community development workers (CDWs) programme was established in 2004 following ineffective service delivery through chronic under-spending on annual budgets in post-apartheid South Africa. CDWs receive training in learnerships within the National Skills Development Strategy to ensure access to and spending of local…

  8. Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme at Secondary Stage in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    The present research work has studied and compared the different issues of pre-service teacher education programme in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The data were collected from 24 principals, 88 teacher educators and 157 student teachers from institutions and universities where Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) course were. The data were…

  9. The Internet in EFL Teacher Education: Investigating the Possibilities and Challenges in a Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed

    2011-01-01

    The paper reported on a small-scale qualitative study on EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teacher education with a two-fold objective, investigating the possibility of integrating the Internet for academic purposes in the context of a pre-service English teacher education programme in Egypt, and suggesting some guidelines based on the specific…

  10. Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme at Secondary Stage in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    The present research work has studied and compared the different issues of pre-service teacher education programme in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The data were collected from 24 principals, 88 teacher educators and 157 student teachers from institutions and universities where Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) course were. The data were…

  11. Comparison between Synchronous and Asynchronous Instructional Delivery Method of Training Programme on In-Service Physical Educators' Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmanouilidou, Kyriaki; Derri, Vassiliki; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Kyrgiridis, Pavlos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the influences of a training programme's instructional delivery method (synchronous and asynchronous) on Greek in-service physical educators' cognitive understanding on student assessment. Forty nine participants were randomly divided into synchronous, asynchronous, and control group. The experimental groups…

  12. Compulsory licensing of patents in India.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Rahul

    2016-09-01

    This article deals with compulsory licensing scenarios in India, provides a background of relevant provisions in the Patents Act and examines how these provisions are Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights compliant. This article further discusses the procedure followed by India in granting a compulsory license, provides an overview of compulsory license applications filed in India to date and judicial precedence regarding the same. This article also highlights how compulsory licensing is a great safeguard that balances the interests of the innovators and the public at large.

  13. Exploring the decision to participate in the National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Merryn; Callender, Matthew; Hamer, Holly; Rogers, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and one of the most feared diseases in modern society. A combination of early detection, accurate diagnosis and effective treatment provides the best defence against cancer morbidity; therefore, promoting cancer awareness and encouraging cancer screening is a priority in any comprehensive cancer control policy. Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer in the UK and in an effort to reduce the high incidence, prevalence, morbidity and mortality rates, the National Health Service (NHS) has introduced the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NHS BCSP). For the NHS BCSP to succeed in its goal of reducing the incidence and prevalence rates for colorectal cancer, individuals need to be persuaded to complete the test. Since it was first introduced in 2007, however, participation rates have been low. In an effort to understand why participation rates remain low, this article reports on the findings of a series of focus groups conducted in the East Midlands of England. These focus groups were designed to explore the factors that influence an individual's decision to participate in cancer screening. The findings revealed eight factors that affected participation in the NHS BCSP: (i) the association of screening with entry into old age; (ii) prior experience with health systems; (iii) the support of a significant other; (iv) individual perceptions of risk (and benefit); (v) fear of becoming a cancer patient after the screening test; (vi) lack of disease symptoms; (vii) embarrassment associated with completing the test and (viii) messages that adopt a paternalistic ethos. Overall, our results suggest that more people may participate in the screening programme if it was more sensitive to these psychosocial and contextual factors that shape an individual's decision to be tested.

  14. Research on the Costs of Running Compulsory Education Standards: Comparison of Compulsory Education Internationally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Yongli; Zhang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    Compulsory education is the fundamental education for citizens and is the source of state power, which radically determines thought level, political awareness, cultural sense and production ability of the entire nation. Therefore, to popularize compulsory education is the root of a country. This paper explains the meanings of compulsory education,…

  15. Supporting general practices to provide sexual and reproductive health services: protocol for the 3Cs & HIV programme.

    PubMed

    Town, K; Ricketts, E J; Hartney, T; Dunbar, J K; Nardone, A; Folkard, K A; Charlett, A; McNulty, C A M

    2015-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections, HIV and unplanned pregnancies continue to be a major public health problem in England, especially in young adults. Strengthening the provision of free condoms, HIV testing, chlamydia screening and contraception within primary care will contribute to reducing poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Recent research demonstrated the benefit for general practices of educational support visits based on behaviour change theory. Public Health England (PHE) has piloted an educational training programme to improve the delivery of sexual health services and HIV testing within general practice. The 3Cs & HIV programme used practice based workshops to improve staffs' awareness and skills in order to increase opportunistic offers of chlamydia testing, provision of contraceptive service information and free condoms (the '3Cs') to 15-24 year olds and HIV testing according to national guidelines. The programme was based on the theory of planned behaviour and has been implemented using a stepped wedge design. Process evaluation, testing and diagnosis data, plus qualitative interviews were all used in the evaluation. The primary outcome measures were chlamydia testing and diagnosis rates. Secondary outcome measures were HIV testing and diagnoses rates within each practice and rates of consultations where long acting reversible contraceptives had been discussed. A key strength of the 3Cs & HIV programme has been the evidence base underpinning the development of the resources and the formal process evaluation of its implementation. The programme was designed to encourage sustainable relationships between general practice staff and local sexual health services as well as the knowledge, awareness and behaviours cultivated during the programme. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Compulsory Education in Singapore--Who Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Compulsory education was legislated in Singapore in 2000. This came several decades after the attainment of universal primary education and after numerous assertions on the part of the government that such legislation was unnecessary. Also interesting is that the period of compulsory education was limited to six years. The article discusses the…

  17. Implementation of the care programme approach across health and social services for dual diagnosis clients.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michael; Humphrey, Charlotte

    2013-12-01

    Care for clients with mental health problems and concurrent intellectual disability (dual diagnosis) is currently expected to be provided through the care programme approach (CPA), an approach to provide care to people with mental health problems in secondary mental health services. When CPA was originally introduced into UK mental health services in the 1990s, its implementation was slow and problematic, being hampered in part by problems occurring at a strategic level as health and social service organizations attempted to integrate complex systems. This article reports on a study of a more recent attempt to implement CPA for dual diagnosis clients in one mental health foundation trust, aiming to gauge progress and identify factors at the strategic level that were helping or hindering progress this time round. The study took place in a mental health National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust in a large English city, which was implementing a joint mental health and intellectual disability CPA policy across five of its constituent boroughs. Semi-structured interviews with key informants at Trust and borough levels focused on the Trust's overall strategy for implementing CPA and on how it was being put into practice at the front line. Documentary analysis and the administration of the Partnership Assessment Tool were also undertaken. Data were analysed using a framework approach. Progress in implementing CPA varied but overall was extremely limited in all the boroughs. The study identified six key contextual challenges that significantly hindered the implementation progress. These included organizational complexity; arrangements for governance and accountability; competing priorities; financial constraints; high staff turnover and complex information and IT systems. The only element of policy linked to CPA that had been widely taken up was the Greenlight Framework and Audit Toolkit (GLTK). The fact that the toolkit had targets and penalties associated with its

  18. Promoting health behaviour in Portuguese children via Short Message Service: The efficacy of a text-messaging programme.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cátia; Fassnacht, Daniel B; Ali, Kathina; Gonçalves, Sónia; Conceição, Eva; Vaz, Ana; Crosby, Ross D; Machado, Paulo P P

    2015-06-01

    A Short Message Service programme was adapted to monitor three health behaviours and provide supportive feedback. The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the programme to increase fruit/vegetable consumption and physical activity and to decrease screen time. A total of 139 Portuguese children, aged 8-10 years, grouped by classroom, were randomly assigned to an intervention (8 weeks of monitoring/feedback) or a control condition. Participants had their key behaviours assessed at baseline, post-intervention and follow-up. A three-level hierarchical linear model was developed. Results showed that the monitoring and feedback programme significantly increased fruit and vegetable consumption over time. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Randomised Controlled Trial of Joint Crisis Plans to Reduce Compulsory Treatment for People with Psychosis: Economic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Farrelly, Simone; Birchwood, Max; Dunn, Graham; Flach, Clare; Henderson, Claire; Leese, Morven; Marshall, Max; Rose, Diana; Sutherby, Kim; Szmukler, George; Thornicroft, Graham; Byford, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background Compulsory admission to psychiatric hospitals may be distressing, disruptive to patients and families, and associated with considerable cost to the health service. Improved patient experience and cost reductions could be realised by providing cost-effective crisis planning services. Methods Economic evaluation within a multi-centre randomised controlled trial comparing Joint Crisis Plans (JCP) plus treatment as usual (TAU) to TAU alone for patients aged over 16, with at least one psychiatric hospital admission in the previous two years and on the Enhanced Care Programme Approach register. JCPs, containing the patient's treatment preferences for any future psychiatric emergency, are a form of crisis intervention that aim to mitigate the negative consequences of relapse, including hospital admission and use of coercion. Data were collected at baseline and 18-months after randomisation. The primary outcome was admission to hospital under the Mental Health Act. The economic evaluation took a service perspective (health, social care and criminal justice services) and a societal perspective (additionally including criminal activity and productivity losses). Findings The addition of JCPs to TAU had no significant effect on compulsory admissions or total societal cost per participant over 18-months follow-up. From the service cost perspective, however, evidence suggests a higher probability (80%) of JCPs being the more cost-effective option. Exploration by ethnic group highlights distinct patterns of costs and effects. Whilst the evidence does not support the cost-effectiveness of JCPs for White or Asian ethnic groups, there is at least a 90% probability of the JCP intervention being the more cost-effective option in the Black ethnic group. Interpretation The results by ethnic group are sufficiently striking to warrant further investigation into the potential for patient gain from JCPs among black patient groups. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials

  20. Developing a Robotic Prostatectomy Service and a Robotic Fellowship Programme – Defining the Learning Curve

    PubMed Central

    Vasdev, Nikhil; Bishop, Conrad; Kass-Iliyya, Atoine; Hamid, Sami; McNicholas, Thomas A.; Prasad, Venkat; Mohan-S, Gowrie; Lane, Timothy; Boustead, Gregory; Adshead, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP) is an established treatment for prostate cancer in selected centres with appropriate expertise. We studied our single-centre experience of developing a RRP service and subsequent training of 2 additional surgeons by the initial surgeon and the introduction of United Kingdom's first nationally accredited robotic fellowship training programme. We assessed the learning curve of the 3 surgeons with regard to peri-operative outcomes and oncological results. Patients and Methods Three hundred consecutive patients underwent RRP between November 2008 and August 2012. Patients were divided into 3 equal groups (Group 1, case 1-100; Group 2, case 101-200; and Group 3, case 201-300). Age, ASA score, preoperative co-morbidities and indications for laparoscopic radical prostatectomy were comparable for all 3 patient groups. Peri-operative and oncological outcomes were compared across all 3 groups to assess the impact of the learning curve for laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. All surgical complications were classified using the Clavien-Dindo system. Results The mean age was 60.7 years (range 41-74). There was a significant reduction in the mean console time (p < 0.001), operating time (p < 0.001), mean length of hospital stay (p < 0.001) and duration of catheter (p < 0.001) between the 3 groups as the series progressed. The two most important factors predictive of positive surgical margins (PSM) at RRP were the initial prostate specific antigen (PSA) and tumor stage at diagnosis. The overall PSM rate was 26.7%. For T2/T3 tumors the incidence of PSM reduced as the series progressed (Group 1-22%, Group 2-32% and Group 3-26%). The incidence of major complications i.e. grade Clavien-Dindo system score ≤ III was 2% (6/300). Conclusion RRP is a safe procedure with low morbidity. As surgeons progress through the learning curve peri-operative parameters and oncological outcomes improve. This learning curve is not affected by the

  1. A practice research study concerning homeless service user involvement with a programme of social support work delivered in a specialized psychological trauma service.

    PubMed

    Archard, P J; Murphy, D

    2015-08-01

    Homeless persons are known to be highly vulnerable to psychological trauma, in events triggering periods of homelessness and the considerable social isolation and adversity suffered when homeless. This study provides an account of how mental health support work is experienced by homeless service users when it is informed by a person-centred, non-directive approach and implemented by trainee health and social care professionals under the auspices of a specialized psychological trauma service. The study draws upon material gathered from interviews with service users domiciled in supported housing for homeless persons and support workers who practiced on the programme. The service users who participated in the study valued support work that combined practical and relational elements, but would have preferred a longer-term involvement. They also spoke of feelings of disconnection and estrangement from others including their peers in supported housing. The support worker participants valued the flexibility they had when working on the programme to tailor their intervention to service users' individual needs. Practice implications of the study are discussed. These include the need to minimize barriers to accessing support, facilitate informal time between professionals and homeless service users, and manage intervention endings sensitively when temporary staffing arrangements are in place. Homeless people are a population known to be highly vulnerable to trauma, in triggering events to becoming homeless and the considerable social isolation, discrimination, and adversity suffered when homeless. Currently, there is a paucity of research into mental health service delivery to homeless persons and the influence it imparts in individual lives. This article presents a qualitative 'practice research' study into a pilot programme of social support work delivered in a specialized psychological trauma service to homeless service users. The programme was grounded in a non

  2. Service Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Kurt

    1981-01-01

    Criticizes Michael Useem's argument that compulsory military service in the U.S. should not be reinstated because of the social inequities it fosters. Discusses social and economic pros and cons of the draft and voluntary military service. (GC)

  3. Does compulsory education lower mortality?

    PubMed

    Albouy, Valerie; Lequien, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have claimed to show a significant causal impact of education on health status. Their empirical strategy usually relied on changes in compulsory schooling laws. Using a French longitudinal dataset, we focus on the effect of school leaving age on mortality at later ages. The two identifying shocks are the Zay and Berthoin reforms, which respectively raised the minimum school leaving age to 14 and 16 years. We implement a non-parametric regression discontinuity design, comparing cohorts born immediately before or after the reforms, and a parametric two-stage approach using information from a larger part of our sample. None of these approaches reveals a significant causality of education on health. Despite the fact that these reforms increased education levels, and that subsequent declines in mortality are observed, none of these declines appears to be significant. We conclude with a discussion on possible limitations of these two reforms as identifying devices.

  4. Effects of 8Ps of Services Marketing on Student Selection of Self-Financing Sub-Degree Programmes in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Melissa May Yee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the effects of 8Ps of services marketing affect students' selection of self-financing sub-degree programmes in Hong Kong. The factors that affect students' selection of self-financing sub-degree programmes have not been studied in higher education market of Hong Kong. This research is to…

  5. The Romance and the Reality between Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about the Potential Benefits of a Short-Term Study Abroad Programme and Their Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Angela Choi Fung

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore Hong Kong pre-service teachers' beliefs about the potential benefits of a short-term study abroad programme and their practices. Pre- and post-programme semi-structured interviews and reflective journals were employed to collect data. The findings suggest that the transformation of beliefs into practices…

  6. The Romance and the Reality between Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about the Potential Benefits of a Short-Term Study Abroad Programme and Their Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Angela Choi Fung

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore Hong Kong pre-service teachers' beliefs about the potential benefits of a short-term study abroad programme and their practices. Pre- and post-programme semi-structured interviews and reflective journals were employed to collect data. The findings suggest that the transformation of beliefs into practices…

  7. Effects of 8Ps of Services Marketing on Student Selection of Self-Financing Sub-Degree Programmes in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Melissa May Yee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the effects of 8Ps of services marketing affect students' selection of self-financing sub-degree programmes in Hong Kong. The factors that affect students' selection of self-financing sub-degree programmes have not been studied in higher education market of Hong Kong. This research is to…

  8. The Sexuality Education Initiative: a programme involving teenagers, schools, parents and sexual health services in Los Angeles, CA, USA.

    PubMed

    Marques, Magaly; Ressa, Nicole

    2013-05-01

    In response to abstinence-only programmes in the United States that promote myths and misconceptions about sexuality and sexual behaviour, the comprehensive sexuality education community has been sidetracked from improving the sexuality education available in US schools for almost two decades now. Much work is still needed to move beyond fear-based approaches and the one-way communication of information that many programmes still use. Starting in 2008 Planned Parenthood Los Angeles developed and launched a teen-centred sexuality education programme based on critical thinking, human rights, gender equality, and access to health care that is founded on a theory of change that recognises the complex relationship between the individual and broader environment of cultural norms, socio-economic inequalities, health disparities, legal and institutional factors. The Sexuality Education Initiative is comprised of a 12-session classroom sexuality education curriculum for ninth grade students; workshops for parents; a peer advocacy training programme; and access to sexual health services. This paper describes that experience and presents the rights-based framework that was used, which seeks to improve the learning experience of students, strengthen the capacity of schools, teachers and parents to help teenagers manage their sexuality effectively and understand that they have the right to health care, education, protection, dignity and privacy. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mobile phone short message service messaging for behaviour modification in a community-based weight control programme in Korea.

    PubMed

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Bom-Taeck

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a community-based anti-obesity programme using mobile phone short message service (SMS) messaging. A total of 927 participants were recruited and visited a public health centre for initial assessment. Mobile phones were used to deliver short messages about diet, exercise and behaviour modification once a week. After a 12-week anti-obesity programme they visited the public health centre again. Four hundred and thirty-three subjects (47%) successfully completed their weight control programme. There were mean reductions of weight, waist circumference and body mass index of 1.6 kg (P < 0.001), 4.3 cm (P < 0.001) and 0.6 kg/m(2) (P < 0.001), respectively. Over two-thirds of the subjects had a reduction in waist circumference of 5-7.5 cm. A post-intervention survey showed that the majority of participants were satisfied with the weekly SMS messages and information brochures delivered by post. SMS messaging may be an effective method of behaviour modification in weight control and anti-obesity health education programmes when promoted by community health centres.

  10. Continuing Legal Education: Should It Be Compulsory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leete, Burt A.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of compulsory legal education, examining recent experience of the accounting profession with mandatory continuing education, and presenting results of a survey of 400 lawyers which indicated no consensus on the subject. (JT)

  11. Outcomes of interprofessional education for Community Mental Health Services in England: the longitudinal evaluation of a postgraduate programme.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, John; Barnes, Di; Dickinson, Claire; Wooff, David

    2006-03-01

    We report a comprehensive, longitudinal evaluation of a two-year, part-time postgraduate programme designed to enable health and social care professionals in England to work together to deliver new community mental health services, including psychosocial interventions (PSIs). The study tracked three successive cohorts of students (N = 111) through their learning. Outcomes were assessed according to the Kirkpatrick/Barr et al. framework using a mixed methodology, which employed both quantitative measures and interviews. The students evaluated the programme positively and appreciated its focus on interprofessional learning and partnership with services users, but mean levels of stress increased and almost one quarter dropped out. There was considerable evidence of professional stereotyping but little evidence of change in these during the programme. Students reported substantial increases in their knowledge and skills in multidisciplinary team working and use of PSIs (p < 0.001). Experiences in the implementation of learning varied; in general, students reported significantly greater role conflict (p = 0.01) compared to a sample of their team colleagues (N = 62), but there was strong evidence from self-report measures (p < 0.001) and work-place interviews that the students' use of PSIs had increased. Users with severe mental health problems (N = 72) randomly selected from caseloads of two cohorts of students improved over six months in terms of their social functioning (p = 0.047) and life satisfaction (p = 0.014). Having controlled statistically for differences in baseline score, those in the intervention (programme) group retained a significant advantage in terms of life skills (p < 0.001) compared to service users in two non-intervention comparison groups (N = 133). Responses on a user-defined measure indicated a high level of satisfaction with students' knowledge, skills and personal qualities. We conclude that that there is strong evidence that a well

  12. The Feasibility and Acceptability to Service Users of CIRCuiTS, a Computerized Cognitive Remediation Therapy Programme for Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Clare; Pile, Victoria; Crawford, Polly; Cella, Matteo; Rose, Diana; Wykes, Til; Watson, Andrew; Huddy, Vyv; Callard, Felicity

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive remediation (CR) is a psychological therapy, effective in improving cognitive performance and functioning in people with schizophrenia. As the therapy becomes more widely implemented within mental health services its longevity and uptake is likely to depend on its feasibility and acceptability to service users and clinicians. To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a new strategy-based computerized CR programme (CIRCuiTS) for people with psychosis. Four studies were conducted using mixed methods. Perceptions of attractiveness, comprehensibility, acceptability and usability were assessed using self-report questionnaires in 34 non-clinical participants (study 1), and five people with a schizophrenia diagnosis and three experienced CR therapists (studies 2 and 3). The ease with which pre-specified therapy programmes could be assembled was also assessed by three therapists (Study 2). Finally, the satisfaction of 20 service users with a diagnosis of schizophrenia regarding their experience of using CIRCuiTS in the context of a course of the CR therapy was assessed in a qualitative interview study (study 4). Ratings of perceived attractiveness, comprehensibility, acceptability and usability consistently exceeded pre-set high targets by non-clinical, clinical and therapist participants. Qualitative analysis of satisfaction with CIRCuiTS showed that receiving the therapy was generally seen to be a positive experience, leading to perceptions that cognitive functioning had improved and attempts to incorporate new strategy use into daily activities. CIRCuiTS demonstrates high acceptability and ease of use for both service users with a schizophrenia diagnosis and clinicians.

  13. A defense of compulsory vaccination.

    PubMed

    Flanigan, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    Vaccine refusal harms and risks harming innocent bystanders. People are not entitled to harm innocents or to impose deadly risks on others, so in these cases there is nothing to be said for the right to refuse vaccination. Compulsory vaccination is therefore justified because non-vaccination can rightly be prohibited, just as other kinds of harmful and risky conduct are rightly prohibited. I develop an analogy to random gunfire to illustrate this point. Vaccine refusal, I argue, is morally similar to firing a weapon into the air and endangering innocent bystanders. By re-framing vaccine refusal as harmful and reckless conduct my aim is to shift the focus of the vaccine debate from non-vaccinators' religious and refusal rights to everyone else's rights against being infected with contagious illnesses. Religious freedom and rights of informed consent do not entitle non-vaccinators to harm innocent bystanders, and so coercive vaccination requirements are permissible for the sake of the potential victims of the anti-vaccine movement.

  14. Service User Involvement in Methadone Maintenance Programmes: The "Philosophy, the Ideal and the Reality"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Aoibhinn

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, service user involvement has become a common feature of public policy and more specifically public health policy in the recent decades. In a general context, the involvement of service users in health services has been well documented; however, less evidence is available within the area of drug treatment service provision. This…

  15. Service User Involvement in Methadone Maintenance Programmes: The "Philosophy, the Ideal and the Reality"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Aoibhinn

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, service user involvement has become a common feature of public policy and more specifically public health policy in the recent decades. In a general context, the involvement of service users in health services has been well documented; however, less evidence is available within the area of drug treatment service provision. This…

  16. Should an intercalated degree be compulsory for undergraduate medical students?

    PubMed

    Philip, Aaron B; Prasad, Sunila J; Patel, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    Undertaking an intercalated year whilst at medical school involves taking time out of the medicine undergraduate programme in order to pursue a separate but related degree. It is widely seen as a challenging but rewarding experience, with much to be gained from the independent project or research component of most additional degrees. However, whilst intercalating is encouraged at many universities and is incorporated into some undergraduate curricula, it is by no means compulsory for all students. The literature would suggest that those who have intercalated tend to do better academically, both for the remainder of medical school and after graduating. Despite this, the issue of making intercalation mandatory is one of considerable debate, with counter-arguments ranging from the detrimental effect time taken out of the course can have to the lack of options available to cater for all students. Nonetheless, the research skills developed during an intercalated year are invaluable and help students prepare for taking a critical evidence-based approach to medicine. If intercalated degrees were made compulsory for undergraduates, it would be a step in the right direction. It would mean the doctors of tomorrow would be better equipped to practise medicine in disciplines that are constantly evolving.

  17. In-Service Training Programmes for Mathematics Teachers Nested in Transnational Policy Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erixon, Eva-Lena; Wahlström, Ninni

    2016-01-01

    Results in mathematics on international knowledge surveys like Programme for International Student Assessment and Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study have become one of the most important factors for the perceived success or failure of schools and even entire education systems in the policy arena. In this article, we explore the…

  18. A multimethod research investigation of consumer involvement in Australian health service accreditation programmes: the ACCREDIT-SCI study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, David; Hinchcliff, Reece; Moldovan, Max; Mumford, Virginia; Pawsey, Marjorie; Irene Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Health service accreditation programmes are a regulatory mechanism adopted to drive improvements inpatient safety and quality. Research investigating the benefits or limitations, of consumer involvement in accreditation programmes is negligible. To develop our knowledge in this area the ACCREDIT collaboration (Accreditation Collaborative for the Conduct of Research, Evaluation and Designated Investigations through Teamwork) has developed a research plan, known as the ACCREDIT-SCI (Standards of Consumer Involvement) study protocol. Two complementary studies have been designed: one, to examine the effectiveness of a standard for consumer participation and two, to explore how patient experiences vary across a range of settings with differing accreditation results. Methods and design The research setting is the Australian healthcare system, and the two studies focus on three accreditation programmes in the primary, acute and aged care domains. The studies will use multimethods: document analysis; interviews and surveys. Participants will be stakeholders across the three domains including: policy officers; frontline healthcare professionals; accreditation agency personnel, including surveyors and healthcare consumers. Drawing on previous experience, the research team has developed purpose-designed tools. Data will be analysed using thematic, narrative and statistical (descriptive and inferential) procedures. Ethics and dissemination The University of New South Wales Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the two studies (HREC 10274). Findings will be disseminated through seminars, conference presentations, academic publications and research partner websites. The findings will be formulated to facilitate uptake by policy and accreditation agency professionals, researchers and academics, and consumers, nationally and internationally. PMID:23059848

  19. Use and cost of psychotropic drugs among recipients with autism in a state Medicaid fee-for-service programme.

    PubMed

    Khanna, R; Jariwala, K; West-Strum, D

    2013-02-01

    There has been a significant increase in the prevalence of autism in the USA in the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to provide recent estimates of psychotropic drug use and costs among individuals with autism enrolled in Medicaid programme. A cross-sectional analysis of 2007 Mississippi (MS) Medicaid fee-for-service (FFS) programme administrative-claims data was performed. Study sample included recipients (<65 years) who had a medical services claim with a diagnosis of autism in 2007. Psychotropic drug patterns of use and costs were studied. Factors predicting the use of psychotropic drugs were identified using logistic regression analyses. Average number and cost of psychotropic drug claims per recipient were reported. Costs were reported from the perspective of MS Medicaid. In 2007, there were 1330 recipients with a diagnosis of autism in MS Medicaid FFS programme. Among these recipients, 66.32% had a claim for psychotropic drug during the year. Roughly 39% of recipients with autism had a claim for antipsychotics, 31.58% for stimulants, 19.55% for antidepressants, 19.40% for other psychotropics and 14.81% for anxiolytics/hypnotics/sedatives. Results from regression analyses highlighted variation in psychotropic drug use by demographic and co-morbid factors. There were a total of 12,618 claims for psychotropic drugs filled by recipients with autism in 2007, at an average of 14 (±12) claims per recipient. The total cost of these claims paid for by MS Medicaid FFS programme was ∼$2 million. Antipsychotics accounted for more than half (∼58%) of the total costs, and had the highest average cost per claim ($291 ± 205). The results of this study indicate a high use of psychotropic drugs among individuals with autism enrolled in a state Medicaid programme. There is an urgent need to study the risk-benefit profile of these drugs in this growing population. Psychotropic drug use was found to vary by demographic and co-morbid factors. Among the

  20. Serving the Community and Learning a Foreign Language: Evaluating a Service-Learning Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Frank A.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated a service learning program in Spanish, in which learners of Spanish provide various forms of social services to native speakers in local communities in the target language, to assess its impact on learner motivation and attitudes. (Author/VWL)

  1. The Practitioner Health Programme: a free and confidential health service for doctors and dentists in London

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a free and confidential service available to doctors and dentists living or working in the London area and who are suffering from mental health, addiction or physical health concerns that may be affecting their work. The service is led by an experienced general practitioner and includes free and timely access to specialist services. The service will begin to accept referrals from October 2008. Please consult the web site for details: www.php.nhs.uk PMID:25949562

  2. Critical pedagogy in a health service management development programme: can "critically thinking" managers change the NHS management culture?

    PubMed

    Sambrook, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Management development programmes available to NHS managers focus on a performance orientation and sustain a culture of managerial and medical domination. This paper aims to question whether it is possible to consider NHS management development from a critical (empowerment culture) perspective. Features of the critical management studies approach (CMS) are identified. A new MSc is evaluated against these characteristics, examining the teaching and learning processes and students' perceptions of the programme. The aim is to develop critical thinkers who can return to their organizations and challenge existing power structures and practices to change local cultures and enhance health services. Empirical research employed anonymous student questionnaires and a focus group. Student evaluations suggest the MSc can deliver a critical pedagogy and help managers understand issues of power and empowerment, challenge dominant cultures, innovate and effect small, local changes in the NHS culture. There is a need to continue evaluating the programme and include other stakeholders. Longitudinal research should assess the impact of the managers' changed values, attitudes and behaviours on colleagues, clients and the local cultures. The paper identifies some of the tensions of developing "critical" health service managers, and the problems they encounter back in the "uncritical" NHS context, as well as some of the challenges in "facilitating" a critical curriculum. It questions the ethics of developing (or not) a critical perspective in a local context unfamiliar with CMS. Management development in the NHS largely ignores critical pedagogy. This paper makes a small and unique contribution to understanding how developing "critically thinking" managers can challenge the dominant culture. However, the limitations of such a small-scale study and ethical implications are noted.

  3. How do organisational characteristics influence teamwork and service delivery in lung cancer diagnostic assessment programmes? A mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Honein-AbouHaidar, Gladys N; Stuart-McEwan, Terri; Waddell, Tom; Salvarrey, Alexandra; Smylie, Jennifer; Dobrow, Mark J; Brouwers, Melissa C; Gagliardi, Anna R

    2017-02-23

    Diagnostic assessment programmes (DAPs) can reduce wait times for cancer diagnosis, but optimal DAP design is unknown. This study explored how organisational characteristics influenced multidisciplinary teamwork and diagnostic service delivery in lung cancer DAPs. A mixed-methods approach integrated data from descriptive qualitative interviews and medical record abstraction at 4 lung cancer DAPs. Findings were analysed with the Integrated Team Effectiveness Model. 4 DAPs at 2 teaching and 2 community hospitals in Canada. 22 staff were interviewed about organisational characteristics, target service benchmarks, and teamwork processes, determinants and outcomes; 314 medical records were reviewed for actual service benchmarks. Formal, informal and asynchronous team processes enabled service delivery and yielded many perceived benefits at the patient, staff and service levels. However, several DAP characteristics challenged teamwork and service delivery: referral volume/workload, time since launch, days per week of operation, rural-remote population, number and type of full-time/part-time human resources, staff colocation, information systems. As a result, all sites failed to meet target benchmarks (from referral to consultation median 4.0 visits, median wait time 35.0 days). Recommendations included improved information systems, more staff in all specialties, staff colocation and expanded roles for patient navigators. Findings were captured in a conceptual framework of lung cancer DAP teamwork determinants and outcomes. This study identified several DAP characteristics that could be improved to facilitate teamwork and enhance service delivery, thereby contributing to knowledge of organisational determinants of teamwork and associated outcomes. Findings can be used to update existing DAP guidelines, and by managers to plan or evaluate lung cancer DAPs. Ongoing research is needed to identify ideal roles for navigators, and staffing models tailored to case volumes

  4. The pursuit of excellence and innovation in service user involvement in nurse education programmes: report from a travel scholarship.

    PubMed

    Terry, Julia M

    2013-05-01

    The involvement of service users and carers in nurse education is increasing, with the new standards for pre-registration nurse education in the UK, which require nurse education providers to demonstrate how they are involving users and carers in the planning, delivery, teaching and evaluation of nursing curricula (Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2010). A travel scholarship provided the opportunity to explore best practice in this area, focussing on identifying support systems and processes that enable user involvement. The scholarship was undertaken in the UK and Ireland during a 4 week study tour between June and July 2011, during which I visited 15 universities, and met with nurse education staff, users and carers involved in nurse education programmes. Prerequisite processes, the spectrum and variety of involvement activities, quality assurance and evaluation; and sustainability of user involvement in nurse education are reported in this paper. Service users and carers are an under-utilised resource, and as experts by experience have much to offer students and staff by increased involvement in nurse education programmes. The importance of values, enthusiasm and relationships, the cornerstones that strengthen user involvement; often sustain such partnerships.

  5. Primary Teachers' Changing Attitudes and Cognition during a Two-Year Science In-Service Programme and Their Effect on Pupils. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Tina; Pell, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Changes in 70 teachers' confidence, attitudes and science understanding were tested before and after a major in-service programme. Attitudes were assessed using a 49-item Likert-scale test that probed attitudes to practical science teaching and in-service training. Multi-choice and open-ended questions measured understanding of electricity;…

  6. Primary Teachers' Changing Attitudes and Cognition during a Two-Year Science In-Service Programme and Their Effect on Pupils. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Tina; Pell, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Changes in 70 teachers' confidence, attitudes and science understanding were tested before and after a major in-service programme. Attitudes were assessed using a 49-item Likert-scale test that probed attitudes to practical science teaching and in-service training. Multi-choice and open-ended questions measured understanding of electricity;…

  7. From contraceptive prevalence to family planning service users: implications for policy and programmes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adnan Ahmad; Abbas, Khadija; Hamza, Hasan Bin; Bilal, Ahmed; Khan, Ayesha

    2013-04-01

    Contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) is a widely accepted measure of maternal health and uptake of family planning (FP) services. However, the overall CPR obscures the actual utilization of FP services due to over-representation of long-term methods. This study used CPR from 2007 to arrive at and compare the number of actual number of women who availed different FP services in order to understand issues and gaps in FP services in Pakistan. This study used secondary data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006-7 estimate the CPR and modern method mix for 2007.These were then multiplied by the estimated number of married women of reproductive age (MWRA) to arrive at the actual numbers of women using specific FP methods and utilizing FP services in a given year. In 2007 the CPR was 30% overall and 22% for modern methods. However, the number of women availing FP services decreased to 12% when adjusted for FP users who had availed services in the past 12 months. Within this "service mix", self-procurement of FP commodities directly from stores without a advice from a health provider constitutes around 37% of all FP "services" and the public sector accounts for another 33%. Condoms are the commonest method served, accounting for over half of all "services". The bulk of FP is self-procured and the service mixed is skewed towards client controlled methods that do not require medical advice. Thus, lack of quality for contraceptive services that require some form of supportive healthcare services and counselling may be a bottleneck to improving CPR.

  8. Dermatological diseases of compulsory notification in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Domingues, Carla M A S; Siqueira Jr, João Bosco; Elkhoury, Ana Nilce S M; Cechinel, Michella P; Grossi, Maria Aparecida de Faria; Gomes, Marcia de Leite S; Sena, Joana M; Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Lima Júnior, Francisco Edilson F; Segatto, Teresa Cristina Vieira; Melo, Flavia Cardoso de; Rosa, Fabiano Marques; Silva, Marcia Mesquita; Nicolau, Renata Amadei

    2011-01-01

    The development of a Brazilian National Surveillance System in 1975 led to a compulsory reporting of selected infectious diseases aiming to reduce the burden of these events in the country. However, shifts in the epidemiology of these diseases associated with modern life style, demand constant revision of surveillance activities. In this manuscript we present the epidemiology, trends and differential diagnosis of the following compulsory notifiable diseases in Brazil: Aids, dengue fever, hanseniasis, American tegumentary leishmaniasis, measles, rubella and congenital rubella syndrome and syphilis. Additionally, the current challenges for control and prevention of each disease are presented.

  9. Impacts of the Finnish service screening programme on breast cancer rates

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, Ahti; Sarkeala, Tytti; Hakulinen, Timo; Heinävaara, Sirpa

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to examine impacts of the Finnish breast cancer (BC) screening programme on the population-based incidence and mortality rates. The programme has been historically targeted to a rather narrow age band, mainly women of ages 50–59 years. Methods The study was based on the information on breast cancer during 1971–2003 from the files of the Finnish Cancer Registry. Incidence, cause-specific mortality as well as incidence-based (refined) mortality from BC were analysed with Poisson regression. Age-specific incidence and routine cause-specific mortality were estimated for the most recent five-year period available; incidence-based mortality, respectively, for the whole steady state of the programme, 1992–2003. Results There was excess BC incidence with actual screening ages; incidence in ages 50–69 was increased 8% (95 CI 2.9–13.4). There was an increasing temporal tendency in the incidence of localised BC; and, respectively, a decrease in that of non-localised BC. The latter was most consistent in age groups where screening had been on-going several years or eventually after the last screen. The refined mortality rate from BC diagnosed in ages 50–69 was decreased with -11.1% (95% CI -19.4, -2.1). Conclusions The current study demonstrates that BC screening in Finland is effective in reducing mortality rates from breast cancers, even though the impact on the population level is smaller than expected based on the results from randomised trials among women screened in age 50 to 69. This may be explained by the rather young age group targeted in our country. Consideration whether to targeted screening up to age 69 is warranted. PMID:18226204

  10. English Language Teaching Management Research in Post-Compulsory Contexts: Still "Crawling Out"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the field of post-compulsory English Language Teaching (ELT) management research, enquiring into its identity, legitimacy and development, by identifying and discussing issues, problems, and controversies. It reviews the nature of the ELT sector as a predominantly commercial educational service with a significant role in "inner…

  11. Does "Compulsory Volunteering" Affect Subsequent Behavior? Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of "compulsory volunteerism" for adolescents on subsequent volunteer behavior exploiting the introduction of a mandatory community service program for high school (HS) students in Ontario, Canada. We use difference-in-differences approach with a large longitudinal dataset. Our estimates show that the…

  12. English Language Teaching Management Research in Post-Compulsory Contexts: Still "Crawling Out"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the field of post-compulsory English Language Teaching (ELT) management research, enquiring into its identity, legitimacy and development, by identifying and discussing issues, problems, and controversies. It reviews the nature of the ELT sector as a predominantly commercial educational service with a significant role in "inner…

  13. How do organisational characteristics influence teamwork and service delivery in lung cancer diagnostic assessment programmes? A mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Honein-AbouHaidar, Gladys N; Stuart-McEwan, Terri; Waddell, Tom; Salvarrey, Alexandra; Smylie, Jennifer; Dobrow, Mark J; Brouwers, Melissa C; Gagliardi, Anna R

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Diagnostic assessment programmes (DAPs) can reduce wait times for cancer diagnosis, but optimal DAP design is unknown. This study explored how organisational characteristics influenced multidisciplinary teamwork and diagnostic service delivery in lung cancer DAPs. Design A mixed-methods approach integrated data from descriptive qualitative interviews and medical record abstraction at 4 lung cancer DAPs. Findings were analysed with the Integrated Team Effectiveness Model. Setting 4 DAPs at 2 teaching and 2 community hospitals in Canada. Participants 22 staff were interviewed about organisational characteristics, target service benchmarks, and teamwork processes, determinants and outcomes; 314 medical records were reviewed for actual service benchmarks. Results Formal, informal and asynchronous team processes enabled service delivery and yielded many perceived benefits at the patient, staff and service levels. However, several DAP characteristics challenged teamwork and service delivery: referral volume/workload, time since launch, days per week of operation, rural–remote population, number and type of full-time/part-time human resources, staff colocation, information systems. As a result, all sites failed to meet target benchmarks (from referral to consultation median 4.0 visits, median wait time 35.0 days). Recommendations included improved information systems, more staff in all specialties, staff colocation and expanded roles for patient navigators. Findings were captured in a conceptual framework of lung cancer DAP teamwork determinants and outcomes. Conclusions This study identified several DAP characteristics that could be improved to facilitate teamwork and enhance service delivery, thereby contributing to knowledge of organisational determinants of teamwork and associated outcomes. Findings can be used to update existing DAP guidelines, and by managers to plan or evaluate lung cancer DAPs. Ongoing research is needed to identify ideal roles for

  14. Drop-in Services: Findings from an Evaluation of the Healthy Living Centre Programme in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truman, J.; Rankin, D.; Backett-Milburn, K.; Platt, S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diverse roles of drop-in services in the HLC sector; to develop further the classification of drop-in services offered by earlier studies; and to provide an example of some the challenges faced by HLCs in their attempts to tackle poor health using area-based methods with vulnerable, hard-to-reach users. Setting: Scottish…

  15. Participating in an International Master's Programme: Impact on Agency for African In-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impedovo, Maria Antonietta; Ligorio, Maria Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates teachers' agency in relation to their professional development. In particular, we refer to research skills and attitude in-service teachers may acquire while attending an international master of research in education. A semi-structured interview was administrated to nine in-service teachers, coming from three different…

  16. Drop-in Services: Findings from an Evaluation of the Healthy Living Centre Programme in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truman, J.; Rankin, D.; Backett-Milburn, K.; Platt, S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diverse roles of drop-in services in the HLC sector; to develop further the classification of drop-in services offered by earlier studies; and to provide an example of some the challenges faced by HLCs in their attempts to tackle poor health using area-based methods with vulnerable, hard-to-reach users. Setting: Scottish…

  17. Participating in an International Master's Programme: Impact on Agency for African In-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impedovo, Maria Antonietta; Ligorio, Maria Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates teachers' agency in relation to their professional development. In particular, we refer to research skills and attitude in-service teachers may acquire while attending an international master of research in education. A semi-structured interview was administrated to nine in-service teachers, coming from three different…

  18. Exploring Authenticity of Microteaching in Pre-Service Teacher Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Chuanjun; Yan, Chunmei

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the perspective of a cohort of 60 Chinese EFL pre-service teachers with regards to microteaching. Reflective paper writing was employed to explore the student teachers' perceptions of the experience. The study results show that microteaching was a useful tool for the pre-service teachers' professional development; however, the…

  19. Legal Challenges to Compulsory Attendance Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckham, Joseph C.

    Legal challenges to state compulsory attendance laws have emphasized four interrelated constitutional claims. Under provisions of the free exercise clause of the First Amendment, parents have challenged the state's authority to require public school attendance in lieu of home instruction and private, religious organizations have refused to comply…

  20. Post-Compulsory Education for Disabled People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This report presents findings of a 3-year study (1994-1997) of post-compulsory educational opportunities for adolescents and adults with disabilities in 10 European countries (Finland, France, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom), Australia, and the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Quebec. It…

  1. Compulsory licensing and access to drugs.

    PubMed

    Stavropoulou, Charitini; Valletti, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Compulsory licensing allows the use of a patented invention without the owner's consent, with the aim of improving access to essential drugs. The pharmaceutical sector argues that, if broadly used, it can be detrimental to innovation. We model the interaction between a company in the North that holds the patent for a certain drug and a government in the South that needs to purchase it. We show that both access to drugs and pharmaceutical innovation depend largely on the Southern country's ability to manufacture a generic version. If the manufacturing cost is too high, compulsory licensing is not exercised. As the cost decreases, it becomes a credible threat forcing prices down, but reducing both access and innovation. When the cost is low enough, the South produces its own generic version and access reaches its highest value, despite a reduction in innovation. The global welfare analysis shows that the overall impact of compulsory licensing can be positive, even when accounting for its impact on innovation. We also consider the interaction between compulsory licensing and the strength of intellectual property rights, which can have global repercussions in other markets beyond the South.

  2. Classroom Games in the Compulsory School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus-Serbic, Eva

    1976-01-01

    Keeping the pupils' interest up throughout the year in a compulsory language class is a major problem and therefore, language-teaching games are very important. Some new suggestions for games to be used in the elementary school are: (1) The Parrot; (2) The Robot; (3) Ping-Pong; and (4) Telephone. Card games such as Happy Families can be played…

  3. 15 CFR 700.72 - Compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compulsory process. 700.72 Section 700.72 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  4. 15 CFR 700.72 - Compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compulsory process. 700.72 Section 700.72 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  5. 15 CFR 700.72 - Compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compulsory process. 700.72 Section 700.72 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  6. Legal Challenges to Compulsory Attendance Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckham, Joseph C.

    Legal challenges to state compulsory attendance laws have emphasized four interrelated constitutional claims. Under provisions of the free exercise clause of the First Amendment, parents have challenged the state's authority to require public school attendance in lieu of home instruction and private, religious organizations have refused to comply…

  7. Compulsory Schooling in a Changing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The object of this report is to review recent developments in compulsory schooling, to raise what appear to be the critical educational problems alreading facing, or beginning to emerge in, the countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and to suggest some of the considerations that might influence policy…

  8. Developing a checklist for research proposals to help describe health service interventions in UK research programmes: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Dorling, Hannah; White, Donna; Turner, Sheila; Campbell, Kevin; Lamont, Tara

    2014-03-04

    One of the most common reasons for rejecting research proposals in the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Services and Delivery Research (HS&DR) Programme is the failure to adequately specify the intervention or context in research proposals. Examples of failed research proposals include projects to assess integrated care models, use of generic caseworkers, or new specialist nurse services. These are all important service developments which need evaluation, but the lack of clarity about the intervention and context prevented these research proposals from obtaining funding. The purpose of the research presented herein was to develop a checklist, with key service intervention and contextual features, for use by applicants to the NIHR HS&DR Programme to potentially enhance the quality of research proposals. The study used mixed methods to identify the need for and develop and test a checklist. Firstly, this included assessing existing checklists in peer-reviewed literature relevant to organisational health research. Building on existing work, a new checklist was piloted. Two reviewers used a small sample (n = 16) of research proposals to independently assess the relevance of the checklist to the proposal and the degree of overlap or gaps between the constructs. The next two stages externally validated the revised checklist by collecting qualitative feedback from researchers and experts in the field. The initial checklist was developed from existing checklists which included domains of intervention and context. The constructs and background to each were developed through review of existing literature. Eight researchers provided feedback on the checklist, which was generally positive. This iterative process resulted in changes to the checklist, collapsing two constructs and providing more prompts for others; the final checklist includes six constructs. Features relating to intervention and context should be well described to increase the quality of

  9. Innovation and the English National Health Service: a qualitative study of the independent sector treatment centre programme.

    PubMed

    Turner, Simon; Allen, Pauline; Bartlett, Will; Pérotin, Virginie

    2011-08-01

    Over the past two decades, an international trend of exposing public health services to different forms of economic organisation has emerged. In the English National Health Service (NHS), care is currently provided through a quasi-market including 'diverse' providers from the private and third sector. The predominant scheme through which private sector companies have been awarded NHS contracts is the Independent Sector Treatment Centre (ISTC) programme. ISTCs were designed to produce innovative models of service delivery for elective care and stimulate innovation among incumbent NHS providers. This paper investigates these claims using qualitative data on the impact of an ISTC upon a local health economy (LHE) composed of NHS organisations in England. Using the case of elective orthopaedic surgery, we conducted semi-structured interviews with senior managers from incumbent NHS providers and an ISTC in 2009. We show that ISTCs exhibit a different relationship with frontline clinicians because they counteract the power of professional communities associated with the NHS. This has positive and negative consequences for innovation. ISTCs have introduced new routines unencumbered by the extant norms of professional communities, but they appear to represent weaker learning environments and do not reproduce cooperation across organisational boundaries to the same extent as incumbent NHS providers.

  10. Improving services for glaucoma care in Nigeria: implications for policy and programmes to achieve universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Kyari, Fatima; Gilbert, Clare; Blanchet, Karl; Wormald, Richard

    2017-05-01

    Glaucoma in Africa is sometimes referred to as the silent thief of sight. In Nigeria, glaucoma is common, it is serious, ophthalmologists face many constraints in managing it, people do not even know they have it until it is advanced, patients do not understand or comply with treatment after they are diagnosed and the poor are more likely to be glaucoma blind. Available evidence indicates that the health system in Nigeria is failing to meet the needs of patients with glaucoma. Based on evidence, we propose future directions for improving services for glaucoma care in Nigeria, and the implications for policy and programmes to control glaucoma blindness, using a health system-oriented approach. Three complementary strategies are required: (i) strengthening clinical services for glaucoma-by developing models of glaucoma care, improving clinical treatment options, making medicines and equipment available, financing glaucoma care and training eye care workers; (ii) introducing initiatives for earlier detection of glaucoma in the clinic and approaches in the community and (iii) strengthening health system governance. Glaucoma is a complex disease to manage and addressing it as a public health problem is challenging. However, we need to change the paradigm to recognise that glaucoma is a potentially avoidable cause of blindness in Africa. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Strategies to improve the implementation of healthy eating, physical activity and obesity prevention policies, practices or programmes within childcare services.

    PubMed

    Wolfenden, Luke; Jones, Jannah; Williams, Christopher M; Finch, Meghan; Wyse, Rebecca J; Kingsland, Melanie; Tzelepis, Flora; Wiggers, John; Williams, Amanda J; Seward, Kirsty; Small, Tameka; Welch, Vivian; Booth, Debbie; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2016-10-04

    Despite the existence of effective interventions and best-practice guideline recommendations for childcare services to implement policies, practices and programmes to promote child healthy eating, physical activity and prevent unhealthy weight gain, many services fail to do so. The primary aim of the review was to examine the effectiveness of strategies aimed at improving the implementation of policies, practices or programmes by childcare services that promote child healthy eating, physical activity and/or obesity prevention. The secondary aims of the review were to:1. describe the impact of such strategies on childcare service staff knowledge, skills or attitudes;2. describe the cost or cost-effectiveness of such strategies;3. describe any adverse effects of such strategies on childcare services, service staff or children;4. examine the effect of such strategies on child diet, physical activity or weight status. We searched the following electronic databases on 3 August 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE In Process, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL and SCOPUS. We also searched reference lists of included trials, handsearched two international implementation science journals and searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (www.who.int/ictrp/) and ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov). We included any study (randomised or non-randomised) with a parallel control group that compared any strategy to improve the implementation of a healthy eating, physical activity or obesity prevention policy, practice or programme by staff of centre-based childcare services to no intervention, 'usual' practice or an alternative strategy. The review authors independently screened abstracts and titles, extracted trial data and assessed risk of bias in pairs; we resolved discrepancies via consensus. Heterogeneity across studies precluded pooling of data and undertaking quantitative

  12. Evaluating the feasibility of a web-based weight loss programme for naval service personnel with excess body weight.

    PubMed

    Garip, Gulcan; Morton, Kate; Bridger, Robert; Yardley, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern that may influence the operational capacity of the UK Naval Service (NS). This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of trialling and implementing a modified web-based weight loss programme for overweight and obese NS personnel. The feasibility of a web-based weight loss programme with minimal face to face support was evaluated using a non-randomised design, based on the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, and Implementation (RE-AIM) dimensions of a framework designed for analysing implementation of interventions in practice. It was estimated that 6% (n = 58) of eligible NS personnel at recruitment sites were reached, based on personnel's expressions of interest to take part in the study. The potential efficacy of the intervention was evaluated by analysing participants' change in weight (kg) in the two groups. Forty-three participants were allocated to the intervention (n = 21) or control group (n = 22). Website usage was low, with 1.5 sessions accessed on average, over a 12-week follow-up. Changes in body weight over 12 weeks appeared to be observed for participants in the intervention group but not in the control group. The average weight loss observed in the intervention group (mean = -1.9 kg, SD = 2.1) appeared to reach significance, 95% CI [-2.8, -1.0], whereas no significant weight loss was apparent among control group participants (mean = -0.8 kg, SD = 3.8), 95% CI [-2.4, 0.8]. However, this feasibility study was not powered to test for within or group differences. Recruitment rates varied across five NS establishments invited to take part in the study, suggesting that the web-based weight loss programme was not adopted to the same extent across all bases. The online programme was not implemented as intended in terms of regular usage by participants and support provision by physical training instructors. The results suggest that the intervention may warrant further investigation

  13. [Crisis Cards for the Prevention of Compulsory Hospitalization].

    PubMed

    Drack-Schönenberger, Thekla; Bleiker, Marco; Lengler, Silke; Blank, Christina; Rössler, Wulf; Lay, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    To assess early signs of mental-health crises, treatment-specific demands and individual coping strategies from the subjective patients' perspective, and to categorize these specifications on the patients' crisis cards. A sample of 108 psychiatric patients with severe mental disorders is currently taking part in an intervention programme targeting the reduction of compulsory re-admission to psychiatry. As part of the programme, patients fill in a crisis card. Data are analysed by a qualitative approach using content analysis. A variety of early signs of a crisis was specified by the psychiatric patients, most often negative emotions/thoughts (48 %). Likewise, the analysis revealed a wide range of treatment-specific preferences and individual strategies to cope with mental-health crises. Drawing up a crisis card in collaboration with a patient and discussing its contents might be used as a treatment resource and be beneficial to increase the patient's empowerment. Essential for the long-term prevention of mental-health crises and relapses is the regular reflection of the contents of a patient's crisis card. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Supporting smarter, healthier and greener societies: the dawn of operational environmental information services Some examples from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) programme in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peuch, V. H.

    2016-12-01

    Operational environmental services are a reality today, as exemplified by the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service in Europe. Air quality forecasts, information on the long-range transport of dust or of fire plumes or on greenhouse gas fluxes have become reliable enough to be considered by decision makers and to be communicated broadly -making our societies more informed about the changing environment and about the direct link between human activities, atmospheric composition, weather and climate. Many aspects of the value-adding information chains that have been built over the years share commonalities with Numerical Weather Prediction: global and regional numerical models, reflecting both the level of understanding of physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere and the contemporary computing capabilities, are used to blend observations from different in situ and, increasingly, Earth Observation sources. Significantly, the World Meteorological Organisation has recently added a new component to the Global Atmospheric Watch programme in the form of a Science Advisory Group on "Applications". The main objectives of this group are to develop a portfolio of products and services related to atmospheric composition and to demonstrate particularly the usefulness of exchanging chemical observational data in Near-Real-Time. Exchanging best practices worldwide and facilitating the set-up of new applications are also among the activities. Having operational applications does not imply that research efforts to improve environmental monitoring and forecasting services have become obsolete. Quite the contrary: feedbacks and increasingly demanding requirements from users are stimulating steady progress. The last part of the talk will support the idea that atmospheric compositions services are not only an application or an extension of weather services but contribute now also to the core of them. Atmospheric composition information has become indeed of high interest for

  15. Public Library Service in Whitby. Part I, The Community, The Present Service and the Future. Part 2, A Building Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowron, Albert

    A survey of the present service and future needs of the Whitby Public Library in Ontario, Canada was undertaken, and a new library building was planned. Part I describes the historical background of Whitby, the role of the present library in local history, the growth of the Town of Whitby from a population of 2,300 to 20,000, and the philosophy on…

  16. Experiences of Kenyan healthcare workers providing services to men who have sex with men: qualitative findings from a sensitivity training programme

    PubMed Central

    van der Elst, Elise M; Gichuru, Evans; Omar, Anisa; Kanungi, Jennifer; Duby, Zoe; Midoun, Miriam; Shangani, Sylvia; Graham, Susan M; Smith, Adrian D; Sanders, Eduard J; Operario, Don

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Kenya are at high risk for HIV and may experience prejudiced treatment in health settings due to stigma. An on-line computer-facilitated MSM sensitivity programme was conducted to educate healthcare workers (HCWs) about the health issues and needs of MSM patients. Methods Seventy-four HCWs from 49 ART-providing health facilities in the Kenyan Coast were recruited through purposive sampling to undergo a two-day MSM sensitivity training. We conducted eight focus group discussions (FGDs) with programme participants prior to and three months after completing the training programme. Discussions aimed to characterize HCWs’ challenges in serving MSM patients and impacts of programme participation on HCWs’ personal attitudes and professional capacities. Results Before participating in the training programme, HCWs described secondary stigma, lack of professional education about MSM, and personal and social prejudices as barriers to serving MSM clients. After completing the programme, HCWs expressed greater acknowledgement of MSM patients in their clinics, endorsed the need to treat MSM patients with high professional standards and demonstrated sophisticated awareness of the social and behavioural risks for HIV among MSM. Conclusions Findings provide support for this approach to improving health services for MSM patients. Further efforts are needed to broaden the reach of this training in other areas, address identified barriers to HCW participation and evaluate programme effects on patient and HCW outcomes using rigorous methodology. PMID:24321109

  17. Scaling up family medicine training in Gezira, Sudan – a 2-year in-service master programme using modern information and communication technology: a survey study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010 the Gezira Family Medicine Project (GFMP) was initiated in Gezira state, Sudan, designed as an in-service training model. The project is a collaboration project between the University of Gezira, which aims to provide a 2-year master’s programme in family medicine for practicing doctors, and the Ministry of Health, which facilitates service provision and funds the training programme. This paper presents the programme, the teaching environment, and the first batch of candidates enrolled. Methods In this study a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect baseline data at the start of the project from doctors who joined the programme. A checklist was also used to assess the health centres where they work. A total of 188 out of 207 doctors responded (91%), while data were gathered from all 158 health centres (100%) staffed by the programme candidates. Results The Gezira model of in-service family medicine training has succeeded in recruiting 207 candidates in its first batch, providing health services in 158 centres, of which 84 had never been served by a doctor before. The curriculum is community oriented. The mean age of doctors was 32.5 years, 57% were males, and 32% were graduates from the University of Gezira. Respondents stated high confidence in practicing some skills such as asthma management and post-abortion uterine evacuation. They were least confident in other skills such as managing depression or inserting an intrauterine device. The majority of health centres was poorly equipped for management of noncommunicable diseases, as only 10% had an electrocardiography machine (ECG), 5% had spirometer, and 1% had a defibrillator. Conclusions The Gezira model has responded to local health system needs. Use of modern information and communication technology is used to facilitate both health service provision and training. The GFMP represents an example of a large-volume scaling-up programme of family medicine in Africa. PMID:24443978

  18. Scaling up family medicine training in Gezira, Sudan - a 2-year in-service master programme using modern information and communication technology: a survey study.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Khalid G; Hunskaar, Steinar; Abdelrahman, Samira Hamid; Malik, Elfatih M

    2014-01-21

    In 2010 the Gezira Family Medicine Project (GFMP) was initiated in Gezira state, Sudan, designed as an in-service training model. The project is a collaboration project between the University of Gezira, which aims to provide a 2-year master's programme in family medicine for practicing doctors, and the Ministry of Health, which facilitates service provision and funds the training programme. This paper presents the programme, the teaching environment, and the first batch of candidates enrolled. In this study a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect baseline data at the start of the project from doctors who joined the programme. A checklist was also used to assess the health centres where they work. A total of 188 out of 207 doctors responded (91%), while data were gathered from all 158 health centres (100%) staffed by the programme candidates. The Gezira model of in-service family medicine training has succeeded in recruiting 207 candidates in its first batch, providing health services in 158 centres, of which 84 had never been served by a doctor before. The curriculum is community oriented. The mean age of doctors was 32.5 years, 57% were males, and 32% were graduates from the University of Gezira. Respondents stated high confidence in practicing some skills such as asthma management and post-abortion uterine evacuation. They were least confident in other skills such as managing depression or inserting an intrauterine device. The majority of health centres was poorly equipped for management of noncommunicable diseases, as only 10% had an electrocardiography machine (ECG), 5% had spirometer, and 1% had a defibrillator. The Gezira model has responded to local health system needs. Use of modern information and communication technology is used to facilitate both health service provision and training. The GFMP represents an example of a large-volume scaling-up programme of family medicine in Africa.

  19. The Impact of In-Service Technology Training Programmes on Technology Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumbo, Mishack; Makgato, Moses; Muller, Helene

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact the Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE) in-service technology training program has on technology teachers' knowledge and understanding of technology. The training of technology teachers is an initiative toward teachers' professional development within the mathematics, science, and technology sphere…

  20. Overview of Integrated Child Development Services Programme in India: Some Policy Implications for Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrestha, Kishor

    This paper presents an overview of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program in India, discusses the context of Early Childhood Education (ECE) in Nepal, analyzes the best practices of the ICDS, and draws some policy implications for improving ECE in Nepal. The ICDS program is an integrated child development program with the…

  1. Urban settings do not ensure access to services: findings from the immunisation programme in Kampala Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies on vaccination coverage in developing countries focus on individual- and community-level barriers to routine vaccination mostly in rural settings. This paper examines health system barriers to childhood immunisation in urban Kampala Uganda. Methods Mixed methods were employed with a survey among child caretakers, 9 focus group discussions (FGDs), and 9 key informant interviews (KIIs). Survey data underwent descriptive statistical analysis. Latent content analysis was used for qualitative data. Results Of the 821 respondents in the survey, 96% (785/821) were mothers with a mean age of 26 years (95% CI 24–27). Poor geographical access to immunisation facilities was reported in this urban setting by FGDs, KIIs and survey respondents (24%, 95% CI 21–27). This coupled with reports of few health workers providing immunisation services led to long queues and long waiting times at facilities. Consumers reported waiting for 3–6 hours before receipt of services although this was more common at public facilities. Only 33% (95% CI 30–37) of survey respondents were willing to wait for three or more hours before receipt of services. Although private-for-profit facilities were engaged in immunisation service provision their participation was low as only 30% (95% CI 27–34) of the survey respondents utilised these facilities. The low participation could be due to lack of financial support for immunisation activities at these facilities. This in turn could explain the rampant informal charges for services in this setting. Charges ranged from US$ 0.2 to US$4 and these were more commonly reported at private (70%, 95% CI 65–76) than at public (58%, 95% CI 54–63) facilities. There were intermittent availability of vaccines and transport for immunisation services at both private and public facilities. Conclusions Complex health system barriers to childhood immunisation still exist in this urban setting; emphasizing that even in urban areas with

  2. Improving Physics Teaching through Action Research: The Impact of a Nationwide Professional Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Marcus; Rietdijk, Willeke; Garrett, Caro; Griffiths, Janice

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an independent evaluation of the Action Research for Physics (ARP) programme, a nationwide professional development programme which trains teachers to use action research to increase student interest in physics and encourage them to take post-compulsory physics. The impact of the programme was explored from the perspective of…

  3. Improving Physics Teaching through Action Research: The Impact of a Nationwide Professional Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Marcus; Rietdijk, Willeke; Garrett, Caro; Griffiths, Janice

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an independent evaluation of the Action Research for Physics (ARP) programme, a nationwide professional development programme which trains teachers to use action research to increase student interest in physics and encourage them to take post-compulsory physics. The impact of the programme was explored from the perspective of…

  4. The Copernicus programme and its Climate Change Service (C3S): a European answer to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinty, Bernard; Thepaut, Jean-Noel; Dee, Dick

    2016-07-01

    In November 2014, The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) signed an agreement with the European Commission to deliver two of the Copernicus Earth Observation Programme Services on the Commission's behalf. The ECMWF delivered services - the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) - will bring a consistent standard to how we measure and predict atmospheric conditions and climate change. They will maximise the potential of past, current and future earth observations - ground, ocean, airborne, satellite - and analyse these to monitor and predict atmospheric conditions and in the future, climate change. With the wealth of free and open data that the services provide, they will help business users to assess the impact of their business decisions and make informed choices, delivering a more energy efficient and climate aware economy. These sound investment decisions now will not only stimulate growth in the short term, but reduce the impact of climate change on the economy and society in the future. C3S is in its proof of concept phase and through its climate data store will provide global and regional climate data reanalyses; multi-model seasonal forecasts; customisable visual data to enable examination of wide range of scenarios and model the impact of changes; access to all the underlying data, including climate data records from various satellite and in-situ observations. In addition, C3S will provide key indicators on climate change drivers (such as carbon dioxide) and impacts (such as reducing glaciers). The aim of these indicators will be to support European adaptation and mitigation policies in a number of economic sectors. The presentation will provide an overview of this newly created Service, its various components and activities, and a roadmap towards achieving a fully operational European Climate Service at the horizon 2019-2020. It will focus on the requirements for quality-assured Observation

  5. The World Health Organization Library (Geneva) and Health Literature Services Programme.

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, B

    1988-01-01

    The origins and functions of the World Health Organization (WHO) Library and the global, regional, and national objectives of the WHO Health Literature Services Program (HLSP) are reviewed. WHO is an aggregate of nations and not a supra-national body. With limited resources and unlimited needs, HLSP is involved in surveys, training, regional medical libraries, national and regional networks, bibliographic services and document delivery, promotion, coordination, and communication. The basic concept of HLSP eschews internationally-conceived, self-contained technical projects in favor of broad programs based on national planning. Small rural centers receive more attention than large urban hospitals, and preventive medicine together with health education and community involvement are of more immediate concern than curative medicine. National self-reliance implies national initiative but not necessarily national self-sufficiency. Recent planning and implementation of HLSP activities are described. PMID:3370376

  6. Learning Our Way into Communication: The Making of the Communication and Information Strategy "with" the National Agricultural Advisory Services Programme in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the making of the Communication and Information Strategy with the National Agricultural Advisory Services Programme (NAADS) in Uganda. The NAADS is a new organization in government responsible for the implementation of a demand-driven agricultural extension approach. The new extension approach calls for fundamental changes in…

  7. He Waka Tino Whakarawea: A Model for Evaluating the Cultural Appropriateness and Effectiveness of Programmes and Services for Maori Learners both with and without Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan-Brown, Jill

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a waka tino whakarawea model for evaluating programmes and services for Maori learners. It is based on a set of underlying principles identified in the author's PhD study (Bevan-Brown, 2002). Explanations are provided for eight principles: kaupapa Maori; importance, relevance and beneficence; participation; empowerment,…

  8. Nourish and Nurture: World Food Programme Assistance for Early Childhood Education in India's Integrated Child Development Services. Education Sector Monograph No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj-Blatchford, Iram

    Part of UNESCO's Action Research in Family and Early Childhood series, this monograph is based upon a technical report on the Early Childhood Education (ECE) component of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program in India. This document overviews the ICDS and how better use could be made of World Food Programme (WFP) food aid along…

  9. The green shoots of a novel training programme: progress and identified key actions to providing services to MSM at Kenyan health facilities

    PubMed Central

    van der Elst, Elise M; Kombo, Bernadette; Gichuru, Evans; Omar, Anisa; Musyoki, Helgar; Graham, Susan M; Smith, Adrian D; Sanders, Eduard J; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although men who have sex with men (MSM) in sub-Saharan Africa are at high risk for HIV acquisition, access to and quality of health and HIV services within this population are negatively affected by stigma and capacity within the health sector. A recently developed online MSM training programme (www.marps-africa.org) was shown to contribute to reductions in MSM prejudice among healthcare providers (HCPs) in coastal Kenya. In this study, we used qualitative methods to explore the provision of MSM healthcare services two years post-training in coastal Kenya. Methods From February to July 2014, we held 10 focus group discussions (FGD) with 63 participants, including HCP from 25 facilities, county AIDS coordinators and MSM from local support groups. Participants discussed availability, acceptability and accessibility of HIV healthcare for MSM. HCP also discussed changes in their health service practices after completing the training. FGD were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using Ritchie and Spencer's “framework approach” for qualitative data. Results HCPs described continued improvements in their ability to provide service in a non-stigmatizing way to MSM patients since completing the training programme and expressed comfort engaging MSM patients in care. Four additional recommendations for improving MSM healthcare services were identified: 1) expanding the reach of MSM sensitivity training across the medical education continuum; 2) establishing guidelines to manage sexually transmitted anal infections; 3) promoting legal and policy reforms to support integration of MSM-appropriate services into healthcare; and 4) including MSM information in national reporting tools for HIV services. Conclusions Positive impacts of this sensitivity and skills training programme were reflected in HCP attitudes two years post-intervention. Scaling-up of efforts will rely on continued policies to include MSM in healthcare programmes to reduce stigma in

  10. Accelerating reproductive and child health programme impact with community-based services: the Navrongo experiment in Ghana.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, James F.; Bawah, Ayaga A.; Binka, Fred N.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the demographic and health impact of deploying health service nurses and volunteers to village locations with a view to scaling up results. METHODS: A four-celled plausibility trial was used for testing the impact of aligning community health services with the traditional social institutions that organize village life. Data from the Navrongo Demographic Surveillance System that tracks fertility and mortality events over time were used to estimate impact on fertility and mortality. RESULTS: Assigning nurses to community locations reduced childhood mortality rates by over half in 3 years and accelerated the time taken for attainment of the child survival Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in the study areas to 8 years. Fertility was also reduced by 15%, representing a decline of one birth in the total fertility rate. Programme costs added 1.92 US Dollar per capita to the 6.80 US Dollar per capita primary health care budget. CONCLUSION: Assigning nurses to community locations where they provide basic curative and preventive care substantially reduces childhood mortality and accelerates progress towards attainment of the child survival MDG. Approaches using community volunteers, however, have no impact on mortality. The results also demonstrate that increasing access to contraceptive supplies alone fails to address the social costs of fertility regulation. Effective deployment of volunteers and community mobilization strategies offsets the social constraints on the adoption of contraception. The research in Navrongo thus demonstrates that affordable and sustainable means of combining nurse services with volunteer action can accelerate attainment of both the International Conference on Population and Development agenda and the MDGs. PMID:17242830

  11. Do the pre-service education programmes for midwives in India prepare confident ‘registered midwives’? A survey from India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bharati; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Johansson, Eva; Prakasamma, Malvarappu; Ramani, K.V.; Christensson, Kyllike

    2015-01-01

    Objective The graduates of the diploma and degree programmes of nursing and midwifery in India are considered skilled birth attendants (SBAs). This paper aimed to assess the confidence of final-year students from pre-service education programmes (diploma and bachelor's) in selected midwifery skills from the list of midwifery competencies of the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM). Design A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Gujarat, India, involving 633 final-year students from 25 educational institutions (private or government), randomly selected, stratified by the type of programme (diploma and bachelor's). Students assessed their confidence on a four-point scale, in four midwifery competency domains – antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum, and newborn care. Explorative factor analysis was used to reduce skill statements into separate subscales for each domain. Results Overall, 25–40% of students scored above the 75th percentile and 38–50% below the 50th percentile of confidence in all subscales for antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum, and newborn care. The majority had not attended the required number of births prescribed by the Indian Nursing Council. Conclusions The pre-service education offered in the diploma and bachelor's programmes in Gujarat does not prepare confident SBAs, as measured on selected midwifery competencies of the ICM. One of the underlying reasons was less clinical experience during their education. The duration, content, and pedagogy of midwifery education within the integrated programmes need to be reviewed. PMID:26649550

  12. Residential age care and domiciliary oral health services: Reach-OHT-The development of a metropolitan oral health programme in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Wright, F A Clive; Law, Garry; Chu, Steven K-Y; Cullen, John S; Le Couteur, David G

    2017-07-19

    To describe an oral health care programme for older people in Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACFs) to improve access to care and support facilities. Different models of residential care have been proposed, but few have been comprehensive (providing on-site health promotion and service delivery) or sustainable. A partnership model of oral health care, with dental services plus oral health education, was integrated into the community outreach services of a metropolitan hospital department of aged care. The programme provided annual oral health education and training to staff, and on-site dental care to 10 (RACFs). None of the RACFs had received organised education or on-site dental service care prior to the programme. At the completion of the third year of the programme, 607 residents (75% of the total bed capacity for the 10 RACFs) had received an annual oral health assessment, and 271 (46.5%) had received on-site dental care. More than 120 nursing and allied health staff had received education and training in oral health support to residents. Oral cleanliness, the proportion not experiencing dental pain and referral for additional care decreased significantly over the period, but dental caries experience and periodontal conditions remained a concern. Sustainable domiciliary oral health services and oral health education are feasible and practical using a partnership model within the Australian health system. Adaptability, continuity and the use of oral health therapists/dental hygienists in the coordination and management of the programme further contribute to viability. © 2017 The Authors. Gerodontology published by The Gerodontology Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Therapeutic education programme for patients with chronic endocrine conditions: Transition from paediatric to adult services].

    PubMed

    Malivoir, Sabine; Courtillot, Carine; Bachelot, Anne; Chakhtoura, Zeina; Téjédor, Isabelle; Touraine, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to better identifying the transition of patients with chronic endocrine conditions from paediatric to adult department. The aim was to specify the means and the competences that must be used by patients and health care teams and which could be help to the best quality care. We propose group sessions and individual interviews. A thematic analysis of the sessions and the responses to questionnaires have enabled the development of individual educational diagnosis and assess the autonomy of young adolescents. Fifty of 214 patients from paediatric services participated to therapeutic education program (TEP) in the last four years. This program is based on the psychic movements of adolescence. One year after the therapeutic education program session, 48 patients came to all the medical consultations and we observed a greater autonomy in adolescent patients. However, we must improve the modalities for including patients in this "transition program". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Compulsory Schooling Laws and Migration Across European Countries.

    PubMed

    Aparicio Fenoll, Ainhoa; Kuehn, Zoë

    2017-10-02

    Educational attainment is a key factor for understanding why some individuals migrate and others do not. Compulsory schooling laws, which determine an individual's minimum level of education, can potentially affect migration. We test whether and how increasing the length of compulsory schooling influences migration of affected cohorts across European countries, a context where labor mobility is essentially free. We construct a novel database that includes information for 31 European countries on compulsory education reforms passed between 1950 and 1990. Combining this data with information on recent migration flows by cohorts, we find that an additional year of compulsory education reduces the number of individuals from affected cohorts who migrate in a given year by 9 %. Our results rely on the exogeneity of compulsory schooling laws. A variety of empirical tests indicate that European legislators did not pass compulsory education reforms as a reaction to changes in emigration rates or educational attainment.

  15. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMPULSORY DRUG TREATMENT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Werb, D; Kamarulzaman, A; Meacham, MC; Rafful, C; Fisher, B; Strathdee, SA; Wood, E

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite widespread implementation of compulsory treatment modalities for drug dependence, there has been no systematic evaluation of the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of compulsory drug treatment. Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies assessing the outcomes of compulsory treatment. We conducted a search in duplicate of all relevant peer-reviewed scientific literature evaluating compulsory treatment modalities. The following academic databases were searched: PubMed, PAIS International, Proquest, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Soc Abstracts, JSTOR, EBSCO/Academic Search Complete, REDALYC, SciELO Brazil. We also searched the Internet, and article reference lists, from database inception to July 15th, 2015. Eligibility criteria are as follows: peer-reviewed scientific studies presenting original data. Primary outcome of interest was post-treatment drug use. Secondary outcome of interest was post-treatment criminal recidivism. Results Of an initial 430 potential studies identified, nine quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies evaluated compulsory treatment options including drug detention facilities, short (i.e. 21-day) and long-term (i.e., 6 months) inpatient treatment, community-based treatment, group-based outpatient treatment, and prison-based treatment. Three studies (33%) reported no significant impacts of compulsory treatment compared with control interventions. Two studies (22%) found equivocal results but did not compare against a control condition. Two studies (22%) observed negative impacts of compulsory treatment on criminal recidivism. Two studies (22%) observed positive impacts of compulsory inpatient treatment on criminal recidivism and drug use. Conclusion There is limited scientific literature evaluating compulsory drug treatment. Evidence does not, on the whole, suggest improved outcomes related to compulsory treatment approaches, with some studies suggesting potential harms. Given the potential for human

  16. The effectiveness of compulsory drug treatment: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Werb, D; Kamarulzaman, A; Meacham, M C; Rafful, C; Fischer, B; Strathdee, S A; Wood, E

    2016-02-01

    Despite widespread implementation of compulsory treatment modalities for drug dependence, there has been no systematic evaluation of the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of compulsory drug treatment. We conducted a systematic review of studies assessing the outcomes of compulsory treatment. We conducted a search in duplicate of all relevant peer-reviewed scientific literature evaluating compulsory treatment modalities. The following academic databases were searched: PubMed, PAIS International, Proquest, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Soc Abstracts, JSTOR, EBSCO/Academic Search Complete, REDALYC, SciELO Brazil. We also searched the Internet, and article reference lists, from database inception to July 15th, 2015. Eligibility criteria are as follows: peer-reviewed scientific studies presenting original data. Primary outcome of interest was post-treatment drug use. Secondary outcome of interest was post-treatment criminal recidivism. Of an initial 430 potential studies identified, nine quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies evaluated compulsory treatment options including drug detention facilities, short (i.e., 21-day) and long-term (i.e., 6 months) inpatient treatment, community-based treatment, group-based outpatient treatment, and prison-based treatment. Three studies (33%) reported no significant impacts of compulsory treatment compared with control interventions. Two studies (22%) found equivocal results but did not compare against a control condition. Two studies (22%) observed negative impacts of compulsory treatment on criminal recidivism. Two studies (22%) observed positive impacts of compulsory inpatient treatment on criminal recidivism and drug use. There is limited scientific literature evaluating compulsory drug treatment. Evidence does not, on the whole, suggest improved outcomes related to compulsory treatment approaches, with some studies suggesting potential harms. Given the potential for human rights abuses within compulsory

  17. Evaluation of a community awareness programme to reduce delays in referrals to early intervention services and enhance early detection of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Sweeney, Angela; Hinton, Mark; Morant, Nicola; Pilling, Stephen; Leibowitz, Judy; Killaspy, Helen; Tanskanen, Sanna; Totman, Jonathan; Armstrong, Jessica; Johnson, Sonia

    2015-05-02

    Reducing treatment delay and coercive pathways to care are accepted aims for Early Intervention Services (EIS) for people experiencing first episode psychosis but how to achieve this is unclear. A one-year community awareness programme was implemented in a London EIS team, targeting staff in non-health service community organisations. The programme comprised psycho-educational workshops and EIS link workers, and offering direct referral routes to EIS. Its feasibility and its impact on duration of untreated psychosis and pathways to EIS were evaluated. Evaluation comprised: pre and post questionnaires with workshop participants assessing knowledge and attitudes to psychosis and mental health services; and a comparison of new service users' "service DUP"(time from first psychotic symptom to first contact with EIS) and pathways to care in the intervention year and preceding year. Focus groups sought stakeholders' views regarding the benefits and limitations of the programme and what else might promote help-seeking. 41 workshops at 36 community organisations were attended by 367 staff. 19 follow up workshops were conducted and 16 services were allocated an EIS link worker. Participants' knowledge and attitudes to psychosis and attitudes to mental health services improved significantly following workshops. In the year of the intervention, only 6 of 110 new service users reached EIS directly via community organisations. For all new referrals accepted by EIS, in the intervention year compared to the previous year, there was no difference in mean or median service DUP. A clear impact on pathways to care could not be discerned. Stakeholders suggested that barriers to referral remained. These included: uncertainty about the signs of early psychosis, disengagement by young people when becoming unwell, and worries about stigma or coercive treatment from mental health services. More general, youth focused, mental health services were proposed. The community awareness programme

  18. Implementing a successful tuberculosis programme within primary care services in a conflict area using the stop TB strategy: Afghanistan case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has faced health consequences of war including those due to displacement of populations, breakdown of health and social services, and increased risks of disease transmission for over three decades. Yet it was able to restructure its National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP), integrate tuberculosis treatment into primary health care and achieve most of its targets by the year 2011. What were the processes that enabled the programme to achieve its targets? More importantly, what were the underpinning factors that made this success possible? We addressed these important questions through a case study. Case description We adopted a processes and outcomes framework for this study, which began with examining the change in key programme indicators, followed by backwards tracing of the processes and underlying factors, responsible for this change. Methods included review of the published and grey literature along with in-depth interviews of 15 key informants involved with the care of tuberculosis patients in Afghanistan. Discussion and evaluation TB incidence and mortality per 100,000 decreased from 325 and 92 to 189 and 39 respectively, while case notification and treatment success improved during the decade under study. Efficient programme structures were enabled through high political commitment from the Government, strong leadership from the programme, effective partnership and coordination among stakeholders, and adequate technical and financial support from the development partners. Conclusions The NTP Afghanistan is an example that public health programmes can be effectively implemented in fragile states. High political commitment and strong local leadership are essential factors for such programmes. To ensure long-term effectiveness of the NTP, the international support should be withdrawn in a phased manner, coupled with a sequential increase in resources allocated to the NTP by the Government of Afghanistan. PMID:24507446

  19. Ants, Apples and the ABCs: The Use of Commercial Phonics Programmes in Prior-to-School Children's Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Stacey; Torr, Jane; Cologon, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Commercial phonics programmes (e.g. Jolly Phonics and Letterland) are becoming widely used in the early years of school. These programmes claim to use a systematic explicit approach, considered as the preferred method of phonics instruction for teaching alphabetic code-breaking skills in Australia and the UK in the first years of school…

  20. Ants, Apples and the ABCs: The Use of Commercial Phonics Programmes in Prior-to-School Children's Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Stacey; Torr, Jane; Cologon, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Commercial phonics programmes (e.g. Jolly Phonics and Letterland) are becoming widely used in the early years of school. These programmes claim to use a systematic explicit approach, considered as the preferred method of phonics instruction for teaching alphabetic code-breaking skills in Australia and the UK in the first years of school…

  1. Can programme theory be used as a 'translational tool’ to optimise health service delivery in a national early years’ initiative in Scotland: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Theory-based evaluation (TBE) approaches are heralded as supporting formative evaluation by facilitating increased use of evaluative findings to guide programme improvement. It is essential that learning from programme implementation is better used to improve delivery and to inform other initiatives, if interventions are to be as effective as they have the potential to be. Nonetheless, few studies describe formative feedback methods, or report direct instrumental use of findings resulting from TBE. This paper uses the case of Scotland’s, National Health Service, early years’, oral health improvement initiative (Childsmile) to describe the use of TBE as a framework for providing feedback on delivery to programme staff and to assess its impact on programmatic action. Methods In-depth, semi-structured interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders explored perceived deviations between the Childsmile programme 'as delivered’ and its Programme Theory (PT). The data was thematically analysed using constant comparative methods. Findings were shared with key programme stakeholders and discussions around likely impact and necessary actions were facilitated by the authors. Documentary review and ongoing observations of programme meetings were undertaken to assess the extent to which learning was acted upon. Results On the whole, the activities documented in Childsmile’s PT were implemented as intended. This paper purposefully focuses on those activities where variation in delivery was evident. Differences resulted from the stage of roll-out reached and the flexibility given to individual NHS boards to tailor local implementation. Some adaptations were thought to have diverged from the central features of Childsmile’s PT, to the extent that there was a risk to achieving outcomes. The methods employed prompted national service improvement action, and proposals for local action by individual NHS boards to address this. Conclusions The TBE approach

  2. Implementing Nunavut Education Act: Compulsory School Attendance Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwarteng, E. Fredua

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of Nunavut compulsory school attendance policy as part of the Nunavut Education Act (2002). Using a bottom-up approach to policy implementation in the literature and the author's six years teaching experience in Nunavut, the paper argues that the compulsory school attendance policy may not achieve its…

  3. Compulsory Schooling Policy in Nunavut: Challenges and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredua-Kwarteng, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses Nunavut's compulsory schooling policy as a case study to discuss the role that cultural difference plays in policy development and implementation. The central argument of the paper is that the implementation and sustainability of the compulsory schooling policy would be fraught with enormous problems, given its colonialist,…

  4. The Development of Compulsory Education Finance in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuedong, Ding

    2008-01-01

    Compulsory education in China's rural areas has come a long way since China adopted the policy of reform and opening up to the outside world toward the end of 1978. By 2004, compulsory education had become available and illiteracy had been eliminated among 93.6 percent of the nation's total population; the enrollment rate of school-age children…

  5. Free and Compulsory School Age Requirements. ECS 50-State Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers across the nation continue to push for expanded free and compulsory school age requirements. More states are considering granting students earlier access to a free education so that they can begin their academic pursuits earlier in life. Similarly, every year a number of states consider extending the upper limit for compulsory school…

  6. Comparing Youth Opinions toward Compulsory Voting across Five Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesek, Jessamay T.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a comparative case study design to examine youth (ages 13-20) opinions toward compulsory voting across five democratic countries: Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. Youth responses toward compulsory voting demonstrate how youth come to learn about citizen rights and responsibilities with varied understandings…

  7. Pros and Cons: Compulsory 12 Year Education Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasa, Basak; Ersöz, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    Turkey has undergone two significant education reforms in the last two decades. In 1997, the compulsory education period was increased from five years to eight years with the unification of primary school (five years) and middle school (three years) and vocational middle schools were dismissed. In 2012, compulsory education was increased from…

  8. Vaccine beliefs of parents who oppose compulsory vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Allison M.; Brown, Cedric J.; Gust, Deborah A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were the following: (1) to describe the sociodemographic factors, vaccine beliefs, and behaviors that are associated with parental opposition to compulsory vaccination, and (2) to determine if the availability of a philosophical exemption in a parent's state of residence is associated with parental opposition to compulsory vaccination. METHODS: Data from the 2002 HealthStyles survey were analyzed. Chi-square analysis was used to identify significant associations between belief and behavior questions and opposition to compulsory vaccination for school entry. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted using significant variables from the bivariate analysis to identify independent predictors of opposition to compulsory vaccination among surveyed parents. RESULTS: Of respondents with at least one child aged < or = 18 years living in the household (n=1,527), 12% were opposed to compulsory vaccination. Survey results indicate that a parent's belief regarding compulsory vaccination for school entry is significantly associated with beliefs in the safety and utility of vaccines, as well as intention to have the youngest child fully vaccinated. Residence in a state that permits philosophical exemption to vaccination also was significantly associated with a parent's opposition to compulsory vaccination for school entry. CONCLUSIONS: Providing basic information to parents regarding vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases may help reduce opposition to compulsory vaccination by reinforcing the safety and importance of routine childhood vaccinations. PMID:16134564

  9. Vaccine beliefs of parents who oppose compulsory vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Allison M; Brown, Cedric J; Gust, Deborah A

    2005-01-01

    Our objectives were the following: (1) to describe the sociodemographic factors, vaccine beliefs, and behaviors that are associated with parental opposition to compulsory vaccination, and (2) to determine if the availability of a philosophical exemption in a parent's state of residence is associated with parental opposition to compulsory vaccination. Data from the 2002 HealthStyles survey were analyzed. Chi-square analysis was used to identify significant associations between belief and behavior questions and opposition to compulsory vaccination for school entry. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted using significant variables from the bivariate analysis to identify independent predictors of opposition to compulsory vaccination among surveyed parents. Of respondents with at least one child aged < or = 18 years living in the household (n=1,527), 12% were opposed to compulsory vaccination. Survey results indicate that a parent's belief regarding compulsory vaccination for school entry is significantly associated with beliefs in the safety and utility of vaccines, as well as intention to have the youngest child fully vaccinated. Residence in a state that permits philosophical exemption to vaccination also was significantly associated with a parent's opposition to compulsory vaccination for school entry. Providing basic information to parents regarding vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases may help reduce opposition to compulsory vaccination by reinforcing the safety and importance of routine childhood vaccinations.

  10. 77 FR 3589 - Revision of Compulsory Reporting Points; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... of CLAMS and SKILA to address recent technical adjustments to their actual locations. DATES... The FAA has determined that the low altitude Alaskan compulsory reporting point CLAMS, in the vicinity... altitude Alaskan compulsory reporting point CLAMS and SKILA descriptions to match updated position...

  11. The development of an implementation framework for service-learning during the undergraduate nursing programme in the Western Cape Province.

    PubMed

    Julie, Hester

    2015-11-13

    Service-learning (SL) is a contested field of knowledge and issues of sustainability and scholarship have been raised about it. The South African Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC) has provided policy documents to guide higher education institutions (HEIs) in the facilitation of SL institutionalisation in their academic programmes. An implementation framework was therefore needed to institutionalise the necessary epistemological shifts advocated in the national SL policy guidelines. This article is based on the findings of a doctoral thesis that aimed at developing an SL implementation framework for the School of Nursing (SoN) at the University of the Western Cape (UWC). Mixed methods were used during the first four phases of the design and developmenti ntervention research model developed by Rothman and Thomas. The SL implementation framework that was developed during Phase 3 specified the intervention elements to address the gaps that had been identified by the core findings of Phases 1 and 2. Four intervention elements were specified for the SL implementation framework. The first intervention element focused on the assessment of readiness for SL institutionalisation. The development of SL capacity and SL scholarship was regarded as the pivotal intervention element for three of the elements: the development of a contextual SL definition, an SL pedagogical model, and a monitoring and evaluation system for SL institutionalisation. The SL implementation framework satisfies the goals of SL institutionalisation, namely to develop a common language and a set of principles to guide practice, and to ensure the allocation of resources in order to facilitate the SL teaching methodology.The contextualised SL definition that was formulated for the SoN contributes to the SL operationalisation discourse at the HEI.

  12. Health workforce planning and service expansion during an economic crisis: A case study of the national breast screening programme in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McHugh, S M; Tyrrell, E; Johnson, B; Healy, O; Perry, I J; Normand, C

    2015-12-01

    This article aims to estimate the workforce and resource implications of the proposed age extension of the national breast screening programme, under the economic constraints of reduced health budgets and staffing levels in the Irish health system. Using a mixed method design, a purposive sample of 20 participants were interviewed and data were analysed thematically (June-September 2012). Quantitative data (programme-level activity data, screening activity, staffing levels and screening plans) were used to model potential workload and resource requirements. The analysis indicates that over 90% operational efficiency was achieved throughout the first six months of 2012. Accounting for maternity leave (10%) and sick leave (3.5%), 16.1 additional radiographers (whole time equivalent) would be required for the workload created by the age extension of the screening programme, at 90% operational efficiency. The results suggest that service expansion is possible with relatively minimal additional radiography resources if the efficiency of the skill mix and the use of equipment are improved. Investing in the appropriate skill mix should not be limited to clinical groups but should also include administrative staff to manage and support the service. Workload modelling may contribute to improved health workforce planning and service efficiency.

  13. The development of an alternative in-service programme for Korean science teachers with an emphasis on science-technology-society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jungil

    2002-10-01

    This study looks at the effects of a science-technology-society (STS) in-service programme, designed to change teachers' awareness and practice of STS/constructivist approaches, while also focusing on students' understandings and changes of perceptions of the constructivist learning environments. The STS in-service programme was developed to achieve the following features: teacher-oriented, teaching in a social context, emphasis on a 'constructivist' approach, developing STS units and their use in classrooms. A total of 20 middle and high school science teachers participated in the in-service programme in 1998; and three of the middle school teachers were selected to gain information from their implementation of a Reactions of Acids and Bases unit in their respective classrooms. The Science Education Reform Inventory was administered to all the teachers at both the opening and the end of the programme. One hundred twenty-five students of the three teachers experienced about 16 class hours of lessons comprising the new STS unit. At the beginning and the end of the unit, they completed the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey. In order to assess student understanding, teachers administered the creativity test before and after the unit; and the concept acquisition test and the application test after the unit. Students obtained at average 48% of the 35 key concepts and 6.6 additional non-key concepts after the unit was finished. Students made more relevant and creative responses on unfamiliar situations on the post-test than on the pre-test. Through several tasks including a short essay, students showed their abilities to apply various concepts related to acids and bases to daily life situation. It was found that the STS programme improved the teachers' awareness and practices of the science education reforms characterized by STS and constructivism. The middle school science teachers could develop STS units which they implemented in their own classrooms. They

  14. How is the sustainability of chronic disease health programmes empirically measured in hospital and related healthcare services?-a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Francis, Linda; Dunt, David; Cadilhac, Dominique A

    2016-05-31

    Programmes to address chronic disease are a focus of governments worldwide. Despite growth in 'implementation science', there is a paucity of knowledge regarding the best means to measure sustainability. The aim of this review was to summarise current practice for measuring sustainability outcomes of chronic disease health programmes, providing guidance for programme planners and future directions for the academic field. A scoping review of the literature spanning 1985-2015 was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO and The Cochrane Library limited to English language and adults. Main search terms included chronic disease, acute care, sustainability, institutionalisation and health planning. A descriptive synthesis was required. Settings included primary care, hospitals, mental health centres and community health. Programmes included preventing or managing chronic conditions including diabetes, heart disease, depression, respiratory disease, cancer, obesity, dental hygiene and multiple chronic diseases. Outcome measures included clarifying a sustainability definition, types of methodologies used, timelines for assessment, criteria levels to determine outcomes and how methodology varies between intervention types. Among 153 abstracts retrieved, 87 were retained for full article review and 42 included in the qualitative synthesis. Five definitions for sustainability outcome were identified with 'maintenance of programme activities' most frequent. Achieving sustainability was dependent on inter-relationships between various organisational and social contexts supporting a broad scale approach to evaluation. An increasing trend in use of mixed methods designs over multiple time points to determine sustainability outcomes was found. Despite the importance and investment in chronic disease programmes, few studies are undertaken to measure sustainability. Methods to evaluate sustainability are diverse with some emerging patterns in measurement found. Use of mixed

  15. Master Plan of Operation for Preparing a Programme of Inter-Related Services for Children in Afghanistan, 1977-1978. Part I: The Framework; Part II: The Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Kabul (Afghanistan).

    This Master Plan of Operation has two parts: The Framework and the Program. Part I (the Framework) sets out the articles of agreement between the Government of Afghanistan and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) concerning a 1-year program for the improvement of social services for children and mothers regarded as the most disadvantaged…

  16. A falls prevention programme to improve quality of life, physical function and falls efficacy in older people receiving home help services: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bjerk, Maria; Brovold, Therese; Skelton, Dawn A; Bergland, Astrid

    2017-08-14

    Falls and fall-related injuries in older adults are associated with great burdens, both for the individuals, the health care system and the society. Previous research has shown evidence for the efficiency of exercise as falls prevention. An understudied group are older adults receiving home help services, and the effect of a falls prevention programme on health-related quality of life is unclear. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to examine the effect of a falls prevention programme on quality of life, physical function and falls efficacy in older adults receiving home help services. A secondary aim is to explore the mediating factors between falls prevention and health-related quality of life. The study is a single-blinded randomised controlled trial. Participants are older adults, aged 67 or older, receiving home help services, who are able to walk with or without walking aids, who have experienced at least one fall during the last 12 months and who have a Mini Mental State Examination of 23 or above. The intervention group receives a programme, based on the Otago Exercise Programme, lasting 12 weeks including home visits and motivational telephone calls. The control group receives usual care. The primary outcome is health-related quality of life (SF-36). Secondary outcomes are leg strength, balance, walking speed, walking habits, activities of daily living, nutritional status and falls efficacy. All measurements are performed at baseline, following intervention at 3 months and at 6 months' follow-up. Sample size, based on the primary outcome, is set to 150 participants randomised into the two arms, including an estimated 15-20% drop out. Participants are recruited from six municipalities in Norway. This trial will generate new knowledge on the effects of an exercise falls prevention programme among older fallers receiving home help services. This knowledge will be useful for clinicians, for health managers in the primary health care service

  17. EQUIP training the trainers: an evaluation of a training programme for service users and carers involved in training mental health professionals in user-involved care planning.

    PubMed

    Fraser, C; Grundy, A; Meade, O; Callaghan, P; Lovell, K

    2017-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: UK NHS policy highlights the importance of user and carer involvement in health professional training. We know little about service user and carer motivations and experiences of accessing training courses for delivering training to health professionals and how well such courses prepare them for delivering training to healthcare professionals. 'Involvement' in training has often been tokenistic and too narrowly focused on preregistration courses. There is limited data on how best to prepare and support potential service user and carer trainers. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study adds to the international literature by highlighting service user and carer motivations for accessing a training course for delivering training to health professionals. Service users and carers wanted to gain new skills and confidence in presentation/facilitation as well as to make a difference to healthcare practice. We also learned that service users desired different levels of involvement in training facilitation - some wanted to take a more active role than others. A one-size-fits-all approach is not always appropriate. Encountering resistance from staff in training was a previously unidentified challenge to service user and carers' experience of delivering training in practice and is a key challenge for trainers to address in future. Professional training involvement can be enhanced via specialist training such as the EQUIP training the trainers programme evaluated here. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: When training service users and carers to deliver training to mental health professionals, it is important that service users are equipped to deal with resistance from staff. It is important that service user and carer roles are negotiated and agreed prior to delivering training to healthcare professionals to accommodate individual preferences and allay anxieties. Training for service users and carers must be offered

  18. "Making a Difference": Students and Community Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bok, Derek; Newman, Frank

    1992-01-01

    Interviews with the five 1992 winners of the national Student Humanitarian Service Awards focus on motivation for public service, relationship with the community, compulsory student service requirements, student recruitment, faculty recruitment, and personal development. (DB)

  19. Screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in France.

    PubMed

    Thulliez, P

    1992-01-01

    The high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in France led to the establishment of a national screening programme. Preventive measures were progressively introduced, and these became compulsory in 1978 with the result that the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis is now markedly reduced. Further improvements may include more systematic sampling from women before pregnancy, better and adequate health education and centralized notification of both maternal and congenital cases of toxoplasmosis.

  20. Innovative Access Programme for Young Mothers Wishing to Train in Childbirth Education: From Concept to Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the conception, planning, implementation and evaluation of an access programme arising out of an innovative collaboration between two charities, Straight Talking and the National Childbirth Trust. The access programme was designed at the request of a group of young mothers who had finished compulsory education and subsequently…

  1. Innovative Access Programme for Young Mothers Wishing to Train in Childbirth Education: From Concept to Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the conception, planning, implementation and evaluation of an access programme arising out of an innovative collaboration between two charities, Straight Talking and the National Childbirth Trust. The access programme was designed at the request of a group of young mothers who had finished compulsory education and subsequently…

  2. A Model for Effective Implementation of Flexible Programme Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Carey; Littlejohn, Allison; Falconer, Isobel

    2008-01-01

    The model developed here is the outcome of a project funded by the Quality Assurance Agency Scotland to support implementation of flexible programme delivery (FPD) in post-compulsory education. We highlight key features of FPD, including explicit and implicit assumptions about why flexibility is needed and the perceived barriers and solutions to…

  3. A Model for Effective Implementation of Flexible Programme Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Carey; Littlejohn, Allison; Falconer, Isobel

    2008-01-01

    The model developed here is the outcome of a project funded by the Quality Assurance Agency Scotland to support implementation of flexible programme delivery (FPD) in post-compulsory education. We highlight key features of FPD, including explicit and implicit assumptions about why flexibility is needed and the perceived barriers and solutions to…

  4. Outcomes of a nurse-managed service for stable HIV-positive patients in a large South African public sector antiretroviral therapy programme.

    PubMed

    Grimsrud, Anna; Kaplan, Richard; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Myer, Landon

    2014-09-01

    Models of care utilizing task shifting and decentralization are needed to support growing ART programmes. We compared patient outcomes between a doctor-managed clinic and a nurse-managed down-referral site in Cape Town, South Africa. Analysis included all adults who initiated ART between 2002 and 2011 within a large public sector ART service. Stable patients were eligible for down-referral. Outcomes [mortality, loss to follow-up (LTFU), virologic failure] were compared under different models of care using proportional hazards models with time-dependent covariates. Five thousand seven hundred and forty-six patients initiated ART and over 5 years 41% (n = 2341) were down-referred; the median time on ART before down-referral was 1.6 years (interquartile range, 0.9-2.6). The nurse-managed down-referral site reported lower crude rates of mortality, LTFU and virologic failure compared with the doctor-managed clinic. After adjustment, there was no difference in the risk of mortality or virologic failure by model of care. However, patients who were down-referred were more likely to be LTFU than those retained at the doctor-managed site (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.09-1.69). Increased levels of LTFU in the nurse-managed vs. doctor-managed service were observed in subgroups of male patients, those with advanced disease at initiation and those who started ART in the early years of the programme. Reorganization of ART maintenance by down-referral to nurse-managed services is associated with programme outcomes similar to those achieved using doctor-driven primary care services. Further research is necessary to identify optimal models of care to support long-term retention of patients on ART in resource-limited settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Compulsory schooling reforms, education and mortality in twentieth century Europe.

    PubMed

    Gathmann, Christina; Jürges, Hendrik; Reinhold, Steffen

    2015-02-01

    Education yields substantial non-monetary benefits, but the size of these gains is still debated. Previous studies report causal effects of education and compulsory schooling on mortality ranging anywhere from zero to large and negative. Using data from 18 compulsory schooling reforms implemented in Europe during the twentieth century, we quantify the average mortality gain and explore its dispersion across gender, time and countries. We find that more education yields small mortality reductions in the short- and long-run for men. In contrast, women seem to experience no mortality reductions from compulsory schooling reforms.

  6. Impact of community-based support services on antiretroviral treatment programme delivery and outcomes in resource-limited countries: a synthetic review.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Edwin; Van Damme, Wim; van Rensburg, Dingie; Masquillier, Caroline; Meulemans, Herman

    2012-07-09

    Task-shifting to lay community health providers is increasingly suggested as a potential strategy to overcome the barriers to sustainable antiretroviral treatment (ART) scale-up in high-HIV-prevalence, resource-limited settings. The dearth of systematic scientific evidence on the contributory role and function of these forms of community mobilisation has rendered a formal evaluation of the published results of existing community support programmes a research priority. We reviewed the relevant published work for the period from November 2003 to December 2011 in accordance with the guidelines for a synthetic review. ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, BioMed Central, OVID Medline, PubMed, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts and a number of relevant websites were searched. The reviewed literature reported an unambiguous positive impact of community support on a wide range of aspects, including access, coverage, adherence, virological and immunological outcomes, patient retention and survival. Looking at the mechanisms through which community support can impact ART programmes, the review indicates that community support initiatives are a promising strategy to address five often cited challenges to ART scale-up, namely (1) the lack of integration of ART services into the general health system; (2) the growing need for comprehensive care, (3) patient empowerment, (4) and defaulter tracing; and (5) the crippling shortage in human resources for health. The literature indicates that by linking HIV/AIDS-care to other primary health care programmes, by providing psychosocial care in addition to the technical-medical care from nurses and doctors, by empowering patients towards self-management and by tracing defaulters, well-organised community support initiatives are a vital part of any sustainable public-sector ART programme. The review demonstrates that community support initiatives are a potentially effective strategy to address the growing shortage of

  7. Impact of community-based support services on antiretroviral treatment programme delivery and outcomes in resource-limited countries: a synthetic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Task-shifting to lay community health providers is increasingly suggested as a potential strategy to overcome the barriers to sustainable antiretroviral treatment (ART) scale-up in high-HIV-prevalence, resource-limited settings. The dearth of systematic scientific evidence on the contributory role and function of these forms of community mobilisation has rendered a formal evaluation of the published results of existing community support programmes a research priority. Methods We reviewed the relevant published work for the period from November 2003 to December 2011 in accordance with the guidelines for a synthetic review. ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, BioMed Central, OVID Medline, PubMed, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts and a number of relevant websites were searched. Results The reviewed literature reported an unambiguous positive impact of community support on a wide range of aspects, including access, coverage, adherence, virological and immunological outcomes, patient retention and survival. Looking at the mechanisms through which community support can impact ART programmes, the review indicates that community support initiatives are a promising strategy to address five often cited challenges to ART scale-up, namely (1) the lack of integration of ART services into the general health system; (2) the growing need for comprehensive care, (3) patient empowerment, (4) and defaulter tracing; and (5) the crippling shortage in human resources for health. The literature indicates that by linking HIV/AIDS-care to other primary health care programmes, by providing psychosocial care in addition to the technical-medical care from nurses and doctors, by empowering patients towards self-management and by tracing defaulters, well-organised community support initiatives are a vital part of any sustainable public-sector ART programme. Conclusions The review demonstrates that community support initiatives are a potentially effective

  8. From compulsory to voluntary immunisation: Italy's National Vaccination Plan (2005-7) and the ethical and organisational challenges facing public health policy-makers across Europe.

    PubMed

    Moran, N E; Gainotti, S; Petrini, C

    2008-09-01

    Increasing geographical mobility and international travel augment the ease and speed by which infectious diseases can spread across large distances. It is therefore incumbent upon each state to ensure that immunisation programmes are effective and that herd immunity is achieved. Across Europe, a range of immunisation policies exist: compulsion, the offer of financial incentives to parents or healthcare professionals, social and professional pressure, or simply the dissemination of clear information and advice. Until recently, immunisation against particular communicable diseases was compulsory in Italy. The Italian National Vaccination Plan (NVP) (2005-7) paved the way for regions to suspend the sanctions associated with compulsory vaccinations for children when certain criteria are met--for example when immunisation coverage is high and when effective monitoring/surveillance systems are in place--and thus marked a milestone in the move from compulsory to voluntary immunisation. The forthcoming NVP for 2008-10 confirms the liberal approach to vaccination in Italy as it entrusts to the regions responsibility for the achievement and maintenance of herd immunity. This paper reviews the arguments for and against compulsory and voluntary immunisation in relation to the Italian NVP (2005-7) and in the context of the diverse immunisation policies that exist across Europe. It concludes with cautious support for the NVP and an associated shift from compulsory to voluntary immunisation in Italy, and draws similarities between issues concerning regional variation in immunisation policy in Italy and national variation in immunisation policy across Europe and beyond.

  9. Pre-Service Teachers' Belief Sources about Learning and Teaching: An Exploration with the Consideration of the Educational Programme Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debreli, Emre

    2016-01-01

    It is often said that beliefs determine the ways teachers think and act in classrooms. There is now strong evidence that teachers' beliefs are formed during their previous education as students, and that they exert a powerful influence throughout their careers. However, only little has yet been done on the teacher education programmes' influence…

  10. Use and Cost of Psychotropic Drugs among Recipients with Autism in a State Medicaid Fee-for-Service Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, R.; Jariwala, K.; West-Strum, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There has been a significant increase in the prevalence of autism in the USA in the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to provide recent estimates of psychotropic drug use and costs among individuals with autism enrolled in the Medicaid programme. Method: A cross-sectional analysis of 2007 Mississippi (MS) Medicaid…

  11. Use and Cost of Psychotropic Drugs among Recipients with Autism in a State Medicaid Fee-for-Service Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, R.; Jariwala, K.; West-Strum, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There has been a significant increase in the prevalence of autism in the USA in the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to provide recent estimates of psychotropic drug use and costs among individuals with autism enrolled in the Medicaid programme. Method: A cross-sectional analysis of 2007 Mississippi (MS) Medicaid…

  12. 16 CFR 2.7 - Compulsory process in investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., graphs, charts, photographs, sound recordings, images and other data or data compilations stored in any... compulsory process. The subpoena power conferred by section 329 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42...

  13. Learning from practice: compulsory licensing cases and access to medicines.

    PubMed

    Stirner, Beatrice; Thangaraj, Harry

    2013-03-01

    Compulsory license is one of the safeguards that international IP law provides to address the undesired effects of pharmaceutical patents on access to important medicines. This article looks into three important case examples to analyze the mechanism's effectiveness and feasibility: the first uses of the newer compulsory license regime established in 2003 under the WTO legislative framework to export medicines to third countries, which lack pharmaceutical manufacturing capacities; and further, the first compulsory license grant in India in March 2012. The case analyses are based on the historical, factual and legal background. They reveal the main challenges of the 2003 WTO regime, including the lack of economic incentives for the generic pharmaceutical companies' participation. In the case of India's compulsory license grant, the article takes as in depth look into possible reasons for the reluctance to use the safeguard until recently, and the important aspects and implications of the Indian authorization to manufacture and sell a generic version of a patented cancer drug.

  14. The impact of HENRY on parenting and family lifestyle: A national service evaluation of a preschool obesity prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Willis, T A; Roberts, K P J; Berry, T M; Bryant, M; Rudolf, M C J

    2016-07-01

    One in five children in England are overweight/obese at school entry. Tackling obesity is therefore a priority. Right from the Start with HENRY is a widely-commissioned programme delivered by trained facilitators to small groups of parents over eight weekly sessions. It is designed to provide parents of infants and preschool children with the skills, knowledge and confidence required for a healthier family lifestyle. The aim of this work was to investigate programme impact using data collected routinely for quality control purposes. Analysis of routinely collected pre-post data from programmes delivered in the UK from January 2012 to February 2014. Data were analysed from 144 programmes, including questionnaires relating to parenting, family eating behaviours, dietary intake, and physical activity/screen time. Over 24 months, 1100 parents attended programmes running in 86 locations. 788 (72%) completed >5 sessions of whom 624 (79%) provided baseline and completion questionnaires. Parents reported increases in healthiness of family lifestyle, parenting attributes, and emotional wellbeing following attendance (all P < .001). Both parents and children were reported to have increased their daily fruit/vegetable consumption, and reduced their consumption of high fat/sugar foods (both P < .001). There were also positive changes in eating behaviours, physical activity (P < .001) and children's screen time (P < .001). Significant changes were reported in all domains similar to those reported in a previous, smaller study in locations selected for experience and quality. The HENRY approach appears to have a beneficial impact even when delivered at scale in non-selected locations. Such changes, if maintained, may serve to protect against later obesity. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Involving service users in the development of the Support at Home: Interventions to Enhance Life in Dementia Carer Supporter Programme for family carers of people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Burnell, Karen J; Selwood, Amber; Sullivan, Theresa; Charlesworth, Georgina M; Poland, Fiona; Orrell, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Involving service users in research can be an effective way of improving the practicalities and acceptability of interventions for target end users. The current paper presented two consensus methods, not commonly used in consultation with service users, to develop a peer support intervention for family carers of people with dementia (SHIELD Carer Supporter Programme). Study 1 was a modified Delphi process combined with a consensus conference to explore details of the intervention from the carer and volunteer perspective. Study 2 was an anonymous reader consultation to develop informed consent documents for the intervention trial. Median scores were used to measure and establish consensus. Open-ended responses were thematically analysed. Study 1: twenty-five delegates participated (eight were current/former carers) in the first round Delphi questionnaire, with 21 attending the conference. Five completed the Round 2 questionnaire. Study 2: six family carers and 11 people with dementia took part in the consultation. Study 1: the role of the peer supporters was developed in terms of relational and practical aspects of the intervention. Study 2: changes were made to the documents, reflecting service user input, but the effectiveness of this less discursive type of service user involvement was unclear. Study 1 methods allowed for service users to contribute significantly and meaningfully, but maybe limiting some design innovation. Study 2 took a more traditional and less collaborative approach. This has implications for balancing the needs of the research with meaningful service user involvement in research. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Significant trade-off for the impact of Grain-for-Green Programme on ecosystem services in North-western Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jitao; Peng, Jian; Zhao, Mingyue; Liu, Yanxu; Chen, Yunqian

    2017-01-01

    Ecological restoration can mitigate human disturbance to the natural environment and restore ecosystem functions. China's Grain-for-Green Programme (GFGP) has been widely adopted in the last 15years and exerted significant impact on land-use and ecosystem services. North-western Yunnan is one of the key areas of GFGP implementation in the upper Yangtze River. Promotion of ecosystem services in this region is of great importance to the ecological sustainability of Yangtze River watershed. In this study, remote sensing and modelling techniques are applied to analyse the impact of GFGP on ecosystem services. Results show that the transformation from non-irrigated farmland to forestland could potentially improve soil conservation by 24.89%. Soil conservation of restored forest was 78.17% of retained forest while net primary production (NPP) already reached 88.65%, which suggested different recovery rates of NPP and soil conservation. Increasing extent of GFGP implementation improved soil conservation but decreased NPP and water yield at sub-watershed scale, which revealed trade-offs between ecosystem services under ecological restoration. Future ecosystem management and GFGP policy-making should consider trade-offs of ecosystem services in order to achieve sustainable provision of ecosystem services.

  17. The experiences of mentors on a career development and mentoring programme for female mental health nurses in the UK National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Woolnough, Helen M; Davidson, Marilyn J; Fielden, Sandra L

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents the experiences of executive and non-executive UK National Health Service (NHS) Trust directors and senior managers as mentors in a career development and mentoring programme for a cohort of 27 female mental health nurses from six NHS mental health trusts. Baseline interview data was collated from 27 mentors prior to the programme. Twenty-four mentors participated in semi-structured telephone interviews investigating their experiences of being a mentor at the end of the programme. The interview transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. Experience as a mentor impacted on mentors in a variety of ways and the common themes which emerged from the data included: increased understanding of the mentoring role, increased awareness of career barriers for female mental health nurses, improved ground-level insight in relation to nursing staff and the patients they care for, improved professional reputation, increased networks, new insights into organizational issues, personal enjoyment and fulfilment and desire to implement organizational change. All mentors interviewed stated that they would consider becoming a mentor again. The mentoring relationship was an invaluable learning experience for mentors and results from this study suggested that trained mentors have an important role to play as change agents in the NHS.

  18. The implementation of the Care Programme Approach for service users with a learning disability. Building Bridges to the same Old Horizons?

    PubMed

    Kelly, M

    2017-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: People with mental health problems and learning disabilities often do not receive the care they require. The Care Programme Approach (CPA) is meant to help with this. However, there have been many problems in the past with the introduction of the CPA into mental health services. There is no literature which explores what factors help or hinder the introduction of the CPA for service users with a mental health and learning disability, especially from the perspective of those responsible for overseeing this process. WHAT DOES THIS ARTICLE ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The implementation of the CPA for this service user group is fragmented, and services are not working together in partnership. The CPA is being effectively implemented for people who are deemed to present with a risk to themselves or others. If a service user does not present with a high risk, they are not provided care through the CPA. Service users were not involved in the development or introduction of the policy in practice. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Services need to work better at engaging service users when they are developing and introducing new policies. Rather than applying the CPA for all service users, across all services, it should only be considered for those deemed to present with a high risk. It is effectively implemented for these people. For those not deemed to present with a high risk, services should consider using alternative service user led care planning frameworks. Introduction The Care Programme Approach was introduced in England to ensure services met the needs of people with mental health problems and a concurrent learning disability (dual diagnosis). The CPA implementation was patchy and services failed to work in partnership. Aim This study aimed to explore the factors shaping the recent implementation of the CPA for service users with a dual diagnosis. Method A single case study approach was undertaken. Data were collected through

  19. Impact of psychiatrists' qualifications on the rate of compulsory admissions.

    PubMed

    Eytan, Ariel; Chatton, Anne; Safran, Edith; Khazaal, Yasser

    2013-03-01

    Despite efforts to reduce coercion in psychiatry, involuntary hospitalizations remain frequent, representing more than half of all admissions in some European regions. Since October 2006, only certified psychiatrists are authorized to require a compulsory admission to our facility, while before all physicians were, including residents. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of this change of procedure on the proportion compulsory admissions. All medical records of patients admitted respectively 4 months before and 4 month after the implementation of the procedure were retrospectively analyzed. This search retrieved a total of 2,227 hospitalizations for 1,584 patients. The overall proportions of compulsory and voluntary admissions were 63.9 % and 36.1 % respectively. The average length of stay was 32 days (SD ± 64.4). During the study period, 25 % of patients experienced two hospitalizations or more. The most frequent patients' diagnoses were affective disorders (30 %), psychotic disorders (18.4 %) and substance abuse disorders (15.7 %). Compared with the period before October 2006, patients hospitalized from October 2006 up were less likely to be hospitalized on a compulsory basis (OR = 0.745, 95 % CI: 0.596-0.930). Factors associated with involuntary admission were young age (20 years or less), female gender, a diagnosis of psychotic disorder and being hospitalized for the first time. Our results strongly suggest that limiting the right to require compulsory admissions to fully certified psychiatrists can reduce the rate of compulsory versus voluntary admissions.

  20. Mental health care in Athens: Are compulsory admissions in Greece a one-way road?

    PubMed

    Stylianidis, Stelios; Peppou, Lily Evangelia; Drakonakis, Nektarios; Douzenis, Athanasios; Panagou, Aimilia; Tsikou, Kyriaki; Pantazi, Amalia; Rizavas, Yannis; Saraceno, Benedetto

    Involuntary hospitalization has long been a contentious issue worldwide. In Greece, the frequency of compulsory admissions is assumed to be alarmingly high; however, no study has systematically investigated this issue. In line with this, the present study aims to estimate the frequency of compulsory admissions in a psychiatric hospital and to explore its underpinnings. All individuals who were admitted to the Psychiatric Hospital of Attica during June-October 2011 were included into the study. Information about their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics as well as their previous contact with mental health services was obtained from interviewing the patient and his/her physician. Furthermore, information about the initiation of the process of compulsory admission as well as patient's referral upon discharge was retrieved from patients' administrative record. Out of the 946 admissions 57.4% were involuntary. A diagnosis of unipolar depression, high social support and previous contact with community mental health services were found to yield a protective effect against involuntary hospitalization. Moreover, 69.8% of civil detentions were instigated by close relatives and 30.2% ex officio. These two groups differed in patients' social support levels and in medication discontinuation being the reason for initiation of the process. Lastly, only 13.8% of patients were referred to community mental health services at discharge. Our findings suggest that civil detentions are deeply entrenched in clinical routine in Greece. Moreover, poor coordination among services and relatives' burden seem to contribute substantially to the elevated rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Compulsory sterilization. (Letter to the editor).

    PubMed

    Nixon, R K

    1972-10-16

    Angela R. Holder's conclusion (221: 229, 1972) that a decline in forced sterilization cases exists because "any system of compulsory sterilization is too near naziism to be acceptable in a democratic society" ignores present realities. At no time in American history has there been greater acceptance of the idea that human procreation must be regulated by coercive means. Many leaders of the movement for population control, for example, openly advocate mandatory sterilization, abortion, and birth control as part of their crash program for population stabilization. Simultaneously, a growing number of those concerned with genetic "quality" demand that individual rights be subordinated or destroyed for the good of society and the species. Meanwhile, the increasing minimization of the enormous complexities of the abortion issue to a morally and medically neutral therapeutic procedure, threatens to make abortions, as well as sterilization, innocu ous public health measures that could be forced on society if circumstan ces dictate. Moreover, as the public is conditioned to believe that these measures lack ethical ramifications, the day is hastened when they can be imposed without significant opposition. full text

  2. Visa refusal following compulsory hospital admission under the Mental Health Act 1983 (England and Wales): fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Ashmore, R

    2015-08-01

    Historically, compulsory hospital admission led to discrimination for service users. For example, until recently detention under the Mental Health Act 1983 (England and Wales) would disqualify a person from being a Member of Parliament. There is a belief among mental health professionals that compulsory hospital admission will result in service users being refused a tourist visa. However, there is a paucity of literature on this topic, particularly from an international perspective. Based on the information reviewed in this study, there is no evidence to support this belief. Of 262 travel destinations, 96 (36.6%) require British citizens to obtain a tourist visa. Six (2.3%) destinations require applicants to declare a mental health condition in order to obtain a tourist visa. None of these destinations ask applicants to declare a history of compulsory hospital admission. However, the possibility exists that anyone declaring a mental health problem may be asked to provide further information about their condition before a visa is granted. Mental health nurses require education to ensure that their knowledge of mental health legislation is up to date. This education should include information on the potential consequences of compulsory hospital admission for the service user's social life following discharge. Service users and their families should be provided with written information on the potential social impact of detention along with a list of organizations that can provide advice on specific issues. This study sought to establish whether a history of compulsory hospital admission prevented a person from obtaining a tourist visa. A visa application form and/or other relevant information were obtained for 262 travel destinations visited by British citizens. Ninety-six (36.6%) destinations require British citizens to obtain a tourist visa. All visas are issued subject to travellers meeting a number of conditions, for example being in possession of travel insurance

  3. Health service utilisation for anogenital warts in Ontario, Canada prior to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine programme introduction: a retrospective longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Fiona M; Rosella, Laura C; Dunn, Sheila; Wilson, Sarah E; Chen, Cynthia; Deeks, Shelley L

    2016-01-01

    Objective Trends in occurrence of anogenital warts (AGWs) can provide early evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme impact on preventing HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions. The objective of this study was to provide a baseline of AGW epidemiology in Ontario prior to the introduction of the publicly-funded school-based HPV vaccination programme in September 2007. Setting and participants As a retrospective longitudinal population-based study, we used health administrative data as a proxy to estimate incident AGWs and total health service utilisation (HSU) for AGWs for all Ontario residents 15 years and older with valid health cards between 1 April 2003 and 31 March 2007. Outcome measures The outcome of interest was AGW healthcare utilisation identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnostic code for AGWs, as well as an algorithm for identifying AGW physician office visits in a database with a unique system of diagnostic and procedural codes. An AGW case was considered incident if preceded by 12 months without HSU for AGWs. Time trends by age group and sex were analysed. Results Between fiscal years 2003 and 2006, we identified 123 247 health service visits for AGWs by 51 436 Ontario residents 15 years and older. Incident AGWs peaked in females and males in the 21–23 year age group, at 3.74 per 1000 and 2.81 per 1000, respectively. HSU for AGWs peaked in females and males within the 21–23 year age group, at 9.34 per 1000 and 7.22 per 1000, respectively. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study of AGW incidence and HSU in Ontario. The sex and age distribution of individuals with incident and prevalent AGWs in Ontario was similar to that of other provinces before HPV vaccine programme implementation in Canada. PMID:26966057

  4. An implementation intervention to encourage healthy eating in centre-based child-care services: impact of the Good for Kids Good for Life programme.

    PubMed

    Bell, A Colin; Davies, Lynda; Finch, Meghan; Wolfenden, Luke; Francis, J Lynn; Sutherland, Rachel; Wiggers, John

    2015-06-01

    To determine the impact of an implementation intervention designed to introduce policies and practices supportive of healthy eating in centre-based child-care services. Intervention strategies included staff training, resources, incentives, follow-up support, and performance monitoring and feedback. A quasi-experimental design was used to assess change over 20 months in healthy eating policy and practice in intervention and comparison child-care services. The Hunter New England (HNE) region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. All centre-based child-care services (n 287) in the intervention region (HNE) were invited and 240 (91% response rate) participated. Two hundred and ninety-six services in the rest of NSW were randomly selected as a comparison region and 191 participated (76% response rate). A sub-analysis was conducted on those services that provided children food (n 196 at baseline and n 190 at follow-up). Ninety-six provided menus for analysis at baseline (HNE, n 36; NSW, n 50) and 102 provided menus at follow-up (HNE, n 50; NSW, n 52). Services in the intervention region were significantly more likely to provide only plain milk and water for children (P = 0.018) and to engage parents in nutrition policy or programmes (P = 0.002). They were also more likely (P = 0.056) to have nutrition policy on home packed food. In addition, menus of services that provided lunch were significantly more likely to comply with healthy eating guidelines for sweetened drinks (P < 0.001), fruit (P < 0.001) and vegetables (P = 0.01). An implementation intervention was able to modify policy and practice in a large number of child-care services so that they were more supportive of healthy eating.

  5. Ecosystem services to enhance sustainable forest management in the US: moving from forest service national programmes to local projects in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Deal; Nikola Smith; Joe Gates

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as a way of framing and describing the broad suite of benefits that people receive from forests. The USDA Forest Service has been exploring use of an ecosystem services framework to describe forest values provided by federal lands and to attract and build partnerships with stakeholders to implement projects. Recently, the...

  6. Analysis of context factors in compulsory and incentive strategies for improving attraction and retention of health workers in rural and remote areas: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyun; Dou, Lixia; Zhang, Huan; Sun, Yang; Yuan, Beibei

    2015-07-21

    Current literature systematically reports that interventions to attract and retain health workers in underserved areas need to be context specific but rarely defines what that means. In this systematic review, we try to summarize and analyse context factors influencing the implementation of interventions to attract and retain rural health workers. We searched online databases, relevant websites and reference lists of selected literature to identify studies on compulsory rural service programmes and financial incentives. Forty studies were selected. Information regarding context factors at macro, meso and micro levels was extracted and synthesized. Macro-level context factors include political, economic and social factors. Meso-level factors include health system factors such as maldistribution of health workers, growing private sector, decentralization and health financing. Micro-level factors refer to the policy implementation process including funding sources, administrative agency, legislation process, monitoring and evaluation. Macro-, meso- and micro-level context factors can play different roles in agenda setting, policy formulation and implementation of health interventions to attract and retain rural health workers. These factors should be systematically considered in the different stages of policy process and evaluation.

  7. Integrating an infectious disease programme into the primary health care service: a retrospective analysis of Chagas disease community-based surveillance in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Nakamura, Jiro; Hanada, Kyo

    2015-03-24

    Integration of disease-specific programmes into the primary health care (PHC) service has been attempted mostly in clinically oriented disease control such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis but rarely in vector control. Chagas disease is controlled principally by interventions against the triatomine vector. In Honduras, after successful reduction of household infestation by vertical approach, the Ministry of Health implemented community-based vector surveillance at the PHC services (health centres) to prevent the resurgence of infection. This paper retrospectively analyses the effects and process of integrating a Chagas disease vector surveillance system into health centres. We evaluated the effects of integration at six pilot sites in western Honduras during 2008-2011 on; surveillance performance; knowledge, attitude and practice in schoolchildren; reports of triatomine bug infestation and institutional response; and seroprevalence among children under 15 years of age. The process of integration of the surveillance system was analysed using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model for health programme planning. The model was employed to systematically determine influential and interactive factors which facilitated the integration process at different levels of the Ministry of Health and the community. Overall surveillance performance improved from 46 to 84 on a 100 point-scale. Schoolchildren's attitude (risk awareness) score significantly increased from 77 to 83 points. Seroprevalence declined from 3.4% to 0.4%. Health centres responded to the community bug reports by insecticide spraying. As key factors, the health centres had potential management capacity and influence over the inhabitants' behaviours and living environment directly and through community health volunteers. The National Chagas Programme played an essential role in facilitating changes with adequate distribution of responsibilities, participatory modelling, training and, evaluation and advocacy. We found that Chagas

  8. An Introduction to Education Research Methods: Exploring the Learning Journey of Pre-Service Teachers in a Transnational Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sonia; Hepple, Erika; Tangen, Donna; Comelli, Marlana; Alwi, Amyzar; Shaari, Zaira Abu Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Internationally there is interest in developing the research skills of pre-service teachers as a means of ongoing professional renewal with a distinct need for systematic and longitudinal investigation of student learning. The current study takes a unique perspective by exploring the research learning journey of pre-service teachers participating…

  9. Integration of antenatal care services with health programmes in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, Thyra E; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Allen, Elizabeth; Zhu, Nina Jiayue; Atun, Rifat

    2016-06-01

    Antenatal care (ANC) presents a potentially valuable platform for integrated delivery of additional health services for pregnant women-services that are vital to reduce the persistently high rates of maternal and neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there is limited evidence on the impact of integrating health services with ANC to guide policy. This review assesses the impact of integration of postnatal and other health services with ANC on health services uptake and utilisation, health outcomes and user experience of care in LMICs. Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Plus, POPLINE and Global Health were searched for studies that compared integrated models for delivery of postnatal and other health services with ANC to non-integrated models. Risk of bias of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) criteria and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, depending on the study design. Due to high heterogeneity no meta-analysis could be conducted. Results are presented narratively. 12 studies were included in the review. Limited evidence, with moderate- to high-risk of bias, suggests that integrated service delivery results in improved uptake of essential health services for women, earlier initiation of treatment, and better health outcomes. Women also reported improved satisfaction with integrated services. The reported evidence is largely based on non-randomised studies with poor generalizability, and therefore offers very limited policy guidance. More rigorously conducted and geographically diverse studies are needed to better ascertain and quantify the health and economic benefits of integrating health services with ANC.

  10. Evaluation des programmes de techniques d'education en services de garde (Evaluation of Programs of Educational Methods in Child Care Services. 2410-0521.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigneau, Paul, Comp.

    In March 1994, Quebec's Commission on the Evaluation of Collegiate Teaching initiated an evaluation of "Techniques d'education en services de garde" (TESG) programs, or educational methods in child care services. This report presents results from the evaluation in three parts. The first section describes the following four stages of the…

  11. Retention of dental sealants placed on sound teeth and incipient caries lesions as part of a service-learning programme in rural areas in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Soto-Rojas, Armando E; Escoffié-Ramírez, Mauricio; Pérez-Ferrera, Gloriana; Guido, Joseph A; Mantilla-Rodriguez, Andres A; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza A

    2012-11-01

    Dental sealants are an effective treatment for the prevention and management of caries. To determine the retention of sealants placed in a rural setting in Mexico as part of an international service-learning (ISL) programme and to determine associations between dental sealant's retention and caries diagnosis at the time of sealant placement. Children aged 6-15 were examined for dental caries, received sealants by dental students as part of an ISL programme, and were re-examined 4, 2, or 1 years after placement to assess sealant survival. Sealants were placed on permanent sound surfaces and enamel caries lesions [International Caries Assessment and Detection System (ICDAS) criteria]. Sealant survival was explored using Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests and multivariate prediction models. 219 (46%) of 478 (mean age = 10.53 SD = 5.11) children who had received sealants returned for a recall examination (mean age = 10.89 SD = 3.11). After 1-4 years, 96.4% to 60.6% of the sealants placed on sound teeth had survived, and for sealants placed on surfaces with enamel caries lesions (ICDAS 1-3), 94.2% to 55.6% had survived. Differences were not statistically significant. Sealants had survival rates comparable to those previously reported in the literature. Sealants placed on sound and enamel caries lesions had similar survival rates. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2012 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The Moral Justification for a Compulsory Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Program

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Compulsory human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young girls has been proposed as a public health intervention to reduce the threat of the disease. Such a program would entail a symbiotic relationship between scientific interests in reducing mortality and morbidity and philosophical interests in promoting morality. This proposal raises the issue of whether government should use its police powers to restrict liberty and parental autonomy for the purpose of preventing harm to young people. I reviewed the scientific literature that questions the value of a HPV vaccination. Applying a principle-based approach to moral reasoning, I concluded that compulsory HPV vaccinations can be justified on moral, scientific, and public health grounds. PMID:19197085

  13. 77 FR 40490 - Revocation and Modification of Multiple Domestic, Alaskan, and Hawaiian Compulsory Reporting Points

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Domestic, Alaskan, and Hawaiian Compulsory Reporting Points AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes eighteen Domestic and Alaskan compulsory... FAA's aeronautical database as reporting points. The reporting points included five Domestic...

  14. Effects of a peer support programme for youth social services employees experiencing potentially traumatic events: a protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Guay, Stephane; Tremblay, Nicole; Goncalves, Jane; Bilodeau, Henriette; Geoffrion, Steve

    2017-06-24

    The use of peer support programmes to help workers experiencing potentially traumatic events (PTE) has increased in high-risk organisations in the last decades. However, the scientific evidence of its effectiveness is still very limited. This paper aims to describe the protocol of a prospective cohort study that assesses the efficacy of a peer support programme among youth social services employees exposed to a PTE at work on psychological well-being, work functioning and needs of support. This is a mixed-methods prospective study that will examine workers' evolution four times over a 12-month period in Canada. This study involves: (1) quantitative data obtained through self-administrated questionnaires among 222 workers, and (2) qualitative in-depth interviews with a subsample of 45 workers. This study will compare findings from a cohort who received the support of a peer following a PTE (peer support-experimental protocol) as part of the experimental protocol of the Montreal Youth Social Services-University Institute (MYSS-UI), the second group of workers did not ask for the peer support (no peer support-experimental protocol) but was part of MYSS-UI, and the third group received standard organisational support from the Monteregie Youth Social Services (MYSS) (standard organisational protocol). The protocol and informed consent form complied with the ethics guidelines of the MYSS-UI. The Research Ethics Board of MYSS-UI and MYSS reviewed and accepted the protocol as required. The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at research and general public conferences, disseminated via a public report for the institute that funded the project and for all workers. Results of this study will influence decision making regarding intervention policies following PTE and peer support interventions may be expanded throughout the youth social services in Canada and worldwide. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated

  15. Enhancing In-Service Teachers' Professional Learning through a School-Based Professional Development Programme in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Writing is a complex skill that requires effective teaching practices in the classroom. One of the challenges English teachers in the English as a second language (L2) context face is the lack of teacher experience in teaching English writing. This brief paper reports on a small-scale study on helping Hong Kong in-service primary school teachers…

  16. Enhancing In-Service Teachers' Professional Learning through a School-Based Professional Development Programme in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Writing is a complex skill that requires effective teaching practices in the classroom. One of the challenges English teachers in the English as a second language (L2) context face is the lack of teacher experience in teaching English writing. This brief paper reports on a small-scale study on helping Hong Kong in-service primary school teachers…

  17. Biometrics-based service marketing issues: exploring acceptability and risk factors of iris scans associated with registered travel programmes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alan D

    2008-01-01

    The marketability and viability of biometric technologies by companies marketing their own versions of pre-approved registered travel programmes have generated a number of controversies. Data were collected and analysed to formulate graphs, run regression and correlation analyses, and use Chi-square to formally test basic research propositions on a sample of 241 professionals in the Pittsburgh area. It was found that there was a significant relationship between the respondents' familiarity with new technology (namely web-enabled and internet sophistication) and knowledge of biometrics, in particular iris scans. Participants who frequently use the internet are more comfortable with innovative technology; although individuals with higher income levels have less trust in the government, it appeared that virtually everyone is concerned about trusting the government with their personal information. Healthcare professionals need to document the safety, CRM-related factors, and provide leadership in the international collaboration of biometric-related personal identification technologies, since they will be one of the main beneficiaries of the implementation of such technologies.

  18. The CPD Needs of Mentors in Post-Compulsory Initial Teacher Training in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingleby, Ewan; Hunt, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the compulsory professional development (CPD) needs of mentors within post-compulsory Initial Teacher Training (ITT) provision in England. The discussion applies the ideas of Weber, Foucault, Habermas and Bourdieu in interpreting the implications for post-compulsory ITT mentor CPD training. The paper's primary and secondary…

  19. Monitory Report of the Implementation of the Free Compulsory Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baicai, Sun; Mingren, Zhao; Jaiyi, Wang

    2008-01-01

    Rural compulsory education is a very weak link in the development of China's education system. For many years, an education fiscal input mechanism with the township as the main player was adopted for supporting China's rural compulsory education. In May 2001, China's rural compulsory education was placed under an administrative system of…

  20. 75 FR 75624 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License... by satellite carriers under the satellite carrier compulsory license of the Copyright Act. The COLA... INFORMATION: The satellite carrier compulsory license establishes a statutory copyright licensing scheme...

  1. Zero Returns to Compulsory Schooling in Germany: Evidence and Interpretation. CEE DP 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pischke, Jorn-Steffen; von Wachter, Till

    2006-01-01

    We estimate the impact of compulsory schooling on earnings using the changes in compulsory schooling laws for secondary schools in West German states during the period from 1948 to 1970. The German school system streams students into three separate types of secondary schools and the change in compulsory schooling laws affected students in the…

  2. The CPD Needs of Mentors in Post-Compulsory Initial Teacher Training in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingleby, Ewan; Hunt, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the compulsory professional development (CPD) needs of mentors within post-compulsory Initial Teacher Training (ITT) provision in England. The discussion applies the ideas of Weber, Foucault, Habermas and Bourdieu in interpreting the implications for post-compulsory ITT mentor CPD training. The paper's primary and secondary…

  3. The Characteristics of China's Compulsory Education Funding Policy Change, 1986-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongju, Wei

    2008-01-01

    China's "Compulsory Education Law," determining the development of compulsory education, was first promulgated in 1986 and then amended in 2006. It has been a symbolic milestone in the history of Chinese education. During two decades, there have been totally 8 influential reforms in compulsory education funding policy. From the viewpoint…

  4. Monitory Report of the Implementation of the Free Compulsory Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baicai, Sun; Mingren, Zhao; Jaiyi, Wang

    2008-01-01

    Rural compulsory education is a very weak link in the development of China's education system. For many years, an education fiscal input mechanism with the township as the main player was adopted for supporting China's rural compulsory education. In May 2001, China's rural compulsory education was placed under an administrative system of…

  5. 76 FR 2801 - Revocation and Establishment of Compulsory Reporting Points; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... removes and establishes high altitude Alaskan compulsory reporting points in the vicinity of the United... establishing the TOVAD Compulsory Reporting Point on the U.S./Canadian border. Alaskan High Altitude Reporting... airspace. This regulation is within the scope of that authority as it amends High Altitude Compulsory...

  6. How to Use Technology Effectively in Post-Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The use of technology within the lifelong learning sector brings many benefits to learners, teachers and managers. Aimed at trainee and practising teachers, this book contains clear, practical guidance on how to use technology and e-learning effectively to enhance all aspects of teaching and learning in the post-compulsory sector. Alan Clarke…

  7. Compulsory Birth Control and Fertility Measures in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halli, S. S.

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of possible applications of the microsimulation approach to analysis of population policy proposes compulsory sterilization policy for all of India. Topics covered include India's population problem, methods for generating a distribution of couples to be sterilized, model validation, data utilized, data analysis, program limitations,…

  8. Stuck in the Groove: A Critique of Compulsory Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Learning in formal schools violates several simple principles: that no one can learn on an empty spirit; that true learning requires an absence of fear or authority; that learning is the most natural of human instincts. By making schooling compulsory, we have abandoned trust in our individual and collective experience in favour of experts and…

  9. Beginners' Progress in Early Arithmetic in the Swedish Compulsory School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Gota

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on spontaneous knowledge-building in the field of "the arithmetic "of" the child." The aim is to investigate the conceptual progress of fifteen children during their early school years in the compulsory school. The study is based on the epistemology of radical constructivism and the methodology of…

  10. What Should Be the Moral Aims of Compulsory Sex Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steutel, Jan; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    With reference to the unsuccessful attempt of the Labour Government to make sex education a statutory part of the National Curriculum, this paper argues in favour of making liberal sex education compulsory at all state schools. First, the main characteristics of a liberal sex education are briefly explained. Promoting the virtue of respect for…

  11. Constitutionality of Compulsory Arbitration Statutes in Public Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudohar, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews state supreme court rulings on constitutionality issues raised by compulsory arbitration for public employees. Cases are reviewed for the states of Wyoming, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Nebraska, Maine, Michigan, New York, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Washington. Concludes that courts have generally upheld the constitutionality of such…

  12. Effects of School Characteristics on Grades in Compulsory School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekholm, Alli Klapp

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate effects of different school and teacher characteristics, such as municipal and independently-operated schools and teacher certification on grades in compulsory school, and the extent to which parental education confounds the relations between such characteristics and grades. Multilevel, multivariate,…

  13. Compulsory Book Reading at School and within Leisure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlovic, Slavica

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with attitudes of secondary school pupils towards compulsory book reading at school, being the integral part of the subject Croat language and literature teaching subject, and its possible impact on their book (not-)reading in their leisure time. It is based on the research carried out through five-point Likert-type scale in…

  14. Medical Student Attendance at Non-Compulsory Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattick, Karen; Crocker, Graham; Bligh, John

    2007-01-01

    The General Medical Council in the UK recommends that undergraduate medical students be exposed to a variety of learning opportunities and increasingly take responsibility for their own learning. This study presents quantitative and qualitative data relating to attendance at non-compulsory plenary lectures in order to understand factors affecting…

  15. Compulsory Birth Control and Fertility Measures in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halli, S. S.

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of possible applications of the microsimulation approach to analysis of population policy proposes compulsory sterilization policy for all of India. Topics covered include India's population problem, methods for generating a distribution of couples to be sterilized, model validation, data utilized, data analysis, program limitations,…

  16. Compulsory Attendance Policies: About Age or Intervention? SREB Focus Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, SREB state policy-makers have focused on actions to reduce dropout rates and increase high school graduation rates. Some policy-makers have suggested that raising their state's compulsory attendance age (often called the dropout age) to require students to stay in school until age 17 or 18 is an important step. However,…

  17. Compulsory Book Reading at School and within Leisure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlovic, Slavica

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with attitudes of secondary school pupils towards compulsory book reading at school, being the integral part of the subject Croat language and literature teaching subject, and its possible impact on their book (not-)reading in their leisure time. It is based on the research carried out through five-point Likert-type scale in…

  18. The Administration of Compulsory Education in China: Lessons from Guangzhou.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeong, Yun Choi; Bannister, Barry J.

    1995-01-01

    Identifies problems occurring in the Guangzhou (China) compulsory-education program (poor primary-education quality, administrator shortages, poorly trained teachers, insufficient education revenues, and high teacher turnover) and suggests solutions. Presents a situation analysis to determine how the education system works in practice. Promotes…

  19. What Should Be the Moral Aims of Compulsory Sex Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steutel, Jan; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    With reference to the unsuccessful attempt of the Labour Government to make sex education a statutory part of the National Curriculum, this paper argues in favour of making liberal sex education compulsory at all state schools. First, the main characteristics of a liberal sex education are briefly explained. Promoting the virtue of respect for…

  20. Constitutionality of Compulsory Arbitration Statutes in Public Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudohar, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews state supreme court rulings on constitutionality issues raised by compulsory arbitration for public employees. Cases are reviewed for the states of Wyoming, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Nebraska, Maine, Michigan, New York, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Washington. Concludes that courts have generally upheld the constitutionality of such…

  1. Providing Post-Compulsory Education Options through "Newlook" Rural Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlcek, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The tree change phenomenon started around Australia from about 2003 and continues to this day, even into places like the Western Plains area of New South Wales. Relocating from the city to rural areas for a lifestyle change is attributed to this phenomenon. An ever-growing interest in post-compulsory education solutions that run parallel to this…

  2. Compulsory Attendance Policies: About Age or Intervention? SREB Focus Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, SREB state policy-makers have focused on actions to reduce dropout rates and increase high school graduation rates. Some policy-makers have suggested that raising their state's compulsory attendance age (often called the dropout age) to require students to stay in school until age 17 or 18 is an important step. However,…

  3. Web-Based New Literacies and EFL Curriculum Design in Teacher Education: A Design Study for Expanding EFL Student Teachers' Language-Related Literacy Practices in an Egyptian Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed

    2011-01-01

    With the dominance of the Web in education and English language learning, new literacies have emerged. This thesis is motivated by the assumption that these literacies need to be integrated into the Egyptian pre-service EFL teacher education programmes so that EFL student teachers can cope with the new reality of language teaching/learning.…

  4. The Insidious Nature of "Hard-Core" Alternative Conceptions: Implications for the Constructivist Research Programme of Patterns in High School Students' and Pre-Service Teachers' Thinking about Ionisation Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the constructivist research programme (RP) into learning science by comparing patterns in responses from two groups of learners--senior high school students and pre-service teachers--in the same educational context (Singapore), to a diagnostic instrument relating to the topic of ionisation energies. This topic is…

  5. The Insidious Nature of "Hard-Core" Alternative Conceptions: Implications for the Constructivist Research Programme of Patterns in High School Students' and Pre-Service Teachers' Thinking about Ionisation Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the constructivist research programme (RP) into learning science by comparing patterns in responses from two groups of learners--senior high school students and pre-service teachers--in the same educational context (Singapore), to a diagnostic instrument relating to the topic of ionisation energies. This topic is…

  6. Making Euclidean Geometry Compulsory: Are We Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Putten, Sonja; Howie, Sarah; Stols, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude towards, as well as the level of understanding of Euclidean geometry in pre-service mathematics education (PME) students. In order to do so, a case study was undertaken within which a one group pre-post-test procedure was conducted around a geometry module, and a representative group of students was interviewed…

  7. Making Euclidean Geometry Compulsory: Are We Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Putten, Sonja; Howie, Sarah; Stols, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude towards, as well as the level of understanding of Euclidean geometry in pre-service mathematics education (PME) students. In order to do so, a case study was undertaken within which a one group pre-post-test procedure was conducted around a geometry module, and a representative group of students was interviewed…

  8. Evaluation of the Healthy LifeCheck programme: a vascular risk assessment service for community pharmacies in Leicester city, UK.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Benjamin D; Hiles, Stephen L; Chauhan, Avni; Ighofose, Carol; Bharakhada, Nilesh; Jain, Avkash; Davies, Melanie J; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2013-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally. Vascular risk assessment is recognized as playing a key role in reducing premature CVD-related morbidity and mortality. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a pharmacy-led risk assessment service in Leicester City, UK. The vascular risk assessment was offered opportunistically to individuals between 40 and 70 years without any prior diagnosis of CVD on attending their community pharmacist. Individuals were risk stratified using the Framingham score and those classified as high risk were referred to their general practitioner (GP). Overall, 2521 individuals were recruited from 39 pharmacies consisting of 1059 (42%) males, 1696 (67%) South Asians and 199 (7.9%) individuals not registered with a GP. A total of 462 (18%) individuals were referred to primary care and 52.6% of a representative subset were subsequently recorded as having attended an appointment with their GP; diagnoses and treatments commenced were recorded. Cardiovascular risk assessment led by community pharmacies can successfully assess people from large, multi-ethnic UK populations and identify those at high cardiovascular risk or with undiagnosed cardiovascular disease. The service may improve rates of assessments undertaken by individuals who do not access health care through traditional routes.

  9. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  10. [Introduction of a centralised system (Service) for collecting clinical data in cancer screening programmes in Piedmont (Northern Italy): a pre-post assessment of a hub&spoke model].

    PubMed

    Gallo, Federica; Giubilato, Pamela; Larato, Cristina; Caprioglio, Adele; Tomatis, Mariano; Calcagno, Marco; Casella, Denise; Di Leo, Aurora; Ponti, Antonio; Ronco, Guglielmo; Segnan, Nereo; Giordano, Livia

    2015-01-01

    evaluation of a centralised collection of clinical data (Service) within cancer screening programmes in Piedmont based on a hub&spoke model and its impact on process indicators. assessment of an organisational intervention, through a non-controlled pre-post design. organised screening programmes within the Piedmont Region, divided into 9 departments. clinical data (extracted from medical charts for mammography screening and from excision histology reports for cervical screening) obtained through the Service were quantified and their completeness was assessed. The Service impact on the detection rate (DR) was evaluated, comparing the DR pre- (2005-2008) and post-Service (2009- 2012) within breast screening; the DR was computed through histological diagnosis made during colposcopy (pre-Service method) or through the worst diagnosis between the latter and that reported from excision histology (post-Service method) within cervical screening (data available for department 1, year 2013). Some hints on human resources employed in pre- and post-Service periods were reported. within mammography screening, the Service obtained 53.1% of extra-department medical charts and 45.8% of extra-region ones; the percentage of missing diagnoses changed from 5.5% (pre- Service) to 3.7% (post-Service). The age standardised DR for malignant tumours in the post-Service period is 1.3 times the DR of the pre-Service period per 1,000 screening tests. Within cervical screening, 51.7% of histological reports was recorded. Crude DR for high-grade lesions changed from 3.9 (pre-Service) to 4.7 (post-Service) per 1,000 screened women. The system centralisation did not imply an increase in the dedicated personnel. the Service is an operational core which coordinates the collection of clinical data, impacting on process indicators without an increase in human resources at departmental level.

  11. Compulsory drug detention centers in China, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos: health and human rights abuses.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane; Schleifer, Rebecca

    2013-12-12

    According to official accounts, in 2012 more than 235,000 people were detained in over 1,000 compulsory drug detention centers in East and Southeast Asia. Between July 2007 and May 2013, in-depth interviews were conducted with 195 individuals recently released from drug detention centers in China, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos. Individuals reported being held for up to five years in drug detention centers without clinical determination of drug dependency or due process, and being denied evidence-based drug treatment as well as other basic health services. Many individuals reported being forced to perform arduous physical exercise or military-style drills. Forced labor was reported by all individuals having been detained in Vietnam, and some held in Cambodia and China. Physical—and less often, sexual—abuse was reported among those held in each country. Long-term, compulsory detention for treatment of drug dependency is counter to established principles of medical care and violates a wide range of human rights, including the right to health. Individuals held in drug detention centers in China, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos are subject to torture and cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. Copyright © 2013 Amon, Pearshouse, Cohen, and Schleifer. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  12. HIV prevalence among high school learners - opportunities for schools-based HIV testing programmes and sexual reproductive health services

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Young girls in sub Saharan Africa are reported to have higher rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared to boys in the same age group. Knowledge of HIV status amongst high schools learners provides an important gateway to prevention and treatment services. This study aimed at determining the HIV prevalence and explored the feasibility of HIV testing among high school learners. Methods Between September 2010 and February 2011, a linked, anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted in two public sector high schools in the rural KwaZulu-Natal midlands. Following written informed consent, dried blood spot samples (DBS) were collected and tested for HIV. The overall and age-specific HIV prevalence were compared with select demographic variables. Results The HIV prevalence in learners aged 12 to 25 in school A was 4.7% (95% CI 2.8-6.5) compared to 2.5% (95% CI 1.6-3.5) in school B, (p = 0.04). Whilst the HIV prevalence was similar for boys at 1.3% (95% CI 0-2.8) in school A and 1.7% (95% CI 0.5-2.8) in school B, the prevalence in girls was consistently higher and was 7.7% (95% CI 4.5-10.9) in school A and 3.2% (95% CI 1.8-4.6) in school B. The age-specific HIV prevalence in girls increased 1.5 to 2 fold for each two year age category, while for boys the prevalence was stable across all age groups. Conclusions The high HIV prevalence in female learners underscores the importance of sexual reproductive health and schools-based HIV testing programs as an important gateway to prevention and treatment services. PMID:22439635

  13. HIV prevalence among high school learners - opportunities for school-based HIV testing programmes and sexual reproductive health services.

    PubMed

    Kharsany, Ayesha B M; Mlotshwa, Mukelisiwe; Frohlich, Janet A; Zuma, Nonhlanhla Yende; Samsunder, Natasha; Karim, Salim S Abdool; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool

    2012-01-01

    Young girls in sub Saharan Africa are reported to have higher rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared to boys in the same age group. Knowledge of HIV status amongst high schools learners provides an important gateway to prevention and treatment services. This study aimed at determining the HIV prevalence and explored the feasibility of HIV testing among high school learners. Between September 2010 and February 2011, a linked, anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted in two public sector high schools in the rural KwaZulu-Natal midlands. Following written informed consent, dried blood spot samples (DBS) were collected and tested for HIV. The overall and age-specific HIV prevalence were compared with select demographic variables. The HIV prevalence in learners aged 12 to 25 in school A was 4.7% (95% CI 2.8-6.5) compared to 2.5% (95% CI 1.6-3.5) in school B, (p=0.04). Whilst the HIV prevalence was similar for boys at 1.3% (95% CI 0-2.8) in school A and 1.7% (95% CI 0.5-2.8) in school B, the prevalence in girls was consistently higher and was 7.7% (95% CI 4.5-10.9) in school A and 3.2% (95% CI 1.8-4.6) in school B. The age-specific HIV prevalence in girls increased 1.5 to 2 fold for each two year age category, while for boys the prevalence was stable across all age groups. The high HIV prevalence in female learners underscores the importance of sexual reproductive health and schools-based HIV testing programs as an important gateway to prevention and treatment services.

  14. HIV prevalence among high school learners - opportunities for schools-based HIV testing programmes and sexual reproductive health services.

    PubMed

    Kharsany, Ayesha B M; Mlotshwa, Mukelisiwe; Frohlich, Janet A; Yende Zuma, Nonhlanhla; Samsunder, Natasha; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2012-03-22

    Young girls in sub Saharan Africa are reported to have higher rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared to boys in the same age group. Knowledge of HIV status amongst high schools learners provides an important gateway to prevention and treatment services. This study aimed at determining the HIV prevalence and explored the feasibility of HIV testing among high school learners. Between September 2010 and February 2011, a linked, anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted in two public sector high schools in the rural KwaZulu-Natal midlands. Following written informed consent, dried blood spot samples (DBS) were collected and tested for HIV. The overall and age-specific HIV prevalence were compared with select demographic variables. The HIV prevalence in learners aged 12 to 25 in school A was 4.7% (95% CI 2.8-6.5) compared to 2.5% (95% CI 1.6-3.5) in school B, (p = 0.04). Whilst the HIV prevalence was similar for boys at 1.3% (95% CI 0-2.8) in school A and 1.7% (95% CI 0.5-2.8) in school B, the prevalence in girls was consistently higher and was 7.7% (95% CI 4.5-10.9) in school A and 3.2% (95% CI 1.8-4.6) in school B. The age-specific HIV prevalence in girls increased 1.5 to 2 fold for each two year age category, while for boys the prevalence was stable across all age groups. The high HIV prevalence in female learners underscores the importance of sexual reproductive health and schools-based HIV testing programs as an important gateway to prevention and treatment services.

  15. Accessibility and implementation in UK services of an effective depression relapse prevention programme – mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT): ASPIRE study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a cost-effective psychosocial prevention programme that helps people with recurrent depression stay well in the long term. It was singled out in the 2009 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Depression Guideline as a key priority for implementation. Despite good evidence and guideline recommendations, its roll-out and accessibility across the UK appears to be limited and inequitably distributed. The study aims to describe the current state of MBCT accessibility and implementation across the UK, develop an explanatory framework of what is hindering and facilitating its progress in different areas, and develop an Implementation Plan and related resources to promote better and more equitable availability and use of MBCT within the UK National Health Service. Methods/Design This project is a two-phase qualitative, exploratory and explanatory research study, using an interview survey and in-depth case studies theoretically underpinned by the Promoting Action on Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework. Interviews will be conducted with stakeholders involved in commissioning, managing and implementing MBCT services in each of the four UK countries, and will include areas where MBCT services are being implemented successfully and where implementation is not working well. In-depth case studies will be undertaken on a range of MBCT services to develop a detailed understanding of the barriers and facilitators to implementation. Guided by the study’s conceptual framework, data will be synthesized across Phase 1 and Phase 2 to develop a fit for purpose implementation plan. Discussion Promoting the uptake of evidence-based treatments into routine practice and understanding what influences these processes has the potential to support the adoption and spread of nationally recommended interventions like MBCT. This study could inform a larger scale implementation trial and feed into

  16. A comparison of two hospital districts with low and high figures in the compulsory care of minors: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Siponen, Ulla; Välimäki, Maritta; Kaivosoja, Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2011-08-01

    The last decade in Finland has seen a vast increase both in involuntary psychiatric treatment of adolescents and in the numbers of adolescents taken into care under the Child Welfare Act. Moreover, the variation in figures between different hospital districts is remarkable. The reasons for this are not known, but it cannot be due to variation in the epidemiology of mental disorders in minors. The aim of the study was to explore features associated with compulsory care of adolescents at regional level by comparing two hospital districts clearly differing in this regard. The characteristics of involuntarily treated adolescents and adolescents taken into care, the resources and structures of adolescent psychiatric services and child welfare services, and the environmental factors associated with adolescent well-being and adaptation, such as indicators of social deprivation of families were all considered. For the present study, 2 out of the 22 hospital districts in Finland were selected, one using compulsory psychiatric care and taking into care of 13-17-year olds above and the other below the average in Finland. Register data on patient characteristics, services, and social deprivation were used. Absolute and population adjusted figures (95% confidence intervals) from the variables are given. The differences in incidences between health care districts were compared using Poisson regression analysis. Proportions of divorces, single parent families, social exclusion and outpatient mental health service use, and detoxification treatment use of adults were higher in the health care district with above average coercion figures than in the area with below average coercion figures. The numbers of adolescent psychiatric outpatient visits were higher in the health care district with coercion figures below average despite the fact that the number of positions in adolescent outpatient services was lower than in the health care district with above average coercion figures

  17. Compulsory licensing of patented pharmaceutical inventions: evaluating the options

    PubMed Central

    Reichman, Jerome H.

    2010-01-01

    In this Comment, the author traces the relevant legislative history pertaining to compulsory licensing of patented pharmaceuticals from the TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement of 1994 to the 2003 waiver to, and later proposed amendment of, article 31, which enables poor countries to obtain needed medicines from other countries that possess manufacturing capacity. The Comment then evaluates recent, controversial uses of the relevant legislative machinery as viewed from different critical perspectives. The Comment shows how developing countries seeking access to essential medicines can collaborate in ways that would avoid undermining incentives to innovation and other social costs attributed to compulsory licensing. It ends by defending the legality of recent measures taken to promote public health in developing countries, and by reminding developed countries that unilateral retaliation against such measures is demonstratably illegal under WTO foundational law and jurisprudence. PMID:19493070

  18. Comment: compulsory licensing of patented pharmaceutical inventions: evaluating the options.

    PubMed

    Reichman, Jerome H

    2009-01-01

    In this Comment, the author traces the relevant legislative history pertaining to compulsory licensing of patented pharmaceuticals from the TRIPS Agreement of 1994 to the 2003 waiver to, and later proposed amendment of, article 31, which enables poor countries to obtain needed medicines from other countries that possess manufacturing capacity. The Comment then evaluates recent, controversial uses of the relevant legislative machinery as viewed from different critical perspectives. The Comment shows how developing countries seeking access to essential medicines can collaborate in ways that would avoid undermining incentives to innovation and other social costs attributed to compulsory licensing. It ends by defending the legality of recent measures taken to promote public health in developing countries, and by reminding developed countries that unilateral retaliation against such measures is demonstratably illegal under WTO foundational law and jurisprudence.

  19. Effects of compulsory schooling on mortality: evidence from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Martin; Karlsson, Martin; Nilsson, Therese

    2013-08-13

    Theoretically, there are several reasons to expect education to have a positive effect on health. Empirical research suggests that education can be an important health determinant. However, it has not yet been established whether education and health are indeed causally related, and the effects found in previous studies may be partially attributable to methodological weaknesses. Moreover, existing evidence on the education-health relationship generally uses information of fairly recent schooling reforms, implying that health outcomes are observed only over a limited time period. This paper examines the effect of education on mortality using information on a national roll-out of a reform leading to one extra year of compulsory schooling in Sweden. In 1936, the national government made a seventh school year compulsory; however, the implementation was decided at the school district level, and the reform was implemented over 12 years. Taking advantage of the variation in the timing of the implementation across school districts, by using county-level proportions of reformed districts, census data and administrative mortality data, we find that the extra compulsory school year reduced mortality. In fact, the mortality reduction is discernible already before the age of 30 and then grows in magnitude until the age of 55-60.

  20. Compulsory patent licensing and local drug manufacturing capacity in Africa.

    PubMed

    Owoeye, Olasupo Ayodeji

    2014-03-01

    Africa has the highest disease burden in the world and continues to depend on pharmaceutical imports to meet public health needs. As Asian manufacturers of generic medicines begin to operate under a more protectionist intellectual property regime, their ability to manufacture medicines at prices that are affordable to poorer countries is becoming more circumscribed. The Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health gives member states of the World Trade Organization (WTO) the right to adopt legislation permitting the use of patented material without authorization by the patent holder, a provision known as "compulsory licensing". For African countries to take full advantage of compulsory licensing they must develop substantial local manufacturing capacity. Because building manufacturing capacity in each African country is daunting and almost illusory, an African free trade area should be developed to serve as a platform not only for the free movement of goods made pursuant to compulsory licences, but also for an economic or financial collaboration towards the development of strong pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity in the continent. Most countries in Africa are in the United Nations list of least developed countries, and this allows them, under WTO law, to refuse to grant patents for pharmaceuticals until 2021. Thus, there is a compelling need for African countries to collaborate to build strong pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity in the continent now, while the current flexibilities in international intellectual property law offer considerable benefits.

  1. Effects of Compulsory Schooling on Mortality: Evidence from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Martin; Karlsson, Martin; Nilsson, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Theoretically, there are several reasons to expect education to have a positive effect on health. Empirical research suggests that education can be an important health determinant. However, it has not yet been established whether education and health are indeed causally related, and the effects found in previous studies may be partially attributable to methodological weaknesses. Moreover, existing evidence on the education-health relationship generally uses information of fairly recent schooling reforms, implying that health outcomes are observed only over a limited time period. This paper examines the effect of education on mortality using information on a national roll-out of a reform leading to one extra year of compulsory schooling in Sweden. In 1936, the national government made a seventh school year compulsory; however, the implementation was decided at the school district level, and the reform was implemented over 12 years. Taking advantage of the variation in the timing of the implementation across school districts, by using county-level proportions of reformed districts, census data and administrative mortality data, we find that the extra compulsory school year reduced mortality. In fact, the mortality reduction is discernible already before the age of 30 and then grows in magnitude until the age of 55–60. PMID:23945539

  2. Using a graph of the abnormal predictive value versus the positive predictive value for the determination of outlier laboratories in the National Health Service cervical screening programme.

    PubMed

    Blanks, R G

    2010-12-01

    The positive predictive value (PPV) for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse of referral to colposcopy from moderate dyskaryosis or worse (equivalent to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse) is a standard performance measure in the National Health Service cervical screening programme. The current target is to examine 'outlier' laboratories with PPVs outside the 10th-90th percentile, which automatically identifies 20% of laboratories for further investigation. A more targeted method of identifying outliers may be more useful. A similar measure to the PPV, the abnormal predictive value (APV), can be defined as the predictive value for CIN2 or worse for referrals from borderline (includes atypical squamous and glandular cells) and mild dyskaryosis (equivalent to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) combined. A scatter plot of the APV versus the PPV can be produced (the APV-PPV diagram). Three kinds of 'outlier' can be defined on the diagram to help determine laboratories with unusual data. These are termed a true outlier value (TOV) or an extreme value (EV) for either PPV or APV, or a residual extreme value (REV) from the APV-PPV best line of fit. Using annual return information for 2007/8 from 124 laboratories, two were defined as having EVs for PPV (both had a relatively low PPV of 62%). For APV, four laboratories were considered to have EVs of 34%, 34%, 34% and 4% and one was considered to be a TO with an APV of 45%. Five were identified as REV laboratories, although three of these were also identified as having extreme or outlier values, leaving two that had not been identified by the other methods. A total of eight (6%) laboratories were therefore identified as meriting further investigation using this methodology. The method proposed could be a useful alternative to the current method of identifying outliers. Slide exchange studies between the identified laboratories, particularly those at opposing ends

  3. Comparing outcomes of 'voluntary' and 'quasi-compulsory' treatment of substance dependence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Michael; Stevens, Alex; Berto, Daniele; Hunt, Neil; Kerschl, Viktoria; McSweeney, Tim; Oeuvray, Kerrie; Puppo, Irene; Santa Maria, Alberto; Trinkl, Barbara; Werdenich, Wolfgang; Uchtenhagen, Ambros

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates quasi-compulsory drug treatment (QCT) arrangements for substance-dependent offenders receiving treatment instead of imprisonment in comparison to voluntary treatment within five European countries. Participants were interviewed with the European Addiction Severity Index, the ASI-crime module, questions on perception of pressure and self-efficacy, and the Readiness-to-Change Questionnaire at treatment entry and after 6, 12, and 18 months. Reductions in substance use and crime as well as improvements in health and social integration were observed in QCT and voluntary treatment groups. After controlling for various factors, subjects in the QCT and the comparison group showed similar reductions in substance use and crime over time. Study retention was comparable in both groups. QCT is as effective as voluntary treatment provided in the same services in reducing substance use and crime. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Psychological mechanism linking abusive supervision and compulsory citizenship behavior: a moderated mediation study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Han, Yong; Sheard, Geoff; Hudson, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the effect of abusive supervision on the "dark side" of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and, specifically, compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB). The study focuses on the mediating role of psychological safety underpinning the relationship between abusive supervision and CCB, and the moderating role of Chinese traditionality in influencing the mediation. The authors tested the model with data of 434 dyads (employee-coworker pairs) in a large Chinese service company. Results indicated that psychological safety fully mediated the relationship between abusive supervision and CCB. The authors also found that Chinese traditionality moderated the strength of the mediated relationship between abusive supervision and CCB via psychological safety, such that the mediated relationship is weaker under high Chinese traditionality than under low Chinese traditionality. The article also discusses the implications, limitations, and future research directions.

  5. Programmable Pulser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Eric; Merolla, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    User controls number of clock pulses to prevent burnout. New digital programmable pulser circuit in three formats; freely running, counted, and single pulse. Operates at frequencies up to 5 MHz, with no special consideration given to layout of components or to terminations. Pulser based on sequential circuit with four states and binary counter with appropriate decoding logic. Number of programmable pulses increased beyond 127 by addition of another counter and decoding logic. For very large pulse counts and/or very high frequencies, use synchronous counters to avoid errors caused by propagation delays. Invaluable tool for initial verification or diagnosis of digital or digitally controlled circuity.

  6. Programmable Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc., incorporated Apollo technology into the development of the programmable pacemaker system. This consists of the implantable pacemaker together with a physician's console containing the programmer and a data printer. Physician can communicate with patient's pacemaker by means of wireless telemetry signals transmitted through the communicating head held over the patient's chest. Where earlier pacemakers deliver a fixed type of stimulus once implanted, Programalith enables surgery free "fine tuning" of device to best suit the patient's changing needs.

  7. Promoting Well-Being and Preventing Burnout in Teacher Education: A Pilot Study of a Mindfulness-Based Programme for Pre-Service Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-tak; Lau, Ngar-sze

    2015-01-01

    The stress that negatively affects teachers has been found to influence the turnover rate in the teaching profession. Recent research has shown that mindfulness-based programmes effectively promote well-being while addressing psychological distress. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of a six-week mindfulness-based programme on…

  8. Promoting Well-Being and Preventing Burnout in Teacher Education: A Pilot Study of a Mindfulness-Based Programme for Pre-Service Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-tak; Lau, Ngar-sze

    2015-01-01

    The stress that negatively affects teachers has been found to influence the turnover rate in the teaching profession. Recent research has shown that mindfulness-based programmes effectively promote well-being while addressing psychological distress. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of a six-week mindfulness-based programme on…

  9. Utilising theories of change to understand the engagement of general practitioners in service improvement: a formative evaluation of the Lewisham Depression Programme.

    PubMed

    Riley, Anthony J; Byng, Richard; White, Corinna; Smith, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Mental health issues such as depression are commonly treated within primary care. In accordance with new UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance, primary care practitioners have increased responsibilities to manage mild depression in primary care. This paper reports on an evaluation of a depression programme marketing strategy, and factors contributing towards practitioner engagement or non-engagement. The main aims of the study were to conduct an evaluation that was programme specific, to immediately feed results back iteratively through early development and engagement of general practitioners (GPs) and nurses and their practices in a multifaceted programme, and to investigate decisions to participate or not participate in the depression recognition audit as a first point of engagement, in order to gain a better understanding of what motivates GPs and nurses to be involved and what prohibits involvement, in order to address any future potential barriers to improvement. The methods for this formative evaluation can be categorised in three distinct ways: firstly, the iterative development of 'theories of change' (programme-based assumptions) using ethnographic techniques, which led to the development of a list of predefined theories of change and formed the basis of two questionnaires; secondly, questionnaires were sent to engaged GPs and nurses and a separate questionnaire was sent to a matched sample of GPs and nurses not engaged; finally, results were fed back on an ongoing basis to inform the ongoing programme development and evaluation and to produce final theories of change for engagement. The response rate to the questionnaire was 54%. Those involved in the audit reported individual motivation, team working, wider networks and method of engagement, all as positively influencing their decision to take part. Those not involved focused on practice organisational issues leading to non-participation, such as not having enough time

  10. A compulsory experiential and inter-professional rural health subject for undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Siaw-Teng; McGrath, Barry; Jones, Graeme; Russell, Ursula; Bourke, Lisa; Hsu-Hage, Bridget

    2005-01-01

    The Australian University Departments of Rural Health (UDRH) program aims to improve the rural workforce through improving rural experiences of undergraduates, graduates and health professionals. The 10 UDRHs vary in the way they implement the UDRH Program. This article describes the development of a compulsory, experiential and inter-professional rural health subject in a medical curriculum by the UDRH at the University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. The key concepts, underpinning theory, processes, logistics and resources required to develop and implement the subject among a network of small towns and Indigenous communities are examined. METHODS used included formative evaluation using a participatory research approach, including the examination of internal discussion papers, minutes of meetings and planning workshops, financial records and feedback from students, staff and preceptors. Students, staff and preceptors generally accept the value of the rural health module in professional training. However, they stress the need for explicit learning objectives, relevant content and engaging delivery. Students expressed some concern about the compulsory nature of the subject. Significant issues are capacity, quality, sustainability and managing expectations of government and communities. Capacity includes the availability of appropriate placements and preceptors who have the capacity and capability to teach or to be supported to teach. The availability of appropriate and affordable accommodation is important, as are the cost and safety of travel to and from placements. Sustainability of 'placements' and 'placement fatigue' must be managed with a combination of resources and preceptor training and support. Quality of placements is important and highlights a paradox in that, while academically rigorous teaching, research and clinical programs for students and preceptors are important for quality, they are mostly perceived as additional burdens by health service

  11. Changes in determinants of compulsory community treatment over 11 years. A population-based analysis of linked mental health databases.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Xiao, Jianguo; Jian, Le

    2015-12-15

    Differences in patient characteristics, legislation and service setting may explain variations in the reported efficacy of compulsory treatment orders (CTOs). Our objective was to investigate factors associated with CTO placement in Western Australia and see if there were any changes over the 11 years following their introduction. We used three linked Western Australian databases to compare 2958 patients on community treatment orders with an equal number of controls matched on age, sex and diagnosis, as well as 2832 consecutive controls selected on date of discharge from inpatient care or CTO placement. Multivariate analyses were used to further examine potential predictors of a CTO. The incidence of CTOs, and the characteristics of patients placed on these orders, showed little change over 11 years. They tended to be younger and male with schizophrenia or other non-affective psychotic disorders. Previous health service use as an inpatient or outpatient also predicted compulsory community treatment. Psychiatrists in Western Australia appear to be applying community treatment orders to similar types of patient as elsewhere, but unlike other jurisdictions, use has not increased. We need further research to establish the relative contribution of patient characteristics, legislation and service setting toward the use and outcome of CTOs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Strengthening pre-service training for skilled birth attendance - An evaluation of the maternal and child health aide training programme in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Jones, Susan A; Sam, Betty; Bull, Florence; James, Margaret; Ameh, Charles A; van den Broek, Nynke R

    2016-06-01

    The high maternal mortality rate in Sierra Leone combined with an ongoing shortage of midwives has led to the introduction of new cadres of healthcare workers. Maternal and Child Health Aides are one such cadre and now provide 56% of patient care. The quality of the education training programme for MCHA is therefore of paramount importance if high quality maternal care is to be provided. To conduct an evaluation of the MCHAide training programme in Sierra Leone. Mapping of programme and focus group discussions (FGDs) with key informants. Analysis of data using a thematic approach and formulation of recommendations for national, district and individual levels. All 14 MCHAide schools across Sierra Leone. The National Coordinator, Coordinators from 14 MCHAide schools and District Health Sisters from District Health Management Teams. Focus group discussions were held with tutors facilitated by a group member to encourage a free flowing discussion. Participants were divided into 4 groups, one for each province, with 5-8 participants per group and 50min for the discussion. Strengths, weaknesses and opportunities of the MCHAide training programme were identified. Four major themes were identified; the need for autonomy and support within the programme from stakeholders; the effect of poor infrastructure on teaching and student learning; the need to ensure rigorous academic quality including teaching quality, curricula content and the academic ability of the students; and the benefits of community support. It is important that the key personnel be involved in the development and introduction of training programmes for new cadres of staff from the earliest stages of development. On-going programme review and development is essential and those implementing the programme are the best placed to lead and contribute to this. Gathering the experiences and perceptions of key informants helps provide an in-depth examination that can inform recommendations. Copyright © 2016 The

  13. Academic Performance of Students during Transition Period before Choice of Disciplines in Nigeria Certificate in Education (Technical) Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amasuomo, Japo Oweikeye

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the academic performance of students in the compulsory courses in technical education during the transition period of first and second years of three years Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) Technical programme before choosing their disciplines in the third year. The study comprised of 237 students that consisted of…

  14. Compulsory drug detention centers in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; McBrayer, John L

    2015-02-01

    Over the last three decades in response to a rise in substance use in the region, many countries in East and Southeast Asia responded by establishing laws and policies that allowed for compulsory detention in the name of treatment for people who use drugs. These centers have recently come under international scrutiny with a call for their closure in a Joint Statement from United Nations entities in March 2012. The UN's response was a result of concern for human rights violations, including the lack of consent for treatment and due process protections for compulsory detention, the lack of general healthcare and evidence based drug dependency treatment and in some centers, of forced labor and physical and sexual abuse (United Nations, 2012). A few countries have responded to this call with evidence of an evolving response for community-based voluntary treatment; however progress is likely going to be hampered by existing laws and policies, the lack of skilled human resource and infrastructure to rapidly establish evidence based community treatment centers in place of these detention centers, pervasive stigmatization of people who use drugs and the ongoing tensions between the abstinence-based model of treatment as compared to harm reduction approaches in many of these affected countries. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 47 CFR 0.491 - Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements. 0.491 Section 0.491 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.491 Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements...

  16. 47 CFR 0.491 - Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements. 0.491 Section 0.491 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.491 Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements...

  17. 47 CFR 0.491 - Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements. 0.491 Section 0.491 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.491 Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements...

  18. 47 CFR 0.491 - Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements. 0.491 Section 0.491 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.491 Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements...

  19. 47 CFR 0.491 - Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements. 0.491 Section 0.491 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.491 Application for exemption from compulsory ship radio requirements...

  20. What Is the Influence of a Compulsory Attendance Policy on Absenteeism and Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jason L.; Lee-Partridge, Joo Eng; Jarmoszko, A. Tomasz; Petkova, Olga; D'Onofrio, Marianne J.

    2014-01-01

    The authors utilized a quasiexperimental design across sections of managerial communication and management information systems classes (N = 212) to test the impact of compulsory attendance policies on student absenteeism and performance. Students in the compulsory attendance policy condition received an attendance policy that punished excessive…

  1. 38 CFR 1.468 - Relationship to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relationship to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of their identity. 1.468 Section 1.468... to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of their identity....

  2. 38 CFR 1.468 - Relationship to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relationship to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of their identity. 1.468 Section 1.468... to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of their identity....

  3. 38 CFR 1.468 - Relationship to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relationship to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of their identity. 1.468 Section 1.468... to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of their identity....

  4. What Is the Influence of a Compulsory Attendance Policy on Absenteeism and Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jason L.; Lee-Partridge, Joo Eng; Jarmoszko, A. Tomasz; Petkova, Olga; D'Onofrio, Marianne J.

    2014-01-01

    The authors utilized a quasiexperimental design across sections of managerial communication and management information systems classes (N = 212) to test the impact of compulsory attendance policies on student absenteeism and performance. Students in the compulsory attendance policy condition received an attendance policy that punished excessive…

  5. Constitutional Mandate for Free and Compulsory Education: New Light on the Intention of the "Founding Fathers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juneja, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    The original constitutional provision for free and compulsory education, granted under Article 45 stated that it was to be available for "all children until they complete the age of fourteen years", but it did not specify the lower age limit nor the stage of education (whether elementary or primary) that would be free and compulsory.…

  6. 76 FR 74703 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License... by satellite carriers under the satellite carrier compulsory license of the Copyright Act. The COLA.... Telephone: (202) 707-7658. Email: crb@loc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The satellite carrier...

  7. 78 FR 71501 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License... Copyright Royalty Judges announce a cost of living adjustment (COLA) of 1% in the royalty rates satellite....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The satellite carrier compulsory license establishes a...

  8. 77 FR 70373 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License... by satellite carriers under the satellite carrier compulsory license of the Copyright Act. The COLA.... Telephone: (202) 707-7658. Email: crb@loc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The satellite carrier...

  9. 49 CFR 510.12 - Remedies for failure to comply with compulsory process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... process. 510.12 Section 510.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION GATHERING POWERS § 510.12 Remedies for failure to comply with compulsory process. Any failure to comply with compulsory...

  10. Developing nations and the compulsory license: maximizing access to essential medicines while minimizing investment side effects.

    PubMed

    Bird, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript addresses how developing countries can maximize access to essential medicines and minimize unwanted side-effects within the legal environment of a compulsory license regime. While compulsory licensing can play a role in improving public health, external social and political conditions must be considered in order to make licensing an effective practice.

  11. The Detrimental Effects of Social Capital on the Balanced Development of Compulsory Education and Their Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongjiao

    2009-01-01

    The balanced development of compulsory education, with a focus on the goal of educational equality, is both a matter of policy orientation and a practical educational issue. At present, people are mostly concerned with the unbalanced state of development of compulsory education, its causes, and issues regarding its administration. Various modes of…

  12. Constitutional Mandate for Free and Compulsory Education: New Light on the Intention of the "Founding Fathers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juneja, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    The original constitutional provision for free and compulsory education, granted under Article 45 stated that it was to be available for "all children until they complete the age of fourteen years", but it did not specify the lower age limit nor the stage of education (whether elementary or primary) that would be free and compulsory.…

  13. On Financial Support System for Compulsory Education in China's Western Minority Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinyu, Qi

    2008-01-01

    China's Western Development is a policy adopted to boost its less developed Western regions, that is, a systematic project and a longterm and arduous task. The development of compulsory education in China's minority areas is the key to it. This paper attempts to use the beneficial experience of developing compulsory education support system of…

  14. On Financial Support System for Compulsory Education in China's Western Minority Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinyu, Qi

    2008-01-01

    China's Western Development is a policy adopted to boost its less developed Western regions, that is, a systematic project and a longterm and arduous task. The development of compulsory education in China's minority areas is the key to it. This paper attempts to use the beneficial experience of developing compulsory education support system of…

  15. 76 FR 80732 - Revocation and Establishment of Compulsory Reporting Point; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... modifies a low altitude and a high altitude Alaskan compulsory reporting point in the vicinity of Kodiak...-8783. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History The FAA has determined that the low and high altitude Alaska..., the FAA is changing the name of the low and high altitude MARLO compulsory reporting point in the...

  16. Compulsory licensing in Canada and Thailand: comparing regimes to ensure legitimate use of the WTO rules.

    PubMed

    Lybecker, Kristina M; Fowler, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines two recent examples of compulsory licensing legislation: one globally embraced regime and one internationally controversial regime operating under the same WTO rules. In particular, we consider Canadian legislation and the use of compulsory licensing for HIV/AIDS drugs destined for a developing country. This is then contrasted with the conditions under which Thai authorities are pursuing compulsory licenses, the outcomes of their compulsory licenses, as well as the likely impact of the Thai policy. Finally, we construct a rubric to evaluate characteristics of a successful regime. This is used to analyze the Canadian and Thai regimes and frame the expected implications of each national policy. It is hoped that the assessment will guide changes to compulsory licensing design to ensure that legitimate regimes are embraced while illegitimate ones are disallowed.

  17. How is the sustainability of chronic disease health programmes empirically measured in hospital and related healthcare services?—a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Linda; Dunt, David; Cadilhac, Dominique A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Programmes to address chronic disease are a focus of governments worldwide. Despite growth in ‘implementation science’, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding the best means to measure sustainability. The aim of this review was to summarise current practice for measuring sustainability outcomes of chronic disease health programmes, providing guidance for programme planners and future directions for the academic field. Settings A scoping review of the literature spanning 1985–2015 was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO and The Cochrane Library limited to English language and adults. Main search terms included chronic disease, acute care, sustainability, institutionalisation and health planning. A descriptive synthesis was required. Settings included primary care, hospitals, mental health centres and community health. Participants Programmes included preventing or managing chronic conditions including diabetes, heart disease, depression, respiratory disease, cancer, obesity, dental hygiene and multiple chronic diseases. Primary and secondary outcome measures Outcome measures included clarifying a sustainability definition, types of methodologies used, timelines for assessment, criteria levels to determine outcomes and how methodology varies between intervention types. Results Among 153 abstracts retrieved, 87 were retained for full article review and 42 included in the qualitative synthesis. Five definitions for sustainability outcome were identified with ‘maintenance of programme activities’ most frequent. Achieving sustainability was dependent on inter-relationships between various organisational and social contexts supporting a broad scale approach to evaluation. An increasing trend in use of mixed methods designs over multiple time points to determine sustainability outcomes was found. Conclusions Despite the importance and investment in chronic disease programmes, few studies are undertaken to measure sustainability. Methods to

  18. [Vaccination programmes].

    PubMed

    Varela, M Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Immunization is a highly cost-effective intervention that saves many lives. Its objective is to control and eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases (when the characteristics of the disease and the vaccine make it possible), resulting in improvements in the health of the population. In Spain, the first vaccination schedule was introduced in 1975 and currently coverages > 95% are achieved in children aged < 2 years of age. Before deciding to introduce a vaccination programme in a community or country, a series of aspects should be considered, including the disease burden in the population, the effectiveness and safety of the vaccine, the changes in the dynamics of the infection when the vaccine is introduced, the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine, the theoretical potential of elimination/eradication of the disease and the existence of other preventive or therapeutic measures. Once the programme has been introduced it should be subject to evaluation, considering aspects such as the coverage, effectiveness, safety and the impact on the population. This work defines different vaccination strategies for three diseases for which efficacious and safe vaccines are available: hepatitis A, influenza and varicella.

  19. Pleiotropy across academic subjects at the end of compulsory education.

    PubMed

    Rimfeld, Kaili; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2015-07-23

    Research has shown that genes play an important role in educational achievement. A key question is the extent to which the same genes affect different academic subjects before and after controlling for general intelligence. The present study investigated genetic and environmental influences on, and links between, the various subjects of the age-16 UK-wide standardized GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) examination results for 12,632 twins. Using the twin method that compares identical and non-identical twins, we found that all GCSE subjects were substantially heritable, and that various academic subjects correlated substantially both phenotypically and genetically, even after controlling for intelligence. Further evidence for pleiotropy in academic achievement was found using a method based directly on DNA from unrelated individuals. We conclude that performance differences for all subjects are highly heritable at the end of compulsory education and that many of the same genes affect different subjects independent of intelligence.

  20. Pleiotropy across academic subjects at the end of compulsory education

    PubMed Central

    Rimfeld, Kaili; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that genes play an important role in educational achievement. A key question is the extent to which the same genes affect different academic subjects before and after controlling for general intelligence. The present study investigated genetic and environmental influences on, and links between, the various subjects of the age-16 UK-wide standardized GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) examination results for 12,632 twins. Using the twin method that compares identical and non-identical twins, we found that all GCSE subjects were substantially heritable, and that various academic subjects correlated substantially both phenotypically and genetically, even after controlling for intelligence. Further evidence for pleiotropy in academic achievement was found using a method based directly on DNA from unrelated individuals. We conclude that performance differences for all subjects are highly heritable at the end of compulsory education and that many of the same genes affect different subjects independent of intelligence. PMID:26203819

  1. Reproductive and parental autonomy: an argument for compulsory parental education.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, Lisa; Cutas, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we argue that comprehensive and systematic parental education has the potential to equip young adults with the necessary information for the responsible exercise of their autonomy in choices about reproduction and parenting. Education can allow young adults to acquire largely accurate beliefs about reproduction and parenting and about the implications of their reproductive and parental choices. Far from being a limitation of individual freedom, the acquisition of relevant information about reproduction and parenting and the acquisition of self-knowledge with respect to reproductive and parenting choices can help give shape to individual life plans. We make a case for compulsory parental education on the basis of the need to respect and enhance individual reproductive and parental autonomy within a culture that presents contradictory attitudes towards reproduction and where decisions about whether to become a parent are subject to significant pressure and scrutiny.

  2. Compulsory licensing often did not produce lower prices for antiretrovirals compared to international procurement.

    PubMed

    Beall, Reed F; Kuhn, Randall; Attaran, Amir

    2015-03-01

    Compulsory licensing has been widely suggested as a legal mechanism for bypassing patents to introduce lower-cost generic antiretrovirals for HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Previous studies found that compulsory licensing can reduce procurement prices for drugs, but it is unknown how the resulting prices compare to procurements through the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria; UNICEF; and other international channels. For this study we systematically constructed a case-study database of compulsory licensing activity for antiretrovirals and compared compulsory license prices to those in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Global Price Reporting Mechanism and the Global Fund's Price and Quality Reporting Tool. Thirty compulsory license cases were analyzed with 673 comparable procurements from WHO and Global Fund data. Compulsory license prices exceeded the median international procurement prices in nineteen of the thirty case studies, often with a price gap of more than 25 percent. Compulsory licensing often delivered suboptimal value when compared to the alternative of international procurement, especially when used by low-income countries to manufacture medicines locally. There is an ongoing need for multilateral and charitable actors to work collectively with governments and medicine suppliers on policy options.

  3. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Susan C.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Background The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. Purpose This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. Brief description The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. Results/outcomes NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. Evaluation method High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training, and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favorable response to the programme. PMID:18494648

  4. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Susan C; Grefsheim, Suzanne F; Rankin, Jocelyn A

    2008-06-01

    The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme, including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. RESULTS / OUTCOMES: NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favourable response to the programme.

  5. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers...

  6. Determinants of compulsory admissions in a state psychiatric hospital-Case control study.

    PubMed

    Indu, Nair V; Vidhukumar, K; Sarma, P S

    2016-12-09

    Compulsory admissions are against the patient's will and are presumably due to diverse reasons. There has been a rise in compulsory admissions world over. The objective of the study was to determine the risk factors for compulsory admissions in a state psychiatric hospital. A case control study was conducted at the state psychiatric hospital, Trivandrum, Kerala. Cases were involuntary non-legal admissions while controls were voluntary admissions. Putative risk factors studied included social support, severity of psychopathology etc., in addition to the socio-demographic variables. Risk factors for compulsory admissions were higher age, 30-49 years, OR=1.98, 95% CI [1.03-3.81]; >50years, OR=2.2, 95% CI [1.03-4.72], being from an urban locale,OR=1.99, 95% CI [1.13-3.52], living in joint & extended families OR=2.12, 95% CI [1.3-3.4], homelessness OR=2.24, 95% CI [1.32-3.79] and poor social support, OR=4.45 [2.53-7.81]. The type of illness, its duration, diagnosis, or symptom severity were not significantly related to compulsory admissions, but past compulsory admissions OR=5.36, 95% CI [2.09-13.75], poor functioning OR=2.54, 95% CI [1.31-4.91] and poor compliance to medication OR=1.78, 95% CI [1.05-3.01] were associated with compulsory admission. Poor social support, past involuntary admissions and poor functional status retained their association after multivariate analysis. By addressing the modifiable factors like poor social support, poor functional status, and poor compliance to medication, compulsory admissions could be prevented. Since it is found that compulsory admissions are likely to repeat, such patients form a high risk group requiring specific interventions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Compulsory community and involuntary outpatient treatment for people with severe mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve R; Campbell, Leslie A; O'Reilly, Richard

    2017-03-17

    It is controversial whether compulsory community treatment (CCT) for people with severe mental illness (SMI) reduces health service use, or improves clinical outcome and social functioning. To examine the effectiveness of compulsory community treatment (CCT) for people with severe mental illness (SMI). We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (2003, 2008, 2012, 8 November 2013, 3 June 2016). We obtained all references of identified studies and contacted authors where necessary. All relevant randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of CCT compared with standard care for people with SMI (mainly schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders, bipolar disorder, or depression with psychotic features). Standard care could be voluntary treatment in the community or another pre-existing form of CCT such as supervised discharge. Authors independently selected studies, assessed their quality and extracted data. We used Cochrane's tool for assessing risk of bias. For binary outcomes, we calculated a fixed-effect risk ratio (RR), its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and, where possible, the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB). For continuous outcomes, we calculated a fixed-effect mean difference (MD) and its 95% CI. We used the GRADE approach to create 'Summary of findings' tables for key outcomes and assessed the risk of bias of these findings. The review included three studies (n = 749). Two were based in the USA and one in England. The English study had the least bias, meeting three out of the seven criteria of Cochrane's tool for assessing risk of bias. The two other studies met only one criterion, the majority being rated unclear.Two trials from the USA (n = 416) compared court-ordered 'outpatient commitment' (OPC) with entirely voluntary community treatment. There were no significant differences between OPC and voluntary treatment by 11 to 12 months in any of the main health service or participant

  8. Access to critical medicines: When are compulsory licenses effective in price negotiations?

    PubMed

    Ramani, Shyama V; Urias, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Governments of developing countries can be in a vulnerable position with respect to patent protected drugs supplied by foreign firms, if the technology cannot be licensed or independently developed by local firms. In such instances, one possible solution is to negotiate for a price-drop with the patent holder in lieu of issuing a compulsory license. The present paper develops a game theoretic model of such bargaining and shows that while compulsory licenses do not occur under complete information, they can be issued under incomplete information. The model is tested against real episodes of compulsory licenses to derive policy insight.

  9. [The historical development of immunization in Germany. From compulsory smallpox vaccination to a National Action Plan on Immunization].

    PubMed

    Klein, S; Schöneberg, I; Krause, G

    2012-11-01

    In the German Reich, smallpox vaccinations were organized by the state. A mandatory vaccination throughout the empire was introduced in 1874, which was continued in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR) until 1982/1983. From 1935, health departments were responsible for vaccinations. In the GDR, immunization was tightly organized: The state made great efforts to achieve high vaccination rates. Responsibilities were clearly defined at all levels and for all ages. While vaccination was initially mandatory only at the regional level, the legally mandated immunization schedule later contained compulsory vaccinations, e.g., against measles. In the beginning there were mandatory vaccinations in the FRG at the Länder level. Since 1961, the Federal Epidemics Act has impeded obligatory vaccinations. Instead, voluntary vaccinations based on recommendations were stressed. Since the 1980s, vaccinations have been shifted from the public health service sector to office-based physicians. Today, public health authorities offer mainly supplementary vaccinations. In 2007, protective immunizations were introduced as compulsory benefits of the statutory health insurance (SHI). Recently, the German federal states developed a National Vaccination Plan to support immunization strategies.

  10. Epidemiology of basal and squamous cell carcinoma in Belgium: the need for a uniform and compulsory registration.

    PubMed

    Callens, J; Van Eycken, L; Henau, K; Garmyn, M

    2016-11-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common type of cancer among Caucasians, however, few data exist on its incidence. Because of a sheer volume of these tumours, NMSC is often not systematically registered. To describe and analyse the incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in Belgium. Incidence data of BCC and SCC, including multiple primary skin tumours in the same patient, were extracted from the Belgian Cancer Registry from 2004 to 2012 (predominantly coming from pathology notifications). Belgian legislation makes cancer registration compulsory for oncological care programmes and for all pathological anatomy laboratories. Between 2004 and 2012, 113 254 BCC and 33 153 SCC cases were reported in Belgium. A total of 130 339 patients had 146 407 tumours. Approximately, 10% of the patients (12 759 patients) had multiple tumours. The world age-standardised incidence rate (WSR) for BCC increased from 36.9 in 2004 to 98.4 per 100 000 person years in 2012 for males and from 34.2 in 2004 to 102.0 in 2012 for females. For SCC, the WSR increased from 14.9 in 2004 to 24.7 in 2012 for males and from 6.8 in 2004 to 13.5 in 2012 for females. From 2004 to 2012, the incidence of BCC and SCC markedly rose in Belgium, as also seen worldwide. Known causes are increased sun exposure caused by changed sunlight-related behaviour (increased outdoor activities and holidays, use of tanning beds and changes in clothing style), ageing and improved registration. Because of their high and increasing incidence, these cancers will have major implications on healthcare planning and preventive measures. Therefore, we recommend compulsory registration, whenever is possible, of BCC and SCC, although it is an ambitious objective, especially in countries with a high burden of these tumours and in countries where registration is currently unavailable. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Evaluation of RugbySmart: a rugby union community injury prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Simon M; Quarrie, Ken L; Hume, Patria A

    2009-05-01

    RugbySmart, a rugby union injury prevention programme, was launched in New Zealand in 2001. It was compulsory for all coaches and referees to complete RugbySmart requirements annually in order to continue coaching or refereeing. After 5 years of implementation the programme partners, Accident Compensation Corporation and New Zealand Rugby Union, evaluated RugbySmart to determine its effectiveness in reducing injuries. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of RugbySmart on reducing injury rates per 100,000 players and resulting injury prevention behaviours. The RugbySmart programme was associated with a decrease in injury claims per 100,000 players in most areas the programme targeted; the programme had negligible impact on non-targeted injury sites. The decrease in injury claims numbers was supported by results from the player behaviour surveys pre- and post-RugbySmart. There was an increase in safe behaviour in the contact situations of tackle, scrum and ruck technique.

  12. A leadership programme for critical care.

    PubMed

    Crofts, Linda

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes the genesis, design and implementation of a leadership programme for critical care. This was an initiative funded by the National Health Service (NHS) Nursing Leadership Project and had at the core of its design flexibility to meet the needs of the individual hospitals, which took part in it. Participation was from the multi-disciplinary critical care team. Six NHS hospitals took part in the programme which was of 20 days duration and took place on hospital sites. The programme used the leadership model of as its template and had a number of distinct components; a baseline assessment, personal development, principles of leadership and critical case reviews. The programme was underpinned by three themes; working effectively in multi-professional teams to provide patient focussed care, managing change through effective leadership and developing the virtual critical care service. Each group set objectives pertinent to their own organisation's needs. The programme was evaluated by a self-reporting questionnaire; group feedback and feedback from stakeholders. Programme evaluation was positive from all the hospitals but it was clear that the impact of the programme varied considerably between the groups who took part. It was noted that there was some correlation between the success of the programme and organisational 'buy in' as well as the organisational culture within which the participants operated. A key feature of the programme success was the critical case reviews, which were considered to be a powerful learning tool and medium for group learning and change management.

  13. English Language Proficiency Tests and Academic Achievement: A Study on the Malaysian University English Test as a Predictor of Technical Programme Undergraduates Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahmat, Nurhazlini; Min, Lau Sing; Sungif, Nur Atiqah Md.; Yusup, Farah Nabillah Mior

    2015-01-01

    In the Malaysian education system, English has always played an important role. In acknowledging its importance, Malaysian University English Test (MUET) has been introduced to enable continued emphasis on this role. MUET has been made compulsory for those who wish to pursue a first degree programme in local universities. This study aims to…

  14. The uncut jade: differing views of the potential of expert users on staff training and rehabilitation programmes for service users in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Ng, Roger M K; Pearson, Veronica; Pang, Yin Wan; Wong, N S; Wong, N C; Chan, F M

    2013-03-01

    Service user participation in direct service provision and evaluation has been developing in the western world in the past 20 years. However, this recovery-based care model is relatively new in Asia. To understand the views and perceptions of the service users and of psychiatric nurses about the recruitment of peer specialists in a regional psychiatric unit in Hong Kong. A qualitative study using probe questions to understand the above issues in the form of focus group discussion. A total of 13 psychiatric nurses and 16 mental health service users were recruited from a regional psychiatric unit for the study. Content analysis based loosely on grounded theory has identified several important themes. While service users are generally enthusiastic about the potential contribution of peer specialists in a service setting, they are much concerned about rejection and discrimination by the psychiatric staff. Psychiatric nurses are also sceptical about the involvement of peer specialists in the delivery of service, although for an entirely different set of reasons. In view of the divergent views of the service users and the psychiatric nurses, a second round of focus group discussion was conducted seven months later to understand whether the themes distilled were consistent with their views expressed in the first round of focus group discussion. It is encouraging is that, for those psychiatric nurses who worked with volunteer service users in the pilot scheme of 'expert user participation', there was a change in view towards positive acceptance about peer specialist involvement in service delivery. The study provides some insight into the potential obstacles to and opportunities in the implementation of peer specialist services in routine psychiatric services in Hong Kong.

  15. Learning, education and satisfaction after compulsory rotating internship in Kathmandu University Medical School: a qualitative study of interns' response.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, D; Mishra, B

    2008-01-01

    Internship is an integral part of MBBS training programme and mandatory to all students. Kathmandu University Medical School has adopted a programme of compulsory one year rotating internship including 6 weeks community exposure in out reach clinics for the first batch of students. The purpose of the study is to evaluate interns' feedback concerning learning, education and satisfaction. A questionnaire with 47 items was administered to 30 interns who had finished one year rotating internship in Kathmandu University Medical School. Fourty-two responses were graded according in Likert scale and 5 open ended questions were analyzed for common themes. The mean age of the interns was 24.77+/-0.67 yrs with female: male ratio of 1.5:1. Confidence level of communication of interns with faculties was lesser than with junior doctors and patients. Junior doctors and colleagues contributed more in interns' learning than faculties. Community exposure for 6 weeks was considered lengthy and lacking of clear objectives. However, 53.3% interns agreed that achievement of objectives of community posting was high or very high. Of the interns, 50% perceived certain degree of physical or mental or sexual harassment during internship. Interns raised the issue of not involving them as a part of team during clinical posting. Clinical competencies for most of the skills were high or very high. Interns have learned clinical skills and patient care in one year internship programme but contribution of junior doctors and colleague are more than teachers. Clear objectives are needed before clinical and community postings. Process of providing regular feedback from interns and vice versa should be implemented to improve interns' learning, education and satisfaction.

  16. Exploring Service Logic in ESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John

    2013-01-01

    ESL is both a professional educational service and, particularly in post-compulsory contexts, a commercial activity. The effective management of ESL programs can secure quality outcomes for practitioners and students. Nevertheless, writings on ESL management do not figure prominently in the literature. In particular, the association between…

  17. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  18. Medical student attendance at non-compulsory lectures.

    PubMed

    Mattick, Karen; Crocker, Graham; Bligh, John

    2007-05-01

    The General Medical Council in the UK recommends that undergraduate medical students be exposed to a variety of learning opportunities and increasingly take responsibility for their own learning. This study presents quantitative and qualitative data relating to attendance at non-compulsory plenary lectures in order to understand factors affecting the value placed by students on this component of the first 2 years of a contemporary medical curriculum. Attendance data were available for 87% first year and 78% second year plenary lectures. There was no difference in attendance at lectures that were delivered telematically to a remote site when compared with those where the speaker was present. There were markedly more students attending lectures at the beginning of the first academic year, with numbers decreasing as the year progressed. More first year students attended lectures on biomedical science and clinically focussed topics than on human science and public health whereas second year student attendance was similar across topics. Reasons given for non-attendance at plenary sessions fell into "student-related" factors (e.g. dislike of lecture-based learning) and "teaching-related" factors (e.g. perceived variable quality of lectures). This study confirms that some students value lectures highly as a method to supplement other learning opportunities, whereas others find they learn better by other means.

  19. The DUNDRUM Quartet: validation of structured professional judgement instruments DUNDRUM-3 assessment of programme completion and DUNDRUM-4 assessment of recovery in forensic mental health services

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Moving a forensic mental health patient from one level of therapeutic security to a lower level or to the community is influenced by more than risk assessment and risk management. We set out to construct and validate structured professional judgement instruments for consistency and transparency in decision making Methods Two instruments were developed, the seven-item DUNDRUM-3 programme completion instrument and the six item DUNDRUM-4 recovery instrument. These were assessed for all 95 forensic patients at Ireland's only forensic mental health hospital. Results The two instruments had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.911 and 0.887). Scores distinguished those allowed no leave or accompanied leave from those with unaccompanied leave (ANOVA F = 38.1 and 50.3 respectively, p < 0.001). Scores also distinguished those in acute/high security units from those in medium or in low secure/pre-discharge units. Each individual item distinguished these levels of need significantly. The DUNDRUM-3 and DUNDRUM-4 correlated moderately with measures of dynamic risk and with the CANFOR staff rated unmet need (Spearman r = 0.5, p < 0.001). Conclusions The DUNDRUM-3 programme completion items distinguished significantly between levels of therapeutic security while the DUNDRUM-4 recovery items consistently distinguished those given unaccompanied leave outside the hospital and those in the lowest levels of therapeutic security. This data forms the basis for a prospective study of outcomes now underway. PMID:21722396

  20. Folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defect--a programme for Malaysia?

    PubMed

    Ho, J J

    2004-03-01

    There is good evidence that folic acid is safe and efficacious for reducing neural tube defect (NTD). All women capable of becoming pregnant should take 400 microgram daily. This can be given in the form of a daily vitamin supplement, by food fortification, or by increasing natural dietary folates. Compulsory grain fortification has been shown to reduce NTD in a population but supplementation and dietary advice have not. Malaysia should work towards a programme of grain fortification and use alternative strategies to reach sections of the population that would not be covered but several research questions need to be answered before a programme could be implemented in Malaysia.

  1. Only a small proportion of patients with first episode psychosis come via prodromal services: a retrospective survey of a large UK mental health programme.

    PubMed

    Ajnakina, Olesya; Morgan, Craig; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Oduola, Sherifat; Bourque, François; Bramley, Sally; Williamson, Jessica; MacCabe, James H; Dazzan, Paola; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S

    2017-08-25

    Little is known about patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) who had first presented to prodromal services with an "at risk mental state" (ARMS) before making the transition to psychosis. We set out to identify the proportion of patients with a FEP who had first presented to prodromal services in the ARMS state, and to compare these FEP patients with FEP patients who did not have prior contact with prodromal services. In this study information on 338 patients aged ≤37 years who presented to mental health services between 2010 and 2012 with a FEP was examined. The data on pathways to care, clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were extracted from the Biomedical Research Council Case Register for the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust. Over 2 years, 14 (4.1% of n = 338) young adults presented with FEP and had been seen previously by the prodromal services. These ARMS patients were more likely to enter their pathway to psychiatric care via referral from General Practice, be born in the UK and to have had an insidious mode of illness onset than FEP patients without prior contact with the prodromal services. In the current pathways to care configuration, prodromal services are likely to prevent only a few at-risk individuals from transitioning to psychosis even if effective preventative treatments become available.

  2. Utilisation of home-based physician, nurse and personal support worker services within a palliative care programme in Ontario, Canada: trends over 2005-2015.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhuolu; Laporte, Audrey; Guerriere, Denise N; Coyte, Peter C

    2017-05-01

    With health system restructuring in Canada and a general preference by care recipients and their families to receive palliative care at home, attention to home-based palliative care continues to increase. A multidisciplinary team of health professionals is the most common delivery model for home-based palliative care in Canada. However, little is known about the changing temporal trends in the propensity and intensity of home-based palliative care. The purpose of this study was to assess the propensity to use home-based palliative care services, and once used, the intensity of that use for three main service categories: physician visits, nurse visits and care by personal support workers (PSWs) over the last decade. Three prospective cohort data sets were used to track changes in service use over the period 2005 to 2015. Service use for each category was assessed using a two-part model, and a Heckit regression was performed to assess the presence of selectivity bias. Service propensity was modelled using multivariate logistic regression analysis and service intensity was modelled using log-transformed ordinary least squares regression analysis. Both the propensity and intensity to use home-based physician visits and PSWs increased over the last decade, while service propensity and the intensity of nurse visits decreased. Meanwhile, there was a general tendency for service propensity and intensity to increase as the end of life approached. These findings demonstrate temporal changes towards increased use of home-based palliative care, and a shift to substitute care away from nursing to less expensive forms of care, specifically PSWs. These findings may provide a general idea of the types of services that are used more intensely and require more resources from multidisciplinary teams, as increased use of home-based palliative care has placed dramatic pressures on the budgets of local home and community care organisations.

  3. Are recent graduates enough prepared to perform obstetric skills in their rural and compulsory year? A study from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Del Hierro, Galo; Remmen, Roy; Verhoeven, Veronique; Van Royen, Paul; Hendrickx, Kristin

    2014-07-31

    The aim of this study was to assess the possible mismatch of obstetrical skills between the training offered in Ecuadorian medical schools and the tasks required for compulsory rural service. Primary care, rural health centres in Southern Ecuador. A total of 92 recent graduated medical doctors during their compulsory rural year. A web-based survey was developed with 21 obstetrical skills. The questionnaire was sent to all rural doctors who work in Loja province, Southern Ecuador, at the Ministry of Health (n=92). 'importance of skills in rural practice' with a five-point Likert-type scale (1= strongly disagree; 5= strongly agree); and 'clerkship experience' using a nominal scale divided in five levels: level 1 (not seen, not performed) to level 5 (performed 10 times or more). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) was used to observe associations. A negative correlation was found in the skills: 'episiotomy and repair', 'umbilical vein catheterisation', 'speculum examination', 'evaluation of cervical dilation during active labour', 'neonatal resuscitation' and 'vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery'. For instance 'Episiotomy and repair' is important (strongly agree and agree) to 100% of respondents, but in practice, only 38.9% of rural doctors performed the task three times and 8.3% only once during the internship, similar pattern is seen in the others. In this study we have noted the gap between the medical needs of populations in rural areas and training provided during the clerkship experiences of physicians during their rural service year. It is imperative to ensure that rural doctors are appropriately trained and skilled in the performance of routine obstetrical duties. This will help to decrease perinatal morbidity and mortality in rural Ecuador. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Are recent graduates enough prepared to perform obstetric skills in their rural and compulsory year? A study from Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez del Hierro, Galo; Remmen, Roy; Verhoeven, Veronique; Van Royen, Paul; Hendrickx, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the possible mismatch of obstetrical skills between the training offered in Ecuadorian medical schools and the tasks required for compulsory rural service. Setting Primary care, rural health centres in Southern Ecuador. Participants A total of 92 recent graduated medical doctors during their compulsory rural year. Primary and secondary outcomes measures A web-based survey was developed with 21 obstetrical skills. The questionnaire was sent to all rural doctors who work in Loja province, Southern Ecuador, at the Ministry of Health (n=92). We measured two categories ‘importance of skills in rural practice’ with a five-point Likert-type scale (1= strongly disagree; 5= strongly agree); and ‘clerkship experience’ using a nominal scale divided in five levels: level 1 (not seen, not performed) to level 5 (performed 10 times or more). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) was used to observe associations. Results A negative correlation was found in the skills: ‘episiotomy and repair’, ‘umbilical vein catheterisation’, ‘speculum examination’, ‘evaluation of cervical dilation during active labour’, ‘neonatal resuscitation’ and ‘vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery’. For instance ‘Episiotomy and repair’ is important (strongly agree and agree) to 100% of respondents, but in practice, only 38.9% of rural doctors performed the task three times and 8.3% only once during the internship, similar pattern is seen in the others. Conclusions In this study we have noted the gap between the medical needs of populations in rural areas and training provided during the clerkship experiences of physicians during their rural service year. It is imperative to ensure that rural doctors are appropriately trained and skilled in the performance of routine obstetrical duties. This will help to decrease perinatal morbidity and mortality in rural Ecuador. PMID:25082424

  5. The compliant court--procedural fairness and social control in compulsory community care.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Liv; Sjöström, Stefan; Markström, Urban

    2014-01-01

    Compulsory community care (CCC) was introduced in Sweden in 2008. This article investigates all written court decisions regarding CCC over a 6 month period in 2009 (N=541). The purpose is to examine how the legal rights of patients are protected and what forms of social control patients are subjected to. 51% of CCC patients are women and 84% are being treated for a psychosis-related disorder. In the court decisions, only 9% of patients are described as dangerous to themselves, while 18% are regarded a danger to others. The most common special provisions that patients are subjected to are medication (79%) and a requirement that they must maintain contact with either community mental health services (51%) or social services (27%). In the decisions, both the courts and court-appointed psychiatrists agree with treating psychiatrists in 99% of cases. Decisions lack transparency and clarity, and it is often impossible to understand the conclusions of the courts. There is considerable variation between regional courts as regards the provisions to which patients are subjected and the delegation of decision-making to psychiatrists. This means that decisions fail to demonstrate clarity, transparency, consistency and impartiality, and thus fail to meet established standards of procedural fairness. Surveillance techniques of social control are more common than techniques based on therapy or sanctions. Because of the unique role of medication, social control is primarily imposed on a physical dimension, as opposed to temporal and spatial forms. The article concludes that patients are at risk of being subjected to new forms of social control of an unclear nature without proper legal protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Provision of long-term monitoring and late effects services following adult allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant: a survey of UK NHS-based programmes.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, A; Greenfield, D M; Gilleece, M; Salooja, N; Kenyon, M; Morris, E; Glover, N; Miller, P; Braund, H; Peniket, A; Shaw, B E; Snowden, J A

    2017-06-01

    Despite international guidelines, optimal delivery models of late effects (LE) services for HSCT patients are unclear from the clinical, organizational and economic viewpoints. To scope current LE service delivery models within the UK NHS (National Health Service), in 2014, we surveyed the 27 adult allogeneic HSCT centres using a 30-question online tool, achieving a 100% response rate. Most LE services were led and delivered by senior physicians (>80% centres). Follow-up was usually provided in a dedicated allograft or LE clinic for the first year (>90% centres), but thereafter attrition meant that only ~50% of patients were followed after 5 years. Most centres (69%) had a standard operating procedure for long-term monitoring but access to a LE Multi-Disciplinary Team was rare (19% centres). Access to medical specialities necessary for LE management was good, but specialist interest in long-term HSCT complications was uncommon. Some screening (endocrinopathy, cardiovascular) was near universal, but other areas were more limited (mammography, cervical smears). Funding of extra staff and investigations were the most commonly perceived barriers to implementation of LE services. This survey shows variation in the long-term follow-up of allogeneic HSCT survivors within the UK NHS and further work is warranted to optimize effective, sustainable and affordable models of LE service delivery among this group.

  7. Translating research into practice: the introduction of the INTERGROWTH-21st package of clinical standards, tools and guidelines into policies, programmes and services.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, A; Caglia, J M; Dhillon, S; Hirst, J; Cheikh Ismail, L; Abawi, K; Kac, G; Al Dhaheri, A S; Villar, J; Kennedy, S; Langer, A

    2013-09-01

    The INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project has generated a package of international clinical standards, tools and guidelines. It is now necessary to plan for the next phase of the project: the translation of the research findings into practice through its global dissemination. The plan is to pre-empt barriers to implementation by drawing from the published literature; gathering views and perspectives from policy makers, programmers and practitioners; incorporating input from local 'champions', and collecting and analysing data generated by a monitoring and evaluation system. Working at the global, regional, national and local levels will enable wide dissemination of the package, as well as increase the scope for adaptation and integration in diverse clinical contexts. We seek maximum uptake of the package in policies, guidelines and clinical practice to improve the quality of care offered to mothers and newborns. The strategy will also enhance our understanding of the effectiveness of different approaches to the translation of evidence into practice.

  8. Evaluation of Water Sanitation Health Education Programme: Working with the Knowledge of the Basic Sanitation Services in a Developing Community in Rural Haiti after the 2010 Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, VE; Calderón-Alicea, W; Castillo, R; Cintrón-García, JJ; Cintrón-García, JJ; Cruz, L Colón; Hernández-Muñoz, A; Irizarry-Pérez, I; Lockward, I; Neste-Laboy, C; Ortíz-León, M; Peréz-Homar, A; Pérez, J; Ramírez-López, W; Rivera, L; Scholz, D; Soto-Ortíz, M; Torres-García, A

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study is to measure the knowledge regarding the new sanitation water system being implemented in Dessources, a rural community in the municipality of Croix-des-Bouquets in Haiti after a two-year intervention programme. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiologic design was used to measure the knowledge of the people in the community using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data collection followed a face-to-face interview process in all houses of the community. The instrument content validity was performed by a panel of experts followed by Cronbach's alpha test to establish the reliability of knowledge scale. In addition, association measures were done using Stata 11.0 statistical package. Results: Content validity tests were performed with minimum changes and an alpha of 0.74 was obtained for the scale. Response rate was 65.57% (41/60 houses); non-participants were only those who did not meet the inclusion criteria. Most of the participants (77.5%) were 21–49 years old and 85% had been living in the community for more than 20 years. Bivariate analysis showed that the people of Dessources had adequate knowledge. Significant differences, however, were found among the zones that are not in use of the new sanitary systems and among families with more than seven members per house. Conclusions: Differences found can be explained based on the Rogers theoretical diffusion of innovation model. The evaluation shows that people of Dessources in Haiti have a high knowledge regarding the new water sanitation system and provides evidence of an adequate health education programme intervention. PMID:26237369

  9. [Nutricional adequacy of students of compulsory secondary education in Badajoz].

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Caro, L G; Luego Pérez, L M; García Preciado, V

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate nutricional adequacy of students of compulsory secondary education (ESO) in Badajoz, Spain. We included 1197 students of ESO from 12 to 18 years old, 49.9% male and 50.1% female, which is a representative sample of this population. They filled in a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) self-administered and previously validated in a pilot study. Nutrients were quantified from FFQ with a food composition table (Novartis, 2004) and nutritional Adequacy Index (AI) was calculated according to Spanish Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). Nutritional adequacy of a nutrient was measured by the following relation: mean daily intake of the nutrient / RDA of that nutrient * 100. Average caloric intake of secondary education students is not very high, protein AI is over 200%, and cholesterol over 150%, being appropriate the intake of carbohydrates and lipids. The intake of fiber, vitamin E and iodine was lower than 50% in both genders; the one of iron less than 90% in females and there were no other differences between both genders. Only 1% to 3% of students reach RDA of fiber, iodine and vitamin E, and 37.3% of female reach RDA of iron. Cholesterol dietary intake of 17.2% males and 25.3% females is high, and saturated fatty acids intake is high in 46.1% males and 50.0% females. Diet of students of secondary education in Badajoz is normocaloric, hyperproteic, appropriate in carbohydrates and lipids, without differences between genders; it is very deficient in fiber, iodine and vitamin E in both genders and deficient in iron in females. We can see their diet is far from Mediterranean diet, and this is why education plans about food intake are advised to the students and their families.

  10. ‘Our Care through Our Eyes’: a mixed-methods, evaluative study of a service-user, co-produced education programme to improve inpatient care of children and young people admitted following self-harm

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Asam; Carter, Tim; Cooper, Joanne; Horsley, Angela; Armstrong, Marie; Wharrad, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Within Europe, the UK has one of the highest rates of self-harm, with a particularly high prevalence in children and young people (CYP). CYP who are admitted to paediatric hospital wards with self-harm are cared for by registered children's nurses who have been identified to lack specific training in caring for this patient group. This may impede the delivery of high quality care. Therefore, this study aims to co-produce, implement and evaluate an education programme for registered children's nurses to improve their knowledge, attitudes and confidence when caring for CYP admitted with self-harm. Methods and analysis This mixed-methods evaluative study will involve a three-stage design. Stage 1: A priority-setting workshop will be conducted with 19 registered children's nurses. A Delphi technique will be used to establish consensus of information needs. Stage 2: An online educational intervention will be co-produced with 25 CYP and 19 registered children's nurses based on the priorities identified in Stage 1. Stage 3: The intervention will be implemented and evaluated with 250 registered children's nurses at a single hospital. Online Likert scale questionnaires will be administered at baseline and postintervention to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and confidence in caring for CYP who self-harm. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be used to analyse the data. Statistical significance will be assessed at the 5% (two-sided) level. One-to-one qualitative interviews will also be undertaken with approximately 25 participants to explore any perceived impact on clinical practice. An interpretive descriptive approach will guide qualitative data collection and analysis. Ethics and dissemination This study aims to develop, trial and evaluative a service-user, co-produced education programme for acute hospital registered children's nurses to improve the care of CYP admitted due to self-harm. The study has ethical approval from the National Health

  11. 32 CFR 720.20 - Service of process upon personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... which the process issued. In such cases, acceptance of the service is not compulsory, but service may be... § 720.20(a) will govern. (3) Under the laws of some countries (such as Sweden), service of process is... commanding officer had the document, that the person chose to ignore it, and that no physical offer...

  12. Professional Mentoring in Student Affairs: Evaluation of a Global Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeto, Eva-Marie

    2016-01-01

    In January 2016, the International Association of Student Affairs and Services (IASAS) offered a global professional mentoring programme that would link student affairs leaders internationally with new graduates and early career professionals in student services. Protégé participants were primarily new graduates of preparatory programmes in…

  13. Trauma-Informed Day Services for Individuals with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities: Exploring Staff Understanding and Perception within an Innovative Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keesler, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trauma-informed care (TIC) is a systems-level philosophy of service delivery which integrates choice, collaboration, empowerment, safety and trust to create an organizational culture sensitive to trauma. This study explores staff understandings and perceptions within an innovative trauma-informed day program for individuals with…

  14. Trauma-Informed Day Services for Individuals with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities: Exploring Staff Understanding and Perception within an Innovative Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keesler, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trauma-informed care (TIC) is a systems-level philosophy of service delivery which integrates choice, collaboration, empowerment, safety and trust to create an organizational culture sensitive to trauma. This study explores staff understandings and perceptions within an innovative trauma-informed day program for individuals with…

  15. College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Adherence to Public Service Announcements on Ebola in Nigeria: Suggestions for Improving Future Ebola Prevention Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajilore, Kolade; Atakiti, Ifeoluwa; Onyenankeya, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Apprehension over a possible recurrence of Ebola remains pervasive among college students in Nigeria. Prevention education continues to be carried out through public service announcements (PSAs) on radio, television and in the social media. However, little is known about college students' knowledge, attitudes and adherence to PSAs on…

  16. The Development of an Alternative In-Service Programme for Korean Science Teachers with an Emphasis on Science-Technology-Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jungil

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effects of a science-technology-society (STS) in-service program designed to change teachers' awareness and practice of STS/constructivist approaches while also focusing on students' understanding and changes of perceptions of the constructivist learning environment. Reports that the STS program improved teachers' awareness and…

  17. Developing Civic Engagement in Distance Higher Education: A Case Study of Virtual Service-Learning (vSL) Programme in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Gutierrez, Juan; Ruiz-Corbella, Marta; Armentia, Araceli del Pozo

    2017-01-01

    Higher Education is demanding the need of a greater connection between its academic offer and the necessary civic engagement of the graduates. This has given Spain the opportunity, for just over a decade, to develop the methodology of service-learning, which combines both the theoretical and practical aspect of university learning with the…

  18. Training Information Service Specialists in the Less-Favoured Regions of the European Union (TRAIN-ISS): The Diploma/MSc Programme at the University of Sheffield.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Ian; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The primary aim of the training information specialists (TRAIN-ISS) program at the University of Sheffield's Department of Information Studies was to train information service specialists from the less favored regions of the European Union. Describes the course design; selection of participants; student assessment, support, and placement; program…

  19. Could international compulsory licensing reconcile tiered pricing of pharmaceuticals with the right to health?

    PubMed

    Ooms, Gorik; Forman, Lisa; Williams, Owain D; Hill, Peter S

    2014-12-18

    The heads of the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance have recently promoted the idea of an international tiered pricing framework for medicines, despite objections from civil society groups who fear that this would reduce the leeway for compulsory licenses and generic competition. This paper explores the extent to which an international tiered pricing framework and the present leeway for compulsory licensing can be reconciled, using the perspective of the right to health as defined in international human rights law. We explore the practical feasibility of an international tiered pricing and compulsory licensing framework governed by the World Health Organization. We use two simple benchmarks to compare the relative affordability of medicines for governments - average income and burden of disease - to illustrate how voluntary tiered pricing practice fails to make medicines affordable enough for low and middle income countries (if compared with the financial burden of the same medicines for high income countries), and when and where international compulsory licenses should be issued in order to allow governments to comply with their obligations to realize the right to health. An international tiered pricing and compulsory licensing framework based on average income and burden of disease could ease the tension between governments' human rights obligation to provide medicines and governments' trade obligation to comply with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights.

  20. Personal predictors of educational attainment after compulsory school: influence of measures of vulnerability, health, and school performance.

    PubMed

    Winding, Trine N; Nohr, Ellen A; Labriola, Merete; Biering, Karin; Andersen, Johan H

    2013-02-01

    Getting a secondary education is essential in preventing future inequalities in health and socioeconomic status. We investigated to what degree personal predictors like low school performance, high vulnerability, and poor health status are associated with not completing a secondary education in a Danish youth cohort. This prospective study used data from a questionnaire in 2004 and register data in 2010. The study population consisted of 3053 adolescents born in 1989. Information on educational attainment from Statistics Denmark was divided into four categories: completed, still studying, dropped out, or never attained a secondary education. Data was analysed using multinomial logistic regression. Low grades when completing compulsory school predicted not having completed a secondary education by age 20/21 (odds ratios (OR) between 1.7 and 2.5). Low sense of coherence in childhood was associated with dropping out from a vocational education (OR 2.0). Low general health status was associated with dropping out (OR 2.2) or never attaining a secondary education (OR 2.7) and overweight was associated with never attaining a secondary education (OR 3.5). The study confirms the social gradient in educational attainment. Furthermore, the results indicate that factors related to the individual in terms of low school performance, low health status, and high vulnerability predict future success in the educational system. It is recommended that these high-risk groups are recognised and targeted when designing guidance and supervision programmes for youth at secondary education.

  1. Can vouchers make a difference to the use of private primary care services by older people? Experience from the healthcare reform programme in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yam, Carrie H K; Liu, Su; Huang, Olivia H Y; Yeoh, E K; Griffiths, Sian M

    2011-10-07

    As part of its ongoing healthcare reform, the Hong Kong Government introduced a voucher scheme, intended for encouraging older patients to use primary healthcare services in the private sector, thereby, reducing burden on the overwhelmed public sector. The voucher program is also considered one of the strategies to further develop the public private partnership in healthcare, a policy direction of high political priority as indicated in the Chief Executive Policy Address in 2008-09. This study assessed whether the voucher scheme, as implemented so far, has reached its intended goals, and how it might be further improved in the context of public-private partnership. This was a cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires by face-to-face interviews with older people aged 70 or above in Hong Kong, the target group of the demand-side voucher program. 71.2% of 1,026 older people were aware of the new voucher scheme but only 35.0% had ever used it. The majority of the older people used the vouchers for acute curative services in the private sector (82.4%) and spent less on preventive services. Despite the provision of vouchers valued US$30 per year as an incentive to encourage the use of private primary care services, after 12-months of implementation, 66.2% of all respondents agreed with the statement that "the voucher scheme does not change their health seeking behaviours on seeing public or private healthcare professionals". The most common reasons for no change in their behaviours included "I am used to seeing doctors in the public system" and "The amount of the subsidy is too low". Those who usually used a mix of public and private doctors and those with better self-reported health condition compared to last year were more likely to perceive a change in their own health seeking behaviours. Our study showed that despite a reasonably high awareness of the voucher scheme, its usage was low. The voucher alone was not enough to realize the government's policy of

  2. Can vouchers make a difference to the use of private primary care services by older people? Experience from the healthcare reform programme in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As part of its ongoing healthcare reform, the Hong Kong Government introduced a voucher scheme, intended for encouraging older patients to use primary healthcare services in the private sector, thereby, reducing burden on the overwhelmed public sector. The voucher program is also considered one of the strategies to further develop the public private partnership in healthcare, a policy direction of high political priority as indicated in the Chief Executive Policy Address in 2008-09. This study assessed whether the voucher scheme, as implemented so far, has reached its intended goals, and how it might be further improved in the context of public-private partnership. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires by face-to-face interviews with older people aged 70 or above in Hong Kong, the target group of the demand-side voucher program. Results 71.2% of 1,026 older people were aware of the new voucher scheme but only 35.0% had ever used it. The majority of the older people used the vouchers for acute curative services in the private sector (82.4%) and spent less on preventive services. Despite the provision of vouchers valued US$30 per year as an incentive to encourage the use of private primary care services, after 12-months of implementation, 66.2% of all respondents agreed with the statement that "the voucher scheme does not change their health seeking behaviours on seeing public or private healthcare professionals". The most common reasons for no change in their behaviours included "I am used to seeing doctors in the public system" and "The amount of the subsidy is too low". Those who usually used a mix of public and private doctors and those with better self-reported health condition compared to last year were more likely to perceive a change in their own health seeking behaviours. Conclusions Our study showed that despite a reasonably high awareness of the voucher scheme, its usage was low. The voucher alone was not

  3. Young people, mental health practitioners and researchers co-produce a Transition Preparation Programme to improve outcomes and experience for young people leaving Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS).

    PubMed

    Dunn, Valerie

    2017-04-20

    In the UK young people attending child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) are required to move on, either through discharge or referral to an adult service, at age 17/18, a period of increased risk for onset of mental health problems and other complex psychosocial and physical changes. CAMHS transitions are often poorly managed with negative outcomes for young people. Better preparation may improve outcomes and experience. This study aimed to co-produce, with young people who had transitioned or were facing transition from CAMHS, a CAMHS Transition Preparation Programme (TPP), deliverable in routine NHS settings. Eighteen young people, aged 17-22, from three UK National Health Service (NHS) mental health foundation trusts participated in creative, participatory research workshops. Seven parents completed short questionnaires. Thirty clinical staff from two trusts took part in workshops to ensure deliverability of young people's ideas. Young people were offered co-research opportunities. Most young people felt anxious, fearful and uncertain on leaving CAMHS and perceived mental health services as uncaring. Participants outlined transition procedures and drafted a range of preparation activities, centred around dedicated Transition Peer Support and a transition booklet, which should be offered to all CAMHS leavers, irrespective of discharge or transfer to an adult service. Preparation should aim to build confidence to help young people take responsibility for themselves and flourish in the adult world: coping or getting through it was not enough. Some clinicians also felt anxious at transition and recognised the potential impact on young people of poor communication and lack of understanding between services. Parents would appreciate help to support their offspring during the transition period. Clinicians cited lack of funding and inflexible NHS procedures and policies as potential barriers to the implementation of young people's ideas. Nine young people

  4. Trauma-informed Day Services for Individuals with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities: Exploring Staff Understanding and Perception within an Innovative Programme.

    PubMed

    Keesler, John M

    2016-09-01

    Trauma-informed care (TIC) is a systems-level philosophy of service delivery which integrates choice, collaboration, empowerment, safety and trust to create an organizational culture sensitive to trauma. This study explores staff understandings and perceptions within an innovative trauma-informed day program for individuals with Intellectual/developmental disabilities. Semi-structured interviews queried staff members (n = 20) regarding trauma and TIC, the integration of the five principles of TIC, associated challenges and recommendations for improvement. Inductive analyses revealed reasonable understandings of trauma and TIC, highlighting factors critical to the five principles of TIC. Differences were associated with duration of employment and the presence of specialized training. Challenges with TIC emerged at different system levels: individuals, staff, management and interorganizational. This study presents preliminary insight for the innovative and formative process of integrating TIC with intellectual/developmental disabilities services. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Compulsory drug detention center experiences among a community-based sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Csete, Joanne; Kaplan, Karyn; Hayashi, Kanna; Fairbairn, Nadia; Suwannawong, Paisan; Zhang, Ruth; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2011-10-20

    Despite Thailand's official reclassification of drug users as "patients" deserving care and not "criminals," the Thai government has continued to rely heavily on punitive responses to drug use such as "boot camp"-style compulsory "treatment" centers. There is very little research on experiences with compulsory treatment centers among people who use drugs. The work reported here is a first step toward filling that gap. We examined experiences of compulsory drug treatment among 252 Thai people who inject drugs (IDU) participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with a history of compulsory treatment experience. In total, 80 (31.7%) participants reported a history of compulsory treatment. In multivariate analyses, compulsory drug detention experience was positively associated with current spending on drugs per day (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.07 - 3.22) and reporting drug planting by police (AOR = 1.81; 95%CI: 1.04 - 3.15). Among those with compulsory treatment experience, 77 (96.3%) reported injecting in the past week, and no difference in intensity of drug use was observed between those with and without a history of compulsory detention. These findings raise concerns about the current approach to compulsory drug detention in Thailand. Exposure to compulsory drug detention was associated with police abuse and high rates of relapse into drug use, although additional research is needed to determine the precise impact of exposure to this form of detention on future drug use. More broadly, compulsory "treatment" based on a penal approach is not consistent with scientific evidence on addressing drug addiction and should be phased out in favor of evidence-based interventions.

  6. Compulsory drug detention center experiences among a community-based sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite Thailand's official reclassification of drug users as "patients" deserving care and not "criminals," the Thai government has continued to rely heavily on punitive responses to drug use such as "boot camp"-style compulsory "treatment" centers. There is very little research on experiences with compulsory treatment centers among people who use drugs. The work reported here is a first step toward filling that gap. Methods We examined experiences of compulsory drug treatment among 252 Thai people who inject drugs (IDU) participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with a history of compulsory treatment experience. Results In total, 80 (31.7%) participants reported a history of compulsory treatment. In multivariate analyses, compulsory drug detention experience was positively associated with current spending on drugs per day (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.07 - 3.22) and reporting drug planting by police (AOR = 1.81; 95%CI: 1.04 - 3.15). Among those with compulsory treatment experience, 77 (96.3%) reported injecting in the past week, and no difference in intensity of drug use was observed between those with and without a history of compulsory detention. Conclusion These findings raise concerns about the current approach to compulsory drug detention in Thailand. Exposure to compulsory drug detention was associated with police abuse and high rates of relapse into drug use, although additional research is needed to determine the precise impact of exposure to this form of detention on future drug use. More broadly, compulsory "treatment" based on a penal approach is not consistent with scientific evidence on addressing drug addiction and should be phased out in favor of evidence-based interventions. PMID:22014093

  7. Compulsory administration of oxytocin does not result in genuine moral enhancement.

    PubMed

    Rakić, Vojin

    2017-02-28

    The question will be raised whether oxytocin can serve as an effective moral enhancer. Different types of moral enhancement will be addressed, one of them being compulsory moral enhancement. It will be argued that oxytocin cannot serve as an effective moral enhancer if its use is being made compulsory. Hence, compulsory administration of oxytocin does not result in genuine moral enhancement. In order to demonstrate this, a stipulation of the main potentially beneficial outcomes of using oxytocin as a moral enhancer will be offered, as well as a discussion of objections to the notion that oxytocin can be an effective moral enhancer. It will be concluded that mandatory administration of oxytocin is ineffective because of a combination of two reasons: (1) mandatory administration of oxytocin renders moral reflection practically superfluous; (2) without moral reflection the beneficial outcomes of the use of oxytocin do not outweigh its drawbacks to the degree that we could speak of effective moral enhancement.

  8. "Knowledge, attitude, behavior and practice (KABP) regarding HIV/AIDS among pregnant women attending PPTCT programme in New Delhi".

    PubMed

    Rahbar, T; Garg, S; Tripathi, R; Gupta, V K; Singh, M M

    2007-09-01

    In India, several thousand HIV-infected babies are expected to be born every year. Despite effective intervention, the identification of HIV infected pregnant women prior to delivery is a major problem. KABP and acceptance of rapid screening of women for HIV among pregnant women attending ANC clinic and availing Voluntary Counselling and Confidential Testing services was assessed. The study was done among 90 pregnant women. There was no significant difference between one's husbands's job and income with respect to pregnant women's awareness of risk factors except that of tattooing. Education level had significant bearing on awareness level. Attitude about PLWHA indicates that 29% of the participants believed individuals with HIV shouldn't be allowed to get married, while 31% saying that they should not be allowed to have children. Participants supported compulsory HIV testing for pregnant women (39%) and couples before marriage. Almost 96% of participants had unprotected sex, though 41% casually used condom. All denied herself or her husband indulging in extramarital sex. The country is about to embark on its prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programme. This study throws some light on the level of knowledge acceptability and adoption of VCT and other PMTCT strategies among potential beneficiaries.

  9. The Insidious Nature of 'Hard-Core' Alternative Conceptions: Implications for the constructivist research programme of patterns in high school students' and pre-service teachers' thinking about ionisation energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, Keith S.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the constructivist research programme (RP) into learning science by comparing patterns in responses from two groups of learners-senior high school students and pre-service teachers-in the same educational context (Singapore), to a diagnostic instrument relating to the topic of ionisation energies. This topic is currently included in the curriculum for 16- to 19-year-old students studying chemistry in Singapore (and elsewhere). The comparison shows that: (1) although graduate pre-service teachers offered some types of incorrect responses less frequently than high school students; (2) they retained high levels of alternative conceptions commonly found among high school students; and (3) of particular note, certain alternative conceptions were found to be more common among the graduates. This suggests the intuitive appeal of certain alternative conceptions is such that they can readily be reproduced down 'generations' of learners. The findings are explored in terms of a range of conceptual resources that have been developed within the constructivist RP. The analysis suggests that the curriculum sets out inappropriate target knowledge for senior high school students, given the nature of the subject matter and the prior learning of the students. It is also suggested that it may be fruitful to consider conceptual learning in terms analogous to the RP found in science, and that from this perspective certain insidious alternative conceptions can be understood as derived from commitments that are taken for granted and protected from explicit challenge by a protective belt of refutable auxiliary conceptions.

  10. Psychiatrists' attitudes towards autonomy, best interests and compulsory treatment in anorexia nervosa: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jacinta O A; Doll, Helen A; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Stewart, Anne; Hope, Tony

    2008-12-17

    The compulsory treatment of anorexia nervosa is a contentious issue. Research suggests that psychiatrists have a range of attitudes towards patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, and towards the use of compulsory treatment for the disorder. A postal self-completed attitudinal questionnaire was sent to senior psychiatrists in the United Kingdom who were mostly general adult psychiatrists, child and adolescent psychiatrists, or psychiatrists with an interest in eating disorders. Respondents generally supported a role for compulsory measures under mental health legislation in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa. Compared to 'mild' anorexia nervosa, respondents generally were less likely to feel that patients with 'severe' anorexia nervosa were intentionally engaging in weight loss behaviours, were able to control their behaviours, wanted to get better, or were able to reason properly. However, eating disorder specialists were less likely than other psychiatrists to think that patients with 'mild' anorexia nervosa were choosing to engage in their behaviours or able to control their behaviours. Child and adolescent psychiatrists were more likely to have a positive view of the use of parental consent and compulsory treatment for an adolescent with anorexia nervosa. Three factors emerged from factor analysis of the responses named: 'Support for the powers of the Mental Health Act to protect from harm'; 'Primacy of best interests'; and 'Autonomy viewed as being preserved in anorexia nervosa'. Different scores on these factor scales were given in terms of type of specialist and gender. In general, senior psychiatrists tend to support the use of compulsory treatment to protect the health of patients at risk and also to protect the welfare of patients in their best interests. In particular, eating disorder specialists tend to support the compulsory treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa independently of views about their decision-making capacity, while

  11. Analysis of vibrational load influence upon passengers in trains with a compulsory body tilt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipin, D. Ya; Kobishchanov, V. V.; Lapshin, V. F.; Mitrakov, A. S.; Shorokhov, S. G.

    2017-02-01

    The procedure for forecasting the vibrational load influence upon passengers of trains of rolling stocks equipped with a system of a compulsory body tilt on railroad curves is offered. The procedure is based on the use of computer simulation methods and application of solid-state models of anthropometrical mannequins. As a result of the carried out investigations, there are substantiated criteria of the comfort level estimate for passengers in the rolling-stock under consideration. The procedure is approved by the example of the promising domestic rolling stock with a compulsory body tilt on railroad curves.

  12. Developing human rights based indicators to support country monitoring of rehabilitation services and programmes for people with disabilities: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Skempes, Dimitrios; Bickenbach, Jerome

    2015-09-24

    Rehabilitation care is fundamental to health and human dignity and a human right enshrined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The provision of rehabilitation is important for reducing the need for formal support and enabling persons with disabilities to lead an independent life. Increasingly scholars and advocacy groups voice concerns over the significant barriers facing people with disabilities in accessing appropriate and quality rehabilitation. A growing body of research highlights a "respond-need" gap in the provision of rehabilitation and assistive technologies and underscore the lack of indicators for assessing performance of rehabilitation systems and monitoring States compliance with human rights standards in rehabilitation service planning and programming. While research on human rights and health monitoring has increased exponentially over the last decade far too little attention has been paid to rehabilitation services. The proposed research aims to reduce this knowledge gap by developing a human rights based monitoring framework with indicators to support human rights accountability and performance assessment in rehabilitation. Concept mapping, a stakeholder-driven approach will be used as the core method to identify rights based indicators and develop the rehabilitation services monitoring framework. Concept mapping requires participants from various stakeholders groups to generate a list of the potential indicators through on line brainstorming, sort the indicators for conceptual similarity into clusters and rate them against predefined criteria. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster data analysis will be performed to develop the monitoring framework while bridging analysis will provide useful insights about patterns of agreement or disagreement among participants views on indicators. This study has the potential to influence future practices on data collection and measurement of compliance with

  13. Orphanhood and Completion of Compulsory School Education among Young People in South Africa: Findings from a National Representative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; Rees, Helen; MacPhail, Catherine; Pettifor, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    We examined the association of orphanhood and completion of compulsory school education among young people in South Africa. In South Africa, school attendance is compulsory through grade 9, which should be completed before age 16. However, family and social factors such as orphanhood and poverty can hinder educational attainment. Participants were…

  14. Orphanhood and Completion of Compulsory School Education among Young People in South Africa: Findings from a National Representative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; Rees, Helen; MacPhail, Catherine; Pettifor, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    We examined the association of orphanhood and completion of compulsory school education among young people in South Africa. In South Africa, school attendance is compulsory through grade 9, which should be completed before age 16. However, family and social factors such as orphanhood and poverty can hinder educational attainment. Participants were…

  15. 37 CFR 201.19 - Royalties and statements of account under compulsory license for making and distributing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that section to be made under the compulsory license to make and distribute phonorecords of nondramatic.... L. 94-553, and required by that section to be filed for every compulsory license to make and... phonorecord delivery” is each individual delivery of a phonorecord by digital transmission of a sound...

  16. "Compulsory Schooling" Despite the Law: How Education Policy Underpins the Widespread Ignorance of the Right to Home Educate in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bongrand, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Everyone in France takes for granted the existence of compulsory school attendance ("école obligatoire") while home education remains very exceptional. Yet school attendance is not, and has never been, legally compulsory in France. How can one explain the fact that the right to home educate is little known and practiced? This article…

  17. An Institutional Disposition that Requires Continual Perfection: The New Mechanism for Assured Funding for Rural Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongyu, Zhou; Guowei, Liu

    2008-01-01

    On December 24, 2005, the State Council issued the Circular on Deepening the Rural Compulsory Education Assured Funding Mechanism Reform, initiating the prologue to free compulsory education in China. Following on the heels of China's annulment of rural taxes and the implementation of the new rural cooperative medical system, the rural compulsory…

  18. "Compulsory Schooling" Despite the Law: How Education Policy Underpins the Widespread Ignorance of the Right to Home Educate in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bongrand, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Everyone in France takes for granted the existence of compulsory school attendance ("école obligatoire") while home education remains very exceptional. Yet school attendance is not, and has never been, legally compulsory in France. How can one explain the fact that the right to home educate is little known and practiced? This article…

  19. An Integrated Tiered Service Delivery Model (ITSDM) Based on Local CD4 Testing Demands Can Improve Turn-Around Times and Save Costs whilst Ensuring Accessible and Scalable CD4 Services across a National Programme

    PubMed Central

    Glencross, Deborah K.; Coetzee, Lindi M.; Cassim, Naseem

    2014-01-01

    Background The South African National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) responded to HIV treatment initiatives with two-tiered CD4 laboratory services in 2004. Increasing programmatic burden, as more patients access anti-retroviral therapy (ART), has demanded extending CD4 services to meet increasing clinical needs. The aim of this study was to review existing services and develop a service-model that integrated laboratory-based and point-of-care testing (POCT), to extend national coverage, improve local turn-around/(TAT) and contain programmatic costs. Methods NHLS Corporate Data Warehouse CD4 data, from 60–70 laboratories and 4756 referring health facilities was reviewed for referral laboratory workload, respective referring facility volumes and related TAT, from 2009–2012. Results An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM) is proposed. Tier-1/POCT delivers CD4 testing at single health-clinics providing ART in hard-to-reach areas (<5 samples/day). Laboratory-based testing is extended with Tier-2/POC-Hubs (processing ≤30–40 CD4 samples/day), consolidating POCT across 8–10 health-clinics with other HIV-related testing and Tier-3/‘community’ laboratories, serving ≤40 health-clinics, processing ≤150 samples/day. Existing Tier-4/‘regional’ laboratories serve ≤100 facilities and process <350 samples/day; Tier-5 are high-volume ‘metro’/centralized laboratories (>350–1500 tests/day, serving ≥200 health-clinics). Tier-6 provides national support for standardisation, harmonization and quality across the organization. Conclusion The ITSDM offers improved local TAT by extending CD4 services into rural/remote areas with new Tier-3 or Tier-2/POC-Hub services installed in existing community laboratories, most with developed infrastructure. The advantage of lower laboratory CD4 costs and use of existing infrastructure enables subsidization of delivery of more expensive POC services, into hard-to-reach districts without reasonable access to

  20. Learning together, working together: an evaluation of experiences of a pilot programme for partnership between unions and management in the health service.

    PubMed

    Young, Pat; Moule, Pam; Evans, David; Simmons, Sue; Crack, Meg; Mayo, Gillian

    2012-07-01

    This article describes an innovative initiative to support partnership working between trade unions and management in three National Health Service Trusts, by means of shared participation in a series of learning and development days. Although there is existing evidence, within the literature on partnership, of the benefits of partnership working for employees and employers, there is little discussion of processes by which effective partnership is developed. More specifically, there is no current academic literature on the role of education in enabling improved partnership working between trade unions and managers. The findings of the evaluation suggest that the pilot provided a successful learning experience as well as a number of pointers for improving future developments of this nature. The recommendations include embedding of partnership work within existing staff development processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [The number of compulsory admissions continues to rise: implications for the new Dutch law on obligatory mental health care].

    PubMed

    Broer, J; Koetsier, H; Mulder, C L

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of the new Dutch law on compulsory mental health care, the Bopz, there has been a marked increase in the number of compulsory admissions in mental health care in the Netherlands. When the new law underwent its third evaluation in 2002, it was decided that the law no longer reflected current views on the admission policy in mental health care. The draft on a new law on compulsory admissions to mental health care has already been published. One of the goals of the new law is to reduce the number of compulsory hospital admissions and to ensure that patients with mental health problems receive compulsory community care and outpatient care. To describe and analyse the use of compulsory admissions and community treatment orders (CTOs), and to make recommendations. We analyse the number of CTOs and court-ordered admissions in the Netherlands between 2003 and 2013 on the basis of figures supplied by the Council for the Judiciary. In the period 2003-2013 the number of compulsory emergency admissions increased from 43 to 47 per 100,000 inhabitants. During the same period the number of court-ordered admissions rose from 44 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2003 to 89 per 100,000 in 2013. (These figures include CTOs.) We were unable to perform more detailed studies because of the lack of records giving, for instance, the characteristics of patients who have undergone compulsory admission. Emergency compulsory admissions, CTOs and court-ordered admissions to mental health care continued to rise in the period 2003-2013. There is an urgent need for more detailed registration of the type an duration of compulsory admissions to psychiatric care and for more research into the type of treatment that can prevent the use of coercion to mental health care.

  2. Supporting Low Ability Learners in a Tertiary Level Compulsory English Programme Using CEFR Based Online Language Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Gavin; McKeurtan, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the processes, methods and results of using language software based on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) in a tertiary level institute in Japan in order to facilitate the learning of low ability learners of English. None of the learners were English majors, all were between the ages of 18 and 20,…

  3. Closer to the Finish Line? Compulsory Attendance, Grade Attainment, and High School Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Wael S.

    2017-01-01

    High school graduation rates are a central policy topic in the United States and have been shown to be stagnant for the past three decades. Using student-level administrative data from New York City Public Schools, I examine the impact of compulsory school attendance on high school graduation rates and grade attainment, focusing the analysis on…

  4. 77 FR 16434 - Revocation of Multiple Domestic, Alaskan, and Hawaiian Compulsory Reporting Points

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Revocation of Multiple Domestic, Alaskan, and.... SUMMARY: This action removes twenty-two Domestic, Alaskan, and Hawaiian compulsory reporting points... included fourteen Domestic reporting points designated at all altitudes, two Alaskan low altitude and...

  5. National Assessment of Writing Proficiency among Norwegian Students in Compulsory Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Rolf B.; Thygesen, Ragnar; Berge, Kjell Lars; Evensen, Lars Sigfred; Vagle, Wenche

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports and discusses a government-initiated nationwide assessment of writing proficiency among Norwegian compulsory school students. A sample-study of 7th and 10th grade students are discussed and reported with regard to challenges in measuring writing skills in a valid and reliable manner. For the 7th graders the results showed a…

  6. 18 CFR 1b.15 - Non-compliance with compulsory processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Non-compliance with compulsory processes. 1b.15 Section 1b.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.15 Non-compliance with...

  7. 18 CFR 1b.15 - Non-compliance with compulsory processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-compliance with compulsory processes. 1b.15 Section 1b.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.15 Non-compliance with...

  8. 18 CFR 1b.15 - Non-compliance with compulsory processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Non-compliance with compulsory processes. 1b.15 Section 1b.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.15 Non-compliance with...

  9. 18 CFR 1b.15 - Non-compliance with compulsory processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Non-compliance with compulsory processes. 1b.15 Section 1b.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.15 Non-compliance with...

  10. The Development of Reasoning Skills during Compulsory 16 to 18 Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attridge, Nina; Doritou, Maria; Inglis, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The belief that studying mathematics improves reasoning skills, known as the Theory of Formal Discipline (TFD), has been held since the time of Plato. Research evidence supports this idea, at least in the context of students who had chosen to study post-compulsory mathematics. Here we examined the development of reasoning skills in 16- to…

  11. The Associations between Structural Treatment Characteristics and Post-Treatment Functioning in Compulsory Residential Youth Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhof, Karin S.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Veerman, Jan W.; van Dam, Coleta; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2005 a new compulsory residential treatment program was developed for adolescents in need for protection against themselves or their environment. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the association of structural treatment characteristics of this new residential treatment program (i.e., duration of treatment,…

  12. The Convergence of Compulsory Schooling in Western Europe: 1950-2000. CEE DP 95

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtin, Fabrice; Viarengo, Martina

    2008-01-01

    The expansion of compulsory schooling after the Second World War represented an important reform common to the majority of European countries. Specifically, over the period 1950-2000, the fifteen Western European countries considered in this study have extended the school-leaving age by one year or longer. Interestingly, this change in legislation…

  13. Measuring Determinants of Post-Compulsory Participation in Science: A Comparative Study Using National Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homer, Matt; Ryder, Jim; Banner, Indira

    2014-01-01

    Increasing post-compulsory participation in science and science-related subjects is seen as a key education policy priority in England and more widely. This paper uses descriptive analysis of national data to investigate the effects of science attainment at 16, gender, socio-economic status, and school science pathway on progression into post-16…

  14. Teachers' Perspectives Regarding the Decline in Boys' Participation in Post-Compulsory Rigorous Mathematics Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easey, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the decline in boys' participation in post-compulsory rigorous mathematics using the perspectives of eight experienced teachers at an independent, boys' College located in Brisbane, Queensland. This study coincides with concerns regarding the decline in suitably qualified tertiary graduates with requisite mathematical skills…

  15. The compulsory psychiatric regime in Hong Kong: Constitutional and ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Daisy

    This article examines the compulsory psychiatric regime in Hong Kong. Under section 36 of the Mental Health Ordinance, which authorises long-term detention of psychiatric patients, a District Judge is required to countersign the form filled out by the registered medical practitioners in order for the detention to be valid. Case law, however, has shown that the role of the District Judge is merely administrative. This article suggests that, as it currently stands, the compulsory psychiatric regime in Hong Kong is unconstitutional because it fails the proportionality test. In light of this conclusion, the author proposes two solutions to deal with the issue, by common law or by legislative reform. The former would see an exercise of discretion by the courts read into section 36, while the latter would involve piecemeal reform of the relevant provisions to give the courts an explicit discretion to consider substantive issues when reviewing compulsory detention applications. The author argues that these solutions would introduce effective judicial supervision into the compulsory psychiatric regime and safeguard against abuse of process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reform of the Educational Finance System as the Foundation of Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suetomi, Kaori; Murray, Nadezhda

    2014-01-01

    The conditions required for a reform of the educational finance system as the foundation of compulsory education are 1) devolution to schools and introduction of national standards in order to deal with "individual equality" while compensating for the insufficiency of "aspectual equality," and 2) dealing with educational needs…

  17. Gendered Post-Compulsory Educational Choices of Non-Heterosexual Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Gender and socio-economic background are widely acknowledged factors influencing the educational choices of young people. Following their compulsory education, young people in Finland choose between academically oriented general upper secondary schools and vocational upper secondary schools. Gender and class intertwine in these choices in many…

  18. Personal Development Planning in Initial Teacher Training: A Case Study from Post-Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ron; Hallwood, Linda; Clements, Christine; Rivron, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a case study of personal development planning (PDP) within an initial teacher training course for the post-compulsory sector, delivered through a large consortium in the north of England. The paper reviews conceptual and empirical studies of PDP in higher education and reports on the practice and perceptions of students and…

  19. The Development of Reasoning Skills during Compulsory 16 to 18 Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attridge, Nina; Doritou, Maria; Inglis, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The belief that studying mathematics improves reasoning skills, known as the Theory of Formal Discipline (TFD), has been held since the time of Plato. Research evidence supports this idea, at least in the context of students who had chosen to study post-compulsory mathematics. Here we examined the development of reasoning skills in 16- to…

  20. Computer Science (CS) in the Compulsory Education Curriculum: Implications for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passey, Don

    2017-01-01

    The subject of computer science (CS) and computer science education (CSE) has relatively recently arisen as a subject for inclusion within the compulsory school curriculum. Up to this present time, a major focus of technologies in the school curriculum has in many countries been on applications of existing technologies into subject practice (both…

  1. 75 FR 32857 - Adjustment of Royalty Fee for Cable Compulsory License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 256 Adjustment of Royalty Fee for Cable Compulsory License CFR Correction In Title 37 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of July 1, 2009, on page 666, in Sec. 256.2...

  2. Compulsory Hurdle Literacy and Numeracy Requirements for Senior Secondary Students: What Do the Stakeholders Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Suzanne; Griffin, Patrick; Care, Esther; McPherson, Jason

    2012-01-01

    As a policy initiative to improve student achievement, a number of jurisdictions have introduced compulsory literacy and numeracy standards for senior secondary students, the meeting of which forms a hurdle requirement for the award of the senior secondary exit certificate. While such a requirement is sometimes justified by policymakers as a…

  3. Disenchantment and Participatory Limits of Compulsory Education: Lessons from Southwest China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jinting

    2012-01-01

    Despite the state's unrelenting efforts to enforce compulsory basic education, schooling in rural ethnic China remains an elusive ideal that leads to massive dropout and prepares many only for factory sweatshops. Based on 16 months of ethnographic research, this article examines the disjuncture between the official education policy known as the…

  4. Evaluating the Impact of National Educational Policy to Reduce Retention and Increase Achievement in Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barata, M. Clara; Calheiros, M. Manuela; Patrício, Joana Nunes; Graça, João; Lima, M. Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Despite the accumulated evidence that retention is an ineffective and potentially harmful remedial strategy, several countries struggle with high levels of retention in compulsory schooling. This article provides evidence of the impact of the Portuguese national educational policy "Programa Mais Sucesso Escolar" (PMSE) using class size,…

  5. The Ideology of Innovation Education and Its Emergence as a New Subject in Compulsory Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsdottir, Svanborg R.; Thorsteinsson, Gisli; Page, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Innovation Education and Practical Use of Knowledge was introduced into the Icelandic National Curriculum for compulsory schools in 1999, where it is defined by the curriculum writers as a "school subject" but is not allocated any direct time in the recommended guidelines for subjects. This paper describes a master's research project…

  6. The Associations between Structural Treatment Characteristics and Post-Treatment Functioning in Compulsory Residential Youth Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhof, Karin S.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Veerman, Jan W.; van Dam, Coleta; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2005 a new compulsory residential treatment program was developed for adolescents in need for protection against themselves or their environment. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the association of structural treatment characteristics of this new residential treatment program (i.e., duration of treatment,…

  7. A Compulsory Bioethics Module for a Large Final Year Undergraduate Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    The article describes a compulsory bioethics module delivered to [approximately] 120 biology students in their final year. The main intended learning outcome is that students should be able to analyse and reason about bioethical issues. Interactive lectures explain and illustrate bioethics. Underlying principles and example issues are used to…

  8. Mobile Phone Voting for Participation and Engagement in a Large Compulsory Law Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habel, Chad; Stubbs, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an action-research project designed to investigate the effect of a technological intervention on the complex interactions between student engagement, participation, attendance and preparation in a large lecture delivered as part of a compulsory first-year law course, a discipline which has not been the focus of any previous…

  9. Comprehensiveness and Diversity in Secondary Compulsory Education in Andalusia: An Unresolved Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Angel Perez; Fernandez, Miguel Sola; Ruiz, Javier Barquin; Blanco, Nieves; Gomez, Encarnacion Soto

    2004-01-01

    This article outlines the contradictions and challenges of introducing comprehensive, compulsory education in Andalusia for students up to the age of 16. Following a documenting of the developments, it is argued that while the intention was for a significant, planned reform, it is better characterised as one that is, at best, an improvisation. The…

  10. School Socioeconomic Context and Teacher Job Satisfaction in Japanese Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuoka, Ryoji

    2015-01-01

    Sociologists in education have pointed out disparities associated with socioeconomic status (SES) in the Japanese compulsory education system that was once regarded as egalitarian. In addition to disparities between individual students, prior studies have empirically shown SES-based disparities among schools on important indicators such as…

  11. Compulsory Policy Change and Divergence in Educational Attainment in Four Former Soviet Republics of Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    For approximately seventy years, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan were part of a single educational system under the Soviet Union. Within only a few years of independence, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan decreased their compulsory education level to grade 9, but Kazakhstan continued to require attendance to grade 11. Data…

  12. Performativity as Pretence: A Study of Testing Practices in a Compulsory School in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunneblad, Johannes; Carlsson, Maj Asplund

    2012-01-01

    Our aim in this article is to analyse the impact of the standardised test on classroom practices in grade 5 in a compulsory school in western Sweden. In our analysis, the use of the concept of the pedagogical device (Bernstein 1996) provides a framework for understanding how high-stakes, standardised testing regulates classroom discourse and…

  13. Comprehensiveness and Diversity in Secondary Compulsory Education in Andalusia: An Unresolved Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Angel Perez; Fernandez, Miguel Sola; Ruiz, Javier Barquin; Blanco, Nieves; Gomez, Encarnacion Soto

    2004-01-01

    This article outlines the contradictions and challenges of introducing comprehensive, compulsory education in Andalusia for students up to the age of 16. Following a documenting of the developments, it is argued that while the intention was for a significant, planned reform, it is better characterised as one that is, at best, an improvisation. The…

  14. National Curriculum: Compulsory School Science--Is It Improving Scientific Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Colette; Beggs, Jim; Hickey, Ivor; O'Meara, Jim; Sweeney, John

    2001-01-01

    British students who had compulsory science in the National Curriculum from ages 11-16 (n=115) had significantly higher scores on a science test than those for whom secondary science had been optional (n=30). Almost all had very low scores on questions related to the circulatory system and sound and light, regardless of their science background.…

  15. A Compulsory Bioethics Module for a Large Final Year Undergraduate Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    The article describes a compulsory bioethics module delivered to [approximately] 120 biology students in their final year. The main intended learning outcome is that students should be able to analyse and reason about bioethical issues. Interactive lectures explain and illustrate bioethics. Underlying principles and example issues are used to…

  16. Post-Compulsory Education and Lifelong Learning across the United Kingdom: Policy, Organisation and Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ann, Ed.; Spours, Ken, Ed.; Waring, Martyn, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Post-Compulsory Education and Lifelong Learning across the United Kingdom brings together the perspectives of researchers, policy-makers and practitioners from across England, Wales and Scotland to produce a rich, up-to-date and highly textured source of evidence about this under-researched sector. The contributors analyse how each country's…

  17. Compulsory Literacy and Numeracy Exit Standards for Senior Secondary Students: The Right Direction for Australia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Suzanne; Care, Esther; Griffin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    An overview of positive and negative potential effects of the setting of compulsory exit-level standards in literacy and numeracy for students completing their final years of schooling is presented. The overview rests on studies completed primarily outside Australia, reflecting the reality of such practices not having been implemented widely in…

  18. Educational Choices and the Selection Process: Before and after Compulsory Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocetti, Sauro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the selection process at work before and after compulsory schooling by assessing the determinants of school failures, dropouts, and upper secondary school decisions of young Italians. The data-set is built combining individual data by the Labor Force Survey and aggregate data on local labor markets and school…

  19. The Effect of Education on Religion: Evidence from Compulsory Schooling Laws. NBER Working Paper No. 16973

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerman, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    For over a century, social scientists have debated how educational attainment impacts religious belief. In this paper, I use Canadian compulsory schooling laws to identify the relationship between completed schooling and later religiosity. I find that higher levels of education lead to lower levels of religious participation later in life. An…

  20. Mobile Phone Voting for Participation and Engagement in a Large Compulsory Law Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habel, Chad; Stubbs, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an action-research project designed to investigate the effect of a technological intervention on the complex interactions between student engagement, participation, attendance and preparation in a large lecture delivered as part of a compulsory first-year law course, a discipline which has not been the focus of any previous…

  1. Promoting Compulsory Education in Rural China: What Are the NPOs Doing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Huiquan

    2012-01-01

    Due to imbalanced social and economic development, education in poverty-stricken rural areas in China is lagging behind that of urban areas. The current study explores the role of the nonprofit organizations (NPOs) involved in rural compulsory education promotion. Results show that the NPOs are providing a variety of programs to promote rural…

  2. Reconstructed Task Orientation and Local Time Governance in Compulsory Schools: The Swedish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westlund, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    Recently, a five-year trial period without a set timetable for compulsory school education in 79 municipalities was concluded in Sweden. The overall idea of the trial was to facilitate local participation, local time governance and flexible learning. Within the pilot trial, each individual pupil's school activities were supposed to be designed to…

  3. Reconstructed Task Orientation and Local Time Governance in Compulsory Schools: The Swedish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westlund, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    Recently, a five-year trial period without a set timetable for compulsory school education in 79 municipalities was concluded in Sweden. The overall idea of the trial was to facilitate local participation, local time governance and flexible learning. Within the pilot trial, each individual pupil's school activities were supposed to be designed to…

  4. Promoting Compulsory Education in Rural China: What Are the NPOs Doing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Huiquan

    2012-01-01

    Due to imbalanced social and economic development, education in poverty-stricken rural areas in China is lagging behind that of urban areas. The current study explores the role of the nonprofit organizations (NPOs) involved in rural compulsory education promotion. Results show that the NPOs are providing a variety of programs to promote rural…

  5. Compulsory Hurdle Literacy and Numeracy Requirements for Senior Secondary Students: What Do the Stakeholders Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Suzanne; Griffin, Patrick; Care, Esther; McPherson, Jason

    2012-01-01

    As a policy initiative to improve student achievement, a number of jurisdictions have introduced compulsory literacy and numeracy standards for senior secondary students, the meeting of which forms a hurdle requirement for the award of the senior secondary exit certificate. While such a requirement is sometimes justified by policymakers as a…

  6. The Expansion of Compulsory Education in Turkey: Local and World Culture Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akboga, Sema

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on world culture and local culture explanations of educational change, this article aims to understand the dynamics of educational reform in Turkey in 1997 that expanded compulsory primary education from five to eight years. To do so, speeches given by opponents and proponents of the reform in the Turkish parliament were analysed.…

  7. Compulsory Literacy and Numeracy Exit Standards for Senior Secondary Students: The Right Direction for Australia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Suzanne; Care, Esther; Griffin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    An overview of positive and negative potential effects of the setting of compulsory exit-level standards in literacy and numeracy for students completing their final years of schooling is presented. The overview rests on studies completed primarily outside Australia, reflecting the reality of such practices not having been implemented widely in…

  8. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Understand Students' Subject Choices in Post-Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Rachel Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been concerns in the UK regarding the uptake of particular subjects in post-compulsory education. Whilst entries for Advanced level (A-level) subjects such as media studies have experienced considerable growth, entries for A-level physics have, until recently, been declining, prompting fears of a skills crisis in future…

  9. Disenchantment and Participatory Limits of Compulsory Education: Lessons from Southwest China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jinting

    2012-01-01

    Despite the state's unrelenting efforts to enforce compulsory basic education, schooling in rural ethnic China remains an elusive ideal that leads to massive dropout and prepares many only for factory sweatshops. Based on 16 months of ethnographic research, this article examines the disjuncture between the official education policy known as the…

  10. Creating Policy from Discursive Exchanges on Compulsory Education and Schooling in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalba, Cynthia M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper first introduces the national and local framework for compulsory-level "undervisning pa annat satt" [teaching/education otherwise than in school] education in Sweden. According to national statistics in Sweden, every year an average of 100 children are registered as receiving their education at home, arranged in some cases by…

  11. "New" Literacies for "New" Times? Shaping Literacy Curricula for the Post-Compulsory Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Pam

    2001-01-01

    Using Queensland as an example, demonstrates how students are channelled towards different versions of English literacy in the senior secondary school, and how literacy curricula become complicit in the hierarchical sorting and streaming of young adult learners. Argues that post-compulsory students need access to a literacy repertoire that extends…

  12. National Assessment of Writing Proficiency among Norwegian Students in Compulsory Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Rolf B.; Thygesen, Ragnar; Berge, Kjell Lars; Evensen, Lars Sigfred; Vagle, Wenche

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports and discusses a government-initiated nationwide assessment of writing proficiency among Norwegian compulsory school students. A sample-study of 7th and 10th grade students are discussed and reported with regard to challenges in measuring writing skills in a valid and reliable manner. For the 7th graders the results showed a…

  13. Closer to the Finish Line? Compulsory Attendance, Grade Attainment, and High School Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Wael S.

    2017-01-01

    High school graduation rates are a central policy topic in the United States and have been shown to be stagnant for the past three decades. Using student-level administrative data from New York City Public Schools, I examine the impact of compulsory school attendance on high school graduation rates and grade attainment, focusing the analysis on…

  14. Towards a European Policy Discourse on Compulsory Education: The Case of Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show how the European Union (EU) and the Swedish government have recently become co-producers of education policy that increasingly emphasises compulsory education. The paper draws on the following two kinds of empirical material: 1) an analysis of central official policy documents produced by the EU and the Swedish…

  15. Measuring Determinants of Post-Compulsory Participation in Science: A Comparative Study Using National Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homer, Matt; Ryder, Jim; Banner, Indira

    2014-01-01

    Increasing post-compulsory participation in science and science-related subjects is seen as a key education policy priority in England and more widely. This paper uses descriptive analysis of national data to investigate the effects of science attainment at 16, gender, socio-economic status, and school science pathway on progression into post-16…

  16. Teaching University Modules in Sixth Forms: The Shifting Boundaries of Post-Compulsory Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, David; Thomas, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Post-compulsory education in the UK is growing in complexity. A little explored feature of this complexity is the development of collaborative arrangements between higher education institutions and providers of sixth form education under which students can study university modules whilst pursuing their sixth form studies. This article reports the…

  17. Transformation for Social Justice through Democracy and Partnership in Post-Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Helen; Alexandrou, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Partnerships between schools and universities have been well developed as a means of organisations in initial teacher education (ITE) in the UK since 1994. They have, more recently, become increasingly central to the organisations of the post-compulsory education of teachers. The focus of this article is upon the development of a new partnership…

  18. Reconsidering Compulsory English in Developing Countries in Asia: English in a Community of Northeast Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, John

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the issue of compulsory English in the Asia-Pacific region and examines the English component of a single-site exploratory study of multilingualism in a disadvantaged ethnic minority (DEM) community of Northeast Thailand. The concept of ethnolinguistic vitality was used as a framework for an analysis of community language…

  19. 41 CFR 60-40.3 - Information exempt from compulsory disclosure and which may be withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Information exempt from compulsory disclosure and which may be withheld. 60-40.3 Section 60-40.3 Public Contracts and Property... preemployment selection tests used by contractors. (b) Other records may be withheld consistent with the...

  20. Outcomes Based Education? Rethinking the Provision of Compulsory Education in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlach, Richard G.; McNaught, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Outcomes based education (OBE), which emphasises a radical reinterpretation of the enterprise of education, is a phenomenon enveloping the Australian compulsory education sector. This paper examines the theoretical tenets of OBE as articulated by its chief exponent, William Spady. It then explores the effects that OBE implementation is having on…

  1. Legislation and Educational Change: The Struggle for Social Justice and Quality in China's Compulsory Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2007-01-01

    Whether a law can bring about change has been an important topic of debate in the literatures of law, sociology and education. With reference to the 2006 revision of compulsory schooling legislation in China, this article examines the functions and limits of the use of law to effect educational change. It explores why and how China continues to…

  2. Post-Compulsory Education and Training: Transformism and the Struggle for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avis, James

    2007-01-01

    The paper addresses a number of issues concerning policy and curriculum in post-compulsory education and training (PCET). Firstly, it seeks to locate PCET within its socio-economic context as it is this that frames curricula within the learning and skills sector and serves to legitimate its particular form. Secondly, the paper addresses the manner…

  3. Asclepius or Hippocrates? Differing Interpretations of Post-Compulsory Initial Teacher Training Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingleby, Ewan

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses qualitative research findings on mentoring within PCET ITT (post-compulsory education and training initial teacher training). The article complements the findings of Tedder and Lawy (2009) and Ingleby (2010). The article develops Downie and Randall's consideration of the merits or otherwise of mirroring either "Asclepius" or…

  4. The Magic of Mentoring: A Democratic Approach to Mentoring Trainee Teachers in Post-Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of subject-specific mentoring within post-compulsory education. Using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews, it considers those factors considered "most useful" to teachers in training. The findings suggest that, contrary to the views espoused by bodies such as the Office for Standards in Education,…

  5. The Expansion of Compulsory Education in Turkey: Local and World Culture Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akboga, Sema

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on world culture and local culture explanations of educational change, this article aims to understand the dynamics of educational reform in Turkey in 1997 that expanded compulsory primary education from five to eight years. To do so, speeches given by opponents and proponents of the reform in the Turkish parliament were analysed.…

  6. Compulsory Disclosure by Newsmen: The Implications of the Legal Heritage for the Contemporary Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshelman, David

    In the almost 100 years of reported litigation pertaining to compulsory disclosure of news sources, the basic pleadings asserted in common law cases have included employer's regulations, professional ethics, self-incrimination, lack of jurisdictional authority, and relevancy. American courts have consistently denied an evidentiary privilege for…

  7. Historical Skills in Compulsory Education: Assessment, Inquiry Based Strategies and Students' Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez Carrasco, Cosme J.; Miralles Martínez, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This paper makes a reflection on the assessment of historical thinking in compulsory education. First, the article reflects on the type of knowledge that is being evaluated (memory or understanding). According to current thinking, assessment should meet the teaching aims set out by the teacher, it should be another means of monitoring and…

  8. Leadership in Post-Compulsory Education: Inspiring Leaders of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Based around case studies of current leaders in post-compulsory education, this book explores a number of leadership models and styles in order to provide inspiration and guidance for the next wave of potential leaders. After an introduction, the book is divided into four parts and 18 chapters. Part One contains: (1) Leadership in Post-Compulsory…

  9. Leadership in Post-Compulsory Education: Inspiring Leaders of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Based around case studies of current leaders in post-compulsory education, this book explores a number of leadership models and styles in order to provide inspiration and guidance for the next wave of potential leaders. After an introduction, the book is divided into four parts and 18 chapters. Part One contains: (1) Leadership in Post-Compulsory…

  10. Critical Review of Language Education Policies in Compulsory Primary and Secondary Education in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipovic, Jelena; Vuco, Julijana; Djuric, Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a comparative analysis of the status of four types of languages present in the Serbian compulsory education system is presented: (1) Serbian as L1; (2) Serbian as L2 (for ethnic minorities); (3) minority languages; as well as (4) traditionally designated "foreign languages", such as English, French, Russian and German,…

  11. Evaluating the Impact of National Educational Policy to Reduce Retention and Increase Achievement in Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barata, M. Clara; Calheiros, M. Manuela; Patrício, Joana Nunes; Graça, João; Lima, M. Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Despite the accumulated evidence that retention is an ineffective and potentially harmful remedial strategy, several countries struggle with high levels of retention in compulsory schooling. This article provides evidence of the impact of the Portuguese national educational policy "Programa Mais Sucesso Escolar" (PMSE) using class size,…

  12. Performativity as Pretence: A Study of Testing Practices in a Compulsory School in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunneblad, Johannes; Carlsson, Maj Asplund

    2012-01-01

    Our aim in this article is to analyse the impact of the standardised test on classroom practices in grade 5 in a compulsory school in western Sweden. In our analysis, the use of the concept of the pedagogical device (Bernstein 1996) provides a framework for understanding how high-stakes, standardised testing regulates classroom discourse and…

  13. 18 CFR 1b.15 - Non-compliance with compulsory processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Non-compliance with compulsory processes. 1b.15 Section 1b.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.15 Non-compliance with...

  14. What Future for the Relationship between Early Childhood Education and Care and Compulsory Schooling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between early childhood education and care (ECEC) and compulsory schooling is the subject of increasing research and policy attention, as attendance at both grows globally, as the discourse of lifelong learning emphasises that learning begins at birth, and as investment in early childhood is increasingly advocated for the returns…

  15. Compulsory Licenses for Cancer Drugs: Does Circumventing Patent Rights Improve Access to Oncology Medications?

    PubMed Central

    Bognar, Cinthia Leite Frizzera Borges; Bychkovsky, Brittany L.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, there are enormous inequities in cancer control that cause poor outcomes among patients with cancer who live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the biggest challenges that oncology faces today is how to increase patient access to expensive, but life-saving, therapies in LMICs. Access to cancer medications in LMICs is a major problem, especially in recent years, as the costs of these therapies continue to rise exponentially. One mechanism available to LMICs to improve access to cancer medications allows a country to pursue a compulsory license for a given drug. Here, we will review how the legal framework in the World Trade Organization's Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement and the Doha Declaration supports countries to circumvent patent laws and acquire compulsory licenses for essential medicines. We will also discuss the current and future role of compulsory licenses in oncology and how compulsory licenses may improve access to cancer drugs in LMICs. PMID:28717715

  16. Personal and Social Development in Post-compulsory Education in the UK and Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christopher

    1996-01-01

    Compares the role of post-compulsory technical education in less developed countries and in developed market economies. Argues that England, by displacing education with skill accreditation, has turned the student into an object of economic policy. Mexico remains focused on a crude program designed to "modernize" the "ignorant"…

  17. Reform of the Rural Compulsory Education Assured Funding Mechanism: Policy Design Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Wang

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the historical development of China's model for promoting compulsory education in rural areas indicates that it has two basic characteristics. The first is assuring a stable foundation for material support and expanding the provision of education by adopting measures to reduce operating costs. The second is raising the level of…

  18. Social Mobility and Post-Compulsory Education: Revisiting Boudon's Model of Social Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ron; Simmons, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Raymond Boudon's model of educational expansion to examine the relationship between education and social mobility, paying particular attention to post-compulsory education--an important site of social differentiation in England. The paper shows how Boudon focuses explicitly on the consequences of educational expansion, and argues…

  19. Reconsidering Compulsory English in Developing Countries in Asia: English in a Community of Northeast Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, John

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the issue of compulsory English in the Asia-Pacific region and examines the English component of a single-site exploratory study of multilingualism in a disadvantaged ethnic minority (DEM) community of Northeast Thailand. The concept of ethnolinguistic vitality was used as a framework for an analysis of community language…

  20. Compulsory Policy Change and Divergence in Educational Attainment in Four Former Soviet Republics of Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    For approximately seventy years, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan were part of a single educational system under the Soviet Union. Within only a few years of independence, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan decreased their compulsory education level to grade 9, but Kazakhstan continued to require attendance to grade 11. Data…