Science.gov

Sample records for computer aided information

  1. Computer Aided Management for Information Processing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akman, Ibrahim; Kocamustafaogullari, Kemal

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the nature of information processing projects and discusses some project management programming packages. Describes an in-house interface program developed to utilize a selected project management package (TIMELINE) by using Oracle Data Base Management System tools and Pascal programming language for the management of information system…

  2. Information and computer-aided system for structural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrashevitch, Ju. G.; Nizametdinov, Sh. U.; Polkovnikov, A. V.; Rumjantzev, V. P.; Surina, O. N.; Kalinin, G. M.; Sidorenkov, A. V.; Strebkov, Ju. S.

    1992-09-01

    An information and computer-aided system for structural materials data has been developed to provide data for the fusion and fission reactor system design. It is designed for designers, industrial engineers, and material science specialists and provides a friendly interface in an interactive mode. The database for structural materials contains the master files: chemical composition, physical, mechanical, corrosion, technological properties, regulatory and technical documentation. The system is implemented on a PC/AT running the PS/2 operating system.

  3. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  4. Information Needs of Special Populations: Serving People with Mental Illnesses Using Computer Aided Instruction in a Multimedia Library for Outpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsh, Adele L.; Jackson, Meliza

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a use of computer-aided instruction and multimedia technology in an outpatient library to meet the information needs of people who have severe and persistent mental illnesses. Topics include funding, special needs related to schizophrenia, computers in mental health rehabilitation, collection development, and library usage. (Author/LRW)

  5. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  6. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  7. Computer Aided Drafting Workshop. Workshop Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetsch, David L.

    This mini-course and article are presentations from a workshop on computer-aided drafting. The purpose of the mini-course is to assist drafting instructors in updating their occupational knowledge to include computer-aided drafting (CAD). Topics covered in the course include general computer information, the computer in drafting, CAD terminology,…

  8. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1990-02-19

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

  9. Computer-aided design and computer science technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Voigt, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A description is presented of computer-aided design requirements and the resulting computer science advances needed to support aerospace design. The aerospace design environment is examined, taking into account problems of data handling and aspects of computer hardware and software. The interactive terminal is normally the primary interface between the computer system and the engineering designer. Attention is given to user aids, interactive design, interactive computations, the characteristics of design information, data management requirements, hardware advancements, and computer science developments.

  10. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1991-04-02

    Modern computing resources permit the generation of large amounts of numerical data. These large data sets, if left in numerical form, can be overwhelming. Such large data sets are usually discrete points from some underlying physical phenomenon. Because we need to evaluate the phenomenon at places where we don't have data, a continuous representation (a surface'') is required. A simple example is a weather map obtained from a discrete set of weather stations. (For more examples including multi-dimensional ones, see the article by Dr. Rosemary Chang in the enclosed IRIS Universe). In order to create a scientific structure encompassing the data, we construct an interpolating mathematical surface which can evaluate at arbitrary locations. We can also display and analyze the results via interactive computer graphics. In our research we construct a very wide variety of surfaces for applied geometry problems that have sound theoretical foundations. However, our surfaces have the distinguishing feature that they are constructed to solve short or long term practical problems. This DOE-funded project has developed the premiere research team in the subject of constructing surfaces (3D and higher dimensional) that provide smooth representations of real scientific and engineering information, including state of the art computer graphics visualizations. However, our main contribution is in the development of fundamental constructive mathematical methods and visualization techniques which can be incorporated into a wide variety of applications. This project combines constructive mathematics, algorithms, and computer graphics, all applied to real problems. The project is a unique resource, considered by our peers to be a de facto national center for this type of research.

  11. An automated tuberculosis screening strategy combining X-ray-based computer-aided detection and clinical information

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, Jaime; Sánchez, Clara I.; Philipsen, Rick H. H. M.; Maduskar, Pragnya; Dawson, Rodney; Theron, Grant; Dheda, Keertan; van Ginneken, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Lack of human resources and radiological interpretation expertise impair tuberculosis (TB) screening programmes in TB-endemic countries. Computer-aided detection (CAD) constitutes a viable alternative for chest radiograph (CXR) reading. However, no automated techniques that exploit the additional clinical information typically available during screening exist. To address this issue and optimally exploit this information, a machine learning-based combination framework is introduced. We have evaluated this framework on a database containing 392 patient records from suspected TB subjects prospectively recruited in Cape Town, South Africa. Each record comprised a CAD score, automatically computed from a CXR, and 12 clinical features. Comparisons with strategies relying on either CAD scores or clinical information alone were performed. Our results indicate that the combination framework outperforms the individual strategies in terms of the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (0.84 versus 0.78 and 0.72), specificity at 95% sensitivity (49% versus 24% and 31%) and negative predictive value (98% versus 95% and 96%). Thus, it is believed that combining CAD and clinical information to estimate the risk of active disease is a promising tool for TB screening. PMID:27126741

  12. Computer aided lexicography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklenář, Ivan; Kříž, Václav

    1990-11-01

    Programs with a natural-language user interface and text-processing programs require a vocabulary providing the mapping of the individual word form onto a lexeme, e.g. "says", "said", "saying"→"see". Examples of such programs are indexing programs for information retrieval, and spelling correctors for text-processing systems. The lexicographical task of such a computer vocabulary is especially difficult for Slavic languages, because their morphological structure is complex. An average Czech verb, for example, has 25 forms, and we have identified more than 100 paradigms for verbs. In order to support the creation of a Czech vocabulary, we have designed a system of programs for paradigm identification and derivation of words. The result of our effort is a vocabulary comprising 110 000 words and 1250 000 word forms. This vocabulary was used for the PASSAT system in the Czechoslovak Press Agency. This vocabulary may also be used in a spelling corrector. However, for such an application the vocabulary must be compressed into a compact form in order to shorten the access times. Compression is based on the paradigmatic structure of morphology which defines suffix sets for each word.

  13. Computer-aided drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Computational approaches are an integral part of interdisciplinary drug discovery research. Understanding the science behind computational tools, their opportunities, and limitations is essential to make a true impact on drug discovery at different levels. If applied in a scientifically meaningful way, computational methods improve the ability to identify and evaluate potential drug molecules, but there remain weaknesses in the methods that preclude naïve applications. Herein, current trends in computer-aided drug discovery are reviewed, and selected computational areas are discussed. Approaches are highlighted that aid in the identification and optimization of new drug candidates. Emphasis is put on the presentation and discussion of computational concepts and methods, rather than case studies or application examples. As such, this contribution aims to provide an overview of the current methodological spectrum of computational drug discovery for a broad audience. PMID:26949519

  14. Computer Aided Braille Trainer

    PubMed Central

    Sibert, Thomas W.

    1984-01-01

    The problems involved in teaching visually impaired persons to Braille are numerous. Training while the individual is still sighted and using a computer to assist is one way of shortening the learning curve. Such a solution is presented here.

  15. Computer Aided Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Elisabeth

    An approach to using the computer to assemble German tests is described. The purposes of the system would be: (1) an expansion of the bilingual lexical memory bank to list and store idioms of all degrees of difficulty, with frequency data and with complete and sophisticated retrieval possibility for assembly; (2) the creation of an…

  16. Information Processing Models and Computer Aids for Human Performance. Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalikow, Daniel N.; Rollins, Ann M.

    The task is to carry out the final development of a computer-based system for automated instruction of the new speech sounds of second languages, and to field-test this system for two language pairs: English speakers learning Mandarin Chinese, and Spanish speakers learning English. This report describes the first evaluation experiment of the Mark…

  17. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R E

    1987-11-01

    The aims of this research are the creation of new surface forms and the determination of geometric and physical properties of surfaces. The full sweep from constructive mathematics through the implementation of algorithms and the interactive computer graphics display of surfaces is utilized. Both three-dimensional and multi- dimensional surfaces are considered. Particular emphasis is given to the scientific computing solution of Department of Energy problems. The methods that we have developed and that we are proposing to develop allow applications such as: Producing smooth contour maps from measured data, such as weather maps. Modeling the heat distribution inside a furnace from sample measurements. Terrain modeling based on satellite pictures. The investigation of new surface forms includes the topics of triangular interpolants, multivariate interpolation, surfaces defined on surfaces and monotone and/or convex surfaces. The geometric and physical properties considered include contours, the intersection of surfaces, curvatures as a interrogation tool, and numerical integration.

  18. [AIDS information in Zimbabwe].

    PubMed

    Meyer, L

    1993-11-20

    The difficulties of health education concerning AIDs prevention in Zimbabwe include communicating simple information about complicated processes, resistance to the information because of status or tradition, and lack of experience with translating material that was produced in the West. The beliefs in ghosts and witch doctors are still part of the tradition in Zimbabwe, providing cultural diversity and a sense of identification. Traditional medicine is characterized by Westerners as often irrational behavior that is deleterious to one's health. However, even in the allegedly educated part of the world compliance is often lacking and alternative treatment forms are actively pursued in tandem with formal medicine. When there is a short time period between harmful behavior and infection, most people realize that there is a causative connection. On the other hand, it is a more complicated mental exercise to fathom that intercourse can result in HIV infection that 5 years later may lead to death from tuberculosis. No other disease is known by these people that has a corresponding delay from the time of infection to disease or death. It is also confusing that a sexually transmitted disease does not produce symptoms such as discharge or genital sores. It is difficult to comprehend that a sole causative agent, HIV, can lead to so many different diseases and symptoms. When a young man died after having been hospitalized with protracted cough and TB as a result of HIV infection that he had contracted from a girlfriend, the father told the folks at home that his son had died of TB. These conflicting pieces of information make AIDS prevention education wrought with difficulties, which adds to the rapid spread of the disease, although the authorities and international organizations have responded with strategies, informational materials, and educational courses. PMID:8273086

  19. Southwell's Relaxation Search in Computer Aided Advising: An Intelligent Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xueshu

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development and validation of a microcomputer software system that enhances undergraduate students' interests in becoming engineering graduate students. The development of a database with information on engineering graduate programs is discussed, and a model that matches individual and institutional needs using Southwell's Relaxation…

  20. Computer-Aided Geometry Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoosmith, J. N. (Compiler); Fulton, R. E. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Techniques in computer-aided geometry modeling and their application are addressed. Mathematical modeling, solid geometry models, management of geometric data, development of geometry standards, and interactive and graphic procedures are discussed. The applications include aeronautical and aerospace structures design, fluid flow modeling, and gas turbine design.

  1. Computer Aided Drafting. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Michael A.

    This guide is intended for use in introducing students to the operation and applications of computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons: understanding CAD (CAD versus traditional manual drafting and care of software and hardware); using the components of a CAD system (primary and other input…

  2. Computer aided flexible envelope designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Computer aided design methods are presented for the design and construction of strong, lightweight structures which require complex and precise geometric definition. The first, flexible structures, is a unique system of modeling folded plate structures and space frames. It is possible to continuously vary the geometry of a space frame to produce large, clear spans with curvature. The second method deals with developable surfaces, where both folding and bending are explored with the observed constraint of available building materials, and what minimal distortion result in maximum design capability. Alternative inexpensive fabrication techniques are being developed to achieve computer defined enclosures which are extremely lightweight and mathematically highly precise.

  3. Computer-aided lens assembly.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Richard; Alcock, Rob; Petzing, Jon; Coupland, Jeremy

    2004-01-20

    We propose a computer-aided method of lens manufacture that allows assembly, adjustment, and test phases to be run concurrently until an acceptable level of optical performance is reached. Misalignment of elements within a compound lens is determined by a comparison of the results of physical ray tracing by use of an array of Gaussian laser beams with numerically obtained geometric ray traces. An estimate of misalignment errors is made, and individual elements are adjusted in an iterative manner until performance criteria are achieved. The method is illustrated for the alignment of an air-spaced doublet. PMID:14765916

  4. Computer-Aided Remote Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    1994-01-01

    System for remote control of robotic land vehicle requires only small radio-communication bandwidth. Twin video cameras on vehicle create stereoscopic images. Operator views cross-polarized images on two cathode-ray tubes through correspondingly polarized spectacles. By use of cursor on frozen image, remote operator designates path. Vehicle proceeds to follow path, by use of limited degree of autonomous control to cope with unexpected conditions. System concept, called "computer-aided remote driving" (CARD), potentially useful in exploration of other planets, military surveillance, firefighting, and clean-up of hazardous materials.

  5. Interfacing Computer Aided Parallelization and Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    When porting sequential applications to parallel computer architectures, the program developer will typically go through several cycles of source code optimization and performance analysis. We have started a project to develop an environment where the user can jointly navigate through program structure and performance data information in order to make efficient optimization decisions. In a prototype implementation we have interfaced the CAPO computer aided parallelization tool with the Paraver performance analysis tool. We describe both tools and their interface and give an example for how the interface helps within the program development cycle of a benchmark code.

  6. CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacture). A Brief Guide to Materials in the Library of Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havas, George D.

    This brief guide to materials in the Library of Congress (LC) on computer aided design and/or computer aided manufacturing lists reference materials and other information sources under 13 headings: (1) brief introductions; (2) LC subject headings used for such materials; (3) textbooks; (4) additional titles; (5) glossaries and handbooks; (6)…

  7. Computer-aided system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  8. Computer Instructional Aids for Undergraduate Control Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volz, Richard A.; And Others

    Engineering is coming to rely more and more heavily upon the computer for computations, analyses, and graphic displays which aid the design process. A general purpose simulation system, the Time-shared Automatic Control Laboratory (TACL), and a set of computer-aided design programs, Control Oriented Interactive Graphic Analysis and Design…

  9. Construction computer-aided engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Yoshinaga, T.; Atkins, D.; Astleford, R.

    1987-01-01

    Hitachi Ltd. and Bechtel Power Corporation are presently designing nuclear power plants for Japanese utilities exclusively on three-dimensional computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems. To make these three-dimensional CADD models more effective for construction activities, Hitachi and Bechtel are jointly developing a software package that allows construction engineers and planners to effectively empty an area of the three-dimensional CADD model and rebuild it electronically to simulate, animate, and optimize the construction sequence and methodology. The components in the three-dimensional CADD model are placed as they would be for actual construction (i.e., piping spool pieces, skid-mounted systems, piping, and equipment modules, etc.). The construction engineer and planners can then select the components along with appropriate handling equipment and simulate/animate the actual construction sequence. After the construction sequence has been optimized, it is captured on videotape for use in the field. The results of the simulated activities are then passed on to computer program module (CPM) scheduling and work breakdown structure programs for accurate bottom-up construction activity planning and commodity tracking. This entire process can be iterated to an optimum solution before the actual construction begins. Once construction is in progress, the program can compare the actual status and allow resimulations for workarounds.

  10. Computer-aided antibody design

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Daisuke; Shirai, Hiroki; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Nakamura, Haruki

    2012-01-01

    Recent clinical trials using antibodies with low toxicity and high efficiency have raised expectations for the development of next-generation protein therapeutics. However, the process of obtaining therapeutic antibodies remains time consuming and empirical. This review summarizes recent progresses in the field of computer-aided antibody development mainly focusing on antibody modeling, which is divided essentially into two parts: (i) modeling the antigen-binding site, also called the complementarity determining regions (CDRs), and (ii) predicting the relative orientations of the variable heavy (VH) and light (VL) chains. Among the six CDR loops, the greatest challenge is predicting the conformation of CDR-H3, which is the most important in antigen recognition. Further computational methods could be used in drug development based on crystal structures or homology models, including antibody–antigen dockings and energy calculations with approximate potential functions. These methods should guide experimental studies to improve the affinities and physicochemical properties of antibodies. Finally, several successful examples of in silico structure-based antibody designs are reviewed. We also briefly review structure-based antigen or immunogen design, with application to rational vaccine development. PMID:22661385

  11. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  12. User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

  13. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  14. Quality Indexing with Computer-Aided Lexicography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchan, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of computer-aided indexing activity focuses on examples from projects at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Standardization and quality in providing subject access to databases are considered; and computer-aided lexicography, including thesaurus construction, access vocabulary, definitions preparation,…

  15. Formative Assessment using Computer-Aided Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Duncan

    1999-01-01

    Describes how computer-aided assessment can provide a means of preserving formative assessment within the curriculum at a fraction of the time-cost involved with written work. Illustrates a variety of computer-aided assessment styles. (Author/ASK)

  16. New Paradigms for Computer Aids to Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, M. Diane

    Many people are interested in computer aids to rhetorical invention and want to know how to evaluate an invention aid, what the criteria are for a good one, and how to assess the trade-offs involved in buying one product or another. The frame of reference for this evaluation is an "old paradigm," which treats the computer as if it were paper, but…

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and teleradiology network system for chest diagnosis using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2010-03-01

    Diagnostic MDCT imaging requires a considerable number of images to be read. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. Because of such a background, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis. We also have developed the teleradiology network system by using web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. Our teleradiology network system can perform Web medical image conference in the medical institutions of a remote place using the web medical image conference system. We completed the basic proof experiment of the web medical image conference system with information security solution. We can share the screen of web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with the workstation that builds in some diagnostic assistance methods. Biometric face authentication used on site of teleradiology makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. Our Privacy and information security technology of information security solution ensures compliance with Japanese regulations. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new teleradiology network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis

  18. Ariel: an information system for AIDS research.

    PubMed

    Jordan, M M; Li, P

    1993-07-01

    An information system has been established at the National Institute for Biological Standards & Control for the exchange of knowledge in AIDS research, particularly in relation to vaccine design. This system, the AIDS information exchange link (Ariel), is designed to act as a central store of relevant information for scientists in the UK and abroad and was set up under the auspices of the Medical Research Council. It holds information on research materials (reagents), on genetic sequences and on projects. Several computers and database systems are involved. Access is obtained through Janet, the UK academic network, or PSS, the British Telecom public network. Both these networks are linked to international network systems, e.g. Internet, Earn, IPSS. Ariel has been in operation for 18 months and is accessed internationally.

  19. Prerequisites for Computer-Aided Cognitive Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legrand, Colette

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes computer-aided cognitive rehabilitation for mentally deficient persons. It lists motor, cognitive, emotional, and educational prerequisites to such rehabilitation and states advantages and disadvantages in using the prerequisites. (JDD)

  20. General Information about AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About AIDS-Related Lymphoma Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  1. Quality indexing with computer-aided lexicography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Indexing with computers is a far cry from indexing with the first indexing tool, the manual card sorter. With the aid of computer-aided lexicography, both indexing and indexing tools can provide standardization, consistency, and accuracy, resulting in greater quality control than ever before. A brief survey of computer activity in indexing is presented with detailed illustrations from NASA activity. Applications from techniques mentioned, such as Retrospective Indexing (RI), can be made to many indexing systems. In addition to improving the quality of indexing with computers, the improved efficiency with which certain tasks can be done is demonstrated.

  2. An Expert Assistant for Computer Aided Parallelization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Chun, Robert; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

    2004-01-01

    The prototype implementation of an expert system was developed to assist the user in the computer aided parallelization process. The system interfaces to tools for automatic parallelization and performance analysis. By fusing static program structure information and dynamic performance analysis data the expert system can help the user to filter, correlate, and interpret the data gathered by the existing tools. Sections of the code that show poor performance and require further attention are rapidly identified and suggestions for improvements are presented to the user. In this paper we describe the components of the expert system and discuss its interface to the existing tools. We present a case study to demonstrate the successful use in full scale scientific applications.

  3. Integrated Computer-Aided Drafting Instruction (ICADI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, C. Y.; McCampbell, David H.

    Until recently, computer-aided drafting and design (CAD) systems were almost exclusively operated on mainframes or minicomputers and their cost prohibited many schools from offering CAD instruction. Today, many powerful personal computers are capable of performing the high-speed calculation and analysis required by the CAD application; however,…

  4. Computer Code Aids Design Of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.; Darden, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    AERO2S computer code developed to aid design engineers in selection and evaluation of aerodynamically efficient wing/canard and wing/horizontal-tail configurations that includes simple hinged-flap systems. Code rapidly estimates longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of conceptual airplane lifting-surface arrangements. Developed in FORTRAN V on CDC 6000 computer system, and ported to MS-DOS environment.

  5. Photogrammetry and computer-aided piping design

    SciTech Connect

    Keneflick, J.F.; Chirillo, R.D.

    1985-02-18

    Three-dimensional measurements taken from photographs of a plant model can be digitized and linked with computer-aided piping design. This can short-cut the design and construction of new plants and expedite repair and retrofitting projects. Some designers bridge the gap between model and computer by digitizing from orthographic prints obtained via orthography or the laser scanning of model sections. Such valve or fitting then processed is described in this paper. The marriage of photogrammetry and computer-aided piping design can economically produce such numerical drawings.

  6. Engineering Technology Programs Courses Guide for Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide describes the requirements for courses in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) that are part of engineering technology programs conducted in vocational-technical schools in Georgia. The guide is organized in five sections. The first section provides a rationale for occupations in design and in production,…

  7. Computational Geometry and Computer-Aided Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, T. H. (Compiler); Shoosmith, J. N. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Extended abstracts of papers addressing the analysis, representation, and synthesis of shape information are presented. Curves and shape control, grid generation and contouring, solid modelling, surfaces, and curve intersection are specifically addressed.

  8. Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics: Software Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yushau, B.; Bokhari, M. A.; Wessels, D. C. J.

    2004-01-01

    Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics (CALM) has been in use for some time in the Prep-Year Mathematics Program at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. Different kinds of software (both locally designed and imported) have been used in the quest of optimizing the recitation/problem session hour of the mathematics classes. This paper…

  9. Continuity of computer-aided drafting operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, L.D.

    1987-09-01

    The operating performance, operating procedures, and equipment added are discussed for the Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) operation at UNC Nuclear Industries before consolidation of operating contracts at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities located at the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington.

  10. Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowell, Louis

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management at John F. Kennedy Space Center. The contents include: 1) Corrosion at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC); 2) Requirements and Objectives; 3) Program Description, Background and History; 4) Approach and Implementation; 5) Challenges; 6) Lessons Learned; 7) Successes and Benefits; and 8) Summary and Conclusions.

  11. Computer-Aided Design in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Peter, Ed.

    This publication updates the 1982 occasional paper that was intended to foster staff awareness and assist colleges in Great Britain considering the use of computer-aided design (CAD) material in engineering courses. The paper begins by defining CAD and its place in the Integrated Business System with a brief discussion of the effect of CAD on the…

  12. Experiments in Computer-Aided Inductive Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, J.R.; Rogers, M.S.

    This research is concerned with human problem-solving behavior that involves inductive reasoning or concept formation when that behavior is being assisted by certain computer and display aids (called symbol manipulation functions). Human subjects use a variety of systematic operations when they are solving such problems. In order to analyze…

  13. National Occupational Skill Standards. CADD: Computer Aided Drafting and Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Advanced Manufacturing, Washington, DC.

    This document identifies computer-aided drafting and design (CADD) skills that companies require of training programs and future employees. The information was developed by two committees of technically knowledgeable CADD users from across the United States and validated by several hundred other CADD users. The skills are aimed at a beginner CADD…

  14. Computer-aided diagnosis in thoracic CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang

    2009-10-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) provides a computer output as a "second opinion" in order to assist radiologists in the diagnosis of various diseases on medical images. Currently, a hot topic in CAD is the development of computerized schemes for detection of lung abnormalities, such as lung nodule and interstitial lung disease, in computed tomography (CT) images. The author describes in this article the current status of the CAD schemes for the detection of lung nodules and interstitial lung disease in CT developed by the author and his colleagues at the University of Chicago and Duke University.

  15. Intelligent computer-aided training and tutoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    Specific autonomous training systems based on artificial intelligence technology for use by NASA astronauts, flight controllers, and ground-based support personnel that demonstrate an alternative to current training systems are described. In addition to these specific systems, the evolution of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems that integrates many of the features of traditional training programs with artificial intelligence techniques is presented. These Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) systems would provide, for the trainee, much of the same experience that could be gained from the best on-the-job training. By integrating domain expertise with a knowledge of appropriate training methods, an ICAT session should duplicate, as closely as possible, the trainee undergoing on-the-job training in the task environment, benefitting from the full attention of a task expert who is also an expert trainer. Thus, the philosophy of the ICAT system is to emulate the behavior of an experienced individual devoting his full time and attention to the training of a novice - proposing challenging training scenarios, monitoring and evaluating the actions of the trainee, providing meaningful comments in response to trainee errors, responding to trainee requests for information, giving hints (if appropriate), and remembering the strengths and weaknesses displayed by the trainee so that appropriate future exercises can be designed.

  16. Computer-Aided Parallelizer and Optimizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Haoqiang

    2011-01-01

    The Computer-Aided Parallelizer and Optimizer (CAPO) automates the insertion of compiler directives (see figure) to facilitate parallel processing on Shared Memory Parallel (SMP) machines. While CAPO currently is integrated seamlessly into CAPTools (developed at the University of Greenwich, now marketed as ParaWise), CAPO was independently developed at Ames Research Center as one of the components for the Legacy Code Modernization (LCM) project. The current version takes serial FORTRAN programs, performs interprocedural data dependence analysis, and generates OpenMP directives. Due to the widely supported OpenMP standard, the generated OpenMP codes have the potential to run on a wide range of SMP machines. CAPO relies on accurate interprocedural data dependence information currently provided by CAPTools. Compiler directives are generated through identification of parallel loops in the outermost level, construction of parallel regions around parallel loops and optimization of parallel regions, and insertion of directives with automatic identification of private, reduction, induction, and shared variables. Attempts also have been made to identify potential pipeline parallelism (implemented with point-to-point synchronization). Although directives are generated automatically, user interaction with the tool is still important for producing good parallel codes. A comprehensive graphical user interface is included for users to interact with the parallelization process.

  17. Improving positive predictive value in computer-aided diagnosis using mammographic mass and microcalcification confidence score fusion based on co-location information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Dae Hoe; Choi, Jae Young; Ro, Yong Man

    2013-02-01

    In this study, a novel fusion framework has been developed to combine the detection of both breast masses and microcalcifications (MCs), aiming to improve positive predictive value (PPV) in Computer-aided Diagnosis (CADx). Clinically, it has been widely accepted that a mass associated with MC is a useful indicator of predicting the malignancy of the mass. In light of this fact, given that a mass and MCs are co-located each other (i.e., they are at the same location), the proposed fusion framework combines confidence scores of the mass and MCs for the purpose of improving the probability that the mass is malignant. To this end, the popular Bayesian network model is applied to effectively combine the detection confidence scores and to achieve higher accuracy for malignant mass classification. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fusion framework, 31 mammograms were collected from the public DDSM database. The proposed fusion framework can increase the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) from 0.7939 to 0.8806, and the partial area index (PAUC) above the sensitivity of 0.9 from 0.1270 to 0.2280, compared to the CADx system without exploiting co-location information with MCs. Based on these results, it can be expected that the proposed fusion framework can be readily applied for realizing CADx systems with the higher PPV.

  18. Computer-Aided-Instruction (user/CSO computer security training)

    SciTech Connect

    Twyman, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses a Computer-Aided-Instruction (CAI) course that has been implemented at Rocky Flats. Trying to train 2000 computer users and Computer Security Officers (CSO) has been a real dilemma at Rocky Flats. In order to resolve this problem, our Training Department implemented a CAI training course on Computer Security. Presently, we are training approximately 100 users/CSOs per month, and soon these numbers should increase. The duration of the User course is about an hour and the CSO's is about an hour and a half. CAI is being used on the unclassified VAX computer system in conjunction with IBM PC XTs.

  19. Computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications on full-field digital mammograms: A two-view information fusion scheme for FP reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jun; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Helvie, Mark A.; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun; Zhang, Yiheng

    2006-03-01

    We are developing new techniques to improve the performance of our computer-aided detection (CAD) system for clustered microcalcifications on full-field digital mammograms (FFDMs). In this study, we designed an information fusion scheme by using joint two-view information on craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral-oblique (MLO) views. After cluster candidates were detected using a single-view detection technique, candidates on CC and MLO views were paired using their geometrical information. Candidate pairs were classified as true and false pairs with a similarity classifier that used the joint information from both views. Each cluster candidate was also characterized by its single-view features. The outputs of the similarity classifier and the single-view classifier were fused and the cluster candidate was classified as a true microcalcification cluster or a false-positive (FP) using the fused two-view information. A data set of 192 FFDM images was collected from 96 patients at the University of Michigan. All patients had two mammographic views. This data set contained 96 microcalcification clusters, of which 28 clusters were proven by biopsy to be malignant and 68 were proven to be benign. For training and testing the classifiers, the data set was partitioned into two independent subsets with the malignant cases equally distributed to the two subsets. One subset was used for training and the other subset was used for testing. We compared three computerized methods for geometrically pairing cluster candidates on two mammographic views. The areas under the fitted ROC curves were 0.75+/-0.01, 0.74+/-0.01, and 0.76+/-0.01 for the three methods, respectively. The difference between any two methods measured by the area under the fitted ROC curve, A z, was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). We also evaluated a new hybrid pairing scheme that used two different sensitivity levels for defining cluster pairs based on the single-view scores. The single-view CAD system

  20. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-12-16

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  1. Computer aided nonlinear electrical networks analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slapnicar, P.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques used in simulating an electrical circuit with nonlinear elements for use in computer-aided circuit analysis programs are described. Elements of the circuit include capacitors, resistors, inductors, transistors, diodes, and voltage and current sources (constant or time varying). Simulation features are discussed for dc, ac, and/or transient circuit analysis. Calculations are based on the model approach of formulating the circuit equations. A particular solution of transient analysis for nonlinear storage elements is described.

  2. A rule based computer aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1986-01-01

    A Computer Aided Design (CAD) system is presented which supports the iterative process of design, the dimensional continuity between mating parts, and the hierarchical structure of the parts in their assembled configuration. Prolog, an interactive logic programming language, is used to represent and interpret the data base. The solid geometry representing the parts is defined in parameterized form using the swept volume method. The system is demonstrated with a design of a spring piston.

  3. Integrated computer-aided design using minicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, O. O.

    1980-01-01

    Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), a highly interactive software, has been implemented on minicomputers at the NASA Langley Research Center. CAD/CAM software integrates many formerly fragmented programs and procedures into one cohesive system; it also includes finite element modeling and analysis, and has been interfaced via a computer network to a relational data base management system and offline plotting devices on mainframe computers. The CAD/CAM software system requires interactive graphics terminals operating at a minimum of 4800 bits/sec transfer rate to a computer. The system is portable and introduces 'interactive graphics', which permits the creation and modification of models interactively. The CAD/CAM system has already produced designs for a large area space platform, a national transonic facility fan blade, and a laminar flow control wind tunnel model. Besides the design/drafting element analysis capability, CAD/CAM provides options to produce an automatic program tooling code to drive a numerically controlled (N/C) machine. Reductions in time for design, engineering, drawing, finite element modeling, and N/C machining will benefit productivity through reduced costs, fewer errors, and a wider range of configuration.

  4. Mammographic computer-aided detection systems.

    PubMed

    2003-04-01

    While mammography is regarded as the best means available to screen for breast cancer, reading mammograms is a tedious, error-prone task. Given the repetitiveness of the process and the fact that less than 1% of mammograms in the average screening population contain cancer, it's no wonder that a significant number of breast cancers--about 28%--are missed by radiologists. The fact that human error is such a significant obstacle makes mammography screening an ideal application for computer-aided detection (CAD) systems. CAD systems serve as a "second pair of eyes" to ensure that radiologists don't miss a suspect area on an image. They analyze patterns on a digitized mammographic image, identify regions that may contain an abnormality indicating cancer, and mark these regions. The marks are then inspected and classified by a radiologist. But CAD systems provide no diagnosis of any kind--it's up to the radiologist to analyze the marked area and decide if it shows cancer. In this Evaluation, we describe the challenges posed by screening mammography, the operating principles and overall efficacy of CAD systems, and the characteristics to consider when purchasing a system. We also compare the performance of two commercially available systems, iCAD's MammoReader and R2's ImageChecker. Because the two systems offer comparable sensitivity, our judgments are based on other performance characteristics, including their ease of use, the number of false marks they produce, the degree to which they can integrate with hospital information systems, and their processing speed.

  5. Computer aided system engineering for space construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racheli, Ugo

    1989-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation covers the following topics. Construction activities envisioned for the assembly of large platforms in space (as well as interplanetary spacecraft and bases on extraterrestrial surfaces) require computational tools that exceed the capability of conventional construction management programs. The Center for Space Construction is investigating the requirements for new computational tools and, at the same time, suggesting the expansion of graduate and undergraduate curricula to include proficiency in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) though design courses and individual or team projects in advanced space systems design. In the center's research, special emphasis is placed on problems of constructability and of the interruptability of planned activity sequences to be carried out by crews operating under hostile environmental conditions. The departure point for the planned work is the acquisition of the MCAE I-DEAS software, developed by the Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC), and its expansion to the level of capability denoted by the acronym IDEAS**2 currently used for configuration maintenance on Space Station Freedom. In addition to improving proficiency in the use of I-DEAS and IDEAS**2, it is contemplated that new software modules will be developed to expand the architecture of IDEAS**2. Such modules will deal with those analyses that require the integration of a space platform's configuration with a breakdown of planned construction activities and with a failure modes analysis to support computer aided system engineering (CASE) applied to space construction.

  6. Have Dentists Assimilated Information about AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchison, Kathryn A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A sample of 396 general dentists, oral surgeons, and periodontists were interviewed to determine their experience in treating patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus HIV, factors associated with their knowledge about AIDS, and their sources of information regarding AIDS. Fifty-six percent indicated a reluctance or inability to treat an…

  7. Survey of Intelligent Computer-Aided Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) systems integrate artificial intelligence and simulation technologies to deliver training for complex, procedural tasks in a distributed, workstation-based environment. Such systems embody both the knowledge of how to perform a task and how to train someone to perform that task. This paper briefly reviews the antecedents of ICAT systems and describes the approach to their creation developed at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. In addition to the general ICAT architecture, specific ICAT applications that have been or are currently under development are discussed. ICAT systems can offer effective solutions to a number of training problems of interest to the aerospace community.

  8. Computer-aided forensic facial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Evenhouse, R; Rasmussen, M; Sadler, L

    1992-01-01

    The reconstruction of facial features on the human skull for identification purposes has, in the past, utilized either two-dimensional drafting or three-dimensional sculpting techniques. We have developed two- and three-dimensional computer-aided routines to minimize errors introduced by limits of artistic ability or by inconsistencies in the application of techniques. These routines allow generalized facial features to be manipulated to conform to the size and shape of a specific skull. Subtle alterations of the surface form, texture, and color, based on age, sex, and race, enhance the individuality of the generated facial form. PMID:1624477

  9. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, it has been the primary goal of this grant to design and implement software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. The work carried out under this grant was performed jointly with members of the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) of NASA LaRC, Computer Sciences Corp., and Vigyan Corp. This has resulted in the development of several packages and design studies. Primary among these are the interactive geometric modeling tool, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (smart), and the integration and execution tools provided by the Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). In addition, it is the purpose of the personnel of this grant to provide consultation in the areas of structural design, algorithm development, and software development and implementation, particularly in the areas of computer aided design, geometric surface representation, and parallel algorithms.

  10. Effective Computer Aided Instruction in Biomedical Science

    PubMed Central

    Hause, Lawrence L.

    1985-01-01

    A menu-driven Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) package was integrated with word processing and effectively applied in five curricula at the Medical College of Wisconsin. Integration with word processing facilitates the ease of CAI development by instructors and was found to be the most important step in the development of CAI. CAI modules were developed and are currently used to reinforce lectures in medical pathology, laboratory quality control, computer programming and basic science reviews of medicine. Modules help the lecturer efficiently cover fundamentals and provide the student with a self-directed learning alternative. A structured approach to CAI has helped build a CAI program which supports other traditional modes of instruction at MCW.

  11. Emergency Management Computer-Aided Trainer (EMCAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, R. C.; Johnson, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    The Emergency Management Computer-Aided Trainer (EMCAT) developed by Essex Corporation or NASA and the Federal Emergency Management Administration's (FEMA) National Fire Academy (NFA) is described. It is a computer based training system for fire fighting personnel. A prototype EMCAT system was developed by NASA first using video tape images and then video disk images when the technology became available. The EMCAT system is meant to fill the training needs of the fire fighting community with affordable state-of-the-art technologies. An automated real time simulation of the fire situation was needed to replace the outdated manual training methods currently being used. In order to be successful, this simulator had to provide realism, be user friendly, be affordable, and support multiple scenarios. The EMCAT system meets these requirements and therefore represents an innovative training tool, not only for the fire fighting community, but also for the needs of other disciplines.

  12. Equal Access Initiative HIV/AIDS Information Resources from NLM

    SciTech Connect

    Templin-Branner W. and N. Dancy

    2010-09-11

    The Equal Access Initiative: HIV/AIDS Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine training is designed specifically for the National Minority AIDS Council 2010 Equal Access Initiative (EAI) Computer Grants Program awardees to provide valuable health information resources from the National Library of Medicine and other reliable sources to increase awareness of the wealth of treatment information and educational materials that are available on the Internet and to improve prevention and treatment education for their clients. These resources will also meet the needs of community-based

  13. A Suggested Computer Aided Drafting Curriculum (Dacum Based).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedras, Melvin J.; Hoggard, David

    Computer-aided drawing can bring new technology into the drafting classroom. One approach to computer-aided drafting (CAD) involves use of a personal computer and purchased software. Existing school computers could be shared to reduce costs. Following this narrative introduction, a suggested curriculum for the teaching of CAD is presented in…

  14. Clampdown on AIDS information in E. Africa.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, B

    1986-01-01

    What is most alarming about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in East Africa is that it is taboo. The reason for the clamping down on publicity in Kenya is that the government sees AIDS as a killer of tourism, the country's 2nd largest revenue earner. The government of Kenya, like several other African governments, is reacting to the widespread belief in the West that AIDS originated in Africa and that it is rampant in Central and East Africa. These "facts" have yet to be proven conclusively by medical evidence. It is certain that a large percentage of the population of these regions have antibodies to the virus HTLV-III, which causes AIDS. From this, virologists deduce that the people concerned must have been exposed to the AIDS virus. The Western media has exaggerated the African AIDS connection and given the impression that African countries are gripped in raging AIDS epidemics. In response to the alarmist publicity, some African countries have clamped down in information about the disease. The result is that the Western press feels confirmed in its fears and the local population, depending on rumor and heresay, have been living in a state of absolute panic. Instead of allaying fears, the clampdown on news has fueled dangerous rumors at home and frightened away tourists. Whatever may be causing the disease and wherever it may have come from, there is no question at all that there are now confirmed cases of AIDS in East and Central Africa. Thus far, the number of confirmed cases if relatively small, but if governments continue to try and hide the facts from the public, there is a real danger of an epidemic developing. A ministerial statement admits to 7 confirmed AIDS cases in Kenya. There are discrepancies in the reports, however. Doctors interviewed by "New African" in Nairobi recently believe the situation is far more serious than the government admits. Doctors in Kenya make the point that the country is highly vulnerable to the spread of AIDS

  15. PACS-Based Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. K. (Bernie); Liu, Brent J.; Le, Anh HongTu; Documet, Jorge

    The ultimate goal of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS)-based Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis (CAD) is to integrate CAD results into daily clinical practice so that it becomes a second reader to aid the radiologist's diagnosis. Integration of CAD and Hospital Information System (HIS), Radiology Information System (RIS) or PACS requires certain basic ingredients from Health Level 7 (HL7) standard for textual data, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard for images, and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) workflow profiles in order to comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requirements to be a healthcare information system. Among the DICOM standards and IHE workflow profiles, DICOM Structured Reporting (DICOM-SR); and IHE Key Image Note (KIN), Simple Image and Numeric Report (SINR) and Post-processing Work Flow (PWF) are utilized in CAD-HIS/RIS/PACS integration. These topics with examples are presented in this chapter.

  16. The New & Revised Consumer Price Indexes. ERS Information Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Joan P. Sullivan; Porwoll, Paul J.

    The purpose of this Information Aid is to alert school officials to changes and revisions in the Consumer Price Index (CPI), to familiarize them with differences between the former CPI and the new and revised indexes, to demonstrate how the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) computes changes in the CPI, to indicate appropriate uses of the CPI,…

  17. Computer aided diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekh, Viktor; Soliz, Peter; McGrew, Elizabeth; Barriga, Simon; Burge, Mark; Luan, Shuang

    2014-03-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) refers to the nerve damage that can occur in diabetes patients. It most often affects the extremities, such as the feet, and can lead to peripheral vascular disease, deformity, infection, ulceration, and even amputation. The key to managing diabetic foot is prevention and early detection. Unfortunately, current existing diagnostic techniques are mostly based on patient sensations and exhibit significant inter- and intra-observer differences. We have developed a computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The thermal response of the feet of diabetic patients following cold stimulus is captured using an infrared camera. The plantar foot in the images from a thermal video are segmented and registered for tracking points or specific regions. The temperature recovery of each point on the plantar foot is extracted using our bio-thermal model and analyzed. The regions that exhibit abnormal ability to recover are automatically identified to aid the physicians to recognize problematic areas. The key to our CAD system is the segmentation of infrared video. The main challenges for segmenting infrared video compared to normal digital video are (1) as the foot warms up, it also warms up the surrounding, creating an ever changing contrast; and (2) there may be significant motion during imaging. To overcome this, a hybrid segmentation algorithm was developed based on a number of techniques such as continuous max-flow, model based segmentation, shape preservation, convex hull, and temperature normalization. Verifications of the automatic segmentation and registration using manual segmentation and markers show good agreement.

  18. PCACE-Personal-Computer-Aided Cabling Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1987-01-01

    PCACE computer program developed to provide inexpensive, interactive system for learning and using engineering approach to interconnection systems. Basically database system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records. Directly emulates typical manual engineering methods of handling data, thus making interface between user and program very natural. Apple version written in P-Code Pascal and IBM PC version of PCACE written in TURBO Pascal 3.0

  19. Quantum information and computation

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.H.

    1995-10-01

    A new quantum theory of communication and computation is emerging, in which the stuff transmitted or processed is not classical information, but arbitrary superpositions of quantum states. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  20. Intelligent computer-aided training authoring environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Robert D.

    1994-01-01

    Although there has been much research into intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), there are few authoring systems available that support ITS metaphors. Instructional developers are generally obliged to use tools designed for creating on-line books. We are currently developing an authoring environment derived from NASA's research on intelligent computer-aided training (ICAT). The ICAT metaphor, currently in use at NASA has proven effective in disciplines from satellite deployment to high school physics. This technique provides a personal trainer (PT) who instructs the student using a simulated work environment (SWE). The PT acts as a tutor, providing individualized instruction and assistance to each student. Teaching in an SWE allows the student to learn tasks by doing them, rather than by reading about them. This authoring environment will expedite ICAT development by providing a tool set that guides the trainer modeling process. Additionally, this environment provides a vehicle for distributing NASA's ICAT technology to the private sector.

  1. Computer aided control of a mechanical arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Zermuehlen, r. O.

    1979-01-01

    A method for computer-aided remote control of a six-degree-of-freedom manipulator arm involved in the on-orbit servicing of a spacecraft is presented. The control configuration features a supervisory type of control in which each of the segments of a module exchange trajectory is controlled automatically under human supervision, with manual commands to proceed to the next step and in the event of a failure or undesirable outcome. The implementation of the supervisory system is discussed in terms of necessary onboard and ground- or Orbiter-based hardware and software, and a one-g demonstration system built to allow further investigation of system operation is described. Possible applications of the system include the construction of satellite solar power systems, environmental testing and the control of heliostat solar power stations.

  2. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1992-01-01

    The goal was the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. Several packages and design studies were completed, including two software tools currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) and the Environment for Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and additionally provides initial mass property analysis. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand alone analysis codes that result in the streamlining of the exchange of data between programs, reducing errors and improving efficiency.

  3. RASCAL: A Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John Christopher

    Both the background of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems in general and the requirements of a computer-aided learning system which would be a reasonable assistant to a teacher are discussed. RASCAL (Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning) is a first attempt at defining a CAI system which would individualize the learning…

  4. Computer-aided design for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Fehér, Tamás; Carbonell, Pablo; Pauthenier, Cyrille; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-12-20

    The development and application of biotechnology-based strategies has had a great socio-economical impact and is likely to play a crucial role in the foundation of more sustainable and efficient industrial processes. Within biotechnology, metabolic engineering aims at the directed improvement of cellular properties, often with the goal of synthesizing a target chemical compound. The use of computer-aided design (CAD) tools, along with the continuously emerging advanced genetic engineering techniques have allowed metabolic engineering to broaden and streamline the process of heterologous compound-production. In this work, we review the CAD tools available for metabolic engineering with an emphasis, on retrosynthesis methodologies. Recent advances in genetic engineering strategies for pathway implementation and optimization are also reviewed as well as a range of bionalytical tools to validate in silico predictions. A case study applying retrosynthesis is presented as an experimental verification of the output from Retropath, the first complete automated computational pipeline applicable to metabolic engineering. Applying this CAD pipeline, together with genetic reassembly and optimization of culture conditions led to improved production of the plant flavonoid pinocembrin. Coupling CAD tools with advanced genetic engineering strategies and bioprocess optimization is crucial for enhanced product yields and will be of great value for the development of non-natural products through sustainable biotechnological processes.

  5. The computer-aided facial reconstruction system.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, S; Yoshino, M; Imaizumi, K; Seta, S

    1995-06-30

    A computer imaging system was introduced into the facial reconstruction process. The system, which consists of the image processing unit for skull morphometry and the image editing unit for compositing facial components on the skull images, was an original construction. The image processor generates the framework for building a face onto the digitized skull image. For reconstructing a facial image on the framework, several possible data sets of facial components suitable for the skull morphology are selected from the database by operating our original application software. The most suitable cutout samples of facial components are pasted up over the framework in accordance with the anatomical criteria. The database of facial components consists of 24 contours, 18 eyes, 9 eyebrows, 27 noses, 9 lips and 16 hairstyles. After provisional reconstruction, the facial image is retouched by correcting skin colors and shades with an 'electronic painting device'. The resulting image is a great improvement on images made by the conventional clay and drawing method, both in the operational aspect and in the flexibility of creating multiple versions. The present system facilitates a rather objective and rapid approach and allows us easily to generate a range of possible faces. The computer-aided facial reconstruction will lead to an increase in chances of positive identification in practical cases.

  6. Computer-aided design for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Fehér, Tamás; Carbonell, Pablo; Pauthenier, Cyrille; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-12-20

    The development and application of biotechnology-based strategies has had a great socio-economical impact and is likely to play a crucial role in the foundation of more sustainable and efficient industrial processes. Within biotechnology, metabolic engineering aims at the directed improvement of cellular properties, often with the goal of synthesizing a target chemical compound. The use of computer-aided design (CAD) tools, along with the continuously emerging advanced genetic engineering techniques have allowed metabolic engineering to broaden and streamline the process of heterologous compound-production. In this work, we review the CAD tools available for metabolic engineering with an emphasis, on retrosynthesis methodologies. Recent advances in genetic engineering strategies for pathway implementation and optimization are also reviewed as well as a range of bionalytical tools to validate in silico predictions. A case study applying retrosynthesis is presented as an experimental verification of the output from Retropath, the first complete automated computational pipeline applicable to metabolic engineering. Applying this CAD pipeline, together with genetic reassembly and optimization of culture conditions led to improved production of the plant flavonoid pinocembrin. Coupling CAD tools with advanced genetic engineering strategies and bioprocess optimization is crucial for enhanced product yields and will be of great value for the development of non-natural products through sustainable biotechnological processes. PMID:24704607

  7. Computer aided detection system for clustered microcalcifications

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Sahiner, Berkman; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A.; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) system to detect clustered microcalcification automatically on full-field digital mammograms (FFDMs) and a CAD system for screen-film mammograms (SFMs). The two systems used the same computer vision algorithms but their false positive (FP) classifiers were trained separately with sample images of each modality. In this study, we compared the performance of the CAD systems for detection of clustered microcalcifications on pairs of FFDM and SFM obtained from the same patient. For case-based performance evaluation, the FFDM CAD system achieved detection sensitivities of 70%, 80%, and 90% at an average FP cluster rate of 0.07, 0.16, and 0.63 per image, compared with an average FP cluster rate of 0.15, 0.38, and 2.02 per image for the SFM CAD system. The difference was statistically significant with the alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (AFROC) analysis. When evaluated on data sets negative for microcalcification clusters, the average FP cluster rates of the FFDM CAD system were 0.04, 0.11, and 0.33 per image at detection sensitivity level of 70%, 80%, and 90%, compared with an average FP cluster rate of 0.08, 0.14, and 0.50 per image for the SFM CAD system. When evaluated for malignant cases only, the difference of the performance of the two CAD systems was not statistically significant with AFROC analysis. PMID:17264365

  8. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-05-03

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This system is defined as a Commercial-Off the-Shelf computer dispatching system providing both text and graphical display information while interfacing with the diverse reporting system within the Hanford Facility. This system also provided expansion capabilities to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center and provides back-up capabilities for the Plutonium Processing Facility.

  9. DOE workshop on computer-aided engineering. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The aims and objectives in organizing this workshop were to discuss the needs, activities, and plans for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) within the DOE Laboratories and major DOE contractors. The intent was to provide a forum for exchange of information and ideas, and to foster CAE communications among DOE Laboratories and contractors. This report abstracts each of the workshop subject areas. These areas were, CAE Overviews, Networking and Data Transfer, Integrated Circuits, Engineering Systems, Mechanical CAE and Systems, CAE Workstations and Tools, and Drafting and PCB Layouts.

  10. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  11. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jia; Poirson, Allen

    2007-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths, and ranks third for new cancer cases and cancer mortality for both men and women. However, its death rate can be dramatically reduced by appropriate treatment when early detection is available. The purpose of colonoscopy is to identify and assess the severity of lesions, which may be flat or protruding. Due to the subjective nature of the examination, colonoscopic proficiency is highly variable and dependent upon the colonoscopist's knowledge and experience. An automated image processing system providing an objective, rapid, and inexpensive analysis of video from a standard colonoscope could provide a valuable tool for screening and diagnosis. In this paper, we present the design, functionality and preliminary results of its Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system for colonoscopy - ColonoCAD TM. ColonoCAD is a complex multi-sensor, multi-data and multi-algorithm image processing system, incorporating data management and visualization, video quality assessment and enhancement, calibration, multiple view based reconstruction, feature extraction and classification. As this is a new field in medical image processing, our hope is that this paper will provide the framework to encourage and facilitate collaboration and discussion between industry, academia, and medical practitioners.

  12. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.; Olariu, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of this grant has been the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles particularly focused on the elements of geometric design, graphical user interfaces, and the interaction of the multitude of software typically used in this engineering environment. This has resulted in the development of several analysis packages and design studies. These include two major software systems currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are SMART, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool, and EASIE, the Environment for Software Integration and Execution. Additional software tools were designed and implemented to address the needs of the engineer working in the conceptual design environment. SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and several engineering analysis capabilities. In addition, SMART has a carefully engineered user interface that makes it easy to learn and use. Finally, a number of specialty characteristics have been built into SMART which allow it to be used efficiently as a front end geometry processor for other analysis packages. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand-alone, analysis codes. Resulting in a streamlining of the exchange of data between programs reducing errors and improving the efficiency. EASIE provides both a methodology and a collection of software tools to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes.

  13. Developing an Intelligent Computer-Aided Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Grace

    1990-01-01

    The Payload-assist module Deploys/Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (PD/ICAT) system was developed as a prototype for intelligent tutoring systems with the intention of seeing PD/ICAT evolve and produce a general ICAT architecture and development environment that can be adapted by a wide variety of training tasks. The proposed architecture is composed of a user interface, a domain expert, a training session manager, a trainee model and a training scenario generator. The PD/ICAT prototype was developed in the LISP environment. Although it has been well received by its peers and users, it could not be delivered toe its end users for practical use because of specific hardware and software constraints. To facilitate delivery of PD/ICAT to its users and to prepare for a more widely accepted development and delivery environment for future ICAT applications, we have ported this training system to a UNIX workstation and adopted use of a conventional language, C, and a C-based rule-based language, CLIPS. A rapid conversion of the PD/ICAT expert system to CLIPS was possible because the knowledge was basically represented as a forward chaining rule base. The resulting CLIPS rule base has been tested successfully in other ICATs as well. Therefore, the porting effort has proven to be a positive step toward our ultimate goal of building a general purpose ICAT development environment.

  14. Computer/Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birman, Ken; Roughgarden, Tim; Seltzer, Margo; Spohrer, Jim; Stolterman, Erik; Kearsley, Greg; Koszalka, Tiffany; de Jong, Ton

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of computer/information science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Ken Birman, Jennifer Rexford, Tim Roughgarden, Margo Seltzer, Jim Spohrer, and…

  15. Computer aided radiation analysis for manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew H.; Griffin, Brand N.; Tanner, Ernest R., II; Pogue, William R.; Golightly, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to assist in the design of radiation shielding an analytical tool is presented that can be employed in combination with CAD facilities and NASA transport codes. The nature of radiation in space is described, and the operational requirements for protection are listed as background information for the use of the technique. The method is based on the Boeing radiation exposure model (BREM) for combining NASA radiation transport codes and CAD facilities, and the output is given as contour maps of the radiation-shield distribution so that dangerous areas can be identified. Computational models are used to solve the 1D Boltzmann transport equation and determine the shielding needs for the worst-case scenario. BREM can be employed directly with the radiation computations to assess radiation protection during all phases of design which saves time and ultimately spacecraft weight.

  16. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-09-27

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This document outlines the negotiated requirements as agreed to by GTE Northwest during technical contract discussions. This system defines a commercial off-the-shelf computer dispatching system providing both test and graphic display information while interfacing with diverse alarm reporting system within the Hanford Site. This system provided expansion capability to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center. The system also provided back-up capability for the Plutonium Processing Facility (PFP).

  17. Computer-aided mapping of brain tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.T.; Schwaber, J.S.

    1987-08-15

    A computer-microscope system is described for use in capturing accurate, quantitative schematic (map) information from anatomical tissue sections. The system provides a rapid and convenient environment for acquisition and analysis for complex structures spread over large 3-D regions of the tissue. As a consequence of the complexity and subtlety of tissue analysis, most of the data acquisition functions of the system involve tight coupling between the hardware and the microscopist to preserve access to human judgment and intelligence. The instrument profoundly affects the ease and accuracy of neurobiological data analysis, making it practical to address previously inaccessible problems. Examples of data analyzed using the system are shown.

  18. Single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guide

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This clinical note introduces a method to assist surgeons in performing single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy. For use in this method, a surgical guide was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and was based on preoperative surgical simulation data. This method was highly conducive to successful single-tooth dento-osseous segmental osteotomy. PMID:27162756

  19. Computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) for colposcopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Holger; Ferris, Daron G.

    2005-04-01

    Uterine cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Colposcopy is a diagnostic method, whereby a physician (colposcopist) visually inspects the lower genital tract (cervix, vulva and vagina), with special emphasis on the subjective appearance of metaplastic epithelium comprising the transformation zone on the cervix. Cervical cancer precursor lesions and invasive cancer exhibit certain distinctly abnormal morphologic features. Lesion characteristics such as margin; color or opacity; blood vessel caliber, intercapillary spacing and distribution; and contour are considered by colposcopists to derive a clinical diagnosis. Clinicians and academia have suggested and shown proof of concept that automated image analysis of cervical imagery can be used for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis, having the potential to have a direct impact on improving women"s health care and reducing associated costs. STI Medical Systems is developing a Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system for colposcopy -- ColpoCAD. At the heart of ColpoCAD is a complex multi-sensor, multi-data and multi-feature image analysis system. A functional description is presented of the envisioned ColpoCAD system, broken down into: Modality Data Management System, Image Enhancement, Feature Extraction, Reference Database, and Diagnosis and directed Biopsies. The system design and development process of the image analysis system is outlined. The system design provides a modular and open architecture built on feature based processing. The core feature set includes the visual features used by colposcopists. This feature set can be extended to include new features introduced by new instrument technologies, like fluorescence and impedance, and any other plausible feature that can be extracted from the cervical data. Preliminary results of our research on detecting the three most important features: blood vessel structures, acetowhite regions and lesion margins are shown. As this is a new

  20. Computer-aided protective system (CAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method of improving the security of materials in transit is described. The system provides a continuously monitored position location system for the transport vehicle, an internal computer-based geographic delimiter that makes continuous comparisons of actual positions with the preplanned routing and schedule, and a tamper detection/reaction system. The position comparison is utilized to institute preprogrammed reactive measures if the carrier is taken off course or schedule, penetrated, or otherwise interfered with. The geographic locater could be an independent internal platform or an external signal-dependent system utilizing GPS, Loran or similar source of geographic information; a small (micro) computer could provide adequate memory and computational capacity; the insurance of integrity of the system indicates the need for a tamper-proof container and built-in intrusion sensors. A variant of the system could provide real-time transmission of the vehicle position and condition to a central control point for; such transmission could be encrypted to preclude spoofing.

  1. Methods of the computer-aided statistical analysis of microcircuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beliakov, Iu. N.; Kurmaev, F. A.; Batalov, B. V.

    Methods that are currently used for the computer-aided statistical analysis of microcircuits at the design stage are summarized. In particular, attention is given to methods for solving problems in statistical analysis, statistical planning, and factorial model synthesis by means of irregular experimental design. Efficient ways of reducing the computer time required for statistical analysis and numerical methods of microcircuit analysis are proposed. The discussion also covers various aspects of the organization of computer-aided microcircuit modeling and analysis systems.

  2. Computer-aided design development transition for IPAD environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, H. G.; Mock, W. D.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of federally sponsored computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) programs to the aircraft life cycle design process, an overview of NAAD'S CAD development program, an evaluation of the CAD design process, a discussion of the current computing environment within which NAAD is developing its CAD system, some of the advantages/disadvantages of the NAAD-IPAD approach, and CAD developments during transition into the IPAD system are discussed.

  3. Digital information evolution: the AIDS Library experience.

    PubMed

    Fraser, A; Pierce, J B; Scipio, R

    1999-01-01

    The AIDS Library evolved out of consumer health activism in response to the need for the latest HIV information, materials, and technology. In 1998, staff implemented a microcomputer-based integrated automated library system with Web publishing capability to link catalogs, databases of Philadelphia regional services, online publications, and fact sheets. The Web site, , became "live" December 1, 1998. History leading to its development and future plans are presented.

  4. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  5. Computer-aided diagnosis in lung nodule assessment.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Jonathan G; Brown, Matthew S; Petkovska, Iva

    2008-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging is playing an increasingly important role in cancer detection, diagnosis, and lesion characterization, and it is the most sensitive test for lung nodule detection. Interpretation of lung nodules involves characterization and integration of clinical and other imaging information. Advances in lung nodule management using CT require optimization of CT data acquisition, postprocessing tools, and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The goal of CAD systems being developed is to both assist radiologists in the more sensitive detection of nodules and noninvasively differentiate benign from malignant lesions; the latter is important given that malignant lesions account for between 1% and 11% of pulmonary nodules. The aim of this review is to summarize the current state of the art regarding CAD techniques for the detection and characterization of solitary pulmonary nodules and their potential applications in the clinical workup of these lesions.

  6. Comparative study viruses with computer-aided phase microscope AIRYSCAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Koufal, Georgy E.; Perevedentseva, Elena V.; Vyshenskaia, Tatiana V.

    1996-12-01

    Traditionally viruses are studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after complicated procedure of sample preparation without the possibility to study it under natural conditions. We obtained images of viruses (Vaccinia virus, Rotavirus) and rickettsias (Rickettsia provazekii, Coxiella burnetti) in native state with computer-aided phase microscope airyscan -- the interference microscope of Linnik layout with phase modulation of the reference wave with dissector image tube as coordinate-sensitive photodetector and computer processing of phase image. A light source was the He-Ne laser. The main result is coincidence of dimensions and shape of phase images with available information concerning their morphology obtained with SEM and other methods. The fine structure of surface and nuclei is observed. This method may be applied for virus recognition and express identification, investigation of virus structure and the analysis of cell-virus interaction.

  7. Microwave processing of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Pendola, Martin; Saha, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Because of their favorable mechanical properties and natural esthetics, ceramics are widely used in restorative dentistry. The conventional ceramic sintering process required for their use is usually slow, however, and the equipment has an elevated energy consumption. Sintering processes that use microwaves have several advantages compared to regular sintering: shorter processing times, lower energy consumption, and the capacity for volumetric heating. The objective of this study was to test the mechanical properties of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) after the specimens were processed with microwave hybrid sintering. Density, hardness, and bending strength were measured. When ceramic specimens were sintered with microwaves, the processing times were reduced and protocols were simplified. Hardness was improved almost 20% compared to regular sintering, and flexural strength measurements suggested that specimens were approximately 50% stronger than specimens sintered in a conventional system. Microwave hybrid sintering may preserve or improve the mechanical properties of dental ceramics designed for CAD/CAM processing systems, reducing processing and waiting times.

  8. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology.

    PubMed

    Calamia, J R

    1996-01-01

    Although the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology and the benefits of increased productivity became obvious in the automobile and aerospace industries in the 1970s, investigations of this technology's application in the field of dentistry did not begin until the 1980s. Only now are we beginning to see the fruits of this work with the commercial availability of some systems; the potential for this technology seems boundless. This article reviews the recent literature with emphasis on the period from June 1992 to May 1993. This review should familiarize the reader with some of the latest developments in this technology, including a brief description of some systems currently available and the clinical and economical rationale for their acceptance into the dental mainstream. This article concentrates on a particular system, the Cerec (Siemens/Pelton and Crane, Charlotte, NC) system, for three reasons: First, this system has been available since 1985 and, as a result, has a track record of almost 7 years of data. Most of the data have just recently been released and consequently, much of this year's literature on CAD-CAM is monopolized by studies using this system. Second, this system was developed as a mobile, affordable, direct chairside CAD-CAM restorative method. As such, it is of special interest to the patient, providing a one-visit restoration. Third, the author is currently engaged in research using this particular system and has a working knowledge of this system's capabilities.

  9. PLAID- A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    PLAID is a three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) system which enables the user to interactively construct, manipulate, and display sets of highly complex geometric models. PLAID was initially developed by NASA to assist in the design of Space Shuttle crewstation panels, and the detection of payload object collisions. It has evolved into a more general program for convenient use in many engineering applications. Special effort was made to incorporate CAD techniques and features which minimize the users workload in designing and managing PLAID models. PLAID consists of three major modules: the Primitive Object Generator (BUILD), the Composite Object Generator (COG), and the DISPLAY Processor. The BUILD module provides a means of constructing simple geometric objects called primitives. The primitives are created from polygons which are defined either explicitly by vertex coordinates, or graphically by use of terminal crosshairs or a digitizer. Solid objects are constructed by combining, rotating, or translating the polygons. Corner rounding, hole punching, milling, and contouring are special features available in BUILD. The COG module hierarchically organizes and manipulates primitives and other previously defined COG objects to form complex assemblies. The composite object is constructed by applying transformations to simpler objects. The transformations which can be applied are scalings, rotations, and translations. These transformations may be defined explicitly or defined graphically using the interactive COG commands. The DISPLAY module enables the user to view COG assemblies from arbitrary viewpoints (inside or outside the object) both in wireframe and hidden line renderings. The PLAID projection of a three-dimensional object can be either orthographic or with perspective. A conflict analysis option enables detection of spatial conflicts or collisions. DISPLAY provides camera functions to simulate a view of the model through different lenses. Other

  10. Computer-aided marginal artery detection on computed tomographic colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhuoshi; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Shijun; Liu, Jiamin; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-03-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for colonic polyps and cancer screening. The marginal artery of the colon, also known as the marginal artery of Drummond, is the blood vessel that connects the inferior mesenteric artery with the superior mesenteric artery. The marginal artery runs parallel to the colon for its entire length, providing the blood supply to the colon. Detecting the marginal artery may benefit computer-aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyp. It can be used to identify teniae coli based on their anatomic spatial relationship. It can also serve as an alternative marker for colon localization, in case of colon collapse and inability to directly compute the endoluminal centerline. This paper proposes an automatic method for marginal artery detection on CTC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work presented for this purpose. Our method includes two stages. The first stage extracts the blood vessels in the abdominal region. The eigenvalue of Hessian matrix is used to detect line-like structures in the images. The second stage is to reduce the false positives in the first step. We used two different masks to exclude the false positive vessel regions. One is a dilated colon mask which is obtained by colon segmentation. The other is an eroded visceral fat mask which is obtained by fat segmentation in the abdominal region. We tested our method on a CTC dataset with 6 cases. Using ratio-of-overlap with manual labeling of the marginal artery as the standard-of-reference, our method yielded true positive, false positive and false negative fractions of 89%, 33%, 11%, respectively.

  11. COMPUTER-AIDED DATA ACQUISITION FOR COMBUSTION EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article describes the use of computer-aided data acquisition techniques to aid the research program of the Combustion Research Branch (CRB) of the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in Research Triangle Park, NC, in particular on CRB's bench-sca...

  12. Computer and information networks.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, M; Aronofsky, J; McKenney, J L; Massy, W F

    1973-10-01

    The most basic conclusion coming out of the EDUCOM seminars is that computer networking must be acknowledged as an important new mode for obtaining information and computation (15). It is a real alternative that needs to be given serious attention in current planning and decision-making. Yet the fact is that many institutions are not taking account of networks when they confer on whether or how to replace their main computer. Articulation of the possibilities of computer networks goes back to the early 1960's and before, and working networks have been in evidence for several years now, both commercially and in universities. What is new, however, is the unmistakable recognition-bordering on a sense of the inevitable-that networks are finally practical and here to stay. The visionary and promotional phases of computer networks are over. It is time for hard-nosed comparative analysis (16). Another conclusion of the seminars has to do with the factors that hinder the fuller development of networking. The major problems to be overcome in applying networks to research and education are political, organizational, and economic in nature rather than technological. This is not to say that the hardware and software problems of linking computers and information systems are completely solved, but they are not the big bottlenecks at present. Research and educational institutions must find ways to organize themselves as well as their computers to work together for greater resource sharing. The coming of age of networks takes on special significance as a result of widespread dissatisfactions expressed with the present computing situation. There is a feeling that the current mode of autonomous, self-sufficient operation in the provision of computing and information services is frequently wasteful, deficient, and unresponsive to users' needs because of duplication of effort from one installation to another, incompatibilities, and inadequate documentation, program support, and user

  13. Computer and information networks.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, M; Aronofsky, J; McKenney, J L; Massy, W F

    1973-10-01

    The most basic conclusion coming out of the EDUCOM seminars is that computer networking must be acknowledged as an important new mode for obtaining information and computation (15). It is a real alternative that needs to be given serious attention in current planning and decision-making. Yet the fact is that many institutions are not taking account of networks when they confer on whether or how to replace their main computer. Articulation of the possibilities of computer networks goes back to the early 1960's and before, and working networks have been in evidence for several years now, both commercially and in universities. What is new, however, is the unmistakable recognition-bordering on a sense of the inevitable-that networks are finally practical and here to stay. The visionary and promotional phases of computer networks are over. It is time for hard-nosed comparative analysis (16). Another conclusion of the seminars has to do with the factors that hinder the fuller development of networking. The major problems to be overcome in applying networks to research and education are political, organizational, and economic in nature rather than technological. This is not to say that the hardware and software problems of linking computers and information systems are completely solved, but they are not the big bottlenecks at present. Research and educational institutions must find ways to organize themselves as well as their computers to work together for greater resource sharing. The coming of age of networks takes on special significance as a result of widespread dissatisfactions expressed with the present computing situation. There is a feeling that the current mode of autonomous, self-sufficient operation in the provision of computing and information services is frequently wasteful, deficient, and unresponsive to users' needs because of duplication of effort from one installation to another, incompatibilities, and inadequate documentation, program support, and user

  14. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, B.H. ); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. ); Hunnum, W.H. ); Smith, D.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  15. School District Uses Computer Aided Design and Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorentz, Gordon S.

    1988-01-01

    Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) programs are used to teach drafting at an Indiana high school. The school system's maintenance department shared use of the software and equipment to produce original drawings of school buildings. (MLF)

  16. Issues of a Computer-Aided Design of Hydraulic Jacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averchenkov, V. I.; Averchenkov, A. V.; Kolyakinand, V. V.; Orekhov, O. D.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the issues of a computer-aided design of hydraulic equipment, namely hydraulic jacks. Design principles of the hydraulic jack CAD system are described. In addition, the possibilities for the system improvement and expansion are considered.

  17. Computer Aided Lip Reading Training Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarmasik, Gamze; Dalkilic, Gokhan; Kut, Alp; Cebi, Yalcin; Serbetcioglu, Bulent

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide auditory-verbal education is becoming widespread for deaf children. But many prelingually, late-diagnosed deaf children and adults may utilize neither hearing aids nor cochlear implants and needed the support of lip-reading. Therefore, lip-reading skill remains to be important for oral education programmes of hearing impaired. The…

  18. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now.

  19. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now. PMID:27095912

  20. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now. PMID:27095912

  1. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology.

    PubMed

    Calamia, J R

    1994-01-01

    Although the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology and the benefits of increased productivity became obvious in the automobile and aerospace industries in the 1970s, investigations of this technology's application in the field of dentistry did not begin until the 1980s. Only now are we beginning to see the fruits of this work with the commercial availability of some systems; the potential for this technology seems boundless. This article reviews the recent literature with emphasis on the period from June 1992 to May 1993. This review should familiarize the reader with some of the latest developments in this technology, including a brief description of some systems currently available and the clinical and economical rationale for their acceptance into the dental mainstream. This article concentrates on a particular system, the Cerec (Siemens/Pelton and Crane, Charlotte, NC) system, for three reasons: first, this system has been available since 1985 and, as a result, has a track record of almost 7 years of data. Most of the data have just recently been released and consequently, much of this year's literature on CAD-CAM is monopolized by studies using this system. Second, this system was developed as a mobile, affordable, direct chairside CAD-CAM restorative method. As such, it is of special interest to the dentist who will offer this new technology directly to the patient, providing a one-visit restoration. Third, the author is currently engaged in research using this particular system and has a working knowledge of this system's capabilities.

  2. The digital hearing aid, wearable computing, and electrophysiological response.

    PubMed

    Doyle, T E; Kucerovsky, Z; Greason, W D

    2002-01-01

    Presbycusis is the most common form of hearing loss caused by aging and long-term exposure to sound energy. This type of ailment decreases the ear's ability to perceive high frequencies and localize sound, thus making comprehension more difficult. To compensate for this loss, the choice of a digital hearing aid has become more common. However, most digital hearing aids do little more that their analogue predecessor's by providing a single, fixed hearing response. Such a fixed response is not suitable for all of a user's auditory environments and typically causes a more rapid loss of hearing. Significant advancement in processing power and reduction in size of computing hardware has produced increasingly more powerful, more portable, and more personal computing devices. These advances have spurred research and development of wearable computing devices towards integrating both man and machine. By definition, the digital hearing aid is a wearable computing device. The development of a digital hearing aid with increased onboard processing that is aware of its owner's electrophysiological and auditory environments is an obvious progression. This awareness will give the hearing aid the ability to autonomously modify its own parameters to improve audibility and comprehension. Electrophysiological signals can be classified as naturally occurring or voluntarily controlled. Employing these signals will allow the hearing aid to adapt to its owner's external and internal stimuli. Research and initial experiments into the monitoring and use of electrophysiological response for the control of the digital hearing aid shall be presented.

  3. Computer Aided Instruction: A Study of Student Evaluations and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, David; Deck, Alan; McCrickard, Myra

    2008-01-01

    Computer aided instruction (CAI) encompasses a broad range of computer technologies that supplement the classroom learning environment and can dramatically increase a student's access to information. Criticism of CAI generally focuses on two issues: it lacks an adequate foundation in educational theory and the software is difficult to implement…

  4. From paper drawings to computer-aided design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karima, M.; Sadhal, K. S.; McNeil, T. O.

    1985-02-01

    The benefits of a fully integrated computer-aided design and drafting system (CADDS) database are today very well accepted by industry, and major engineering companies implementing CADDS are confronted with the gigantic task of entering the existing multidisciplinary engineering information into the CADDS database. The present investigation is concerned with the findings of a feasibility study which had been conducted by a Canadian company to explore data capture on engineering drawings. A review of the state of the art in digitization is presented, and attention is given to specific problems arising in the case of the Canadian company. It is found that substantial advancements have been made toward the automatic 'reading' of existing drawings on paper media. However, no system exists currently which fully automates the data capturing process in the engineering environment and generates intelligent databases for use by CADD systems. Suitable approaches for 'data capture' under the given conditions are discussed.

  5. Computer aided gene mining for gingerol biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    James, Priyanka; Baby, Bincy; Charles, SonaSona; Nair, Lekshmysree Saraschandran; Nazeem, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    Inspite of the large body of genomic data obtained from the transcriptome of Zingiber officinale, very few studies have focused on the identification and characterization of miRNAs in gingerol biosynthesis. Zingiber officinale transcriptome was analyzed using EST dataset (38169 total) deposited in public domains. In this paper computational functional annotation of the available ESTs and identification of genes which play a significant role in gingerol biosynthesis are described. Zingiber officinale transcriptome was analyzed using EST dataset (38169 total) from ncbi. ESTs were clustered and assembled, resulting in 8624 contigs and 8821 singletons. Assembled dataset was then submitted to the EST functional annotation workflow including blast, gene ontology (go) analysis, and pathway enrichment by kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (kegg) and interproscan. The unigene datasets were further exploited to identify simple sequence repeats that enable linkage mapping. A total of 409 simple sequence repeats were identified from the contigs. Furthermore we examined the existence of novel miRNAs from the ESTs in rhizome, root and leaf tissues. EST analysis revealed the presence of single hypothetical miRNA in rhizome tissue. The hypothetical miRNA is warranted to play an important role in controlling genes involved in gingerol biosynthesis and hence demands experimental validation. The assembly and associated information of transcriptome data provides a comprehensive functional and evolutionary characterization of genomics of Zingiber officinale. As an effort to make the genomic and transcriptomic data widely available to the public domain, the results were integrated into a web-based Ginger EST database which is freely accessible at http://www.kaubic.in/gingerest/. PMID:26229293

  6. The management of endodontically treated teeth using a Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Assisted Manufacturing/Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing system.

    PubMed

    Foerster, J G; von Gonten, A S; Robert, G H

    1999-01-01

    This article introduces a new approach for restoring endodontically treated posterior teeth. Significantly reduced natural tooth structure often remains not only because of previous restorative measures but also because of endodontic procedures. Cast restorations for these teeth are almost universally recommended. The exception to this is the rare instance in which only conservative endodontic access openings exist in teeth presenting with no former existing restorations. Typically, multiple clinical appointments are required to complete the final cast restoration. This article presents Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Assisted Manufacturing/Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing applications for restorative dentistry that provide the necessary care in an expeditious manner.

  7. Interactive graphical computer-aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    System is used for design, layout, and modification of large-scale-integrated (LSI) metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) arrays. System is structured around small computer which provides real-time support for graphics storage display unit with keyboard, slave display unit, hard copy unit, and graphics tablet for designer/computer interface.

  8. Computer-Aided Instruction in Automated Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, David T.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses functions of automated instrumentation systems, i.e., systems which combine electrical measuring instruments and a controlling computer to measure responses of a unit under test. The computer-assisted tutorial then described is programmed for use on such a system--a modern microwave spectrum analyzer--to introduce engineering students to…

  9. Cheap computer aids for medical photography departments.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, R A

    1989-01-01

    Most departments now use computers to assist in administration. Choice of hardware and software is very much dependent upon the complexity of the tasks and also on the amount of money available to purchase such equipment. This paper gives an insight into how a low cost computer system is successfully introduced into a department and is proving good value for money.

  10. Computer Aided Instruction in Teaching Thematic Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Paul R.

    A newly developed instructional system for introductory college geography links the computer with the geographer's most traditional and essential tool--the thematic map. The use of the computer overcomes the logistical and mechanical problems associated with the teaching of thematic mapping to large groups and helps the students to focus upon the…

  11. A Computer Aided Implementation of Precision Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Dave

    A computer implementation of precision teaching for severely mentally handicapped students is described. Computer technology reduces staff time during a typical precision teaching routine: design of suitable teaching programs, a series of timed short drills using these programs, conversion of results into numeric quantities, and design of improved…

  12. Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction: A Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Novak, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Presents an evaluation of a computer-aided personalized system of instruction program in two undergraduate psychology courses. The computer presented short essay tests and arranged for students who had completed various assignments satisfactorily to help evaluate other students' mastery of those assignments. Student response generally was…

  13. WINCADRE INORGANIC (WINDOWS COMPUTER-AIDED DATA REVIEW AND EVALUATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    WinCADRE (Computer-Aided Data Review and Evaluation) is a Windows -based program designed for computer-assisted data validation. WinCADRE is a powerful tool which significantly decreases data validation turnaround time. The electronic-data-deliverable format has been designed in...

  14. WINCADRE (COMPUTER-AIDED DATA REVIEW AND EVALUATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    WinCADRE (Computer-Aided Data Review and Evaluation) is a Windows -based program designed for computer-assisted data validation. WinCADRE is a powerful tool which significantly decreases data validation turnaround time. The electronic-data-deliverable format has been designed ...

  15. Helping Alleviate Statistical Anxiety with Computer Aided Statistical Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickels, John W.; Dobbs, Rhonda R.

    2007-01-01

    This study, Helping Alleviate Statistical Anxiety with Computer Aided Statistics Classes, investigated whether undergraduate students' anxiety about statistics changed when statistics is taught using computers compared to the traditional method. Two groups of students were questioned concerning their anxiety about statistics. One group was taught…

  16. Computer-aided design of GPCR ligands.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo; Keränen, Henrik; Azuaje, Jhonny; Rodríguez, David; Åqvist, Johan; Sotelo, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    The recent availability of several GPCR crystal structures now contributes decisively to the perspective of structure-based ligand design. In this context, computational approaches are extremely helpful, particularly if properly integrated in drug design projects with cooperation between computational and medicinal chemistry teams. Here, we present the pipelines used in one such project, devoted to the design of novel potent and selective antagonists for the different adenosine receptors. The details of the computational strategies are described, and particular attention is given to explain how these procedures can effectively guide the synthesis of novel chemical entities.

  17. Data Management Standards in Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistic Support (CALS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferson, David K.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on data management standards in computer-aided acquisition and logistic support (CALS) are presented. CALS is intended to reduce cost, increase quality, and improve timeliness of weapon system acquisition and support by greatly improving the flow of technical information. The phase 2 standards, industrial environment, are discussed. The information resource dictionary system (IRDS) is described.

  18. Computer-Aided Collaborative Music Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, James A.

    1991-01-01

    At the New England Conservatory of Music, computer-assisted instruction is used not only to teach harmony through collaborative learning and aural feedback, but also to bring the roles of composer, performer, and audience closer together. (SK)

  19. Are informal caregivers important in AIDS care?

    PubMed

    Decarlo, P; Folkman, S

    1997-01-01

    Informal caregivers of people with AIDS provide practical help and nursing care at home. They are often the lovers, spouses, friends, or family of someone with AIDS and are not professional care providers. They provide essential care, saving society considerable expense. Caregivers provide practical support such as shopping, housekeeping, and transportation to clinics, as well as basic assistance such as help with bathing, going to the bathroom, and feeding. As symptoms worsen, caregivers are also likely to adopt the more clinical roles of keeping track of medications, giving injections, inserting catheters, and cleaning wounds. Caregivers also often assess medical and mental conditions, being the first to notice changes in health and to decide when to seek help. Caregivers, however, can suffer considerable care-related stress, leading to numbness, compassion fatigue, or burnout. Caregivers may also fear social rejection, loss of job and/or housing and may therefore hide their caregiving status from family, friends, and co-workers. For women with HIV, being responsible for children at home may make it difficult or impossible to obtain caregiving support for themselves. Helping caregivers benefits both the caregiver and the patient. Professional clinicians can include the caregiver in the triad of care comprised of the doctor, caregiver, and patient. Participating in support groups can also help caregivers.

  20. Teleradiology network system and computer-aided diagnosis workstation using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2011-03-01

    We have developed the teleradiology network system with a new information security solution that provided with web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. We are studying the secret sharing scheme as a method safely to store or to transmit the confidential medical information used with the teleradiology network system. The confidential medical information is exposed to the risk of the damage and intercept. Secret sharing scheme is a method of dividing the confidential medical information into two or more tallies. Individual medical information cannot be decoded by using one tally at all. Our method has the function of RAID. With RAID technology, if there is a failure in a single tally, there is redundant data already copied to other tally. Confidential information is preserved at an individual Data Center connected through internet because individual medical information cannot be decoded by using one tally at all. Therefore, even if one of the Data Centers is struck and information is damaged, the confidential medical information can be decoded by using the tallies preserved at the data center to which it escapes damage. We can safely share the screen of workstation to which the medical image of Data Center is displayed from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. Moreover, Real time biometric face authentication system is connected with Data Center. Real time biometric face authentication system analyzes the feature of the face image of which it takes a picture in 20 seconds with the camera and defends the safety of the medical information. We propose a new information transmission method and a new information storage method with a new information security solution.

  1. Computer-aided software development process design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe an intelligent tool designed to aid managers of software development projects in planning, managing, and controlling the development process of medium- to large-scale software projects. Its purpose is to reduce uncertainties in the budget, personnel, and schedule planning of software development projects. It is based on dynamic model for the software development and maintenance life-cycle process. This dynamic process is composed of a number of time-varying, interacting developmental phases, each characterized by its intended functions and requirements. System dynamics is used as a modeling methodology. The resulting Software LIfe-Cycle Simulator (SLICS) and the hybrid expert simulation system of which it is a subsystem are described.

  2. HIV/AIDS Community Health Information System.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Christopher L; Kaukinen, Catherine E

    2003-01-01

    Given changes in the faces of AIDS over the last decade, it is crucial that disparities in health and access to healthcare are addressed. An Internet-based GIS was developed using ESRI's Arc Internet Map Server (Arc IMS) to provide users with a suite of tools to interact with geographic data and conduct spatial analyses related to the characteristics that promote or impede the provision of HIV-related services. Internet Mapping allows those engaged in local decision-making to: (1) geographically visualize information via the Internet; (2) Assess the relationship between the distribution of HIV services and spatially referenced socio-economic data; and (3) generate "what if" scenarios" that may direct the allocation of healthcare resources. PMID:14728567

  3. Computer-aided engineering of energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gaggioli, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents that papers given at a conference on computer calculations of the thermodynamics of energy systems. Topics considered at the conference included exergy saving, thermoeconomic cost, heat exchanger networks, integrated coal gasification-combined cycle power plants, computer graphics, second law analysis of diesel engines, cogenerating gas turbine plants, exergy analysis of heat transfer, water absorption heat pumps, the thermodynamics of wood combustion, second law efficiency and costing analysis of a combined power and desalination plant, and pressure-driven temperature separation in liquids.

  4. The Rationale for Computer-Aided Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Robert Charles

    1983-01-01

    Some theoretical considerations for increased use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in legal education are compared with other teaching methods, empirical evidence of the method's effectiveness is discussed, and some of the activities involving CAI at Harvard Law School are outlined. (MSE)

  5. Computer Aided Instruction in Teaching Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowell, David A.; Binette, Holly A. Lizotte

    This paper reports the results of two semesters of experience using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to teach topics in program evaluation to undergraduate and graduate psychology students at California State University, Long Beach. (The topics addressed are models of evaluation, evaluability assessment, needs assessment, experimental and…

  6. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Programming: AID.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Jamesine; Atkinson, R. C.

    A computer-assisted course on programing, consisting of a set of 50 lessons, was developed for and is now being used by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) personnel. The course is intended for students at about the junior college level with no experience in mathematics beyond high school algebra and with no previous introduction…

  7. Computer aided design of spur gear teeth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. L.; Mavriplis, D.; Oswald, F. B.

    1989-01-01

    Procedures for computer-modeling of spur gear tooth fabrication are given. It is shown that the standard involute tooth form results from a cutter with an involute shape rolling onto a gear blank. Specifically, the envelope of an involute is an involute. Examples are given and applications are discussed.

  8. Computer aided design study of hypermixing nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mefferd, L. A.; Bevilacqua, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a nozzle which combines the hypermixing and lobe mechanisms to achieve further increases in jet entrainment and ejector performance is investigated. A computer program which incorporates a two equation turbulence model and is used to predict and compare the evolution of jets from various nozzle designs is discussed. Increasing the length of the nozzle lobes and an alternating lobe nozzle are a methods examined for increasing the entrainment rate.

  9. Software Aids Visualization of Computed Unsteady Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Kenwright, David

    2003-01-01

    Unsteady Flow Analysis Toolkit (UFAT) is a computer program that synthesizes motions of time-dependent flows represented by very large sets of data generated in computational fluid dynamics simulations. Prior to the development of UFAT, it was necessary to rely on static, single-snapshot depictions of time-dependent flows generated by flow-visualization software designed for steady flows. Whereas it typically takes weeks to analyze the results of a largescale unsteady-flow simulation by use of steady-flow visualization software, the analysis time is reduced to hours when UFAT is used. UFAT can be used to generate graphical objects of flow visualization results using multi-block curvilinear grids in the format of a previously developed NASA data-visualization program, PLOT3D. These graphical objects can be rendered using FAST, another popular flow visualization software developed at NASA. Flow-visualization techniques that can be exploited by use of UFAT include time-dependent tracking of particles, detection of vortex cores, extractions of stream ribbons and surfaces, and tetrahedral decomposition for optimal particle tracking. Unique computational features of UFAT include capabilities for automatic (batch) processing, restart, memory mapping, and parallel processing. These capabilities significantly reduce analysis time and storage requirements, relative to those of prior flow-visualization software. UFAT can be executed on a variety of supercomputers.

  10. Mathematical modelling in the computer-aided process planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitin, S.; Bochkarev, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents new approaches to organization of manufacturing preparation and mathematical models related to development of the computer-aided multi product process planning (CAMPP) system. CAMPP system has some peculiarities compared to the existing computer-aided process planning (CAPP) systems: fully formalized developing of the machining operations; a capacity to create and to formalize the interrelationships among design, process planning and process implementation; procedures for consideration of the real manufacturing conditions. The paper describes the structure of the CAMPP system and shows the mathematical models and methods to formalize the design procedures.

  11. Computer aided lung cancer diagnosis with deep learning algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenqing; Zheng, Bin; Qian, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Deep learning is considered as a popular and powerful method in pattern recognition and classification. However, there are not many deep structured applications used in medical imaging diagnosis area, because large dataset is not always available for medical images. In this study we tested the feasibility of using deep learning algorithms for lung cancer diagnosis with the cases from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) database. The nodules on each computed tomography (CT) slice were segmented according to marks provided by the radiologists. After down sampling and rotating we acquired 174412 samples with 52 by 52 pixel each and the corresponding truth files. Three deep learning algorithms were designed and implemented, including Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Deep Belief Networks (DBNs), Stacked Denoising Autoencoder (SDAE). To compare the performance of deep learning algorithms with traditional computer aided diagnosis (CADx) system, we designed a scheme with 28 image features and support vector machine. The accuracies of CNN, DBNs, and SDAE are 0.7976, 0.8119, and 0.7929, respectively; the accuracy of our designed traditional CADx is 0.7940, which is slightly lower than CNN and DBNs. We also noticed that the mislabeled nodules using DBNs are 4% larger than using traditional CADx, this might be resulting from down sampling process lost some size information of the nodules.

  12. Computer-Aided Engineering Of Cabling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    Program generates data sheets, drawings, and other information on electrical connections. DFACS program, centered around single data base, has built-in menus providing easy input of, and access to, data for all personnel involved in system, subsystem, and cabling. Enables parallel design of circuit-data sheets and drawings of harnesses. Also recombines raw information to generate automatically various project documents and drawings, including index of circuit-data sheets, list of electrical-interface circuits, lists of assemblies and equipment, cabling trees, and drawings of cabling electrical interfaces and harnesses. Purpose of program to provide engineering community with centralized data base for putting in, and gaining access to, functional definition of system as specified in terms of details of pin connections of end circuits of subsystems and instruments and data on harnessing. Primary objective to provide instantaneous single point of interchange of information, thus avoiding

  13. Computer Aids For Scientists And Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Maine, P. A. D.; de Maine, M. M.

    1989-03-01

    A General Expert Systems Package for Science and Engineering that is now being deve-loped consists of two Automatic Deductive, two Learning and eight Service Systems, each of which is an Expert System that can function independently. Operational prototypes exist for nine of the twelve systems. The Service Expert Systems perform operations that are common to many problems In science and engineering, such as high-speed information management, data compression, transporting high-level language code to different machine environments, curve-fitting and data description. The high-speed information management system, SOLID, which uses minimal storage, is both data (or information) and logically independent. SOLID executes all operations (retrieve, store, delete and update) at very high-speeds in bounded time. The data compression system, INTEGRAL, compresses and decompresses bit-strings at rates often in excess of 8 MBaud without loss of even a single significant binary-bit, to yield savings as high as 99.98%.

  14. Memory interface simulator: A computer design aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, D. S.; Williams, T.; Weatherbee, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of a study conducted with a digital simulation model being used in the design of the Automatically Reconfigurable Modular Multiprocessor System (ARMMS), a candidate computer system for future manned and unmanned space missions. The model simulates the activity involved as instructions are fetched from random access memory for execution in one of the system central processing units. A series of model runs measured instruction execution time under various assumptions pertaining to the CPU's and the interface between the CPU's and RAM. Design tradeoffs are presented in the following areas: Bus widths, CPU microprogram read only memory cycle time, multiple instruction fetch, and instruction mix.

  15. Computer-aided forensics: facial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Turner, Wesley; Tu, Peter; Kelliher, Timothy; Brown, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    The 3D reconstruction of facial features from skeletal remains is a key component to the identification of missing persons and victims of violent crime. A comprehensive Computed Tomography (CT) head-scan database is currently being collected which will enable a new approach to forensic facial reconstruction. Using this unique resource, we show how a face space can be tailored to a specific unknown, or questioned skull. A set of database derived estimates of the questioned face is constructed by first computing non-rigid transformations between the known head-scan skulls and the questioned skull followed by application of these transformations to the known head-scan faces. This effectively factors out influences due to skeletal variation. A tailored face space is formed by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to this ensemble of estimates of the questioned face. Thus, the face space is a direct approximation of correlated soft tissue variance indicative of the population. Ours is the first mathematical representation of the face continuum associated with a given skull. Embedded in this space resides the elements needed for recognition.

  16. Single photon emission computed tomography in AIDS dementia complex

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, P.; Vogl, G.; Fill, H.; Roessler, H.Z.; Zangerle, R.; Gerstenbrand, F.

    1988-08-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies were performed in AIDS dementia complex using IMP in 12 patients (and HM-PAO in four of these same patients). In all patients, SPECT revealed either multiple or focal uptake defects, the latter corresponding with focal signs or symptoms in all but one case. Computerized tomography showed a diffuse cerebral atrophy in eight of 12 patients, magnetic resonance imaging exhibited changes like atrophy and/or leukoencephalopathy in two of five cases. Our data indicate that both disturbance of cerebral amine metabolism and alteration of local perfusion share in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex. SPECT is an important aid in the diagnosis of AIDS dementia complex and contributes to the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder.

  17. Computer aided designing of microwave frequency discriminator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarek, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    Microwave frequency discriminator (MFD) is a device, which is used to generate signal carrying information about frequency of input signal. Depending on type of subassemblies, which were used in examined MFD, its parameters will change. Developed simulator BP-PK-V2.0 is able to measure frequency of virtual or obtained from measurement by other microwave devices signals. Its most important feature is, that the program enables its user to test parameters of discriminator created from certain subassemblies without manufacturing physical device and, when the results are not satisfactory, remodeling its structure with one or more elements. Tests will end when expected performance is achieved and only then should simulated MFD be implemented in PCB. Two types of visualization, in which described simulator is equipped with, enable to determine properties of two methods of estimating measured value: continuous method (with high resolution) and discrete method, in which information precision is limited to subrange with finite width.

  18. Toward a standard reference database for computer-aided mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Júlia E. E.; Gueld, Mark O.; de A. Araújo, Arnaldo; Ott, Bastian; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2008-03-01

    Because of the lack of mammography databases with a large amount of codified images and identified characteristics like pathology, type of breast tissue, and abnormality, there is a problem for the development of robust systems for computer-aided diagnosis. Integrated to the Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA) project, we present an available mammography database developed from the union of: The Mammographic Image Analysis Society Digital Mammogram Database (MIAS), The Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and routine images from the Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen. Using the IRMA code, standardized coding of tissue type, tumor staging, and lesion description was developed according to the American College of Radiology (ACR) tissue codes and the ACR breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS). The import was done automatically using scripts for image download, file format conversion, file name, web page and information file browsing. Disregarding the resolution, this resulted in a total of 10,509 reference images, and 6,767 images are associated with an IRMA contour information feature file. In accordance to the respective license agreements, the database will be made freely available for research purposes, and may be used for image based evaluation campaigns such as the Cross Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF). We have also shown that it can be extended easily with further cases imported from a picture archiving and communication system (PACS).

  19. [OCAS (Optic and computer aided surgery)].

    PubMed

    Rheims, D M; Pflug, L

    1994-12-01

    OCAS is a new, original tool for the diagnosis of dismorphies, both in its conception (digitalisation of a moiré pattern on the body) and in its applications (predominantly surgical, for legal medicine and didactic purposes). By means of this new 3D method of measurement by digitalised moiré, the forms of the body in general, and those of the face in particular, can be studied and quantified with a high degree of accuracy. This precision in the geometrical analysis of its forms is achieved by combining the very latest developments in optics and computer technology. The authors present the current state of their research in the 3D synthesis and manipulation of the human image. PMID:7661561

  20. Luminance in computer-aided lighting design

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.J.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Grynberg, A.

    1987-08-01

    Traditionally, the lighting engineering community has emphasized illuminance, the amount of light reaching a surface, as the primary design goal. The Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) provides tables of illuminances for different types of tasks which lighting engineers consult in designing lighting systems. Illuminance has proven to be a popular metric because it corresponds closely to the amount of energy needed to light a building as well as the initial cost of the lighting system. Perhaps more importantly, illuminance is easy to calculate, especially in simple unobstructed spaces with direct lighting. However,illuminance is not well correlated with visual performance, which is the real reason for installing a lighting system in the first place. Visual performance is a psychophysiological quantity that has been tied to physical quantities such as contrast, size and adaptation level by subject experiments. These physical quantities can be approximated from illuminance using a host of assumptions about the environment, or derived directly from the distribution of luminance. Luminance is the quantity of light traveling through a point in a certain direction, and it is this quantity that the eye actually sees''. However, the difficulty of calculating luminance for common tasks has made it an unpopular metric. Despite its importance to lighting design, luminance is rarely used because there is a lack of the necessary computational tools.In this paper, we will demonstrate a computer calculation of luminance that has significant advantages for lighting design. As well as providing an immediate evaluation of visual quality for task performance, less quantifiable factors such as aesthetics can be studied in synthetic images produced by the program.

  1. Luminance in computer-aided lighting design

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.J.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Grynberg, A.

    1987-08-01

    Traditionally, the lighting engineering community has emphasized illuminance, the amount of light reaching a surface, as the primary design goal. The Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) provides tables of illuminances for different types of tasks which lighting engineers consult in designing lighting systems. Illuminance has proven to be a popular metric because it corresponds closely to the amount of energy needed to light a building as well as the initial cost of the lighting system. Perhaps more importantly, illuminance is easy to calculate, especially in simple unobstructed spaces with direct lighting. However,illuminance is not well correlated with visual performance, which is the real reason for installing a lighting system in the first place. Visual performance is a psychophysiological quantity that has been tied to physical quantities such as contrast, size and adaptation level by subject experiments. These physical quantities can be approximated from illuminance using a host of assumptions about the environment, or derived directly from the distribution of luminance. Luminance is the quantity of light traveling through a point in a certain direction, and it is this quantity that the eye actually ``sees``. However, the difficulty of calculating luminance for common tasks has made it an unpopular metric. Despite its importance to lighting design, luminance is rarely used because there is a lack of the necessary computational tools.In this paper, we will demonstrate a computer calculation of luminance that has significant advantages for lighting design. As well as providing an immediate evaluation of visual quality for task performance, less quantifiable factors such as aesthetics can be studied in synthetic images produced by the program.

  2. Improving radiation survey data using CADD/CAE (computer-aided design and drafting computer-aided engineering)

    SciTech Connect

    Palau, G.L.; Tarpinian, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    A new application of computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) cleanup is improving the quality of radiation survey data taken in the plant. The use of CADD/CAE-generated survey maps has increased both the accuracy of survey data and the capability to perform analyses with these data. In addition, health physics technician manhours and radiation exposure can be reduced in situations where the CADD/CAE-generated drawings are used for survey mapping.

  3. A critically appraised topic review of computer-aided design/computer-aided machining of removable partial denture frameworks.

    PubMed

    Lang, Lisa A; Tulunoglu, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    A critically appraised topic (CAT) review is presented about the use of computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided machining (CAM) removable partial denture (RPD) frameworks. A systematic search of the literature supporting CAD/CAM RPD systems revealed no randomized clinical trials, hence the CAT review was performed. A PubMed search yielded 9 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Each article was characterized by study design and level of evidence. No clinical outcomes research has been published on the use of CAD/CAM RPDs. Low levels of evidence were found in the available literature. Clinical research studies are needed to determine the efficacy of this treatment modality.

  4. Computer-aided design of flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Sircar, Subrata

    1991-01-01

    A computer program is presented for facilitating the development and assessment of flight control systems, and application to a control design is discussed. The program is a computer-aided control-system design program based on direct digital synthesis of a proportional-integral-filter controller with scheduled linear-quadratic-Gaussian gains and command generator tracking of pilot inputs. The FlightCAD system concentrates on aircraft dynamics, flight-control systems, stability and performance, and has practical engineering applications.

  5. Brain, a Computer Program to Aid Creative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Tony

    1991-01-01

    This article describes 2 experiments conducted with a computer-aided problem-solving tool called BRAIN, involving 30 adults of varying backgrounds and 15 organizational executives. The BRAIN program encourages users to discover partially and fully formulated insights, through iterative generation of word lists and meaningful statements. Eighty…

  6. Computer Assisted Financial Aid Disbursement and Loan Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry K.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the computer assisted system in use at Washington State University. It controls and reports funds requested by students, offered to students, and disbursed to students, writes financial aid checks, prepares fiscal year-end statements and performs loan collection processes according to federal government regulations, and provides internal…

  7. Preparing Students for Computer Aided Drafting (CAD). A Conceptual Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, A. R.; Duelm, Brian

    This presentation outlines guidelines for developing and implementing an introductory course in computer-aided drafting (CAD) that is geared toward secondary-level students. The first section of the paper, which deals with content identification and selection, includes lists of mechanical drawing and CAD competencies and a list of rationales for…

  8. PROGRAMMING EXERCISES FOR COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Junior Coll., FL.

    REFERENCE MATERIAL AND PROGRAMING EXERCISES USED FOR THE COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING SUMMER INSTITUTE AT MIAMI-DADE JUNIOR COLLEGE, JULY 10-28, 1967, ARE PRESENTED. THE EXERCISES, TO BE PROGRAMED FOR EXECUTION ON THE IBM SYSTEM 1620 WITH AN ON-LINE 1627 PLOTTER, PROVIDE A MEDIUM FOR COVERING AND ENFORCING THE SUBJECT MATERIAL. ALSO INCLUDED ARE (1)…

  9. Computer-Aided Drafting. Education for Technology Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb. Dept. of Technology.

    This computer-aided drafting (CAD) curriculum was developed to provide drafting instructors in Illinois with a useful guide for relating an important new technological advance to the vocational classroom. The competency-based learning activity guides are written to be used with any CAD system being used at the secondary and postsecondary levels.…

  10. A Model for Intelligent Computer-Aided Education Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Johan P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a model for intelligent computer-aided education systems that is based on cooperative learning, constructive problem-solving, object-oriented programming, interactive user interfaces, and expert system techniques. Future research is discussed, and a prototype for teaching mathematics to 10- to 12-year-old students is appended. (LRW)

  11. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  12. Computer Simulation as an Aid to Managers of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Harold; Butler, Patrick J.

    Research investigated computer simulations of a hypothetical self-paced training program to determine the utility of this technique as a planning aid for Army training program managers. The General Purpose Simulation System (GPSS) was selected as the programing language and the study was divided into three stages. In Stage I, the daily number of…

  13. Caesy: A software tool for computer-aided engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matt

    1993-01-01

    A new software tool, Caesy, is described. This tool provides a strongly typed programming environment for research in the development of algorithms and software for computer-aided control system design. A description of the user language and its implementation as they currently stand are presented along with a description of work in progress and areas of future work.

  14. Toward Computer-Aided Affective Learning Systems: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moridis, C. N.; Economides, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to provide an overview of the various components of "computer aided affective learning systems." The research is classified into 3 main scientific areas that are integral parts of the development of these kinds of systems. The three main scientific areas are: i) emotions and their connection to learning; ii) affect…

  15. eWorkbook: A Computer Aided Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costagliola, Gennaro; Ferrucci, Filomena; Fuccella, Vittorio; Oliveto, Rocco

    2007-01-01

    Computer aided assessment (CAA) tools are more and more widely adopted in academic environments mixed to other assessment means. In this article, we present a CAA Web application, named eWorkbook, which can be used for evaluating learner's knowledge by creating (the tutor) and taking (the learner) on-line tests based on multiple choice, multiple…

  16. Computer Aided Evaluation of Higher Education Tutors' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xenos, Michalis; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a method for computer-aided tutor evaluation: Bayesian Networks are used for organizing the collected data about tutors and for enabling accurate estimations and predictions about future tutor behavior. The model provides indications about each tutor's strengths and weaknesses, which enables the evaluator to exploit strengths…

  17. Does Computer-Aided Formative Assessment Improve Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannah, John; James, Alex; Williams, Phillipa

    2014-01-01

    Two first-year engineering mathematics courses used computer-aided assessment (CAA) to provide students with opportunities for formative assessment via a series of weekly quizzes. Most students used the assessment until they achieved very high (>90%) quiz scores. Although there is a positive correlation between these quiz marks and the final…

  18. Evaluation and Assessment of a Biomechanics Computer-Aided Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, N.; Parnianpour, M.; Fraser, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Biomechanics Tutorial, a computer-aided instructional tool that was developed at Ohio State University to expedite the transition from lecture to application for undergraduate students. Reports evaluation results that used statistical analyses and student questionnaires to show improved performance on posttests as well as positive…

  19. How Effective Is Feedback in Computer-Aided Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Mundeep; Greenhow, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Computer-Aided Assessments (CAAs) have been used increasingly at Brunel University for over 10 years to test students' mathematical abilities. Recently, we have focussed on providing very rich feedback to the students; given the work involved in designing and coding such feedback, it is important to study the impact of the interaction between…

  20. Critiquing the Computer-Aided Design of Dental Prostheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, F. J.; And Others

    This paper describes RaPiD, a computer-aided assistant for the design of dental prostheses called removable partial dentures. The user manipulates icons directly to indicate the desired design solution to a given clinical situation. A developing design is represented as a logic database of components in a design; expert rules are applied as…

  1. The Use of Computers to Aid Instruction in Beginning Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandey, Robert C.

    1971-01-01

    Describes computer-aided lessons for determining chemical formulas from composition by weight, quantities from chemical equations, and balancing equations for oxidation-reduction reactions. Lessons were developed and used on the PLATO system at the University of Illinois. A brief analysis of student attitudes and of effectiveness of the programs…

  2. Computer-aided petrographic analysis of sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, P.A.; Helmold, K.P.

    1987-05-01

    Thin-section point counting, mathematical and statistical analysis of petrographic-petrophysical data, report generation, and graphical presentation of results can be done efficiently by computer. Compositional and textural data are collected with a modified Schares point-counting system. The system uses an MS-DOS microcomputer programmed in BASIC to drive a motorized stage attached to a polarizing microscope. Numeric codes for up to 500 different categories of minerals, cements, pores, etc, are input using a separate keypad. Calculation and printing of constituent percentages, QFR, Folk name, and grain-size distribution are completed in seconds after data entry. Raw data files, compatible with software such as Lotus 1-2-3, SPSS, and SAS, are stored on floppy disk. Petrographic data files are transferred directly to a mainframe, merged with log and petrophysical data, analyzed statistically with SAS, and reports generated. SAS/GRAPH and TELL-A-GRAF routines linked with SAS generate a variety of cross plots, histograms, pie and bar charts, ternary diagrams, and vertical variation diagrams (e.g., depth vs. porosity, permeability, mean size, sorting, and percent grains-matrix-cement).

  3. Computer-aided detection system for clustered microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis using joint information from volumetric and planar projection images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samala, Ravi K.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A.

    2015-11-01

    We propose a novel approach for the detection of microcalcification clusters (MCs) using joint information from digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) volume and planar projection (PPJ) image. A data set of 307 DBT views was collected with IRB approval using a prototype DBT system. The system acquires 21 projection views (PVs) from a wide tomographic angle of 60° (60°-21PV) at about twice the dose of a digital mammography (DM) system, which allows us the flexibility of simulating other DBT acquisition geometries using a subset of the PVs. In this study, we simulated a 30° DBT geometry using the central 11 PVs (30°-11PV). The narrower tomographic angle is closer to DBT geometries commercially available or under development and the dose is matched approximately to that of a DM. We developed a new joint-CAD system for detection of clustered microcalcifications. The DBT volume was reconstructed with a multiscale bilateral filtering regularized method and a PPJ image was generated from the reconstructed volume. Task-specific detection strategies were designed to combine information from the DBT volume and the PPJ image. The data set was divided into a training set (127 views with MCs) and an independent test set (104 views with MCs and 76 views without MCs). The joint-CAD system outperformed the individual CAD systems for DBT volume or PPJ image alone; the differences in the test performances were statistically significant (p  <  0.05) using JAFROC analysis.

  4. Computer-aided detection system for clustered microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis using joint information from volumetric and planar projection images.

    PubMed

    Samala, Ravi K; Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    We propose a novel approach for the detection of microcalcification clusters (MCs) using joint information from digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) volume and planar projection (PPJ) image. A data set of 307 DBT views was collected with IRB approval using a prototype DBT system. The system acquires 21 projection views (PVs) from a wide tomographic angle of 60° (60°-21PV) at about twice the dose of a digital mammography (DM) system, which allows us the flexibility of simulating other DBT acquisition geometries using a subset of the PVs. In this study, we simulated a 30° DBT geometry using the central 11 PVs (30°-11PV). The narrower tomographic angle is closer to DBT geometries commercially available or under development and the dose is matched approximately to that of a DM. We developed a new joint-CAD system for detection of clustered microcalcifications. The DBT volume was reconstructed with a multiscale bilateral filtering regularized method and a PPJ image was generated from the reconstructed volume. Task-specific detection strategies were designed to combine information from the DBT volume and the PPJ image. The data set was divided into a training set (127 views with MCs) and an independent test set (104 views with MCs and 76 views without MCs). The joint-CAD system outperformed the individual CAD systems for DBT volume or PPJ image alone; the differences in the test performances were statistically significant (p  <  0.05) using JAFROC analysis. PMID:26464355

  5. HIV-AIDS Information Resources from the NLM - ACIO

    SciTech Connect

    Templin-Branner, W.

    2010-10-01

    As the treatment and management of HIV/AIDS continues to evolve with new scientific breakthroughs, treatment discoveries, and management challenges, it is difficult for people living with HIV/AIDS and those who care for them to keep up with the latest information on HIV/AIDS screening and testing, prevention, treatment, and research. The National Library of Medicine (NLM), of the National Institutes of Health, has a wealth of health information resources freely available on the Internet to address these needs.

  6. AIDS Internet: treatment information online. Introduction to a series.

    PubMed

    Tobias, T; James, J S

    1997-05-16

    The World Wide Web now carries current AIDS treatment information, but due to the glut of information, the quality and credibility of information vary greatly. AIDS Treatment News is organizing a series of articles covering various areas of AIDS information that readers might seek on the World Wide Web, or elsewhere on the Internet, focusing on one or more major sites and listing others. AEGIS is considered the most comprehensive single Web site for AIDS news and general information. It maintains news reports, both current and archival, and provides current and back issues of community newsletters, fact sheets, and government documents and databases. It also has a clean user interface that is reported to be fast and flexible. Other sites include ACT UP/Golden Gate, American Medical Association, Critical Path AIDS Project, New York Academy of Medicine, and Project Inform. The Web site addresses are listed.

  7. PCACE- PERSONAL COMPUTER AIDED CABLING ENGINEERING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    A computerized interactive harness engineering program has been developed to provide an inexpensive, interactive system which is designed for learning and using an engineering approach to interconnection systems. PCACE is basically a database system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records. This directly emulates the typical manual engineering methods of data handling, thus making the user interface to the program very natural. Data files can be created, viewed, manipulated, or printed in real time. The printed ouput is in a form ready for use by fabrication and engineering personnel. PCACE also contains a wide variety of error-checking routines including connector contact checks during hardcopy generation. The user may edit existing harness data files or create new files. In creating a new file, the user is given the opportunity to insert all the connector and harness boiler plate data which would be part of a normal connector wiring diagram. This data includes the following: 1) connector reference designator, 2) connector part number, 3) backshell part number, 4) cable reference designator, 5) cable part number, 6) drawing revision, 7) relevant notes, 8) standard wire gauge, and 9) maximum circuit count. Any item except the maximum circuit count may be left blank, and any item may be changed at a later time. Once a file is created and organized, the user is directed to the main menu and has access to the file boiler plate, the circuit wiring records, and the wiring records index list. The organization of a file is such that record zero contains the connector/cable boiler plate, and all other records contain circuit wiring data. Each wiring record will handle a circuit with as many as nine wires in the interface. The record stores the circuit name and wire count and the following data for each wire: 1) wire identifier, 2) contact, 3) splice, 4) wire gauge if different from standard

  8. Computer-Simulated Psychotherapy as an Aid in Teaching Clinical Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suler, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes how Elisa, a widely known computer program which simulates the responses of a psychotherapist, can be used as a teaching aid in undergraduate clinical psychology classes. Provides information on conducting the exercise, integrating it into the course syllabus, and evaluating its impact on students. (JDH)

  9. What's Age Got to Do with It? Teaching Older Students in Computer-Aided Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Angela

    2000-01-01

    Suggests teachers helping older students in computer-aided classrooms should (1) expect these students to perform more slowly and to make more errors; (2) avoid comparisons that cause confusion due to students' prior knowledge; (3) be aware of the danger of overload from information clutter; and (4) sequence assignments based on scaffolding…

  10. Minnesota Computer Aided Library System (MCALS); University of Minnesota Subsystem Cost/Benefits Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourey, Eugene D., Comp.

    The Minnesota Computer Aided Library System (MCALS) provides a basis of unification for library service program development in Minnesota for eventual linkage to the national information network. A prototype plan for communications functions is illustrated. A cost/benefits analysis was made to show the cost/effectiveness potential for MCALS. System…

  11. Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Aided Speech-to-Print Transcription System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Technical Inst. for the Deaf, Rochester, NY.

    This final report describes the development and evaluation of C-Print, a system for transcription of computer-aided speech to print. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the 3-year federally supported project. Chapter 2 provides background information on current speech-to-print systems. Chapter 3 focuses on needed improvements in C-Print, especially…

  12. Intelligent Computer-Aided Instruction Research at the Open University. CITE Report No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsom-Cook, Mark

    This document introduces the aims and activities of the Intelligent Computer Aided Instruction (ICAI) research community situated within the Centre for Information Technology in Education (CITE) at the Open University in Great Britain, outlines the nature of the problems which come under the auspices of ICAI, and describes the research…

  13. Computer-Aided Protein Directed Evolution: a Review of Web Servers, Databases and other Computational Tools for Protein Engineering.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajni; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Roccatano, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    The combination of computational and directed evolution methods has proven a winning strategy for protein engineering. We refer to this approach as computer-aided protein directed evolution (CAPDE) and the review summarizes the recent developments in this rapidly growing field. We will restrict ourselves to overview the availability, usability and limitations of web servers, databases and other computational tools proposed in the last five years. The goal of this review is to provide concise information about currently available computational resources to assist the design of directed evolution based protein engineering experiment.

  14. 32 CFR 651.52 - Aids to information gathering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aids to information gathering. 651.52 Section 651.52 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED... Process § 651.52 Aids to information gathering. The proponent may use or develop graphic or...

  15. 32 CFR 651.52 - Aids to information gathering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Aids to information gathering. 651.52 Section 651.52 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED... Process § 651.52 Aids to information gathering. The proponent may use or develop graphic or...

  16. 32 CFR 651.52 - Aids to information gathering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Aids to information gathering. 651.52 Section 651.52 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED... Process § 651.52 Aids to information gathering. The proponent may use or develop graphic or...

  17. 32 CFR 651.52 - Aids to information gathering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aids to information gathering. 651.52 Section 651.52 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED... Process § 651.52 Aids to information gathering. The proponent may use or develop graphic or...

  18. 32 CFR 651.52 - Aids to information gathering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Aids to information gathering. 651.52 Section 651.52 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED... Process § 651.52 Aids to information gathering. The proponent may use or develop graphic or...

  19. Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Hydroxyapatite/Epoxide Acrylate Maleic Compound Construction for Craniomaxillofacial Bone Defects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Shen, Shunyao; Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Steve Guofang; Wang, Xudong

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing hydroxyapatite (HA)/epoxide acrylate maleic (EAM) compound construction artificial implants for craniomaxillofacial bone defects. Computed tomography, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing and three-dimensional reconstruction, as well as rapid prototyping were performed in 12 patients between 2008 and 2013. The customized HA/EAM compound artificial implants were manufactured through selective laser sintering using a rapid prototyping machine into the exact geometric shapes of the defect. The HA/EAM compound artificial implants were then implanted during surgical reconstruction. Color-coded superimpositions demonstrated the discrepancy between the virtual plan and achieved results using Geomagic Studio. As a result, the HA/EAM compound artificial bone implants were perfectly matched with the facial areas that needed reconstruction. The postoperative aesthetic and functional results were satisfactory. The color-coded superimpositions demonstrated good consistency between the virtual plan and achieved results. The three-dimensional maximum deviation is 2.12 ± 0.65  mm and the three-dimensional mean deviation is 0.27 ± 0.07  mm. No facial nerve weakness or pain was observed at the follow-up examinations. Only 1 implant had to be removed 2 months after the surgery owing to severe local infection. No other complication was noted during the follow-up period. In conclusion, computer-aided, individually fabricated HA/EAM compound construction artificial implant was a good craniomaxillofacial surgical technique that yielded improved aesthetic results and functional recovery after reconstruction.

  20. Computer aiding for low-altitude helicopter flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.

    1991-01-01

    A computer-aiding concept for low-altitude helicopter flight was developed and evaluated in a real-time piloted simulation. The concept included an optimal control trajectory-generated algorithm based on dynamic programming, and a head-up display (HUD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor symbol. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and advanced navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission waypoints that minimizes threat exposure by seeking valleys. The pilot evaluation was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Sim Lab facility in both the fixed-base Interchangeable Cab (ICAB) simulator and the moving-base Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) by pilots representing NASA, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Air Force. The pilots manually tracked the trajectory generated by the algorithm utilizing the HUD symbology. They were able to satisfactorily perform the tracking tasks while maintaining a high degree of awareness of the outside world.

  1. Computer-aided engineering annual report for calendar year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Brockelsby, H.C. Jr.

    1990-03-01

    During calendar year 1989, EG G Idaho completed the initial procurement and implementation of a major new Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) system. Seventy new workstations and associated engineering applications were installed over 100 personal computers (PCs) were integrated into the environment, and communications links to the IBM mainframes and the Cray supercomputer were established. The system achieves integration through sophisticated data communications and application interfaces that allow data sharing across the entire environment. Applications available on the system facilitate engineering relate to full three-dimensional (3-D) piping, heating/ventilating/air conditioning (HAVC), structural and steel design, solids modeling and analysis, desktop publishing, design and drafting, and include automated links to various analysis codes on the Cray supercomputer. The system also provides commonly used engineering tools such as spreadsheets, language compilers, terminal emulation, and file transfer facilities. Although difficult to quantify, recent information has shown that projected annual productivity improvement to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) will be in excess of $2,000,000. This improvement will be generated in a variety of areas including improvement in the efficiency of individual users, checkplot production, data management, file transfers, plotting. design-analysis interfaces, and the benefit of full 3-D design. Current plans call for a significant expansion of the CAE system in 1990 with continued expansion through 1993. Additional workstations, system software and utilities, networking facilities and applications software will be procured and implemented. More than one hundred people will receive training on the various application packages during 1990. Efforts to extend networking throughout the INEL will be continued. 2 refs.

  2. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. 502.7... DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.7 Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. (a) Electronic, computer or... applicable Federal communications law. (b) Electronic, computer or other technologic aids include, but...

  3. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. 502.7... DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.7 Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. (a) Electronic, computer or... applicable Federal communications law. (b) Electronic, computer or other technologic aids include, but...

  4. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. 502.7... DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.7 Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. (a) Electronic, computer or... applicable Federal communications law. (b) Electronic, computer or other technologic aids include, but...

  5. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. 502.7... DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.7 Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. (a) Electronic, computer or... applicable Federal communications law. (b) Electronic, computer or other technologic aids include, but...

  6. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. 502.7... DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.7 Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. (a) Electronic, computer or... applicable Federal communications law. (b) Electronic, computer or other technologic aids include, but...

  7. Information processing, computation, and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Scarantino, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Computation and information processing are among the most fundamental notions in cognitive science. They are also among the most imprecisely discussed. Many cognitive scientists take it for granted that cognition involves computation, information processing, or both – although others disagree vehemently. Yet different cognitive scientists use ‘computation’ and ‘information processing’ to mean different things, sometimes without realizing that they do. In addition, computation and information processing are surrounded by several myths; first and foremost, that they are the same thing. In this paper, we address this unsatisfactory state of affairs by presenting a general and theory-neutral account of computation and information processing. We also apply our framework by analyzing the relations between computation and information processing on one hand and classicism, connectionism, and computational neuroscience on the other. We defend the relevance to cognitive science of both computation, at least in a generic sense, and information processing, in three important senses of the term. Our account advances several foundational debates in cognitive science by untangling some of their conceptual knots in a theory-neutral way. By leveling the playing field, we pave the way for the future resolution of the debates’ empirical aspects. PMID:22210958

  8. Computer Aided Grid Interface: An Interactive CFD Pre-Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.

    1996-01-01

    NASA maintains an applications oriented computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts complementary to and in support of the aerodynamic-propulsion design and test activities. This is especially true at NASA/MSFC where the goal is to advance and optimize present and future liquid-fueled rocket engines. Numerical grid generation plays a significant role in the fluid flow simulations utilizing CFD. An overall goal of the current project was to develop a geometry-grid generation tool that will help engineers, scientists and CFD practitioners to analyze design problems involving complex geometries in a timely fashion. This goal is accomplished by developing the Computer Aided Grid Interface system (CAGI). The CAGI system is developed by integrating CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) geometric system output and / or Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files (including all the NASA-IGES entities), geometry manipulations and generations associated with grid constructions, and robust grid generation methodologies. This report describes the development process of the CAGI system.

  9. Computer Aided Grid Interface: An Interactive CFD Pre-Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.

    1997-01-01

    NASA maintains an applications oriented computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts complementary to and in support of the aerodynamic-propulsion design and test activities. This is especially true at NASA/MSFC where the goal is to advance and optimize present and future liquid-fueled rocket engines. Numerical grid generation plays a significant role in the fluid flow simulations utilizing CFD. An overall goal of the current project was to develop a geometry-grid generation tool that will help engineers, scientists and CFD practitioners to analyze design problems involving complex geometries in a timely fashion. This goal is accomplished by developing the CAGI: Computer Aided Grid Interface system. The CAGI system is developed by integrating CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) geometric system output and/or Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files (including all the NASA-IGES entities), geometry manipulations and generations associated with grid constructions, and robust grid generation methodologies. This report describes the development process of the CAGI system.

  10. Platform-independent method for computer aided schematic drawings

    DOEpatents

    Vell, Jeffrey L.; Siganporia, Darius M.; Levy, Arthur J.

    2012-02-14

    A CAD/CAM method is disclosed for a computer system to capture and interchange schematic drawing and associated design information. The schematic drawing and design information are stored in an extensible, platform-independent format.

  11. General purpose architecture for intelligent computer-aided training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen (Inventor); Wang, Lui (Inventor); Baffes, Paul T. (Inventor); Hua, Grace C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An intelligent computer-aided training system having a general modular architecture is provided for use in a wide variety of training tasks and environments. It is comprised of a user interface which permits the trainee to access the same information available in the task environment and serves as a means for the trainee to assert actions to the system; a domain expert which is sufficiently intelligent to use the same information available to the trainee and carry out the task assigned to the trainee; a training session manager for examining the assertions made by the domain expert and by the trainee for evaluating such trainee assertions and providing guidance to the trainee which are appropriate to his acquired skill level; a trainee model which contains a history of the trainee interactions with the system together with summary evaluative data; an intelligent training scenario generator for designing increasingly complex training exercises based on the current skill level contained in the trainee model and on any weaknesses or deficiencies that the trainee has exhibited in previous interactions; and a blackboard that provides a common fact base for communication between the other components of the system. Preferably, the domain expert contains a list of 'mal-rules' which typifies errors that are usually made by novice trainees. Also preferably, the training session manager comprises an intelligent error detection means and an intelligent error handling means. The present invention utilizes a rule-based language having a control structure whereby a specific message passing protocol is utilized with respect to tasks which are procedural or step-by-step in structure. The rules can be activated by the trainee in any order to reach the solution by any valid or correct path.

  12. Computer-aided dental prostheses construction using reverse engineering.

    PubMed

    Solaberrieta, E; Minguez, R; Barrenetxea, L; Sierra, E; Etxaniz, O

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems with virtual articulators, which take into account the kinematics, constitutes a breakthrough in the construction of customised dental prostheses. This paper presents a multidisciplinary protocol involving CAM techniques to produce dental prostheses. This protocol includes a step-by-step procedure using innovative reverse engineering technologies to transform completely virtual design processes into customised prostheses. A special emphasis is placed on a novel method that permits a virtual location of the models. The complete workflow includes the optical scanning of the patient, the use of reverse engineering software and, if necessary, the use of rapid prototyping to produce CAD temporary prostheses.

  13. Computer-aided design of polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This book on computer-aided design of polymers and composites introduces and discusses the subject from the viewpoint of atomic and molecular models. Thus, the origins of stiffness, strength, extensibility, and fracture toughness in composite materials can be analyzed directly in terms of chemical composition and molecular structure. Aspects of polymer composite reliability are considered along with characterization techniques for composite reliability, relations between atomic and molecular properties, computer aided design and manufacture, polymer CAD/CAM models, and composite CAD/CAM models. Attention is given to multiphase structural adhesives, fibrous composite reliability, metal joint reliability, polymer physical states and transitions, chemical quality assurance, processability testing, cure monitoring and management, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), surface NDE, elementary properties, ionic-covalent bonding, molecular analysis, acid-base interactions, the manufacturing science, and peel mechanics.

  14. Discriminating coastal rangeland production and improvements with computer aided techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. A.; Faulkner, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility and utility of using satellite data and computer-aided remote sensing analysis techniques to conduct range inventories were tested. This pilot study was focused over a 250,000 acre site in Galveston and Brazoria Counties along the Texas Gulf Coast. Rectified enlarged aircraft color infrared photographs of this site were used as the ground truth base. The different land categories were identified, delineated, and measured. Multispectral scanner (MSS) bulk data from LANDSAT-1 was received and analyzed with the Image 100 pattern recognition system. Features of interest were delineated on the image console giving the number of picture elements classified; the picture elements were converted to acreages and the accuracy of the technique was evaluated by comparison with data base results for three test sites. The accuracies for computer aided classification of coastal marshes ranged from 89% to 96%.

  15. Microstereolithography-based computer-aided manufacturing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Various solid freeform fabrication technologies have been introduced for constructing three-dimensional (3-D) freeform structures. Of these, microstereolithography (MSTL) technology performs the best in 3-D space because it not only has high resolution, but also fast fabrication speed. Using this technology, 3-D structures with mesoscale size and microscale resolution are achievable. Many researchers have been trying to apply this technology to tissue engineering to construct medically applicable scaffolds, which require a 3-D shape that fits a defect with a mesoscale size and microscale inner architecture for efficient regeneration of artificial tissue. This chapter introduces the principles of MSTL technology and representative systems. It includes fabrication and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) processes to show the automation process by which measurements from medical images are used to fabricate the required 3-D shape. Then, various tissue engineering applications based on MSTL are summarized.

  16. Computer-Aided Design of a Sulfate Encapsulating Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu; Bosano, Jerome J; Bonnesen, Peter V; Kertesz, Vilmos; Hay, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    A promising new approach towards more efficient self-assembled cage receptors through computer-aided design is demonstrated. The resulting M{sub 4}L{sub 6} tetrahedral cage, internally functionalized with accurately positioned urea hydrogen-bonding groups (see structure; yellow: predicted, blue: experimental, space-filling: SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), proved to be a remarkably strong sulfate receptor in water.

  17. Computers in Medicine: A survey of decision aids for clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Young, D W

    1982-01-01

    Inconsistency in applying medical knowledge is a major reason for varying standards of medical care. Five types of aid have been introduced into medicine to help decision-making: questionnaires, algorithms, database systems, diagnostic systems, and, finally, computer-based decision-support systems. Of these, the most effective act as reminder or prompt systems to assist doctors without threatening their clinical freedom. PMID:6812701

  18. Quantum Information and Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, L.; Ohya, Masanori; Watanabe, N.

    2006-03-01

    Preface -- Coherent quantum control of [symbol]-atoms through the stochastic limit / L. Accardi, S. V. Kozyrev and A. N. Pechen -- Recent advances in quantum white noise calculus / L. Accardi and A. Boukas -- Control of quantum states by decoherence / L. Accardi and K. Imafuku -- Logical operations realized on the Ising chain of N qubits / M. Asano, N. Tateda and C. Ishii -- Joint extension of states of fermion subsystems / H. Araki -- Quantum filtering and optimal feedback control of a Gaussian quantum free particle / S. C. Edwards and V. P. Belavkin -- On existence of quantum zeno dynamics / P. Exner and T. Ichinose -- Invariant subspaces and control of decoherence / P. Facchi, V. L. Lepore and S. Pascazio -- Clauser-Horner inequality for electron counting statistics in multiterminal mesoscopic conductors / L. Faoro, F. Taddei and R. Fazio -- Fidelity of quantum teleportation model using beam splittings / K.-H. Fichtner, T. Miyadera and M. Ohya -- Quantum logical gates realized by beam splittings / W. Freudenberg ... [et al.] -- Information divergence for quantum channels / S. J. Hammersley and V. P. Belavkin -- On the uniqueness theorem in quantum information geometry / H. Hasegawa -- Noncanonical representations of a multi-dimensional Brownian motion / Y. Hibino -- Some of future directions of white noise theory / T. Hida -- Information, innovation and elemental random field / T. Hida -- Generalized quantum turing machine and its application to the SAT chaos algorithm / S. Iriyama, M. Ohya and I. Volovich -- A Stroboscopic approach to quantum tomography / A. Jamiolkowski -- Positive maps and separable states in matrix algebras / A. Kossakowski -- Simulating open quantum systems with trapped ions / S. Maniscalco -- A purification scheme and entanglement distillations / H. Nakazato, M. Unoki and K. Yuasa -- Generalized sectors and adjunctions to control micro-macro transitions / I. Ojima -- Saturation of an entropy bound and quantum Markov states / D. Petz -- An

  19. Computers in Information Data Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, Joe Ann, Ed.; Helgeson, Duane, Ed.

    This collection of ten conference reports begins with "Historical Impact of Computers on the Operation of Libraries and Information Systems: A Personal Perspective" and is followed by "Tips on Computer Software: Advantages and Methods of Program Dissemination" and "BLOCS--A Unique Multi-Dimensional Approach to On-Line Circulation". Next, libraries…

  20. Application of Particle Swarm Optimization in Computer Aided Setup Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafashi, Sajad; Shakeri, Mohsen; Abedini, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    New researches are trying to integrate computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) environments. The role of process planning is to convert the design specification into manufacturing instructions. Setup planning has a basic role in computer aided process planning (CAPP) and significantly affects the overall cost and quality of machined part. This research focuses on the development for automatic generation of setups and finding the best setup plan in feasible condition. In order to computerize the setup planning process, three major steps are performed in the proposed system: a) Extraction of machining data of the part. b) Analyzing and generation of all possible setups c) Optimization to reach the best setup plan based on cost functions. Considering workshop resources such as machine tool, cutter and fixture, all feasible setups could be generated. Then the problem is adopted with technological constraints such as TAD (tool approach direction), tolerance relationship and feature precedence relationship to have a completely real and practical approach. The optimal setup plan is the result of applying the PSO (particle swarm optimization) algorithm into the system using cost functions. A real sample part is illustrated to demonstrate the performance and productivity of the system.

  1. Vascular tissue engineering by computer-aided laser micromachining.

    PubMed

    Doraiswamy, Anand; Narayan, Roger J

    2010-04-28

    Many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds are not suitable for fabricating scaffolds with patient-specific attributes. For example, many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds do not provide control over overall scaffold geometry or over cell position within the scaffold. In this study, the use of computer-aided laser micromachining to create scaffolds for vascular tissue networks was investigated. Computer-aided laser micromachining was used to construct patterned surfaces in agarose or in silicon, which were used for differential adherence and growth of cells into vascular tissue networks. Concentric three-ring structures were fabricated on agarose hydrogel substrates, in which the inner ring contained human aortic endothelial cells, the middle ring contained HA587 human elastin and the outer ring contained human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Basement membrane matrix containing vascular endothelial growth factor and heparin was to promote proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells within the vascular tissue networks. Computer-aided laser micromachining provides a unique approach to fabricate small-diameter blood vessels for bypass surgery as well as other artificial tissues with complex geometries.

  2. Vascular tissue engineering by computer-aided laser micromachining.

    PubMed

    Doraiswamy, Anand; Narayan, Roger J

    2010-04-28

    Many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds are not suitable for fabricating scaffolds with patient-specific attributes. For example, many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds do not provide control over overall scaffold geometry or over cell position within the scaffold. In this study, the use of computer-aided laser micromachining to create scaffolds for vascular tissue networks was investigated. Computer-aided laser micromachining was used to construct patterned surfaces in agarose or in silicon, which were used for differential adherence and growth of cells into vascular tissue networks. Concentric three-ring structures were fabricated on agarose hydrogel substrates, in which the inner ring contained human aortic endothelial cells, the middle ring contained HA587 human elastin and the outer ring contained human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Basement membrane matrix containing vascular endothelial growth factor and heparin was to promote proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells within the vascular tissue networks. Computer-aided laser micromachining provides a unique approach to fabricate small-diameter blood vessels for bypass surgery as well as other artificial tissues with complex geometries. PMID:20308108

  3. Fragment-based approaches and computer-aided drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Rognan, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Fragment-based design has significantly modified drug discovery strategies and paradigms in the last decade. Besides technological advances and novel therapeutic avenues, one of the most significant changes brought by this new discipline has occurred in the minds of drug designers. Fragment-based approaches have markedly impacted rational computer-aided design both in method development and in applications. The present review illustrates the importance of molecular fragments in many aspects of rational ligand design, and discusses how thinking in "fragment space" has boosted computational biology and chemistry. PMID:21710380

  4. Comments on the computer aided design of Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, G.T.; Taylor, D.R.

    1983-08-01

    For a number of years the research team at the Royal Naval Engineering College's Stirling Engine Research Facility (SERF) have been investigating the computer aided design of Stirling engines and these investigations have involved the study and review of existing analytical and computer techniques and the development of 'in-house' methods. In this paper these experiences are summarized against the background of the state-of-the-art in the field as represented by the existing literature. An attempt is made to delineate the various design and analytical methods available and to show that they all have their place in a fully integrated design package.

  5. Computer-aided design of antenna structures and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses computer-aided design procedures for antenna reflector structures and related components. The primary design aid is a computer program that establishes cross sectional sizes of the structural members by an optimality criterion. Alternative types of deflection-dependent objectives can be selected for designs subject to constraints on structure weight. The computer program has a special-purpose formulation to design structures of the type frequently used for antenna construction. These structures, in common with many in other areas of application, are represented by analytical models that employ only the three translational degrees of freedom at each node. The special-purpose construction of the program, however, permits coding and data management simplifications that provide advantages in problem size and execution speed. Size and speed are essentially governed by the requirements of structural analysis and are relatively unaffected by the added requirements of design. Computation times to execute several design/analysis cycles are comparable to the times required by general-purpose programs for a single analysis cycle. Examples in the paper illustrate effective design improvement for structures with several thousand degrees of freedom and within reasonable computing times.

  6. Assessment of Chair-side Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Restorations: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Baroudi, Kusai; Ibraheem, Shukran Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper aimed to evaluate the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and the factors that affect the survival of restorations. Materials and Methods: A thorough literature search using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library and Grey literature were performed from the year 2004 up to June 2014. Only relevant research was considered. Results: The use of chair-side CAD/CAM systems is promising in all dental branches in terms of minimizing time and effort made by dentists, technicians and patients for restoring and maintaining patient oral function and aesthetic, while providing high quality outcome. Conclusion: The way of producing and placing the restorations made with the chair-side CAD/CAM (CEREC and E4D) devices is better than restorations made by conventional laboratory procedures. PMID:25954082

  7. Dual-scan technique for the customization of zirconia computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Andreiuolo, Rafael Ferrone; Sabrosa, Carlos Eduardo; Dias, Katia Regina H. Cervantes

    2013-01-01

    The use of bi-layered all-ceramic crowns has continuously grown since the introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia cores. Unfortunately, despite the outstanding mechanical properties of zirconia, problems related to porcelain cracking or chipping remain. One of the reasons for this is that ceramic copings are usually milled to uniform thicknesses of 0.3-0.6 mm around the whole tooth preparation. This may not provide uniform thickness or appropriate support for the veneering porcelain. To prevent these problems, the dual-scan technique demonstrates an alternative that allows the restorative team to customize zirconia CAD/CAM frameworks with adequate porcelain thickness and support in a simple manner. PMID:24966718

  8. Institutional computing (IC) information session

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kenneth R; Lally, Bryan R

    2011-01-19

    The LANL Institutional Computing Program (IC) will host an information session about the current state of unclassified Institutional Computing at Los Alamos, exciting plans for the future, and the current call for proposals for science and engineering projects requiring computing. Program representatives will give short presentations and field questions about the call for proposals and future planned machines, and discuss technical support available to existing and future projects. Los Alamos has started making a serious institutional investment in open computing available to our science projects, and that investment is expected to increase even more.

  9. Computer and information technology: hardware.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, D

    1998-02-01

    Computers open the door to an ever-expanding arena of knowledge and technology. Most nurses practicing in perianesthesia setting were educated before the computer era, and many fear computers and the associated technology. Frequently, the greatest difficulty is finding the resources and knowing what questions to ask. The following is the first in a series of articles on computers and information technology. This article discusses computer hardware to get the novice started or the experienced user upgraded to access new technologies and the Internet. Future articles will discuss start up and usual software applications, getting up to speed on the information superhighway, and other technologies that will broaden our knowledge and expand our personal and professional world. PMID:9543967

  10. Project-Based Teaching-Learning Computer-Aided Engineering Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoes, J. A.; Relvas, C.; Moreira, R.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, computer-aided analysis, reverse engineering and rapid prototyping are tools that play an important key role within product design. These are areas of technical knowledge that must be part of engineering and industrial design courses' curricula. This paper describes our teaching experience of…

  11. Copyright restrictions block non-English AIDS information.

    PubMed

    Green, C

    1999-12-01

    Little information is available on treatment prevention, and additional AIDS news in languages other than English. The information gap is especially apparent in developing countries, which account for 95 percent of AIDS cases. Problems accessing information include a lack of information translation and dissemination, and restrictive copyright laws. A possible solution to the problem is the ¿copyleft' statement in which authors permit the redistribution of their work. In addition, Internet addresses are included for two organizations working to improve access to information in developing countries.

  12. Computer Navigation-aided Resection of Sacral Chordomas

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong-Kun; Chan, Chung-Ming; Zhang, Qing; Xu, Hai-Rong; Niu, Xiao-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Resection of sacral chordomas is challenging. The anatomy is complex, and there are often no bony landmarks to guide the resection. Achieving adequate surgical margins is, therefore, difficult, and the recurrence rate is high. Use of computer navigation may allow optimal preoperative planning and improve precision in tumor resection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of computer navigation-aided resection of sacral chordomas. Methods: Between 2007 and 2013, a total of 26 patients with sacral chordoma underwent computer navigation-aided surgery were included and followed for a minimum of 18 months. There were 21 primary cases and 5 recurrent cases, with a mean age of 55.8 years old (range: 35–84 years old). Tumors were located above the level of the S3 neural foramen in 23 patients and below the level of the S3 neural foramen in 3 patients. Three-dimensional images were reconstructed with a computed tomography-based navigation system combined with the magnetic resonance images using the navigation software. Tumors were resected via a posterior approach assisted by the computer navigation. Mean follow-up was 38.6 months (range: 18–84 months). Results: Mean operative time was 307 min. Mean intraoperative blood loss was 3065 ml. For computer navigation, the mean registration deviation during surgery was 1.7 mm. There were 18 wide resections, 4 marginal resections, and 4 intralesional resections. All patients were alive at the final follow-up, with 2 (7.7%) exhibiting tumor recurrence. The other 24 patients were tumor-free. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score was 27.3 (range: 19–30). Conclusions: Computer-assisted navigation can be safely applied to the resection of the sacral chordomas, allowing execution of preoperative plans, and achieving good oncological outcomes. Nevertheless, this needs to be accomplished by surgeons with adequate experience and skill. PMID:26830986

  13. College student's perceptions of sources of information about AIDS.

    PubMed

    Cline, R J; Engel, J L

    1991-09-01

    Public communication campaigns and social marketing literature identify principles for developing effective AIDS education and prevention efforts. Planners need to know the audience, identify salient audience segments, and understand the characteristics of information sources that the particular audience finds believable and is likely to use. In this study, the authors investigated college students' perceptions of (1) the credibility and likelihood of using a variety of interpersonal, media, and institutional sources of information about AIDS; (2) the sources that have provided them with the most information about AIDS; and (3) the relationships among those perceptions. They also investigated potential gender differences in perceptions of sources of AIDS information. Respondents to a larger probability sample survey rated 35 sources of information about AIDS. Although mass media sources clearly provided the greatest amount of information, they were conspicuously less prominent in their acceptability to respondents. Leaflets were the only kinds of media sources that the respondents rated high on both believability and likelihood of use. In contrast, three interpersonal sources and four institutional sources appeared as best choices on the combined criteria. Results are discussed in terms of implications for planning and implementing AIDS education and prevention programs for the college-student audience.

  14. The Computer Aided Aircraft-design Package (CAAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalif, Guy U.

    1994-01-01

    The preliminary design of an aircraft is a complex, labor-intensive, and creative process. Since the 1970's, many computer programs have been written to help automate preliminary airplane design. Time and resource analyses have identified, 'a substantial decrease in project duration with the introduction of an automated design capability'. Proof-of-concept studies have been completed which establish 'a foundation for a computer-based airframe design capability', Unfortunately, today's design codes exist in many different languages on many, often expensive, hardware platforms. Through the use of a module-based system architecture, the Computer aided Aircraft-design Package (CAAP) will eventually bring together many of the most useful features of existing programs. Through the use of an expert system, it will add an additional feature that could be described as indispensable to entry level engineers and students: the incorporation of 'expert' knowledge into the automated design process.

  15. AIDS as social construction: text mining of AIDS-related information in the Italian press.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Andrea; Giacchetta, Agnese; Langher, Viviana

    2016-09-01

    Given the relevance of AIDS as a public health problem in the Italian context and of the role of mass media in the social construction of the phenomenon, the aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to explore the main AIDS-related themes in the Italian popular press; (2) to analyse the temporal trends of AIDS representations over the last decades. For the research, we decided to consult Italian newspaper articles produced between 1985 and 1990 and between 2005 and 2010 using the archives of the main two national newspapers (La Repubblica and Corriere della Sera), resulting in an overall sample of 446 newspaper articles. A computer-aided content analysis allowed the detection of five different thematic domains (clusters), respectively focused on: Medical care (7.47%), Family support (37.03%), Science and religion debate (27%), Social exclusion (17.6%) and Healthcare policies (10.9%). These thematic domains are conceived along two main latent dimensions (factors) which explain 72.47% of the data variance which respectively deal with: (1) Attitudes towards people with AIDS (care versus avoidance) and (2) Social mandate on AIDS (powerlessness versus control). The study results also reveal the potential evolution of representations of people with AIDS over time: from stigmatised subjects who represent a risk for the entire society within a climate of social control to people progressively symbolised as frail subjects that need to be taken care of. PMID:26923156

  16. Features of Computer-Based Decision Aids: Systematic Review, Thematic Synthesis, and Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Krömker, Dörthe; Meguerditchian, Ari N; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient information and education, such as decision aids, are gradually moving toward online, computer-based environments. Considerable research has been conducted to guide content and presentation of decision aids. However, given the relatively new shift to computer-based support, little attention has been given to how multimedia and interactivity can improve upon paper-based decision aids. Objective The first objective of this review was to summarize published literature into a proposed classification of features that have been integrated into computer-based decision aids. Building on this classification, the second objective was to assess whether integration of specific features was associated with higher-quality decision making. Methods Relevant studies were located by searching MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. The review identified studies that evaluated computer-based decision aids for adults faced with preference-sensitive medical decisions and reported quality of decision-making outcomes. A thematic synthesis was conducted to develop the classification of features. Subsequently, meta-analyses were conducted based on standardized mean differences (SMD) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported knowledge or decisional conflict. Further subgroup analyses compared pooled SMDs for decision aids that incorporated a specific feature to other computer-based decision aids that did not incorporate the feature, to assess whether specific features improved quality of decision making. Results Of 3541 unique publications, 58 studies met the target criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. The synthesis identified six features: content control, tailoring, patient narratives, explicit values clarification, feedback, and social support. A subset of 26 RCTs from the thematic synthesis was used to conduct the meta-analyses. As expected, computer-based decision aids performed better than usual care or alternative aids; however

  17. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  18. CAGI: Computer Aided Grid Interface. A work in progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.; Yu, Tzu-Yi; Vaughn, David

    1992-01-01

    Progress realized in the development of a Computer Aided Grid Interface (CAGI) software system in integrating CAD/CAM geometric system output and/or Interactive Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES) files, geometry manipulations associated with grid generation, and robust grid generation methodologies is presented. CAGI is being developed in a modular fashion and will offer fast, efficient and economical response to geometry/grid preparation, allowing the ability to upgrade basic geometry in a step-by-step fashion interactively and under permanent visual control along with minimizing the differences between the actual hardware surface descriptions and corresponding numerical analog. The computer code GENIE is used as a basis. The Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) representation of sculptured surfaces is utilized for surface grid redistribution. The computer aided analysis system, PATRAN, is adapted as a CAD/CAM system. The progress realized in NURBS surface grid generation, the development of IGES transformer, and geometry adaption using PATRAN will be presented along with their applicability to grid generation associated with rocket propulsion applications.

  19. Research on computer aided testing of pilot response to critical in-flight events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, W. C.; Rockwell, T. H.; Smith, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments on pilot decision making are described. The development of models of pilot decision making in critical in flight events (CIFE) are emphasized. The following tests are reported on the development of: (1) a frame system representation describing how pilots use their knowledge in a fault diagnosis task; (2) assessment of script norms, distance measures, and Markov models developed from computer aided testing (CAT) data; and (3) performance ranking of subject data. It is demonstrated that interactive computer aided testing either by touch CRT's or personal computers is a useful research and training device for measuring pilot information management in diagnosing system failures in simulated flight situations. Performance is dictated by knowledge of aircraft sybsystems, initial pilot structuring of the failure symptoms and efficient testing of plausible causal hypotheses.

  20. Computer-aided structural design of a lunar radio telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akgul, Ferhat; Gerstle, Walter H.; Johnson, Stewart W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided structural design of the main reflector of a fully steerable radio telescope to be located (in the 21st century) on the moon, and presents the results of the structural analysis of the reflector. The reflector is a paraboloid with a surface area of 12,660 sq m and a focal ratio of 0.42. The reflector's surface will be covered by a 5.08 cm-thick sandwich panel made of thin-walled aluminum cells filled with low-density foam. The low weight of the design will be achieved by using graphite-epoxy as the structural material.

  1. Computer-Aided Design Of Sheet-Material Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Paternoster, Vincent Y.; Levitt, Maureen L.; Osterloh, Mark R.

    1991-01-01

    Computer-aided-design system partly automates tedious process of designing and guiding assembly of small pieces of flat sheet material into large surfaces that approximate smoothly curved surfaces having complicated three-dimensional shapes. Capability provides for flexibility enabling designer to assess quickly and easily effects of changes in design in making engineering compromises among various sizes and shapes. Saves time and money in both design and fabrication. Used in rocket-engine application and other applications requiring design of sheet-material parts.

  2. A computer aided engineering tool for ECLS systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangham, Michal E.; Reuter, James L.

    1987-01-01

    The Computer-Aided Systems Engineering and Analysis tool used by NASA for environmental control and life support system design studies is capable of simulating atmospheric revitalization systems, water recovery and management systems, and single-phase active thermal control systems. The designer/analysis interface used is graphics-based, and allows the designer to build a model by constructing a schematic of the system under consideration. Data management functions are performed, and the program is translated into a format that is compatible with the solution routines.

  3. SNL Mechanical Computer Aided Design (MCAD) guide 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Brandon; Pollice, Stephanie L.; Martinez, Jack R.

    2007-12-01

    This document is considered a mechanical design best-practice guide to new and experienced designers alike. The contents consist of topics related to using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, performing basic analyses, and using configuration management. The details specific to a particular topic have been leveraged against existing Product Realization Standard (PRS) and Technical Business Practice (TBP) requirements while maintaining alignment with sound engineering and design practices. This document is to be considered dynamic in that subsequent updates will be reflected in the main title, and each update will be published on an annual basis.

  4. Computer-aided analysis of optical data link (Poster Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jizoo; Wang, Yuh-Diahn; Shih, Ming-Tang

    1992-10-01

    This paper presents a fiber optic simulation methodology for the design of digital lightwave link. Computer-aided analysis of high speed optical data link is important for a system designer to predict the system performance in advanced. Accurate modeling and simulation contribute the fundamental evaluation of optical communication integrated circuit feasibilities. In this paper, the modeling of optical source waveform, transmission fiber, photodetector and timing recovery technique using surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter are discussed. A SONET OC-3 transceiver is simulated as an example, while measured eye diagrams are compared with the simulation result.

  5. An inexpensive, versatile experiment for teaching computer-aided experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteley, Richard V.; Luke, Keung L.

    1989-08-01

    In this article computer-aided experimentation means using the microcomputer as a laboratory instrument emulator, data logger, and analyzer in an experiment. Through an inexpensive, yet versatile experiment involving an RLC circuit, this article describes how to use the microcomputer as a pulse generator/voltage source, a digital oscilloscope, an ac voltmeter, a frequency meter, and a data logger and analyzer by investigating its time- and frequency-domain behavior. Excellent agreement is found between experiment and theory, which validates the measurement, hardware, and software techniques used. A new and accurate method for characterizing L and C at the natural frequencies of the RLC circuit is also presented.

  6. CATIA - A computer aided design and manufacturing tridimensional system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, F.

    A properietary computer graphics-aided, three-dimensional interactive application (CATIA) design system is described. CATIA employs approximately 100 graphics displays, which are used by some 500 persons engaged in the definition of aircraft structures, structural strength analyses, the kinematic analysis of mobile elements, aerodynamic calculations, the choice of tooling in the machining of aircraft elements, and the programming of robotics. CATIA covers these diverse fields with a single data base. After a description of salient aspects of the system's hardware and software, graphics examples are given of the definition of curves, surfaces, complex volumes, and analytical tasks.

  7. Three-Dimensional Computer Aided Design of a Vertical Winnower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yumei; Lin, Saijia; Weng, Lijie

    The research states home and abroad of the winnowing technology and winnowers are reviewed in brief. For the air duct, the core component of the winnower, the relevant technical parameters in the winnowing process are calculated based on the winnowing principle. The three-dimensional computer aided design (3D-CAD) software Solidworks is applied. The designed vertical winnower is able to separate different raw materials by adjusting the air speed and has been put into practical production to separate the Chinese traditional medicine with high separating effect.

  8. [Computer-aided surgery planning for implantation of artificial ear].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yufeng; Huang, Yuanliang; Niu, Mao; Wang, Lisheng; Chang, Shixin

    2009-08-01

    In conventional ear implantation surgery, clinical physicians usually make a surgery planning based on their observation on series of 2D X-ray images or CT images. Such a planning method requires the physicians to have a high level of clinical experience. Besides, the whole operation is unintuitive, and might have certain risk. Considering these facts, we have developed a computer-aided system for the surgery planning of the implantation of artificial ear based on CT imaging and 3D reconstruction techniques. The system effectively overcomes the main drawbacks in conventional surgery planning techniques, and it makes the surgery planning procedure more precise, safe, and intuitive. PMID:19813593

  9. Computer-aided design of bevel gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuo, Hung Chang; Huston, Ronald L.; Coy, John J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided design procedure for generating bevel gears. The development is based on examining a perfectly plastic, cone-shaped gear blank rolling over a cutting tooth on a plane crown rack. The resulting impression on the plastic gear blank is the envelope of the cutting tooth. This impression and envelope thus form a conjugate tooth surface. Equations are presented for the locus of points on the tooth surface. The same procedures are then extended to simulate the generation of a spiral bevel gear. The corresponding governing equations are presented.

  10. Computer aided design of bevel gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided design procedure for generating bevel gears. The development is based on examining a perfectly plastic, cone-shaped gear blank rolling over a cutting tooth on a plane crown rack. The resulting impression on the plastic gear blank is the envelope of the cutting tooth. This impression and envelope thus form a conjugate tooth surface. Equations are presented for the locus of points on the tooth surface. The same procedures are then extended to simulate the generation of a spiral bevel gear. The corresponding governing equations are presented.

  11. Computer aided design and analysis of gear tooth geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A simulation method for gear hobbing and shaping of straight and spiral bevel gears is presented. The method is based upon an enveloping theory for gear tooth profile generation. The procedure is applicable in the computer aided design of standard and nonstandard tooth forms. An inverse procedure for finding a conjugate gear tooth profile is presented for arbitrary cutter geometry. The kinematic relations for the tooth surfaces of straight and spiral bevel gears are proposed. The tooth surface equations for these gears are formulated in a manner suitable for their automated numerical development and solution.

  12. No joking matter: formal and informal sources of information about AIDS in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Pitts, M; Jackson, H

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and forty-two social work students in Harare, Zimbabwe, were questioned concerning their sources and memory of information concerning the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS. Newspapers were cited most frequently as the major source of information. Family and friends were not reported to be major sources of information. An analysis of the kinds of items most frequently recalled showed that articles concerning personal portrayals were the most powerful vehicles for AIDS information. Metaphors and similes for AIDS produced by the students mirrored those commonly reported elsewhere. Jokes were studied as indicators of informal opinions, and these showed negative views of American involvement in AIDS issues.

  13. Application of infrared thermography in computer aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Oliver; Rajendra Acharya, U.; Ng, E. Y. K.; Hong, Tan Jen; Yu, Wenwei

    2014-09-01

    The invention of thermography, in the 1950s, posed a formidable problem to the research community: What is the relationship between disease and heat radiation captured with Infrared (IR) cameras? The research community responded with a continuous effort to find this crucial relationship. This effort was aided by advances in processing techniques, improved sensitivity and spatial resolution of thermal sensors. However, despite this progress fundamental issues with this imaging modality still remain. The main problem is that the link between disease and heat radiation is complex and in many cases even non-linear. Furthermore, the change in heat radiation as well as the change in radiation pattern, which indicate disease, is minute. On a technical level, this poses high requirements on image capturing and processing. On a more abstract level, these problems lead to inter-observer variability and on an even more abstract level they lead to a lack of trust in this imaging modality. In this review, we adopt the position that these problems can only be solved through a strict application of scientific principles and objective performance assessment. Computing machinery is inherently objective; this helps us to apply scientific principles in a transparent way and to assess the performance results. As a consequence, we aim to promote thermography based Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems. Another benefit of CAD systems comes from the fact that the diagnostic accuracy is linked to the capability of the computing machinery and, in general, computers become ever more potent. We predict that a pervasive application of computers and networking technology in medicine will help us to overcome the shortcomings of any single imaging modality and this will pave the way for integrated health care systems which maximize the quality of patient care.

  14. Impact of lesion segmentation metrics on computer-aided diagnosis/detection in breast computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Hsien-Chi; Giger, Maryellen L.; Reiser, Ingrid; Drukker, Karen; Boone, John M.; Lindfors, Karen K.; Yang, Kai; Edwards, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Evaluation of segmentation algorithms usually involves comparisons of segmentations to gold-standard delineations without regard to the ultimate medical decision-making task. We compare two segmentation evaluations methods—a Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) evaluation and a diagnostic classification task–based evaluation method using lesions from breast computed tomography. In our investigation, we use results from two previously developed lesion-segmentation algorithms [a global active contour model (GAC) and a global with local aspects active contour model]. Although similar DSC values were obtained (0.80 versus 0.77), we show that the global + local active contour (GLAC) model, as compared with the GAC model, is able to yield significantly improved classification performance in terms of area under the receivers operating characteristic (ROC) curve in the task of distinguishing malignant from benign lesions. [Area under the ROC curve (AUC)=0.78 compared to 0.63, p≪0.001]. This is mainly because the GLAC model yields better detailed information required in the calculation of morphological features. Based on our findings, we conclude that the DSC metric alone is not sufficient for evaluating segmentation lesions in computer-aided diagnosis tasks. PMID:26158052

  15. Review of AIDS development. [airborne computers for reliability engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermeulen, H. C.; Danielsson, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    The operation and implementation of the aircraft integrated data system AIDS are described. The system is described as an engineering tool with strong emphasis on analysis of recorded information. The AIDS is primarily directed to the monitoring of parameters related to: the safety of the flight; the performance of the aircraft; the performance of the flight guidance system; and the performance and condition of the engines. The system provide short term trend analysis on a trend chart that is updated by the flight engineer on every flight that lasts more than 4 flight hours. Engine data prints are automatically presented during take-off and in the case of limit excedance, e.g., the print shows an automatically reported impending hotstarts on engine nr. 1. Other significant features are reported.

  16. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2008-03-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The function to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and security improvement of medical information.

  17. Policy Information System Computer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Roger E.; And Others

    The concepts and methodologies outlined in "A Policy Information System for Vocational Education" are presented in a simple computer format in this booklet. It also contains a sample output representing 5-year projections of various planning needs for vocational education. Computerized figures in the eight areas corresponding to those in the…

  18. Computer aided measurement of biomechanical characteristics of cadaverous lumbar spines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoněk, Luděk; Keprt, Jiří; Charamza, Jiří; Hrabálek, Lumír

    2004-09-01

    Special computer-aided equipment was designed for measurement of biomechanical characteristics of lower part of the spine (L1-L5). When the stress is applied, it is necessary to observe the shift of the sample elements, together with measurement of the spine rigidity. This shift is determined with the help of circular targets fitted to the appropriate vertebra. The targets, illuminated by lamp or laser light, are monitored and their digitalized images are scanned by CCD camera is stored as computer media. The two dimensional Fourier transform of the digital optical signal is obtained by the fast Fourier transform algorithm. The period and direction of the interference fringes determine the size and the direction of the sample shift.

  19. Computer aided lytic bone metastasis detection using regular CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; O'Connor, Stacy D.; Summers, Ronald

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a computer aided detection system to find lytic bone metastases in the spine. The CAD system is designed to run on routine chest and/or abdominal CT exams (5mm slice thickness) obtained during a patient's evaluation for other indications. The system can therefore serve as a background procedure to detect bone metastases. The spine is first automatically extracted based on adaptive thresholding, morphological operation, and region growing. The spinal cord is then traced from thoracic spine to lumbar spine using a dynamic graph search to set up a local spine coordinate system. A watershed algorithm is then applied to detect potential lytic bone lesions. A set of 26 quantitative features (density, shape and location) are computed for each detection. After a filter on the features, Support Vector Machines (SVM) are used as classifiers to determine if a detection is a true lesion. The SVM was trained using ground truth segmentation manually defined by experts.

  20. The ergonomics of computer aided design within advanced manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    John, P A

    1988-03-01

    Many manufacturing companies have now awakened to the significance of computer aided design (CAD), although the majority of them have only been able to purchase computerised draughting systems of which only a subset produce direct manufacturing data. Such companies are moving steadily towards the concept of computer integrated manufacture (CIM), and this demands CAD to address more than draughting. CAD architects are thus having to rethink the basic specification of such systems, although they typically suffer from an insufficient understanding of the design task and have consequently been working with inadequate specifications. It is at this fundamental level that ergonomics has much to offer, making its contribution by encouraging user-centred design. The discussion considers the relationships between CAD and: the design task; the organisation and people; creativity; and artificial intelligence. It finishes with a summary of the contribution of ergonomics.

  1. A Computer-Aided Detection System for Digital Chest Radiographs.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-de-Gea, Juan Manuel; García-Mateos, Ginés; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Hernández-Hernández, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Computer-aided detection systems aim at the automatic detection of diseases using different medical imaging modalities. In this paper, a novel approach to detecting normality/pathology in digital chest radiographs is proposed. The problem tackled is complicated since it is not focused on particular diseases but anything that differs from what is considered as normality. First, the areas of interest of the chest are found using template matching on the images. Then, a texture descriptor called local binary patterns (LBP) is computed for those areas. After that, LBP histograms are applied in a classifier algorithm, which produces the final normality/pathology decision. Our experimental results show the feasibility of the proposal, with success rates above 87% in the best cases. Moreover, our technique is able to locate the possible areas of pathology in nonnormal radiographs. Strengths and limitations of the proposed approach are described in the Conclusions. PMID:27372536

  2. Providing Formative Feedback From a Summative Computer-aided Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Robert D. E.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effectiveness of providing formative feedback for summative computer-aided assessment. Design Two groups of first-year undergraduate life science students in pharmacy and neuroscience who were studying an e-learning package in a common pharmacology module were presented with a computer-based summative assessment. A sheet with individualized feedback derived from each of the 5 results sections of the assessment was provided to each student. Students were asked via a questionnaire to evaluate the form and method of feedback. Assessment The students were able to reflect on their performance and use the feedback provided to guide their future study or revision. There was no significant difference between the responses from pharmacy and neuroscience students. Students' responses on the questionnaire indicated a generally positive reaction to this form of feedback. Conclusions Findings suggest that additional formative assessment conveyed by this style and method would be appreciated and valued by students. PMID:17533442

  3. Computer-aided conceptual design of Air Cushion Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, E. G. U.; Lavis, D. R.

    This paper describes the development and use of a computer-aided design tool which has been used to explore preferred options for amphibious Air-Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and Surface-Effect Ship (SES) designs in support of U.S. Navy and U.S. Army programs. The tool, referred to as the ACV Design Synthesis Model (ADSM), is an interactive computer program which provides a description of feasible ACV or SES concepts that could be developed, by a competent design team, to perform the mission described by the input parameters. The paper discusses how the program was used to explore parametrically the design of a range of self-propelled hoverbarges to meet requirements of the U.S. Army Logistics Over the Shore (LOTS) phases of an amphibious landing. Examples of results are presented to illustrate the method used in determining design and performance trade-offs.

  4. Accuracy of different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guides for dental implant placement

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wei; Liu, Changying; Su, Yucheng; Li, Jun; Zhou, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of implants placed using different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) surgical guides, including partially guided and totally guided templates, and determine the accuracy of these guides Materials and methods: In total, 111 implants were placed in 24 patients using CAD/CAM surgical guides. After implant insertion, the positions and angulations of the placed implants relative to those of the planned ones were determined using special software that matched pre- and postoperative computed tomography (CT) images, and deviations were calculated and compared between the different guides and templates. Results: The mean angular deviations were 1.72 ± 1.67 and 2.71 ± 2.58, the mean deviations in position at the neck were 0.27 ± 0.24 and 0.69 ± 0.66 mm, the mean deviations in position at the apex were 0.37 ± 0.35 and 0.94 ± 0.75 mm, and the mean depth deviations were 0.32 ± 0.32 and 0.51 ± 0.48 mm with tooth- and mucosa-supported stereolithographic guides, respectively (P < .05 for all). The mean distance deviations when partially guided (29 implants) and totally guided templates (30 implants) were used were 0.54 ± 0.50 mm and 0.89 ± 0.78 mm, respectively, at the neck and 1.10 ± 0.85 mm and 0.81 ± 0.64 mm, respectively, at the apex, with corresponding mean angular deviations of 2.56 ± 2.23° and 2.90 ± 3.0° (P > .05 for all). Conclusions: Tooth-supported surgical guides may be more accurate than mucosa-supported guides, while both partially and totally guided templates can simplify surgery and aid in optimal implant placement. PMID:26309497

  5. Computer aided analysis, simulation and optimisation of thermal sterilisation processes.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, C M; Banerjee, Arindam

    2013-04-01

    Although thermal sterilisation is a widely employed industrial process, little work is reported in the available literature including patents on the mathematical analysis and simulation of these processes. In the present work, software packages have been developed for computer aided optimum design of thermal sterilisation processes. Systems involving steam sparging, jacketed heating/cooling, helical coils submerged in agitated vessels and systems that employ external heat exchangers (double pipe, shell and tube and plate exchangers) have been considered. Both batch and continuous operations have been analysed and simulated. The dependence of del factor on system / operating parameters such as mass or volume of substrate to be sterilised per batch, speed of agitation, helix diameter, substrate to steam ratio, rate of substrate circulation through heat exchanger and that through holding tube have been analysed separately for each mode of sterilisation. Axial dispersion in the holding tube has also been adequately accounted for through an appropriately defined axial dispersion coefficient. The effect of exchanger characteristics/specifications on the system performance has also been analysed. The multiparameter computer aided design (CAD) software packages prepared are thus highly versatile in nature and they permit to make the most optimum choice of operating variables for the processes selected. The computed results have been compared with extensive data collected from a number of industries (distilleries, food processing and pharmaceutical industries) and pilot plants and satisfactory agreement has been observed between the two, thereby ascertaining the accuracy of the CAD softwares developed. No simplifying assumptions have been made during the analysis and the design of associated heating / cooling equipment has been performed utilising the most updated design correlations and computer softwares. PMID:23294402

  6. Computer aided analysis, simulation and optimisation of thermal sterilisation processes.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, C M; Banerjee, Arindam

    2013-04-01

    Although thermal sterilisation is a widely employed industrial process, little work is reported in the available literature including patents on the mathematical analysis and simulation of these processes. In the present work, software packages have been developed for computer aided optimum design of thermal sterilisation processes. Systems involving steam sparging, jacketed heating/cooling, helical coils submerged in agitated vessels and systems that employ external heat exchangers (double pipe, shell and tube and plate exchangers) have been considered. Both batch and continuous operations have been analysed and simulated. The dependence of del factor on system / operating parameters such as mass or volume of substrate to be sterilised per batch, speed of agitation, helix diameter, substrate to steam ratio, rate of substrate circulation through heat exchanger and that through holding tube have been analysed separately for each mode of sterilisation. Axial dispersion in the holding tube has also been adequately accounted for through an appropriately defined axial dispersion coefficient. The effect of exchanger characteristics/specifications on the system performance has also been analysed. The multiparameter computer aided design (CAD) software packages prepared are thus highly versatile in nature and they permit to make the most optimum choice of operating variables for the processes selected. The computed results have been compared with extensive data collected from a number of industries (distilleries, food processing and pharmaceutical industries) and pilot plants and satisfactory agreement has been observed between the two, thereby ascertaining the accuracy of the CAD softwares developed. No simplifying assumptions have been made during the analysis and the design of associated heating / cooling equipment has been performed utilising the most updated design correlations and computer softwares.

  7. Computer-aided assessment of diagnostic images for epidemiological research

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Diagnostic images are often assessed for clinical outcomes using subjective methods, which are limited by the skill of the reviewer. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) algorithms that assist reviewers in their decisions concerning outcomes have been developed to increase sensitivity and specificity in the clinical setting. However, these systems have not been well utilized in research settings to improve the measurement of clinical endpoints. Reductions in bias through their use could have important implications for etiologic research. Methods Using the example of cortical cataract detection, we developed an algorithm for assisting a reviewer in evaluating digital images for the presence and severity of lesions. Available image processing and statistical methods that were easily implementable were used as the basis for the CAD algorithm. The performance of the system was compared to the subjective assessment of five reviewers using 60 simulated images. Cortical cataract severity scores from 0 to 16 were assigned to the images by the reviewers and the CAD system, with each image assessed twice to obtain a measure of variability. Image characteristics that affected reviewer bias were also assessed by systematically varying the appearance of the simulated images. Results The algorithm yielded severity scores with smaller bias on images where cataract severity was mild to moderate (approximately ≤ 6/16ths). On high severity images, the bias of the CAD system exceeded that of the reviewers. The variability of the CAD system was zero on repeated images but ranged from 0.48 to 1.22 for the reviewers. The direction and magnitude of the bias exhibited by the reviewers was a function of the number of cataract opacities, the shape and the contrast of the lesions in the simulated images. Conclusion CAD systems are feasible to implement with available software and can be valuable when medical images contain exposure or outcome information for etiologic research. Our

  8. Assessment technique for computer-aided manufactured sockets.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Joan E; Severance, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an assessment technique for testing the quality of prosthetic socket fabrication processes at computer-aided manufacturing facilities. The assessment technique is potentially useful to both facilities making sockets and companies marketing manufacturing equipment seeking to assess and improve product quality. To execute the assessment technique, an evaluator fabricates a collection of test models and sockets using the manufacturing suite under evaluation, then measures their shapes using scanning equipment. Overall socket quality is assessed by comparing socket shapes with electronic file (e-file) shapes. To characterize carving performance, model shapes are compared with e-file shapes. To characterize forming performance, socket shapes are compared with model shapes. The mean radial error (MRE), which is the average difference in radii between the two compared shapes, provides insight into sizing quality. Interquartile range (IQR), the range of radial error for the best-matched half of the points on the compared socket surfaces, provides insight into regional shape quality. The source(s) of socket shape error may be pinpointed by separately determining MRE and IQR for carving and forming. The developed assessment technique may provide a useful tool to the prosthetics community and industry to help identify problems and limitations in computer-aided manufacturing and give insight into appropriate modifications to overcome them. PMID:21938663

  9. Computer-aided subsite mapping of α-amylases.

    PubMed

    Mótyán, János A; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Harangi, János; Bagossi, Péter

    2011-02-15

    Subsite mapping is a crucial procedure in the characterization of α-amylases (EC 3.2.1.1), which are extensively used in starch-based industries and in diagnosis of pancreatic and salivary glands disorders. A computer-aided method has been developed for subsite mapping of α-amylases, which substitutes the difficult, expensive, and time-consuming experimental determination of action patterns to crystal structures based energy calculations. Interaction energies between enzymes and carbohydrate substrates were calculated after short energy minimization by a molecular mechanics program. A training set of wild type and mutant amylases with known experimental action patterns of 13 enzymes of wide range of origin was used to set up the procedure. Calculations for training set resulted in good correlation in case of subsite binding energies (r(2)=0.827-0.929) and bond cleavage frequencies (r(2)=0.727-0.835). A set of eight novel barley amylase 1 mutants was used to test our model. Subsite binding energies were predicted with r(2)=0.502 correlation coefficient, while bond cleavage frequency prediction resulted in r(2)=0.538. Our computer-aided procedure may supplement the experimental subsite mapping methods to predict and understand characteristic features of α-amylases.

  10. Computer Aided Orthopaedic Surgery: Incremental shift or paradigm change?

    PubMed

    Joskowicz, Leo; Hazan, Eric J

    2016-10-01

    Computer Aided Orthopaedic Surgery (CAOS) is now about 25 years old. Unlike Neurosurgery, Computer Aided Surgery has not become the standard of care in Orthopaedic Surgery. In this paper, we provide the technical and clinical context raised by this observation in an attempt to elucidate the reasons for this state of affairs. We start with a brief outline of the history of CAOS, review the main CAOS technologies, and describe how they are evaluated. We then identify some of the current publications in the field and present the opposing views on their clinical impact and their acceptance by the orthopaedic community worldwide. We focus on total knee replacement surgery as a case study and present current clinical results and contrasting opinions on CAOS technologies. We then discuss the challenges and opportunities for research in medical image analysis in CAOS and in musculoskeletal radiology. We conclude with a suggestion that while CAOS acceptance may be more moderate than that of other fields in surgery, it still has a place in the arsenal of useful tools available to orthopaedic surgeons. PMID:27407004

  11. Computer Aided Orthopaedic Surgery: Incremental shift or paradigm change?

    PubMed

    Joskowicz, Leo; Hazan, Eric J

    2016-10-01

    Computer Aided Orthopaedic Surgery (CAOS) is now about 25 years old. Unlike Neurosurgery, Computer Aided Surgery has not become the standard of care in Orthopaedic Surgery. In this paper, we provide the technical and clinical context raised by this observation in an attempt to elucidate the reasons for this state of affairs. We start with a brief outline of the history of CAOS, review the main CAOS technologies, and describe how they are evaluated. We then identify some of the current publications in the field and present the opposing views on their clinical impact and their acceptance by the orthopaedic community worldwide. We focus on total knee replacement surgery as a case study and present current clinical results and contrasting opinions on CAOS technologies. We then discuss the challenges and opportunities for research in medical image analysis in CAOS and in musculoskeletal radiology. We conclude with a suggestion that while CAOS acceptance may be more moderate than that of other fields in surgery, it still has a place in the arsenal of useful tools available to orthopaedic surgeons.

  12. Assessment technique for computer-aided manufactured sockets.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Joan E; Severance, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an assessment technique for testing the quality of prosthetic socket fabrication processes at computer-aided manufacturing facilities. The assessment technique is potentially useful to both facilities making sockets and companies marketing manufacturing equipment seeking to assess and improve product quality. To execute the assessment technique, an evaluator fabricates a collection of test models and sockets using the manufacturing suite under evaluation, then measures their shapes using scanning equipment. Overall socket quality is assessed by comparing socket shapes with electronic file (e-file) shapes. To characterize carving performance, model shapes are compared with e-file shapes. To characterize forming performance, socket shapes are compared with model shapes. The mean radial error (MRE), which is the average difference in radii between the two compared shapes, provides insight into sizing quality. Interquartile range (IQR), the range of radial error for the best-matched half of the points on the compared socket surfaces, provides insight into regional shape quality. The source(s) of socket shape error may be pinpointed by separately determining MRE and IQR for carving and forming. The developed assessment technique may provide a useful tool to the prosthetics community and industry to help identify problems and limitations in computer-aided manufacturing and give insight into appropriate modifications to overcome them.

  13. Integrating aerodynamic surface modeling for computational fluid dynamics with computer aided structural analysis, design, and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.

  14. Computer Aided Phenomenography: The Role of Leximancer Computer Software in Phenomenographic Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn-Edwards, Sorrel

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research methodology of phenomenography has traditionally required a manual sorting and analysis of interview data. In this paper I explore a potential means of streamlining this procedure by considering a computer aided process not previously reported upon. Two methods of lexicological analysis, manual and automatic, were examined…

  15. The Old Paradigm in Computer Aids to Invention: A Critical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, M. Diane

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the major types of computer aids to invention to reveal the paper-based design paradigm that characterizes them. Discusses implications of this "old paradigm" and suggests directions for developing new, uniquely electronic paradigms for future aids. (AEW)

  16. Computer aided design of microcircuits. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-09-01

    Government sponsored research covering the computer aided design, modeling, layout, and packaging of integrated and other microelectronic circuits are cited. Computer programs and the use of computer graphics are included.

  17. Laser imaging and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture in prosthetics and orthotics.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, John P

    2006-02-01

    receive update letters from their orthotic and prosthetic clinician with a status update before and after treatment of their patient. This update includes a descriptive narrative, a printout of the pertinent metrics, a printout of the scan graphic, and often a digital image of the patient wearing the device (Fig. 28). The network is HIPAA compliant, and all private health information is held in tight security. If a practitioner does not have a HIPAA agreement in place with Hanger Orthopedic Group, Inc., and would like one, or ifa practitioner would like to have an INSIGNIA representative call or visit with more information, the practitioner is encouraged to call 1-800-4-HANGER and request an INSIGNIA in-service or visit INSIGNIA on the web at www.hanger.com.

  18. Facilities Management via Computer: Information at Your Fingertips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensey, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Computer-aided facilities management is a software program consisting of a relational database of facility information--such as occupancy, usage, student counts, etc.--attached to or merged with computerized floor plans. This program can integrate data with drawings, thereby allowing the development of "what if" scenarios. (MLF)

  19. Costs incurred by applying computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing techniques for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Melenberg, Alex; Sari-Rieger, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the additional costs incurred by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique for reconstructing maxillofacial defects by analyzing typical cases. The medical charts of 11 consecutive patients who were subjected to the CAD/CAM technique were considered, and invoices from the companies providing the CAD/CAM devices were reviewed for every case. The number of devices used was significantly correlated with cost (r = 0.880; p < 0.001). Significant differences in mean costs were found between cases in which prebent reconstruction plates were used (€3346.00 ± €29.00) and cases in which they were not (€2534.22 ± €264.48; p < 0.001). Significant differences were also obtained between the costs of two, three and four devices, even when ignoring the cost of reconstruction plates. Additional fees provided by statutory health insurance covered a mean of 171.5% ± 25.6% of the cost of the CAD/CAM devices. Since the additional fees provide financial compensation, we believe that the CAD/CAM technique is suited for wide application and not restricted to complex cases. Where additional fees/funds are not available, the CAD/CAM technique might be unprofitable, so the decision whether or not to use it remains a case-to-case decision with respect to cost versus benefit.

  20. Computer Aided Measurement Laser (CAML): technique to quantify post-mastectomy lymphoedema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trombetta, Chiara; Abundo, Paolo; Felici, Antonella; Ljoka, Concetta; Di Cori, Sandro; Rosato, Nicola; Foti, Calogero

    2012-10-01

    Lymphoedema can be a side effect of cancer treatment. Eventhough several methods for assessing lymphoedema are used in clinical practice, an objective quantification of lymphoedema has been problematic. The aim of the study was to determine the objectivity, reliability and repeatability of the computer aided measurement laser (CAML) technique. CAML technique is based on computer aided design (CAD) methods and requires an infrared laser scanner. Measurements are scanned and the information describing size and shape of the limb allows to design the model by using the CAD software. The objectivity and repeatability was established in the beginning using a phantom. Consequently a group of subjects presenting post-breast cancer lymphoedema was evaluated using as a control the contralateral limb. Results confirmed that in clinical settings CAML technique is easy to perform, rapid and provides meaningful data for assessing lymphoedema. Future research will include a comparison of upper limb CAML technique between healthy subjects and patients with known lymphoedema.

  1. Computer Aided Design of Computer Generated Holograms for electron beam fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urquhart, Kristopher S.; Lee, Sing H.; Guest, Clark C.; Feldman, Michael R.; Farhoosh, Hamid

    1989-01-01

    Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems that have been developed for electrical and mechanical design tasks are also effective tools for the process of designing Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs), particularly when these holograms are to be fabricated using electron beam lithography. CAD workstations provide efficient and convenient means of computing, storing, displaying, and preparing for fabrication many of the features that are common to CGH designs. Experience gained in the process of designing CGHs with various types of encoding methods is presented. Suggestions are made so that future workstations may further accommodate the CGH design process.

  2. Computer-aided analysis of a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Qualheim, B.J. )

    1990-05-01

    The groundwater investigation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was initiated in 1983 after perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) were detected in the groundwater. Since that time, more than 300 monitor wells have been completed, logged, sampled, and hydraulically tested. In 1987, the Livermore site was placed on the Environmental Protection Agency's National Priority List (Superfund). The Livermore valley is relatively flat, underlain by a complex alluvial sedimentary basin drained by two intermittent streams. The subsurface consists of unconsolidated sand, gravel, silt, and clay with multiple water-bearing zones of relatively high permeability. The hydrogeologic system is characterized as leaky, with horizontal hydraulic communication of up to 800 ft and vertical communication between aquifers of up to 50 ft. Computer-based analysis of the site stratigraphy was used to analyze and characterize the subsurface. The authors used a computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) system to create two-dimensional slices of the subsurface. The slice program takes a subsurface slice at any specified depositional gradient and at any slice thickness. A slice displays the lithology type, unit thickness, depth of slice, and chemical analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The lateral continuity of subsurface channels was mapped for each depth slice. By stacking these maps, the authors interpreted a pseudo-three-dimensional representation of probably pathways for VOC movement in the subsurface. An enhanced computer graphics system was also used to map the movement of VOCs in the subsurface.

  3. Computer-Aided Drug Discovery and Design Targeting Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiansen; Gao, Zhaobing; Yang, Huaiyu

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are widely expressed in living cells and play critical roles in various cellular biological functions. Dysfunctional ion channels can cause a variety of diseases, making ion channels attractive targets for drug discovery. Computational approaches, such as molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations, provide economic and efficient tools for finding modulators of ion channels and for elucidating the action mechanisms of small molecules. In this review, we focus primarily on four types of ion channels (voltage-gated, ligand-gated, acid-sensing, and virus matrix 2 ion channels). The current advancements in computer-aided drug discovery and design targeting ion channels are summarized. First, ligand-based studies for drug design are briefly outlined. Then, we focus on the structurebased studies targeting pore domains, endogenous binding sites and allosteric sites of ion channels. Moreover, we also review the contribution of computational methods to the field of ligand binding and unbinding pathways of ion channels. Finally, we propose future developments for the field. PMID:26975507

  4. Computer aided measurement of multimode fields in waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonwinterfeld, C.; Zocher, E.

    1982-02-01

    A method for computer aided measurement to analyze closed and open multimode structures, e.g., waveguides, travelling wave structures, is presented. Measurements are realized with a sonde having a very low coupling coefficient with relation to waveguides positioned manually, and connected through an attenuator to a differential analyzer connected at the other hand to the signal generator. The phase and amplitude values are digitized, and fed to a computer. The obtained values are then further analyzed in a larger computer. Precision of measurements attained is plus minus two grad and plus or minus 0.2 dB. The mathematical solution of the nonlinear equations system is an application of the Prony algorithm to waves in a medium with axial translational symmetry. The method was tested by measuring multimodal fields in a circular waveguide with smooth walls. Based on fairly accurate field data, the results of the analysis are checked, the accuracy of the wave number values is established, and the optimum parameters of the analysis are obtained.

  5. Orthodontics: computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Wei, Suyuan; Deng, Fanglin; Yao, Sen

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the outline of our newly developed computer-aided 3D dental cast analyzing system with laser scanning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system is composed of a scanning device and a personal computer as a scanning controller and post processor. The scanning device is composed of a laser beam emitter, two sets of linear CCD cameras and a table which is rotatable by two-degree-of-freedom. The rotating is controlled precisely by a personal computer. The dental cast is projected and scanned with a laser beam. Triangulation is applied to determine the location of each point. Generation of 3D graphics of the dental cast takes approximately 40 minutes. About 170,000 sets of X,Y,Z coordinates are store for one dental cast. Besides the conventional linear and angular measurements of the dental cast, we are also able to demonstrate the size of the top surface area of each molar. The advantage of this system is that it facilitates the otherwise complicated and time- consuming mock surgery necessary for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  6. Computer-aided boundary delineation of agricultural lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Thomas D.; Angelici, Gary L.; Slye, Robert E.; Ma, Matt

    1989-01-01

    The National Agricultural Statistics Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) presently uses labor-intensive aerial photographic interpretation techniques to divide large geographical areas into manageable-sized units for estimating domestic crop and livestock production. Prototype software, the computer-aided stratification (CAS) system, was developed to automate the procedure, and currently runs on a Sun-based image processing system. With a background display of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and United States Geological Survey Digital Line Graph data, the operator uses a cursor to delineate agricultural areas, called sampling units, which are assigned to strata of land-use and land-cover types. The resultant stratified sampling units are used as input into subsequent USDA sampling procedures. As a test, three counties in Missouri were chosen for application of the CAS procedures. Subsequent analysis indicates that CAS was five times faster in creating sampling units than the manual techniques were.

  7. Computer-aided optimization of phosphinic inhibitors of bacterial ureases.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, Stamatia; Kosikowska, Paulina; Grabowiecka, Agnieszka; Yiotakis, Athanasios; Kafarski, Paweł; Berlicki, Lukasz

    2010-08-12

    Urease inhibitors can be considered as a tool to control the damaging effect of ureolytic bacteria infections in humans which occur commonly in the developed countries. Computer-aided optimization of the aminomethylphosphinate structures by modifying both their N- and P-termini led to the invention of a novel group of inhibitors of bacterial ureases. Introduction of P-hydroxymethyl group into the molecule resulted in considerable increase of the inhibitory activity against enzymes purified from Bacillus pasteurii and Proteus vulgaris as compared with their P-methyl counterparts described previously. The designed compounds represent a competitive reversible class of urease inhibitors. The most potent, N-methyl-aminomethyl-P-hydroxymethylphosphinic acid, displayed K(i) = 360 nM against P. vulgaris enzyme. PMID:20684601

  8. Computer aided microbial safety design of food processes.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, M; Martens, T; Roberts, T A; Mackey, B M; Nicolaï, B M; Van Impe, J F; De Baerdemaeker, J

    1994-12-01

    To reduce the time required for product development, to avoid expensive experimental tests, and to quantify safety risks for fresh products and the consequence of processing there is a growing interest in computer aided food process design. This paper discusses the application of hybrid object-oriented and rule-based expert system technology to represent the data and knowledge of microbial experts and food engineers. Finite element models for heat transfer calculation routines, microbial growth and inactivation models and texture kinetics are combined with food composition data, thermophysical properties, process steps and expert knowledge on type and quantity of microbial contamination. A prototype system has been developed to evaluate changes in food composition, process steps and process parameters on microbiological safety and textual quality of foods.

  9. Computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper results of computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon based on Finite Element Method are presented. CAD model of the considered freight wagon was created and its strength was analysed in agreement with norms described the way of such kind of freight wagons testing. Then, the model of the analysed freight wagon was modernized by adding composite panels covering the inner surface of the vehicle body. Strength analysis was carried out once again and obtained results were juxtaposed. This work was carried out in order to verify the influence of composite panels on the strength of the freight car body and to estimate the possibility of reducing the steel shell thickness of the box in order to reduce weight of the freight wagon.

  10. Evolution of Geometric Sensitivity Derivatives from Computer Aided Design Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William T.; Lazzara, David; Haimes, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The generation of design parameter sensitivity derivatives is required for gradient-based optimization. Such sensitivity derivatives are elusive at best when working with geometry defined within the solid modeling context of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems. Solid modeling CAD systems are often proprietary and always complex, thereby necessitating ad hoc procedures to infer parameter sensitivity. A new perspective is presented that makes direct use of the hierarchical associativity of CAD features to trace their evolution and thereby track design parameter sensitivity. In contrast to ad hoc methods, this method provides a more concise procedure following the model design intent and determining the sensitivity of CAD geometry directly to its respective defining parameters.

  11. Decision trees and integrated features for computer aided mammographic screening

    SciTech Connect

    Kegelmeyer, W.P. Jr.; Groshong, B.; Allmen, M.; Woods, K.

    1997-02-01

    Breast cancer is a serious problem, which in the United States causes 43,000 deaths a year, eventually striking 1 in 9 women. Early detection is the only effective countermeasure, and mass mammography screening is the only reliable means for early detection. Mass screening has many shortcomings which could be addressed by a computer-aided mammographic screening system. Accordingly, we have applied the pattern recognition methods developed in earlier investigations of speculated lesions in mammograms to the detection of microcalcifications and circumscribed masses, generating new, more rigorous and uniform methods for the detection of both those signs. We have also improved the pattern recognition methods themselves, through the development of a new approach to combinations of multiple classifiers.

  12. Computer-aided diagnosis of lumbar stenosis conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koompairojn, Soontharee; Hua, Kathleen; Hua, Kien A.; Srisomboon, Jintavaree

    2010-03-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems are indispensable tools for patients' healthcare in modern medicine. Nevertheless, the only fully automatic CAD system available for lumbar stenosis today is for X-ray images. Its performance is limited due to the limitations intrinsic to X-ray images. In this paper, we present a system for magnetic resonance images. It employs a machine learning classification technique to automatically recognize lumbar spine components. Features can then be extracted from these spinal components. Finally, diagnosis is done by applying a Multilayer Perceptron. This classification framework can learn the features of different spinal conditions from the training images. The trained Perceptron can then be applied to diagnose new cases for various spinal conditions. Our experimental studies based on 62 subjects indicate that the proposed system is reliable and significantly better than our older system for X-ray images.

  13. Automatic computer-aided system of simulating solder joint formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiujuan; Wang, Chunqing; Zheng, Guanqun; Wang, Gouzhong; Yang, Shiqin

    1999-08-01

    One critical aspect in electronic packaging is the fatigue/creep-induced failure in solder interconnections, which is found to be highly dependent on the shape of solder joints. Thus predicting and analyzing the solder joint shape is warranted. In this paper, an automatic computer-aided system is developed to simulate the formation of solder joint and analyze the influence of the different process parameters on the solder joint shape. The developed system is capable of visually designing the process parameters and calculating the solder joint shape automatically without any intervention from the user. The automation achieved will enable fast shape estimation with the variation of process parameters without time consuming experiments, and the simulating system provides the design and manufacturing engineers an efficient software tools to design soldering process in design environment. Moreover, a program developed from the system can serve as the preprocessor for subsequent finite element joint analysis program.

  14. Bronnikov-aided correction for x-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    De Witte, Yoni; Boone, Matthieu; Vlassenbroeck, Jelle; Dierick, Manuel; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2009-04-01

    When a very-low-absorbing sample is scanned at an x-ray computed tomography setup with a microfocus x-ray tube and a high-resolution detector, the obtained projection images contain not only absorption contrast but also phase contrast. While images without a phase signal can be reconstructed very well, such mixed phase and absorption images give rise to severe artifacts in the reconstructed slices. A method is described that applies a correction to these mixed projections to remove the phase signal. These corrected images can then be processed using a standard filtered backprojection algorithm to obtain reconstructions with only few or no phase artifacts. This new method, which we call the Bronnikov-aided correction (BAC), can be used in a broad variety of applications and without much additional effort. It is tested on a biological and a pharmaceutical sample, and results are evaluated and discussed by comparing them with those of conventional reconstruction methods. PMID:19340263

  15. Parallelization of ARC3D with Computer-Aided Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Haoqiang; Hribar, Michelle; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A series of efforts have been devoted to investigating methods of porting and parallelizing applications quickly and efficiently for new architectures, such as the SCSI Origin 2000 and Cray T3E. This report presents the parallelization of a CFD application, ARC3D, using the computer-aided tools, Cesspools. Steps of parallelizing this code and requirements of achieving better performance are discussed. The generated parallel version has achieved reasonably well performance, for example, having a speedup of 30 for 36 Cray T3E processors. However, this performance could not be obtained without modification of the original serial code. It is suggested that in many cases improving serial code and performing necessary code transformations are important parts for the automated parallelization process although user intervention in many of these parts are still necessary. Nevertheless, development and improvement of useful software tools, such as Cesspools, can help trim down many tedious parallelization details and improve the processing efficiency.

  16. Software for computer-aided receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, John R.; Craine, Eric R.

    1994-04-01

    We are currently developing an easy-to-use, microcomputer-based software application to help researchers perform ROC studies. The software will have facilities for aiding the researcher in all phases of an ROC study, including experiment design, setting up and conducting test sessions, analyzing results and generating reports. The initial version of the software, named 'ROC Assistant', operates on Macintosh computers and enables the user to enter a case list, run test sessions and produce an ROC curve. We are in the process of developing enhanced versions which will incorporate functions for statistical analysis, experimental design and online help. In this paper we discuss the ROC methodology upon which the software is based as well as our software development effort to date.

  17. Computer-Aided Diagnostic System For Mass Survey Chest Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Yoshizumi; Kinoshita, Yasuhiro; Emori, Yasufumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi

    1988-06-01

    In order to support screening of chest radiographs on mass survey, a computer-aided diagnostic system that automatically detects abnormality of candidate images using a digital image analysis technique has been developed. Extracting boundary lines of lung fields and examining their shapes allowed various kind of abnormalities to be detected. Correction and expansion were facilitated by describing the system control, image analysis control and judgement of abnormality in the rule type programing language. In the experiments using typical samples of student's radiograms, good results were obtained for the detection of abnormal shape of lung field, cardiac hypertrophy and scoliosis. As for the detection of diaphragmatic abnormality, relatively good results were obtained but further improvements will be necessary.

  18. Virus structure using the computer-aided phase microscope Airyscan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Kaverin, Nikolai V.; Perevedentseva, Elena V.; Vyshenskaia, Tatiana V.; Kufal, Georgy E.

    1997-04-01

    Investigation of features and functions of some small biological objects (smaller than 500 nm), in particular, viruses, with conventional optical microscopy is practically impossible. Usually their images are obtained with methods of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which precludes work with samples in a native state. We obtained images of different viruses including influenza A virus in native state with computer-aided phase microscope (CPM) Airyscan, in which an He-Ne laser is used as a light source. The main purpose of this work was to show the possibility to obtain adequate structure images of influenza viruses with diameter about 100 nm in conditions quite close to native and to investigate different stages of influenza virus budding. We suppose that these results may be considered as a basis for further studies of cell-virus interaction.

  19. Computer-aided detection of polyps in optical colonoscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    We present a computer-aided detection algorithm for polyps in optical colonoscopy images. Polyps are the precursors to colon cancer. In the US alone, 14 million optical colonoscopies are performed every year, mostly to screen for polyps. Optical colonoscopy has been shown to have an approximately 25% polyp miss rate due to the convoluted folds and bends present in the colon. In this work, we present an automatic detection algorithm to detect these polyps in the optical colonoscopy images. We use a machine learning algorithm to infer a depth map for a given optical colonoscopy image and then use a detailed pre-built polyp profile to detect and delineate the boundaries of polyps in this given image. We have achieved the best recall of 84.0% and the best specificity value of 83.4%.

  20. Computer Aided Safety Assessment(CASA) Tool for ISS Payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochstein, Jason; Festa, Fabrizio

    2010-09-01

    In an effort to streamline the processes established by the partners of the International Space Station(ISS) to certify the safety of hardware and experiments destined for the Station, the European Space Agency’s(ESA) ISS System Safety Team is developing the Computer Aided Safety Assessment(CASA) tool suite. These software tools guide payload developers through the creation process of two types of standard payload hazard reports via a series of questions following a predetermined logic. The responses provided by the user are used by the CASA system to complete the majority of each hazard report requisite for payload flight safety reviews, employing consistent, approved descriptions of most hazards, hazard causes, controls and verification methods. Though some manual inputs will still be required to complete these reports, working with CASA will considerably reduce the amount of time necessary to review the documentation by agency safety authorities.

  1. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  2. Computer-aided diagnosis of alcoholism-related EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; S, Vidya; Bhat, Shreya; Adeli, Hojjat; Adeli, Amir

    2014-12-01

    Alcoholism is a severe disorder that affects the functionality of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and alters the behavior of the affected person. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of subjects with alcoholism. The neurophysiological interpretation of EEG signals in persons with alcoholism (PWA) is based on observation and interpretation of the frequency and power in their EEGs compared to EEG signals from persons without alcoholism. This paper presents a review of the known features of EEGs obtained from PWA and proposes that the impact of alcoholism on the brain can be determined by computer-aided analysis of EEGs through extracting the minute variations in the EEG signals that can differentiate the EEGs of PWA from those of nonaffected persons. The authors advance the idea of automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of alcoholism by employing the EEG signals. This is achieved through judicious combination of signal processing techniques such as wavelet, nonlinear dynamics, and chaos theory and pattern recognition and classification techniques. A CAD system is cost-effective and efficient and can be used as a decision support system by physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism especially those who do not specialize in alcoholism or neurophysiology. It can also be of great value to rehabilitation centers to assess PWA over time and to monitor the impact of treatment aimed at minimizing or reversing the effects of the disease on the brain. A CAD system can be used to determine the extent of alcoholism-related changes in EEG signals (low, medium, high) and the effectiveness of therapeutic plans.

  3. Computer Aided Design: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Wan-Lee

    This instructional manual contains 12 learning activity packets for use in a workshop in computer-aided design and drafting (CADD). The lessons cover the following topics: introduction to computer graphics and computer-aided design/drafting; coordinate systems; advance space graphics hardware configuration and basic features of the IBM PC…

  4. The application of computer-aided technologies in automotive styling design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ze-feng; Zhang, Ji; Zheng, Ying

    2012-04-01

    In automotive industry, outline design is its life and creative design is its soul indeed. Computer-aided technology has been widely used in the automotive industry and more and more attention has been paid. This paper chiefly introduce the application of computer-aided technologies including CAD, CAM and CAE, analyses the process of automotive structural design and describe the development tendency of computer-aided design.

  5. Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

    2004-01-01

    We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

  6. SAMO (Sistema de Apoyo Mechanizado a la Operacion): An operational aids computer system

    SciTech Connect

    Stormer, T.D.; Laflor, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    SAMO (Sistema de Apoyo Mechanizado a la Operacion) is a sensor-driven, computer-based, graphic display system designed by Westinghouse to aid the A. N. Asco operations staff during all modes of plant operations, including emergencies. The SAMO system is being implemented in the A. N. Asco plant in two phases that coincide with consecutive refueling outages for each of two nuclear units at the Asco site. Phase 1 of the SAMO system implements the following functions: (1) emergency operational aids, (2) postaccident monitoring, (3) plant graphics display, (4) high-speed transient analysis recording, (5) historical data collection, storage, and retrieval, (6) sequence of events, and (7) posttrip review. During phase 2 of the SAMO project, the current plant computer will be removed and the functions now performed by the plant computer will be performed by the SAMO system. In addition, the following functions will be implemented: (1) normal and simple transients operational aid, (2) plant information graphics; and (3) real-time radiological off-site dose calculation.

  7. A handheld computer-aided diagnosis system and simulated analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Mingjian; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Brent; Su, Kening; Louie, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on cellphone and distributed cluster. One of the bottlenecks in building a CAD system for clinical practice is the storage and process of mass pathology samples freely among different devices, and normal pattern matching algorithm on large scale image set is very time consuming. Distributed computation on cluster has demonstrated the ability to relieve this bottleneck. We develop a system enabling the user to compare the mass image to a dataset with feature table by sending datasets to Generic Data Handler Module in Hadoop, where the pattern recognition is undertaken for the detection of skin diseases. A single and combination retrieval algorithm to data pipeline base on Map Reduce framework is used in our system in order to make optimal choice between recognition accuracy and system cost. The profile of lesion area is drawn by doctors manually on the screen, and then uploads this pattern to the server. In our evaluation experiment, an accuracy of 75% diagnosis hit rate is obtained by testing 100 patients with skin illness. Our system has the potential help in building a novel medical image dataset by collecting large amounts of gold standard during medical diagnosis. Once the project is online, the participants are free to join and eventually an abundant sample dataset will soon be gathered enough for learning. These results demonstrate our technology is very promising and expected to be used in clinical practice.

  8. A digital patient for computer-aided prosthesis design

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giorgio; Facoetti, Giancarlo; Rizzi, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This article concerns the design of lower limb prosthesis, both below and above knee. It describes a new computer-based design framework and a digital model of the patient around which the prosthesis is designed and tested in a completely virtual environment. The virtual model of the patient is the backbone of the whole system, and it is based on a biomechanical general-purpose model customized with the patient's characteristics (e.g. anthropometric measures). The software platform adopts computer-aided and knowledge-guided approaches with the goal of replacing the current development process, mainly hand made, with a virtual one. It provides the prosthetics with a set of tools to design, configure and test the prosthesis and comprehends two main environments: the prosthesis modelling laboratory and the virtual testing laboratory. The first permits the three-dimensional model of the prosthesis to be configured and generated, while the second allows the prosthetics to virtually set up the artificial leg and simulate the patient's postures and movements, validating its functionality and configuration. General architecture and modelling/simulation tools for the platform are described as well as main aspects and results of the experimentation. PMID:24427528

  9. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues

    PubMed Central

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research. PMID:27240360

  10. Learning theory and knowledge structures in computer-aided instruction.

    PubMed

    Jelovsek, F R; Catanzarite, V A; Price, R D; Stull, R E

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer-aided instructional (CAI) systems suffers from a lack of a cohesive theory of learning--how do students acquire and store knowledge? From studies of computer systems that learn and tutor, we can infer generic activities that appear to be integral parts of the learning process, such as aggregation, clustering, characterization, and storage for later retrieval. Learning is faster and more efficient if the goal of a task is made explicit. Hints should be given with the correct timing in relation to an objective so that students can advance in their own problem-solving strategies with the prerequisites in mind. The general form of a rule should usually be taught first, followed by exceptions and special instances. We review theories of learning associated with CAI that illustrate the classification of different types of knowledge. Rule-based (if-then) knowledge forms are represented in these theories, as are declarative and causal knowledge structures. Extracting the common themes from different classifications of knowledge may help us create better CAI.

  11. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues.

    PubMed

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research. PMID:27240360

  12. Accelerating Battery Design Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Heon, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  13. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues.

    PubMed

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2016-05-26

    The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research.

  14. Computer-aided simulation of piston and piston ring dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.; Peeken, H.; Lechtape-Grueter, R.; Lang, J.

    1996-10-01

    A numerical computer simulation program was developed, aiding in finding optimum design parameters in the multibody-system piston, piston-rings, and cylinder with respect to optimum sealing, minimal friction, and minimum noise stimulation(impact impulse). In the simulation of piston secondary movement and piston ring motion, forces arising from the combustion process, subsonic/supersonic gas flow between the combustion chamber and the crank case, inertial forces and forces resulting from the hydrodynamic lubrication between cylinder liner and piston shaft and piston rings and between piston ring flanks and piston grooves are considered. In addition it is possible to account for effects of global, three-dimensional ring deformation as well as local piston deformation, roughness effects in lubricated contacts, and variable viscosity and variable oil supply. The governing differential equations for the pressure as well as the deformation are solved via finite element techniques, while initial value problems are solved by efficient implicit time integration schemes. The application of the developed computer code is presented in examples.

  15. 77 FR 48970 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; 2013-2014 Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; 2013-2014 Federal Student Aid... individuals applying for federal student aid including the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) and the Student Aid Report (SAR). DATES: Interested persons are invited to submit comments on...

  16. Computer aided reliability, availability, and safety modeling for fault-tolerant computer systems with commentary on the HARP program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shooman, Martin L.

    1991-01-01

    Many of the most challenging reliability problems of our present decade involve complex distributed systems such as interconnected telephone switching computers, air traffic control centers, aircraft and space vehicles, and local area and wide area computer networks. In addition to the challenge of complexity, modern fault-tolerant computer systems require very high levels of reliability, e.g., avionic computers with MTTF goals of one billion hours. Most analysts find that it is too difficult to model such complex systems without computer aided design programs. In response to this need, NASA has developed a suite of computer aided reliability modeling programs beginning with CARE 3 and including a group of new programs such as: HARP, HARP-PC, Reliability Analysts Workbench (Combination of model solvers SURE, STEM, PAWS, and common front-end model ASSIST), and the Fault Tree Compiler. The HARP program is studied and how well the user can model systems using this program is investigated. One of the important objectives will be to study how user friendly this program is, e.g., how easy it is to model the system, provide the input information, and interpret the results. The experiences of the author and his graduate students who used HARP in two graduate courses are described. Some brief comparisons were made with the ARIES program which the students also used. Theoretical studies of the modeling techniques used in HARP are also included. Of course no answer can be any more accurate than the fidelity of the model, thus an Appendix is included which discusses modeling accuracy. A broad viewpoint is taken and all problems which occurred in the use of HARP are discussed. Such problems include: computer system problems, installation manual problems, user manual problems, program inconsistencies, program limitations, confusing notation, long run times, accuracy problems, etc.

  17. Cone beam computed tomography aided diagnosis and treatment of endodontic cases: Critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Funda; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç; Yeta, Naz Yakar; Öztan, Meltem Dartar

    2016-07-28

    Although intraoral radiographs still remain the imaging method of choice for the evaluation of endodontic patients, in recent years, the utilization of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics showed a significant jump. This case series presentation shows the importance of CBCT aided diagnosis and treatment of complex endodontic cases such as; root resorption, missed extra canal, fusion, oblique root fracture, non-diagnosed periapical pathology and horizontal root fracture. CBCT may be a useful diagnostic method in several endodontic cases where intraoral radiography and clinical examination alone are unable to provide sufficient information. PMID:27551342

  18. Cone beam computed tomography aided diagnosis and treatment of endodontic cases: Critical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Funda; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç; Yeta, Naz Yakar; Öztan, Meltem Dartar

    2016-01-01

    Although intraoral radiographs still remain the imaging method of choice for the evaluation of endodontic patients, in recent years, the utilization of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics showed a significant jump. This case series presentation shows the importance of CBCT aided diagnosis and treatment of complex endodontic cases such as; root resorption, missed extra canal, fusion, oblique root fracture, non-diagnosed periapical pathology and horizontal root fracture. CBCT may be a useful diagnostic method in several endodontic cases where intraoral radiography and clinical examination alone are unable to provide sufficient information. PMID:27551342

  19. Enhancing Engineering Computer-Aided Design Education Using Lectures Recorded on the PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrann, Roy T. R.

    2006-01-01

    Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) is a course that is required during the third year in the mechanical engineering curriculum at Binghamton University. The primary objective of the course is to educate students in the procedures of computer-aided engineering design. The solid modeling and analysis program Pro/Engineer[TM] (PTC[R]) is used as the…

  20. A Report from ICAMI: The Institute for Computer-Aided Mathematics Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Chris

    De Anza College's Institute for Computer-Aided Mathematics Instruction (ICAMI) is a direct outgrowth of the computer-aided mathematics program, in California, started at the California college in 1982. ICAMI focuses on the design and dissemination of effective instructional models for: (1) skill building for more efficient problem solving,…

  1. Teaching Computer-Aided Design of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Engineering Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosman, A. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a teaching program for fluid mechanics and heat transfer which contains both computer aided learning (CAL) and computer aided design (CAD) components and argues that the understanding of the physical and numerical modeling taught in the CAL course is essential to the proper implementation of CAD. (Author/CMV)

  2. Computer-Aided Construction of Chemical Kinetic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Green, William H.

    2014-12-31

    The combustion chemistry of even simple fuels can be extremely complex, involving hundreds or thousands of kinetically significant species. The most reasonable way to deal with this complexity is to use a computer not only to numerically solve the kinetic model, but also to construct the kinetic model in the first place. Because these large models contain so many numerical parameters (e.g. rate coefficients, thermochemistry) one never has sufficient data to uniquely determine them all experimentally. Instead one must work in “predictive” mode, using theoretical rather than experimental values for many of the numbers in the model, and as appropriate refining the most sensitive numbers through experiments. Predictive chemical kinetics is exactly what is needed for computer-aided design of combustion systems based on proposed alternative fuels, particularly for early assessment of the value and viability of proposed new fuels before those fuels are commercially available. This project was aimed at making accurate predictive chemical kinetics practical; this is a challenging goal which requires a range of science advances. The project spanned a wide range from quantum chemical calculations on individual molecules and elementary-step reactions, through the development of improved rate/thermo calculation procedures, the creation of algorithms and software for constructing and solving kinetic simulations, the invention of methods for model-reduction while maintaining error control, and finally comparisons with experiment. Many of the parameters in the models were derived from quantum chemistry calculations, and the models were compared with experimental data measured in our lab or in collaboration with others.

  3. Molecular Similarity in Computer-Aided Molecular Design.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkin, Edward E.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The quantitative measurement of how similar one molecule is to another is investigated as a potential aid to molecular design. The work concentrates on the comparison of electronic properties of molecules, in particular electron density distribution, molecular electrostatic potential, molecular electric field and frontier orbital wavefunctions. A novel formula for molecular similarity has been devised and applied to these four properties. An approximate representation of valence electron density is used, based on the notion that charge distribution in a large molecule may be built from transferable contributions from its constituent functional groups. Each of these contributions consists of a series of first-order gaussian functions. The electrostatic potentials and electric fields used in the similarity calculations are computed from atom -centered partial charges. The frontier orbital wavefunction comparisons are performed using the extended Huckel method. The four measures of similarity are related to chemical and biological data and shown to have possible applications in the area of drug design.

  4. Electromagnetic tracking for abdominal interventions in computer aided surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Banovac, Filip; Lin, Ralph; Glossop, Neil; Wood, Bradford J; Lindisch, David; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-05-01

    Electromagnetic tracking has great potential for assisting physicians in precision placement of instruments during minimally invasive interventions in the abdomen, since electromagnetic tracking is not limited by the line-of-sight restrictions of optical tracking. A new generation of electromagnetic tracking has recently become available, with sensors small enough to be included in the tips of instruments. To fully exploit the potential of this technology, our research group has been developing a computer aided, image-guided system that uses electromagnetic tracking for visualization of the internal anatomy during abdominal interventions. As registration is a critical component in developing an accurate image-guided system, we present three registration techniques: 1) enhanced paired-point registration (time-stamp match registration and dynamic registration); 2) orientation-based registration; and 3) needle shape-based registration. Respiration compensation is another important issue, particularly in the abdomen, where respiratory motion can make precise targeting difficult. To address this problem, we propose reference tracking and affine transformation methods. Finally, we present our prototype navigation system, which integrates the registration, segmentation, path-planning and navigation functions to provide real-time image guidance in the clinical environment. The methods presented here have been tested with a respiratory phantom specially designed by our group and in swine animal studies under approved protocols. Based on these tests, we conclude that our system can provide quick and accurate localization of tracked instruments in abdominal interventions, and that it offers a user-friendly display for the physician.

  5. Computer Aided Setup Planning Using Tolerance Analysis for Prismatic Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahid, Abedini; Mohsen, Shakeri; Sajad, Kafashi

    2011-01-01

    Computer aided process planning (CAPP) is the bridge between CAD and CAM. Setup planning is the major key to transform design concept into manufacturing domain, which is mainly experience based activity in modern manufacturing industry. Setup planning is a complicated non-linear task constrained by many factors such as tool approach direction, geometric feature relationship, fixturing constrain, tolerance requirement and manufacturing practice. The objective of setup planning is to determine the number of setup needed, the orientation of the workpiece and the machining surfaces in each setup. This paper focuses on the development of a formalized procedure for automatic generation of setup plan. Tolerance relations are used as critical constraints for setup planning. The tasks that are performed are: (a) identifying groups of features that can be machined in a single setup, (b) determining a suitable work piece orientation, i.e. the suitable datum planes for each setup, (c) determining all the feasible setup plans to machine the given set of features of prismatic parts, and (d) evaluating the feasible setup plans on the basis of technological conditions. Trial runs with industrial parts indicate that the system is applicable for industrial use.

  6. Computer aided morphometry of the neonatal fetal alcohol syndrome face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chik, Lawrence; Sokol, Robert J.; Martier, Susan S.

    1993-09-01

    Facial dysmorphology related to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) has been studied from neonatal snapshots with computer-aided imaging tools by looking at facial landmarks and silhouettes. Statistical methods were used to characterize FAS-related midfacial hypoplasia by using standardized landmark coordinates of frontal and profile snapshots. Additional analyses were performed by tracing a segment of the facial silhouettes from the profile snapshots. In spite of inherent distortions due to the coordinate standardization procedure, controlled for race, three significant facial landmark coordinates accounted for 30.6% of the explained variance of FAS. Residualized for race, eight points along the silhouettes were shown to be significant in explaining 45.8% of the outcome variance. Combining the landmark coordinates and silhouettes points, 57% of the outcome variance was explained. Finally, including birthweight with landmark coordinates and silhouettes, 63% of the outcome variance was explained, with a jackknifed sensitivity of 95% (19/20) and a specificity of 92.9% (52/56).

  7. A survey on computer aided diagnosis for ocular diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD), which can automate the detection process for ocular diseases, has attracted extensive attention from clinicians and researchers alike. It not only alleviates the burden on the clinicians by providing objective opinion with valuable insights, but also offers early detection and easy access for patients. Method We review ocular CAD methodologies for various data types. For each data type, we investigate the databases and the algorithms to detect different ocular diseases. Their advantages and shortcomings are analyzed and discussed. Result We have studied three types of data (i.e., clinical, genetic and imaging) that have been commonly used in existing methods for CAD. The recent developments in methods used in CAD of ocular diseases (such as Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma, Age-related Macular Degeneration and Pathological Myopia) are investigated and summarized comprehensively. Conclusion While CAD for ocular diseases has shown considerable progress over the past years, the clinical importance of fully automatic CAD systems which are able to embed clinical knowledge and integrate heterogeneous data sources still show great potential for future breakthrough. PMID:25175552

  8. CART V: recent advancements in computer-aided camouflage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Müller, Markus

    2011-05-01

    In order to facilitate systematic, computer aided improvements of camouflage and concealment assessment methods, the software system CART (Camouflage Assessment in Real-Time) was built up for the camouflage assessment of objects in multispectral image sequences (see contributions to SPIE 2007-2010 [1], [2], [3], [4]). It comprises a semi-automatic marking of target objects (ground truth generation) including their propagation over the image sequence and the evaluation via user-defined feature extractors as well as methods to assess the object's movement conspicuity. In this fifth part in an annual series at the SPIE conference in Orlando, this paper presents the enhancements over the recent year and addresses the camouflage assessment of static and moving objects in multispectral image data that can show noise or image artefacts. The presented methods fathom the correlations between image processing and camouflage assessment. A novel algorithm is presented based on template matching to assess the structural inconspicuity of an object objectively and quantitatively. The results can easily be combined with an MTI (moving target indication) based movement conspicuity assessment function in order to explore the influence of object movement to a camouflage effect in different environments. As the results show, the presented methods contribute to a significant benefit in the field of camouflage assessment.

  9. Electromagnetic tracking for abdominal interventions in computer aided surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Banovac, Filip; Lin, Ralph; Glossop, Neil; Wood, Bradford J.; Lindisch, David; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic tracking has great potential for assisting physicians in precision placement of instruments during minimally invasive interventions in the abdomen, since electromagnetic tracking is not limited by the line-of-sight restrictions of optical tracking. A new generation of electromagnetic tracking has recently become available, with sensors small enough to be included in the tips of instruments. To fully exploit the potential of this technology, our research group has been developing a computer aided, image-guided system that uses electromagnetic tracking for visualization of the internal anatomy during abdominal interventions. As registration is a critical component in developing an accurate image-guided system, we present three registration techniques: 1) enhanced paired-point registration (time-stamp match registration and dynamic registration); 2) orientation-based registration; and 3) needle shape-based registration. Respiration compensation is another important issue, particularly in the abdomen, where respiratory motion can make precise targeting difficult. To address this problem, we propose reference tracking and affine transformation methods. Finally, we present our prototype navigation system, which integrates the registration, segmentation, path-planning and navigation functions to provide real-time image guidance in the clinical environment. The methods presented here have been tested with a respiratory phantom specially designed by our group and in swine animal studies under approved protocols. Based on these tests, we conclude that our system can provide quick and accurate localization of tracked instruments in abdominal interventions, and that it offers a user friendly display for the physician. PMID:16829506

  10. The future of computer-aided sperm analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Sharon T; van der Horst, Gerhard; Mortimer, David

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) technology was developed in the late 1980s for analyzing sperm movement characteristics or kinematics and has been highly successful in enabling this field of research. CASA has also been used with great success for measuring semen characteristics such as sperm concentration and proportions of progressive motility in many animal species, including wide application in domesticated animal production laboratories and reproductive toxicology. However, attempts to use CASA for human clinical semen analysis have largely met with poor success due to the inherent difficulties presented by many human semen samples caused by sperm clumping and heavy background debris that, until now, have precluded accurate digital image analysis. The authors review the improved capabilities of two modern CASA platforms (Hamilton Thorne CASA-II and Microptic SCA6) and consider their current and future applications with particular reference to directing our focus towards using this technology to assess functional rather than simple descriptive characteristics of spermatozoa. Specific requirements for validating CASA technology as a semi-automated system for human semen analysis are also provided, with particular reference to the accuracy and uncertainty of measurement expected of a robust medical laboratory test for implementation in clinical laboratories operating according to modern accreditation standards. PMID:25926614

  11. Computer-aided assessment of scoliosis on posteroanterior radiographs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Lou, Edmond; Hill, Douglas L; Raso, James V; Wang, Yuanyuan; Le, Lawrence H; Shi, Xinling

    2010-02-01

    In order to reduce the observer variability in radiographic scoliosis assessment, a computer-aided system was developed. The system semi-automatically measured the Cobb angle and vertebral rotation on posteroanterior radiographs based on Hough transform and snake model, respectively. Both algorithms were integrated with the shape priors to improve the performance. The system was tested twice by each of three observers. The intraobserver and interobserver reliability analyses resulted in the intraclass correlation coefficients higher than 0.9 and 0.8 for Cobb measurement on 70 radiographs and rotation measurement on 156 vertebrae, respectively. Both the Cobb and rotation measurements resulted in the average intraobserver and interobserver errors less than 2 degrees and 3 degrees , respectively. There were no significant differences in the measurement variability between groups of curve location, curve magnitude, observer experience, and vertebra location. Compared with the documented results, measurement variability is reduced by using the developed system. This system can help orthopedic surgeons assess scoliosis more reliably.

  12. Electromagnetic tracking for abdominal interventions in computer aided surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Banovac, Filip; Lin, Ralph; Glossop, Neil; Wood, Bradford J; Lindisch, David; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-05-01

    Electromagnetic tracking has great potential for assisting physicians in precision placement of instruments during minimally invasive interventions in the abdomen, since electromagnetic tracking is not limited by the line-of-sight restrictions of optical tracking. A new generation of electromagnetic tracking has recently become available, with sensors small enough to be included in the tips of instruments. To fully exploit the potential of this technology, our research group has been developing a computer aided, image-guided system that uses electromagnetic tracking for visualization of the internal anatomy during abdominal interventions. As registration is a critical component in developing an accurate image-guided system, we present three registration techniques: 1) enhanced paired-point registration (time-stamp match registration and dynamic registration); 2) orientation-based registration; and 3) needle shape-based registration. Respiration compensation is another important issue, particularly in the abdomen, where respiratory motion can make precise targeting difficult. To address this problem, we propose reference tracking and affine transformation methods. Finally, we present our prototype navigation system, which integrates the registration, segmentation, path-planning and navigation functions to provide real-time image guidance in the clinical environment. The methods presented here have been tested with a respiratory phantom specially designed by our group and in swine animal studies under approved protocols. Based on these tests, we conclude that our system can provide quick and accurate localization of tracked instruments in abdominal interventions, and that it offers a user-friendly display for the physician. PMID:16829506

  13. Sound and computer information presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bly, S

    1982-03-01

    This thesis examines the use of sound to present data. Computer graphics currently offers a vast array of techniques for communicating data to analysts. Graphics is limited, however, by the number of dimensions that can be perceived at one time, by the types of data that lend themselves to visual representation, and by the necessary eye focus on the output. Sound offers an enhancement and an alternative to graphic tools. Multivariate, logarithmic, and time-varying data provide examples for aural representation. For each of these three types of data, the thesis suggests a method of encoding the information into sound and presents various applications. Data values were mapped to sound characteristics such as pitch and volume so that information was presented as sets or sequences of notes. In all cases, the resulting sounds conveyed information in a manner consistent with prior knowledge of the data. Experiments showed that sound does convey information accurately and that sound can enhance graphic presentations. Subjects were tested on their ability to distinguish between two sources of test items. In the first phase of the experiments, subjects discriminated between two 6-dimensional data sets represented in sound. In the second phase of the experiment, 75 subjects were selected and assigned to one of three groups. The first group of 25 heard test items, the second group saw test items, and the third group both heard and saw the test items. The average percentage correct was 64.5% for the sound-only group, 62% for the graphics-only group, and 69% for the sound and graphics group. In the third phase, additional experiments focused on the mapping between data values and sound characteristics and on the training methods.

  14. Models of Human Information Requirements: "When Reasonable Aiding Systems Disagree"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft flight management and Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation are under development to maximize the economy of flight and to increase the capacity of the terminal area airspace while maintaining levels of flight safety equal to or better than current system performance. These goals are being realized by the introduction of flight management automation aiding and operations support systems on the flight deck and by new developments of ATC aiding systems that seek to optimize scheduling of aircraft while potentially reducing required separation and accounting for weather and wake vortex turbulence. Aiding systems on both the flight deck and the ground operate through algorithmic functions on models of the aircraft and of the airspace. These models may differ from each other as a result of variations in their models of the immediate environment. The resultant flight operations or ATC commands may differ in their response requirements (e.g. different preferred descent speeds or descent initiation points). The human operators in the system must then interact with the automation to reconcile differences and resolve conflicts. We have developed a model of human performance including cognitive functions (decision-making, rule-based reasoning, procedural interruption recovery and forgetting) that supports analysis of the information requirements for resolution of flight aiding and ATC conflicts. The model represents multiple individuals in the flight crew and in ATC. The model is supported in simulation on a Silicon Graphics' workstation using Allegro Lisp. Design guidelines for aviation automation aiding systems have been developed using the model's specification of information and team procedural requirements. Empirical data on flight deck operations from full-mission flight simulation are provided to support the model's predictions. The paper describes the model, its development and implementation, the simulation test of the model predictions, and the empirical

  15. Information Sources on Computer Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossman, Marian R.

    1984-01-01

    Cites books, journals, articles, and speeches covering the gamut from computer literacy as a national crisis to a current listing of popular computer camps, educational computing, library role, and staff training. Primary focus is on microcomputers, but several less recent articles are oriented to computers in general. (MBR)

  16. The Rise of Computer-Aided Discovery in Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratius, V.; Blair, D. M.; Gowanlock, M.; Lind, F. D.; Erickson, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Next-generation Geoscience will need to handle rapidly growing data volumes and exploration of complex phenomena challenging human cognitive limits. With instruments digitizing large amounts of sensor data from many sources, the scientific discovery process becomes a large-scale search process. However, insight generation is still a key problem and is especially complex in Geoscience, particularly when exploratory studies involve fusion of large data from various instruments in a manual labor-intensive manner. We propose an approach for a computer-aided discovery infrastructure that automatically explores the connection between physics models and empirical data to accelerate the pace of new discoveries. The approach uses (1) A system engaging scientists to programmatically express hypothesized Geoscience scenarios, constraints, and model variations, so as to automatically explore and evaluate the combinatorial search space of possible explanations in parallel on a variety of data sets. This automated system employs machine learning to support algorithmic choice and workflow reconfiguration allowing systematic pruning of the search space of applied algorithms and parameters based on historical results. (2) A cloud-based environment allowing scientists to conduct powerful exploratory analyses on large data sets that reside in data centers. Various search modes are provided, including a mode where scientists can iteratively guide the search based on intermediate results. This functionality directs the system to identify more Geospace features that are analogous or related in various ways. (3) Scientist input is used to configure programmable crawlers that automate and scale the search for interesting phenomena on cloud-based infrastructures. We discuss various application scenarios to show the impact of workflow configuration on scientific feature detection. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from NSF ACI-1442997 and NASA AIST NNX15AG84G (PI: V. Pankratius).

  17. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ziyue; Bagci, Ulas; Mansoor, Awais; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Luna, Brian; Kubler, Andre; Dey, Bappaditya; Foster, Brent; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Bishai, William R.; Jain, Sanjay; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases. PMID:26133591

  18. Computer-aided calibration: Asking the right questions

    SciTech Connect

    Turvill, I.H.

    1995-12-01

    Anyone involved with instrumentation and control would find it hard to avoid the ever-increasing promotion of calibrators. Calibrators and calibration are everywhere: in magazines, at trade shows, in ISO 9000 audits, and in instrument technician`s shops. The growth in this market is screamingly obvious. However, changes in the market for calibrators are not limited to increased demand for these products. Today`s trends emerge from several root causes. These include shifts in customer preference and behavior, changing relationships between firms involved in the different stages of the chain that supplies customers, and exogenous factors such as stricter government regulations and tighter industrial standards. In recent years, the United States federal government, through its Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), has placed increasing demands on {open_quotes}smokestack{close_quotes} industries to demonstrate effective monitoring of pollutants. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that all pharmaceutical companies validate their manufacturing processes. Many manufacturers recognize that the industries they serve are faced with increasing demand for instrument recalibration and documentation with decreasing maintenance resources. In response to the need for systems that can square the circle, manufacturers have introduced computer-aided calibration (CAC) systems that automatically execute calibration procedures and collect test and calibration data, which significantly improves productivity. The array of such systems now available is staggering. In certain instances, suppliers offer only hardware, such as calibrators, sources, and simulators that can communicate with a software package. Some software houses offer universal calibration packages, which can communicate with a wide variety of calibrators, or none. Others, usually hardware manufacturers, offer complete packages that consist of a calibrator and proprietary software.

  19. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ziyue; Mansoor, Awais; Mollura, Daniel J.; Bagci, Ulas; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Luna, Brian; Kubler, Andre; Dey, Bappaditya; Jain, Sanjay; Foster, Brent; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Bishai, William R.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases.

  20. Semiautomatic segmentation for the computer aided diagnosis of clustered microcalcifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elter, Matthias; Held, Christian

    2008-03-01

    Screening mammography is recognized as the most effective tool for early breast cancer detection. However, its application in clinical practice shows some of its weaknesses. While clustered microcalcifications are often an early sign of breast cancer, the discrimination of benign from malignant clusters based on their appearance in mammograms is a very difficult task. Hence, it is not surprising that typically only 15% to 30% of breast biopsies performed on calcifications will be positive for malignancy. As this low positive predictive value of mammography regarding the diagnosis of calcification clusters results in many unnecessary biopsies performed on benign calcifications, we propose a novel computer aided diagnosis (CADx) approach with the goal to improve the reliability of microcalcification classification. As effective automatic classification of microcalcification clusters relies on good segmentations of the individual calcification particles, many approaches to the automatic segmentation of individual particles have been proposed in the past. Because none of the fully automatic approaches seem to result in optimal segmentations, we propose a novel semiautomatic approach that has automatic components but also allows some interaction of the radiologist. Based on the resulting segmentations we extract a broad range of features that characterize the morphology and distribution of calcification particles. Using regions of interest containing either benign or malignant clusters extracted from the digital database for screening mammography we evaluate the performance of our approach using a support vector machine and ROC analysis. The resulting ROC performance is very promising and we show that the performance of our semiautomatic segmentation is significantly higher than that of a comparable fully automatic approach.

  1. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Junyi Mart, Christopher; Bayouth, John

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  2. AIDS information on the Internet (Part 2): Critical Path Internet services.

    PubMed

    Bauer, R

    1996-01-01

    World Wide Web technology on the Internet provides a cost-effective means for reaching AIDS service providers and researchers across the world. It provides a means for obtaining and disseminating information worldwide in a time-sensitive environment. However, because of cost restrictions, many underserved communities have not been able to tap into this resource. Thus, Critical Path AIDS Project has developed its own infrastructure for accessing this vast information highway. Critical Path AIDS Project has created a service that provides access through their own organization as an Internet service provider, networking software to connect to the Internet, and offering applications programs for accessing resources on remote computers. The service is free of charge to individuals in the Philadelphia region so as to reach the underserved communities who also require HIV/AIDS information and resources. The services include direct Internet access, remote login access, file transfer, resource location, electronic mail, mailing lists, Usenet News, conferencing, and access to the World Wide Web. PMID:11363830

  3. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Zongtao Li, Ying Zheng, Xibin Liu, Yan Dai, Jiting Kang, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  4. Fatigue analysis of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing resin-based composite vs. lithium disilicate glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Ankyu, Shuhei; Nakamura, Keisuke; Harada, Akio; Hong, Guang; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Yoshimi; Örtengren, Ulf; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Resin-based composite molar crowns made by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems have been proposed as an inexpensive alternative to metal-ceramic or all-ceramic crowns. However, there is a lack of scientific information regarding fatigue resistance. This study aimed to analyze the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin-based composite compared with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. One-hundred and sixty bar-shaped specimens were fabricated using resin-based composite blocks [Lava Ultimate (LU); 3M/ESPE] and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic [IPS e.max press (EMP); Ivoclar/Vivadent]. The specimens were divided into four groups: no treatment (NT); thermal cycling (TC); mechanical cycling (MC); and thermal cycling followed by mechanical cycling (TCMC). Thermal cycling was performed by alternate immersion in water baths of 5°C and 55°C for 5 × 10(4) cycles. Mechanical cycling was performed in a three-point bending test, with a maximum load of 40 N, for 1.2 × 10(6) cycles. In addition, LU and EMP molar crowns were fabricated and subjected to fatigue treatments followed by load-to-failure testing. The flexural strength of LU was not severely reduced by the fatigue treatments. The fatigue treatments did not significantly affect the fracture resistance of LU molar crowns. The results demonstrate the potential of clinical application of CAD/CAM-generated resin-based composite molar crowns in terms of fatigue resistance. PMID:27203408

  5. Fatigue analysis of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing resin-based composite vs. lithium disilicate glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Ankyu, Shuhei; Nakamura, Keisuke; Harada, Akio; Hong, Guang; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Yoshimi; Örtengren, Ulf; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Resin-based composite molar crowns made by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems have been proposed as an inexpensive alternative to metal-ceramic or all-ceramic crowns. However, there is a lack of scientific information regarding fatigue resistance. This study aimed to analyze the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin-based composite compared with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. One-hundred and sixty bar-shaped specimens were fabricated using resin-based composite blocks [Lava Ultimate (LU); 3M/ESPE] and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic [IPS e.max press (EMP); Ivoclar/Vivadent]. The specimens were divided into four groups: no treatment (NT); thermal cycling (TC); mechanical cycling (MC); and thermal cycling followed by mechanical cycling (TCMC). Thermal cycling was performed by alternate immersion in water baths of 5°C and 55°C for 5 × 10(4) cycles. Mechanical cycling was performed in a three-point bending test, with a maximum load of 40 N, for 1.2 × 10(6) cycles. In addition, LU and EMP molar crowns were fabricated and subjected to fatigue treatments followed by load-to-failure testing. The flexural strength of LU was not severely reduced by the fatigue treatments. The fatigue treatments did not significantly affect the fracture resistance of LU molar crowns. The results demonstrate the potential of clinical application of CAD/CAM-generated resin-based composite molar crowns in terms of fatigue resistance.

  6. Computer aided analysis of prostate histopathology images Gleason grading especially for Gleason score 7*

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jian; Sadimin, Evita T.; Wang, Daihou; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Foran, David J.; Qi, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, prostate adenocarcinoma is diagnosed by recognizing certain morphology on histology. While the Gleason grading system has been shown to be the strongest prognostic factor for men with prostrate adenocarcinoma, there is a significant intra and interobserver variability between pathologists in assigning this grading system. In this study, we present a new method for prostate gland segmentation from which we then utilize to develop a computer aided Gleason grading. The novelty of our method is a region-based nuclei segmentation to get individual gland without using lumen as prior information. Because each gland region is surrounded by nuclei, individual gland can be segmented by using the structure features and Delaunay Triangulation. The precision, recal and F1 of this approach are 0.94±0.11, 0.60±0.23 and 0.70±0.19 respectively. Our method achieves a high accuracy for prostate gland segmentation with less computation time. PMID:26736926

  7. Rubber airplane: Constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Rubber Airplane: Constraint-based Component-Modeling for Knowledge Representation in Computer Aided Conceptual Design are presented. Topics covered include: computer aided design; object oriented programming; airfoil design; surveillance aircraft; commercial aircraft; aircraft design; and launch vehicles.

  8. 78 FR 57371 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Student Aid Internet Gateway (SAIG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Student Aid Internet Gateway (SAIG) Enrollment... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Student Aid Internet Gateway (SAIG...: Enrollment in the Federal Student Aid (FSA) Student Aid Internet Gateway (SAIG) allows eligible entities...

  9. Improving the Accuracy of CT Colonography Interpretation: Computer-Aided Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Computer-aided polyp detection aims to improve the accuracy of the colonography interpretation. The computer searches the colonic wall to look for polyp-like protrusions and presents a list of suspicious areas to a physician for further analysis. Computer-aided polyp detection has developed rapidly over the past decade and in the laboratory setting and has sensitivities comparable to those of experts. Computer-aided polyp detection tends to help inexperienced readers more than experienced ones and may also lead to small reductions in specificity. In its currently proposed use as an adjunct to standard image interpretation, computer-aided polyp detection serves as a spellchecker rather than an efficiency enhancer. PMID:20451814

  10. Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital Screening Mammography with and without Computer-aided Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Constance D.; Wellman, Robert D.; Buist, Diana S.M.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Miglioretti, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    Importance After the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved computer-aided detection (CAD) for mammography in 1998, and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) provided increased payment in 2002, CAD technology disseminated rapidly. Despite sparse evidence that CAD improves accuracy of mammographic interpretations, and costs over $400 million dollars a year, CAD is currently used for the majority of screening mammograms in the U.S. Objective To measure performance of digital screening mammography with and without computer-aided detection in U.S. community practice. Design, Setting and Participants We compared the accuracy of digital screening mammography interpreted with (N=495,818) vs. without (N=129,807) computer-aided detection from 2003 through 2009 in 323,973 women. Mammograms were interpreted by 271 radiologists from 66 facilities in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. Linkage with tumor registries identified 3,159 breast cancers in 323,973 women within one year of the screening. Main Outcomes and Measures Mammography performance (sensitivity, specificity, and screen detected and interval cancers per 1,000 women) was modeled using logistic regression with radiologist-specific random effects to account for correlation among examinations interpreted by the same radiologist, adjusting for patient age, race/ethnicity, time since prior mammogram, exam year, and registry. Conditional logistic regression was used to compare performance among 107 radiologists who interpreted mammograms both with and without computer-aided detection. Results Screening performance was not improved with computer-aided detection on any metric assessed. Mammography sensitivity was 85.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]=83.6–86.9) with and 87.3% (95% CI 84.5–89.7) without computer-aided detection. Specificity was 91.6% (95% CI=91.0–92.2) with and 91.4% (95% CI=90.6–92.0) without computer-aided detection. There was no difference in cancer detection rate (4

  11. AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; Information and Procedural Guidelines for Providing Services to Persons with AIDS/HIV. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Helena. Health Education Bureau.

    This volume consists of updated information to be inserted into a Montana AIDS Project manual on providing services to persons with acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV), originally published in December 1985. The updates are mainly statistics and terminology, along with the addition of several new sections.…

  12. HIV-AIDS Information and the American Library Community: An Overview of Responses to the HIV-AIDS Health Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukenbill, W. Bernard

    This paper presents an overview of how American libraries have responded to the health crisis caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). AIDS information dissemination practices of libraries and the social role which American librarians have articulated regarding their special responsibilities are…

  13. AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Information and Procedural Guidelines for Providing Services to Persons with AIDS/HTLV-III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Helena.

    This manual presents information about the disease, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and guidelines for service delivery to Montana residents who have been diagnosed with AIDS or related disorders. The first section describes the disease's causes, symptoms, and transmission; risk factors; high-risk populations; prevention suggestions;…

  14. A dimension reduction strategy for improving the efficiency of computer-aided detection for CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bowen; Zhang, Guopeng; Wang, Huafeng; Zhu, Wei; Liang, Zhengrong

    2013-02-01

    Various types of features, e.g., geometric features, texture features, projection features etc., have been introduced for polyp detection and differentiation tasks via computer aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) for computed tomography colonography (CTC). Although these features together cover more information of the data, some of them are statistically highly-related to others, which made the feature set redundant and burdened the computation task of CAD. In this paper, we proposed a new dimension reduction method which combines hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) for false positives (FPs) reduction task. First, we group all the features based on their similarity using hierarchical clustering, and then PCA is employed within each group. Different numbers of principal components are selected from each group to form the final feature set. Support vector machine is used to perform the classification. The results show that when three principal components were chosen from each group we can achieve an area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics of 0.905, which is as high as the original dataset. Meanwhile, the computation time is reduced by 70% and the feature set size is reduce by 77%. It can be concluded that the proposed method captures the most important information of the feature set and the classification accuracy is not affected after the dimension reduction. The result is promising and further investigation, such as automatically threshold setting, are worthwhile and are under progress.

  15. Effectiveness of Computer-Aided Detection in Community Mammography Practice

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Linn; Taplin, Stephen H.; Geller, Berta M.; Carney, Patricia A.; D’Orsi, Carl; Elmore, Joann G.; Barlow, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Computer-aided detection (CAD) is applied during screening mammography for millions of US women annually, although it is uncertain whether CAD improves breast cancer detection when used by community radiologists. Methods We investigated the association between CAD use during film-screen screening mammography and specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, cancer detection rates, and prognostic characteristics of breast cancers (stage, size, and node involvement). Records from 684 956 women who received more than 1.6 million film-screen mammograms at Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium facilities in seven states in the United States from 1998 to 2006 were analyzed. We used random-effects logistic regression to estimate associations between CAD and specificity (true-negative examinations among women without breast cancer), sensitivity (true-positive examinations among women with breast cancer diagnosed within 1 year of mammography), and positive predictive value (breast cancer diagnosed after positive mammograms) while adjusting for mammography registry, patient age, time since previous mammography, breast density, use of hormone replacement therapy, and year of examination (1998–2002 vs 2003–2006). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Of 90 total facilities, 25 (27.8%) adopted CAD and used it for an average of 27.5 study months. In adjusted analyses, CAD use was associated with statistically significantly lower specificity (OR = 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85 to 0.89, P < .001) and positive predictive value (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.80 to 0.99, P = .03). A non-statistically significant increase in overall sensitivity with CAD (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.84 to 1.33, P = .62) was attributed to increased sensitivity for ductal carcinoma in situ (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 0.83 to 2.91; P = .17), although sensitivity for invasive cancer was similar with or without CAD (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.75 to 1.24; P = .77). CAD was not associated with

  16. Assessment of optical localizer accuracy for computer aided surgery systems.

    PubMed

    Elfring, Robert; de la Fuente, Matías; Radermacher, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The technology for localization of surgical tools with respect to the patient's reference coordinate system in three to six degrees of freedom is one of the key components in computer aided surgery. Several tracking methods are available, of which optical tracking is the most widespread in clinical use. Optical tracking technology has proven to be a reliable method for intra-operative position and orientation acquisition in many clinical applications; however, the accuracy of such localizers is still a topic of discussion. In this paper, the accuracy of three optical localizer systems, the NDI Polaris P4, the NDI Polaris Spectra (in active and passive mode) and the Stryker Navigation System II camera, is assessed and compared critically. Static tests revealed that only the Polaris P4 shows significant warm-up behavior, with a significant shift of accuracy being observed within 42 minutes of being switched on. Furthermore, the intrinsic localizer accuracy was determined for single markers as well as for tools using a volumetric measurement protocol on a coordinate measurement machine. To determine the relative distance error within the measurement volume, the Length Measurement Error (LME) was determined at 35 test lengths. As accuracy depends strongly on the marker configuration employed, the error to be expected in typical clinical setups was estimated in a simulation for different tool configurations. The two active localizer systems, the Stryker Navigation System II camera and the Polaris Spectra (active mode), showed the best results, with trueness values (mean +/- standard deviation) of 0.058 +/- 0.033 mm and 0.089 +/- 0.061 mm, respectively. The Polaris Spectra (passive mode) showed a trueness of 0.170 +/- 0.090 mm, and the Polaris P4 showed the lowest trueness at 0.272 +/- 0.394 mm with a higher number of outliers than for the other cameras. The simulation of the different tool configurations in a typical clinical setup revealed that the tracking error can

  17. Improved mammographic interpretation of masses using computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Leichter, I; Fields, S; Nirel, R; Bamberger, P; Novak, B; Lederman, R; Buchbinder, S

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of computerized image enhancement, to investigate criteria for discriminating benign from malignant mammographic findings by computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), and to test the role of quantitative analysis in improving the accuracy of interpretation of mass lesions. Forty sequential mammographically detected mass lesions referred for biopsy were digitized at high resolution for computerized evaluation. A prototype CAD system which included image enhancement algorithms was used for a better visualization of the lesions. Quantitative features which characterize the spiculation were automatically extracted by the CAD system for a user-defined region of interest (ROI). Reference ranges for malignant and benign cases were acquired from data generated by 214 known retrospective cases. The extracted parameters together with the reference ranges were presented to the radiologist for the analysis of 40 prospective cases. A pattern recognition scheme based on discriminant analysis was trained on the 214 retrospective cases, and applied to the prospective cases. Accuracy of interpretation with and without the CAD system, as well as the performance of the pattern recognition scheme, were analyzed using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. A significant difference (p < 0.005) was found between features extracted by the CAD system for benign and malignant cases. Specificity of the CAD-assisted diagnosis improved significantly (p < 0.02) from 14 % for the conventional assessment to 50 %, and the positive predictive value increased from 0.47 to 0.62 (p < 0.04). The area under the ROC curve (A(z)) increased significantly (p < 0. 001) from 0.66 for the conventional assessment to 0.81 for the CAD-assisted analysis. The A(z) for the results of the pattern recognition scheme was higher (0.95). The results indicate that there is an improved accuracy of diagnosis with the use of the mammographic CAD system above that of the

  18. Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Custom-Made Titanium Prosthesis: A Case Report on the Use of Virtual Surgical Planning and Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ow, Andrew; Tan, Winston; Pienkowski, Lukasz

    2016-09-01

    The use of virtual surgical planning and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing has been reported to enhance the planning for the reconstruction of mandibular continuity defects. This case report illustrates the use of this technology in the fabrication of a custom-made titanium prosthesis to restore a segmental mandibular defect. The design specifications and sequence of the custom-made titanium prosthesis are discussed. Although successful in this case, there are limitations in its application and case selection is of vital importance. PMID:27516841

  19. Predictable Restorative Work Flow for Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacture-Fabricated Ceramic Veneers Utilizing a Virtual Smile Design Principle.

    PubMed

    Lin, W S; Zandinejad, A; Metz, M J; Harris, B T; Morton, D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case report was to present the use of a contemporary digital photograph-assisted virtual smile design principle, an intraoral digital impression, and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture-fabricated lithium disilicate ceramic veneers to treat a patient with esthetic needs in the maxillary anterior region. By using the proposed digital restorative work flow, this case report demonstrated an effective communication pathway between the patient, clinician, and dental laboratory technician. Effective communication can help to achieve a more predictable and satisfactory esthetic outcome.

  20. Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Custom-Made Titanium Prosthesis: A Case Report on the Use of Virtual Surgical Planning and Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ow, Andrew; Tan, Winston; Pienkowski, Lukasz

    2016-09-01

    The use of virtual surgical planning and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing has been reported to enhance the planning for the reconstruction of mandibular continuity defects. This case report illustrates the use of this technology in the fabrication of a custom-made titanium prosthesis to restore a segmental mandibular defect. The design specifications and sequence of the custom-made titanium prosthesis are discussed. Although successful in this case, there are limitations in its application and case selection is of vital importance.

  1. Computer-aided classification of lung nodules on computed tomography images via deep learning technique.

    PubMed

    Hua, Kai-Lung; Hsu, Che-Hao; Hidayati, Shintami Chusnul; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has a poor prognosis when not diagnosed early and unresectable lesions are present. The management of small lung nodules noted on computed tomography scan is controversial due to uncertain tumor characteristics. A conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme requires several image processing and pattern recognition steps to accomplish a quantitative tumor differentiation result. In such an ad hoc image analysis pipeline, every step depends heavily on the performance of the previous step. Accordingly, tuning of classification performance in a conventional CAD scheme is very complicated and arduous. Deep learning techniques, on the other hand, have the intrinsic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature and tuning of performance in a seamless fashion. In this study, we attempted to simplify the image analysis pipeline of conventional CAD with deep learning techniques. Specifically, we introduced models of a deep belief network and a convolutional neural network in the context of nodule classification in computed tomography images. Two baseline methods with feature computing steps were implemented for comparison. The experimental results suggest that deep learning methods could achieve better discriminative results and hold promise in the CAD application domain.

  2. Computer-aided classification of lung nodules on computed tomography images via deep learning technique

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Kai-Lung; Hsu, Che-Hao; Hidayati, Shintami Chusnul; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has a poor prognosis when not diagnosed early and unresectable lesions are present. The management of small lung nodules noted on computed tomography scan is controversial due to uncertain tumor characteristics. A conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme requires several image processing and pattern recognition steps to accomplish a quantitative tumor differentiation result. In such an ad hoc image analysis pipeline, every step depends heavily on the performance of the previous step. Accordingly, tuning of classification performance in a conventional CAD scheme is very complicated and arduous. Deep learning techniques, on the other hand, have the intrinsic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature and tuning of performance in a seamless fashion. In this study, we attempted to simplify the image analysis pipeline of conventional CAD with deep learning techniques. Specifically, we introduced models of a deep belief network and a convolutional neural network in the context of nodule classification in computed tomography images. Two baseline methods with feature computing steps were implemented for comparison. The experimental results suggest that deep learning methods could achieve better discriminative results and hold promise in the CAD application domain. PMID:26346558

  3. Molecular structure descriptors in the computer-aided design of biologically active compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raevsky, Oleg A.

    1999-06-01

    The current state of description of molecular structure in computer-aided molecular design of biologically active compounds by means of descriptors is analysed. The information contents of descriptors increases in the following sequence: element-level descriptors-structural formulae descriptors-electronic structure descriptors-molecular shape descriptors-intermolecular interaction descriptors. Each subsequent class of descriptors normally covers information contained in the previous-level ones. It is emphasised that it is practically impossible to describe all the features of a molecular structure in terms of any single class of descriptors. It is recommended to optimise the number of descriptors used by means of appropriate statistical procedures and characteristics of structure-property models based on these descriptors. The bibliography includes 371 references.

  4. Computer virus information update CIAC-2301

    SciTech Connect

    Orvis, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

  5. Effect of Computer-Presented Organizational/Memory Aids on Problem Solving Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Esther R.; And Others

    This research studied the effects of computer-presented organizational/memory aids on problem solving behavior. The aids were either matrix or verbal charts shown on the display screen next to the problem. The 104 college student subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions: type of chart (matrix or verbal chart) and use of charts…

  6. Computers in engineering 1983; Proceedings of the International Conference and Exhibit, Chicago, IL, August 7-11, 1983. Volume 1 - Computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokonis, T. J.

    The papers presented in this volume provide examples of the impact of computers on present engineering practice and indicate some future trends in computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation. Topics discussed include computer-aided design of turbine cycle configuration, managing and development of engineering computer systems, computer-aided manufacturing with robots in the automotive industry, and computer-aided design/analysis techniques of composite materials in the cure phase. Papers are also presented on computer simulation of vehicular propulsion systems, the performance of a hydraulic system simulator in a CAD environment, and computer simulation of hovercraft heave dynamics and control.

  7. Ideas in Practice (1): Two Undergraduate Courses in Computer-Aided Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenves, S. J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Introduces two courses for developing relevant computer use in a civil engineering department. The sophomore course introduces students to a set of problem-formulation methods and computer-based problem-solving tools. The senior course introduces students to representative, professional quality computer-aided engineering tools. Discusses impact of…

  8. Virtual Reality versus Computer-Aided Exposure Treatments for Fear of Flying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Botella, Cristina; Llabres, Jordi; Breton-Lopez, Juana Maria; del Amo, Antonio Riera; Banos, Rosa M.; Gelabert, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is growing that two modalities of computer-based exposure therapies--virtual reality and computer-aided psychotherapy--are effective in treating anxiety disorders, including fear of flying. However, they have not yet been directly compared. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of three computer-based exposure treatments for…

  9. Technology's Edge: The Educational Benefits of Computer-Aided Instruction. NBER Working Paper No. 14240

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lisa; Markman, Lisa; Rouse, Cecilia E.

    2008-01-01

    We present results from a randomized study of a well-defined use of computers in schools: a popular instructional computer program for pre-algebra and algebra. We assess the program using a test designed to target pre-algebra and algebra skills. Students randomly assigned to computer-aided instruction score 0.17 of a standard deviation higher on…

  10. Retinal vessel detection and measurement for computer-aided medical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaokun; Wee, William G

    2014-02-01

    Since blood vessel detection and characteristic measurement for ocular retinal images is a fundamental problem in computer-aided medical diagnosis, automated algorithms/systems for vessel detection and measurement are always demanded. To support computer-aided diagnosis, an integrated approach/solution for vessel detection and diameter measurement is presented and validated. In the proposed approach, a Dempster-Shafer (D-S)-based edge detector is developed to obtain initial vessel edge information and an accurate vascular map for a retinal image. Then, the appropriate path and the centerline of a vessel of interest are identified automatically through graph search. Once the vessel path has been identified, the diameter of the vessel will be measured accordingly by the algorithm in real time. To achieve more accurate edge detection and diameter measurement, mixed Gaussian-matched filters are designed to refine the initial detection and measures. Other important medical indices of retinal vessels can also be calculated accordingly based on detection and measurement results. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was validated by the retinal images obtained from different public databases. Experimental results show that the vessel detection rate of the algorithm is 100 % for large vessels and 89.9 % for small vessels, and the error rate on vessel diameter measurement is less than 5 %, which are all well within the acceptable range of deviation among the human graders.

  11. Computer-aided Molecular Design of Compounds Targeting Histone Modifying Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Federico; Del Rio, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidences show that epigenetic mechanisms play crucial roles in the genesis and progression of many physiopathological processes. As a result, research in epigenetic grew at a fast pace in the last decade. In particular, the study of histone post-translational modifications encountered an extraordinary progression and many modifications have been characterized and associated to fundamental biological processes and pathological conditions. Histone modifications are the catalytic result of a large set of enzyme families that operate covalent modifications on specific residues at the histone tails. Taken together, these modifications elicit a complex and concerted processing that greatly contribute to the chromatin remodeling and may drive different pathological conditions, especially cancer. For this reason, several epigenetic targets are currently under validation for drug discovery purposes and different academic and industrial programs have been already launched to produce the first pre-clinical and clinical outcomes. In this scenario, computer-aided molecular design techniques are offering important tools, mainly as a consequence of the increasing structural information available for these targets. In this mini-review we will briefly discuss the most common types of known histone modifications and the corresponding operating enzymes by emphasizing the computer-aided molecular design approaches that can be of use to speed-up the efforts to generate new pharmaceutically relevant compounds. PMID:26082827

  12. Computer-aided Molecular Design of Compounds Targeting Histone Modifying Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, Federico; Del Rio, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidences show that epigenetic mechanisms play crucial roles in the genesis and progression of many physiopathological processes. As a result, research in epigenetic grew at a fast pace in the last decade. In particular, the study of histone post-translational modifications encountered an extraordinary progression and many modifications have been characterized and associated to fundamental biological processes and pathological conditions. Histone modifications are the catalytic result of a large set of enzyme families that operate covalent modifications on specific residues at the histone tails. Taken together, these modifications elicit a complex and concerted processing that greatly contribute to the chromatin remodeling and may drive different pathological conditions, especially cancer. For this reason, several epigenetic targets are currently under validation for drug discovery purposes and different academic and industrial programs have been already launched to produce the first pre-clinical and clinical outcomes. In this scenario, computer-aided molecular design techniques are offering important tools, mainly as a consequence of the increasing structural information available for these targets. In this mini-review we will briefly discuss the most common types of known histone modifications and the corresponding operating enzymes by emphasizing the computer-aided molecular design approaches that can be of use to speed-up the efforts to generate new pharmaceutically relevant compounds.

  13. Macros for the Production of Simple Computer-Aided Instruction Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trickey, Keith V.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the creation and use of macros for simple computer-aided instruction using the Open Access integrated software from SPI (Software Products International, UK). Sample screen displays are included. (MES)

  14. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER AIDED TOMOGRAPHY (CAT) TO THE STUDY OF MARINE BENTIC COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores were imaged using a Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) scanner at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. Procedures were developed, using the attenuation of X-rays, to differentiate between sediment and the water contained in macrobenthic...

  15. Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries for Designing Better Li-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Lee, K. J.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-02-01

    This presentation describes the current status of the DOE's Energy Storage R and D program, including modeling and design tools and the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) program.

  16. Utilizing computerized entertainment education in the development of decision aids for lower literate and naïve computer users.

    PubMed

    Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L; Volk, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Decision aids have been developed by using various delivery methods, including interactive computer programs. Such programs, however, still rely heavily on written information, health and digital literacy, and reading ease. We describe an approach to overcome these potential barriers for low-literate, underserved populations by making design considerations for poor readers and naïve computer users and by using concepts from entertainment education to engage the user and to contextualize the content for the user. The system design goals are to make the program both didactic and entertaining and the navigation and graphical user interface as simple as possible. One entertainment education strategy, the soap opera, is linked seamlessly to interactive learning modules to enhance the content of the soap opera episodes. The edutainment decision aid model (EDAM) guides developers through the design process. Although designing patient decision aids that are educational, entertaining, and targeted toward poor readers and those with limited computer skills is a complex task, it is a promising strategy for aiding this population. Entertainment education may be a highly effective approach to promoting informed decision making for patients with low health literacy.

  17. Utilizing computerized entertainment education in the development of decision aids for lower literate and naïve computer users.

    PubMed

    Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L; Volk, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Decision aids have been developed by using various delivery methods, including interactive computer programs. Such programs, however, still rely heavily on written information, health and digital literacy, and reading ease. We describe an approach to overcome these potential barriers for low-literate, underserved populations by making design considerations for poor readers and naïve computer users and by using concepts from entertainment education to engage the user and to contextualize the content for the user. The system design goals are to make the program both didactic and entertaining and the navigation and graphical user interface as simple as possible. One entertainment education strategy, the soap opera, is linked seamlessly to interactive learning modules to enhance the content of the soap opera episodes. The edutainment decision aid model (EDAM) guides developers through the design process. Although designing patient decision aids that are educational, entertaining, and targeted toward poor readers and those with limited computer skills is a complex task, it is a promising strategy for aiding this population. Entertainment education may be a highly effective approach to promoting informed decision making for patients with low health literacy. PMID:17934944

  18. Progress of the Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A. A.; Han, T.; Hartridge, S.; Shaffer, C.; Kim, G. H.; Pannala, S.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation, Progress of Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) is about simulation and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools that are widely used to speed up the research and development cycle and reduce the number of build-and-break steps, particularly in the automotive industry. Realizing this, DOE?s Vehicle Technologies Program initiated the CAEBAT project in April 2010 to develop a suite of software tools for designing batteries.

  19. Semiotics, Information Science, Documents and Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Julian

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the relationship and value of semiotics to the established domains of information science. Highlights include documentation; computer operations; the language of computing; automata theory; linguistics; speech and writing; and the written language as a unifying principle for the document and the computer. (93 references) (LRW)

  20. Computer Aided Assessment and Development of Basic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Iain; Overheu, Don

    1977-01-01

    The advantages of applying computer techniques to assessment and development of basic skills in mildly intellectually handicapped children are discussed, and several applications of computer devices to instruction are described. (SBH)

  1. Computer aided detection of surgical retained foreign object for prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir Marentis, Theodore C.; Rondon, Lucas; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chaudhury, Amrita R.; Chronis, Nikolaos

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Surgical retained foreign objects (RFOs) have significant morbidity and mortality. They are associated with approximately $1.5 × 10{sup 9} annually in preventable medical costs. The detection accuracy of radiographs for RFOs is a mediocre 59%. The authors address the RFO problem with two complementary technologies: a three-dimensional (3D) gossypiboma micro tag, the μTag that improves the visibility of RFOs on radiographs, and a computer aided detection (CAD) system that detects the μTag. It is desirable for the CAD system to operate in a high specificity mode in the operating room (OR) and function as a first reader for the surgeon. This allows for fast point of care results and seamless workflow integration. The CAD system can also operate in a high sensitivity mode as a second reader for the radiologist to ensure the highest possible detection accuracy. Methods: The 3D geometry of the μTag produces a similar two dimensional (2D) depiction on radiographs regardless of its orientation in the human body and ensures accurate detection by a radiologist and the CAD. The authors created a data set of 1800 cadaver images with the 3D μTag and other common man-made surgical objects positioned randomly. A total of 1061 cadaver images contained a single μTag and the remaining 739 were without μTag. A radiologist marked the location of the μTag using an in-house developed graphical user interface. The data set was partitioned into three independent subsets: a training set, a validation set, and a test set, consisting of 540, 560, and 700 images, respectively. A CAD system with modules that included preprocessing μTag enhancement, labeling, segmentation, feature analysis, classification, and detection was developed. The CAD system was developed using the training and the validation sets. Results: On the training set, the CAD achieved 81.5% sensitivity with 0.014 false positives (FPs) per image in a high specificity mode for the surgeons in the OR and 96

  2. Computer-aided analysis of Skylab scanner data for land use mapping, forestry and water resource applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Skylab data were obtained over a mountainous test site containing a complex association of cover types and rugged topography. The application of computer-aided analysis techniques to the multispectral scanner data produced a number of significant results. Techniques were developed to digitally overlay topographic data (elevation, slope, and aspect) onto the S-192 MSS data to provide a method for increasing the effectiveness and accuracy of computer-aided analysis techniques for cover type mapping. The S-192 MSS data were analyzed using computer techniques developed at Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing (LARS), Purdue University. Land use maps, forest cover type maps, snow cover maps, and area tabulations were obtained and evaluated. These results compared very well with information obtained by conventional techniques. Analysis of the spectral characteristics of Skylab data has conclusively proven the value of the middle infrared portion of the spectrum (about 1.3-3.0 micrometers), a wavelength region not previously available in multispectral satellite data.

  3. New Information Dispersal Techniques for Trustworthy Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parakh, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    Information dispersal algorithms (IDA) are used for distributed data storage because they simultaneously provide security, reliability and space efficiency, constituting a trustworthy computing framework for many critical applications, such as cloud computing, in the information society. In the most general sense, this is achieved by dividing data…

  4. Producing geological illustrations using pc-based computer-aided drafting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Kenneth L.; Cameron, Debra D.; Kelleher, Patrick C.

    Computer-aided drafting (CAD) software for IBM-compatible personal computers now has the power to produce complex illustrations such as geologic maps. Applications programs can be written that automate repetitive drafting tasks; nevertheless, it may take as long to enter the illustration in the computer as it would take to draft by hand. Once entered, however, the time required to edit and update the illustration may be reduced greatly compared to traditional methods. In addition, maps and other illustrations can be plotted at practically any scale with information shown appropriate for that scale. Areas can be "windowed" and plotted individually, and combinations of data (layers) can be plotted to produce a variety of illustrations from a single drawing file. The quality of the final product can equal or exceed that of traditional drafting. Beyond these basic applications, CAD software can perform graphics-related tasks that would otherwise be difficult or impossible. Such tasks include manipulating USGS digital maps, and interfacing with large textual databases to form geographic information systems.

  5. Computer-Aided Performance Training for Diagnostic and Procedural Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigney, Joseph W.; And Others

    Two computer programs for computer-assisted performance training were developed to give the students the opportunity for concentrated practice of troubleshooting and procedural tasks in naval electronics. In contrast to the usual approach taken in computer-assisted instruction (CAI), these programs simulate essential aspects of devices and tasks…

  6. Variance Analysis and Comparison in Computer-Aided Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, T.; Schiffer, T.; Schinko, C.; Fellner, D. W.

    2011-09-01

    The need to analyze and visualize differences of very similar objects arises in many research areas: mesh compression, scan alignment, nominal/actual value comparison, quality management, and surface reconstruction to name a few. In computer graphics, for example, differences of surfaces are used for analyzing mesh processing algorithms such as mesh compression. They are also used to validate reconstruction and fitting results of laser scanned surfaces. As laser scanning has become very important for the acquisition and preservation of artifacts, scanned representations are used for documentation as well as analysis of ancient objects. Detailed mesh comparisons can reveal smallest changes and damages. These analysis and documentation tasks are needed not only in the context of cultural heritage but also in engineering and manufacturing. Differences of surfaces are analyzed to check the quality of productions. Our contribution to this problem is a workflow, which compares a reference / nominal surface with an actual, laser-scanned data set. The reference surface is a procedural model whose accuracy and systematics describe the semantic properties of an object; whereas the laser-scanned object is a real-world data set without any additional semantic information.

  7. Human factors of intelligent computer aided display design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Design concepts for a decision support system being studied at NASA Langley as an aid to visual display unit (VDU) designers are described. Ideally, human factors should be taken into account by VDU designers. In reality, although the human factors database on VDUs is small, such systems must be constantly developed. Human factors are therefore a secondary consideration. An expert system will thus serve mainly in an advisory capacity. Functions can include facilitating the design process by shortening the time to generate and alter drawings, enhancing the capability of breaking design requirements down into simpler functions, and providing visual displays equivalent to the final product. The VDU system could also discriminate, and display the difference, between designer decisions and machine inferences. The system could also aid in analyzing the effects of designer choices on future options and in ennunciating when there are data available on a design selections.

  8. NO-FEAR Airlines: A Computer-aided Self-help Treatment for Flying Phobia.

    PubMed

    Quero, Soledad; Campos, Daniel; Riera Del Amo, Antonio; Bretón-López, Juana; Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Baños, Rosa Ma; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    In vivo exposure is the treatment of choice for specific phobias. However, this treatment is linked to a number of limitations in its implementation. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies for improving treatment adherence, acceptance, and dissemination of evidence-based treatments. Information and Communication Technologies, specifically, computerized programs boast advantages in treating flying phobia. NO-FEAR Airlines is a Computer-aided Self-help Treatment for this problem, which can be self-applied via Internet. NO-FEAR Airlines treatment protocol comprises three therapeutic components: psychoeducation, exposure and overlearning. Exposure is carried out through 6 scenarios that are composed by images and real sounds related to a flight in process. The aim of the present work is to describe NO-FEAR Airlines program. PMID:26799907

  9. Reindeer range inventory in western Alaska from computer-aided digital classification of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T. H.; Stringer, W. J.; Baldridge, J. N.

    1977-01-01

    An inventory of reindeer-range resources was conducted for the USDA Soil Conservation Service of 1.6 million hectares of wildlands in western Alaska using clustering techniques with digital Landsat data. Computer-aided digital analysis produced a provisional map of rangeland types which was used to design the field collection of vegetation and soil types data. This field data facilitated refinement of the inventory map and was used to describe the map units. The informational classes important to range resources were wet, moist and alpine tundra, tidal marsh, brush and open spruce forest. A significant feature of the study was the extraction of acreage figures by administrative boundaries within the study area. In addition to soil and vegetation association map products (at scales of 1:250,000 and 1:63,360) acreage values were tallied from the digital data for each of the four grazing permit areas established by the Bureau of Land Management.

  10. Predictive deconvolution and hybrid feature selection for computer-aided detection of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Simona; Palladini, Alessandro; Marchi, Luca De; Alessandrini, Martino; Speciale, Nicolò; Masetti, Guido

    2010-02-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes are decision making support tools, useful to overcome limitations of problematic clinical procedures. Trans-rectal ultrasound image based CAD would be extremely important to support prostate cancer diagnosis. An effective approach to realize a CAD scheme for this purpose is described in this work, employing a multi-feature kernel classification model based on generalized discriminant analysis. The mutual information of feature value and tissue pathological state is used to select features essential for tissue characterization. System-dependent effects are reduced through predictive deconvolution of the acquired radio-frequency signals. A clinical study, performed on ground truth images from biopsy findings, provides a comparison of the classification model applied before and after deconvolution, showing in the latter case a significant gain in accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.

  11. Computer-Aided Assessment of Tumor Grade for Breast Cancer in Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study involved developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for discriminating the grades of breast cancer tumors in ultrasound (US) images. Histological tumor grades of breast cancer lesions are standard prognostic indicators. Tumor grade information enables physicians to determine appropriate treatments for their patients. US imaging is a noninvasive approach to breast cancer examination. In this study, 148 3-dimensional US images of malignant breast tumors were obtained. Textural, morphological, ellipsoid fitting, and posterior acoustic features were quantified to characterize the tumor masses. A support vector machine was developed to classify breast tumor grades as either low or high. The proposed CAD system achieved an accuracy of 85.14% (126/148), a sensitivity of 79.31% (23/29), a specificity of 86.55% (103/119), and an AZ of 0.7940. PMID:25810750

  12. Computer-aided assessment of tumor grade for breast cancer in ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dar-Ren; Chien, Cheng-Liang; Kuo, Yan-Fu

    2015-01-01

    This study involved developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for discriminating the grades of breast cancer tumors in ultrasound (US) images. Histological tumor grades of breast cancer lesions are standard prognostic indicators. Tumor grade information enables physicians to determine appropriate treatments for their patients. US imaging is a noninvasive approach to breast cancer examination. In this study, 148 3-dimensional US images of malignant breast tumors were obtained. Textural, morphological, ellipsoid fitting, and posterior acoustic features were quantified to characterize the tumor masses. A support vector machine was developed to classify breast tumor grades as either low or high. The proposed CAD system achieved an accuracy of 85.14% (126/148), a sensitivity of 79.31% (23/29), a specificity of 86.55% (103/119), and an A Z of 0.7940.

  13. Computer-aided design of dry powder inhalers using computational fluid dynamics to assess performance.

    PubMed

    Suwandecha, Tan; Wongpoowarak, Wibul; Srichana, Teerapol

    2016-01-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are gaining popularity for the delivery of drugs. A cost effective and efficient delivery device is necessary. Developing new DPIs by modifying an existing device may be the simplest way to improve the performance of the devices. The aim of this research was to produce a new DPIs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The new DPIs took advantages of the Cyclohaler® and the Rotahaler®. We chose a combination of the capsule chamber of the Cyclohaler® and the mouthpiece and grid of the Rotahaler®. Computer-aided design models of the devices were created and evaluated using CFD. Prototype models were created and tested with the DPI dispersion experiments. The proposed model 3 device had a high turbulence with a good degree of deagglomeration in the CFD and the experiment data. The %fine particle fraction (FPF) was around 50% at 60 L/min. The mass median aerodynamic diameter was around 2.8-4 μm. The FPF were strongly correlated to the CFD-predicted turbulence and the mechanical impaction parameters. The drug retention in the capsule was only 5-7%. In summary, a simple modification of the Cyclohaler® and Rotahaler® could produce a better performing inhaler using the CFD-assisted design.

  14. Teaching "Filing Rules"--Via Computer-Aided Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agneberg, Craig

    A computer software package has been developed to teach and test students on the Rules for Alphabetical Filing of the Association of Records Managers and Administrators (ARMA). The following computer assisted instruction principles were used in developing the program: gaining attention, stating objectives, providing direction, reviewing…

  15. Computer-aided simulation study of photomultiplier tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaghloul, Mona E.; Rhee, Do Jun

    1989-01-01

    A computer model that simulates the response of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and the associated voltage divider circuit is developed. An equivalent circuit that approximates the operation of the device is derived and then used to develop a computer simulation of the PMT. Simulation results are presented and discussed.

  16. Content and Strategies for Teaching Computer Aided Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    A Delphi panel of 15 experts determined that (1) computer-assisted drafting (CAD) and traditional drafting are complementary; (2) differences in teaching strategies related to use of computers versus traditional drafting instruments; and (3) traditional drafting knowledge and skills are very important for CAD. (SK)

  17. COFLO: A Computer Aid for Teaching Ecological Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le vow, Roy B.

    A computer-assisted course was designed to provide students with an understanding of modeling and simulation techniques in quantitiative ecology. It deals with continuous systems and has two segments. One develops mathematical and computer tools, beginning with abstract systems and their relation to physical systems. Modeling principles are next…

  18. A Computer-Aided Writing Program for Learning Disabled Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fais, Laurie; Wanderman, Richard

    The paper describes the application of a computer-assisted writing program in a special high school for learning disabled and dyslexic students and reports on a study of the program's effectiveness. Particular advantages of the Macintosh Computer for such a program are identified including use of the mouse pointing tool, graphic icons to identify…

  19. The state of PC-based CADD (computer-aided design and drafting) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, G.L.; Bowers, J.M.; Gorman, T.S.; Taylor, L.E.

    1988-07-11

    This report provides an overview of the state of the art of personal computer (PC)-based computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems for mechanical engineering applications. It presents the results of an evaluation performed on seven systems during October 1987 to March 1988 and summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of the systems.

  20. Web-Based Learning in the Computer-Aided Design Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Wen-Tsai; Ou, S. C.

    2002-01-01

    Applies principles of constructivism and virtual reality (VR) to computer-aided design (CAD) curriculum, particularly engineering, by integrating network, VR and CAD technologies into a Web-based learning environment that expands traditional two-dimensional computer graphics into a three-dimensional real-time simulation that enhances user…

  1. A Computer-Aided Self-Testing System for Biological Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiblum, M. D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the production of a computer-aided, self-testing system for university students enrolled in a first-year course in biological psychology. Project aspects described include selection, acquisition and description of software; question banks and test structures; modes of use (computer or printed version); evaluation; and future plans. (11…

  2. WWC Quick Review of the Article "Technology's Edge: The Educational Benefits of Computer-Aided Instruction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The study, "Technology's Edge: The Educational Benefits of Computer-Aided Instruction," examined whether the "I CAN Learn"[R] computer-based curriculum is more effective than traditional classroom instruction at teaching pre-algebra and algebra concepts to middle- and high-school students. The study included about 1,600 students in 15 high schools…

  3. Computer-Aided College Algebra: Learning Components that Students Find Beneficial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aichele, Douglas B.; Francisco, Cynthia; Utley, Juliana; Wescoatt, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    A mixed-method study was conducted during the Fall 2008 semester to better understand the experiences of students participating in computer-aided instruction of College Algebra using the software MyMathLab. The learning environment included a computer learning system for the majority of the instruction, a support system via focus groups (weekly…

  4. Using Computer-Aided Instruction to Support the Systematic Practice of Phonological Skills in Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a randomised control trial investigating the use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) for practising phonological awareness skills with beginning readers. Two intervention groups followed the same phonological awareness programme: one group undertook practice exercises using a computer and the other group undertook…

  5. Computer aided design of prosthetic sockets for below-knee amputees.

    PubMed

    Saunders, C G; Foort, J; Bannon, M; Lean, D; Panych, L

    1985-04-01

    A computer-aided sculpting system for use in prosthetics is described. The prosthetist's sculpting tools now consist of a computer, a graphics terminal, a mouse and an on-screen moveable cursor. Accompanied by the system software, these tools allow systematic modification of a primitive socket using techniques analogous to those used by a prosthetist working with rasps and plaster.

  6. Evaluation of computer-aided instruction in a gross anatomy course: a six-year study.

    PubMed

    McNulty, John A; Sonntag, Beth; Sinacore, James M

    2009-01-01

    Web-based computer-aided instruction (CAI) has become increasingly important to medical curricula. This multi-year study investigated the effectiveness of CAI and the factors affecting level of individual use. Three CAI were tested that differed in specificity of applicability to the curriculum and in the level of student interaction with the CAI. Student personality preferences and learning styles were measured using the Meyers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI). Information on "computer literacy" and use of CAI was collected from student surveys. Server logs were used to quantify individual use of respective CAI. There was considerable variability in the level of utilization of each CAI by individual students. Individual use of each CAI differed and was associated with gender, MBTI preferences and learning style, but not with "computer literacy." The majority of students found the CAI useful for learning and used the CAI by themselves. Students who accessed the CAI resources most frequently scored significantly higher on exams compared with students who never accessed the resources. Our results show that medical students do not uniformly use CAI developed for their curriculum and this variability is associated with various attributes of individual students. Our data also provide evidence of the importance of understanding student preferences and learning styles when implementing CAI into the curriculum. PMID:19217066

  7. Computing Information Value from RDF Graph Properties

    SciTech Connect

    al-Saffar, Sinan; Heileman, Gregory

    2010-11-08

    Information value has been implicitly utilized and mostly non-subjectively computed in information retrieval (IR) systems. We explicitly define and compute the value of an information piece as a function of two parameters, the first is the potential semantic impact the target information can subjectively have on its recipient's world-knowledge, and the second parameter is trust in the information source. We model these two parameters as properties of RDF graphs. Two graphs are constructed, a target graph representing the semantics of the target body of information and a context graph representing the context of the consumer of that information. We compute information value subjectively as a function of both potential change to the context graph (impact) and the overlap between the two graphs (trust). Graph change is computed as a graph edit distance measuring the dissimilarity between the context graph before and after the learning of the target graph. A particular application of this subjective information valuation is in the construction of a personalized ranking component in Web search engines. Based on our method, we construct a Web re-ranking system that personalizes the information experience for the information-consumer.

  8. Computer aided manual validation of mass spectrometry-based proteomic data.

    PubMed

    Curran, Timothy G; Bryson, Bryan D; Reigelhaupt, Michael; Johnson, Hannah; White, Forest M

    2013-06-15

    Advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomic technologies have increased the speed of analysis and the depth provided by a single analysis. Computational tools to evaluate the accuracy of peptide identifications from these high-throughput analyses have not kept pace with technological advances; currently the most common quality evaluation methods are based on statistical analysis of the likelihood of false positive identifications in large-scale data sets. While helpful, these calculations do not consider the accuracy of each identification, thus creating a precarious situation for biologists relying on the data to inform experimental design. Manual validation is the gold standard approach to confirm accuracy of database identifications, but is extremely time-intensive. To palliate the increasing time required to manually validate large proteomic datasets, we provide computer aided manual validation software (CAMV) to expedite the process. Relevant spectra are collected, catalogued, and pre-labeled, allowing users to efficiently judge the quality of each identification and summarize applicable quantitative information. CAMV significantly reduces the burden associated with manual validation and will hopefully encourage broader adoption of manual validation in mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

  9. A Comprehensive Computer-Aided Polyp Detection System for Colonoscopy Videos.

    PubMed

    Tajbakhsh, Nima; Gurudu, Suryakanth R; Liang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) can help colonoscopists reduce their polyp miss-rate, but existing CAD systems are handicapped by using either shape, texture, or temporal information for detecting polyps, achieving limited sensitivity and specificity. To overcome this limitation, our key contribution of this paper is to fuse all possible polyp features by exploiting the strengths of each feature while minimizing its weaknesses. Our new CAD system has two stages, where the first stage builds on the robustness of shape features to reliably generate a set of candidates with a high sensitivity, while the second stage utilizes the high discriminative power of the computationally expensive features to effectively reduce false positives. Specifically, we employ a unique edge classifier and an original voting scheme to capture geometric features of polyps in context and then harness the power of convolutional neural networks in a novel score fusion approach to extract and combine shape, color, texture, and temporal information of the candidates. Our experimental results based on FROC curves and a new analysis of polyp detection latency demonstrate a superiority over the state-of-the-art where our system yields a lower polyp detection latency and achieves a significantly higher sensitivity while generating dramatically fewer false positives. This performance improvement is attributed to our reliable candidate generation and effective false positive reduction methods. PMID:26221684

  10. Improved plug valve computer-aided design of plug element

    SciTech Connect

    Wordin, J.J.

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to present derivations of equations for the design of a plug valve and to present a computer program which performs the design calculations based on the derivations. The valve is based on a plug formed from a tractrix of revolution called a pseudosphere. It is of interest to be able to calculate various parameters for the plug for design purposes. For example, the surface area, volume, and center of gravity are important to determine friction and wear of the valve. A computer program in BASIC has been written to perform the design calculations. The appendix contains a computer program listing and verifications of results using approximation methods. A sample run is included along with necessary computer commands to run the program. 1 fig.

  11. Computer-Aided Apparel Design in University Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belleau, Bonnie D.; Bourgeois, Elva B.

    1991-01-01

    As computer-assisted design (CAD) become an integral part of the fashion industry, universities must integrate CAD into the apparel curriculum. Louisiana State University's curriculum enables students to collaborate in CAD problem solving with industry personnel. (SK)

  12. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control... Procedures § 68.415 Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. Persons with complaints... complaints regarding rules in this part pertaining to hearing aid compatibility and volume control, may...

  13. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control... Procedures § 68.415 Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. Persons with complaints... complaints regarding rules in this part pertaining to hearing aid compatibility and volume control, may...

  14. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control... Procedures § 68.415 Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. Persons with complaints... complaints regarding rules in this part pertaining to hearing aid compatibility and volume control, may...

  15. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control... Procedures § 68.415 Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. Persons with complaints... complaints regarding rules in this part pertaining to hearing aid compatibility and volume control, may...

  16. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2001-06-05

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  17. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  18. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1999-10-26

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  19. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.; Wang, Chunwei; Jevons, Luis C.; Bernhart, Derek H.; Lipshutz, Robert J.

    2004-05-11

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  20. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2003-08-19

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  1. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, M.S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device. 27 figs.

  2. Computer-Aided Design Of Turbine Blades And Vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Wayne Q.

    1988-01-01

    Quasi-three-dimensional method for determining aerothermodynamic configuration of turbine uses computer-interactive analysis and design and computer-interactive graphics. Design procedure executed rapidly so designer easily repeats it to arrive at best performance, size, structural integrity, and engine life. Sequence of events in aerothermodynamic analysis and design starts with engine-balance equations and ends with boundary-layer analysis and viscous-flow calculations. Analysis-and-design procedure interactive and iterative throughout.

  3. [Computer-aided legal medical examination of body surface].

    PubMed

    Fan, Y; Pu, F; Yu, X; Zhang, L; Zou, Y; Jiang, W

    1999-12-01

    This paper provides a package of automatic and semi-automatic methods for computing the area of different kinds of body surface injuries. Compared with traditional methods, these processes of examination are faster and the conclusions are more precise and objective. Also presented are the authors classify the items into many types by standards which are necessary to let computer draw conclusions automatically. This software is conducive to improvement in work efficiency and convenience for judicial supervision.

  4. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center have developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission way points that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system. AVRADA's NUH-60A STAR (Systems Testbed for Avionics Research) helicopter was specially modified, in house, for the flight evaluation of the CALAHF system. The near terrain trajectory generation algorithm runs on a multiprocessor flight computer. Global Positioning System (GPS) data are integrated with Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) data in the flight computer to provide a precise navigation solution. The near-terrain trajectory and the aircraft state information are passed to a Silicon Graphics computer to provide the graphical 'pilot centered' guidance, presented on a Honeywell Integrated Helmet And Display Sighting System (IHADSS). The system design, piloted simulation, and initial flight test results are presented.

  5. Computer-Aided Detection of Prostate Cancer on Tissue Sections

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Chuang, Shang-Tian; Yang, Ximing J.

    2009-01-01

    We report an automated computer technique for detection of prostate cancer in prostate tissue sections processed with immunohistochemistry. Two sets of color optical images were acquired from prostate tissue sections stained with a double-chromogen triple-antibody cocktail combining alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), p63, and high-molecular-weight cytokeratin (HMWCK). The first set of images consisted of 20 training images (10 malignant) used for developing the computer technique and 15 test images (7 malignant) used for testing and optimizing the technique. The second set of images consisted of 299 images (114 malignant) used for evaluation of the performance of the computer technique. The computer technique identified image segments of AMACR-labeled malignant epithelial cells (red), p63-and HMWCK-labeled benign basal cells (brown), and secretory and stromal cells (blue) for identifying prostate cancer automatically. The sensitivity and specificity of the computer technique were 94% (16/17) and 94% (17/18), respectively, on the first (training and test) set of images, and 88% (79/90) and 97% (136/140), respectively, on the second (validation) set of images. If high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), which is a precursor of cancer, and atypical cases were included, the sensitivity and specificity were 85% (97/114) and 89% (165/185), respectively. These results show that the novel automated computer technique can accurately identify prostatic adenocarcinoma in the triple-antibody cocktail-stained prostate sections. PMID:19417626

  6. ICT and AIDS Literacy: A Challenge for Information Professionals in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Maitrayee

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of ICT to disseminate preventive health care information to combat the AIDS epidemic in India. The role of information professionals in various libraries and information centres and the challenges they are facing to increase HIV/AIDS awareness are discussed. Finally, recommendations are…

  7. Recent advances in computer-aided drug design as applied to anti-influenza drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Mallipeddi, Prema L; Kumar, Gyanendra; White, Stephen W; Webb, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    Influenza is a seasonal and serious health threat, and the recent outbreak of H7N9 following the pandemic spread of H1N1 in 2009 has served to emphasize the importance of anti-influenza drug discovery. Zanamivir (Relenza™) and oseltamivir (Tamiflu(®)) are two antiviral drugs currently recommended by the CDC for treating influenza. Both are examples of the successful application of structure-based drug design strategies. These strategies have combined computer- based approaches, such as docking- and pharmacophore-based virtual screening with X-ray crystallographic structural analyses. Docking is a routinely used computational method to identify potential hits from large compound libraries. This method has evolved from simple rigid docking approaches to flexible docking methods to handle receptor flexibility and to enhance hit rates in virtual screening. Virtual screening approaches can employ both ligand-based and structurebased pharmacophore models depending on the available information. The exponential growth in computing power has increasingly facilitated the application of computer-aided methods in drug discovery, and they now play significant roles in the search for novel therapeutics. An overview of these computational tools is presented in this review, and recent advances and challenges will be discussed. The focus of the review will be anti-influenza drug discovery and how advances in our understanding of viral biology have led to the discovery of novel influenza protein targets. Also discussed will be strategies to circumvent the problem of resistance emerging from rapid mutations that has seriously compromised the efficacy of current anti-influenza therapies.

  8. Connectivity among computer-aided engineering methods, procedures, and tools used in developing the SSC collider magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kallas, N.; Jalloh, A.R.

    1992-03-01

    The accomplishment of functional productivity for the computer aided engineering (CAE) environment at the magnet engineering department (ME) of the magnet systems divisions (MSD) at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) involves most of the basic aspects of information engineering. It is highly desirable to arrive at a software and hardware topology that offers total, two-way (back and forth), automatic and direct software and hardware connectivity among computer-aided design and drafting (CADD), analysis codes, and office automation tools applicable to the disciplines involved. This paper describes the components, data flow, and practices employed in the development of the CAE environment from a systems engineering aspect rather than from the analytical angle. When appropriate, references to case studies are made in order to demonstrate the connectivity of the techniques used.

  9. Computer Abuse: Vandalizing the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnell, Steven M.; Warren, Matthew J.

    1997-01-01

    Computing and telecommunications, key to an information-based society, are increasingly targets for criminals and mischief makers. This article examines the effects of malicious computer abuse: hacking and viruses, highlights the apparent increase in incidents, and examines their effect on public perceptions of technology. Presents broad…

  10. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system for construction of spinal orthosis for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, M S

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spinal orthoses are commonly prescribed to patients with moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) for prevention of further curve deterioration. In conventional manufacturing method, plaster bandages are used to obtain the patient's body contour and then the plaster cast is rectified manually. With computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system, a series of automated processes from body scanning to digital rectification and milling of the positive model can be performed in a fast and accurate fashion. The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce the application of CAD/CAM system to the construction of spinal orthosis for patients with AIS. Based on evidence within the literature, CAD/CAM method can achieve similar clinical outcomes but with higher efficiency than the conventional fabrication method. Therefore, CAD/CAM method should be considered a substitute to the conventional method in fabrication of spinal orthoses for patients with AIS.

  11. Microcomputed tomography marginal fit evaluation of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing crowns with different methods of virtual model acquisition.

    PubMed

    das Neves, Flavio Domingues; do Prado, Celio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Carneiro, Thiago Almeida Prado Naves; Zancope, Karla; Davi, Leticia Resende; Mendonca, Gustavo; Cooper, Lyndon; Soares, Carlos Jose

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study used microcomputed tomography to evaluate the marginal fit of crowns fabricated using a chairside computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system with different methods of virtual model acquisition. Crowns were fabricated to fit in a cast containing a single human premolar. Four methods of virtual model acquisition were used: Group 1 (control), digital impressioning of a typodont; Group 2, digital impressioning of a powdered typodont; Group 3, digital impressioning of a regular impression; and Group 4, digital impressioning of a master cast. Statistically significant differences were found between the marginal gap of Group 2 and the other groups (P < 0.05); no differences were found among Groups 1, 3, and 4. The results showed that crowns fabricated using the chairside CAD/CAM system exhibited significantly smaller vertical misfit when a thin layer of powder was applied over the typodont before digital impressioning.

  12. Special computer-aided computed tomography (CT) volume measurement and comparison method for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingming; Sun, Zhaogang; Xie, Ruming; Gao, Mengqiu; Li, Chuanyou

    2015-01-01

    The computed tomography (CT) manifestations in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients are complex and could not be quantitatively evaluated. We aimed to establish a new method to objectively measure the lung injury level in PTB by thoracic CT and make quantitative comparisons. In the retrospective study, a total of 360 adults were selected and divided into four groups according to their CT manifestations and medical history: Normal group, PTB group, PTB with diabetes mellitus (DM) group and Death caused by PTB group. Five additional patients who had continuous CT scans were chosen for preliminary longitudinal analysis. We established a new computer-aided CT volume measurement and comparison method for PTB patients (CACTV-PTB) which measured lung volume (LV) and thoracic volume (TV). RLT was calculated as the ratio of LV to TV and comparisons were performed among different groups. Standardized RLT (SRLT) was used in the longitudinal analysis among different patients. In the Normal group, LV and TV were positively correlated in linear regression (Ŷ=-0.5+0.46X, R2=0.796, P<0.01). RLT values were significantly different among four groups (Normal: 0.40±0.05, PTB: 0.37±0.08, PTB+DM: 0.34±0.06, Death: 0.23±0.04). The curves of SRLT value from different patients shared a same start point and could be compared directly. Utilizing the novel objective method CACTV-PTB makes it possible to compare the severity and dynamic change among different PTB patients. Our early experience also suggested that the lung injury is severer in the PTB+DM group than in the PTB group. PMID:26628995

  13. Computer-aided industrial process design. The ASPEN project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    The ASPEN Project was carried out at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1976-1981. This report formally documents the work completed under the main contract between MIT and the US Department of Energy (Contract No. E(49-18)-2295 Task No. 9). In addition to the main contract, there were related contracts between MIT and the US Department of Energy on which work was reported separately. The project deliverables consisted of the source code and test problems for the ASPEN system on computer tape and a final report. The User Manual (1348 pages), the System Administrator Manual (1170 pages), and the Technical Reference Manual (1026 pages), and On-Line Documentation (Computer-Generated Tables) on magnetic tape were deliverables on a related, but separate contract. The source code versions of the system itself were provided, with installation instructions, for four different computers and operating system (IBM/OS, IBM/CMS, DEC/VAX, and Univac.

  14. Human performance models for computer-aided engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkind, Jerome I. (Editor); Card, Stuart K. (Editor); Hochberg, Julian (Editor); Huey, Beverly Messick (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses a topic important to the field of computational human factors: models of human performance and their use in computer-based engineering facilities for the design of complex systems. It focuses on a particular human factors design problem -- the design of cockpit systems for advanced helicopters -- and on a particular aspect of human performance -- vision and related cognitive functions. By focusing in this way, the authors were able to address the selected topics in some depth and develop findings and recommendations that they believe have application to many other aspects of human performance and to other design domains.

  15. Computer-aided process preparation for printed wiring boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, K. D.

    1981-11-01

    A pilot computer project using CAD-CAM software, and a graphics terminal which intergrates design, process preparation, and manufactures printed wiring boards through automation is described. A CAD-CAM data base was used to compare critical design features to statistical process models to predict yield before production begins. The onscreen display of digital design definitions is shown to contribute to greater, more predictable and reliable yields for complex multilayer and double sided designs. It is indicated that use of computer graphics and CAD-CAM software to fabricate printed wiring boards increases accuracy of yield and reduces engineering time required for manual procedures.

  16. Computer-aided methods for evaluating cancer risk in miners due to radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Domański, T; Kluszczyński, D; Chruścielewski, W; Olszewski, J

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents some aspects of radiation hazard which occurs in a non-nuclear sector of industry, namely radiation hazard in non-uranium underground mines. The radiation hazard is caused in each type of underground mine by the naturally occurring noble radioactive gas-radon (222Rn) and radioactive products of its decay 218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi/214Po the so-called 'radon daughters' occurring in the mines' air. The paper presents the concept of how to provide a reliable system of assessment of miners' exposure by application of representative individual dosimetry, and also presents principles of computer-aided methods for interpretation of the results of miner's dosimetry useful for conversion of dosimetry data to the term of expected risk of cancer caused by exposure at miner's workplaces. The representative Individual Dosimetry system strengthened by computer-aided methods of analysis of results provided essential information on radiation cancer risk for miners employed in coal mines, metal-ore mines, chemical raw material mines in Poland. The coefficient of annual cancer risk induction is 1.5 x 10(-4) year-1 for coal mines, 1.40 x 10(-4) year-1 for metal ore mines and 1.5 x 10(-4) year-1 for chemical raw material mines. The radiation risk appears to be of the same magnitude as the conventional risk of life loss at work-related accidents. The average Lost Life Expectancy coefficient for both the radiation risk and conventional risk are 0.5 and 0.3 year per each miner, respectively. PMID:8019199

  17. Computer-aided alignment of off-axis three-mirror imaging spectrometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Dun; Wang, Hong; Tian, Tie-yin

    2013-08-01

    The space camera is one of the most advanced optical equipments in obtaining earth surface information from space. With the development of the optical design, manufacture and alignment technology, the performance of the optical camera is moving forward quickly. In spaceto- ground remote sensing field, the resolution of ground remote sensing images have become higher and higher. Off-axis three-mirror system becomes an advanced optical system structure of space camera at present , because of its merits of large field, long focal length, no obstruction, high modulated transfer function, wide spectrum, good image quality, small cubage and light weight, etc. As it is difficult to align and test, the alignment of off-axis three mirror system is timeconsuming, so it is important and necessary of studying the computer-aided alignment of the complex optical system. Aiming at cutting the time of alignment, Computer-aided alignment technology is applied to this system. According to relation between fringe Zernike coefficient and Seidel aberration, wavefront aberration in the exit pupil of optical system is instead with fringe Zernike coefficient. A series of Zernike coefficient expressing the incorrect parameters of system are obtained by using multi-fields ZYGO interferometer auto-collimating interference test, which are transformed into geometric aberrations as the corrected object. Incorrect parameters of the system are determined by sensitivity matrix resulted from optical design software. These incorrect parameters are defined to be variables; the Zernike coefficient are defined to be the optimized target in merit function. The system is optimized by applying optical design software to receive the incorrect parameters result. Consequently, the adjusted result is brought into the optical design software to verify the right selection of incorrect parameters. The practical experiments are also given, result with RMS value lower than 0.04λ is acquired by using this

  18. Application of Computer Aided Mathematics Teaching in a Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenitepe, Mehmet Emin; Karadag, Zekeriya

    2003-01-01

    This is a case study that examines the effect of using presentations developed by teacher in addition to using commercially produced educational software CD-ROM in Audio-Visual Room/Computer Laboratory after classroom teaching, on students' academic achievement, as a method of Teaching Mathematics compared with only classroom teaching or after…

  19. Computer-Aided Instruction in a Law Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnage, Rosemary

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development of a computer assisted instruction (CAI) package for use in teaching basic aspects of legal research. The discussion covers implementation of effective CAI techniques, identification of learning principles applicable to the design of the program, and the feasibility of converting practical aspects of learning principles…

  20. NASA CST aids U.S. industry. [computational structures technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housner, Jerry M.; Pinson, Larry D.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of NASA's computational structures Technology (CST) research on aerospace vehicle design and operation is discussed. The application of this research to proposed version of a high-speed civil transport, to composite structures in aerospace, to the study of crack growth, and to resolving field problems is addressed.

  1. Computer-Aided Instruction: College Algebra Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aichele, Douglas B.; Tree, D. Rae; Utley, Juliana; Wescoatt, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Technology permeates our daily lives; education has not been untouched. Liaw (2002) points out that "teachers, trainers, and instructional designers of computer-based or Web-based instruction would benefit by being more attentive to learners' perceptions toward Web-based environments." Reviewing the earlier research into student perceptions toward…

  2. Computer-Aided Self Assessment: The Intelligent Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Alice; Goodman, Linda M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development of a computer-assisted self assessment system in the United Kingdom that was designed to explore the use of artificial intelligence techniques in the area of self assessment for training applications. The expert systems used are explained, development of a pilot prototype is outlined, and field tests are described. (eight…

  3. A Computer-aided Learning Exercise in Spectrophotometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamula, Frederick

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of a computer simulation program in teaching the concepts of spectrophotometry. Introduces several parts of the program and program usage. Presents an assessment activity to evaluate students' mastery of material. Concludes with the advantages of this approach to the student and to the assessor. (ASK)

  4. Business Communication Writing and Computer-Aided Small Group Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, David L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes how combining small group collaborative learning and large-screen overhead projection from a computer workstation can enhance the effectiveness of writing instruction in business communication courses. Recommends an approach for further research into the effects of this technology in group learning situations. (MM)

  5. The use of computer-aided learning in chemistry laboratory instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, Brian Robert Tracy

    This research involves developing and implementing computer software for chemistry laboratory instruction. The specific goal is to design the software and investigate whether it can be used to introduce concepts and laboratory procedures without a lecture format. This would allow students to conduct an experiment even though they may not have been introduced to the chemical concept in their lecture course. This would also allow for another type of interaction for those students who respond more positively to a visual approach to instruction. The first module developed was devoted to using computer software to help introduce students to the concepts related to thin-layer chromatography and setting up and running an experiment. This was achieved through the use of digitized pictures and digitized video clips along with written information. A review quiz was used to help reinforce the learned information. The second module was devoted to the concept of the "dry lab". This module presented students with relevant information regarding the chemical concepts and then showed them the outcome of mixing solutions. By these observations, they were to determine the composition of unknown solutions based on provided descriptions and comparison with their written observations. The third piece of the software designed was a computer game. This program followed the first two modules in providing information the students were to learn. The difference here, though, was incorporating a game scenario for students to use to help reinforce the learning. Students were then assessed to see how much information they retained after playing the game. In each of the three cases, a control group exposed to the traditional lecture format was used. Their results were compared to the experimental group using the computer modules. Based upon the findings, it can be concluded that using technology to aid in the instructional process is definitely of benefit and students were more successful in

  6. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  7. GC/IR computer-aided identification of anaerobic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hunian; Zhang, Feng S.; Yang, Hua; Li, Zhu; Ye, Song

    1993-09-01

    A new method was developed to identify anaerobic bacteria by using pattern recognition. The method is depended on GC / JR data. The system is intended for use as a precise rapid and reproduceable aid in the identification of unknown isolates. Key Words: Anaerobic bacteria Pattern recognition Computeraided identification GC / JR 1 . TNTRODUCTTON A major problem in the field of anaerobic bacteriology is the difficulty in accurately precisely and rapidly identifying unknown isolates. Tn the proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology C. M. Moss said: " Chromatographic analysis is a new future for clinical microbiology" . 12 years past and so far it seems that this is an idea whose time has not get come but it close. Now two major advances that have brought the technology forword in terms ofmaking it appropriate for use in the clinical laboratory can aldo be cited. One is the development and implementation of fused silica capillary columns. In contrast to packed columns and those of'' greater width these columns allow reproducible recovery of hydroxey fatty acids with the same carbon chain length. The second advance is the efficient data processing afforded by modern microcomputer systems. On the other hand the practical steps for sample preparation also are an advance in the clinical laboratory. Chromatographic Analysis means mainly of analysis of fatty acids. The most common

  8. Computer-aided Siting of Coal Conversion Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    The value of using geographic information systems in site selection for coal conversion plants is discussed. Environmental and cultural factors and capital/operating costs were considered to determine site suitability.

  9. Bioassay Phantoms Using Medical Images and Computer Aided Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. X. Geroge Xu

    2011-01-28

    A radiation bioassay program relies on a set of standard human phantoms to calibrate and assess radioactivity levels inside a human body for radiation protection and nuclear medicine imaging purposes. However, the methodologies in the development and application of anthropomorphic phantoms, both physical and computational, had mostly remained the same for the past 40 years. We herein propose a 3-year research project to develop medical image-based physical and computational phantoms specifically for radiation bioassay applications involving internally deposited radionuclides. The broad, long-term objective of this research was to set the foundation for a systematic paradigm shift away from the anatomically crude phantoms in existence today to realistic and ultimately individual-specific bioassay methodologies. This long-term objective is expected to impact all areas of radiation bioassay involving nuclear power plants, U.S. DOE laboratories, and nuclear medicine clinics.

  10. Slide Star: An Approach to Videodisc/Computer Aided Instruction

    PubMed Central

    McEnery, Kevin W.

    1984-01-01

    One of medical education's primary goals is for the student to be proficient in the gross and microscopic identification of disease. The videodisc, with its storage capacity of up to 54,000 photomicrographs is ideally suited to assist in this educational process. “Slide Star” is a method of interactive instruction which is designed for use in any subject where it is essential to identify visual material. The instructional approach utilizes a computer controlled videodisc to display photomicrographs. In the demonstration program, these are slides of normal blood cells. The program is unique in that the instruction is created by the student's commands manipulating the photomicrograph data base. A prime feature is the use of computer generated multiple choice questions to reinforce the learning process.

  11. Evaluation of computer-aided design and drafting for the electric power industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anuskiewicz, T.; Barduhn, G.; Lowther, B.; Osman, I.

    1984-01-01

    This report reviews current and future computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) technology relative to utility needs and to identify useful development projects that may be undertaken by EPRI. The principal conclusions are that computer aids offer substantial cost and time savings and that computer systems are being developed to take advantage of the savings. Data bases are not available for direct communication between computers used by the power industry and will limit benefits to the industry. Recommendations are made for EPRI to take the initiative to develop the data bases for direct communication between power industry computers and to research, develop, and demonstrate new applications within the industry. Key components of a CADD system are described. The state of the art of two- and three-dimensional CADD systems to perform graphics and project management control functions are assessed. Comparison is made of three-dimensional electronic models and plastic models.

  12. Computer-Aided Process Model For Carbon/Phenolic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letson, Mischell A.; Bunker, Robert C.

    1996-01-01

    Computer program implements thermochemical model of processing of carbon-fiber/phenolic-matrix composite materials into molded parts of various sizes and shapes. Directed toward improving fabrication of rocket-engine-nozzle parts, also used to optimize fabrication of other structural components, and material-property parameters changed to apply to other materials. Reduces costs by reducing amount of laboratory trial and error needed to optimize curing processes and to predict properties of cured parts.

  13. Computer-aided lithostratigraphic correlation using E-logs

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.H.; Chen, H.C.; Shultz, A.W.; Mahmoud, W. )

    1991-03-01

    Various attempts have been made in recent years toward computer-assisted well-log correlation in hopes of removing subjectivity which is inherent in manual correlation. However, this application of computer technology has achieved only limited success and popularity among geologists, due partly to the use of nongeologic jargon describing machine correlation and partly due to the publication of these papers in journals seldom read by geologists. The authors have coded a computer program which performs machine correlation, allowing human intervention at several stages. First, the interval to be correlated is segmented (by machine or manually) into zones, then the four attributes (depth, thickness, log amplitude, and log shape) of each zone are used to perform matching. In essence, this is a pattern recognition approach, but not by comparing just one feature at a time, but by considering all attributes jointly and simultaneously in a 'gestalt' manner. The program starts by digitizing logs, smoothing log signatures, and carrying out zonation between marker beds. Preliminary marker beds are either predetermined by the geologist, or are the result of iterative matching. For each pair of zones in two different wells, a difference is computed by comparing strings of attributes. In this manner, each pair of wells produces a difference matrix with one cell for each combination of zones. Dynamic programming is then used to trace the path of minimum total difference, designated by a P-matrix. These P-matrices may reveal certain geologic structures which are helpful not just in correlation but also in structural interpretation.

  14. Computer-aided diagnosis based on quantitative elastographic features with supersonic shear wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yang; Zeng, Jie; Niu, Lili; Zeng, Qingjing; Wu, Tao; Wang, Congzhi; Zheng, Rongqin; Zheng, Hairong

    2014-02-01

    Supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI) has recently been explored as a technique to evaluate tissue elasticity modulus and has become a valuable tool for tumor characterization. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system that can acquire quantitative elastographic information from color SSI elastography images automatically and objectively for the purpose of classifying benign and malignant breast tumors. Conventional ultrasonography (US) and SSI elastography images of 125 breast tumors (81 benign, 44 malignant), in 93 consecutive patients (mean age: 40 y, age range: 16-75 y), were obtained. After reconstruction of tissue elasticity data and automatic segmentation of each breast tumor, 10 quantitative elastographic features of the tumor and peri-tumoral areas, respectively (elasticity modulus mean, maximum and standard deviation, hardness degree and elasticity ratio), were computed and evaluated. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for optimum classification via combination of these features. The B-mode Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was used to compare gray-scale US and SSI elastography with respect to diagnostic performance. Histopathologic examination was used as the reference standard. Student's t-test, the Mann-Whitney U-test, the point biserial correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed for statistical analysis. As a result, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of benign/malignant classification were 95.2% (119/125), 90.9% (40/44), 97.5% (79/81), 95.2% (40/42) and 95.2% (79/83) for the CAD scheme, respectively, and 79.2% (99/125), 90.9% (40/44), 72.8% (59/81), 64.5% (40/62) and 93.7% (59/63) for BI-RADS assessment, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az value) for the proposed CAD system using the combination of elastographic features was

  15. TOWARD THE COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF ION SEQUESTERING AGENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    A major impediment to introduction of new extractants to practical use is the large cost and long lead times for synthesis and testing of candidate molecules. Toward the goal of reducing this experimental burden, this talk describes a computational approach to the design of molecular receptors that are structurally organized for optimal coordination with ions. With a molecular-level understanding of how host architecture influences ion-binding affinity, it is possible to identify promising potential extractants before they are prepared and tested. Exploiting powerful concepts embodied in structure-based drug design to bear on host design, we have devised novel algorithms for building potential host structures from molecular fragments and rapid methods for comparing the binding-site organization of the resulting candidates. The result is a computer software program, called HostDesigner, which can generate and evaluate millions of new molecular structures per minute on a desktop personal computer. The utility of this software has been illustrated in the structural design of cation receptors such as crown ethers and anion receptors bearing urea groups.

  16. Computer-Aided Drug Design of Bioactive Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Shoombuatong, Watshara; Songtawee, Napat; Simeon, Saw; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been an integral part of sustaining civilizations because of their medicinal properties. Past discoveries of bioactive natural products have relied on serendipity, and these compounds serve as inspiration for the generation of analogs with desired physicochemical properties. Bioactive natural products with therapeutic potential are abundantly available in nature and some of them are beyond exploration by conventional methods. The effectiveness of computational approaches as versatile tools for facilitating drug discovery and development has been recognized for decades, without exception, in the case of natural products. In the post-genomic era, scientists are bombarded with data produced by advanced technologies. Thus, rendering these data into knowledge that is interpretable and meaningful becomes an essential issue. In this regard, computational approaches utilize the existing data to generate knowledge that provides valuable understanding for addressing current problems and guiding the further research and development of new natural-derived drugs. Furthermore, several medicinal plants have been continuously used in many traditional medicine systems since antiquity throughout the world, and their mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, the utilization of computational approaches and advanced synthetic techniques would yield great benefit to improving the world's health population and well-being. PMID:25961523

  17. Computer-Aided Drug Design of Bioactive Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Shoombuatong, Watshara; Songtawee, Napat; Simeon, Saw; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been an integral part of sustaining civilizations because of their medicinal properties. Past discoveries of bioactive natural products have relied on serendipity, and these compounds serve as inspiration for the generation of analogs with desired physicochemical properties. Bioactive natural products with therapeutic potential are abundantly available in nature and some of them are beyond exploration by conventional methods. The effectiveness of computational approaches as versatile tools for facilitating drug discovery and development has been recognized for decades, without exception, in the case of natural products. In the post-genomic era, scientists are bombarded with data produced by advanced technologies. Thus, rendering these data into knowledge that is interpretable and meaningful becomes an essential issue. In this regard, computational approaches utilize the existing data to generate knowledge that provides valuable understanding for addressing current problems and guiding the further research and development of new natural-derived drugs. Furthermore, several medicinal plants have been continuously used in many traditional medicine systems since antiquity throughout the world, and their mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, the utilization of computational approaches and advanced synthetic techniques would yield great benefit to improving the world's health population and well-being.

  18. Computer-aided design of the human aortic root.

    PubMed

    Ovcharenko, E A; Klyshnikov, K U; Vlad, A R; Sizova, I N; Kokov, A N; Nushtaev, D V; Yuzhalin, A E; Zhuravleva, I U

    2014-11-01

    The development of computer-based 3D models of the aortic root is one of the most important problems in constructing the prostheses for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. In the current study, we analyzed data from 117 patients with and without aortic valve disease and computed tomography data from 20 patients without aortic valvular diseases in order to estimate the average values of the diameter of the aortic annulus and other aortic root parameters. Based on these data, we developed a 3D model of human aortic root with unique geometry. Furthermore, in this study we show that by applying different material properties to the aortic annulus zone in our model, we can significantly improve the quality of the results of finite element analysis. To summarize, here we present four 3D models of human aortic root with unique geometry based on computational analysis of ECHO and CT data. We suggest that our models can be utilized for the development of better prostheses for transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

  19. Computer-aided manufacturing technologies for guided implant placement.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Jörg; Stachulla, Gerhard; Ritter, Lutz; Dreiseidler, Timo; Mischkowski, Robert A; Keeve, Erwin; Zöller, Joachim E

    2010-01-01

    Implant treatment increasingly focuses on the reduction of treatment time and postoperative impairment. The improvement of 3D dental diagnosis by ConeBeam computed tomography allows detailed preparation for the surgical placement of dental implants under prosthetic considerations. While the first generation of implant planning software used high-contrast multislice computed tomography, software that has been specifically designed for ConeBeam computed tomography is now available. Implant placement can be performed using surgical guides or under the control of optical tracking systems. Surgical guides are more commonly used in private office owing to their availability. The accuracy for both techniques is clinically acceptable for achieving implant placement in critical anatomical indications. When using prefabricated superstructures and in flapless surgery, special abutments or an adjusted workflow are still necessary to compensate misfits of between 150 and 600 microm. The proposition to ensure proper implant placement by dentists with limited surgical experience through the use of surgical guides is unlikely to be successful, because there is also a specific learning curve for guided implant placement. Current and future development will continue to decrease the classical laboratory-technician work and will integrate the fabrication of superstructures with virtual treatment planning from the start.

  20. Creation of Anatomically Accurate Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Solid Models from Medical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, John E.; Graham, R. Scott; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Oberlander, Eric J.; Broaddus, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Most surgical instrumentation and implants used in the world today are designed with sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. This software automates the mechanical development of a product from its conceptual design through manufacturing. CAD software also provides a means of manipulating solid models prior to Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Few surgical products are designed in conjunction with accurate CAD models of human anatomy because of the difficulty with which these models are created. We have developed a novel technique that creates anatomically accurate, patient specific CAD solids from medical images in a matter of minutes.

  1. Computing, Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, John; Tu, Eugene (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Computing, Information and Communications Technology Program (CICT) was established in 2001 to ensure NASA's Continuing leadership in emerging technologies. It is a coordinated, Agency-wide effort to develop and deploy key enabling technologies for a broad range of mission-critical tasks. The NASA CICT program is designed to address Agency-specific computing, information, and communications technology requirements beyond the projected capabilities of commercially available solutions. The areas of technical focus have been chosen for their impact on NASA's missions, their national importance, and the technical challenge they provide to the Program. In order to meet its objectives, the CICT Program is organized into the following four technology focused projects: 1) Computing, Networking and Information Systems (CNIS); 2) Intelligent Systems (IS); 3) Space Communications (SC); 4) Information Technology Strategic Research (ITSR).

  2. Extended precision data types for the development of the original computer aided engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescaru, A.; Oanta, E.; Axinte, T.; Dascalescu, A.-D.

    2015-11-01

    Computer aided engineering is based on models of the phenomena which are expressed as algorithms. The implementations of the algorithms are usually software applications which are processing a large volume of numerical data, regardless the size of the input data. In this way, the finite element method applications used to have an input data generator which was creating the entire volume of geometrical data, starting from the initial geometrical information and the parameters stored in the input data file. Moreover, there were several data processing stages, such as: renumbering of the nodes meant to minimize the size of the band length of the system of equations to be solved, computation of the equivalent nodal forces, computation of the element stiffness matrix, assemblation of system of equations, solving the system of equations, computation of the secondary variables. The modern software application use pre-processing and post-processing programs to easily handle the information. Beside this example, CAE applications use various stages of complex computation, being very interesting the accuracy of the final results. Along time, the development of CAE applications was a constant concern of the authors and the accuracy of the results was a very important target. The paper presents the various computing techniques which were imagined and implemented in the resulting applications: finite element method programs, finite difference element method programs, applied general numerical methods applications, data generators, graphical applications, experimental data reduction programs. In this context, the use of the extended precision data types was one of the solutions, the limitations being imposed by the size of the memory which may be allocated. To avoid the memory-related problems the data was stored in files. To minimize the execution time, part of the file was accessed using the dynamic memory allocation facilities. One of the most important consequences of the

  3. LIFESPAN: A tool for the computer-aided design of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Hertzog, Christopher; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a research design that best addresses the guiding questions and hypotheses of the planned study while heeding applicable external conditions and constraints, including time, money, feasibility, and ethical considerations. Because longitudinal study selection ultimately requires optimization under constraints, it is amenable to the general operating principles of optimization in computer-aided design. Based on power equivalence theory (MacCallum et al., 2010; von Oertzen, 2010), we propose a computational framework to promote more systematic searches within the study design space. Starting with an initial design, the proposed framework generates a set of alternative models with equal statistical power to detect hypothesized effects, and delineates trade-off relations among relevant parameters, such as total study time and the number of measurement occasions. We present LIFESPAN (Longitudinal Interactive Front End Study Planner), which implements this framework. LIFESPAN boosts the efficiency, breadth, and precision of the search for optimal longitudinal designs. Its initial version, which is freely available at http://www.brandmaier.de/lifespan, is geared toward the power to detect variance in change as specified in a linear latent growth curve model. PMID:25852596

  4. Caribbean Equal Access Program: HIV/AIDS Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Dancy, NLM, and Wilma Templin-Branner, ORISE

    2009-01-01

    As the treatment and management of HIV/AIDS continues to evolve with new scientific breakthroughs, treatment discoveries, and management challenges, it is difficult for people living with HIV/AIDS and those who care for them to keep up with the latest information on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and research. The National Library of Medicine, of the National Institutes of Health, has a wealth of health information resources freely available on the Internet to address these needs.

  5. Symposium on Human-Computer Information Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Tunkelang, Daniel; Capra, Robert; Golovchinsky, Gene; Kules, Bill; Smith, Catherine; White, Ryen

    2013-03-01

    Human-computer information retrieval (HCIR) is the study of information retrieval techniques that integrate human intelligence and algorithmic search to help people explore, understand, and use information. Since 2007, we have held an annual gathering of researchers and practitioners to advance the state of the art in this field. This meeting report summarizes the history of the HCIR symposium and emphasizes its relevance to the data science community.

  6. CAMRAD - COMPUTER AIDED MATERIAL REVIEW AUTOMATED DISPOSITION SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    The basic function of a manufacturer's production support engineering unit is to identify, document, and dispose of hardware that does not conform to drawing requirements. CAMRAD, a program designed for rapid input and retrieval of all data used in engineering-to-manufacturing support operations, aids the engineer by automating the material review disposition process. Before CAMRAD, material review record searches were manual. The time spent searching through old documents precluded the timely disposition of new material reviews. CAMRAD facilitates the research of material review histories and provides for the efficient processing of material review documents. Three SmartWare project files control the operation of CAMRAD. The project file CAMRAD initializes variables for the other project files and specifies the pathing of the CAMRAD program, database files, and document files. The project file DATARAD controls all data management functions. The database consists of individual files containing all records of specific hardware discrepancies for a given part number. There are four basic avenues for records searches: part serial number, feature, Material Review (MR) number, and non-conformance. WORDRAD is the project file which controls the management of document files created when processing a material review disposition. Given a material review report identifying a defective hardware item, the production support engineer can use CAMRAD to quickly search the database for any history of the same problem, find out how well the problem has been documented, and create appropriate documentation for this latest occurrence. CAMRAD is written in the Smart Programming Language and is designed to run on IBM PC compatibles with the SmartWare v. 3.1 software package available from Informix Software. CAMRAD was developed in 1987. SmartWare is a registered trademark of Informix Software, Inc. IBM PC is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.

  7. Formal and informal material aid following the 2010 Haiti earthquake as reported by camp dwellers.

    PubMed

    Versluis, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Following the 2010 Haiti earthquake, more than two million people moved to temporary camps, most of which arose spontaneously in the days after the earthquake. This study focuses on the material assistance people in five Port-au-Prince camps reported receiving, noting the differences between assistance from formal aid agencies and from 'informal' sources such as family. Seven weeks after the earthquake, 32% of camp dwellers reported receiving no assistance whatsoever; 55% had received formal aid, typically a tent or tarpaulins; and 40% had received informal aid, usually in the form of cash transfers from family living abroad. While people were grateful for any material aid, cash was more frequently considered timely and more effective than aid-in-kind. Should this study be indicative of the greater displaced population, aid agencies should consider how they might make better use of cash transfers as an aid modality.

  8. Formal and informal material aid following the 2010 Haiti earthquake as reported by camp dwellers.

    PubMed

    Versluis, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Following the 2010 Haiti earthquake, more than two million people moved to temporary camps, most of which arose spontaneously in the days after the earthquake. This study focuses on the material assistance people in five Port-au-Prince camps reported receiving, noting the differences between assistance from formal aid agencies and from 'informal' sources such as family. Seven weeks after the earthquake, 32% of camp dwellers reported receiving no assistance whatsoever; 55% had received formal aid, typically a tent or tarpaulins; and 40% had received informal aid, usually in the form of cash transfers from family living abroad. While people were grateful for any material aid, cash was more frequently considered timely and more effective than aid-in-kind. Should this study be indicative of the greater displaced population, aid agencies should consider how they might make better use of cash transfers as an aid modality. PMID:24601934

  9. Computer aided surface representation. Progress report, June 1, 1988--May 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a ``surface defined on a surface,`` which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such ``geometry processing`` is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  10. Computer-aided methods of determining thyristor thermal transients

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, E.; Bronner, G.

    1988-08-01

    An accurate tracing of the thyristor thermal response is investigated. This paper offers several alternatives for thermal modeling and analysis by using an electrical circuit analog: topological method, convolution integral method, etc. These methods are adaptable to numerical solutions and well suited to the use of the digital computer. The thermal analysis of thyristors was performed for the 1000 MVA converter system at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Transient thermal impedance curves for individual thyristors in a given cooling arrangement were known from measurements and from manufacturer's data. The analysis pertains to almost any loading case, and the results are obtained in a numerical or a graphical format. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Computer Aided Ballistic Orbit Classification Around Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villac, Benjamin F.; Anderson, Rodney L.; Pini, Alex J.

    2016-09-01

    Orbital dynamics around small bodies are as varied as the shapes and dynamical states of these bodies. While various classes of orbits have been analyzed in detail, the global overview of relevant ballistic orbits at particular bodies is not easily computed or organized. Yet, correctly categorizing these orbits will ease their future use in the overall trajectory design process. This paper overviews methods that have been used to organize orbits, focusing on periodic orbits in particular, and introduces new methods based on clustering approaches.

  12. Incorporating Computer-Aided Language Sample Analysis into Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Lisa Hammett; Hendricks, Sean; Cook, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: During the evaluation of language abilities, the needs of the child are best served when multiple types and sources of data are included in the evaluation process. Current educational policies and practice guidelines further dictate the use of authentic assessment data to inform diagnosis and treatment planning. Language sampling and…

  13. Data management for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, W. A.; Smith, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of data flow through the design and manufacturing processes has established specific information management requirements and identified unique problems. The application of data management technology to the engineering/manufacturing environment addresses these problems. An overview of the IPAD prototype data base management system, representing a partial solution to these problems, is presented here.

  14. The Role of Computer-Aided Modelling in Learning Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedderer, H.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Described is how an iconic model building software can be used to help students gain a deeper qualitative conceptual understanding of physics concepts. The program, STELLA, links research about misconceptions and new teaching strategies with the use of modern information technology tools. (31 references) (KR)

  15. Computer-aided prediction of RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed Central

    Auron, P E; Rindone, W P; Vary, C P; Celentano, J J; Vournakis, J N

    1982-01-01

    A brief survey of computer algorithms that have been developed to generate predictions of the secondary structures of RNA molecules is presented. Two particular methods are described in some detail. The first utilizes a thermodynamic energy minimization algorithm that takes into account the likelihood that short-range folding tends to be favored over long-range interactions. The second utilizes an interactive computer graphic modelling algorithm that enables the user to consider thermodynamic criteria as well as structural data obtained by nuclease susceptibility, chemical reactivity and phylogenetic studies. Examples of structures for prokaryotic 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs, several eukaryotic 5S ribosomal RNAs and rabbit beta-globin messenger RNA are presented as case studies in order to describe the two techniques. Anm argument is made for integrating the two approaches presented in this paper, enabling the user to generate proposed structures using thermodynamic criteria, allowing interactive refinement of these structures through the application of experimentally derived data. PMID:6174937

  16. Shell stability analysis in a computer aided engineering (CAE) environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbocz, J.; Hol, J. M. A. M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of 'DISDECO', the Delft Interactive Shell DEsign COde is described. The purpose of this project is to make the accumulated theoretical, numerical and practical knowledge of the last 25 years or so readily accessible to users interested in the analysis of buckling sensitive structures. With this open ended, hierarchical, interactive computer code the user can access from his workstation successively programs of increasing complexity. The computational modules currently operational in DISDECO provide the prospective user with facilities to calculate the critical buckling loads of stiffened anisotropic shells under combined loading, to investigate the effects the various types of boundary conditions will have on the critical load, and to get a complete picture of the degrading effects the different shapes of possible initial imperfections might cause, all in one interactive session. Once a design is finalized, its collapse load can be verified by running a large refined model remotely from behind the workstation with one of the current generation 2-dimensional codes, with advanced capabilities to handle both geometric and material nonlinearities.

  17. Review of computer-aided models for predicting collagen stability.

    PubMed

    Concu, Riccardo; Podda, Gianni; Gonzalez-Diaz, Humberto; Shen, Bairong

    2011-12-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein in the whole human body and its instability is involved in many important diseases, such as Osteogenesis imperfecta, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and collagenopathy. The stability of the collagen triple helix is strictly related to its amino acid sequence, especially the main Gly-X-Y motif. Many groups have used computational methods to investigate collagen's structure and the relationship between its stability and structure. In this study, we initially reviewed the most important computational methods that have been applied in this field. We then assembled data on a large number of collagen-like peptides to build the first Markov chain model for predicting the stability of the collagen at different temperatures, simply by analyzing the amino acid sequence. We used the literature to assemble a set of 102 peptides and their relative melting temperatures were determined experimentally, indicating a great variance with the main motif of the collagen. This dataset was then split in two classes, stable and unstable, according to their melting temperatures and the dataset was then used to build artificial neural network (ANN) models to predict collagen stability. We built models to predict stability at temperatures of 38°C, 35°C, 30°C, and 25°C degrees, and all models had an accuracy between 82% and 92%. Several cross-validation procedures were performed to validate the model. This method facilitates fast and accurate predictions of collagen stability at different temperatures.

  18. Using a computer-aided drafting system to aid in engineering and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millaud, J.; Goulding, F.; Salz, P.

    1985-05-01

    The generation of schematics and artwork on CAD workstations yields a large amount of numeric data that can be used in many ways. Standard by-products are connection lists, photoplot files and drill files. Using open-ended software allows for more information to be retrieved and used for various purposes in engineering and fabrication.

  19. Custom-Made Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Manufacturing Biphasic Calcium-Phosphate Scaffold for Augmentation of an Atrophic Mandibular Anterior Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Francesco Guido; van Noort, Ric; Apresyan, Samvel; Piattelli, Adriano; Macchi, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the clinical, radiographic, and histologic outcome of a custom-made computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufactured (CAD/CAM) scaffold used for the alveolar ridge augmentation of a severely atrophic anterior mandible. Computed tomographic (CT) images of an atrophic anterior mandible were acquired and modified into a 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction model; this was transferred to a CAD program, where a custom-made scaffold was designed. CAM software generated a set of tool-paths for the manufacture of the scaffold on a computer-numerical-control milling machine into the exact shape of the 3D design. A custom-made scaffold was milled from a synthetic micromacroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) block. The scaffold closely matched the shape of the defect: this helped to reduce the time for the surgery and contributed to good healing. One year later, newly formed and well-integrated bone was clinically available, and two implants (AnyRidge, MegaGen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea) were placed. The histologic samples retrieved from the implant sites revealed compact mature bone undergoing remodelling, marrow spaces, and newly formed trabecular bone surrounded by residual BCP particles. This study demonstrates that custom-made scaffolds can be fabricated by combining CT scans and CAD/CAM techniques. Further studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26064701

  20. Multiple-instance learning for computer-aided detection of tuberculosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez, J.; Sánchez, C. I.; Philipsen, R. H. H. M.; Maduskar, P.; van Ginneken, B.

    2014-03-01

    Detection of tuberculosis (TB) on chest radiographs (CXRs) is a hard problem. Therefore, to help radiologists or even take their place when they are not available, computer-aided detection (CAD) systems are being developed. In order to reach a performance comparable to that of human experts, the pattern recognition algorithms of these systems are typically trained on large CXR databases that have been manually annotated to indicate the abnormal lung regions. However, manually outlining those regions constitutes a time-consuming process that, besides, is prone to inconsistencies and errors introduced by interobserver variability and the absence of an external reference standard. In this paper, we investigate an alternative pattern classi cation method, namely multiple-instance learning (MIL), that does not require such detailed information for a CAD system to be trained. We have applied this alternative approach to a CAD system aimed at detecting textural lesions associated with TB. Only the case (or image) condition (normal or abnormal) was provided in the training stage. We compared the resulting performance with those achieved by several variations of a conventional system trained with detailed annotations. A database of 917 CXRs was constructed for experimentation. It was divided into two roughly equal parts that were used as training and test sets. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was utilized as a performance measure. Our experiments show that, by applying the investigated MIL approach, comparable results as with the aforementioned conventional systems are obtained in most cases, without requiring condition information at the lesion level.

  1. Toward a Computer Vision-based Wayfinding Aid for Blind Persons to Access Unfamiliar Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Tian, YingLi; Yang, Xiaodong; Yi, Chucai; Arditi, Aries

    2012-01-01

    Independent travel is a well known challenge for blind and visually impaired persons. In this paper, we propose a proof-of-concept computer vision-based wayfinding aid for blind people to independently access unfamiliar indoor environments. In order to find different rooms (e.g. an office, a lab, or a bathroom) and other building amenities (e.g. an exit or an elevator), we incorporate object detection with text recognition. First we develop a robust and efficient algorithm to detect doors, elevators, and cabinets based on their general geometric shape, by combining edges and corners. The algorithm is general enough to handle large intra-class variations of objects with different appearances among different indoor environments, as well as small inter-class differences between different objects such as doors and door-like cabinets. Next, in order to distinguish intra-class objects (e.g. an office door from a bathroom door), we extract and recognize text information associated with the detected objects. For text recognition, we first extract text regions from signs with multiple colors and possibly complex backgrounds, and then apply character localization and topological analysis to filter out background interference. The extracted text is recognized using off-the-shelf optical character recognition (OCR) software products. The object type, orientation, location, and text information are presented to the blind traveler as speech. PMID:23630409

  2. Computer-aided design tools for economical MEMS fabrication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Christian; Priebe, Andreas; Brueck, Rainer; Hahn, Kai

    1999-03-01

    Since the early 70s when microsystem technology was first introduce an enormous market for MST-products has been developed. Airbag sensors, micro pumps, ink jet nozzles etc. and the market is just about to start up. Establishing these products for a reasonable price requires mass production. Meanwhile, also computer-based design-tools have been developed in order to reduce the expenses for MST-design. In contrast to other physical design processes like e.g. in micro electronics, MEMS physical design is characterized by the fact that each product requires a tailored sequence of fabrication steps, usually selected from a variety of processing alternatives. The selection from these alternatives is based on economical constraints. Therefore, the design has a strong influence on the money and time spent to take an MST-product to market.

  3. Computer-aided selection of materials for cryogenic turbopump bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, R. E.; Pallini, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The life requirement for the angular contact ball bearings in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high-pressure-oxygen turbopump (HPOTP) is 7.5 hours. In actual operation, significantly shorter service life has been experienced. The objective of this current program is to identify bearing materials and/or materials processing techniques offering significant potential for extending HPOTP bearing performance life. A thermomechanical analysis of the HPOTP shaft/bearing system was performed with the SHABERTH (SHaft-BEaring-THermal) computer program. Bearing fatigue life, ball-race contact stress, heat generation rate, bulk ring temperatures, and circumferential stress in the inner rings were quantified as functions of radial load, thrust load, and ball-race contact friction. The analysis results were used to formulate criteria that are being used for the selection of special materials for future turbopump bearings.

  4. Computer-aided communication satellite system analysis and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagl, T. W.; Morgan, N. H.; Morley, R. E.; Singh, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of the various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. A satellite Telecommunication analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) for costing and sensitivity analysis work in application of communication satellites to educational development is given. The modifications made to STAMP include: extension of the six beam capability to eight; addition of generation of multiple beams from a single reflector system with an array of feeds; an improved system costing to reflect the time value of money, growth in earth terminal population with time, and to account for various measures of system reliability; inclusion of a model for scintillation at microwave frequencies in the communication link loss model; and, an updated technological environment.

  5. Microplate based biosensing with a computer screen aided technique.

    PubMed

    Filippini, Daniel; Andersson, Tony P M; Svensson, Samuel P S; Lundström, Ingemar

    2003-10-30

    Melanophores, dark pigment cells from the frog Xenopus laevis, have the ability to change light absorbance upon stimulation by different biological agents. Hormone exposure (e.g. melatonin or alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone) has been used here as a reversible stimulus to test a new compact microplate reading platform. As an application, the detection of the asthma drug formoterol in blood plasma samples is demonstrated. The present system utilizes a computer screen as a (programmable) large area light source, and a standard web camera as recording media enabling even kinetic microplate reading with a versatile and broadly available platform, which suffices to evaluate numerous bioassays. Especially in the context of point of care testing or self testing applications these possibilities become advantageous compared with highly dedicated comparatively expensive commercial systems.

  6. Microplate based biosensing with a computer screen aided technique.

    PubMed

    Filippini, Daniel; Andersson, Tony P M; Svensson, Samuel P S; Lundström, Ingemar

    2003-10-30

    Melanophores, dark pigment cells from the frog Xenopus laevis, have the ability to change light absorbance upon stimulation by different biological agents. Hormone exposure (e.g. melatonin or alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone) has been used here as a reversible stimulus to test a new compact microplate reading platform. As an application, the detection of the asthma drug formoterol in blood plasma samples is demonstrated. The present system utilizes a computer screen as a (programmable) large area light source, and a standard web camera as recording media enabling even kinetic microplate reading with a versatile and broadly available platform, which suffices to evaluate numerous bioassays. Especially in the context of point of care testing or self testing applications these possibilities become advantageous compared with highly dedicated comparatively expensive commercial systems. PMID:14558996

  7. Design and evaluation of an onboard computer-based information system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, S. H.; Rouse, W. B.; Hammer, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Information seeking by human operators of technical systems is considered. Types of information and forms of presentation are discussed and important issues reviewed. This broad discussion provides a framework within which flight management is considered. The design of an onboard computer-based information system for aircraft is discussed. The aiding possibilities of a computer-based system are emphasized. Results of an experimental evaluation of a prototype system are presented. It is concluded that a computer-based information system can substantially lessen the frequency of human errors.

  8. 77 FR 48507 - Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Foreign School Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Foreign School Supplemental Application System ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Foreign School Supplemental Application System (FS SAS) is designed as a bridge system that will allow foreign school administrators to enter information directly...

  9. The transmission of prosodic information via an electrotactile speechreading aid.

    PubMed

    Grant, K W; Ardell, L A; Kuhl, P K; Sparks, D W

    1986-10-01

    Variations in voice fundamental frequency were extracted from naturally produced speech samples and transmitted to an electrocutaneous display consisting of 10 electrodes arranged in a linear array along the forearm. Changes in fundamental frequency were encoded as changes in stimulus location. Speechreading performance, with and without the electrocutaneous aid, was examined for both sentence and connected discourse materials with one profoundly hearing-impaired listener and one normally hearing listener whose hearing was masked. After 20 hours of speechreading training in connected discourse tracking procedure, both subjects showed higher tracking rates and faster learning rates with the aid than without the aid. Results from closed-set sentence-identification tests showed that patterns of intonation, stress, and phrase structure, which are not easily speechread, are readily available with the aid.

  10. Automotive/aerospace synergism in computer-aided composite processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentry, Johnny R.

    1991-04-01

    The use of the dielectric cure monitoring technology in a manufacturing process representing a combination of filament winding and compression molding is considered. The measurement of dielectric properties in monitoring chemical reactions in organic materials is reviewed, and emphasis is placed on the collection of real-time data and its interpretation. A microdielectrometer-based system providing dielectric data is described. This information is used to control the application of lower mold pressures at discrete intervals in the early molding cycle; the resulting slower fiber compaction allows additional time for resin and the void flow before gelation. Reduced void content, increased interlaminar strength, and improved surface appearance are observed.

  11. Proceedings of the 1993 Conference on Intelligent Computer-Aided Training and Virtual Environment Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Patricia R.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    1993-01-01

    The volume 2 proceedings from the 1993 Conference on Intelligent Computer-Aided Training and Virtual Environment Technology are presented. Topics discussed include intelligent computer assisted training (ICAT) systems architectures, ICAT educational and medical applications, virtual environment (VE) training and assessment, human factors engineering and VE, ICAT theory and natural language processing, ICAT military applications, VE engineering applications, ICAT knowledge acquisition processes and applications, and ICAT aerospace applications.

  12. A methodology and a tool for the computer aided design with constraints of electrical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, F.; Bigeon, J.; Poirson, C.

    1996-05-01

    A methodology for the computer aided constrained design of electrical devices is presented and validated through the design of a slotless permanent structure. It is based on the use of the analytical design equations of the device. Symbolic calculation is widely used to generate an analysis program and a sensitivity computation program. Those programs are linked with an optimization algorithm that can take constraints into account. The methodology is tested with an experimental software named PASCOSMA.

  13. (CICT) Computing, Information, and Communications Technology Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the Computing, Information, and Communications Technology (CICT) program is to enable NASA's Scientific Research, Space Exploration, and Aerospace Technology Missions with greater mission assurance, for less cost, with increased science return through the development and use of advanced computing, information and communications technologies. This viewgraph presentation includes diagrams of how the political guidance behind CICT is structured. The presentation profiles each part of the NASA Mission in detail, and relates the Mission to the activities of CICT. CICT's Integrated Capability Goal is illustrated, and hypothetical missions which could be enabled by CICT are profiled. CICT technology development is profiled.

  14. Utility and effectiveness of computer-aided diagnosis of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Kyle D; Dykstra, Bradley A; Gakenheimer, David C; Scheetz, James P; Lacina, Stephani; Scarfe, William C; Farman, Allan G

    2011-01-01

    Digital radiography has created a growing opportunity for computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) tools. The Logicon Caries Detector (LCD), with upgraded CAD software based on user feedback, was re-evaluated for its effectiveness via a retrospective clinical study. Using the upgraded LCD software, 12 dentists (evaluators) blindly assessed 17 radiographs taken by another (attending) dentist, who restored 28 proximal surfaces. The attending dentist confirmed the presence of early dentinal caries, as well as identifying 48 surfaces as caries-free or with enamel caries only subject to noninvasive treatment. The radiographs, imported into the software using a digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) reader, were visually assessed under typical operatory lighting conditions, then with the aid of the software's density analysis tool. The effectiveness of the evaluators was gauged by calculating two measures of performance, sensitivity and specificity, for the detection and classification of dentinal caries. Sensitivity among all evaluator dentists was 30% with the initial image; 34% with the brightness and contrast adjusted image; 39% when the image was sharpened; and 69% when the density analysis tool was utilized. Specificity was found to be 97% with the initial image; 95% with the brightness and contrast adjusted image; 93% with the sharpened image; and 94% when the density analysis tool was used. Compared to the unaided eye, the LCD can significantly improve dentists' ability to detect and classify caries. Dentists may be able to find twice as much early dentinal caries requiring restoration (or at least aggressive noninvasive treatment) than previously, while not unnecessarily restoring additional healthy teeth. The LCD enables dentists to obtain more information from dental digital radiography than is possible with the unaided eye, leading to improved patient care.

  15. Creating a strategic plan for configuration management using computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.R.; Sarfaty, R.

    1993-05-01

    This paper provides guidance in the definition, documentation, measurement, enhancement of processes, and validation of a strategic plan for configuration management (CM). The approach and methodology used in establishing a strategic plan is the same for any enterprise, including the Department of Energy (DOE), commercial nuclear plants, the Department of Defense (DOD), or large industrial complexes. The principles and techniques presented are used world wide by some of the largest corporations. The authors used industry knowledge and the areas of their current employment to illustrate and provide examples. Developing a strategic configuration and information management plan for DOE Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID) facilities is discussed in this paper. A good knowledge of CM principles is the key to successful strategic planning. This paper will describe and define CM elements, and discuss how CM integrates the facility`s physical configuration, design basis, and documentation. The strategic plan does not need the support of a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. However, the use of the CASE tool provides a methodology for consistency in approach, graphics, and database capability combined to form an encyclopedia and a method of presentation that is easily understood and aids the process of reengineering. CASE tools have much more capability than those stated above. Some examples are supporting a joint application development group (JAD) to prepare a software functional specification document and, if necessary, provide the capability to automatically generate software application code. This paper briefly discusses characteristics and capabilities of two CASE tools that use different methodologies to generate similar deliverables.

  16. Invention Aids for Computer-Based Writing: Expanding the Horizons through Collaborative Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, M. Diane

    "Cognoter(tm)" and "CB" software, two new computer-based writing tools that rely on shared texts and real-time communication among participants and support collaborative invention, have implications for invention pedagogy and research. Cognoter improves on current invention aids by combining a brainstorming tool, a graphical linking tool, and an…

  17. Computer-aided therapy in aphasia therapy: evaluation of assignment criteria.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Christina; Schupp, Wilfried; Seewald, Barbara; Haase, Ingo

    2007-12-01

    Recent studies in neurorehabilitation research show that success in aphasia therapy is linked to a high treatment frequency. Computer-aided therapy offers a solution to the dilemma of increasing therapy frequency while maintaining or reducing the load on therapists' resources. Until now it has, however, been unclear which patients can reasonably be treated with computer-aided therapy. The study investigates therapists' indication choices of a new computer-aided training programme designed to supplement conventional speech therapy for aphasics (EvoCare therapy, Dr Hein GmbH, Nuremberg, Germany). The goal was to ascertain which patients were suitable for the training and which (individual) allocation criteria played a role in the therapists' decision for or against the new therapy concept. The study is an explorative prospective application study in inpatient rehabilitation care. To determine the allocation criteria, comprehensive medical, psychosocial and neurolinguistic questionnaires were used. The speech therapists were surveyed separately. Forty-nine of the 75 patients were treated with EvoCare therapy; the others received purely conventional speech therapy. Patients chosen for computer-aided therapy suffered more frequently from problems with everyday mobility and serious neurolinguistic disorders. Type and extent of brain damage, degree of reliance on caregivers, sensomotoric and cognitive deficits and depression were irrelevant to the allocation. PMID:17975448

  18. [Comparison of two computer-aided recording systems: MT 1602 and Compugnath].

    PubMed

    Pröbster, L; Benzing, U

    1990-07-01

    Two computer-aided jaw movement recording systems were compared with each other. The results showed that both systems work satisfactorily for use in reconstructive dentistry and TMJ diagnosis. It is, however, emphasized, that there are a number of shortcomings which may have a negative effect on the recordings.

  19. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER-AIDED TOMOGRAPHY TO VISUALIZE AND QUANTIFY BIOGENIC STRUCTURES IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used computer-aided tomography (CT) for 3D visualization and 2D analysis of

    marine sediment cores from 3 stations (at 10, 75 and 118 m depths) with different environmental

    impact. Biogenic structures such as tubes and burrows were quantified and compared among st...

  20. Computer Aided Instruction and Problem Solving in the Teaching of Oral Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Judson; Gobetti, John P.

    A computer-assisted instructional (CAI) program is being used at the University of Michigan School of Dentistry to aid in the teaching of oral diagnosis to dental students. The program is designed to simulate a real life situation--i.e., the diagnosis of patient illness-which would not be otherwise available to the student and to demonstrate to…