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Sample records for computer aided integrated

  1. Integrated computer-aided design using minicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, O. O.

    1980-01-01

    Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), a highly interactive software, has been implemented on minicomputers at the NASA Langley Research Center. CAD/CAM software integrates many formerly fragmented programs and procedures into one cohesive system; it also includes finite element modeling and analysis, and has been interfaced via a computer network to a relational data base management system and offline plotting devices on mainframe computers. The CAD/CAM software system requires interactive graphics terminals operating at a minimum of 4800 bits/sec transfer rate to a computer. The system is portable and introduces 'interactive graphics', which permits the creation and modification of models interactively. The CAD/CAM system has already produced designs for a large area space platform, a national transonic facility fan blade, and a laminar flow control wind tunnel model. Besides the design/drafting element analysis capability, CAD/CAM provides options to produce an automatic program tooling code to drive a numerically controlled (N/C) machine. Reductions in time for design, engineering, drawing, finite element modeling, and N/C machining will benefit productivity through reduced costs, fewer errors, and a wider range of configuration.

  2. Integrated Computer-Aided Drafting Instruction (ICADI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, C. Y.; McCampbell, David H.

    Until recently, computer-aided drafting and design (CAD) systems were almost exclusively operated on mainframes or minicomputers and their cost prohibited many schools from offering CAD instruction. Today, many powerful personal computers are capable of performing the high-speed calculation and analysis required by the CAD application; however,…

  3. Integrated computer-aided retinal photocoagulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Oberg, Erik D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Cain, Clarence P.; Jerath, Maya R.; Rylander, Henry G., III; Welch, Ashley J.

    1996-05-01

    Successful retinal tracking subsystem testing results in vivo on rhesus monkeys using an argon continuous wave laser and an ultra-short pulse laser are presented. Progress on developing an integrated robotic retinal laser surgery system is also presented. Several interesting areas of study have developed: (1) 'doughnut' shaped lesions that occur under certain combinations of laser power, spot size, and irradiation time complicating measurements of central lesion reflectance, (2) the optimal retinal field of view to achieve simultaneous tracking and lesion parameter control, and (3) a fully digital versus a hybrid analog/digital tracker using confocal reflectometry integrated system implementation. These areas are investigated in detail in this paper. The hybrid system warrants a separate presentation and appears in another paper at this conference.

  4. Computer Aided Engineering of Semiconductor Integrated Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    transistor opera tion; (4) theoretical invest! jations of carrifr mobli *!;y *"« inversion layer of an MOSFET; (5) mathematical investigations for high...satisfactory greLnt «Lh experiment. In time, the rapid groWth of se.r- oonduotor integrated circuit (IC, technology created ^ ^ °n" £or which this theory was...and Technology of Semiconductor Devices, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., N.Y. (1967). [2] S. K. Ghandi, The Theory and Practice of

  5. Computer aids for integrated circuit design at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. W.

    A general framework for a hierarchical computer-aided design (CAD) system for VLSI design is described. The system supports both functional and physical design in the area of initial design specification, system synthesis, simulation, mask layout, verification, and documentation. The system is being implemented in phases within a user environment on a DECsystem 20-VAX 11/780 computer network. It supports evolutionary changes as new technologies, design strategies, and application programs are developed.

  6. Decision trees and integrated features for computer aided mammographic screening

    SciTech Connect

    Kegelmeyer, W.P. Jr.; Groshong, B.; Allmen, M.; Woods, K.

    1997-02-01

    Breast cancer is a serious problem, which in the United States causes 43,000 deaths a year, eventually striking 1 in 9 women. Early detection is the only effective countermeasure, and mass mammography screening is the only reliable means for early detection. Mass screening has many shortcomings which could be addressed by a computer-aided mammographic screening system. Accordingly, we have applied the pattern recognition methods developed in earlier investigations of speculated lesions in mammograms to the detection of microcalcifications and circumscribed masses, generating new, more rigorous and uniform methods for the detection of both those signs. We have also improved the pattern recognition methods themselves, through the development of a new approach to combinations of multiple classifiers.

  7. Computer-Aided Engineering of Semiconductor Integrated Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    growth and the resulting electrical properties are critical if reproducible device performance is to be achieved. Despite the fact that thermally grown... properties is the continuing decrease in active device This work represents a joint effort by the Stanford University Integrated Circuits Laboratory, Fairchild...goals will allow accurate prediction of oxide and surface properties and the influence of oxidation on other processes for an arbitrary device

  8. Integrating aerodynamic surface modeling for computational fluid dynamics with computer aided structural analysis, design, and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.

  9. Computer aided fast turnaround laboratory for research in VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meindl, James D.; Shott, John

    1987-05-01

    The principal objectives of the computer aided/Automated fast turn-around laboratory (CAFTAL) for VLSI are: application of cutting edge computer science and software systems engineering to fast turn-around fabrication in order to develop more productive and flexible new approaches; fast turn-around fabrication of optimized VLSI systems achieved through synergistic integration of system research and device research in aggressive applications such as superfast computers, and investigation of physical limits on submicron VLSI in order to define and explore the most promising technologies. To make a state-of-the-art integrated circuit process more manufacturable, we must be able to understand both the numerous individual process technologies used to fabricate the complete device as well as the important device, circuit and system limitations in sufficient detail to monitor and control the overall fabrication sequence. Specifically, we must understand the sensitivity of device, circuit and system performance to each important step in the fabrication sequence. Moreover, we should be able to predict the manufacturability of an integrated circuit before we actually manufacture it. The salient objective of this program is to enable accurate simulation and control of computer-integrated manufacturing of ultra large scale integrated (ULSI) systems, including millions of submicron transistors in a single silicon chip.

  10. A Computer-Based, Interactive Videodisc Job Aid and Expert System for Electron Beam Lithography Integration and Diagnostic Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Kimberly

    This master's thesis describes the development of an expert system and interactive videodisc computer-based instructional job aid used for assisting in the integration of electron beam lithography devices. Comparable to all comprehensive training, expert system and job aid development require a criterion-referenced systems approach treatment to…

  11. Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Architecture. Part 3. Volume 7. MFG01 Glossary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    lat oe C % 000 Sj C4 le ’ 4, 4,4 2:4 tj t*K l- X: 44 0’~ k IW- C4 % 40 Go r 00 c ~ IL P v C c -. . v IL zl - 4 1 S . v I .I a w I 1 v c u > c- -FT U 4...CC c .C C aI o , 0 A Z . 6--c 0 cCrV 46 a .0 b. 1 c 1 . Ga, v 0 M 0 44 c c c f-V - 4 0 aLS C C - . l-l - 2 - 0 S- C (~ b , J O’~ 0 .4. hSV b... ~ b...RD-R144 426 INTEGRATED COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING (ICAM)_ 1 /3 ARCHITECTURE PART 3 VOLUME.. (U) SOFTECH INC WALTHAM MRR HEINE ET RL. SEP 83 RFWRL-TR

  12. Role of computer aided detection (CAD) integration: case study with meniscal and articular cartilage CAD applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdar, Nabile; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Saiprasad, Ganesh; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    Knee-related injuries involving the meniscal or articular cartilage are common and require accurate diagnosis and surgical intervention when appropriate. With proper techniques and experience, confidence in detection of meniscal tears and articular cartilage abnormalities can be quite high. However, for radiologists without musculoskeletal training, diagnosis of such abnormalities can be challenging. In this paper, the potential of improving diagnosis through integration of computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms for automatic detection of meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries of the knees is studied. An integrated approach in which the results of algorithms evaluating either meniscal tears or articular cartilage injuries provide feedback to each other is believed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the individual CAD algorithms due to the known association between abnormalities in these distinct anatomic structures. The correlation between meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries is exploited to improve the final diagnostic results of the individual algorithms. Preliminary results from the integrated application are encouraging and more comprehensive tests are being planned.

  13. Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard

    This document contains course outlines in computer-aided manufacturing developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The four units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM); (2) CAM…

  14. Computer Aided Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Explores the conceptual components of a computer program designed to enhance creative thinking and reviews software that aims to stimulate creative thinking. Discusses BRAIN and ORACLE, programs intended to aid in creative problem solving. (JOW)

  15. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  16. An Analysis of Computer Aided Design (CAD) Packages Used at MSFC for the Recent Initiative to Integrate Engineering Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Leigh M.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) packages at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It examines the effectiveness of recent efforts to standardize CAD practices across MSFC engineering activities. An assessment of the roles played by management, designers, analysts, and manufacturers in this initiative will be explored. Finally, solutions are presented for better integration of CAD across MSFC in the future.

  17. Computer aided manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  18. Analysis of the exterior colour of agroindustrial buildings: a computer aided approach to landscape integration.

    PubMed

    García, Lorenzo; Hernández, Julio; Ayuga, Francisco

    2003-09-01

    The visual and aesthetic aspects of any object are defined by its colour, form, line and texture, to which might be added compositional reference elements such as scale and, in the case of three dimensional scenes, spatial character. This paper investigates one of these colour and proposes a method for predicting the value of a building's integration into the landscape. Based on psychological aspects, the method uses computers to analyse and measure the pertinent attributes. The designer can analyse visual elements in terms of the properties that define them. For example, colour, the subject of this paper, is defined by its hue, saturation and lightness. Tables are proposed to study the relationship between buildings and their background using computers. This paper offers a tool, based on the digital examination of scenes and on people's integration preferences with respect to agroindustrial buildings, which it is hoped will help project designers select appropriate colour schemes.

  19. Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Architecture. Part 3. Volume 8. Technology Transfer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    VALIDATIOA IS EXPERT REVIEW4, MULTIPLE MODELS ALLOW FOR SIMPLIFICATION1 ’OF THE CONCEP-TS IND SY𔃻TAX FOR EA CH REVIEW AND THEREBY ENHANCE COMMUNICATON . 0...THE FACTORY OF THE FUTURE CAN BE DEFINED. "THE VOUGHT CORPORATION HAS BEEN AWARDED A "TO-BE" ARCHITECTURE CONTRACT FOR A "CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR...COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING (CIM)" FOR THE AEROSPACE FACTORY OF THE FUTURE. (AS A POINT OF INTEREST, THE VOUGHT CORPORATION HAS INDEPENDENTLY DECIDED

  20. Computer-aided operations engineering with integrated models of systems and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Ryan, Dan; Fleming, Land

    1994-01-01

    CONFIG 3 is a prototype software tool that supports integrated conceptual design evaluation from early in the product life cycle, by supporting isolated or integrated modeling, simulation, and analysis of the function, structure, behavior, failures and operation of system designs. Integration and reuse of models is supported in an object-oriented environment providing capabilities for graph analysis and discrete event simulation. Integration is supported among diverse modeling approaches (component view, configuration or flow path view, and procedure view) and diverse simulation and analysis approaches. Support is provided for integrated engineering in diverse design domains, including mechanical and electro-mechanical systems, distributed computer systems, and chemical processing and transport systems. CONFIG supports abstracted qualitative and symbolic modeling, for early conceptual design. System models are component structure models with operating modes, with embedded time-related behavior models. CONFIG supports failure modeling and modeling of state or configuration changes that result in dynamic changes in dependencies among components. Operations and procedure models are activity structure models that interact with system models. CONFIG is designed to support evaluation of system operability, diagnosability and fault tolerance, and analysis of the development of system effects of problems over time, including faults, failures, and procedural or environmental difficulties.

  1. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  2. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R E

    1987-11-01

    The aims of this research are the creation of new surface forms and the determination of geometric and physical properties of surfaces. The full sweep from constructive mathematics through the implementation of algorithms and the interactive computer graphics display of surfaces is utilized. Both three-dimensional and multi- dimensional surfaces are considered. Particular emphasis is given to the scientific computing solution of Department of Energy problems. The methods that we have developed and that we are proposing to develop allow applications such as: Producing smooth contour maps from measured data, such as weather maps. Modeling the heat distribution inside a furnace from sample measurements. Terrain modeling based on satellite pictures. The investigation of new surface forms includes the topics of triangular interpolants, multivariate interpolation, surfaces defined on surfaces and monotone and/or convex surfaces. The geometric and physical properties considered include contours, the intersection of surfaces, curvatures as a interrogation tool, and numerical integration.

  3. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  4. Designing Intelligent Computer Aided Instruction Systems with Integrated Knowledge Representation Schemes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    for De- velopment of ICAI," Computers in Human Behavior , v. 3, 1987. Seidel, R. J., Park, 0.., and Perez, R. S., "Expertise of ICAI. Development...Require- ments," Computers in Human Behavior , v. 4, 1988. Sleeman, D., "Intellhent Tutoring Systems: A Review," School of Education and De- partment of

  5. Computer Aids to Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krollmann, Friedrich

    1981-01-01

    Describes the structure and modes of operation of the Bundessprachenamt's (BSprA: Federal Office of Languages of the Federal Republic of Germany) terminology data bank as an aid to translation. Analyzes advantages and disadvantages of each user mode, and discusses probable developments in the immediate future of machine-aided translation. (MES)

  6. Computer-Aided Instruction and Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euler, Dieter

    1990-01-01

    Investigates effect of computer-aided instruction (CAI) on acquisition of communication skills. Sketches a tutorial of the basic communication structure. Recommends confining CAI to cognitive learning because CAI cannot advance communication skills. Maintains that integrating CAI in social arrangements will allow the computer to remain an…

  7. Associating Drugs, Targets and Clinical Outcomes into an Integrated Network Affords a New Platform for Computer-Aided Drug Repurposing

    PubMed Central

    Oprea, Tudor I.; Nielsen, Sonny Kim; Ursu, Oleg; Yang, Jeremy J.; Taboureau, Olivier; Mathias, Stephen L.; Kouskoumvekaki, lrene; Sklar, Larry A.; Bologa, Cristian G.

    2012-01-01

    Finding new uses for old drugs is a strategy embraced by the pharmaceutical industry, with increasing participation from the academic sector. Drug repurposing efforts focus on identifying novel modes of action, but not in a systematic manner. With intensive data mining and curation, we aim to apply bio- and cheminformatics tools using the DRUGS database, containing 3,837 unique small molecules annotated on 1,750 proteins. These are likely to serve as drug targets and antitargets (i.e., associated with side effects, SE). The academic community, the pharmaceutical sector and clinicians alike could benefit from an integrated, semantic-web compliant computer-aided drug repurposing (CADR) effort, one that would enable deep data mining of associations between approved drugs (D), targets (T), clinical outcomes (CO) and SE. We report preliminary results from text mining and multivariate statistics, based on 7,684 approved drug labels, ADL (Dailymed) via text mining. From the ADL corresponding to 988 unique drugs, the “adverse reactions” section was mapped onto 174 SE, then clustered via principal component analysis into a 5x5 self-organizing map that was integrated into a Cytoscape network of SE-D-T-CO. This type of data can be used to streamline drug repurposing and may result in novel insights that can lead to the identification of novel drug actions. PMID:22287994

  8. Associating Drugs, Targets and Clinical Outcomes into an Integrated Network Affords a New Platform for Computer-Aided Drug Repurposing.

    PubMed

    Oprea, Tudor I; Nielsen, Sonny Kim; Ursu, Oleg; Yang, Jeremy J; Taboureau, Olivier; Mathias, Stephen L; Kouskoumvekaki, Lrene; Sklar, Larry A; Bologa, Cristian G

    2011-03-14

    Finding new uses for old drugs is a strategy embraced by the pharmaceutical industry, with increasing participation from the academic sector. Drug repurposing efforts focus on identifying novel modes of action, but not in a systematic manner. With intensive data mining and curation, we aim to apply bio- and cheminformatics tools using the DRUGS database, containing 3,837 unique small molecules annotated on 1,750 proteins. These are likely to serve as drug targets and antitargets (i.e., associated with side effects, SE). The academic community, the pharmaceutical sector and clinicians alike could benefit from an integrated, semantic-web compliant computer-aided drug repurposing (CADR) effort, one that would enable deep data mining of associations between approved drugs (D), targets (T), clinical outcomes (CO) and SE. We report preliminary results from text mining and multivariate statistics, based on 7,684 approved drug labels, ADL (Dailymed) via text mining. From the ADL corresponding to 988 unique drugs, the "adverse reactions" section was mapped onto 174 SE, then clustered via principal component analysis into a 5x5 self-organizing map that was integrated into a Cytoscape network of SE-D-T-CO. This type of data can be used to streamline drug repurposing and may result in novel insights that can lead to the identification of novel drug actions.

  9. Computer-aided prediction of high-frequency performance limits in silicon bipolar integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, J. L.; Choma, J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A circuit model for an existing silicon integrated bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) is used to evaluate presently achievable high frequency circuit performance. The relationship between circuit model and processing parameters are semi-quantitatively explored to make predictions on the frequency response, which can be achieved through realistic device fabrication modifications. A new figure of merit is introduced, which is defined as the signal frequency at which an integrated bipolar junction transistor can deliver a power gain of G. The most sensitive parameter influencing attainable high frequency IBJT performance is base resistance.

  10. Using Maple to Implement eLearning Integrated with Computer Aided Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Bill; Labovic, Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Advanced mathematics courses have been developed and refined by the first author, using an action research methodology, for more than a decade. These courses use the computer algebra system (CAS) Maple in an "immersion mode" where all presentations and student work are done using Maple. Assignments and examinations are Maple files downloaded from…

  11. Computer Aided Design of Integrated Circuit Fabrication Processes for VLSI Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    modeling capability. This requires the investigation of tile latest technological advances and their incorporation in the present process modeling program... Technology /Transient Process Kinetics In integrated circuits processing the annealing steps associated with ion implantation are poorly understood...experiments which will utilize this technology for characterization of transient process kinetics. References [7] Ref. [10] from "Recoil Range

  12. Development of the engineering design integration (EDIN) system: A computer aided design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, C. R.; Hirsch, G. N.

    1977-01-01

    The EDIN (Engineering Design Integration) System which provides a collection of hardware and software, enabling the engineer to perform man-in-the-loop interactive evaluation of aerospace vehicle concepts, was considered. Study efforts were concentrated in the following areas: (1) integration of hardware with the Univac Exec 8 System; (2) development of interactive software for the EDIN System; (3) upgrading of the EDIN technology module library to an interactive status; (4) verification of the soundness of the developing EDIN System; (5) support of NASA in design analysis studies using the EDIN System; (6) provide training and documentation in the use of the EDIN System; and (7) provide an implementation plan for the next phase of development and recommendations for meeting long range objectives.

  13. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1990-02-19

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

  14. Computer-Aided Design in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Peter, Ed.

    This publication updates the 1982 occasional paper that was intended to foster staff awareness and assist colleges in Great Britain considering the use of computer-aided design (CAD) material in engineering courses. The paper begins by defining CAD and its place in the Integrated Business System with a brief discussion of the effect of CAD on the…

  15. Computer Aided Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Elisabeth

    An approach to using the computer to assemble German tests is described. The purposes of the system would be: (1) an expansion of the bilingual lexical memory bank to list and store idioms of all degrees of difficulty, with frequency data and with complete and sophisticated retrieval possibility for assembly; (2) the creation of an…

  16. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1991-04-02

    Modern computing resources permit the generation of large amounts of numerical data. These large data sets, if left in numerical form, can be overwhelming. Such large data sets are usually discrete points from some underlying physical phenomenon. Because we need to evaluate the phenomenon at places where we don't have data, a continuous representation (a surface'') is required. A simple example is a weather map obtained from a discrete set of weather stations. (For more examples including multi-dimensional ones, see the article by Dr. Rosemary Chang in the enclosed IRIS Universe). In order to create a scientific structure encompassing the data, we construct an interpolating mathematical surface which can evaluate at arbitrary locations. We can also display and analyze the results via interactive computer graphics. In our research we construct a very wide variety of surfaces for applied geometry problems that have sound theoretical foundations. However, our surfaces have the distinguishing feature that they are constructed to solve short or long term practical problems. This DOE-funded project has developed the premiere research team in the subject of constructing surfaces (3D and higher dimensional) that provide smooth representations of real scientific and engineering information, including state of the art computer graphics visualizations. However, our main contribution is in the development of fundamental constructive mathematical methods and visualization techniques which can be incorporated into a wide variety of applications. This project combines constructive mathematics, algorithms, and computer graphics, all applied to real problems. The project is a unique resource, considered by our peers to be a de facto national center for this type of research.

  17. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  18. Computer aided airship design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. J.; Rosenstein, H.

    1975-01-01

    The Comprehensive Airship Sizing and Performance Computer Program (CASCOMP) is described which was developed and used in the design and evaluation of advanced lighter-than-air (LTA) craft. The program defines design details such as engine size and number, component weight buildups, required power, and the physical dimensions of airships which are designed to meet specified mission requirements. The program is used in a comparative parametric evaluation of six advanced lighter-than-air concepts. The results indicate that fully buoyant conventional airships have the lightest gross lift required when designed for speeds less than 100 knots and the partially buoyant concepts are superior above 100 knots. When compared on the basis of specific productivity, which is a measure of the direct operating cost, the partially buoyant lifting body/tilting prop-rotor concept is optimum.

  19. Computer Aided Drafting. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Michael A.

    This guide is intended for use in introducing students to the operation and applications of computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons: understanding CAD (CAD versus traditional manual drafting and care of software and hardware); using the components of a CAD system (primary and other input…

  20. Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, S. J.; Stiffler, J. J.; Bryant, L. A.; Petersen, P. L.

    1986-01-01

    CARE III (Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation, Third Generation) helps estimate reliability of complex, redundant, fault-tolerant systems. Program specifically designed for evaluation of fault-tolerant avionics systems. However, CARE III general enough for use in evaluation of other systems as well.

  1. Computer-Aided Geometry Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoosmith, J. N. (Compiler); Fulton, R. E. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Techniques in computer-aided geometry modeling and their application are addressed. Mathematical modeling, solid geometry models, management of geometric data, development of geometry standards, and interactive and graphic procedures are discussed. The applications include aeronautical and aerospace structures design, fluid flow modeling, and gas turbine design.

  2. Bridging the integration gap between imaging and information systems: a uniform data concept for content-based image retrieval in computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Welter, Petra; Riesmeier, Jörg; Fischer, Benedikt; Grouls, Christoph; Kuhl, Christiane; Deserno, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that content-based image retrieval (CBIR) can be extremely useful for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). However, CBIR has not been established in clinical practice yet. As a widely unattended gap of integration, a unified data concept for CBIR-based CAD results and reporting is lacking. Picture archiving and communication systems and the workflow of radiologists must be considered for successful data integration to be achieved. We suggest that CBIR systems applied to CAD should integrate their results in a picture archiving and communication systems environment such as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) structured reporting documents. A sample DICOM structured reporting template adaptable to CBIR and an appropriate integration scheme is presented. The proposed CBIR data concept may foster the promulgation of CBIR systems in clinical environments and, thereby, improve the diagnostic process.

  3. Computer aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    The application of computer technology to the construction of the NASA Thesaurus and in NASA Lexical Dictionary development is discussed in a brief overview. Consideration is given to the printed and online versions of the Thesaurus, retrospective indexing, the NASA RECON frequency command, demand indexing, lists of terms by category, and the STAR and IAA annual subject indexes. The evolution of computer methods in the Lexical Dictionary program is traced, from DOD and DOE subject switching to LCSH machine-aided indexing and current techniques for handling natural language (e.g., the elimination of verbs to facilitate breakdown of sentences into words and phrases).

  4. Increasing the Practical Impact of Formal Methods for Computer-Aided Software Development: Software Slicing, Merging and Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-15

    transformational development of software (e.g., in KIDS [Smith 90]). We obtain an integrated view of software development and evolution by considering what is...In CADE 6 (1982), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 138, Springer-Verlag, pp. 172-193. [Smith 90) SMITH, D. R. KIDS : A semiautomatic program...taruw of the FDG, ruther than the combinled CF-/PD. becauste the ssabstitutzoos on the CR;G porno . are staghtforwaad dke of mas tuctsu rlaioshipetolthe

  5. An Intelligent Computer-aided Training System (CAT) for Diagnosing Adult Illiterates: Integrating NASA Technology into Workplace Literacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaden, David B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An important part of NASA's mission involves the secondary application of its technologies in the public and private sectors. One current application being developed is The Adult Literacy Evaluator, a simulation-based diagnostic tool designed to assess the operant literacy abilities of adults having difficulties in learning to read and write. Using Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) system technology in addition to speech recognition, closed-captioned television (CCTV), live video and other state-of-the-art graphics and storage capabilities, this project attempts to overcome the negative effects of adult literacy assessment by allowing the client to interact with an intelligent computer system which simulates real-life literacy activities and materials and which measures literacy performance in the actual context of its use. The specific objectives of the project are as follows: (1) to develop a simulation-based diagnostic tool to assess adults' prior knowledge about reading and writing processes in actual contexts of application; (2) to provide a profile of readers' strengths and weaknesses; and (3) to suggest instructional strategies and materials which can be used as a beginning point for remediation. In the first and development phase of the project, descriptions of literacy events and environments are being written and functional literacy documents analyzed for their components. From these descriptions, scripts are being generated which define the interaction between the student, an on-screen guide and the simulated literacy environment.

  6. Computer-Aided Remote Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    1994-01-01

    System for remote control of robotic land vehicle requires only small radio-communication bandwidth. Twin video cameras on vehicle create stereoscopic images. Operator views cross-polarized images on two cathode-ray tubes through correspondingly polarized spectacles. By use of cursor on frozen image, remote operator designates path. Vehicle proceeds to follow path, by use of limited degree of autonomous control to cope with unexpected conditions. System concept, called "computer-aided remote driving" (CARD), potentially useful in exploration of other planets, military surveillance, firefighting, and clean-up of hazardous materials.

  7. CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing) Highlights.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    AD-Aift 532 CAD/CAN (COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN /COMPUTER-ADD D7 MANUFACTURING) HIGHLIGHTSMU ARMY INDUSTRIAL BASE ENGINEERING ACTIVITY ROCK ISLAND IL D L...1985 B DISCLAIMER This document presents information for the US Army Materiel Command (AMC) Computer-Alded Design /Computer-Aided Manufacturing...contains summaries of Army Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and . Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) efforts that are either completed or ongoing. The Army CAD

  8. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, it has been the primary goal of this grant to design and implement software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. The work carried out under this grant was performed jointly with members of the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) of NASA LaRC, Computer Sciences Corp., and Vigyan Corp. This has resulted in the development of several packages and design studies. Primary among these are the interactive geometric modeling tool, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (smart), and the integration and execution tools provided by the Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). In addition, it is the purpose of the personnel of this grant to provide consultation in the areas of structural design, algorithm development, and software development and implementation, particularly in the areas of computer aided design, geometric surface representation, and parallel algorithms.

  9. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  10. Computer-aided system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  11. Computer Instructional Aids for Undergraduate Control Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volz, Richard A.; And Others

    Engineering is coming to rely more and more heavily upon the computer for computations, analyses, and graphic displays which aid the design process. A general purpose simulation system, the Time-shared Automatic Control Laboratory (TACL), and a set of computer-aided design programs, Control Oriented Interactive Graphic Analysis and Design…

  12. Survey of Intelligent Computer-Aided Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) systems integrate artificial intelligence and simulation technologies to deliver training for complex, procedural tasks in a distributed, workstation-based environment. Such systems embody both the knowledge of how to perform a task and how to train someone to perform that task. This paper briefly reviews the antecedents of ICAT systems and describes the approach to their creation developed at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. In addition to the general ICAT architecture, specific ICAT applications that have been or are currently under development are discussed. ICAT systems can offer effective solutions to a number of training problems of interest to the aerospace community.

  13. System integration of pattern recognition, adaptive aided, upper limb prostheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, J.; Freedy, A.; Solomonow, M.

    1975-01-01

    The requirements for successful integration of a computer aided control system for multi degree of freedom artificial arms are discussed. Specifications are established for a system which shares control between a human amputee and an automatic control subsystem. The approach integrates the following subsystems: (1) myoelectric pattern recognition, (2) adaptive computer aiding; (3) local reflex control; (4) prosthetic sensory feedback; and (5) externally energized arm with the functions of prehension, wrist rotation, elbow extension and flexion and humeral rotation.

  14. Computer-Aided Video Differential Planimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Michael; Djoleto, Ben D.

    1984-08-01

    THE VIDEO DIFFERENTIAL PLANIMETER (VDP)1 is a re-mote sensing instrument that can measure minute changes in the area of any object seen by an optical scanning system. The composite video waveforms obtained by scanning the object against a contrasting back-ground are amplified and shaped to yield a sequence of constant amplitude pulses whose polarity distinguishes the studied area from its background and whose varying widths reflect the dynamics of the viewed object. These pulses are passed through a relatively long time-constant capacitor-resistor circuit and are then fed into an integrator. The net integration voltage resulting from the most recent sequence of object-background time pulses is recorded and the integrator is returned to zero at the end of each video frame. If the object's area remains constant throughout the following frame, the integrator's summation will also remain constant. However, if the object's area varies, the positive and negative time pulses entering the integrator will change, and the integrator's summation will vary proportionately. The addition of a computer interface and a video recorder enhances the versatility and the resolving power of the VDP by permitting the repeated study and analysis of selected portions of the recorded data, thereby uncovering the major sources of the object's dynamics. Among the medical and biological procedures for which COMPUTER-AIDED VIDEO DIFFERENTIAL PLANIMETRY is suitable are Ophthalmoscopy, Endoscopy, Microscopy, Plethysmography, etc. A recent research study in Ophthalmoscopy2 will be cited to suggest a useful application of Video Differential Planimetry.

  15. Optimizing Computer Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon-Marable, Elizabeth; Valentine, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand what optimal computer technology integration looks like in adult basic skills education (ABSE). One question guided the research: How is computer technology integration best conceptualized and measured? The study used the Delphi method to map the construct of computer technology integration and…

  16. Computer aided engineering analysis of automotive bumpers

    SciTech Connect

    Glance, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a description of a general purpose, computer-aided engineering design methodology which has been employed in the design of automotive bumper systems. A comparison of computer-aided analysis predictions with actual test data is presented. Two case histories of bumper system designs are discussed.

  17. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  18. User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

  19. New Paradigms for Computer Aids to Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, M. Diane

    Many people are interested in computer aids to rhetorical invention and want to know how to evaluate an invention aid, what the criteria are for a good one, and how to assess the trade-offs involved in buying one product or another. The frame of reference for this evaluation is an "old paradigm," which treats the computer as if it were…

  20. Computer-aided design and computer science technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Voigt, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A description is presented of computer-aided design requirements and the resulting computer science advances needed to support aerospace design. The aerospace design environment is examined, taking into account problems of data handling and aspects of computer hardware and software. The interactive terminal is normally the primary interface between the computer system and the engineering designer. Attention is given to user aids, interactive design, interactive computations, the characteristics of design information, data management requirements, hardware advancements, and computer science developments.

  1. Computer-aided design of LSI topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliutin, V. A.

    The problems and methods of the computer-aided design of the topology of LSI circuits and computer-aided manufacture of LSI templates are reviewed. Topics discussed include algorithms for the layout of cells and circuit units, algorithms for tracing connections, the design of the topology of matrix LSI, and the topology of functional LSI circuit units based on MIS structures. The discussion also covers the design of the layout of LSI circuits with single-layer commutation, application examples, and the main trends in the computer-aided design of LSI circuits.

  2. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1992-01-01

    The goal was the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. Several packages and design studies were completed, including two software tools currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) and the Environment for Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and additionally provides initial mass property analysis. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand alone analysis codes that result in the streamlining of the exchange of data between programs, reducing errors and improving efficiency.

  3. Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, Frank T.

    1993-01-01

    The design of modern aerospace systems relies on the efficient utilization of computational resources and the availability of computational tools to provide accurate system modeling. This research focuses on the development of a computer aided control system design application which provides a full range of stability analysis and control design capabilities for aerospace vehicles.

  4. Computer-Aided Medical Diagnosis. Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-15

    BOUCKAERT, A., Computer-aided diagnosis of goitres in a cancer department, Int. J. Bio-’Med. Comput., 3 (1972) p. 3. BOYLE, J. A., GREIG, W. R., FRANKLIN, D...toxic goitre , Q. J. Med., 35 (1966) p. 565. Bricetti, A. B. and Bleich, H. L., A computer program that evaluates patients with hypercalcemia, J

  5. ToxEvaluator: an integrated computational platform to aid the interpretation of toxicology study-related findings.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, D; Wiegers, T C; Enayetallah, A; Kibbey, C; Gosink, M; Koza-Taylor, P; Mattingly, C J; Lawton, M

    2016-01-01

    Attempts are frequently made to investigate adverse findings from preclinical toxicology studies in order to better understand underlying toxicity mechanisms. These efforts often begin with limited information, including a description of the adverse finding, knowledge of the structure of the chemical associated with its cause and the intended pharmacological target. ToxEvaluator was developed jointly by Pfizer and the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (http://ctdbase.org) team at North Carolina State University as an in silico platform to facilitate interpretation of toxicity findings in light of prior knowledge. Through the integration of a diverse set of in silico tools that leverage a number of public and proprietary databases, ToxEvaluator streamlines the process of aggregating and interrogating diverse sources of information. The user enters compound and target identifiers, and selects adverse event descriptors from a safety lexicon and mapped MeSH disease terms. ToxEvaluator provides a summary report with multiple distinct areas organized according to what target or structural aspects have been linked to the adverse finding, including primary pharmacology, structurally similar proprietary compounds, structurally similar public domain compounds, predicted secondary (i.e. off-target) pharmacology and known secondary pharmacology. Similar proprietary compounds and their associated in vivo toxicity findings are reported, along with a link to relevant supporting documents. For similar public domain compounds and interacting targets, ToxEvaluator integrates relationships curated in Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, returning all direct and inferred linkages between them. As an example of its utility, we demonstrate how ToxEvaluator rapidly identified direct (primary pharmacology) and indirect (secondary pharmacology) linkages between cerivastatin and myopathy.

  6. Quality indexing with computer-aided lexicography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Indexing with computers is a far cry from indexing with the first indexing tool, the manual card sorter. With the aid of computer-aided lexicography, both indexing and indexing tools can provide standardization, consistency, and accuracy, resulting in greater quality control than ever before. A brief survey of computer activity in indexing is presented with detailed illustrations from NASA activity. Applications from techniques mentioned, such as Retrospective Indexing (RI), can be made to many indexing systems. In addition to improving the quality of indexing with computers, the improved efficiency with which certain tasks can be done is demonstrated.

  7. Computer aided design of microcircuits. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-09-01

    Government sponsored research covering the computer aided design, modeling, layout, and packaging of integrated and other microelectronic circuits are cited. Computer programs and the use of computer graphics are included.

  8. Integration of 3D anatomical data obtained by CT imaging and 3D optical scanning for computer aided implant surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A precise placement of dental implants is a crucial step to optimize both prosthetic aspects and functional constraints. In this context, the use of virtual guiding systems has been recognized as a fundamental tool to control the ideal implant position. In particular, complex periodontal surgeries can be performed using preoperative planning based on CT data. The critical point of the procedure relies on the lack of accuracy in transferring CT planning information to surgical field through custom-made stereo-lithographic surgical guides. Methods In this work, a novel methodology is proposed for monitoring loss of accuracy in transferring CT dental information into periodontal surgical field. The methodology is based on integrating 3D data of anatomical (impression and cast) and preoperative (radiographic template) models, obtained by both CT and optical scanning processes. Results A clinical case, relative to a fully edentulous jaw patient, has been used as test case to assess the accuracy of the various steps concurring in manufacturing surgical guides. In particular, a surgical guide has been designed to place implants in the bone structure of the patient. The analysis of the results has allowed the clinician to monitor all the errors, which have been occurring step by step manufacturing the physical templates. Conclusions The use of an optical scanner, which has a higher resolution and accuracy than CT scanning, has demonstrated to be a valid support to control the precision of the various physical models adopted and to point out possible error sources. A case study regarding a fully edentulous patient has confirmed the feasibility of the proposed methodology. PMID:21338504

  9. A computer-aided regulator design.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmarkar, J. S.; Siljak, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    A unified computer-aided method for the design of linear and nonlinear regulators is discussed. The general mathematical programming approach considered involves the determination of a vector that solves the problem of minimizing the objective function subject to constraints. Classical design problems stated are related to stability design, dominant mode design, and comprehensive design. A computer algorithm is also developed.

  10. Computer Code Aids Design Of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.; Darden, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    AERO2S computer code developed to aid design engineers in selection and evaluation of aerodynamically efficient wing/canard and wing/horizontal-tail configurations that includes simple hinged-flap systems. Code rapidly estimates longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of conceptual airplane lifting-surface arrangements. Developed in FORTRAN V on CDC 6000 computer system, and ported to MS-DOS environment.

  11. Photogrammetry and computer-aided piping design

    SciTech Connect

    Keneflick, J.F.; Chirillo, R.D.

    1985-02-18

    Three-dimensional measurements taken from photographs of a plant model can be digitized and linked with computer-aided piping design. This can short-cut the design and construction of new plants and expedite repair and retrofitting projects. Some designers bridge the gap between model and computer by digitizing from orthographic prints obtained via orthography or the laser scanning of model sections. Such valve or fitting then processed is described in this paper. The marriage of photogrammetry and computer-aided piping design can economically produce such numerical drawings.

  12. Toward Computer-Aided Affective Learning Systems: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moridis, C. N.; Economides, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to provide an overview of the various components of "computer aided affective learning systems." The research is classified into 3 main scientific areas that are integral parts of the development of these kinds of systems. The three main scientific areas are: i) emotions and their connection to learning; ii) affect…

  13. De novo computer-aided design of novel antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Massarotti, Alberto; Coluccia, Antonio; Sorba, Giovanni; Silvestri, Romano; Brancale, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided drug design techniques have become an integral part of the drug discovery process. In particular, de novo methodologies can be useful to identify putative ligands for a specific target relying only on the structural information of the target itself. Here we discuss the basic de novo approaches available and their application in antiviral drug design.:

  14. Intelligent computer-aided training and tutoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    Specific autonomous training systems based on artificial intelligence technology for use by NASA astronauts, flight controllers, and ground-based support personnel that demonstrate an alternative to current training systems are described. In addition to these specific systems, the evolution of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems that integrates many of the features of traditional training programs with artificial intelligence techniques is presented. These Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) systems would provide, for the trainee, much of the same experience that could be gained from the best on-the-job training. By integrating domain expertise with a knowledge of appropriate training methods, an ICAT session should duplicate, as closely as possible, the trainee undergoing on-the-job training in the task environment, benefitting from the full attention of a task expert who is also an expert trainer. Thus, the philosophy of the ICAT system is to emulate the behavior of an experienced individual devoting his full time and attention to the training of a novice - proposing challenging training scenarios, monitoring and evaluating the actions of the trainee, providing meaningful comments in response to trainee errors, responding to trainee requests for information, giving hints (if appropriate), and remembering the strengths and weaknesses displayed by the trainee so that appropriate future exercises can be designed.

  15. Engineering Technology Programs Courses Guide for Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide describes the requirements for courses in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) that are part of engineering technology programs conducted in vocational-technical schools in Georgia. The guide is organized in five sections. The first section provides a rationale for occupations in design and in production,…

  16. Integrated Computer System of Management in Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwesiuk, Krzysztof

    2011-06-01

    This paper aims at presenting a concept of an integrated computer system of management in logistics, particularly in supply and distribution chains. Consequently, the paper includes the basic idea of the concept of computer-based management in logistics and components of the system, such as CAM and CIM systems in production processes, and management systems for storage, materials flow, and for managing transport, forwarding and logistics companies. The platform which integrates computer-aided management systems is that of electronic data interchange.

  17. Computer Aided Drug Design: Success and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mohammad Hassan; Ahmad, Khurshid; Roy, Sudeep; Ashraf, Jalaluddin Mohammad; Adil, Mohd; Siddiqui, Mohammad Haris; Khan, Saif; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Provazník, Ivo; Choi, Inho

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, computer-aided drug design has emerged as a powerful technique playing a crucial role in the development of new drug molecules. Structure-based drug design and ligand-based drug design are two methods commonly used in computer-aided drug design. In this article, we discuss the theory behind both methods, as well as their successful applications and limitations. To accomplish this, we reviewed structure based and ligand based virtual screening processes. Molecular dynamics simulation, which has become one of the most influential tool for prediction of the conformation of small molecules and changes in their conformation within the biological target, has also been taken into account. Finally, we discuss the principles and concepts of molecular docking, pharmacophores and other methods used in computer-aided drug design.

  18. COMPUTER-AIDED WORD RESEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SILIAKUS, H.J.

    IN PREPARATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A GENERAL FREQUENCY WORD LIST IN GERMAN DESIGNED TO MEET THE NEEDS OF THE INTERMEDIATE AND ADVANCED LEVELS OF READING IN THE GERMAN CURRICULUM, A COMPUTER-BASED WORD COUNT WAS BEGUN IN AUSTRALIA'S UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE. USING MAGNETIC TAPES CONTAINING (1) A TEXT OF OVER 100,000 RUNNING WORDS, (2) 1,000 MOST…

  19. Computer-Aided Parallelizer and Optimizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Haoqiang

    2011-01-01

    The Computer-Aided Parallelizer and Optimizer (CAPO) automates the insertion of compiler directives (see figure) to facilitate parallel processing on Shared Memory Parallel (SMP) machines. While CAPO currently is integrated seamlessly into CAPTools (developed at the University of Greenwich, now marketed as ParaWise), CAPO was independently developed at Ames Research Center as one of the components for the Legacy Code Modernization (LCM) project. The current version takes serial FORTRAN programs, performs interprocedural data dependence analysis, and generates OpenMP directives. Due to the widely supported OpenMP standard, the generated OpenMP codes have the potential to run on a wide range of SMP machines. CAPO relies on accurate interprocedural data dependence information currently provided by CAPTools. Compiler directives are generated through identification of parallel loops in the outermost level, construction of parallel regions around parallel loops and optimization of parallel regions, and insertion of directives with automatic identification of private, reduction, induction, and shared variables. Attempts also have been made to identify potential pipeline parallelism (implemented with point-to-point synchronization). Although directives are generated automatically, user interaction with the tool is still important for producing good parallel codes. A comprehensive graphical user interface is included for users to interact with the parallelization process.

  20. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.; Olariu, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of this grant has been the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles particularly focused on the elements of geometric design, graphical user interfaces, and the interaction of the multitude of software typically used in this engineering environment. This has resulted in the development of several analysis packages and design studies. These include two major software systems currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are SMART, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool, and EASIE, the Environment for Software Integration and Execution. Additional software tools were designed and implemented to address the needs of the engineer working in the conceptual design environment. SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and several engineering analysis capabilities. In addition, SMART has a carefully engineered user interface that makes it easy to learn and use. Finally, a number of specialty characteristics have been built into SMART which allow it to be used efficiently as a front end geometry processor for other analysis packages. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand-alone, analysis codes. Resulting in a streamlining of the exchange of data between programs reducing errors and improving the efficiency. EASIE provides both a methodology and a collection of software tools to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes.

  1. Desktop Computing Integration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tureman, Robert L., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Desktop Computing Integration Project for the Human Resources Management Division (HRMD) of LaRC was designed to help division personnel use personal computing resources to perform job tasks. The three goals of the project were to involve HRMD personnel in desktop computing, link mainframe data to desktop capabilities, and to estimate training needs for the division. The project resulted in increased usage of personal computers by Awards specialists, an increased awareness of LaRC resources to help perform tasks, and personal computer output that was used in presentation of information to center personnel. In addition, the necessary skills for HRMD personal computer users were identified. The Awards Office was chosen for the project because of the consistency of their data requests and the desire of employees in that area to use the personal computer.

  2. Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowell, Louis

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management at John F. Kennedy Space Center. The contents include: 1) Corrosion at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC); 2) Requirements and Objectives; 3) Program Description, Background and History; 4) Approach and Implementation; 5) Challenges; 6) Lessons Learned; 7) Successes and Benefits; and 8) Summary and Conclusions.

  3. Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics: Software Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yushau, B.; Bokhari, M. A.; Wessels, D. C. J.

    2004-01-01

    Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics (CALM) has been in use for some time in the Prep-Year Mathematics Program at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. Different kinds of software (both locally designed and imported) have been used in the quest of optimizing the recitation/problem session hour of the mathematics classes. This paper…

  4. PACS-Based Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. K. (Bernie); Liu, Brent J.; Le, Anh HongTu; Documet, Jorge

    The ultimate goal of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS)-based Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis (CAD) is to integrate CAD results into daily clinical practice so that it becomes a second reader to aid the radiologist's diagnosis. Integration of CAD and Hospital Information System (HIS), Radiology Information System (RIS) or PACS requires certain basic ingredients from Health Level 7 (HL7) standard for textual data, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard for images, and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) workflow profiles in order to comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requirements to be a healthcare information system. Among the DICOM standards and IHE workflow profiles, DICOM Structured Reporting (DICOM-SR); and IHE Key Image Note (KIN), Simple Image and Numeric Report (SINR) and Post-processing Work Flow (PWF) are utilized in CAD-HIS/RIS/PACS integration. These topics with examples are presented in this chapter.

  5. Continuing education through computer-aided instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.

    1981-01-01

    Computer-aided and managed instruction has been incorporated into the continuing education program in the Electronics Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two Control Data Corporation PLATO terminals have been installed in the learning center, and have been providing individualized instruction to the employees for approximately 2 years. Reactions from users and total usage figures indicate that there are unique advantages to computer-aided instruction. User interaction with a computer assures individual response from a student. The learner must be actively involved in the course and cannot passively allow content to flow by. Complex simulations can be programed and used in the learning process; thus, expensive equipment can be spared the wear and tear attributed to learners. The breadth of course topics included in the on-line library assures that PLATO has a continuing education offering for most employees. New lessons appear on line at the rate of three or four per week; PLATO cost effectiveness is thus certified. Comparisons of courses taken on the terminal to the same or similar courses offered elsewhere indicate that PLATO is advantageous. Computer-aided instruction is available when the learner is ready for initial instruction and later for reviews. At Los Alamos, the demand for PLATO service is growing. The Laboratory will have eight terminals installed and operating by April 1981. 8 tables.

  6. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-12-16

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  7. A rule based computer aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1986-01-01

    A Computer Aided Design (CAD) system is presented which supports the iterative process of design, the dimensional continuity between mating parts, and the hierarchical structure of the parts in their assembled configuration. Prolog, an interactive logic programming language, is used to represent and interpret the data base. The solid geometry representing the parts is defined in parameterized form using the swept volume method. The system is demonstrated with a design of a spring piston.

  8. Computer aided nonlinear electrical networks analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slapnicar, P.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques used in simulating an electrical circuit with nonlinear elements for use in computer-aided circuit analysis programs are described. Elements of the circuit include capacitors, resistors, inductors, transistors, diodes, and voltage and current sources (constant or time varying). Simulation features are discussed for dc, ac, and/or transient circuit analysis. Calculations are based on the model approach of formulating the circuit equations. A particular solution of transient analysis for nonlinear storage elements is described.

  9. Interfacing Computer Aided Parallelization and Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    When porting sequential applications to parallel computer architectures, the program developer will typically go through several cycles of source code optimization and performance analysis. We have started a project to develop an environment where the user can jointly navigate through program structure and performance data information in order to make efficient optimization decisions. In a prototype implementation we have interfaced the CAPO computer aided parallelization tool with the Paraver performance analysis tool. We describe both tools and their interface and give an example for how the interface helps within the program development cycle of a benchmark code.

  10. Removal of Supernumerary Teeth Utilizing a Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing Surgical Guide.

    PubMed

    Jo, Chanwoo; Bae, Doohwan; Choi, Byungho; Kim, Jihun

    2016-11-12

    Supernumerary teeth need to be removed because they can cause various complications. Caution is needed because their removal can cause damage to permanent teeth or tooth germs in the local vicinity. Surgical guides have recently been used in maxillofacial surgery. Because surgical guides are designed through preoperative analysis by computer-aided design software and fabricated using a 3-dimensional printer applying computer-aided manufacturing technology, they increase the accuracy and predictability of surgery. This report describes 2 cases of removal of a mesiodens-1 from a child and 1 from an adolescent-using a surgical guide; these would have been difficult to remove with conventional surgical methods.

  11. Computer-aided light sheet flow visualization using photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Kathryn; Severance, Kurt; Childers, Brooks A.

    1994-01-01

    A computer-aided flow visualization process has been developed to analyze video images acquired from rotating and translating light sheet visualization systems. The computer process integrates a mathematical model for image reconstruction, advanced computer graphics concepts, and digital image processing to provide a quantitative and a visual analysis capability. The image reconstruction model, based on photogrammetry, uses knowledge of the camera and light sheet locations and orientations to project two-dimensional light sheet video images into three-dimensional space. A sophisticated computer visualization package, commonly used to analyze computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results, was chosen to interactively display the reconstructed light sheet images with the numerical surface geometry for the model or aircraft under study. The photogrammetric reconstruction technique and the image processing and computer graphics techniques and equipment are described. Results of the computer-aided process applied to both a wind tunnel translating light sheet experiment and an in-flight rotating light sheet experiment are presented. The capability to compare reconstructed experimental light sheet images with CFD solutions in the same graphics environment is also demonstrated.

  12. Three-Dimensional Planning in Maxillofacial Fracture Surgery: Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacture Surgical Splints by Integrating Cone Beam Computerized Tomography Images Into Multislice Computerized Tomography Images.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiayin; Zhou, Zhongwei; Li, Peng; Tang, Wei; Guo, Jixiang; Wang, Hu; Tian, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate an innovative workflow for maxillofacial fracture surgery planning and surgical splint designing. The maxillofacial multislice computerized tomography (MSCT) data and dental cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) data both were obtained from 40 normal adults and 58 adults who suffered fractures. The each part of the CBCT dentition image was registered into MSCT image by the use of the iterative closest point algorithm. Volume evaluation of the virtual splints that were designed by the registered MSCT images and MSCT images of the same object was performed. Eighteen patients (group 1) were operated without any splint. Twenty-one (group 2) and 19 patients (group 3) used the splints designed according to the MSCT images and registered MSCT images, respectively. The authors' results showed that the mean errors between the 2 models ranged from 0.53 to 0.92 mm and the RMS errors ranged from 0.38 to 0.69 mm in fracture patients. The mean errors between the 2 models ranged from 0.47 to 0.85 mm and the RMS errors ranged from 0.33 to 0.71 mm in normal adults. 72.22% patients in group 1 recovered occlusion. 85.71% patients in group 2, and 94.73% patients in group 3 reconstructed occlusion. There was a statistically significant difference between the MSCT images based splints' volume and the registered MSCT splints' volume in patients (P <0.05). The MSCT images based splints' volume was statistically significantly distinct from the registered MSCT splints' volume in normal adults (P <0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between the MSCT images based splints' volume and the registered MSCT splints' volume in patients and normal adults (P <0.05). The occlusion recovery rate of group 3 was better than that of group 1 and group 2. The way of integrating CBCT images into MSCT images for splints designing was feasible. The volume of the splints designed by MSCT images tended to be smaller than the splints designed by

  13. Computer Aided Grid Interface: An Interactive CFD Pre-Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.

    1996-01-01

    NASA maintains an applications oriented computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts complementary to and in support of the aerodynamic-propulsion design and test activities. This is especially true at NASA/MSFC where the goal is to advance and optimize present and future liquid-fueled rocket engines. Numerical grid generation plays a significant role in the fluid flow simulations utilizing CFD. An overall goal of the current project was to develop a geometry-grid generation tool that will help engineers, scientists and CFD practitioners to analyze design problems involving complex geometries in a timely fashion. This goal is accomplished by developing the Computer Aided Grid Interface system (CAGI). The CAGI system is developed by integrating CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) geometric system output and / or Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files (including all the NASA-IGES entities), geometry manipulations and generations associated with grid constructions, and robust grid generation methodologies. This report describes the development process of the CAGI system.

  14. Computer Aided Grid Interface: An Interactive CFD Pre-Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.

    1997-01-01

    NASA maintains an applications oriented computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts complementary to and in support of the aerodynamic-propulsion design and test activities. This is especially true at NASA/MSFC where the goal is to advance and optimize present and future liquid-fueled rocket engines. Numerical grid generation plays a significant role in the fluid flow simulations utilizing CFD. An overall goal of the current project was to develop a geometry-grid generation tool that will help engineers, scientists and CFD practitioners to analyze design problems involving complex geometries in a timely fashion. This goal is accomplished by developing the CAGI: Computer Aided Grid Interface system. The CAGI system is developed by integrating CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) geometric system output and/or Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files (including all the NASA-IGES entities), geometry manipulations and generations associated with grid constructions, and robust grid generation methodologies. This report describes the development process of the CAGI system.

  15. A Suggested Computer Aided Drafting Curriculum (Dacum Based).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedras, Melvin J.; Hoggard, David

    Computer-aided drawing can bring new technology into the drafting classroom. One approach to computer-aided drafting (CAD) involves use of a personal computer and purchased software. Existing school computers could be shared to reduce costs. Following this narrative introduction, a suggested curriculum for the teaching of CAD is presented in…

  16. Emergency Management Computer-Aided Trainer (EMCAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, R. C.; Johnson, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    The Emergency Management Computer-Aided Trainer (EMCAT) developed by Essex Corporation or NASA and the Federal Emergency Management Administration's (FEMA) National Fire Academy (NFA) is described. It is a computer based training system for fire fighting personnel. A prototype EMCAT system was developed by NASA first using video tape images and then video disk images when the technology became available. The EMCAT system is meant to fill the training needs of the fire fighting community with affordable state-of-the-art technologies. An automated real time simulation of the fire situation was needed to replace the outdated manual training methods currently being used. In order to be successful, this simulator had to provide realism, be user friendly, be affordable, and support multiple scenarios. The EMCAT system meets these requirements and therefore represents an innovative training tool, not only for the fire fighting community, but also for the needs of other disciplines.

  17. Computer-aided periodontal disease diagnosis using computer vision.

    PubMed

    Juan, M C; Alcañiz, M; Monserrat, C; Grau, V; Knoll, C

    1999-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are the major cause of tooth loss. The study of the evolution of these diseases is crucial to achieve adequate planning and treatment. Depth probing is essential to know the periodontal disease stage. In this paper we present a new system for Computer-Aided Periodontal Disease Diagnosis using computer vision. The system automates the depth probing and incorporates a colour camera fitted together with a plastic probe that automatically and exactly obtains the depth probing measure. The system has been tested by several periodontists and with 125 teeth of different patients. The differences between the values taken by the system and two periodontists have not been significant.

  18. Application of Particle Swarm Optimization in Computer Aided Setup Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafashi, Sajad; Shakeri, Mohsen; Abedini, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    New researches are trying to integrate computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) environments. The role of process planning is to convert the design specification into manufacturing instructions. Setup planning has a basic role in computer aided process planning (CAPP) and significantly affects the overall cost and quality of machined part. This research focuses on the development for automatic generation of setups and finding the best setup plan in feasible condition. In order to computerize the setup planning process, three major steps are performed in the proposed system: a) Extraction of machining data of the part. b) Analyzing and generation of all possible setups c) Optimization to reach the best setup plan based on cost functions. Considering workshop resources such as machine tool, cutter and fixture, all feasible setups could be generated. Then the problem is adopted with technological constraints such as TAD (tool approach direction), tolerance relationship and feature precedence relationship to have a completely real and practical approach. The optimal setup plan is the result of applying the PSO (particle swarm optimization) algorithm into the system using cost functions. A real sample part is illustrated to demonstrate the performance and productivity of the system.

  19. Computer integrated documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy

    1991-01-01

    The main technical issues of the Computer Integrated Documentation (CID) project are presented. The problem of automation of documents management and maintenance is analyzed both from an artificial intelligence viewpoint and from a human factors viewpoint. Possible technologies for CID are reviewed: conventional approaches to indexing and information retrieval; hypertext; and knowledge based systems. A particular effort was made to provide an appropriate representation for contextual knowledge. This representation is used to generate context on hypertext links. Thus, indexing in CID is context sensitive. The implementation of the current version of CID is described. It includes a hypertext data base, a knowledge based management and maintenance system, and a user interface. A series is also presented of theoretical considerations as navigation in hyperspace, acquisition of indexing knowledge, generation and maintenance of a large documentation, and relation to other work.

  20. Computer aided diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekh, Viktor; Soliz, Peter; McGrew, Elizabeth; Barriga, Simon; Burge, Mark; Luan, Shuang

    2014-03-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) refers to the nerve damage that can occur in diabetes patients. It most often affects the extremities, such as the feet, and can lead to peripheral vascular disease, deformity, infection, ulceration, and even amputation. The key to managing diabetic foot is prevention and early detection. Unfortunately, current existing diagnostic techniques are mostly based on patient sensations and exhibit significant inter- and intra-observer differences. We have developed a computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The thermal response of the feet of diabetic patients following cold stimulus is captured using an infrared camera. The plantar foot in the images from a thermal video are segmented and registered for tracking points or specific regions. The temperature recovery of each point on the plantar foot is extracted using our bio-thermal model and analyzed. The regions that exhibit abnormal ability to recover are automatically identified to aid the physicians to recognize problematic areas. The key to our CAD system is the segmentation of infrared video. The main challenges for segmenting infrared video compared to normal digital video are (1) as the foot warms up, it also warms up the surrounding, creating an ever changing contrast; and (2) there may be significant motion during imaging. To overcome this, a hybrid segmentation algorithm was developed based on a number of techniques such as continuous max-flow, model based segmentation, shape preservation, convex hull, and temperature normalization. Verifications of the automatic segmentation and registration using manual segmentation and markers show good agreement.

  1. Computer-Aided Socket Design For Amputees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novicov, Aleksey; Foort, James

    1983-07-01

    The fitting of sockets and artificial legs to amputees' stumps is a difficult and lengthy process that can take numerous trials. It has been proposed that most amputees can be fitted with a standard socket shape with minimal changes to the socket. To perform this task, a procedure is being developed at the Medical Engineering Resource Unit for computer aided socket design for amputees. An interactive PASCAL program, operating on a microcomputer, will prompt the operator (or prosthetist) by asking him to determine the condition of the stump. While the operator is inputing this information into the computer, together with a few critical anatomical measurements, a standard socket shape, viewed on the video monitor, will begin to change. Throughout the "shape fitting" procedure, the operator will have the ability to modify the socket shape on the screen with the use of a light pen. It will also be possible to view various cross-sections and different perspectives. The shape fitting procedure continues until a suitable socket shape is designed. Future efforts will focus on transferring the computer designed socket into a physical socket. The overall goal is to provide amputees with a better fit in less time and to objectify socket fitting so that new prosthetists may be easily taught.

  2. Computer-aided tissue engineering: overview, scope and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Darling, Andrew; Starly, Binil; Nam, Jae

    2004-02-01

    Advances in computer-aided technology and its application with biology, engineering and information science to tissue engineering have evolved a new field of computer-aided tissue engineering (CATE). This emerging field encompasses computer-aided design (CAD), image processing, manufacturing and solid free-form fabrication (SFF) for modelling, designing, simulation and manufacturing of biological tissue and organ substitutes. The present Review describes some salient advances in this field, particularly in computer-aided tissue modeling, computer-aided tissue informatics and computer-aided tissue scaffold design and fabrication. Methodologies of development of CATE modelling from high-resolution non-invasive imaging and image-based three-dimensional reconstruction, and various reconstructive techniques for CAD-based tissue modelling generation will be described. The latest development in SFF to tissue engineering and a framework of bio-blueprint modelling for three-dimensional cell and organ printing will also be introduced.

  3. Intelligent computer-aided training authoring environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Robert D.

    1994-01-01

    Although there has been much research into intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), there are few authoring systems available that support ITS metaphors. Instructional developers are generally obliged to use tools designed for creating on-line books. We are currently developing an authoring environment derived from NASA's research on intelligent computer-aided training (ICAT). The ICAT metaphor, currently in use at NASA has proven effective in disciplines from satellite deployment to high school physics. This technique provides a personal trainer (PT) who instructs the student using a simulated work environment (SWE). The PT acts as a tutor, providing individualized instruction and assistance to each student. Teaching in an SWE allows the student to learn tasks by doing them, rather than by reading about them. This authoring environment will expedite ICAT development by providing a tool set that guides the trainer modeling process. Additionally, this environment provides a vehicle for distributing NASA's ICAT technology to the private sector.

  4. Computer aided control of a mechanical arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Zermuehlen, r. O.

    1979-01-01

    A method for computer-aided remote control of a six-degree-of-freedom manipulator arm involved in the on-orbit servicing of a spacecraft is presented. The control configuration features a supervisory type of control in which each of the segments of a module exchange trajectory is controlled automatically under human supervision, with manual commands to proceed to the next step and in the event of a failure or undesirable outcome. The implementation of the supervisory system is discussed in terms of necessary onboard and ground- or Orbiter-based hardware and software, and a one-g demonstration system built to allow further investigation of system operation is described. Possible applications of the system include the construction of satellite solar power systems, environmental testing and the control of heliostat solar power stations.

  5. An Expert Assistant for Computer Aided Parallelization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Chun, Robert; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

    2004-01-01

    The prototype implementation of an expert system was developed to assist the user in the computer aided parallelization process. The system interfaces to tools for automatic parallelization and performance analysis. By fusing static program structure information and dynamic performance analysis data the expert system can help the user to filter, correlate, and interpret the data gathered by the existing tools. Sections of the code that show poor performance and require further attention are rapidly identified and suggestions for improvements are presented to the user. In this paper we describe the components of the expert system and discuss its interface to the existing tools. We present a case study to demonstrate the successful use in full scale scientific applications.

  6. From Phonomecanocardiography to Phonocardiography computer aided

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados, J.; Tavera, F.; López, G.; Velázquez, J. M.; Hernández, R. T.; López, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    Due to lack of training doctors to identify many of the disorders in the heart by conventional listening, it is necessary to add an objective and methodological analysis to support this technique. In order to obtain information of the performance of the heart to be able to diagnose heart disease through a simple, cost-effective procedure by means of a data acquisition system, we have obtained Phonocardiograms (PCG), which are images of the sounds emitted by the heart. A program of acoustic, visual and artificial vision recognition was elaborated to interpret them. Based on the results of previous research of cardiologists a code of interpretation of PCG and associated diseases was elaborated. Also a site, within the university campus, of experimental sampling of cardiac data was created. Phonocardiography computer-aided is a viable and low cost procedure which provides additional medical information to make a diagnosis of complex heart diseases. We show some previous results.

  7. RASCAL: A Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John Christopher

    Both the background of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems in general and the requirements of a computer-aided learning system which would be a reasonable assistant to a teacher are discussed. RASCAL (Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning) is a first attempt at defining a CAI system which would individualize the learning…

  8. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-05-03

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This system is defined as a Commercial-Off the-Shelf computer dispatching system providing both text and graphical display information while interfacing with the diverse reporting system within the Hanford Facility. This system also provided expansion capabilities to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center and provides back-up capabilities for the Plutonium Processing Facility.

  9. A computer-aided approach to nonlinear control systhesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Anthony, Tobin

    1988-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to develop a computer-aided approach to nonlinear stability analysis and nonlinear control system design. This goal is to be obtained by refining the describing function method as a synthesis tool for nonlinear control design. The interim report outlines the approach by this study to meet these goals including an introduction to the INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program which was instrumental in meeting these study objectives. A single-input describing function (SIDF) design methodology was developed in this study; coupled with the software constructed in this study, the results of this project provide a comprehensive tool for design and integration of nonlinear control systems.

  10. Washington DC Area Computer Aided Surgery Society Monthly Meetings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    05-1-0072 TITLE: Washington DC Area Computer Aided Surgery Society Monthly Meetings PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kevin R. Cleary, Ph.D...Feb 2005-21 Feb 2009 4. Title and Subtitle Washington DC Area Computer Aided Surgery Society Monthly Meetings 5. Award Number W81XWH-05-1-0072...Area Computer-Aided Surgery Society (WashCAS) has become the major vehicle in the Washington/Baltimore area for exploring the issues in the emerging

  11. Computer-aided design for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Fehér, Tamás; Carbonell, Pablo; Pauthenier, Cyrille; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-12-20

    The development and application of biotechnology-based strategies has had a great socio-economical impact and is likely to play a crucial role in the foundation of more sustainable and efficient industrial processes. Within biotechnology, metabolic engineering aims at the directed improvement of cellular properties, often with the goal of synthesizing a target chemical compound. The use of computer-aided design (CAD) tools, along with the continuously emerging advanced genetic engineering techniques have allowed metabolic engineering to broaden and streamline the process of heterologous compound-production. In this work, we review the CAD tools available for metabolic engineering with an emphasis, on retrosynthesis methodologies. Recent advances in genetic engineering strategies for pathway implementation and optimization are also reviewed as well as a range of bionalytical tools to validate in silico predictions. A case study applying retrosynthesis is presented as an experimental verification of the output from Retropath, the first complete automated computational pipeline applicable to metabolic engineering. Applying this CAD pipeline, together with genetic reassembly and optimization of culture conditions led to improved production of the plant flavonoid pinocembrin. Coupling CAD tools with advanced genetic engineering strategies and bioprocess optimization is crucial for enhanced product yields and will be of great value for the development of non-natural products through sustainable biotechnological processes.

  12. Computer-aided control in nonround process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangjie; Huang, Shenghua

    1995-11-01

    Currently, un-round process (such as piston in internal-combustion engine etc.) is mainly realized by hard contact turning and ellipse milling. This paper introduces the computer-aided control in non-round process, using a high speed voice coil motor which can move to and fro in straight line to drive the cutting tool directly and so as to realize the un-round process under the control of computer. The precision can reach 1 micrometer. It exemplifies the process on convex varying elliptical piston. The best process curve is deduced. Double-CPUs are adopted to realize high speed detection and curve imitation in on-line process. IGBT is selected to drive the motor, optics grid decoder with the resolution of 0.25 micrometer for position detection. The self-adaptive control and feed forward control of sliding model on varying structure assures the request on system's dynamic response and stability. The simulation results reach the expected goal of system design.

  13. Computer-Aided Drug Design Methods.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenbo; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2017-01-01

    Computational approaches are useful tools to interpret and guide experiments to expedite the antibiotic drug design process. Structure-based drug design (SBDD) and ligand-based drug design (LBDD) are the two general types of computer-aided drug design (CADD) approaches in existence. SBDD methods analyze macromolecular target 3-dimensional structural information, typically of proteins or RNA, to identify key sites and interactions that are important for their respective biological functions. Such information can then be utilized to design antibiotic drugs that can compete with essential interactions involving the target and thus interrupt the biological pathways essential for survival of the microorganism(s). LBDD methods focus on known antibiotic ligands for a target to establish a relationship between their physiochemical properties and antibiotic activities, referred to as a structure-activity relationship (SAR), information that can be used for optimization of known drugs or guide the design of new drugs with improved activity. In this chapter, standard CADD protocols for both SBDD and LBDD will be presented with a special focus on methodologies and targets routinely studied in our laboratory for antibiotic drug discoveries.

  14. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-09-27

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This document outlines the negotiated requirements as agreed to by GTE Northwest during technical contract discussions. This system defines a commercial off-the-shelf computer dispatching system providing both test and graphic display information while interfacing with diverse alarm reporting system within the Hanford Site. This system provided expansion capability to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center. The system also provided back-up capability for the Plutonium Processing Facility (PFP).

  15. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  16. CAGI: Computer Aided Grid Interface. A work in progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.; Yu, Tzu-Yi; Vaughn, David

    1992-01-01

    Progress realized in the development of a Computer Aided Grid Interface (CAGI) software system in integrating CAD/CAM geometric system output and/or Interactive Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES) files, geometry manipulations associated with grid generation, and robust grid generation methodologies is presented. CAGI is being developed in a modular fashion and will offer fast, efficient and economical response to geometry/grid preparation, allowing the ability to upgrade basic geometry in a step-by-step fashion interactively and under permanent visual control along with minimizing the differences between the actual hardware surface descriptions and corresponding numerical analog. The computer code GENIE is used as a basis. The Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) representation of sculptured surfaces is utilized for surface grid redistribution. The computer aided analysis system, PATRAN, is adapted as a CAD/CAM system. The progress realized in NURBS surface grid generation, the development of IGES transformer, and geometry adaption using PATRAN will be presented along with their applicability to grid generation associated with rocket propulsion applications.

  17. Computer-aided drug design at Boehringer Ingelheim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muegge, Ingo; Bergner, Andreas; Kriegl, Jan M.

    2016-09-01

    Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) is an integral part of the drug discovery endeavor at Boehringer Ingelheim (BI). CADD contributes to the evaluation of new therapeutic concepts, identifies small molecule starting points for drug discovery, and develops strategies for optimizing hit and lead compounds. The CADD scientists at BI benefit from the global use and development of both software platforms and computational services. A number of computational techniques developed in-house have significantly changed the way early drug discovery is carried out at BI. In particular, virtual screening in vast chemical spaces, which can be accessed by combinatorial chemistry, has added a new option for the identification of hits in many projects. Recently, a new framework has been implemented allowing fast, interactive predictions of relevant on and off target endpoints and other optimization parameters. In addition to the introduction of this new framework at BI, CADD has been focusing on the enablement of medicinal chemists to independently perform an increasing amount of molecular modeling and design work. This is made possible through the deployment of MOE as a global modeling platform, allowing computational and medicinal chemists to freely share ideas and modeling results. Furthermore, a central communication layer called the computational chemistry framework provides broad access to predictive models and other computational services.

  18. Computer Aided Modeling and Post Processing with NASTRAN Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroughs, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Computer aided engineering systems are invaluable tools in performing NASTRAN finite element analysis. These techniques are implemented in both the pre-processing and post-processing phases of the NASTRAN analysis. The finite element model development, or pre-processing phase, was automated with a computer aided modeling program called Supertabl, and the review and interpretation of the results of the NASTRAN analysis, or post-processing phase, was automated with a computer aided plotting program called Output Display. An intermediate program, Nasplot, which was developed in-house, has also helped to cut down on the model checkout time and reduce errors in the model. An interface has been established between the finite element computer aided engineering system and the Learjet computer aided design system whereby data can be transferred back and forth between the two. These systems have significantly improved productivity and the ability to perform NASTRAN analysis in response to product development requests.

  19. Computer-aided protective system (CAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method of improving the security of materials in transit is described. The system provides a continuously monitored position location system for the transport vehicle, an internal computer-based geographic delimiter that makes continuous comparisons of actual positions with the preplanned routing and schedule, and a tamper detection/reaction system. The position comparison is utilized to institute preprogrammed reactive measures if the carrier is taken off course or schedule, penetrated, or otherwise interfered with. The geographic locater could be an independent internal platform or an external signal-dependent system utilizing GPS, Loran or similar source of geographic information; a small (micro) computer could provide adequate memory and computational capacity; the insurance of integrity of the system indicates the need for a tamper-proof container and built-in intrusion sensors. A variant of the system could provide real-time transmission of the vehicle position and condition to a central control point for; such transmission could be encrypted to preclude spoofing.

  20. Single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guide.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Moon-Key; Lee, Ji-Yeon

    2016-04-01

    This clinical note introduces a method to assist surgeons in performing single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy. For use in this method, a surgical guide was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and was based on preoperative surgical simulation data. This method was highly conducive to successful single-tooth dento-osseous segmental osteotomy.

  1. CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacture). A Brief Guide to Materials in the Library of Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havas, George D.

    This brief guide to materials in the Library of Congress (LC) on computer aided design and/or computer aided manufacturing lists reference materials and other information sources under 13 headings: (1) brief introductions; (2) LC subject headings used for such materials; (3) textbooks; (4) additional titles; (5) glossaries and handbooks; (6)…

  2. Retrofitting a crown to a sleep apnea device by using computer-aided design and computer-aided milling technology.

    PubMed

    Biethman, Rick; Land, Martin F; Hruskocy, Heather; Colgin, Bruce

    2014-07-01

    Retrofitting a new crown to an existing dental device is challenging. The continued evolution of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) significantly simplifies the process. This article demonstrates retrofitting a gold crown to an existing sleep apnea device.

  3. Single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guide

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This clinical note introduces a method to assist surgeons in performing single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy. For use in this method, a surgical guide was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and was based on preoperative surgical simulation data. This method was highly conducive to successful single-tooth dento-osseous segmental osteotomy. PMID:27162756

  4. Application of infrared thermography in computer aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Oliver; Rajendra Acharya, U.; Ng, E. Y. K.; Hong, Tan Jen; Yu, Wenwei

    2014-09-01

    The invention of thermography, in the 1950s, posed a formidable problem to the research community: What is the relationship between disease and heat radiation captured with Infrared (IR) cameras? The research community responded with a continuous effort to find this crucial relationship. This effort was aided by advances in processing techniques, improved sensitivity and spatial resolution of thermal sensors. However, despite this progress fundamental issues with this imaging modality still remain. The main problem is that the link between disease and heat radiation is complex and in many cases even non-linear. Furthermore, the change in heat radiation as well as the change in radiation pattern, which indicate disease, is minute. On a technical level, this poses high requirements on image capturing and processing. On a more abstract level, these problems lead to inter-observer variability and on an even more abstract level they lead to a lack of trust in this imaging modality. In this review, we adopt the position that these problems can only be solved through a strict application of scientific principles and objective performance assessment. Computing machinery is inherently objective; this helps us to apply scientific principles in a transparent way and to assess the performance results. As a consequence, we aim to promote thermography based Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems. Another benefit of CAD systems comes from the fact that the diagnostic accuracy is linked to the capability of the computing machinery and, in general, computers become ever more potent. We predict that a pervasive application of computers and networking technology in medicine will help us to overcome the shortcomings of any single imaging modality and this will pave the way for integrated health care systems which maximize the quality of patient care.

  5. Web-Based Learning in the Computer-Aided Design Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Wen-Tsai; Ou, S. C.

    2002-01-01

    Applies principles of constructivism and virtual reality (VR) to computer-aided design (CAD) curriculum, particularly engineering, by integrating network, VR and CAD technologies into a Web-based learning environment that expands traditional two-dimensional computer graphics into a three-dimensional real-time simulation that enhances user…

  6. Computer-aided design development transition for IPAD environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, H. G.; Mock, W. D.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of federally sponsored computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) programs to the aircraft life cycle design process, an overview of NAAD'S CAD development program, an evaluation of the CAD design process, a discussion of the current computing environment within which NAAD is developing its CAD system, some of the advantages/disadvantages of the NAAD-IPAD approach, and CAD developments during transition into the IPAD system are discussed.

  7. Accelerating Battery Design Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Heon, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  8. Microwave processing of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Pendola, Martin; Saha, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Because of their favorable mechanical properties and natural esthetics, ceramics are widely used in restorative dentistry. The conventional ceramic sintering process required for their use is usually slow, however, and the equipment has an elevated energy consumption. Sintering processes that use microwaves have several advantages compared to regular sintering: shorter processing times, lower energy consumption, and the capacity for volumetric heating. The objective of this study was to test the mechanical properties of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) after the specimens were processed with microwave hybrid sintering. Density, hardness, and bending strength were measured. When ceramic specimens were sintered with microwaves, the processing times were reduced and protocols were simplified. Hardness was improved almost 20% compared to regular sintering, and flexural strength measurements suggested that specimens were approximately 50% stronger than specimens sintered in a conventional system. Microwave hybrid sintering may preserve or improve the mechanical properties of dental ceramics designed for CAD/CAM processing systems, reducing processing and waiting times.

  9. PLAID- A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    PLAID is a three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) system which enables the user to interactively construct, manipulate, and display sets of highly complex geometric models. PLAID was initially developed by NASA to assist in the design of Space Shuttle crewstation panels, and the detection of payload object collisions. It has evolved into a more general program for convenient use in many engineering applications. Special effort was made to incorporate CAD techniques and features which minimize the users workload in designing and managing PLAID models. PLAID consists of three major modules: the Primitive Object Generator (BUILD), the Composite Object Generator (COG), and the DISPLAY Processor. The BUILD module provides a means of constructing simple geometric objects called primitives. The primitives are created from polygons which are defined either explicitly by vertex coordinates, or graphically by use of terminal crosshairs or a digitizer. Solid objects are constructed by combining, rotating, or translating the polygons. Corner rounding, hole punching, milling, and contouring are special features available in BUILD. The COG module hierarchically organizes and manipulates primitives and other previously defined COG objects to form complex assemblies. The composite object is constructed by applying transformations to simpler objects. The transformations which can be applied are scalings, rotations, and translations. These transformations may be defined explicitly or defined graphically using the interactive COG commands. The DISPLAY module enables the user to view COG assemblies from arbitrary viewpoints (inside or outside the object) both in wireframe and hidden line renderings. The PLAID projection of a three-dimensional object can be either orthographic or with perspective. A conflict analysis option enables detection of spatial conflicts or collisions. DISPLAY provides camera functions to simulate a view of the model through different lenses. Other

  10. Computer-aided marginal artery detection on computed tomographic colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhuoshi; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Shijun; Liu, Jiamin; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-03-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for colonic polyps and cancer screening. The marginal artery of the colon, also known as the marginal artery of Drummond, is the blood vessel that connects the inferior mesenteric artery with the superior mesenteric artery. The marginal artery runs parallel to the colon for its entire length, providing the blood supply to the colon. Detecting the marginal artery may benefit computer-aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyp. It can be used to identify teniae coli based on their anatomic spatial relationship. It can also serve as an alternative marker for colon localization, in case of colon collapse and inability to directly compute the endoluminal centerline. This paper proposes an automatic method for marginal artery detection on CTC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work presented for this purpose. Our method includes two stages. The first stage extracts the blood vessels in the abdominal region. The eigenvalue of Hessian matrix is used to detect line-like structures in the images. The second stage is to reduce the false positives in the first step. We used two different masks to exclude the false positive vessel regions. One is a dilated colon mask which is obtained by colon segmentation. The other is an eroded visceral fat mask which is obtained by fat segmentation in the abdominal region. We tested our method on a CTC dataset with 6 cases. Using ratio-of-overlap with manual labeling of the marginal artery as the standard-of-reference, our method yielded true positive, false positive and false negative fractions of 89%, 33%, 11%, respectively.

  11. Integrated Computational Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    specific material properties. 15. SUBJECT TERMS alloy design, microstructure, mechanical properties, fatigue behavior, crack growth behavior...microstructure, processing, constitution, or alloy might not be correct. A critical piece of ICME is the “integration.” For years materials laboratories...experimental techniques. These four areas are explained in more detail below. Alloy Selection Processing Microstructure Lifing Properties Life Prediction Risk

  12. COMPUTER-AIDED DATA ACQUISITION FOR COMBUSTION EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article describes the use of computer-aided data acquisition techniques to aid the research program of the Combustion Research Branch (CRB) of the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in Research Triangle Park, NC, in particular on CRB's bench-sca...

  13. Computer-aided Instructional System for Transmission Line Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, Erwin A.; Roth, Charles H., Jr.

    A computer-aided instructional system has been developed which utilizes dynamic computer-controlled graphic displays and which requires student interaction with a computer simulation in an instructional mode. A numerical scheme has been developed for digital simulation of a uniform, distortionless transmission line with resistive terminations and…

  14. Issues of a Computer-Aided Design of Hydraulic Jacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averchenkov, V. I.; Averchenkov, A. V.; Kolyakinand, V. V.; Orekhov, O. D.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the issues of a computer-aided design of hydraulic equipment, namely hydraulic jacks. Design principles of the hydraulic jack CAD system are described. In addition, the possibilities for the system improvement and expansion are considered.

  15. Computer-aided detection of colonic polyps using volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wei; Qiu, Feng; Marino, Joseph; Kaufman, Arie

    2007-03-01

    This work utilizes a novel pipeline for the computer-aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyps, assisting radiologists in locating polyps when using a virtual colonoscopy system. Our CAD pipeline automatically detects polyps while reducing the number of false positives (FPs). It integrates volume rendering and conformal colon flattening with texture and shape analysis. The colon is first digitally cleansed, segmented, and extracted from the CT dataset of the abdomen. The colon surface is then mapped to a 2D rectangle using conformal mapping. Using this colon flattening method, the CAD problem is converted from 3D into 2D. The flattened image is rendered using a direct volume rendering of the 3D colon dataset with a translucent transfer function. Suspicious polyps are detected by applying a clustering method on the 2D volume rendered image. The FPs are reduced by analyzing shape and texture features of the suspicious areas detected by the clustering step. Compared with shape-based methods, ours is much faster and much more efficient as it avoids computing curvature and other shape parameters for the whole colon wall. We tested our method with 178 datasets and found it to be 100% sensitive to adenomatous polyps with a low rate of FPs. The CAD results are seamlessly integrated into a virtual colonoscopy system, providing the radiologists with visual cues and likelihood indicators of areas likely to contain polyps, and allowing them to quickly inspect the suspicious areas and further exploit the flattened colon view for easy navigation and bookmark placement.

  16. TARGET: Research in Computer Aids for Translators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Donald; Strazds, Andris E.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the background of the "TARGET Project for Aids to Translation," its current facilities, and its goals. Describes the system's central feature as an interactive, multilingual terminology database intended to eliminate time wasted in researching unknown terms and to facilitate final document production, study of person-machine…

  17. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now. PMID:27095912

  18. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now.

  19. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology.

    PubMed

    Calamia, J R

    1994-01-01

    Although the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology and the benefits of increased productivity became obvious in the automobile and aerospace industries in the 1970s, investigations of this technology's application in the field of dentistry did not begin until the 1980s. Only now are we beginning to see the fruits of this work with the commercial availability of some systems; the potential for this technology seems boundless. This article reviews the recent literature with emphasis on the period from June 1992 to May 1993. This review should familiarize the reader with some of the latest developments in this technology, including a brief description of some systems currently available and the clinical and economical rationale for their acceptance into the dental mainstream. This article concentrates on a particular system, the Cerec (Siemens/Pelton and Crane, Charlotte, NC) system, for three reasons: first, this system has been available since 1985 and, as a result, has a track record of almost 7 years of data. Most of the data have just recently been released and consequently, much of this year's literature on CAD-CAM is monopolized by studies using this system. Second, this system was developed as a mobile, affordable, direct chairside CAD-CAM restorative method. As such, it is of special interest to the dentist who will offer this new technology directly to the patient, providing a one-visit restoration. Third, the author is currently engaged in research using this particular system and has a working knowledge of this system's capabilities.

  20. Computer Aids Instruction in Photojournalism Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of paper versions and computer versions of 10 ethical situations posed for student photojournalists. Finds that in-depth situations presented through computer software can give students more information on photojournalism ethics than 2-sentence scenarios on paper. (MS)

  1. Research in Computer-Aided Performance Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigney, Joseph W.; Towne, Douglas M.

    The principal emphasis of this three-year research program was on developing better ways to utilize the power of the digital computer in computer-aided performance training. Two large programs, collectively called TASKTEACH, were developed and tested. These programs combined simulation and gaming techniques. The dialog with the student is…

  2. Competing Ideologies in Software Design for Computer-Aided Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Illustrates the ideological foundations of computer-assisted composition (CAC) software by comparing two computer-writing aids: "Grammatik II" and "Interchange." Notes that many of the best CAC programs have come out of the composition classroom. Argues that English departments must support and reward those who work in CAC design. (RS)

  3. WINCADRE INORGANIC (WINDOWS COMPUTER-AIDED DATA REVIEW AND EVALUATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    WinCADRE (Computer-Aided Data Review and Evaluation) is a Windows -based program designed for computer-assisted data validation. WinCADRE is a powerful tool which significantly decreases data validation turnaround time. The electronic-data-deliverable format has been designed in...

  4. The Journal of Computer- Aided Molecular Design: a bibliometric note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes the articles in, and the citations to, volumes 2-24 of the Journal of Computer- Aided Molecular Design. The citations to the journal come from almost 2000 different sources that span a very wide range of academic subjects, with the most heavily cited articles being descriptions of software systems and of computational methods.

  5. WINCADRE (COMPUTER-AIDED DATA REVIEW AND EVALUATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    WinCADRE (Computer-Aided Data Review and Evaluation) is a Windows -based program designed for computer-assisted data validation. WinCADRE is a powerful tool which significantly decreases data validation turnaround time. The electronic-data-deliverable format has been designed ...

  6. Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction: A Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Novak, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Presents an evaluation of a computer-aided personalized system of instruction program in two undergraduate psychology courses. The computer presented short essay tests and arranged for students who had completed various assignments satisfactorily to help evaluate other students' mastery of those assignments. Student response generally was…

  7. Computer Aided Data Analysis in Sociometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langeheine, Rolf

    1978-01-01

    A computer program which analyzes sociometric data is presented. The SDAS program provides classical sociometric analysis. Multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis techniques may be combined with the MSP program. (JKS)

  8. Computer-Aided Collaborative Music Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, James A.

    1991-01-01

    At the New England Conservatory of Music, computer-assisted instruction is used not only to teach harmony through collaborative learning and aural feedback, but also to bring the roles of composer, performer, and audience closer together. (SK)

  9. Computer Aided Diagnosis of Acute Gynaecologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fengling

    1982-01-01

    In this article, the application of electronic computers for diagnosis of ten common gynaecologic diseases is discussed. Verification by 1038 cases shows that the discussed method of diagnosis has an accuracy of 95.57%.

  10. Computer-Aided Air-Traffic Control In The Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    1995-01-01

    Developmental computer-aided system for automated management and control of arrival traffic at large airport includes three integrated subsystems. One subsystem, called Traffic Management Advisor, another subsystem, called Descent Advisor, and third subsystem, called Final Approach Spacing Tool. Data base that includes current wind measurements and mathematical models of performances of types of aircraft contributes to effective operation of system.

  11. Using the Web To Improve Computer-Aided Instruction in Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Joseph I.

    1999-01-01

    Believes that the World Wide Web has great potential for delivering interactive computer-aided instruction using programming language like Java and Javascript. Describes a website on object-oriented microeconomics that integrates a textbook, mini-lecture series, graphical calculator, animated drawing program, spreadsheet, and regression package.…

  12. Incorporating Computer-Aided Software in the Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Core Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnaizy, Raafat; Abdel-Jabbar, Nabil; Ibrahim, Taleb H.; Husseini, Ghaleb A.

    2014-01-01

    Introductions of computer-aided software and simulators are implemented during the sophomore-year of the chemical engineering (ChE) curriculum at the American University of Sharjah (AUS). Our faculty concurs that software integration within the curriculum is beneficial to our students, as evidenced by the positive feedback received from industry…

  13. Computer-aided diagnosis and artificial intelligence in clinical imaging.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Doi, Kunio

    2011-11-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is rapidly entering the radiology mainstream. It has already become a part of the routine clinical work for the detection of breast cancer with mammograms. The computer output is used as a "second opinion" in assisting radiologists' image interpretations. The computer algorithm generally consists of several steps that may include image processing, image feature analysis, and data classification via the use of tools such as artificial neural networks (ANN). In this article, we will explore these and other current processes that have come to be referred to as "artificial intelligence." One element of CAD, temporal subtraction, has been applied for enhancing interval changes and for suppressing unchanged structures (eg, normal structures) between 2 successive radiologic images. To reduce misregistration artifacts on the temporal subtraction images, a nonlinear image warping technique for matching the previous image to the current one has been developed. Development of the temporal subtraction method originated with chest radiographs, with the method subsequently being applied to chest computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine bone scans. The usefulness of the temporal subtraction method for bone scans was demonstrated by an observer study in which reading times and diagnostic accuracy improved significantly. An additional prospective clinical study verified that the temporal subtraction image could be used as a "second opinion" by radiologists with negligible detrimental effects. ANN was first used in 1990 for computerized differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases in CAD. Since then, ANN has been widely used in CAD schemes for the detection and diagnosis of various diseases in different imaging modalities, including the differential diagnosis of lung nodules and interstitial lung diseases in chest radiography, CT, and position emission tomography/CT. It is likely that CAD will be integrated into picture archiving and

  14. Computer-aided software development process design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe an intelligent tool designed to aid managers of software development projects in planning, managing, and controlling the development process of medium- to large-scale software projects. Its purpose is to reduce uncertainties in the budget, personnel, and schedule planning of software development projects. It is based on dynamic model for the software development and maintenance life-cycle process. This dynamic process is composed of a number of time-varying, interacting developmental phases, each characterized by its intended functions and requirements. System dynamics is used as a modeling methodology. The resulting Software LIfe-Cycle Simulator (SLICS) and the hybrid expert simulation system of which it is a subsystem are described.

  15. Computer Simulations: An Integrating Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilan, Bohdan J.

    This introduction to computer simulations as an integrated learning experience reports on their use with students in grades 5 through 10 using commercial software packages such as SimCity, SimAnt, SimEarth, and Civilization. Students spent an average of 60 hours with the simulation games and reported their experiences each week in a personal log.…

  16. Computer graphics aid mission operations. [NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.

  17. Features of Computer-Based Decision Aids: Systematic Review, Thematic Synthesis, and Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Krömker, Dörthe; Meguerditchian, Ari N; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient information and education, such as decision aids, are gradually moving toward online, computer-based environments. Considerable research has been conducted to guide content and presentation of decision aids. However, given the relatively new shift to computer-based support, little attention has been given to how multimedia and interactivity can improve upon paper-based decision aids. Objective The first objective of this review was to summarize published literature into a proposed classification of features that have been integrated into computer-based decision aids. Building on this classification, the second objective was to assess whether integration of specific features was associated with higher-quality decision making. Methods Relevant studies were located by searching MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. The review identified studies that evaluated computer-based decision aids for adults faced with preference-sensitive medical decisions and reported quality of decision-making outcomes. A thematic synthesis was conducted to develop the classification of features. Subsequently, meta-analyses were conducted based on standardized mean differences (SMD) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported knowledge or decisional conflict. Further subgroup analyses compared pooled SMDs for decision aids that incorporated a specific feature to other computer-based decision aids that did not incorporate the feature, to assess whether specific features improved quality of decision making. Results Of 3541 unique publications, 58 studies met the target criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. The synthesis identified six features: content control, tailoring, patient narratives, explicit values clarification, feedback, and social support. A subset of 26 RCTs from the thematic synthesis was used to conduct the meta-analyses. As expected, computer-based decision aids performed better than usual care or alternative aids; however

  18. Computer-Aided Fabrication of Integrated Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-30

    to MDBSs have been designed to generally ad- dress issues of the global schema approach. Among these are Multibase[1], Sirius-Delta 41, Mermaid [51, R...manipulate existing distributed data as a unique database. It is implemented using the existing services of the LDBs. Mermaid , developed at Unisys...Templeton, D. Brill, S. Dao, E. Lund, P. Ward, A. L. P.Chen, and R. MacGregor, " Mermaid -a front-end to distributed heterogeneous databases," Proceedings of

  19. Computer-aided surgery: concepts and applications in vascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kaladji, Adrien; Lucas, Antoine; Cardon, Alain; Haigron, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided surgery makes use of a variety of technologies and information sources. The challenge over the last ten years has been to apply these methods to tissues that deform, as do vessels when relatively rigid flexible objects are introduced into them (Lunderquist rigid guidewire, aortic prosthesis, etc.) Three stages of computer-aided endovascular surgery are examined: sizing, planning and intra-operative assistance. Our work shows that an approach based on optimized use of the imaging data acquired during the various observation phases (pre and intra-operative), involving only lightweight computer equipment that is relatively transparent for the user, makes it possible to provide useful (i.e. necessary and sufficient) information at the appropriate moment, in order to aid decision-making and enhance the security of endovascular procedures. PMID:22513982

  20. Special Computer Aided Education Using Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San, Lei Chu; Hong, Io Hio

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the use of computer-assisted instruction with multimedia for people with disabilities. Considers the needs of children with disabilities and learning difficulties, and presents an example of a voice-assistant system for blind people. Further applications are also discussed. (LRW)

  1. Computer aided interactive remote diagnosis of Parkinsonians.

    PubMed

    Fazekas, Csaba; Vörös, Tibor; Keresztényi, Zoltán; Kozmann, György; Laczkó, József

    2002-01-01

    We develop a diagnostic tool to support the objective diagnosis of Parkinsonians. We suggest a cost and time efficient diagnostic tool: patients may complete exercises using a personal computer at home and the data is gathered for further studies via Internet in a central database.

  2. Assessment of Computer Aids in Shipyards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    read NIAM diagrams with very little training. It takes really more to write good NIAM. Just like anyone can listen to music and appreciate it. Almost any...technology five years horn now. And just like the ex- ample of the antigravity machine, five years from now the computer business will look so different

  3. Computer Program Aids Design Of Impeller Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wei-Chung; Galazin, John V.

    1992-01-01

    Impeller blades for centrifugal turbopumps designed quickly with help of computer program. Generates blade contours and continually subjects them to evaluation. Checks physical parameters to ensure they are compatible with required performance and recycles design if criteria not met. Program written for centrifugal turbomachinery, also adapted to such axial pump components as inducer blades and stator vanes.

  4. Developments in Computer Aided Software Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    differences in intelligence ( Adorno et al, 1950). The present authors speculate, however, that there may be a correlation between programming ability and...Administrative Side." Computer Decisions, October 1973. Adorno , T.W., Frenkel-Brunswick, E., Levinson, D.J., and Sanford, R.N. The Authoritarian

  5. An Interactive Computer-Based Revision Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, J. M.; Harris, F. T. C.

    1977-01-01

    A computer-based review system has been developed, based on the multiple-choice technique, at the University of London for medical students. The user can enter an answer or can have a list of questions to take away and enter later. Student response has been favorable. (LBH)

  6. Computer aided design of spur gear teeth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. L.; Mavriplis, D.; Oswald, F. B.

    1989-01-01

    Procedures for computer-modeling of spur gear tooth fabrication are given. It is shown that the standard involute tooth form results from a cutter with an involute shape rolling onto a gear blank. Specifically, the envelope of an involute is an involute. Examples are given and applications are discussed.

  7. A computer aided teaching course on corrosion of concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesht, M.H.; Cottis, R.A.

    1996-10-01

    Computers provide a powerful opportunity for the development of teaching materials. They provide a rich interactive environment to stimulate and engage the student. The advent of computers with multimedia capabilities allows the constructor of teaching materials to show the student material from many sources; text, chart, audio, video, animation, simulation, sound or photographs. When these are combined with interactivity, a powerful learning environment is created. There is currently no CAL (Computer Aided Learning) or CBT (Computer Based Training) material available on the subject of corrosion and corrosion protection in concrete structures for civil engineering students. This paper will describe a Computer Aided Learning package intended to introduce students to the environmental degradation of concrete structures.

  8. Computer-Aided Apparel Design in University Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belleau, Bonnie D.; Bourgeois, Elva B.

    1991-01-01

    As computer-assisted design (CAD) become an integral part of the fashion industry, universities must integrate CAD into the apparel curriculum. Louisiana State University's curriculum enables students to collaborate in CAD problem solving with industry personnel. (SK)

  9. Mathematical modelling in the computer-aided process planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitin, S.; Bochkarev, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents new approaches to organization of manufacturing preparation and mathematical models related to development of the computer-aided multi product process planning (CAMPP) system. CAMPP system has some peculiarities compared to the existing computer-aided process planning (CAPP) systems: fully formalized developing of the machining operations; a capacity to create and to formalize the interrelationships among design, process planning and process implementation; procedures for consideration of the real manufacturing conditions. The paper describes the structure of the CAMPP system and shows the mathematical models and methods to formalize the design procedures.

  10. Program for computer aided reliability estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, F. P. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A computer program for estimating the reliability of self-repair and fault-tolerant systems with respect to selected system and mission parameters is presented. The computer program is capable of operation in an interactive conversational mode as well as in a batch mode and is characterized by maintenance of several general equations representative of basic redundancy schemes in an equation repository. Selected reliability functions applicable to any mathematical model formulated with the general equations, used singly or in combination with each other, are separately stored. One or more system and/or mission parameters may be designated as a variable. Data in the form of values for selected reliability functions is generated in a tabular or graphic format for each formulated model.

  11. Computer aided radiation analysis for manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew H.; Griffin, Brand N.; Tanner, Ernest R., II; Pogue, William R.; Golightly, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to assist in the design of radiation shielding an analytical tool is presented that can be employed in combination with CAD facilities and NASA transport codes. The nature of radiation in space is described, and the operational requirements for protection are listed as background information for the use of the technique. The method is based on the Boeing radiation exposure model (BREM) for combining NASA radiation transport codes and CAD facilities, and the output is given as contour maps of the radiation-shield distribution so that dangerous areas can be identified. Computational models are used to solve the 1D Boltzmann transport equation and determine the shielding needs for the worst-case scenario. BREM can be employed directly with the radiation computations to assess radiation protection during all phases of design which saves time and ultimately spacecraft weight.

  12. PCACE-Personal-Computer-Aided Cabling Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1987-01-01

    PCACE computer program developed to provide inexpensive, interactive system for learning and using engineering approach to interconnection systems. Basically database system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records. Directly emulates typical manual engineering methods of handling data, thus making interface between user and program very natural. Apple version written in P-Code Pascal and IBM PC version of PCACE written in TURBO Pascal 3.0

  13. Software Aids Visualization of Computed Unsteady Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Kenwright, David

    2003-01-01

    Unsteady Flow Analysis Toolkit (UFAT) is a computer program that synthesizes motions of time-dependent flows represented by very large sets of data generated in computational fluid dynamics simulations. Prior to the development of UFAT, it was necessary to rely on static, single-snapshot depictions of time-dependent flows generated by flow-visualization software designed for steady flows. Whereas it typically takes weeks to analyze the results of a largescale unsteady-flow simulation by use of steady-flow visualization software, the analysis time is reduced to hours when UFAT is used. UFAT can be used to generate graphical objects of flow visualization results using multi-block curvilinear grids in the format of a previously developed NASA data-visualization program, PLOT3D. These graphical objects can be rendered using FAST, another popular flow visualization software developed at NASA. Flow-visualization techniques that can be exploited by use of UFAT include time-dependent tracking of particles, detection of vortex cores, extractions of stream ribbons and surfaces, and tetrahedral decomposition for optimal particle tracking. Unique computational features of UFAT include capabilities for automatic (batch) processing, restart, memory mapping, and parallel processing. These capabilities significantly reduce analysis time and storage requirements, relative to those of prior flow-visualization software. UFAT can be executed on a variety of supercomputers.

  14. Space systems computer-aided design technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) system is described, together with planned capability increases in the IDEAS system. The system's disciplines consist of interactive graphics and interactive computing. A single user at an interactive terminal can create, design, analyze, and conduct parametric studies of earth-orbiting satellites, which represents a timely and cost-effective method during the conceptual design phase where various missions and spacecraft options require evaluation. Spacecraft concepts evaluated include microwave radiometer satellites, communication satellite systems, solar-powered lasers, power platforms, and orbiting space stations.

  15. Intelligent computer-aided instruction in statics

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    An expert system was developed to model the problem solving knowledge of Dr. J.L. Meriam from his text Engineering Mechanics Volume I, Statics. The rules of heuristics for solving two-dimensional truss problems were then implemented in the MRS language. The expert system was then validated by solving problems from the text in the same manner as Meriam. Linked to the expert system were three learning-style modules. The learning styles modeled in this study were drill-and-practice, learning-by-example, and a new style called buddy-study. The buddy-state learning style represents an implementation of the Whimbley-pairs technique for computer-based learning. The learning system comprising the expert system, learning-style modules, and associated support programs were then tested for correctness and completeness. Results of the expert system validation demonstrated a system capable of solving problems within the domain as Meriam did. The learning-style module testing showed procedures commensurate with accepted classroom uses of the styles. The buddy-study method demonstrated a computer-learning strategy that places the expert system and the student user as colleagues in a problem-solving environment.

  16. Computer aided selection of candidate vaccine antigens

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Immunoinformatics is an emergent branch of informatics science that long ago pullulated from the tree of knowledge that is bioinformatics. It is a discipline which applies informatic techniques to problems of the immune system. To a great extent, immunoinformatics is typified by epitope prediction methods. It has found disappointingly limited use in the design and discovery of new vaccines, which is an area where proper computational support is generally lacking. Most extant vaccines are not based around isolated epitopes but rather correspond to chemically-treated or attenuated whole pathogens or correspond to individual proteins extract from whole pathogens or correspond to complex carbohydrate. In this chapter we attempt to review what progress there has been in an as-yet-underexplored area of immunoinformatics: the computational discovery of whole protein antigens. The effective development of antigen prediction methods would significantly reduce the laboratory resource required to identify pathogenic proteins as candidate subunit vaccines. We begin our review by placing antigen prediction firmly into context, exploring the role of reverse vaccinology in the design and discovery of vaccines. We also highlight several competing yet ultimately complementary methodological approaches: sub-cellular location prediction, identifying antigens using sequence similarity, and the use of sophisticated statistical approaches for predicting the probability of antigen characteristics. We end by exploring how a systems immunomics approach to the prediction of immunogenicity would prove helpful in the prediction of antigens. PMID:21067543

  17. Computer-aided forensics: facial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Turner, Wesley; Tu, Peter; Kelliher, Timothy; Brown, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    The 3D reconstruction of facial features from skeletal remains is a key component to the identification of missing persons and victims of violent crime. A comprehensive Computed Tomography (CT) head-scan database is currently being collected which will enable a new approach to forensic facial reconstruction. Using this unique resource, we show how a face space can be tailored to a specific unknown, or questioned skull. A set of database derived estimates of the questioned face is constructed by first computing non-rigid transformations between the known head-scan skulls and the questioned skull followed by application of these transformations to the known head-scan faces. This effectively factors out influences due to skeletal variation. A tailored face space is formed by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to this ensemble of estimates of the questioned face. Thus, the face space is a direct approximation of correlated soft tissue variance indicative of the population. Ours is the first mathematical representation of the face continuum associated with a given skull. Embedded in this space resides the elements needed for recognition.

  18. Single photon emission computed tomography in AIDS dementia complex

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, P.; Vogl, G.; Fill, H.; Roessler, H.Z.; Zangerle, R.; Gerstenbrand, F.

    1988-08-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies were performed in AIDS dementia complex using IMP in 12 patients (and HM-PAO in four of these same patients). In all patients, SPECT revealed either multiple or focal uptake defects, the latter corresponding with focal signs or symptoms in all but one case. Computerized tomography showed a diffuse cerebral atrophy in eight of 12 patients, magnetic resonance imaging exhibited changes like atrophy and/or leukoencephalopathy in two of five cases. Our data indicate that both disturbance of cerebral amine metabolism and alteration of local perfusion share in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex. SPECT is an important aid in the diagnosis of AIDS dementia complex and contributes to the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder.

  19. A survey on computer aided diagnosis for ocular diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD), which can automate the detection process for ocular diseases, has attracted extensive attention from clinicians and researchers alike. It not only alleviates the burden on the clinicians by providing objective opinion with valuable insights, but also offers early detection and easy access for patients. Method We review ocular CAD methodologies for various data types. For each data type, we investigate the databases and the algorithms to detect different ocular diseases. Their advantages and shortcomings are analyzed and discussed. Result We have studied three types of data (i.e., clinical, genetic and imaging) that have been commonly used in existing methods for CAD. The recent developments in methods used in CAD of ocular diseases (such as Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma, Age-related Macular Degeneration and Pathological Myopia) are investigated and summarized comprehensively. Conclusion While CAD for ocular diseases has shown considerable progress over the past years, the clinical importance of fully automatic CAD systems which are able to embed clinical knowledge and integrate heterogeneous data sources still show great potential for future breakthrough. PMID:25175552

  20. Bone tissue engineering scaffolding: computer-aided scaffolding techniques.

    PubMed

    Thavornyutikarn, Boonlom; Chantarapanich, Nattapon; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Thouas, George A; Chen, Qizhi

    Tissue engineering is essentially a technique for imitating nature. Natural tissues consist of three components: cells, signalling systems (e.g. growth factors) and extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM forms a scaffold for its cells. Hence, the engineered tissue construct is an artificial scaffold populated with living cells and signalling molecules. A huge effort has been invested in bone tissue engineering, in which a highly porous scaffold plays a critical role in guiding bone and vascular tissue growth and regeneration in three dimensions. In the last two decades, numerous scaffolding techniques have been developed to fabricate highly interconnective, porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. This review provides an update on the progress of foaming technology of biomaterials, with a special attention being focused on computer-aided manufacturing (Andrade et al. 2002) techniques. This article starts with a brief introduction of tissue engineering (Bone tissue engineering and scaffolds) and scaffolding materials (Biomaterials used in bone tissue engineering). After a brief reviews on conventional scaffolding techniques (Conventional scaffolding techniques), a number of CAM techniques are reviewed in great detail. For each technique, the structure and mechanical integrity of fabricated scaffolds are discussed in detail. Finally, the advantaged and disadvantage of these techniques are compared (Comparison of scaffolding techniques) and summarised (Summary).

  1. Electromagnetic tracking for abdominal interventions in computer aided surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Banovac, Filip; Lin, Ralph; Glossop, Neil; Wood, Bradford J; Lindisch, David; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-05-01

    Electromagnetic tracking has great potential for assisting physicians in precision placement of instruments during minimally invasive interventions in the abdomen, since electromagnetic tracking is not limited by the line-of-sight restrictions of optical tracking. A new generation of electromagnetic tracking has recently become available, with sensors small enough to be included in the tips of instruments. To fully exploit the potential of this technology, our research group has been developing a computer aided, image-guided system that uses electromagnetic tracking for visualization of the internal anatomy during abdominal interventions. As registration is a critical component in developing an accurate image-guided system, we present three registration techniques: 1) enhanced paired-point registration (time-stamp match registration and dynamic registration); 2) orientation-based registration; and 3) needle shape-based registration. Respiration compensation is another important issue, particularly in the abdomen, where respiratory motion can make precise targeting difficult. To address this problem, we propose reference tracking and affine transformation methods. Finally, we present our prototype navigation system, which integrates the registration, segmentation, path-planning and navigation functions to provide real-time image guidance in the clinical environment. The methods presented here have been tested with a respiratory phantom specially designed by our group and in swine animal studies under approved protocols. Based on these tests, we conclude that our system can provide quick and accurate localization of tracked instruments in abdominal interventions, and that it offers a user-friendly display for the physician.

  2. Computer-Based Job Aiding: Problem Solving at Work.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    KEY .ORDS (CUMue M mum. Wif. of aeeeM. am 8 F Wp Wi MMW) technical literacy , problem solving, computer based job aiding comliute~r based instruction...discourse processes, although those notions are opera- tionalized in a new way. Infomation Search in Technical Literacy as Problem Solving The dimensions of...computer-assisted technical literacy , information seeking strategies employed during an assembly task were analyzed in terms of overall group frequencies

  3. Computer aided coordination of line protection schemes IEEE committee report

    SciTech Connect

    Postforoosh, J.M.; Akamine, J.; Banerjee, H.N.; Cornelison, J.R.; Enns, M.K.; Grier, S.E.; Hass, R.W.; Hasenwinkle, I.O.; Johnson, R.W.; Mozina, C.J.; Ramaswami, R.; Smith, H.S.; Taylor, R.P.; Turley, J.R.; Zipp, J.A.

    1991-04-01

    IEEE PSRC working group on Computer Aided Coordination of Line Protection Schemes was established in 1985 to investigate the application of computers to the task of setting and verifying the setting of line protective devices. This report provides the findings of the working group regarding functional requirements of the data base, software, and hardware for this system as well as the methods of presenting the results to the protection engineer.

  4. An Elective Course on Computer-Aided Process Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerfeld, Jude T.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate chemical engineering course which has been offered at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The objectives, structure, instructional materials and content of this course, which emphasizes the structure and usage of computer-aided design systems, are also included. (HM)

  5. Evaluation and Assessment of a Biomechanics Computer-Aided Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, N.; Parnianpour, M.; Fraser, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Biomechanics Tutorial, a computer-aided instructional tool that was developed at Ohio State University to expedite the transition from lecture to application for undergraduate students. Reports evaluation results that used statistical analyses and student questionnaires to show improved performance on posttests as well as positive…

  6. National Survey of Computer Aided Manufacturing in Industrial Technology Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidari, Farzin

    The current status of computer-aided manufacturing in the 4-year industrial technology programs in the United States was studied. All industrial technology department chairs were mailed a questionnaire divided into program information, equipment information, and general comments sections. The questionnaire was designed to determine the subjects…

  7. The Use of Computers to Aid Instruction in Beginning Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandey, Robert C.

    1971-01-01

    Describes computer-aided lessons for determining chemical formulas from composition by weight, quantities from chemical equations, and balancing equations for oxidation-reduction reactions. Lessons were developed and used on the PLATO system at the University of Illinois. A brief analysis of student attitudes and of effectiveness of the programs…

  8. How Effective Is Feedback in Computer-Aided Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Mundeep; Greenhow, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Computer-Aided Assessments (CAAs) have been used increasingly at Brunel University for over 10 years to test students' mathematical abilities. Recently, we have focussed on providing very rich feedback to the students; given the work involved in designing and coding such feedback, it is important to study the impact of the interaction between…

  9. Computer Aided Evaluation of Higher Education Tutors' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xenos, Michalis; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a method for computer-aided tutor evaluation: Bayesian Networks are used for organizing the collected data about tutors and for enabling accurate estimations and predictions about future tutor behavior. The model provides indications about each tutor's strengths and weaknesses, which enables the evaluator to exploit strengths…

  10. Does Computer-Aided Formative Assessment Improve Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannah, John; James, Alex; Williams, Phillipa

    2014-01-01

    Two first-year engineering mathematics courses used computer-aided assessment (CAA) to provide students with opportunities for formative assessment via a series of weekly quizzes. Most students used the assessment until they achieved very high (>90%) quiz scores. Although there is a positive correlation between these quiz marks and the final…

  11. Computer-Aided Instruction for Adult Professionals: A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Doris Smith

    1992-01-01

    Discusses computer-aided instruction (CAI) for adult learners and describes research conducted at the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory to study the impact of CAI on design professionals, i.e., architects and engineers. Attitudes of adult professionals are examined, and design requirements for a CAI system for professionals…

  12. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  13. Computer aided detection of endobronchial valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Robert A.; Goldin, Jonathan G.; Abtin, Fereidoun; Ghurabi, Raffi; Rao, Ajay; Ahmad, Shama; da Costa, Irene; Brown, Matthew

    2008-03-01

    The ability to automatically detect and monitor implanted devices may serve an important role in patient care and the evaluation of device and treatment efficacy. The purpose of this research was to develop a system for the automated detection of one-way endobronchial valves implanted as part of a clinical trial for less invasive lung volume reduction. Volumetric thin section CT data was obtained for 275 subjects; 95 subjects implanted with 246 devices were used for system development and 180 subjects implanted with 354 devices were reserved for testing. The detection process consisted of pre-processing, pattern-recognition based detection, and a final device selection. Following the pre-processing, a set of classifiers were trained using AdaBoost to discriminate true devices from false positives (such as calcium deposits). The classifiers in the cascade used simple features (the mean or max attenuation) computed near control points relative to a template model of the valve. Visual confirmation of the system output served as the gold standard. FROC analysis was performed for the evaluation; the system could be set so the mean sensitivity was 96.5% with a mean of 0.18 false positives per subject. These generic device modeling and detection techniques may be applicable to other devices and useful for monitoring the placement and function of implanted devices.

  14. Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Hydroxyapatite/Epoxide Acrylate Maleic Compound Construction for Craniomaxillofacial Bone Defects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Shen, Shunyao; Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Steve Guofang; Wang, Xudong

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing hydroxyapatite (HA)/epoxide acrylate maleic (EAM) compound construction artificial implants for craniomaxillofacial bone defects. Computed tomography, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing and three-dimensional reconstruction, as well as rapid prototyping were performed in 12 patients between 2008 and 2013. The customized HA/EAM compound artificial implants were manufactured through selective laser sintering using a rapid prototyping machine into the exact geometric shapes of the defect. The HA/EAM compound artificial implants were then implanted during surgical reconstruction. Color-coded superimpositions demonstrated the discrepancy between the virtual plan and achieved results using Geomagic Studio. As a result, the HA/EAM compound artificial bone implants were perfectly matched with the facial areas that needed reconstruction. The postoperative aesthetic and functional results were satisfactory. The color-coded superimpositions demonstrated good consistency between the virtual plan and achieved results. The three-dimensional maximum deviation is 2.12 ± 0.65  mm and the three-dimensional mean deviation is 0.27 ± 0.07  mm. No facial nerve weakness or pain was observed at the follow-up examinations. Only 1 implant had to be removed 2 months after the surgery owing to severe local infection. No other complication was noted during the follow-up period. In conclusion, computer-aided, individually fabricated HA/EAM compound construction artificial implant was a good craniomaxillofacial surgical technique that yielded improved aesthetic results and functional recovery after reconstruction.

  15. On computer-aided design of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski, J. E.; Voigt, S. J.; Fulton, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Digital computers are being used in many engineering activities to support design work. This paper provides an overview of some of this work as it relates to the design of aerospace vehicles. Discussions are given of some of the complexities of the design process which lead to large design costs and time. A number of important but disjointed computer capabilities have evolved over the years in analysis, optimization, and graphics, and such capabilities aid in addressing the problem of design complexity. Examples of existing computer-aided design (CAD) systems are given and trends for future CAD systems are indicated, as well as their relationship to pertinent data management technology. It is suggested that major gains in design capability will occur through continued development of CAD methodology and that these gains may be accelerated through a large focused effort.

  16. WEMAP - A computer aided instructional tool for electromagnetics

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, V.K.; Ware, L.E.; Bogden, F.J.; DelVecchio, R.M.; Ashkin, M.; Woodward, W.S.

    1989-05-01

    The recent advances in computer technology and associated software have introduced new concepts and techniques into the traditional classroom environment of engineering education. WEMAP, an electromagnetic analysis computer code, is a part of a new breed of computer aided engineering tools for teaching electromagnetics to power engineering students. WEMAP is a stand-alone interactive graphics system for electromagnetic analysis, which includes electrostatics, magnetostatics, eddy currents (time harmonic as well as transient), and permanent magnet fields. These capabilities are described in this paper and examples are given to illustrate how this program enhances the classroom presentation of some of the electromagnetic phenomena.

  17. Vertical ridge augmentation of the atrophic posterior mandible with custom-made, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Figliuzzi, Michele; Mangano, Francesco Guido; Fortunato, Leonzio; De Fazio, Rossella; Macchi, Aldo; Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Mangano, Carlo

    2013-05-01

    The present study describes a new protocol for the manufacturing of custom-made hydroxyapatite scaffolds using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), to augment posterior mandibular bone and minimize surgery when severe atrophy is present. Computed tomographic images of an atrophic posterior mandible were acquired and modified into a 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction model. This model was transferred as a stereolithographic file to a CAD program, where virtual 3D reconstructions of the alveolar ridge were performed, drawing 2 anatomically shaped, custom-made scaffolds. Computer-aided-manufacturing software generated a set of tool-paths for manufacture on a computer-numerical-control milling machine into the exact shape of the 3D projects. Clinically sized, anatomically shaped scaffolds were generated from commercially available porous hydroxyapatite blocks. The custom-made scaffolds well matched the shape of the bone defects and could be easily implanted during surgery. This matching of the shape helped to reduce the time for the operation and contributed to the good healing of the defects. At the 6-month recall, a newly formed and well-integrated bone was observed, completely filling the mandibular posterior defects, and implants were placed, with good primary stability. At the 1-year follow-up examination, the implant-supported restorations showed a good functional and esthetic integration. Although this is an interim report, this study demonstrates that anatomically shaped custom-made scaffolds can be fabricated by combining computed tomographic scans and CAD/CAM techniques. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.

  18. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. 502.7... DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.7 Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. (a) Electronic, computer or... applicable Federal communications law. (b) Electronic, computer or other technologic aids include, but...

  19. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. 502.7... DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.7 Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. (a) Electronic, computer or... applicable Federal communications law. (b) Electronic, computer or other technologic aids include, but...

  20. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. 502.7... DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.7 Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. (a) Electronic, computer or... applicable Federal communications law. (b) Electronic, computer or other technologic aids include, but...

  1. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. 502.7... DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.7 Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. (a) Electronic, computer or... applicable Federal communications law. (b) Electronic, computer or other technologic aids include, but...

  2. Computer-aided dental prostheses construction using reverse engineering.

    PubMed

    Solaberrieta, E; Minguez, R; Barrenetxea, L; Sierra, E; Etxaniz, O

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems with virtual articulators, which take into account the kinematics, constitutes a breakthrough in the construction of customised dental prostheses. This paper presents a multidisciplinary protocol involving CAM techniques to produce dental prostheses. This protocol includes a step-by-step procedure using innovative reverse engineering technologies to transform completely virtual design processes into customised prostheses. A special emphasis is placed on a novel method that permits a virtual location of the models. The complete workflow includes the optical scanning of the patient, the use of reverse engineering software and, if necessary, the use of rapid prototyping to produce CAD temporary prostheses.

  3. Microstereolithography-based computer-aided manufacturing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Various solid freeform fabrication technologies have been introduced for constructing three-dimensional (3-D) freeform structures. Of these, microstereolithography (MSTL) technology performs the best in 3-D space because it not only has high resolution, but also fast fabrication speed. Using this technology, 3-D structures with mesoscale size and microscale resolution are achievable. Many researchers have been trying to apply this technology to tissue engineering to construct medically applicable scaffolds, which require a 3-D shape that fits a defect with a mesoscale size and microscale inner architecture for efficient regeneration of artificial tissue. This chapter introduces the principles of MSTL technology and representative systems. It includes fabrication and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) processes to show the automation process by which measurements from medical images are used to fabricate the required 3-D shape. Then, various tissue engineering applications based on MSTL are summarized.

  4. Method of computer-aided measurement in a shooting range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chanlao; Zhang, Yun; Xiong, Rensheng; Sun, Yishang

    2000-10-01

    In the view of the blindness of photoelectric measurement scheme argument and the danger of live shell measurement in shooting range, this paper provided a computer aided measurement method guiding the measurement scheme argument and equipment researching and producing and driving the measurement process visiblization and standardization. The computer aided measurement in shooting range can be divided into the mathematical simulation of targets moving, the mathematical simulation of measurement method, the mathematical simulation of photoelectric system, the animated displaying of measurement process, and so on. By adding random jamming, Gaussian white noise and so on, the live measurement environment and condition was built. By using mathematical discretization, the time series pictures was obtained. By controlling the time changing and time unifying of several equipment, the animated displaying of measurement process was built. The programming language was MATLAB. The method was proved through simulating the intersection measurement trajectory of antiaircraft gun's shell successfully.

  5. Computer-aided design of polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This book on computer-aided design of polymers and composites introduces and discusses the subject from the viewpoint of atomic and molecular models. Thus, the origins of stiffness, strength, extensibility, and fracture toughness in composite materials can be analyzed directly in terms of chemical composition and molecular structure. Aspects of polymer composite reliability are considered along with characterization techniques for composite reliability, relations between atomic and molecular properties, computer aided design and manufacture, polymer CAD/CAM models, and composite CAD/CAM models. Attention is given to multiphase structural adhesives, fibrous composite reliability, metal joint reliability, polymer physical states and transitions, chemical quality assurance, processability testing, cure monitoring and management, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), surface NDE, elementary properties, ionic-covalent bonding, molecular analysis, acid-base interactions, the manufacturing science, and peel mechanics.

  6. Discriminating coastal rangeland production and improvements with computer aided techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. A.; Faulkner, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility and utility of using satellite data and computer-aided remote sensing analysis techniques to conduct range inventories were tested. This pilot study was focused over a 250,000 acre site in Galveston and Brazoria Counties along the Texas Gulf Coast. Rectified enlarged aircraft color infrared photographs of this site were used as the ground truth base. The different land categories were identified, delineated, and measured. Multispectral scanner (MSS) bulk data from LANDSAT-1 was received and analyzed with the Image 100 pattern recognition system. Features of interest were delineated on the image console giving the number of picture elements classified; the picture elements were converted to acreages and the accuracy of the technique was evaluated by comparison with data base results for three test sites. The accuracies for computer aided classification of coastal marshes ranged from 89% to 96%.

  7. RAMCAD (Reliability, Availability and Maintainability in Computer-Aided Design)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    documents the Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability in Computer-Aided Design (RAMCAD) Software Development Program which was started in July 1986 ...by General Dynamics Convair Division under a Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA 86-16-PMRS). This PRDA was issued on May 15, 1986 ...PRDA 86-16-PMRS) was issued on May 15, 1986 , by the Air Force Human Resources ..aboratory (AFHRL, changed to Armstrong Laboratory, Human Resources

  8. CADEE: Computer-Aided Directed Evolution of Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Amrein, Beat Anton; Steffen-Munsberg, Fabian; Szeler, Ireneusz; Purg, Miha; Kulkarni, Yashraj; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2017-01-01

    The tremendous interest in enzymes as biocatalysts has led to extensive work in enzyme engineering, as well as associated methodology development. Here, a new framework for computer-aided directed evolution of enzymes (CADEE) is presented which allows a drastic reduction in the time necessary to prepare and analyze in silico semi-automated directed evolution of enzymes. A pedagogical example of the application of CADEE to a real biological system is also presented in order to illustrate the CADEE workflow.

  9. Analysis of Interval Changes on Mammograms for Computer Aided Diagnosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    research groups are in the process of developing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) methods which can provide a second opinion to the radiologist for the...benign lesions. 3- 8 Knowledge from di- features between current and previous mammograms of the verse areas such as signal and image processing , pattern...December 1999 2673 Sanjay-Gopal et al: A regional registration technique 26732673-p i n- iimages . The 74 temporal image pairs were comprised of 43 Cj

  10. A Computer Aided Statistical Covariance Program for Missile System Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-01

    ENGINEERING RESEARCH OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY A COMPUTER AIDED STATISTICAL COVARIANCE PROGRAM FOR MISSILE SYSTEM ANALYSI. TO D JN2 U. S. Army Missile...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Office of Engineering Rsch, Oklahoma State Univ Agiculture...ANALYSIS by James R. Rowland and V. M. Gupta School of Electrical Engineering V Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Office of Engineering

  11. CADEE: Computer-Aided Directed Evolution of Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Amrein, Beat Anton; Steffen-Munsberg, Fabian; Szeler, Ireneusz; Purg, Miha; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2017-01-01

    The tremendous interest in enzymes as biocatalysts has led to extensive work in enzyme engineering, as well as associated methodology development. Here, a new framework for computer-aided directed evolution of enzymes (CADEE) is presented which allows a drastic reduction in the time necessary to prepare and analyze in silico semi-automated directed evolution of enzymes. A pedagogical example of the application of CADEE to a real biological system is also presented in order to illustrate the CADEE workflow. PMID:28250941

  12. Computer-Aided Final Design Cost Estimating System Overview.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    laboratory _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ /1— COMPUTER-AIDED FINAL DESIGN • COST ESTIMATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW © by...PROJECT . TASKAAEA~~ WORK UNIT NUMBERSCONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY ~~~~~~~~~ .• . — P.O. Box 4005 ~~ 4A7627~ %T4fldt11 Champa ign , IL 61820...Construction Division (FA), U.S. Army Construction Engineering Re- search Laboratory (CERL), Champaign , IL. The Principal Investigator was Mr. Michael

  13. Computer aided design environment for the analysis and design of multi-body flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakrishnan, Jayant V.; Singh, Ramen P.

    1989-01-01

    A computer aided design environment consisting of the programs NASTRAN, TREETOPS and MATLAB is presented in this paper. With links for data transfer between these programs, the integrated design of multi-body flexible structures is significantly enhanced. The CAD environment is used to model the Space Shuttle/Pinhole Occulater Facility. Then a controller is designed and evaluated in the nonlinear time history sense. Recent enhancements and ongoing research to add more capabilities are also described.

  14. Vascular tissue engineering by computer-aided laser micromachining.

    PubMed

    Doraiswamy, Anand; Narayan, Roger J

    2010-04-28

    Many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds are not suitable for fabricating scaffolds with patient-specific attributes. For example, many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds do not provide control over overall scaffold geometry or over cell position within the scaffold. In this study, the use of computer-aided laser micromachining to create scaffolds for vascular tissue networks was investigated. Computer-aided laser micromachining was used to construct patterned surfaces in agarose or in silicon, which were used for differential adherence and growth of cells into vascular tissue networks. Concentric three-ring structures were fabricated on agarose hydrogel substrates, in which the inner ring contained human aortic endothelial cells, the middle ring contained HA587 human elastin and the outer ring contained human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Basement membrane matrix containing vascular endothelial growth factor and heparin was to promote proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells within the vascular tissue networks. Computer-aided laser micromachining provides a unique approach to fabricate small-diameter blood vessels for bypass surgery as well as other artificial tissues with complex geometries.

  15. On the convergence of nanotechnology and Big Data analysis for computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose F; Paulovich, Fernando V; de Oliveira, Maria Cf; de Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2016-04-01

    An overview is provided of the challenges involved in building computer-aided diagnosis systems capable of precise medical diagnostics based on integration and interpretation of data from different sources and formats. The availability of massive amounts of data and computational methods associated with the Big Data paradigm has brought hope that such systems may soon be available in routine clinical practices, which is not the case today. We focus on visual and machine learning analysis of medical data acquired with varied nanotech-based techniques and on methods for Big Data infrastructure. Because diagnosis is essentially a classification task, we address the machine learning techniques with supervised and unsupervised classification, making a critical assessment of the progress already made in the medical field and the prospects for the near future. We also advocate that successful computer-aided diagnosis requires a merge of methods and concepts from nanotechnology and Big Data analysis.

  16. Three-dimensional computer-aided surgical workflow to aid in reconstruction: From diagnosis to surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Sándor, George K; Bujtár, Péter; Wolf, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The development of three-dimensional computer-aided surgical workflow has simplified the planning of complex reconstruction cases. It can also be helpful in planning distraction osteogenesis cases. This article examines the evolving role of three-dimensional computer-aided surgical workflow in maxillofacial surgery.

  17. Correction of facial and mandibular asymmetry using a computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing prefabricated titanium implant.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jason; Hatamleh, Muhanad; Alwahadni, Ahed; Srinivasan, Dilip

    2014-05-01

    Patients with significant craniofacial asymmetry may have functional problems associated with their occlusion and aesthetic concerns related to the imbalance in soft and hard tissue profiles. This report details a case of facial asymmetry secondary to left mandible angle deficiency due to undergoing previous radiotherapy. We describe the correction of the bony deformity using computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing custom-made titanium onlay using novel direct metal laser sintering. The direct metal laser sintering onlay proved a very accurate operative fit and showed a good aesthetic correction of the bony defect with no reported complications postoperatively. It is a useful low-morbidity technique, and there is no resorption or associated donor-site complications.

  18. Dual-scan technique for the customization of zirconia computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing frameworks.

    PubMed

    Andreiuolo, Rafael Ferrone; Sabrosa, Carlos Eduardo; Dias, Katia Regina H Cervantes

    2013-09-01

    The use of bi-layered all-ceramic crowns has continuously grown since the introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia cores. Unfortunately, despite the outstanding mechanical properties of zirconia, problems related to porcelain cracking or chipping remain. One of the reasons for this is that ceramic copings are usually milled to uniform thicknesses of 0.3-0.6 mm around the whole tooth preparation. This may not provide uniform thickness or appropriate support for the veneering porcelain. To prevent these problems, the dual-scan technique demonstrates an alternative that allows the restorative team to customize zirconia CAD/CAM frameworks with adequate porcelain thickness and support in a simple manner.

  19. Assessment of Chair-side Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Restorations: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Baroudi, Kusai; Ibraheem, Shukran Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper aimed to evaluate the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and the factors that affect the survival of restorations. Materials and Methods: A thorough literature search using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library and Grey literature were performed from the year 2004 up to June 2014. Only relevant research was considered. Results: The use of chair-side CAD/CAM systems is promising in all dental branches in terms of minimizing time and effort made by dentists, technicians and patients for restoring and maintaining patient oral function and aesthetic, while providing high quality outcome. Conclusion: The way of producing and placing the restorations made with the chair-side CAD/CAM (CEREC and E4D) devices is better than restorations made by conventional laboratory procedures. PMID:25954082

  20. Experimental computation with oscillatory integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2009-06-26

    A previous study by one of the present authors, together with D. Borwein and I. Leonard [8], studied the asymptotic behavior of the p-norm of the sinc function: sinc(x) = (sin x)/x and along the way looked at closed forms for integer values of p. In this study we address these integrals with the tools of experimental mathematics, namely by computing their numerical values to high precision, both as a challenge in itself, and also in an attempt to recognize the numerical values as closed-form constants. With this approach, we are able to reproduce several of the results of [8] and to find new results, both numeric and analytic, that go beyond the previous study.

  1. Project-Based Teaching-Learning Computer-Aided Engineering Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoes, J. A.; Relvas, C.; Moreira, R.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, computer-aided analysis, reverse engineering and rapid prototyping are tools that play an important key role within product design. These are areas of technical knowledge that must be part of engineering and industrial design courses' curricula. This paper describes our teaching experience of…

  2. Methodology for Benefit Analysis of CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing) in USN Shipyards.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    D-Ri38 398 METHODOLOGY FOR BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF CAD/CAM / (COMPUTER-HIDED DESIGN/COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING) IN USN SHIPYARDS(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE...Monterey, California DT I ~" t • EB3 1984 THESIS METHODOLOGY FOR BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF CAD/CAM IN USN SHIPYARDS by Richard B. Grahlman March 1984 Thesis...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Methodology for Benefit Analysis of CAD/CAM Mastrch 1984 i in UM Sipyads. PERFORMIANG ORG. REPORT NUM8ER 7- AUHOW11111 4

  3. Custom-Made Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Manufacturing Biphasic Calcium-Phosphate Scaffold for Augmentation of an Atrophic Mandibular Anterior Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Francesco Guido; van Noort, Ric; Apresyan, Samvel; Piattelli, Adriano; Macchi, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the clinical, radiographic, and histologic outcome of a custom-made computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufactured (CAD/CAM) scaffold used for the alveolar ridge augmentation of a severely atrophic anterior mandible. Computed tomographic (CT) images of an atrophic anterior mandible were acquired and modified into a 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction model; this was transferred to a CAD program, where a custom-made scaffold was designed. CAM software generated a set of tool-paths for the manufacture of the scaffold on a computer-numerical-control milling machine into the exact shape of the 3D design. A custom-made scaffold was milled from a synthetic micromacroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) block. The scaffold closely matched the shape of the defect: this helped to reduce the time for the surgery and contributed to good healing. One year later, newly formed and well-integrated bone was clinically available, and two implants (AnyRidge, MegaGen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea) were placed. The histologic samples retrieved from the implant sites revealed compact mature bone undergoing remodelling, marrow spaces, and newly formed trabecular bone surrounded by residual BCP particles. This study demonstrates that custom-made scaffolds can be fabricated by combining CT scans and CAD/CAM techniques. Further studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26064701

  4. Custom-Made Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Manufacturing Biphasic Calcium-Phosphate Scaffold for Augmentation of an Atrophic Mandibular Anterior Ridge.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Francesco Guido; Zecca, Piero Antonio; van Noort, Ric; Apresyan, Samvel; Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Macchi, Aldo; Mangano, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the clinical, radiographic, and histologic outcome of a custom-made computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufactured (CAD/CAM) scaffold used for the alveolar ridge augmentation of a severely atrophic anterior mandible. Computed tomographic (CT) images of an atrophic anterior mandible were acquired and modified into a 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction model; this was transferred to a CAD program, where a custom-made scaffold was designed. CAM software generated a set of tool-paths for the manufacture of the scaffold on a computer-numerical-control milling machine into the exact shape of the 3D design. A custom-made scaffold was milled from a synthetic micromacroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) block. The scaffold closely matched the shape of the defect: this helped to reduce the time for the surgery and contributed to good healing. One year later, newly formed and well-integrated bone was clinically available, and two implants (AnyRidge, MegaGen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea) were placed. The histologic samples retrieved from the implant sites revealed compact mature bone undergoing remodelling, marrow spaces, and newly formed trabecular bone surrounded by residual BCP particles. This study demonstrates that custom-made scaffolds can be fabricated by combining CT scans and CAD/CAM techniques. Further studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results.

  5. Review of AIDS development. [airborne computers for reliability engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermeulen, H. C.; Danielsson, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    The operation and implementation of the aircraft integrated data system AIDS are described. The system is described as an engineering tool with strong emphasis on analysis of recorded information. The AIDS is primarily directed to the monitoring of parameters related to: the safety of the flight; the performance of the aircraft; the performance of the flight guidance system; and the performance and condition of the engines. The system provide short term trend analysis on a trend chart that is updated by the flight engineer on every flight that lasts more than 4 flight hours. Engine data prints are automatically presented during take-off and in the case of limit excedance, e.g., the print shows an automatically reported impending hotstarts on engine nr. 1. Other significant features are reported.

  6. The Computer Aided Aircraft-design Package (CAAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalif, Guy U.

    1994-01-01

    The preliminary design of an aircraft is a complex, labor-intensive, and creative process. Since the 1970's, many computer programs have been written to help automate preliminary airplane design. Time and resource analyses have identified, 'a substantial decrease in project duration with the introduction of an automated design capability'. Proof-of-concept studies have been completed which establish 'a foundation for a computer-based airframe design capability', Unfortunately, today's design codes exist in many different languages on many, often expensive, hardware platforms. Through the use of a module-based system architecture, the Computer aided Aircraft-design Package (CAAP) will eventually bring together many of the most useful features of existing programs. Through the use of an expert system, it will add an additional feature that could be described as indispensable to entry level engineers and students: the incorporation of 'expert' knowledge into the automated design process.

  7. Application of artificial neural networks in computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bei

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis is a diagnostic procedure in which a radiologist uses the outputs of computer analysis of medical images as a second opinion in the interpretation of medical images, either to help with lesion detection or to help determine if the lesion is benign or malignant. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are usually employed to formulate the statistical models for computer analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves are used to evaluate the performance of the ANN alone, as well as the diagnostic performance of radiologists who take into account the ANN output as a second opinion. In this chapter, we use mammograms to illustrate how an ANN model is trained, tested, and evaluated, and how a radiologist should use the ANN output as a second opinion in CAD.

  8. HINT for Squint: A Computer Reliant Diagnostic Aid for Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Gieszl, Louis R.; Morris, Jacqueline; Guyton, David L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper provides an outline of methods used for the implementation of a computer reliant diagnostic aid in the medical specialty of Ophthalmology. Some problems have been associated with many previous diagnostic models. A careful review indicates that the most serious problems were: • inability to handle: - multiple diseases coexistent in the patient - partially described diseases - extraneous input symptoms - quantitative signs along with symptoms • inflexible and non-extendible prototype models • lack of inclusive physician-approved data banks The use of computer techniques developed for large scale wargaming has allowed the construction of an extendable prototype model. The hierarchical searching techniques used provided the necessary partial matching solution to the above set of computational problems. An active physician-analyst dialogue permitted the avoidance of the last problem, since the actual data and diagnostic logic was physician input.

  9. Computer-aided design models for broadside-coupled striplines and millimeter-wave suspended substrate microstrip lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhartia, Prakash; Pramanick, Protap

    1988-11-01

    Models were derived from the results of conformal transformation on homogeneous stripline, the equivalence of the odd-mode with the quasi-TEM mode of covered microstrip line, and logarithmic regression of spectral-domain results. Effects of finite strip thickness have been taken into account. These models are fully compatible with the needs and trends of computer-aided and programmable-calculator-aided microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuit design.

  10. Computer-Aided Experiment Planning toward Causal Discovery in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Matiasz, Nicholas J.; Wood, Justin; Wang, Wei; Silva, Alcino J.; Hsu, William

    2017-01-01

    Computers help neuroscientists to analyze experimental results by automating the application of statistics; however, computer-aided experiment planning is far less common, due to a lack of similar quantitative formalisms for systematically assessing evidence and uncertainty. While ontologies and other Semantic Web resources help neuroscientists to assimilate required domain knowledge, experiment planning requires not only ontological but also epistemological (e.g., methodological) information regarding how knowledge was obtained. Here, we outline how epistemological principles and graphical representations of causality can be used to formalize experiment planning toward causal discovery. We outline two complementary approaches to experiment planning: one that quantifies evidence per the principles of convergence and consistency, and another that quantifies uncertainty using logical representations of constraints on causal structure. These approaches operationalize experiment planning as the search for an experiment that either maximizes evidence or minimizes uncertainty. Despite work in laboratory automation, humans must still plan experiments and will likely continue to do so for some time. There is thus a great need for experiment-planning frameworks that are not only amenable to machine computation but also useful as aids in human reasoning. PMID:28243197

  11. Computer-Aided Experiment Planning toward Causal Discovery in Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Matiasz, Nicholas J; Wood, Justin; Wang, Wei; Silva, Alcino J; Hsu, William

    2017-01-01

    Computers help neuroscientists to analyze experimental results by automating the application of statistics; however, computer-aided experiment planning is far less common, due to a lack of similar quantitative formalisms for systematically assessing evidence and uncertainty. While ontologies and other Semantic Web resources help neuroscientists to assimilate required domain knowledge, experiment planning requires not only ontological but also epistemological (e.g., methodological) information regarding how knowledge was obtained. Here, we outline how epistemological principles and graphical representations of causality can be used to formalize experiment planning toward causal discovery. We outline two complementary approaches to experiment planning: one that quantifies evidence per the principles of convergence and consistency, and another that quantifies uncertainty using logical representations of constraints on causal structure. These approaches operationalize experiment planning as the search for an experiment that either maximizes evidence or minimizes uncertainty. Despite work in laboratory automation, humans must still plan experiments and will likely continue to do so for some time. There is thus a great need for experiment-planning frameworks that are not only amenable to machine computation but also useful as aids in human reasoning.

  12. Retrospective indexing (RI) - A computer-aided indexing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of a method for data base-updating designated 'computer-aided indexing' (CAI) which has been very efficiently implemented at NASA's Scientific and Technical Information Facility by means of retrospective indexing. Novel terms added to the NASA Thesaurus will therefore proceed directly into both the NASA-RECON aerospace information system and its portion of the ESA-Information Retrieval Service, giving users full access to material thus indexed. If a given term appears in the title of a record, it is given special weight. An illustrative graphic representation of the CAI search strategy is presented.

  13. Computer-aided radio dispatch system streamlines operations

    SciTech Connect

    Meck, G.L.

    1985-10-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided radio dispatch system (CARDS) used by The East Ohio Gas Company to help improve customer satisfaction and the already high level of performance in customer service operations. East Ohio decided to develop its own system after establishing certain criteria. The heart of the Cards unit is the DEC microcomputer LSI-11 where data is transmitted between it and the dispatch centers at 1,200 baud. The large number of job functions that the system helps fulfill are discussed in this paper.

  14. Computer-aided structural design of a lunar radio telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akgul, Ferhat; Gerstle, Walter H.; Johnson, Stewart W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided structural design of the main reflector of a fully steerable radio telescope to be located (in the 21st century) on the moon, and presents the results of the structural analysis of the reflector. The reflector is a paraboloid with a surface area of 12,660 sq m and a focal ratio of 0.42. The reflector's surface will be covered by a 5.08 cm-thick sandwich panel made of thin-walled aluminum cells filled with low-density foam. The low weight of the design will be achieved by using graphite-epoxy as the structural material.

  15. Computer Aided Antenna Design and Frequency Selection for HF Communications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    EESIGN ON THE ADPE-.- NIF (GREEN MACHINE) ... .... . . . . . . . 57 E. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN USING ECAC1S ACCESSIBIE ANTENNA PACKAGE . . . . . . .. 57 F...8217 C8 L4 E-4 W 3a ’H 1 H -g I) - 4 ’ 0-4 =2 E-4 V. E-4 b. m 0 m 4 =- v- -4 3 4 E’- 4 = P4 H - ofC. I- 1 4 = W P4 w 4 I = N = V rq I 0-4 ~ to H W4

  16. Three-Dimensional Computer Aided Design of a Vertical Winnower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yumei; Lin, Saijia; Weng, Lijie

    The research states home and abroad of the winnowing technology and winnowers are reviewed in brief. For the air duct, the core component of the winnower, the relevant technical parameters in the winnowing process are calculated based on the winnowing principle. The three-dimensional computer aided design (3D-CAD) software Solidworks is applied. The designed vertical winnower is able to separate different raw materials by adjusting the air speed and has been put into practical production to separate the Chinese traditional medicine with high separating effect.

  17. Computer aided design and analysis of gear tooth geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A simulation method for gear hobbing and shaping of straight and spiral bevel gears is presented. The method is based upon an enveloping theory for gear tooth profile generation. The procedure is applicable in the computer aided design of standard and nonstandard tooth forms. An inverse procedure for finding a conjugate gear tooth profile is presented for arbitrary cutter geometry. The kinematic relations for the tooth surfaces of straight and spiral bevel gears are proposed. The tooth surface equations for these gears are formulated in a manner suitable for their automated numerical development and solution.

  18. Computer-aided design of bevel gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuo, Hung Chang; Huston, Ronald L.; Coy, John J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided design procedure for generating bevel gears. The development is based on examining a perfectly plastic, cone-shaped gear blank rolling over a cutting tooth on a plane crown rack. The resulting impression on the plastic gear blank is the envelope of the cutting tooth. This impression and envelope thus form a conjugate tooth surface. Equations are presented for the locus of points on the tooth surface. The same procedures are then extended to simulate the generation of a spiral bevel gear. The corresponding governing equations are presented.

  19. Computer aided design of bevel gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided design procedure for generating bevel gears. The development is based on examining a perfectly plastic, cone-shaped gear blank rolling over a cutting tooth on a plane crown rack. The resulting impression on the plastic gear blank is the envelope of the cutting tooth. This impression and envelope thus form a conjugate tooth surface. Equations are presented for the locus of points on the tooth surface. The same procedures are then extended to simulate the generation of a spiral bevel gear. The corresponding governing equations are presented.

  20. CATIA - A computer aided design and manufacturing tridimensional system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, F.

    A properietary computer graphics-aided, three-dimensional interactive application (CATIA) design system is described. CATIA employs approximately 100 graphics displays, which are used by some 500 persons engaged in the definition of aircraft structures, structural strength analyses, the kinematic analysis of mobile elements, aerodynamic calculations, the choice of tooling in the machining of aircraft elements, and the programming of robotics. CATIA covers these diverse fields with a single data base. After a description of salient aspects of the system's hardware and software, graphics examples are given of the definition of curves, surfaces, complex volumes, and analytical tasks.

  1. SNL Mechanical Computer Aided Design (MCAD) guide 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Brandon; Pollice, Stephanie L.; Martinez, Jack R.

    2007-12-01

    This document is considered a mechanical design best-practice guide to new and experienced designers alike. The contents consist of topics related to using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, performing basic analyses, and using configuration management. The details specific to a particular topic have been leveraged against existing Product Realization Standard (PRS) and Technical Business Practice (TBP) requirements while maintaining alignment with sound engineering and design practices. This document is to be considered dynamic in that subsequent updates will be reflected in the main title, and each update will be published on an annual basis.

  2. Improved Foundry Castings Utilizing CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/ Computer Aided Manufacture). Volume 1. Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-30

    several organizations. Members of the project staffs at the University of Pittsburgh, Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Blaw - Knox Foundry and Mill...with the University of Pittsburgh, James Echlin, Blaw - Knox , and A. Roulet, General Dynamics. Computing facilities on the DEC 10 system were made...Akgerman, A. Badawy, C. Wilson, and T. Altan. The project staff at Blaw - Knox included Mssrs. R. Nariman, KI Fahey, and S. Miller. Mr. W. Northey

  3. Computer-Aided Design Of Turbine Blades And Vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Wayne Q.

    1988-01-01

    Quasi-three-dimensional method for determining aerothermodynamic configuration of turbine uses computer-interactive analysis and design and computer-interactive graphics. Design procedure executed rapidly so designer easily repeats it to arrive at best performance, size, structural integrity, and engine life. Sequence of events in aerothermodynamic analysis and design starts with engine-balance equations and ends with boundary-layer analysis and viscous-flow calculations. Analysis-and-design procedure interactive and iterative throughout.

  4. Using HIV&AIDS statistics in pre-service Mathematics Education to integrate HIV&AIDS education.

    PubMed

    van Laren, Linda

    2012-12-01

    In South Africa, the HIV&AIDS education policy documents indicate opportunities for integration across disciplines/subjects. There are different interpretations of integration/inclusion and mainstreaming HIV&AIDS education, and numerous levels of integration. Integration ensures that learners experience the disciplines/subjects as being linked and related, and integration is required to support and expand the learners' opportunities to attain skills, acquire knowledge and develop attitudes and values across the curriculum. This study makes use of self-study methodology where I, a teacher educator, aim to improve my practice through including HIV&AIDS statistics in Mathematics Education. This article focuses on how I used HIV&AIDS statistics to facilitate pre-service teacher reflection and introduce them to integration of HIV&AIDS education across the curriculum. After pre-service teachers were provided with HIV statistics, they drew a pie chart which graphically illustrated the situation and reflected on issues relating to HIV&AIDS. Three themes emerged from the analysis of their reflections. The themes relate to the need for further HIV&AIDS education, the changing pastoral role of teachers and the changing context of teaching. This information indicates that the use of statistics is an appropriate means of initiating the integration of HIV&AIDS education into the academic curriculum.

  5. Fracture resistance of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-generated composite resin-based molar crowns.

    PubMed

    Harada, Akio; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Inagaki, Ryoichi; Örtengren, Ulf; Niwano, Yoshimi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether different fabrication processes, such as the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system or the manual build-up technique, affect the fracture resistance of composite resin-based crowns. Lava Ultimate (LU), Estenia C&B (EC&B), and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic IPS e.max press (EMP) were used. Four types of molar crowns were fabricated: CAD/CAM-generated composite resin-based crowns (LU crowns); manually built-up monolayer composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-monolayer crowns); manually built-up layered composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-layered crowns); and EMP crowns. Each type of crown was cemented to dies and the fracture resistance was tested. EC&B-layered crowns showed significantly lower fracture resistance compared with LU and EMP crowns, although there was no significant difference in flexural strength or fracture toughness between LU and EC&B materials. Micro-computed tomography and fractographic analysis showed that decreased strength probably resulted from internal voids in the EC&B-layered crowns introduced by the layering process. There was no significant difference in fracture resistance among LU, EC&B-monolayer, and EMP crowns. Both types of composite resin-based crowns showed fracture loads of >2000 N, which is higher than the molar bite force. Therefore, CAD/CAM-generated crowns, without internal defects, may be applied to molar regions with sufficient fracture resistance.

  6. Comparative study viruses with computer-aided phase microscope AIRYSCAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Koufal, Georgy E.; Perevedentseva, Elena V.; Vyshenskaia, Tatiana V.

    1996-12-01

    Traditionally viruses are studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after complicated procedure of sample preparation without the possibility to study it under natural conditions. We obtained images of viruses (Vaccinia virus, Rotavirus) and rickettsias (Rickettsia provazekii, Coxiella burnetti) in native state with computer-aided phase microscope airyscan -- the interference microscope of Linnik layout with phase modulation of the reference wave with dissector image tube as coordinate-sensitive photodetector and computer processing of phase image. A light source was the He-Ne laser. The main result is coincidence of dimensions and shape of phase images with available information concerning their morphology obtained with SEM and other methods. The fine structure of surface and nuclei is observed. This method may be applied for virus recognition and express identification, investigation of virus structure and the analysis of cell-virus interaction.

  7. Shape Signatures: speeding up computer aided drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Meek, Peter J; Liu, ZhiWei; Tian, LiFeng; Wang, Ching Y; Welsh, William J; Zauhar, Randy J

    2006-10-01

    Identifying potential lead molecules is becoming a more automated process. We review Shape Signatures, a tool that is effective and easy to use compared with most computer aided drug design techniques. Laboratory researchers can apply this in silico technique cost-effectively without the need for specialized computer backgrounds. Identifying a potential lead molecule requires database screening, and this becomes rate-limiting once the database becomes too large. The use of Shape Signatures eliminates this concern and offers molecule screening rates that are in advance of any currently available method. Shape Signatures provides a conduit for researchers to conduct rapid identification of potential active molecules, and studies with this tool can be initiated with only one bioactive lead or receptor site.

  8. Computer aided lytic bone metastasis detection using regular CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; O'Connor, Stacy D.; Summers, Ronald

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a computer aided detection system to find lytic bone metastases in the spine. The CAD system is designed to run on routine chest and/or abdominal CT exams (5mm slice thickness) obtained during a patient's evaluation for other indications. The system can therefore serve as a background procedure to detect bone metastases. The spine is first automatically extracted based on adaptive thresholding, morphological operation, and region growing. The spinal cord is then traced from thoracic spine to lumbar spine using a dynamic graph search to set up a local spine coordinate system. A watershed algorithm is then applied to detect potential lytic bone lesions. A set of 26 quantitative features (density, shape and location) are computed for each detection. After a filter on the features, Support Vector Machines (SVM) are used as classifiers to determine if a detection is a true lesion. The SVM was trained using ground truth segmentation manually defined by experts.

  9. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  10. Computer-aided conceptual design of Air Cushion Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, E. G. U.; Lavis, D. R.

    This paper describes the development and use of a computer-aided design tool which has been used to explore preferred options for amphibious Air-Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and Surface-Effect Ship (SES) designs in support of U.S. Navy and U.S. Army programs. The tool, referred to as the ACV Design Synthesis Model (ADSM), is an interactive computer program which provides a description of feasible ACV or SES concepts that could be developed, by a competent design team, to perform the mission described by the input parameters. The paper discusses how the program was used to explore parametrically the design of a range of self-propelled hoverbarges to meet requirements of the U.S. Army Logistics Over the Shore (LOTS) phases of an amphibious landing. Examples of results are presented to illustrate the method used in determining design and performance trade-offs.

  11. Accuracy of different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guides for dental implant placement

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wei; Liu, Changying; Su, Yucheng; Li, Jun; Zhou, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of implants placed using different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) surgical guides, including partially guided and totally guided templates, and determine the accuracy of these guides Materials and methods: In total, 111 implants were placed in 24 patients using CAD/CAM surgical guides. After implant insertion, the positions and angulations of the placed implants relative to those of the planned ones were determined using special software that matched pre- and postoperative computed tomography (CT) images, and deviations were calculated and compared between the different guides and templates. Results: The mean angular deviations were 1.72 ± 1.67 and 2.71 ± 2.58, the mean deviations in position at the neck were 0.27 ± 0.24 and 0.69 ± 0.66 mm, the mean deviations in position at the apex were 0.37 ± 0.35 and 0.94 ± 0.75 mm, and the mean depth deviations were 0.32 ± 0.32 and 0.51 ± 0.48 mm with tooth- and mucosa-supported stereolithographic guides, respectively (P < .05 for all). The mean distance deviations when partially guided (29 implants) and totally guided templates (30 implants) were used were 0.54 ± 0.50 mm and 0.89 ± 0.78 mm, respectively, at the neck and 1.10 ± 0.85 mm and 0.81 ± 0.64 mm, respectively, at the apex, with corresponding mean angular deviations of 2.56 ± 2.23° and 2.90 ± 3.0° (P > .05 for all). Conclusions: Tooth-supported surgical guides may be more accurate than mucosa-supported guides, while both partially and totally guided templates can simplify surgery and aid in optimal implant placement. PMID:26309497

  12. Computer aided analysis, simulation and optimisation of thermal sterilisation processes.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, C M; Banerjee, Arindam

    2013-04-01

    Although thermal sterilisation is a widely employed industrial process, little work is reported in the available literature including patents on the mathematical analysis and simulation of these processes. In the present work, software packages have been developed for computer aided optimum design of thermal sterilisation processes. Systems involving steam sparging, jacketed heating/cooling, helical coils submerged in agitated vessels and systems that employ external heat exchangers (double pipe, shell and tube and plate exchangers) have been considered. Both batch and continuous operations have been analysed and simulated. The dependence of del factor on system / operating parameters such as mass or volume of substrate to be sterilised per batch, speed of agitation, helix diameter, substrate to steam ratio, rate of substrate circulation through heat exchanger and that through holding tube have been analysed separately for each mode of sterilisation. Axial dispersion in the holding tube has also been adequately accounted for through an appropriately defined axial dispersion coefficient. The effect of exchanger characteristics/specifications on the system performance has also been analysed. The multiparameter computer aided design (CAD) software packages prepared are thus highly versatile in nature and they permit to make the most optimum choice of operating variables for the processes selected. The computed results have been compared with extensive data collected from a number of industries (distilleries, food processing and pharmaceutical industries) and pilot plants and satisfactory agreement has been observed between the two, thereby ascertaining the accuracy of the CAD softwares developed. No simplifying assumptions have been made during the analysis and the design of associated heating / cooling equipment has been performed utilising the most updated design correlations and computer softwares.

  13. Computer-aided subsite mapping of α-amylases.

    PubMed

    Mótyán, János A; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Harangi, János; Bagossi, Péter

    2011-02-15

    Subsite mapping is a crucial procedure in the characterization of α-amylases (EC 3.2.1.1), which are extensively used in starch-based industries and in diagnosis of pancreatic and salivary glands disorders. A computer-aided method has been developed for subsite mapping of α-amylases, which substitutes the difficult, expensive, and time-consuming experimental determination of action patterns to crystal structures based energy calculations. Interaction energies between enzymes and carbohydrate substrates were calculated after short energy minimization by a molecular mechanics program. A training set of wild type and mutant amylases with known experimental action patterns of 13 enzymes of wide range of origin was used to set up the procedure. Calculations for training set resulted in good correlation in case of subsite binding energies (r(2)=0.827-0.929) and bond cleavage frequencies (r(2)=0.727-0.835). A set of eight novel barley amylase 1 mutants was used to test our model. Subsite binding energies were predicted with r(2)=0.502 correlation coefficient, while bond cleavage frequency prediction resulted in r(2)=0.538. Our computer-aided procedure may supplement the experimental subsite mapping methods to predict and understand characteristic features of α-amylases.

  14. Computer-aided tissue engineering of a human vertebral body.

    PubMed

    Wettergreen, M A; Bucklen, B S; Sun, W; Liebschner, M A K

    2005-10-01

    Tissue engineering is developing into a less speculative science involving the careful interplay of numerous design parameters and multidisciplinary professionals. Problem solving abilities and state of the art research tools are required to develop solutions for a wide variety of clinical issues. One area of particular interest is orthopedic biomechanics, a field that is responsible for the treatment of over 700,000 vertebral fractures in the United States alone last year. Engineers are currently lacking the technology and knowledge required to govern the subsistence of cells in vivo, let alone the knowledge to create a functional tissue replacement for a whole organ. Despite this, advances in computer-aided tissue engineering are continually growing. Using a combinatory approach to scaffold design, patient-specific implants may be constructed. Computer-aided design, optimization of geometry using voxel finite element models or other optimization routines, creation of a library of architectures with specific material properties, rapid prototyping, and determination of a defect site using imaging modalities highlight the current availability of design resources. This study proposes a novel methodology from start to finish which could, in the future, be used to design a tissue-engineered construct for the replacement of an entire vertebral body.

  15. Computer-aided auscultation learning system for nursing technique instruction.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chun-Ju; Chen, Yen-Ting; Hu, Ling-Chen; Chuang, Chih-Chieh; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Tsai, Ming-Shih

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary auscultation is a physical assessment skill learned by nursing students for examining the respiratory system. Generally, a sound simulator equipped mannequin is used to group teach auscultation techniques via classroom demonstration. However, nursing students cannot readily duplicate this learning environment for self-study. The advancement of electronic and digital signal processing technologies facilitates simulating this learning environment. This study aims to develop a computer-aided auscultation learning system for assisting teachers and nursing students in auscultation teaching and learning. This system provides teachers with signal recording and processing of lung sounds and immediate playback of lung sounds for students. A graphical user interface allows teachers to control the measuring device, draw lung sound waveforms, highlight lung sound segments of interest, and include descriptive text. Effects on learning lung sound auscultation were evaluated for verifying the feasibility of the system. Fifteen nursing students voluntarily participated in the repeated experiment. The results of a paired t test showed that auscultative abilities of the students were significantly improved by using the computer-aided auscultation learning system.

  16. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, B.H. ); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. ); Hunnum, W.H. ); Smith, D.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  17. Computer Aided Phenomenography: The Role of Leximancer Computer Software in Phenomenographic Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn-Edwards, Sorrel

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research methodology of phenomenography has traditionally required a manual sorting and analysis of interview data. In this paper I explore a potential means of streamlining this procedure by considering a computer aided process not previously reported upon. Two methods of lexicological analysis, manual and automatic, were examined…

  18. Revision of Electro-Mechanical Drafting Program to Include CAD/D (Computer-Aided Drafting/Design). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Nancy V.

    North Seattle Community College decided to integrate computer-aided design/drafting (CAD/D) into its Electro-Mechanical Drafting Program. This choice necessitated a redefinition of the program through new curriculum and course development. To initiate the project, a new industrial advisory council was formed. Major electronic and recruiting firms…

  19. Integrating Network Management for Cloud Computing Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Integrating Network Management For Cloud Computing Services Peng Sun A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of Princeton University in Candidacy for...2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Integrating Network Management for Cloud Computing Services... integrate the management of various network components. With commercial deployment, our operational experiences feed back into revision of the

  20. Costs incurred by applying computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing techniques for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Melenberg, Alex; Sari-Rieger, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the additional costs incurred by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique for reconstructing maxillofacial defects by analyzing typical cases. The medical charts of 11 consecutive patients who were subjected to the CAD/CAM technique were considered, and invoices from the companies providing the CAD/CAM devices were reviewed for every case. The number of devices used was significantly correlated with cost (r = 0.880; p < 0.001). Significant differences in mean costs were found between cases in which prebent reconstruction plates were used (€3346.00 ± €29.00) and cases in which they were not (€2534.22 ± €264.48; p < 0.001). Significant differences were also obtained between the costs of two, three and four devices, even when ignoring the cost of reconstruction plates. Additional fees provided by statutory health insurance covered a mean of 171.5% ± 25.6% of the cost of the CAD/CAM devices. Since the additional fees provide financial compensation, we believe that the CAD/CAM technique is suited for wide application and not restricted to complex cases. Where additional fees/funds are not available, the CAD/CAM technique might be unprofitable, so the decision whether or not to use it remains a case-to-case decision with respect to cost versus benefit.

  1. Integrating Computers in Your Classroom: Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dublin, Peter; And Others

    Noting that for computers to become an important part of education, they must be in the classroom rather than just in computer labs or media centers, this book focuses on integrating computers into daily classroom instruction. Part 1 of the book contains 18 short essays grouped into 5 chapters: (1) "First Principles" deals with the…

  2. Computer Aided Design of Computer Generated Holograms for electron beam fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urquhart, Kristopher S.; Lee, Sing H.; Guest, Clark C.; Feldman, Michael R.; Farhoosh, Hamid

    1989-01-01

    Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems that have been developed for electrical and mechanical design tasks are also effective tools for the process of designing Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs), particularly when these holograms are to be fabricated using electron beam lithography. CAD workstations provide efficient and convenient means of computing, storing, displaying, and preparing for fabrication many of the features that are common to CGH designs. Experience gained in the process of designing CGHs with various types of encoding methods is presented. Suggestions are made so that future workstations may further accommodate the CGH design process.

  3. Computer aided detection of surgical retained foreign object for prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir Marentis, Theodore C.; Rondon, Lucas; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chaudhury, Amrita R.; Chronis, Nikolaos

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Surgical retained foreign objects (RFOs) have significant morbidity and mortality. They are associated with approximately $1.5 × 10{sup 9} annually in preventable medical costs. The detection accuracy of radiographs for RFOs is a mediocre 59%. The authors address the RFO problem with two complementary technologies: a three-dimensional (3D) gossypiboma micro tag, the μTag that improves the visibility of RFOs on radiographs, and a computer aided detection (CAD) system that detects the μTag. It is desirable for the CAD system to operate in a high specificity mode in the operating room (OR) and function as a first reader for the surgeon. This allows for fast point of care results and seamless workflow integration. The CAD system can also operate in a high sensitivity mode as a second reader for the radiologist to ensure the highest possible detection accuracy. Methods: The 3D geometry of the μTag produces a similar two dimensional (2D) depiction on radiographs regardless of its orientation in the human body and ensures accurate detection by a radiologist and the CAD. The authors created a data set of 1800 cadaver images with the 3D μTag and other common man-made surgical objects positioned randomly. A total of 1061 cadaver images contained a single μTag and the remaining 739 were without μTag. A radiologist marked the location of the μTag using an in-house developed graphical user interface. The data set was partitioned into three independent subsets: a training set, a validation set, and a test set, consisting of 540, 560, and 700 images, respectively. A CAD system with modules that included preprocessing μTag enhancement, labeling, segmentation, feature analysis, classification, and detection was developed. The CAD system was developed using the training and the validation sets. Results: On the training set, the CAD achieved 81.5% sensitivity with 0.014 false positives (FPs) per image in a high specificity mode for the surgeons in the OR and 96

  4. Orthodontics: computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Wei, Suyuan; Deng, Fanglin; Yao, Sen

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the outline of our newly developed computer-aided 3D dental cast analyzing system with laser scanning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system is composed of a scanning device and a personal computer as a scanning controller and post processor. The scanning device is composed of a laser beam emitter, two sets of linear CCD cameras and a table which is rotatable by two-degree-of-freedom. The rotating is controlled precisely by a personal computer. The dental cast is projected and scanned with a laser beam. Triangulation is applied to determine the location of each point. Generation of 3D graphics of the dental cast takes approximately 40 minutes. About 170,000 sets of X,Y,Z coordinates are store for one dental cast. Besides the conventional linear and angular measurements of the dental cast, we are also able to demonstrate the size of the top surface area of each molar. The advantage of this system is that it facilitates the otherwise complicated and time- consuming mock surgery necessary for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  5. Temporal integration in vision: masking can aid detection.

    PubMed

    Swift, Dan J

    2013-04-01

    Temporal form-part integration is the process whereby two discrete sets of stimuli, presented at different times, are perceived by the visual system as a single integrated percept. Dixon and Di Lollo (Cognitive Psychology 26(1):33-63, 1994) proposed a temporal correlation model that was able to quantitatively account for a number of findings related to both form-part integration tasks and partial report. The present study demonstrates a novel approach to form-part integration--the addition of a whole-field mask stimulus at the termination of the second set of stimuli. According to an extension of the correlation model, the mask stimulus should reduce the visual system's response to the trailing display, thus increasing the relative overlap of the two displays, fostering integration. Experiment 1 supported this hypothesis, showing a maximum benefit when the mask followed the trailing display immediately, as opposed to after a delay of 60 ms. Experiment 2 showed that this same mask actually did yield worse performance when presented immediately after a single set of stimuli. The third experiment collected detailed data for a few observers over a larger number of mask delays. Taken together, these experiments provide a rare example of masking degrading a target stimulus, and yet aiding perception.

  6. Evolution of Geometric Sensitivity Derivatives from Computer Aided Design Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William T.; Lazzara, David; Haimes, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The generation of design parameter sensitivity derivatives is required for gradient-based optimization. Such sensitivity derivatives are elusive at best when working with geometry defined within the solid modeling context of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems. Solid modeling CAD systems are often proprietary and always complex, thereby necessitating ad hoc procedures to infer parameter sensitivity. A new perspective is presented that makes direct use of the hierarchical associativity of CAD features to trace their evolution and thereby track design parameter sensitivity. In contrast to ad hoc methods, this method provides a more concise procedure following the model design intent and determining the sensitivity of CAD geometry directly to its respective defining parameters.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis of lumbar stenosis conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koompairojn, Soontharee; Hua, Kathleen; Hua, Kien A.; Srisomboon, Jintavaree

    2010-03-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems are indispensable tools for patients' healthcare in modern medicine. Nevertheless, the only fully automatic CAD system available for lumbar stenosis today is for X-ray images. Its performance is limited due to the limitations intrinsic to X-ray images. In this paper, we present a system for magnetic resonance images. It employs a machine learning classification technique to automatically recognize lumbar spine components. Features can then be extracted from these spinal components. Finally, diagnosis is done by applying a Multilayer Perceptron. This classification framework can learn the features of different spinal conditions from the training images. The trained Perceptron can then be applied to diagnose new cases for various spinal conditions. Our experimental studies based on 62 subjects indicate that the proposed system is reliable and significantly better than our older system for X-ray images.

  8. Computer-aided optimization of phosphinic inhibitors of bacterial ureases.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, Stamatia; Kosikowska, Paulina; Grabowiecka, Agnieszka; Yiotakis, Athanasios; Kafarski, Paweł; Berlicki, Lukasz

    2010-08-12

    Urease inhibitors can be considered as a tool to control the damaging effect of ureolytic bacteria infections in humans which occur commonly in the developed countries. Computer-aided optimization of the aminomethylphosphinate structures by modifying both their N- and P-termini led to the invention of a novel group of inhibitors of bacterial ureases. Introduction of P-hydroxymethyl group into the molecule resulted in considerable increase of the inhibitory activity against enzymes purified from Bacillus pasteurii and Proteus vulgaris as compared with their P-methyl counterparts described previously. The designed compounds represent a competitive reversible class of urease inhibitors. The most potent, N-methyl-aminomethyl-P-hydroxymethylphosphinic acid, displayed K(i) = 360 nM against P. vulgaris enzyme.

  9. Computer-aided boundary delineation of agricultural lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Thomas D.; Angelici, Gary L.; Slye, Robert E.; Ma, Matt

    1989-01-01

    The National Agricultural Statistics Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) presently uses labor-intensive aerial photographic interpretation techniques to divide large geographical areas into manageable-sized units for estimating domestic crop and livestock production. Prototype software, the computer-aided stratification (CAS) system, was developed to automate the procedure, and currently runs on a Sun-based image processing system. With a background display of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and United States Geological Survey Digital Line Graph data, the operator uses a cursor to delineate agricultural areas, called sampling units, which are assigned to strata of land-use and land-cover types. The resultant stratified sampling units are used as input into subsequent USDA sampling procedures. As a test, three counties in Missouri were chosen for application of the CAS procedures. Subsequent analysis indicates that CAS was five times faster in creating sampling units than the manual techniques were.

  10. Does computer-aided formative assessment improve learning outcomes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, John; James, Alex; Williams, Phillipa

    2014-02-01

    Two first-year engineering mathematics courses used computer-aided assessment (CAA) to provide students with opportunities for formative assessment via a series of weekly quizzes. Most students used the assessment until they achieved very high (>90%) quiz scores. Although there is a positive correlation between these quiz marks and the final exam marks, spending time on the CAA component of the course was negatively correlated with final exam performance. Students across the ability spectrum reduced their time commitment to CAA in their second semester, with weaker students achieving lower quiz totals, but with more able students' quiz marks hardly affected. Despite this lower quiz performance, the weaker students still improved their final exam marks in the second semester.

  11. Computer-aided detection of polyps in optical colonoscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    We present a computer-aided detection algorithm for polyps in optical colonoscopy images. Polyps are the precursors to colon cancer. In the US alone, 14 million optical colonoscopies are performed every year, mostly to screen for polyps. Optical colonoscopy has been shown to have an approximately 25% polyp miss rate due to the convoluted folds and bends present in the colon. In this work, we present an automatic detection algorithm to detect these polyps in the optical colonoscopy images. We use a machine learning algorithm to infer a depth map for a given optical colonoscopy image and then use a detailed pre-built polyp profile to detect and delineate the boundaries of polyps in this given image. We have achieved the best recall of 84.0% and the best specificity value of 83.4%.

  12. Virus structure using the computer-aided phase microscope Airyscan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Kaverin, Nikolai V.; Perevedentseva, Elena V.; Vyshenskaia, Tatiana V.; Kufal, Georgy E.

    1997-04-01

    Investigation of features and functions of some small biological objects (smaller than 500 nm), in particular, viruses, with conventional optical microscopy is practically impossible. Usually their images are obtained with methods of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which precludes work with samples in a native state. We obtained images of different viruses including influenza A virus in native state with computer-aided phase microscope (CPM) Airyscan, in which an He-Ne laser is used as a light source. The main purpose of this work was to show the possibility to obtain adequate structure images of influenza viruses with diameter about 100 nm in conditions quite close to native and to investigate different stages of influenza virus budding. We suppose that these results may be considered as a basis for further studies of cell-virus interaction.

  13. Computer Aided Design Of Electrical Machines For Variable Speed Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, R.; Aravind, S.; Materu, P.

    1987-10-01

    In recent years, the product life cycle has decreased and demands for new products have emerged due to competition, modern industrial needs and rapidly changing technology. This has necessitated changes in design, development and manufacturing processes so as to improve quality and efficiency as well as reducing costs. Computer Aided Design (CAD) helps to meet this challenge in the design evaluation and final product design stages. This paper presents the development of an interactive software for the optimal design of a motor intended for variable speed applications. The use of finite element analysis methods is proposed as an indispensable part of the CAD system for electrical machine design. An illustration of the method is given for the design of a switched reluctance motor.

  14. Computer Aided Design: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Wan-Lee

    This instructional manual contains 12 learning activity packets for use in a workshop in computer-aided design and drafting (CADD). The lessons cover the following topics: introduction to computer graphics and computer-aided design/drafting; coordinate systems; advance space graphics hardware configuration and basic features of the IBM PC…

  15. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system.

    PubMed

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T = 62.6 ± 65.2 μm ; MC = 60.4 ± 38.4 μm; PMC = 58.1 ± 38.0 μm, and RI = 89.8 ± 62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T = 71.5%, RI = 49.2%, MC = 69.6%, and PMC = 71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T = 8.5%, RI = 0%, MC = 0.8%, and PMC = 3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  16. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis of alcoholism-related EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; S, Vidya; Bhat, Shreya; Adeli, Hojjat; Adeli, Amir

    2014-12-01

    Alcoholism is a severe disorder that affects the functionality of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and alters the behavior of the affected person. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of subjects with alcoholism. The neurophysiological interpretation of EEG signals in persons with alcoholism (PWA) is based on observation and interpretation of the frequency and power in their EEGs compared to EEG signals from persons without alcoholism. This paper presents a review of the known features of EEGs obtained from PWA and proposes that the impact of alcoholism on the brain can be determined by computer-aided analysis of EEGs through extracting the minute variations in the EEG signals that can differentiate the EEGs of PWA from those of nonaffected persons. The authors advance the idea of automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of alcoholism by employing the EEG signals. This is achieved through judicious combination of signal processing techniques such as wavelet, nonlinear dynamics, and chaos theory and pattern recognition and classification techniques. A CAD system is cost-effective and efficient and can be used as a decision support system by physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism especially those who do not specialize in alcoholism or neurophysiology. It can also be of great value to rehabilitation centers to assess PWA over time and to monitor the impact of treatment aimed at minimizing or reversing the effects of the disease on the brain. A CAD system can be used to determine the extent of alcoholism-related changes in EEG signals (low, medium, high) and the effectiveness of therapeutic plans.

  18. Role of computer-aided drug design in modern drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Macalino, Stephani Joy Y; Gosu, Vijayakumar; Hong, Sunhye; Choi, Sun

    2015-09-01

    Drug discovery utilizes chemical biology and computational drug design approaches for the efficient identification and optimization of lead compounds. Chemical biology is mostly involved in the elucidation of the biological function of a target and the mechanism of action of a chemical modulator. On the other hand, computer-aided drug design makes use of the structural knowledge of either the target (structure-based) or known ligands with bioactivity (ligand-based) to facilitate the determination of promising candidate drugs. Various virtual screening techniques are now being used by both pharmaceutical companies and academic research groups to reduce the cost and time required for the discovery of a potent drug. Despite the rapid advances in these methods, continuous improvements are critical for future drug discovery tools. Advantages presented by structure-based and ligand-based drug design suggest that their complementary use, as well as their integration with experimental routines, has a powerful impact on rational drug design. In this article, we give an overview of the current computational drug design and their application in integrated rational drug development to aid in the progress of drug discovery research.

  19. A review of computer aided interpretation technology for the evaluation of radiographs of aluminum welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, J. F., Sr.

    1987-01-01

    Industrial radiography is a well established, reliable means of providing nondestructive structural integrity information. The majority of industrial radiographs are interpreted by trained human eyes using transmitted light and various visual aids. Hundreds of miles of radiographic information are evaluated, documented and archived annually. In many instances, there are serious considerations in terms of interpreter fatigue, subjectivity and limited archival space. Quite often it is difficult to quickly retrieve radiographic information for further analysis or investigation. Methods of improving the quality and efficiency of the radiographic process are being explored, developed and incorporated whenever feasible. High resolution cameras, digital image processing, and mass digital data storage offer interesting possibilities for improving the industrial radiographic process. A review is presented of computer aided radiographic interpretation technology in terms of how it could be used to enhance the radiographic interpretation process in evaluating radiographs of aluminum welds.

  20. The application of computer-aided technologies in automotive styling design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ze-feng; Zhang, Ji; Zheng, Ying

    2012-04-01

    In automotive industry, outline design is its life and creative design is its soul indeed. Computer-aided technology has been widely used in the automotive industry and more and more attention has been paid. This paper chiefly introduce the application of computer-aided technologies including CAD, CAM and CAE, analyses the process of automotive structural design and describe the development tendency of computer-aided design.

  1. Converting Between PLY and Ballistic Research Laboratory-Computer-Aided Design (BRL-CAD) File Formats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Converting Between PLY and Ballistic Research Laboratory–Computer-Aided Design (BRL-CAD) File Formats by Rishub Jain ARL-CR-0760...0760 February 2015 Converting Between PLY and Ballistic Research Laboratory–Computer-Aided Design (BRL-CAD) File Formats Rishub Jain US...and Ballistic Research Laboratory–Computer-Aided Design (BRL-CAD) File Formats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-10-2-0076 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  2. Target Impact Detection Algorithm Using Computer-aided Design (CAD) Model Geometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 558 Technical Report ARMET-TR-13024 TARGET IMPACT DETECTION ALGORITHM USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ( CAD ...DETECTION ALGORITHM USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ( CAD ) MODEL GEOMETRY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...This report documents a method and algorithm to export geometry from a three-dimensional, computer-aided design ( CAD ) model in a format that can be

  3. Software Infrastructure for Computer-aided Drug Discovery and Development, a Practical Example with Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Loris; Sartori, Luca

    2016-09-01

    In the field of Computer-Aided Drug Discovery and Development (CADDD) the proper software infrastructure is essential for everyday investigations. The creation of such an environment should be carefully planned and implemented with certain features in order to be productive and efficient. Here we describe a solution to integrate standard computational services into a functional unit that empowers modelling applications for drug discovery. This system allows users with various level of expertise to run in silico experiments automatically and without the burden of file formatting for different software, managing the actual computation, keeping track of the activities and graphical rendering of the structural outcomes. To showcase the potential of this approach, performances of five different docking programs on an Hiv-1 protease test set are presented.

  4. Miscellaneous Topics in Computer-Aided Drug Design: Synthetic Accessibility and GPU Computing, and Other Topics

    PubMed Central

    Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Mashimo, Tadaaki; Misoo, Kiyotaka; Wakabayashi, Yoshinori; Miyaki, Toshiaki; Ohta, Seiji; Nakamura, Mayu; Ikeda, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background Computer-aided drug design is still a state-of-the-art process in medicinal chemistry, and the main topics in this field have been extensively studied and well reviewed. These topics include compound databases, ligand-binding pocket prediction, protein-compound docking, virtual screening, target/off-target prediction, physical property prediction, molecular simulation and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) prediction. Message and Conclusion: However, there are also a number of secondary or miscellaneous topics that have been less well covered. For example, methods for synthesizing and predicting the synthetic accessibility (SA) of designed compounds are important in practical drug development, and hardware/software resources for performing the computations in computer-aided drug design are crucial. Cloud computing and general purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) computing have been used in virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulations. Not surprisingly, there is a growing demand for computer systems which combine these resources. In the present review, we summarize and discuss these various topics of drug design. PMID:27075578

  5. Computer-aided detection system for lung cancer in computed tomography scans: Review and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The goal of this paper is to present a critical review of major Computer-Aided Detection systems (CADe) for lung cancer in order to identify challenges for future research. CADe systems must meet the following requirements: improve the performance of radiologists providing high sensitivity in the diagnosis, a low number of false positives (FP), have high processing speed, present high level of automation, low cost (of implementation, training, support and maintenance), the ability to detect different types and shapes of nodules, and software security assurance. Methods The relevant literature related to “CADe for lung cancer” was obtained from PubMed, IEEEXplore and Science Direct database. Articles published from 2009 to 2013, and some articles previously published, were used. A systemic analysis was made on these articles and the results were summarized. Discussion Based on literature search, it was observed that many if not all systems described in this survey have the potential to be important in clinical practice. However, no significant improvement was observed in sensitivity, number of false positives, level of automation and ability to detect different types and shapes of nodules in the studied period. Challenges were presented for future research. Conclusions Further research is needed to improve existing systems and propose new solutions. For this, we believe that collaborative efforts through the creation of open source software communities are necessary to develop a CADe system with all the requirements mentioned and with a short development cycle. In addition, future CADe systems should improve the level of automation, through integration with picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and the electronic record of the patient, decrease the number of false positives, measure the evolution of tumors, evaluate the evolution of the oncological treatment, and its possible prognosis. PMID:24713067

  6. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: Computing Integrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Erick F.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews three functions performed by modern computing integrators: (1) data acquisition; (2) data processing; and (3) communication. Also shows with examples how new electronic components enhance the functions of this popular analytical instrument in those areas. (JN)

  7. Bibliography for computer security, integrity, and safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bown, Rodney L.

    1991-01-01

    A bibliography of computer security, integrity, and safety issues is given. The bibliography is divided into the following sections: recent national publications; books; journal, magazine articles, and miscellaneous reports; conferences, proceedings, and tutorials; and government documents and contractor reports.

  8. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Lung Cancer and Pulmonary Embolism in Computed Tomography — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Zhou, Chuan; Sahiner, Berkman

    2009-01-01

    Computer-aided detection (CADe) and computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) have been important areas of research in the last two decades. Significant progresses have been made in the area of breast cancer detection, and CAD techniques are being developed in many other areas. Recent advances in multidetector row CT have made it an increasingly common modality for imaging of lung diseases. A thoracic examination using thin-section CT contains hundreds of images. Detection of lung cancer and pulmonary embolism on CT examinations are demanding tasks for radiologists because they have to search for abnormalities in a large number of images and the lesions can be subtle. If successfully developed, CAD can be a useful second opinion to radiologists in thoracic CT interpretation. In this review, we summarize the studies that have been reported in these areas, discuss some challenges in the development of CAD, and identify areas that deserve particular attention in future research. PMID:18423310

  9. A handheld computer-aided diagnosis system and simulated analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Mingjian; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Brent; Su, Kening; Louie, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on cellphone and distributed cluster. One of the bottlenecks in building a CAD system for clinical practice is the storage and process of mass pathology samples freely among different devices, and normal pattern matching algorithm on large scale image set is very time consuming. Distributed computation on cluster has demonstrated the ability to relieve this bottleneck. We develop a system enabling the user to compare the mass image to a dataset with feature table by sending datasets to Generic Data Handler Module in Hadoop, where the pattern recognition is undertaken for the detection of skin diseases. A single and combination retrieval algorithm to data pipeline base on Map Reduce framework is used in our system in order to make optimal choice between recognition accuracy and system cost. The profile of lesion area is drawn by doctors manually on the screen, and then uploads this pattern to the server. In our evaluation experiment, an accuracy of 75% diagnosis hit rate is obtained by testing 100 patients with skin illness. Our system has the potential help in building a novel medical image dataset by collecting large amounts of gold standard during medical diagnosis. Once the project is online, the participants are free to join and eventually an abundant sample dataset will soon be gathered enough for learning. These results demonstrate our technology is very promising and expected to be used in clinical practice.

  10. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues.

    PubMed

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2016-05-26

    The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research.

  11. Computer aided lung cancer diagnosis with deep learning algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenqing; Zheng, Bin; Qian, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Deep learning is considered as a popular and powerful method in pattern recognition and classification. However, there are not many deep structured applications used in medical imaging diagnosis area, because large dataset is not always available for medical images. In this study we tested the feasibility of using deep learning algorithms for lung cancer diagnosis with the cases from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) database. The nodules on each computed tomography (CT) slice were segmented according to marks provided by the radiologists. After down sampling and rotating we acquired 174412 samples with 52 by 52 pixel each and the corresponding truth files. Three deep learning algorithms were designed and implemented, including Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Deep Belief Networks (DBNs), Stacked Denoising Autoencoder (SDAE). To compare the performance of deep learning algorithms with traditional computer aided diagnosis (CADx) system, we designed a scheme with 28 image features and support vector machine. The accuracies of CNN, DBNs, and SDAE are 0.7976, 0.8119, and 0.7929, respectively; the accuracy of our designed traditional CADx is 0.7940, which is slightly lower than CNN and DBNs. We also noticed that the mislabeled nodules using DBNs are 4% larger than using traditional CADx, this might be resulting from down sampling process lost some size information of the nodules.

  12. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues

    PubMed Central

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research. PMID:27240360

  13. A digital patient for computer-aided prosthesis design

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giorgio; Facoetti, Giancarlo; Rizzi, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This article concerns the design of lower limb prosthesis, both below and above knee. It describes a new computer-based design framework and a digital model of the patient around which the prosthesis is designed and tested in a completely virtual environment. The virtual model of the patient is the backbone of the whole system, and it is based on a biomechanical general-purpose model customized with the patient's characteristics (e.g. anthropometric measures). The software platform adopts computer-aided and knowledge-guided approaches with the goal of replacing the current development process, mainly hand made, with a virtual one. It provides the prosthetics with a set of tools to design, configure and test the prosthesis and comprehends two main environments: the prosthesis modelling laboratory and the virtual testing laboratory. The first permits the three-dimensional model of the prosthesis to be configured and generated, while the second allows the prosthetics to virtually set up the artificial leg and simulate the patient's postures and movements, validating its functionality and configuration. General architecture and modelling/simulation tools for the platform are described as well as main aspects and results of the experimentation. PMID:24427528

  14. Computer Integrated Manufacturing Programs in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., Milford, CT. Academic Information Systems.

    This publication focuses on computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) programs at several higher education institutions which teach the use of computing in manufacturing. The document describes programs at the following institutions: University of Alabama (where researchers are investigating CIM techniques with a key focus on transferring their…

  15. Implementing Computer Integrated Manufacturing Technician Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Roger

    A computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) technician program was developed to provide training and technical assistance to meet the needs of business and industry in the face of the demands of high technology. The Computer and Automated Systems Association (CASA) of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers provided the incentive and guidelines…

  16. Approximation method to compute domain related integrals in structural studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oanta, E.; Panait, C.; Raicu, A.; Barhalescu, M.; Axinte, T.

    2015-11-01

    Various engineering calculi use integral calculus in theoretical models, i.e. analytical and numerical models. For usual problems, integrals have mathematical exact solutions. If the domain of integration is complicated, there may be used several methods to calculate the integral. The first idea is to divide the domain in smaller sub-domains for which there are direct calculus relations, i.e. in strength of materials the bending moment may be computed in some discrete points using the graphical integration of the shear force diagram, which usually has a simple shape. Another example is in mathematics, where the surface of a subgraph may be approximated by a set of rectangles or trapezoids used to calculate the definite integral. The goal of the work is to introduce our studies about the calculus of the integrals in the transverse section domains, computer aided solutions and a generalizing method. The aim of our research is to create general computer based methods to execute the calculi in structural studies. Thus, we define a Boolean algebra which operates with ‘simple’ shape domains. This algebraic standpoint uses addition and subtraction, conditioned by the sign of every ‘simple’ shape (-1 for the shapes to be subtracted). By ‘simple’ shape or ‘basic’ shape we define either shapes for which there are direct calculus relations, or domains for which their frontiers are approximated by known functions and the according calculus is carried out using an algorithm. The ‘basic’ shapes are linked to the calculus of the most significant stresses in the section, refined aspect which needs special attention. Starting from this idea, in the libraries of ‘basic’ shapes, there were included rectangles, ellipses and domains whose frontiers are approximated by spline functions. The domain triangularization methods suggested that another ‘basic’ shape to be considered is the triangle. The subsequent phase was to deduce the exact relations for the

  17. [PIV: a computer-aided portal image verification system].

    PubMed

    Fu, Weihua; Zhang, Hongzhi; Wu, Jing

    2002-12-01

    Portal image verification (PIV) is one of the key actions in QA procedure for sophisticated accurate radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a PIV software as a tool for improving the accuracy and visualization of portal field verification and computing field placement errors. PIV was developed in the visual C++ integrated environment under Windows 95 operating system. It can improve visualization by providing tools for image processing and multimode images display. Semi-automatic register methods make verification more accurate than view-box method. It can provide useful quantitative errors for regular fields. PIV is flexible and accurate. It is an effective tool for portal field verification.

  18. Using old technology to implement modern computer-aided decision support for primary diabetes care.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, D. L.; Haynes, R. B.; Morgan, D.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implementation rates of interventions known to be beneficial for people with diabetes mellitus are often suboptimal. Computer-aided decision support systems (CDSSs) can improve these rates. The complexity of establishing a fully integrated electronic medical record that provides decision support, however, often prevents their use. OBJECTIVE: To develop a CDSS for diabetes care that can be easily introduced into primary care settings and diabetes clinics. THE SYSTEM: The CDSS uses fax-machine-based optical character recognition software for acquiring patient information. Simple, 1-page paper forms, completed by patients or health practitioners, are faxed to a central location. The information is interpreted and recorded in a database. This initiates a routine that matches the information against a knowledge base so that patient-specific recommendations can be generated. These are formatted and faxed back within 4-5 minutes. IMPLEMENTATION: The system is being introduced into 2 diabetes clinics. We are collecting information on frequency of use of the system, as well as satisfaction with the information provided. CONCLUSION: Computer-aided decision support can be provided in any setting with a fax machine, without the need for integrated electronic medical records or computerized data-collection devices. PMID:11825194

  19. Computer-Presented Organizational/Memory Aids as Instruction for Solving Pico-Fomi Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Esther R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes investigation of effectiveness of computer-presented organizational/memory aids (matrix and verbal charts controlled by computer or learner) as instructional technique for solving Pico-Fomi problems, and the acquisition of deductive inference rules when such aids are present. Results indicate chart use control should be adapted to…

  20. [The automatic iris map overlap technology in computer-aided iridiagnosis].

    PubMed

    He, Jia-feng; Ye, Hu-nian; Ye, Miao-yuan

    2002-11-01

    In the paper, iridology and computer-aided iridiagnosis technologies are briefly introduced and the extraction method of the collarette contour is then investigated. The iris map can be overlapped on the original iris image based on collarette contour extraction. The research on collarette contour extraction and iris map overlap is of great importance to computer-aided iridiagnosis technologies.

  1. Teaching Computer-Aided Design of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Engineering Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosman, A. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a teaching program for fluid mechanics and heat transfer which contains both computer aided learning (CAL) and computer aided design (CAD) components and argues that the understanding of the physical and numerical modeling taught in the CAL course is essential to the proper implementation of CAD. (Author/CMV)

  2. Flexible structure control experiments using a real-time workstation for computer-aided control engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieber, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    A Real-Time Workstation for Computer-Aided Control Engineering has been developed jointly by the Communications Research Centre (CRC) and Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB), West Germany. The system is presently used for the development and experimental verification of control techniques for large space systems with significant structural flexibility. The Real-Time Workstation essentially is an implementation of RUB's extensive Computer-Aided Control Engineering package KEDDC on an INTEL micro-computer running under the RMS real-time operating system. The portable system supports system identification, analysis, control design and simulation, as well as the immediate implementation and test of control systems. The Real-Time Workstation is currently being used by CRC to study control/structure interaction on a ground-based structure called DAISY, whose design was inspired by a reflector antenna. DAISY emulates the dynamics of a large flexible spacecraft with the following characteristics: rigid body modes, many clustered vibration modes with low frequencies and extremely low damping. The Real-Time Workstation was found to be a very powerful tool for experimental studies, supporting control design and simulation, and conducting and evaluating tests withn one integrated environment.

  3. Computer-Aided Construction of Chemical Kinetic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Green, William H.

    2014-12-31

    The combustion chemistry of even simple fuels can be extremely complex, involving hundreds or thousands of kinetically significant species. The most reasonable way to deal with this complexity is to use a computer not only to numerically solve the kinetic model, but also to construct the kinetic model in the first place. Because these large models contain so many numerical parameters (e.g. rate coefficients, thermochemistry) one never has sufficient data to uniquely determine them all experimentally. Instead one must work in “predictive” mode, using theoretical rather than experimental values for many of the numbers in the model, and as appropriate refining the most sensitive numbers through experiments. Predictive chemical kinetics is exactly what is needed for computer-aided design of combustion systems based on proposed alternative fuels, particularly for early assessment of the value and viability of proposed new fuels before those fuels are commercially available. This project was aimed at making accurate predictive chemical kinetics practical; this is a challenging goal which requires a range of science advances. The project spanned a wide range from quantum chemical calculations on individual molecules and elementary-step reactions, through the development of improved rate/thermo calculation procedures, the creation of algorithms and software for constructing and solving kinetic simulations, the invention of methods for model-reduction while maintaining error control, and finally comparisons with experiment. Many of the parameters in the models were derived from quantum chemistry calculations, and the models were compared with experimental data measured in our lab or in collaboration with others.

  4. The future of computer-aided sperm analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Sharon T; van der Horst, Gerhard; Mortimer, David

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) technology was developed in the late 1980s for analyzing sperm movement characteristics or kinematics and has been highly successful in enabling this field of research. CASA has also been used with great success for measuring semen characteristics such as sperm concentration and proportions of progressive motility in many animal species, including wide application in domesticated animal production laboratories and reproductive toxicology. However, attempts to use CASA for human clinical semen analysis have largely met with poor success due to the inherent difficulties presented by many human semen samples caused by sperm clumping and heavy background debris that, until now, have precluded accurate digital image analysis. The authors review the improved capabilities of two modern CASA platforms (Hamilton Thorne CASA-II and Microptic SCA6) and consider their current and future applications with particular reference to directing our focus towards using this technology to assess functional rather than simple descriptive characteristics of spermatozoa. Specific requirements for validating CASA technology as a semi-automated system for human semen analysis are also provided, with particular reference to the accuracy and uncertainty of measurement expected of a robust medical laboratory test for implementation in clinical laboratories operating according to modern accreditation standards. PMID:25926614

  5. CART V: recent advancements in computer-aided camouflage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Müller, Markus

    2011-05-01

    In order to facilitate systematic, computer aided improvements of camouflage and concealment assessment methods, the software system CART (Camouflage Assessment in Real-Time) was built up for the camouflage assessment of objects in multispectral image sequences (see contributions to SPIE 2007-2010 [1], [2], [3], [4]). It comprises a semi-automatic marking of target objects (ground truth generation) including their propagation over the image sequence and the evaluation via user-defined feature extractors as well as methods to assess the object's movement conspicuity. In this fifth part in an annual series at the SPIE conference in Orlando, this paper presents the enhancements over the recent year and addresses the camouflage assessment of static and moving objects in multispectral image data that can show noise or image artefacts. The presented methods fathom the correlations between image processing and camouflage assessment. A novel algorithm is presented based on template matching to assess the structural inconspicuity of an object objectively and quantitatively. The results can easily be combined with an MTI (moving target indication) based movement conspicuity assessment function in order to explore the influence of object movement to a camouflage effect in different environments. As the results show, the presented methods contribute to a significant benefit in the field of camouflage assessment.

  6. Computer Aided Setup Planning Using Tolerance Analysis for Prismatic Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahid, Abedini; Mohsen, Shakeri; Sajad, Kafashi

    2011-01-01

    Computer aided process planning (CAPP) is the bridge between CAD and CAM. Setup planning is the major key to transform design concept into manufacturing domain, which is mainly experience based activity in modern manufacturing industry. Setup planning is a complicated non-linear task constrained by many factors such as tool approach direction, geometric feature relationship, fixturing constrain, tolerance requirement and manufacturing practice. The objective of setup planning is to determine the number of setup needed, the orientation of the workpiece and the machining surfaces in each setup. This paper focuses on the development of a formalized procedure for automatic generation of setup plan. Tolerance relations are used as critical constraints for setup planning. The tasks that are performed are: (a) identifying groups of features that can be machined in a single setup, (b) determining a suitable work piece orientation, i.e. the suitable datum planes for each setup, (c) determining all the feasible setup plans to machine the given set of features of prismatic parts, and (d) evaluating the feasible setup plans on the basis of technological conditions. Trial runs with industrial parts indicate that the system is applicable for industrial use.

  7. Computer-aided kidney segmentation on abdominal CT images.

    PubMed

    Lin, Daw-Tung; Lei, Chung-Chih; Hung, Siu-Wan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an effective model-based approach for computer-aided kidney segmentation of abdominal CT images with anatomic structure consideration is presented. This automatic segmentation system is expected to assist physicians in both clinical diagnosis and educational training. The proposed method is a coarse to fine segmentation approach divided into two stages. First, the candidate kidney region is extracted according to the statistical geometric location of kidney within the abdomen. This approach is applicable to images of different sizes by using the relative distance of the kidney region to the spine. The second stage identifies the kidney by a series of image processing operations. The main elements of the proposed system are: 1) the location of the spine is used as the landmark for coordinate references; 2) elliptic candidate kidney region extraction with progressive positioning on the consecutive CT images; 3) novel directional model for a more reliable kidney region seed point identification; and 4) adaptive region growing controlled by the properties of image homogeneity. In addition, in order to provide different views for the physicians, we have implemented a visualization tool that will automatically show the renal contour through the method of second-order neighborhood edge detection. We considered segmentation of kidney regions from CT scans that contain pathologies in clinical practice. The results of a series of tests on 358 images from 30 patients indicate an average correlation coefficient of up to 88% between automatic and manual segmentation.

  8. Computer aiding for low-altitude helicopter flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.

    1991-01-01

    A computer-aiding concept for low-altitude helicopter flight was developed and evaluated in a real-time piloted simulation. The concept included an optimal control trajectory-generated algorithm based on dynamic programming, and a head-up display (HUD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor symbol. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and advanced navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission waypoints that minimizes threat exposure by seeking valleys. The pilot evaluation was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Sim Lab facility in both the fixed-base Interchangeable Cab (ICAB) simulator and the moving-base Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) by pilots representing NASA, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Air Force. The pilots manually tracked the trajectory generated by the algorithm utilizing the HUD symbology. They were able to satisfactorily perform the tracking tasks while maintaining a high degree of awareness of the outside world.

  9. Computer-aided interpretation approach for optical tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Christian D.; Klose, Alexander D.; Netz, Uwe J.; Scheel, Alexander K.; Beuthan, Jürgen; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2010-11-01

    A computer-aided interpretation approach is proposed to detect rheumatic arthritis (RA) in human finger joints using optical tomographic images. The image interpretation method employs a classification algorithm that makes use of a so-called self-organizing mapping scheme to classify fingers as either affected or unaffected by RA. Unlike in previous studies, this allows for combining multiple image features, such as minimum and maximum values of the absorption coefficient for identifying affected and not affected joints. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, and mutual information. Different methods (i.e., clinical diagnostics, ultrasound imaging, magnet resonance imaging, and inspection of optical tomographic images), were used to produce ground truth benchmarks to determine the performance of image interpretations. Using data from 100 finger joints, findings suggest that some parameter combinations lead to higher sensitivities, while others to higher specificities when compared to single parameter classifications employed in previous studies. Maximum performances are reached when combining the minimum/maximum ratio of the absorption coefficient and image variance. In this case, sensitivities and specificities over 0.9 can be achieved. These values are much higher than values obtained when only single parameter classifications were used, where sensitivities and specificities remained well below 0.8.

  10. Computer aided morphometry of the neonatal fetal alcohol syndrome face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chik, Lawrence; Sokol, Robert J.; Martier, Susan S.

    1993-09-01

    Facial dysmorphology related to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) has been studied from neonatal snapshots with computer-aided imaging tools by looking at facial landmarks and silhouettes. Statistical methods were used to characterize FAS-related midfacial hypoplasia by using standardized landmark coordinates of frontal and profile snapshots. Additional analyses were performed by tracing a segment of the facial silhouettes from the profile snapshots. In spite of inherent distortions due to the coordinate standardization procedure, controlled for race, three significant facial landmark coordinates accounted for 30.6% of the explained variance of FAS. Residualized for race, eight points along the silhouettes were shown to be significant in explaining 45.8% of the outcome variance. Combining the landmark coordinates and silhouettes points, 57% of the outcome variance was explained. Finally, including birthweight with landmark coordinates and silhouettes, 63% of the outcome variance was explained, with a jackknifed sensitivity of 95% (19/20) and a specificity of 92.9% (52/56).

  11. Computer Aided Detection of SARS Based on Radiographs Data Mining.

    PubMed

    Xuanyang, Xie; Yuchang, Gong; Shouhong, Wan; Xi, Li

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces our work on how to use image mining techniques to detect SARS, the severe acute respiratory syndrome, automatically as the prototype of computer aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) system. Data used in this paper are digitalized PA(posterior anterior) X-ray images stored in the real-life picture archiving and communication system (PACS) of the 2nd Affiliation Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College. Association rule mining was applied first but results showed there was no significant difference between the locations of the lesions or infiltrate. Classification based on image textures was performed. A sample set contains both the pneumonia and SARS X-ray images was built in the first place. After modeling each sample by a feature vector, the sample set was partitioned to match the detection purpose: classification. Three methods were used: C4.5, neural network (NN) and CART. Final result shows that 70.94% SARS cases can be detected by CART. Data preparation, segmentation, feature extraction and data mining steps, with corresponding techniques are included in this paper. ROC charts and confusion matrix by all three methods are given and analyzed.

  12. Quantitative analysis of ultrasound images for computer-aided diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie Ying; Tuomi, Adam; Beland, Michael D.; Konrad, Joseph; Glidden, David; Grand, David; Merck, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. We propose an adaptable framework for analyzing ultrasound (US) images quantitatively to provide computer-aided diagnosis using machine learning. Our preliminary clinical targets are hepatic steatosis, adenomyosis, and craniosynostosis. For steatosis and adenomyosis, we collected US studies from 288 and 88 patients, respectively, as well as their biopsy or magnetic resonanceconfirmed diagnosis. Radiologists identified a region of interest (ROI) on each image. We filtered the US images for various texture responses and use the pixel intensity distribution within each ROI as feature parameterizations. Our craniosynostosis dataset consisted of 22 CT-confirmed cases and 22 age-matched controls. One physician manually measured the vectors from the center of the skull to the outer cortex at every 10 deg for each image and we used the principal directions as shape features for parameterization. These parameters and the known diagnosis were used to train classifiers. Testing with cross-validation, we obtained 72.74% accuracy and 0.71 area under receiver operating characteristics curve for steatosis (p<0.0001), 77.27% and 0.77 for adenomyosis (p<0.0001), and 88.63% and 0.89 for craniosynostosis (p=0.0006). Our framework is able to detect a variety of diseases with high accuracy. We hope to include it as a routinely available support system in the clinic. PMID:26835502

  13. Computer-aided interpretation approach for optical tomographic images.

    PubMed

    Klose, Christian D; Klose, Alexander D; Netz, Uwe J; Scheel, Alexander K; Beuthan, Jurgen; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2010-01-01

    A computer-aided interpretation approach is proposed to detect rheumatic arthritis (RA) in human finger joints using optical tomographic images. The image interpretation method employs a classification algorithm that makes use of a so-called self-organizing mapping scheme to classify fingers as either affected or unaffected by RA. Unlike in previous studies, this allows for combining multiple image features, such as minimum and maximum values of the absorption coefficient for identifying affected and not affected joints. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, and mutual information. Different methods (i.e., clinical diagnostics, ultrasound imaging, magnet resonance imaging, and inspection of optical tomographic images), were used to produce ground truth benchmarks to determine the performance of image interpretations. Using data from 100 finger joints, findings suggest that some parameter combinations lead to higher sensitivities, while others to higher specificities when compared to single parameter classifications employed in previous studies. Maximum performances are reached when combining the minimum/maximum ratio of the absorption coefficient and image variance. In this case, sensitivities and specificities over 0.9 can be achieved. These values are much higher than values obtained when only single parameter classifications were used, where sensitivities and specificities remained well below 0.8.

  14. A computer-aided diagnostic system for kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Jahantigh, Farzad Firouzi; Malmir, Behnam; Avilaq, Behzad Aslani

    2017-01-01

    Background Disease diagnosis is complicated since patients may demonstrate similar symptoms but physician may diagnose different diseases. There are a few number of investigations aimed to create a fuzzy expert system, as a computer aided system for disease diagnosis. Methods In this research, a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in a kidney clinic in Tehran, Iran in 2012. Medical diagnosis fuzzy rules applied, and a set of symptoms related to the set of considered diseases defined. The input case to be diagnosed defined by assigning a fuzzy value to each symptom and then three physicians asked about each suspected diseases. Then comments of those three physicians summarized for each disease. The fuzzy inference applied to obtain a decision fuzzy set for each disease, and crisp decision values attained to determine the certainty of existence for each disease. Results Results indicated that, in the diagnosis of seven cases of kidney disease by examining 21 indicators using fuzzy expert system, kidney stone disease with 63% certainty was the most probable, renal tubular was at the lowest level with 15%, and other kidney diseases were at the other levels. The most remarkable finding of this study was that results of kidney disease diagnosis (e.g., kidney stone) via fuzzy expert system were fully compatible with those of kidney physicians. Conclusion The proposed fuzzy expert system is a valid, reliable, and flexible instrument to diagnose several typical input cases. The developed system decreases the effort of initial physical checking and manual feeding of input symptoms. PMID:28392995

  15. Collaborative Brain-Computer Interface for Aiding Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Riccardo; Valeriani, Davide; Cinel, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    We look at the possibility of integrating the percepts from multiple non-communicating observers as a means of achieving better joint perception and better group decisions. Our approach involves the combination of a brain-computer interface with human behavioural responses. To test ideas in controlled conditions, we asked observers to perform a simple matching task involving the rapid sequential presentation of pairs of visual patterns and the subsequent decision as whether the two patterns in a pair were the same or different. We recorded the response times of observers as well as a neural feature which predicts incorrect decisions and, thus, indirectly indicates the confidence of the decisions made by the observers. We then built a composite neuro-behavioural feature which optimally combines the two measures. For group decisions, we uses a majority rule and three rules which weigh the decisions of each observer based on response times and our neural and neuro-behavioural features. Results indicate that the integration of behavioural responses and neural features can significantly improve accuracy when compared with the majority rule. An analysis of event-related potentials indicates that substantial differences are present in the proximity of the response for correct and incorrect trials, further corroborating the idea of using hybrids of brain-computer interfaces and traditional strategies for improving decision making. PMID:25072739

  16. Computer aided process planning and die design in simulation environment in sheet metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisza, Miklós; Lukács, Zsolt

    2013-12-01

    During the recent 10-15 years, Computer Aided Process Planning and Die Design evolved as one of the most important engineering tools in sheet metal forming, particularly in the automotive industry. This emerging role is strongly emphasized by the rapid development of Finite Element Modeling, as well. The purpose of this paper is to give a general overview about the recent achievements in this very important field of sheet metal forming and to introduce some special results in this development activity. Therefore, in this paper, an integrated process simulation and die design system developed at the University of Miskolc, Department of Mechanical Engineering will be analyzed. The proposed integrated solutions have great practical importance to improve the global competitiveness of sheet metal forming in the very important segment of industry. The concept described in this paper may have specific value both for process planning and die design engineers.

  17. Large Advanced Space Systems (LASS) computer-aided design program additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The LSS preliminary and conceptual design requires extensive iteractive analysis because of the effects of structural, thermal, and control intercoupling. A computer aided design program that will permit integrating and interfacing of required large space system (LSS) analyses is discussed. The primary objective of this program is the implementation of modeling techniques and analysis algorithms that permit interactive design and tradeoff studies of LSS concepts. Eight software modules were added to the program. The existing rigid body controls module was modified to include solar pressure effects. The new model generator modules and appendage synthesizer module are integrated (interfaced) to permit interactive definition and generation of LSS concepts. The mass properties module permits interactive specification of discrete masses and their locations. The other modules permit interactive analysis of orbital transfer requirements, antenna primary beam n, and attitude control requirements.

  18. A non-linear programming approach to the computer-aided design of regulators using a linear-quadratic formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, P.

    1985-01-01

    A design technique is proposed for linear regulators in which a feedback controller of fixed structure is chosen to minimize an integral quadratic objective function subject to the satisfaction of integral quadratic constraint functions. Application of a non-linear programming algorithm to this mathematically tractable formulation results in an efficient and useful computer-aided design tool. Particular attention is paid to computational efficiency and various recommendations are made. Two design examples illustrate the flexibility of the approach and highlight the special insight afforded to the designer.

  19. Developing a Participatory Pedagogical and Multidisciplinary Approach for Integrating HIV/AIDS into University Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulwo, Abraham Kiprop; Chemai, Lemmy

    2015-01-01

    The current framework for integrating HIV/AIDS into university curriculum is mainly informed by the need to make HIV/AIDS education relevant to specific disciplines, and to equip graduates with necessary skills to respond to HIV/AIDS in their professional capacities. This strategy mainly emphasizes content and knowledge and largely ignores the…

  20. An Interactive Computer Aiding System for Group Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    In addition, system evaluation studies will continue. The specific items of work for the next period include: (1) Operational testing of the color...Aid with other DDF decision aids; and (3) continuation of full scale experimental studies of the Group Decision Aid. The following specific tasks were...experimental studies are in progress at Perceptronics’ California office. The previously completed experimental hypotheses and the CACI-developed scenario

  1. Adaptive Computer Aiding in Dynamic Decision Processes: An Experimental Study of Aiding Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    and a larger subject group. 1-2 Adaptive Decision Aiding 1-2 The primary function of ADDAM is not simply to model the decision maker’s behavior...maximum expected utility (OEVMAXEU) during the course of the test session was the primary measure of decision performance. As a group, the aided...in Chapter 3. The primary function of ADDAM is not simply to model the decision maker’s behavior but to provide a basis for decision aiding. Once

  2. Image calibration and registration in cone-beam computed tomogram for measuring the accuracy of computer-aided implant surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Walter Y. H.; Ngan, Henry Y. T.; Wat, Peter Y. P.; Luk, Henry W. K.; Goto, Tazuko K.; Pow, Edmond H. N.

    2015-02-01

    Medical radiography is the use of radiation to "see through" a human body without breaching its integrity (surface). With computed tomography (CT)/cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), three-dimensional (3D) imaging can be produced. These imagings not only facilitate disease diagnosis but also enable computer-aided surgical planning/navigation. In dentistry, the common method for transfer of the virtual surgical planning to the patient (reality) is the use of surgical stent either with a preloaded planning (static) like a channel or a real time surgical navigation (dynamic) after registration with fiducial markers (RF). This paper describes using the corner of a cube as a radiopaque fiducial marker on an acrylic (plastic) stent, this RF allows robust calibration and registration of Cartesian (x, y, z)- coordinates for linking up the patient (reality) and the imaging (virtuality) and hence the surgical planning can be transferred in either static or dynamic way. The accuracy of computer-aided implant surgery was measured with reference to coordinates. In our preliminary model surgery, a dental implant was planned virtually and placed with preloaded surgical guide. The deviation of the placed implant apex from the planning was x=+0.56mm [more right], y=- 0.05mm [deeper], z=-0.26mm [more lingual]) which was within clinically 2mm safety range. For comparison with the virtual planning, the physically placed implant was CT/CBCT scanned and errors may be introduced. The difference of the actual implant apex to the virtual apex was x=0.00mm, y=+0.21mm [shallower], z=-1.35mm [more lingual] and this should be brought in mind when interpret the results.

  3. Computer Simulated Visual and Tactile Feedback as an Aid to Manipulator and Vehicle Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-08

    STATEMENT ........................ 8 Artificial Intellegence Versus Supervisory Control ....... 8 Computer Generation of Operator Feedback...operator. Artificial Intelligence Versus Supervisory Control The use of computers to aid human operators can be divided into two catagories: artificial ...operator. Artificial intelligence ( A. I. ) attempts to give the computer maximum intelligence and to replace all operator functions by the computer

  4. Effectiveness and Cost Benefits of Computer-Based Decision Aids for Equipment Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    Computer-based assessment of problem solving. Computers in Human Behavior , 15, 269–282. Booher, H.R. (1978). Job performance aids: Research and...Perspectives on computer-based performance assessment of problem solving. Computers in Human Behavior , 15, 255–268. Orasanu, J., and Connolly, T. (1993). The

  5. Review of Multi-Criteria Decision Aid for Integrated Sustainability Assessment of Urban Water Systems - MCEARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated sustainability assessment is part of a new paradigm for urban water decision making. Multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) is an integrative framework used in urban water sustainability assessment, which has a particular focus on utilising stakeholder participation. Here ...

  6. Pilot decision making in a computer-aided flight management situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Y. Y.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental representation of a computer-aided multi-task flight management situation has been developed. A computer aiding program was implemented to serve as a back-up decision maker. An experiment was conducted with a balanced design of several subject runs for different workload levels. This was achieved using three levels of subsystem event arrival rates, three levels of control task involvement, and three levels of availability of computer aiding. Experimental results compared quite favorably with those from a computer simulation which employed a queueing model. It was shown that the aiding had enhanced system performance as well as subjective ratings, and that the adaptive aiding policy further reduced subsystem delay.

  7. Local pulmonary structure classification for computer-aided nodule detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlmann, Claus; Li, Xianlin; Okada, Kazunori

    2006-03-01

    We propose a new method of classifying the local structure types, such as nodules, vessels, and junctions, in thoracic CT scans. This classification is important in the context of computer aided detection (CAD) of lung nodules. The proposed method can be used as a post-process component of any lung CAD system. In such a scenario, the classification results provide an effective means of removing false positives caused by vessels and junctions thus improving overall performance. As main advantage, the proposed solution transforms the complex problem of classifying various 3D topological structures into much simpler 2D data clustering problem, to which more generic and flexible solutions are available in literature, and which is better suited for visualization. Given a nodule candidate, first, our solution robustly fits an anisotropic Gaussian to the data. The resulting Gaussian center and spread parameters are used to affine-normalize the data domain so as to warp the fitted anisotropic ellipsoid into a fixed-size isotropic sphere. We propose an automatic method to extract a 3D spherical manifold, containing the appropriate bounding surface of the target structure. Scale selection is performed by a data driven entropy minimization approach. The manifold is analyzed for high intensity clusters, corresponding to protruding structures. Techniques involve EMclustering with automatic mode number estimation, directional statistics, and hierarchical clustering with a modified Bhattacharyya distance. The estimated number of high intensity clusters explicitly determines the type of pulmonary structures: nodule (0), attached nodule (1), vessel (2), junction (>3). We show accurate classification results for selected examples in thoracic CT scans. This local procedure is more flexible and efficient than current state of the art and will help to improve the accuracy of general lung CAD systems.

  8. A Learning Health Care System Using Computer-Aided Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cahan, Amos; Cimino, James J

    2017-03-08

    Physicians intuitively apply pattern recognition when evaluating a patient. Rational diagnosis making requires that clinical patterns be put in the context of disease prior probability, yet physicians often exhibit flawed probabilistic reasoning. Difficulties in making a diagnosis are reflected in the high rates of deadly and costly diagnostic errors. Introduced 6 decades ago, computerized diagnosis support systems are still not widely used by internists. These systems cannot efficiently recognize patterns and are unable to consider the base rate of potential diagnoses. We review the limitations of current computer-aided diagnosis support systems. We then portray future diagnosis support systems and provide a conceptual framework for their development. We argue for capturing physician knowledge using a novel knowledge representation model of the clinical picture. This model (based on structured patient presentation patterns) holds not only symptoms and signs but also their temporal and semantic interrelations. We call for the collection of crowdsourced, automatically deidentified, structured patient patterns as means to support distributed knowledge accumulation and maintenance. In this approach, each structured patient pattern adds to a self-growing and -maintaining knowledge base, sharing the experience of physicians worldwide. Besides supporting diagnosis by relating the symptoms and signs with the final diagnosis recorded, the collective pattern map can also provide disease base-rate estimates and real-time surveillance for early detection of outbreaks. We explain how health care in resource-limited settings can benefit from using this approach and how it can be applied to provide feedback-rich medical education for both students and practitioners.

  9. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ziyue; Bagci, Ulas; Mansoor, Awais; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Luna, Brian; Kubler, Andre; Dey, Bappaditya; Foster, Brent; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Bishai, William R.; Jain, Sanjay; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases. PMID:26133591

  10. Computational thermodynamics aided design of novel ferritic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ying; Chen, Tianyi; Tan, Lizhen

    2016-06-30

    With the aid of computational thermodynamics, Ni was identified to suppress the liquidus temperature of Fe2Zr and four Fe-Cr-Ni-Zr alloys were designed to study the Ni effect on the phase stability of Fe2Zr laves_phase. These alloys were fabricated through traditional arc-metling, followed by annealing at 1000 C for 336 hours and 700 C for 1275 hours. The microstructure were examined and characterized by SEM BSE image, EDS compositional mapping and point scan, XRD and TEM analysis. The major results were summarized below: 1)For investigated alloys with 12wt% Cr, 3~6wt% Zr and 3~9 wt%Ni, the phases in equilibrium with the BCC phase are C15_Laves phase, Fe23Zr6 phase. The volume fraction of intermetallic phases increases with Ni and Zr contents. 2)Instead of (Fe,Cr)2Zr C14_Laves phase, Ni stabilizes the C15_Laves structure in Fe-Cr-Ni-Zr alloys by substituting Fe and Cr atoms with Ni atoms in the first sublattice. 3)Fe23Zr6, that is metastable in the Fe-Cr-Zr ternary, is also stabilized by Ni addition. 4)Ni7Zr2 phase was observed in samples with high Ni/Zr ratio. Extensive solubility of Fe was identified in the phase. The microstructural and composition results obtained from this study will be incorportated into the the Fe-Cr-Ni-Zr database. The current samples will be subjected to ion irradiaition to be compared with those results for Fe-Cr-Zr alloys. Additional alloys will be designed to form (Fe,Cr,Ni)2Zr nanoprecipitates for further studies.

  11. The Rise of Computer-Aided Discovery in Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratius, V.; Blair, D. M.; Gowanlock, M.; Lind, F. D.; Erickson, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Next-generation Geoscience will need to handle rapidly growing data volumes and exploration of complex phenomena challenging human cognitive limits. With instruments digitizing large amounts of sensor data from many sources, the scientific discovery process becomes a large-scale search process. However, insight generation is still a key problem and is especially complex in Geoscience, particularly when exploratory studies involve fusion of large data from various instruments in a manual labor-intensive manner. We propose an approach for a computer-aided discovery infrastructure that automatically explores the connection between physics models and empirical data to accelerate the pace of new discoveries. The approach uses (1) A system engaging scientists to programmatically express hypothesized Geoscience scenarios, constraints, and model variations, so as to automatically explore and evaluate the combinatorial search space of possible explanations in parallel on a variety of data sets. This automated system employs machine learning to support algorithmic choice and workflow reconfiguration allowing systematic pruning of the search space of applied algorithms and parameters based on historical results. (2) A cloud-based environment allowing scientists to conduct powerful exploratory analyses on large data sets that reside in data centers. Various search modes are provided, including a mode where scientists can iteratively guide the search based on intermediate results. This functionality directs the system to identify more Geospace features that are analogous or related in various ways. (3) Scientist input is used to configure programmable crawlers that automate and scale the search for interesting phenomena on cloud-based infrastructures. We discuss various application scenarios to show the impact of workflow configuration on scientific feature detection. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from NSF ACI-1442997 and NASA AIST NNX15AG84G (PI: V. Pankratius).

  12. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ziyue; Mansoor, Awais; Mollura, Daniel J.; Bagci, Ulas; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Luna, Brian; Kubler, Andre; Dey, Bappaditya; Jain, Sanjay; Foster, Brent; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Bishai, William R.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases.

  13. Candidate determination for computer aided detection of colon polyps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, Ingmar; Aslam, Bushra; Huang, Adam; Summers, Ronald M.

    2005-04-01

    Given a segmented CT scan data of the colon represented as a triangle mesh, our water-plane algorithm will detect polyp candidates. The water-plane method comprises of pouring water into a polyp protrusion from the outside of the colon and in raising the "water-plane" until it cannot be incremented any further without causing water leakage. The method starts at a vertex and uses average normal of all triangles adjacent to the starting vertex to generate the initial water-plane, which will make the starting vertex "wet" but leave its neighboring vertices "dry". The method will continue to wet neighboring vertices one by one and then their neighbors and so on until the water-plane cannot move any further without causing water leakage. The water-plane movement alternates between just raising the water level in completely convex regions and tilting about one or two anchor vertices that have neighbors that would get wet if the water level was raised any more. The final set of wet vertices is a cluster that is an initial polyp candidate. The water-plane method was compared against the current polyp candidate detection method in our Computer Aided Detection of Colon Polyps software pipeline, called the surface curvature method. It finds clusters of connected vertices that all exhibit elliptical curvature. The water-plane method showed multiple improvements in polyp candidate detection. It detected polyp candidates missed by the surface curvature method. It exhibited continuous polyp candidate regions instead of non-uniform or incomplete regions detected by the surface curvature method. And finally, it avoided some false positive detections reported by surface curvature method.

  14. A Learning Health Care System Using Computer-Aided Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James J

    2017-01-01

    Physicians intuitively apply pattern recognition when evaluating a patient. Rational diagnosis making requires that clinical patterns be put in the context of disease prior probability, yet physicians often exhibit flawed probabilistic reasoning. Difficulties in making a diagnosis are reflected in the high rates of deadly and costly diagnostic errors. Introduced 6 decades ago, computerized diagnosis support systems are still not widely used by internists. These systems cannot efficiently recognize patterns and are unable to consider the base rate of potential diagnoses. We review the limitations of current computer-aided diagnosis support systems. We then portray future diagnosis support systems and provide a conceptual framework for their development. We argue for capturing physician knowledge using a novel knowledge representation model of the clinical picture. This model (based on structured patient presentation patterns) holds not only symptoms and signs but also their temporal and semantic interrelations. We call for the collection of crowdsourced, automatically deidentified, structured patient patterns as means to support distributed knowledge accumulation and maintenance. In this approach, each structured patient pattern adds to a self-growing and -maintaining knowledge base, sharing the experience of physicians worldwide. Besides supporting diagnosis by relating the symptoms and signs with the final diagnosis recorded, the collective pattern map can also provide disease base-rate estimates and real-time surveillance for early detection of outbreaks. We explain how health care in resource-limited settings can benefit from using this approach and how it can be applied to provide feedback-rich medical education for both students and practitioners. PMID:28274905

  15. General purpose architecture for intelligent computer-aided training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen (Inventor); Wang, Lui (Inventor); Baffes, Paul T. (Inventor); Hua, Grace C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An intelligent computer-aided training system having a general modular architecture is provided for use in a wide variety of training tasks and environments. It is comprised of a user interface which permits the trainee to access the same information available in the task environment and serves as a means for the trainee to assert actions to the system; a domain expert which is sufficiently intelligent to use the same information available to the trainee and carry out the task assigned to the trainee; a training session manager for examining the assertions made by the domain expert and by the trainee for evaluating such trainee assertions and providing guidance to the trainee which are appropriate to his acquired skill level; a trainee model which contains a history of the trainee interactions with the system together with summary evaluative data; an intelligent training scenario generator for designing increasingly complex training exercises based on the current skill level contained in the trainee model and on any weaknesses or deficiencies that the trainee has exhibited in previous interactions; and a blackboard that provides a common fact base for communication between the other components of the system. Preferably, the domain expert contains a list of 'mal-rules' which typifies errors that are usually made by novice trainees. Also preferably, the training session manager comprises an intelligent error detection means and an intelligent error handling means. The present invention utilizes a rule-based language having a control structure whereby a specific message passing protocol is utilized with respect to tasks which are procedural or step-by-step in structure. The rules can be activated by the trainee in any order to reach the solution by any valid or correct path.

  16. Effectiveness of computer aided detection for solitary pulmonary nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiayong; Li, Wenjie; Du, Xiangying; Lu, Huihai; Xu, Jianrong; Xu, Mantao; Rong, Dongdong

    2009-02-01

    This study is to investigate the incremental effect of using a high performance computer-aided detection (CAD) system in detection of solitary pulmonary nodules in chest radiographs. The Kodak Chest CAD system was evaluated by a panel of six radiologists at different levels of experience. The observer study consisted of two independent phases: readings without CAD and readings with assistance of CAD. The study was conducted over a set of chest radiographs comprising 150 cancer cases and 150 cancer-free cases. The actual sensitivity of the CAD system is 72% with 3.7 false positives per case. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the overall observer performance. The AUZ (area under ROC curve) showed a significantly improvement (P=0.0001) from 0.844 to 0.884 after using CAD. The ROC analysis was also applied for observer performances on nodules in different sizes and visibilities. The average AUZs are improved from 0.798 to 0.835 (P=0.0003) for 5-10mm nodules, 0.853 to 0.907 (P=0.001) for 10-15mm nodules, 0.864 to 0.897 (P=0.051) for 15-20 mm nodules and 0.859 to 0.896 (P=0.0342) for 20-30mm nodules, respectively. For different visibilities, the average AUZs are improved from 0.886 to 0.915 (P=0.0337), 0.803 to 0.840 (P=0.063), 0.830 to 0.893 (P=0.0001), and 0.813 to 0.847 (P=0.152), for nodules clearly visible, hidden by ribs, partially overlap with ribs, and overlap with other structures, respectively. These results showed that observer performance could be greatly improved when the CAD system is employed as a second reader, especially for small nodules and nodules occluded by ribs.

  17. Vision-Aided RAIM: A New Method for GPS Integrity Monitoring in Approach and Landing Phase

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Li; Zhang, Jun; Li, Rui; Cao, Xianbin; Wang, Jinling

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) was proposed to provide the integrity of a navigation system by checking the consistency of GPS measurements. However, during the approach and landing phase of a flight path, where there is often low GPS visibility conditions, the performance of the existing RAIM method may not meet the stringent aviation requirements for availability and integrity due to insufficient observations. To solve this problem, a new RAIM method, named vision-aided RAIM (VA-RAIM), is proposed for GPS integrity monitoring in the approach and landing phase. By introducing landmarks as pseudo-satellites, the VA-RAIM enriches the navigation observations to improve the performance of RAIM. In the method, a computer vision system photographs and matches these landmarks to obtain additional measurements for navigation. Nevertheless, the challenging issue is that such additional measurements may suffer from vision errors. To ensure the reliability of the vision measurements, a GPS-based calibration algorithm is presented to reduce the time-invariant part of the vision errors. Then, the calibrated vision measurements are integrated with the GPS observations for integrity monitoring. Simulation results show that the VA-RAIM outperforms the conventional RAIM with a higher level of availability and fault detection rate. PMID:26378533

  18. Vision-Aided RAIM: A New Method for GPS Integrity Monitoring in Approach and Landing Phase.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li; Zhang, Jun; Li, Rui; Cao, Xianbin; Wang, Jinling

    2015-09-10

    In the 1980s, Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) was proposed to provide the integrity of a navigation system by checking the consistency of GPS measurements. However, during the approach and landing phase of a flight path, where there is often low GPS visibility conditions, the performance of the existing RAIM method may not meet the stringent aviation requirements for availability and integrity due to insufficient observations. To solve this problem, a new RAIM method, named vision-aided RAIM (VA-RAIM), is proposed for GPS integrity monitoring in the approach and landing phase. By introducing landmarks as pseudo-satellites, the VA-RAIM enriches the navigation observations to improve the performance of RAIM. In the method, a computer vision system photographs and matches these landmarks to obtain additional measurements for navigation. Nevertheless, the challenging issue is that such additional measurements may suffer from vision errors. To ensure the reliability of the vision measurements, a GPS-based calibration algorithm is presented to reduce the time-invariant part of the vision errors. Then, the calibrated vision measurements are integrated with the GPS observations for integrity monitoring. Simulation results show that the VA-RAIM outperforms the conventional RAIM with a higher level of availability and fault detection rate.

  19. Computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer with emphasis on ultrasound-based approaches: a review.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Mehdi; Mousavi, Parvin; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2007-07-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer and focuses, in particular, on ultrasound-based techniques for detection of cancer in prostate tissue. The current standard procedure for diagnosis of prostate cancer, i.e., ultrasound-guided biopsy followed by histopathological analysis of tissue samples, is invasive and produces a high rate of false negatives resulting in the need for repeated trials. It is against these backdrops that the search for new methods to diagnose prostate cancer continues. Image-based approaches (such as MRI, ultrasound and elastography) represent a major research trend for diagnosis of prostate cancer. Due to the integration of ultrasound imaging in the current clinical procedure for detection of prostate cancer, we specifically provide a more detailed review of methodologies that use ultrasound RF-spectrum parameters, B-scan texture features and Doppler measures for prostate tissue characterization. We present current and future directions of research aimed at computer-aided detection of prostate cancer and conclude that ultrasound is likely to play an important role in the field.

  20. Establishment of a Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) Process for the Production of Cold Forged Gears

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Continue on reverse side if necessary and Identify by block number) Computer Aided Design/Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), Spur and Helical Gears, Cold Forging...for cold forging spur and helical gears. The geometry of the spur and helical gears has been obtained from the kinematics of the hobbing/shaper machines...or shaping) to cut the electrode for a helical gear die were then computed using the corrections described above. A computer program called GEARDI

  1. Rubber airplane: Constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Rubber Airplane: Constraint-based Component-Modeling for Knowledge Representation in Computer Aided Conceptual Design are presented. Topics covered include: computer aided design; object oriented programming; airfoil design; surveillance aircraft; commercial aircraft; aircraft design; and launch vehicles.

  2. Accelerating Design of Batteries Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2010-11-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  3. AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  4. Teaching Cardiovascular Integrations with Computer Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Nils S.; Campbell, Kenneth B.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a computer-based instructional unit in cardiovascular physiology. The program (which employs simulated laboratory experimental techniques with a problem-solving format is designed to supplement an animal laboratory and to offer students an integrative approach to physiology through use of microcomputers. Also presents an overview of the…

  5. Computer Integrated Manufacturing. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This packet contains a program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for the implementation of a computer-integrated manufacturing program in Florida secondary and postsecondary schools. The program guide describes the program content and structure, provides a program description, lists job titles under the program, and includes a…

  6. Integrating Computer-Mediated Communication Strategy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Levi

    2016-01-01

    Communication strategies (CSs) play important roles in resolving problematic second language interaction and facilitating language learning. While studies in face-to-face contexts demonstrate the benefits of communication strategy instruction (CSI), there have been few attempts to integrate computer-mediated communication and CSI. The study…

  7. Data integration aids understanding of butterfly–host plant networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto-Fujita, Ai; Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nakazato, Takeru; Tokimatsu, Toshiaki; Matsumoto, Natsushi; Kono, Mayo; Chubachi, Yuko; Ozaki, Katsuhisa; Kotera, Masaaki

    2017-03-01

    Although host-plant selection is a central topic in ecology, its general underpinnings are poorly understood. Here, we performed a case study focusing on the publicly available data on Japanese butterflies. A combined statistical analysis of plant–herbivore relationships and taxonomy revealed that some butterfly subfamilies in different families feed on the same plant families, and the occurrence of this phenomenon more than just by chance, thus indicating the independent acquisition of adaptive phenotypes to the same hosts. We consequently integrated plant–herbivore and plant–compound relationship data and conducted a statistical analysis to identify compounds unique to host plants of specific butterfly families. Some of the identified plant compounds are known to attract certain butterfly groups while repelling others. The additional incorporation of insect–compound relationship data revealed potential metabolic processes that are related to host plant selection. Our results demonstrate that data integration enables the computational detection of compounds putatively involved in particular interspecies interactions and that further data enrichment and integration of genomic and transcriptomic data facilitates the unveiling of the molecular mechanisms involved in host plant selection.

  8. Data integration aids understanding of butterfly-host plant networks.

    PubMed

    Muto-Fujita, Ai; Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nakazato, Takeru; Tokimatsu, Toshiaki; Matsumoto, Natsushi; Kono, Mayo; Chubachi, Yuko; Ozaki, Katsuhisa; Kotera, Masaaki

    2017-03-06

    Although host-plant selection is a central topic in ecology, its general underpinnings are poorly understood. Here, we performed a case study focusing on the publicly available data on Japanese butterflies. A combined statistical analysis of plant-herbivore relationships and taxonomy revealed that some butterfly subfamilies in different families feed on the same plant families, and the occurrence of this phenomenon more than just by chance, thus indicating the independent acquisition of adaptive phenotypes to the same hosts. We consequently integrated plant-herbivore and plant-compound relationship data and conducted a statistical analysis to identify compounds unique to host plants of specific butterfly families. Some of the identified plant compounds are known to attract certain butterfly groups while repelling others. The additional incorporation of insect-compound relationship data revealed potential metabolic processes that are related to host plant selection. Our results demonstrate that data integration enables the computational detection of compounds putatively involved in particular interspecies interactions and that further data enrichment and integration of genomic and transcriptomic data facilitates the unveiling of the molecular mechanisms involved in host plant selection.

  9. Data integration aids understanding of butterfly–host plant networks

    PubMed Central

    Muto-Fujita, Ai; Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nakazato, Takeru; Tokimatsu, Toshiaki; Matsumoto, Natsushi; Kono, Mayo; Chubachi, Yuko; Ozaki, Katsuhisa; Kotera, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    Although host-plant selection is a central topic in ecology, its general underpinnings are poorly understood. Here, we performed a case study focusing on the publicly available data on Japanese butterflies. A combined statistical analysis of plant–herbivore relationships and taxonomy revealed that some butterfly subfamilies in different families feed on the same plant families, and the occurrence of this phenomenon more than just by chance, thus indicating the independent acquisition of adaptive phenotypes to the same hosts. We consequently integrated plant–herbivore and plant–compound relationship data and conducted a statistical analysis to identify compounds unique to host plants of specific butterfly families. Some of the identified plant compounds are known to attract certain butterfly groups while repelling others. The additional incorporation of insect–compound relationship data revealed potential metabolic processes that are related to host plant selection. Our results demonstrate that data integration enables the computational detection of compounds putatively involved in particular interspecies interactions and that further data enrichment and integration of genomic and transcriptomic data facilitates the unveiling of the molecular mechanisms involved in host plant selection. PMID:28262809

  10. Singular Function Integration in Computational Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasbun, Javier

    2009-03-01

    In teaching computational methods in the undergraduate physics curriculum, standard integration approaches taught include the rectangular, trapezoidal, Simpson, Romberg, and others. Over time, these techniques have proven to be invaluable and students are encouraged to employ the most efficient method that is expected to perform best when applied to a given problem. However, some physics research applications require techniques that can handle singularities. While decreasing the step size in traditional approaches is an alternative, this may not always work and repetitive processes make this route even more inefficient. Here, I present two existing integration rules designed to handle singular integrals. I compare them to traditional rules as well as to the exact analytic results. I suggest that it is perhaps time to include such approaches in the undergraduate computational physics course.

  11. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center have developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission way points that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system. AVRADA's NUH-60A STAR (Systems Testbed for Avionics Research) helicopter was specially modified, in house, for the flight evaluation of the CALAHF system. The near terrain trajectory generation algorithm runs on a multiprocessor flight computer. Global Positioning System (GPS) data are integrated with Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) data in the flight computer to provide a precise navigation solution. The near-terrain trajectory and the aircraft state information are passed to a Silicon Graphics computer to provide the graphical 'pilot centered' guidance, presented on a Honeywell Integrated Helmet And Display Sighting System (IHADSS). The system design, piloted simulation, and initial flight test results are presented.

  12. Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Custom-Made Titanium Prosthesis: A Case Report on the Use of Virtual Surgical Planning and Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ow, Andrew; Tan, Winston; Pienkowski, Lukasz

    2016-09-01

    The use of virtual surgical planning and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing has been reported to enhance the planning for the reconstruction of mandibular continuity defects. This case report illustrates the use of this technology in the fabrication of a custom-made titanium prosthesis to restore a segmental mandibular defect. The design specifications and sequence of the custom-made titanium prosthesis are discussed. Although successful in this case, there are limitations in its application and case selection is of vital importance.

  13. Modification of planned postoperative occlusion in orthognathic surgery, based on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-engineered preoperative surgical simulation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Moon-Key; You, Tae-Kwon; Lee, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    In orthognathic surgery, it is important to have a planned postoperative occlusion. A 3-dimensional preoperative simulation, based on 3-dimensional optically scanned occlusion data, can predict how the planned postoperative occlusion will affect the maxilla-mandibular relationship that results from orthognathic surgery. In this study we modified the planned postoperative occlusion, based on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-engineered preoperative surgical simulations. This modification made it possible to resolve the facial asymmetry of the patient successfully with a simple bilateral intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy and no additional maxillary or mandibular surgery.

  14. Mandibular reconstructions using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing: A systematic review of a defect-based reconstructive algorithm.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Achille; Del Corso, Giacomo; Ciocca, Leonardo; Scotti, Roberto; Marchetti, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Modern planning techniques, including computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) can be used to plan reconstructive surgery, optimising aesthetic outcomes and functional rehabilitation. However, although many such applications are available, no systematic protocol yet describes the entire reconstructive procedure, which must include virtual planning, custom manufacture, and a reconstructive algorithm. We reviewed current practices in this novel field, analysed case series described in the literature, and developed a new, defect-based reconstructive algorithm. We also evaluated methods of mandibular reconstruction featuring virtual planning, the use of surgical guides, and laser printing of custom titanium bony plates to support composite free flaps, and evaluated their utility.

  15. Accuracy of Stokes integration for geoid computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Zahra; Jamet, Olivier; Altamimi, Zuheir

    2014-05-01

    Geoid determination by remove-compute-restore (RCR) technique involves the application of Stokes's integral on reduced gravity anomalies. Reduced gravity anomalies are obtained through interpolation after removing low degree gravity signal from space spherical harmonic model and high frequency from topographical effects and cover a spectre ranging from degree 150-200. Stokes's integral is truncated to a limited region around the computation point producing an error that will be reducing by a modification of Stokes's kernel. We study Stokes integral accuracy on synthetic signal of various frequency ranges, produced with EGM2008 spherical harmonic coefficients up to degree 2000. We analyse the integration error according to the frequency range of signal, the resolution of gravity anomaly grid and the radius of Stokes integration. The study shows that the behaviour of the relative errors is frequency independent. The standard Stokes kernel is though insufficient to produce 1cm geoid accuracy without a removal of the major part of the gravity signal up to degree 600. The Integration over an area of radius greater than 3 degree does not improve accuracy improvement. The results are compared to a similar experiment using the modified Stokes kernel formula (Ellmann2004, Sjöberg2003). References: Ellmann, A. (2004) The geoid for the Baltic countries determined by least-squares modification of Stokes formula. Sjöberg, LE (2003). A general model of modifying Stokes formula and its least-squares solution Journal of Geodesy, 77. 459-464.

  16. Computer-aided classification of lung nodules on computed tomography images via deep learning technique

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Kai-Lung; Hsu, Che-Hao; Hidayati, Shintami Chusnul; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has a poor prognosis when not diagnosed early and unresectable lesions are present. The management of small lung nodules noted on computed tomography scan is controversial due to uncertain tumor characteristics. A conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme requires several image processing and pattern recognition steps to accomplish a quantitative tumor differentiation result. In such an ad hoc image analysis pipeline, every step depends heavily on the performance of the previous step. Accordingly, tuning of classification performance in a conventional CAD scheme is very complicated and arduous. Deep learning techniques, on the other hand, have the intrinsic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature and tuning of performance in a seamless fashion. In this study, we attempted to simplify the image analysis pipeline of conventional CAD with deep learning techniques. Specifically, we introduced models of a deep belief network and a convolutional neural network in the context of nodule classification in computed tomography images. Two baseline methods with feature computing steps were implemented for comparison. The experimental results suggest that deep learning methods could achieve better discriminative results and hold promise in the CAD application domain. PMID:26346558

  17. Computer-aided classification of lung nodules on computed tomography images via deep learning technique.

    PubMed

    Hua, Kai-Lung; Hsu, Che-Hao; Hidayati, Shintami Chusnul; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has a poor prognosis when not diagnosed early and unresectable lesions are present. The management of small lung nodules noted on computed tomography scan is controversial due to uncertain tumor characteristics. A conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme requires several image processing and pattern recognition steps to accomplish a quantitative tumor differentiation result. In such an ad hoc image analysis pipeline, every step depends heavily on the performance of the previous step. Accordingly, tuning of classification performance in a conventional CAD scheme is very complicated and arduous. Deep learning techniques, on the other hand, have the intrinsic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature and tuning of performance in a seamless fashion. In this study, we attempted to simplify the image analysis pipeline of conventional CAD with deep learning techniques. Specifically, we introduced models of a deep belief network and a convolutional neural network in the context of nodule classification in computed tomography images. Two baseline methods with feature computing steps were implemented for comparison. The experimental results suggest that deep learning methods could achieve better discriminative results and hold promise in the CAD application domain.

  18. Semi-Markov adjunction to the Computer-Aided Markov Evaluator (CAME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosch, Gene; Hutchins, Monica A.; Leong, Frank J.; Babcock, Philip S., IV

    1988-01-01

    The rule-based Computer-Aided Markov Evaluator (CAME) program was expanded in its ability to incorporate the effect of fault-handling processes into the construction of a reliability model. The fault-handling processes are modeled as semi-Markov events and CAME constructs and appropriate semi-Markov model. To solve the model, the program outputs it in a form which can be directly solved with the Semi-Markov Unreliability Range Evaluator (SURE) program. As a means of evaluating the alterations made to the CAME program, the program is used to model the reliability of portions of the Integrated Airframe/Propulsion Control System Architecture (IAPSA 2) reference configuration. The reliability predictions are compared with a previous analysis. The results bear out the feasibility of utilizing CAME to generate appropriate semi-Markov models to model fault-handling processes.

  19. Wavelet-based EEG processing for computer-aided seizure detection and epilepsy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Faust, Oliver; Acharya, U Rajendra; Adeli, Hojjat; Adeli, Amir

    2015-03-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important tool for studying the human brain activity and epileptic processes in particular. EEG signals provide important information about epileptogenic networks that must be analyzed and understood before the initiation of therapeutic procedures. Very small variations in EEG signals depict a definite type of brain abnormality. The challenge is to design and develop signal processing algorithms which extract this subtle information and use it for diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of patients with epilepsy. This paper presents a review of wavelet techniques for computer-aided seizure detection and epilepsy diagnosis with an emphasis on research reported during the past decade. A multiparadigm approach based on the integration of wavelets, nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory, and neural networks advanced by Adeli and associates is the most effective method for automated EEG-based diagnosis of epilepsy.

  20. Computer-aided geometric modeling of the human eye and orbit.

    PubMed

    Parshall, R F

    1991-01-01

    The author advocates, as a long-term development agenda for the profession, a shift in the working methods of medical illustrators from a two-dimensional image processing mode to a computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) mode. Existing CADD technology, which can make short work of the complex graphic construction problems of anatomical visualization, performs virtually all of its manipulations through systematic exercise of graphic geometry which illustrators tend to reduce to an intuitive, almost vestigial supplement to 2D image processing methods. The primary barrier to the immediate use of CADD is a lack of geometric database materials on anatomical component systems of the body. An on-going experimental project in modeling the human eye and orbit, utilizing a Silicon Graphics Iris workstation and Control Data Corporation's Integrated Computerized Engineering and Manufacturing (ICEM) software, exemplifies the preparatory work needed to create such database materials.

  1. A Novel Computer-Aided Approach for Parametric Investigation of Custom Design of Fracture Fixation Plates

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The present study proposes an integrated computer-aided approach combining femur surface modeling, fracture evidence recover plate creation, and plate modification in order to conduct a parametric investigation of the design of custom plate for a specific patient. The study allows for improving the design efficiency of specific plates on the patients' femur parameters and the fracture information. Furthermore, the present approach will lead to exploration of plate modification and optimization. The three-dimensional (3D) surface model of a detailed femur and the corresponding fixation plate were represented with high-level feature parameters, and the shape of the specific plate was recursively modified in order to obtain the optimal plate for a specific patient. The proposed approach was tested and verified on a case study, and it could be helpful for orthopedic surgeons to design and modify the plate in order to fit the specific femur anatomy and the fracture information. PMID:28203270

  2. A Novel Computer-Aided Approach for Parametric Investigation of Custom Design of Fracture Fixation Plates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaozhong; He, Kunjin; Chen, Zhengming

    2017-01-01

    The present study proposes an integrated computer-aided approach combining femur surface modeling, fracture evidence recover plate creation, and plate modification in order to conduct a parametric investigation of the design of custom plate for a specific patient. The study allows for improving the design efficiency of specific plates on the patients' femur parameters and the fracture information. Furthermore, the present approach will lead to exploration of plate modification and optimization. The three-dimensional (3D) surface model of a detailed femur and the corresponding fixation plate were represented with high-level feature parameters, and the shape of the specific plate was recursively modified in order to obtain the optimal plate for a specific patient. The proposed approach was tested and verified on a case study, and it could be helpful for orthopedic surgeons to design and modify the plate in order to fit the specific femur anatomy and the fracture information.

  3. Computers in engineering 1983; Proceedings of the International Conference and Exhibit, Chicago, IL, August 7-11, 1983. Volume 1 - Computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokonis, T. J.

    The papers presented in this volume provide examples of the impact of computers on present engineering practice and indicate some future trends in computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation. Topics discussed include computer-aided design of turbine cycle configuration, managing and development of engineering computer systems, computer-aided manufacturing with robots in the automotive industry, and computer-aided design/analysis techniques of composite materials in the cure phase. Papers are also presented on computer simulation of vehicular propulsion systems, the performance of a hydraulic system simulator in a CAD environment, and computer simulation of hovercraft heave dynamics and control.

  4. Cuby: An integrative framework for computational chemistry.

    PubMed

    Řezáč, Jan

    2016-05-15

    Cuby is a computational chemistry framework written in the Ruby programming language. It provides unified access to a wide range of computational methods by interfacing external software and it implements various protocols that operate on their results. Using structured input files, elementary calculations can be combined into complex workflows. For users, Cuby provides a unified and userfriendly way to automate their work, seamlessly integrating calculations carried out in different computational chemistry programs. For example, the QM/MM module allows combining methods across the interfaced programs and the builtin molecular dynamics engine makes it possible to run a simulation on the resulting potential. For programmers, it provides high-level, object-oriented environment that allows rapid development and testing of new methods and computational protocols. The Cuby framework is available for download at http://cuby4.molecular.cz. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Universal quantum computation with weakly integral anyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Hong, Seung-Moon; Wang, Zhenghan

    2015-08-01

    Harnessing non-abelian statistics of anyons to perform quantum computational tasks is getting closer to reality. While the existence of universal anyons by braiding alone such as the Fibonacci anyon is theoretically a possibility, accessible anyons with current technology all belong to a class that is called weakly integral—anyons whose squared quantum dimensions are integers. We analyze the computational power of the first non-abelian anyon system with only integral quantum dimensions—, the quantum double of . Since all anyons in have finite images of braid group representations, they cannot be universal for quantum computation by braiding alone. Based on our knowledge of the images of the braid group representations, we set up three qutrit computational models. Supplementing braidings with some measurements and ancillary states, we find a universal gate set for each model.

  6. Virtual Reality versus Computer-Aided Exposure Treatments for Fear of Flying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Botella, Cristina; Llabres, Jordi; Breton-Lopez, Juana Maria; del Amo, Antonio Riera; Banos, Rosa M.; Gelabert, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is growing that two modalities of computer-based exposure therapies--virtual reality and computer-aided psychotherapy--are effective in treating anxiety disorders, including fear of flying. However, they have not yet been directly compared. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of three computer-based exposure treatments for…

  7. Computer aided production planning - SWZ system of order verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenczyk, D.; Skolud, B.

    2015-11-01

    SWZ (System of order verification) is a computer implementation of the methodology that support fast decision making on the acceptability of a production order, which allows to determine not the best possible solution, but admissible solution that is possible to find in an acceptable time (feasible solution) and acceptable due to the existing constraints. The methodology uses the propagation of constraints techniques and reduced to test a sequence of arbitrarily selected conditions. Fulfilment of all the conditions (the conjunction) provides the ability to perform production orders. In the paper examples of the application of SWZ system comprising the steps of planning and control is presented. The obtained results allowing the determination of acceptable production flow in the system - determination of the manufacturing system parameters those that ensure execution of orders in time under the resource constraints. SWZ also allows to generate the dispatching rules as a sequence of processing operations for each production resource, performed periodically during the production flow in the system. Furthermore the example of SWZ and simulation system integration is shown. SWZ has been enhanced with a module generating files containing the script code of the system model using the internal language of simulation and visualization system.

  8. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER AIDED TOMOGRAPHY (CAT) TO THE STUDY OF MARINE BENTIC COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores were imaged using a Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) scanner at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. Procedures were developed, using the attenuation of X-rays, to differentiate between sediment and the water contained in macrobenthic...

  9. Progress of the Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A. A.; Han, T.; Hartridge, S.; Shaffer, C.; Kim, G. H.; Pannala, S.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation, Progress of Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) is about simulation and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools that are widely used to speed up the research and development cycle and reduce the number of build-and-break steps, particularly in the automotive industry. Realizing this, DOE?s Vehicle Technologies Program initiated the CAEBAT project in April 2010 to develop a suite of software tools for designing batteries.

  10. Advanced Methods for the Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Lesions in Digital Mammograms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    classification of mammographic mass lesions. Radiology 213: 200, 1999. " Nishikawa R, Giger ML, Yarusso L, Kupinski M, Baehr A, Venta L,: Computer-aided...detection of mass lesions in digital mammography using radial gradient index filtering. Radiology 213: 229, 1999. " Maloney M, Huo Z, Giger ML, Venta L...Nishikawa R, Huo Z, Jiang Y, Venta L, Doi K: Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in breast imaging. Radiology 213: 507, 1999. -Final Report DAMD 17-96-1-6058 19

  11. Computer-based learning--an aid to successful teaching of pharmacology?

    PubMed

    E Hughes, Ian

    2002-07-01

    Various types of software have been developed for use in pharmacology courses. These include: simple drill (question and answer) software; electronic books; video material; tutorial type programs; simulations; and electronic learning environments for course organisation and delivery. These different types of software can be used in different ways to achieve very different learning objectives and gains in teaching efficiency. For example, software can be used: in tutorial and small group teaching; in lectures; to better prepare students for practical work; as a replacement for practicals; to provide options within a limited course structure; to supplement lectures and enable students to work at their own pace; to provide ongoing access to self-assessment throughout a course; to aid distance learning; as remedial teaching and to extend the student learning experience in areas which are too expensive or too time consuming or for which staff expertise does not exist. Evidence indicates that it is insufficient simply to make computer based learning material available to students. Like a laboratory class, it must be fully integrated into a module if real benefits are to be obtained. Students need to be taught how to learn from computer-based learning materials and how to integrate this learning tool in their learning strategy. Teachers need to be supported not only with information about the availability of software but, equally importantly, about how it can be integrated into modules. We are all delivering teaching and facilitating learning in a changing environment and subject to a variety of increasing pressures. It may well be that computer based learning materials may help to maintain a high quality of pharmacology teaching within this changing environment but we need more pedagogical research at the discipline level to establish how this can best be done.

  12. Analytical Design Package (ADP2): A computer aided engineering tool for aircraft transparency design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuerer, J. E.; Gran, M.; Held, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) is being developed as a part of the Air Force Frameless Transparency Program (FTP). ADP2 is an integrated design tool consisting of existing analysis codes and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software. The objective of the ADP2 is to develop and confirm an integrated design methodology for frameless transparencies, related aircraft interfaces, and their corresponding tooling. The application of this methodology will generate high confidence for achieving a qualified part prior to mold fabrication. ADP2 is a customized integration of analysis codes, CAE software, and material databases. The primary CAE integration tool for the ADP2 is P3/PATRAN, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software tool. The open architecture of P3/PATRAN allows customized installations with different applications modules for specific site requirements. Integration of material databases allows the engineer to select a material, and those material properties are automatically called into the relevant analysis code. The ADP2 materials database will be composed of four independent schemas: CAE Design, Processing, Testing, and Logistics Support. The design of ADP2 places major emphasis on the seamless integration of CAE and analysis modules with a single intuitive graphical interface. This tool is being designed to serve and be used by an entire project team, i.e., analysts, designers, materials experts, and managers. The final version of the software will be delivered to the Air Force in Jan. 1994. The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) will then be ready for transfer to industry. The package will be capable of a wide range of design and manufacturing applications.

  13. Integrative Genomics and Computational Systems Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Jason E.; Huang, Yufei; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Hua; Zhao, Zhongming

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth in generation of large amounts of genomic data from biological samples has driven the emerging field of systems medicine. This field is promising because it improves our understanding of disease processes at the systems level. However, the field is still in its young stage. There exists a great need for novel computational methods and approaches to effectively utilize and integrate various omics data.

  14. Computer-Aided Performance Training for Diagnostic and Procedural Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigney, Joseph W.; And Others

    Two computer programs for computer-assisted performance training were developed to give the students the opportunity for concentrated practice of troubleshooting and procedural tasks in naval electronics. In contrast to the usual approach taken in computer-assisted instruction (CAI), these programs simulate essential aspects of devices and tasks…

  15. Computing Fourier integral operators with caustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caday, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Fourier integral operators (FIOs) have widespread applications in imaging, inverse problems, and PDEs. An implementation of a generic algorithm for computing FIOs associated with canonical graphs is presented, based on a recent paper of de Hoop et al. Given the canonical transformation and principal symbol of the operator, a preprocessing step reduces application of an FIO approximately to multiplications, pushforwards and forward and inverse discrete Fourier transforms, which can be computed in O({N}n+(n-1)/2{log}N) time for an n-dimensional FIO. The same preprocessed data also allows computation of the inverse and transpose of the FIO, with identical runtime. Examples demonstrate the algorithm’s output, and easily extendible MATLAB/C++ source code is available from the author.

  16. Designing integrated computational biology pipelines visually.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Hasan M

    2013-01-01

    The long-term cost of developing and maintaining a computational pipeline that depends upon data integration and sophisticated workflow logic is too high to even contemplate "what if" or ad hoc type queries. In this paper, we introduce a novel application building interface for computational biology research, called VizBuilder, by leveraging a recent query language called BioFlow for life sciences databases. Using VizBuilder, it is now possible to develop ad hoc complex computational biology applications at throw away costs. The underlying query language supports data integration and workflow construction almost transparently and fully automatically, using a best effort approach. Users express their application by drawing it with VizBuilder icons and connecting them in a meaningful way. Completed applications are compiled and translated as BioFlow queries for execution by the data management system LifeDB, for which VizBuilder serves as a front end. We discuss VizBuilder features and functionalities in the context of a real life application after we briefly introduce BioFlow. The architecture and design principles of VizBuilder are also discussed. Finally, we outline future extensions of VizBuilder. To our knowledge, VizBuilder is a unique system that allows visually designing computational biology pipelines involving distributed and heterogeneous resources in an ad hoc manner.

  17. Research in computer simulation of integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, A. R.; Pdederson, D. O.

    1983-07-01

    The performance of the new LSI simulator CLASSIE is evaluated on several circuits with a few hundred to over one thousand semiconductor devices. A more accurate run time prediction formula has been found to be appropriate for circuit simulators. The design decisions for optimal performance under the constraints of the hardware (CRAY-1) are presented. Vector computers have an increased potential for fast, accurate simulation at the transistor level of Large-Scale-Integrated Circuits. Design considerations for a new circuit simulator are developed based on the specifics of the vector computer architecture and of LSI circuits. The simulation of Large-Scale-Integrated (LSI) circuits requires very long run time on conventional circuit analysis programs such as SPICE2 and super-mini computers. A new simulator for LSI circuits, CLASSIE, which takes advantage of circuit hierarchy and repetitiveness, and array processors capable of high-speed floating-point computation are a promising combination. While a large number of powerful design verfication tools have been developed for IC design at the transistor and logic gate levels, there are very few silicon-oriented tools for architectural design and evaluation.

  18. HIV/AIDS and Employment Research: A Need for an Integrative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, Liza Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a reflection on the three articles that compose the Major Contribution on HIV/AIDS and employment research. It highlights the merits of the contribution in the broader context of HIV/AIDS employment research and recommends future directions for this area of inquiry, including theory integration, an investigation of HIV health…

  19. Human factors of intelligent computer aided display design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Design concepts for a decision support system being studied at NASA Langley as an aid to visual display unit (VDU) designers are described. Ideally, human factors should be taken into account by VDU designers. In reality, although the human factors database on VDUs is small, such systems must be constantly developed. Human factors are therefore a secondary consideration. An expert system will thus serve mainly in an advisory capacity. Functions can include facilitating the design process by shortening the time to generate and alter drawings, enhancing the capability of breaking design requirements down into simpler functions, and providing visual displays equivalent to the final product. The VDU system could also discriminate, and display the difference, between designer decisions and machine inferences. The system could also aid in analyzing the effects of designer choices on future options and in ennunciating when there are data available on a design selections.

  20. A Simple and Resource-efficient Setup for the Computer-aided Drug Design Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Loris; Sartori, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Undertaking modelling investigations for Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) requires a proper environment. In principle, this could be done on a single computer, but the reality of a drug discovery program requires robustness and high-throughput computing (HTC) to efficiently support the research. Therefore, a more capable alternative is needed but its implementation has no widespread solution. Here, the realization of such a computing facility is discussed, from general layout to technical details all aspects are covered.

  1. Computer-aided design of dry powder inhalers using computational fluid dynamics to assess performance.

    PubMed

    Suwandecha, Tan; Wongpoowarak, Wibul; Srichana, Teerapol

    2016-01-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are gaining popularity for the delivery of drugs. A cost effective and efficient delivery device is necessary. Developing new DPIs by modifying an existing device may be the simplest way to improve the performance of the devices. The aim of this research was to produce a new DPIs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The new DPIs took advantages of the Cyclohaler® and the Rotahaler®. We chose a combination of the capsule chamber of the Cyclohaler® and the mouthpiece and grid of the Rotahaler®. Computer-aided design models of the devices were created and evaluated using CFD. Prototype models were created and tested with the DPI dispersion experiments. The proposed model 3 device had a high turbulence with a good degree of deagglomeration in the CFD and the experiment data. The %fine particle fraction (FPF) was around 50% at 60 L/min. The mass median aerodynamic diameter was around 2.8-4 μm. The FPF were strongly correlated to the CFD-predicted turbulence and the mechanical impaction parameters. The drug retention in the capsule was only 5-7%. In summary, a simple modification of the Cyclohaler® and Rotahaler® could produce a better performing inhaler using the CFD-assisted design.

  2. COFLO: A Computer Aid for Teaching Ecological Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le vow, Roy B.

    A computer-assisted course was designed to provide students with an understanding of modeling and simulation techniques in quantitiative ecology. It deals with continuous systems and has two segments. One develops mathematical and computer tools, beginning with abstract systems and their relation to physical systems. Modeling principles are next…

  3. Computer-aided simulation study of photomultiplier tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaghloul, Mona E.; Rhee, Do Jun

    1989-01-01

    A computer model that simulates the response of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and the associated voltage divider circuit is developed. An equivalent circuit that approximates the operation of the device is derived and then used to develop a computer simulation of the PMT. Simulation results are presented and discussed.

  4. WWC Quick Review of the Article "Technology's Edge: The Educational Benefits of Computer-Aided Instruction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The study, "Technology's Edge: The Educational Benefits of Computer-Aided Instruction," examined whether the "I CAN Learn"[R] computer-based curriculum is more effective than traditional classroom instruction at teaching pre-algebra and algebra concepts to middle- and high-school students. The study included about 1,600…

  5. A Computer-Aided Self-Testing System for Biological Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiblum, M. D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the production of a computer-aided, self-testing system for university students enrolled in a first-year course in biological psychology. Project aspects described include selection, acquisition and description of software; question banks and test structures; modes of use (computer or printed version); evaluation; and future plans. (11…

  6. Computer-Aided Instruction in Mathematics Remediation at a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brocato, Mary Anne

    2009-01-01

    Over the past ten years, traditional lecture style delivery has given way to computer-aided instruction (CAI) in post-secondary education. Developmental mathematics courses have been one of the most widely used applications. At a small community college in the Mississippi Delta, a computer assisted version of Intermediate Algebra was implemented.…

  7. Using Computer-Aided Instruction to Support the Systematic Practice of Phonological Skills in Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a randomised control trial investigating the use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) for practising phonological awareness skills with beginning readers. Two intervention groups followed the same phonological awareness programme: one group undertook practice exercises using a computer and the other group undertook…

  8. Computer Aided Instruction: A Study of Student Evaluations and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, David; Deck, Alan; McCrickard, Myra

    2008-01-01

    Computer aided instruction (CAI) encompasses a broad range of computer technologies that supplement the classroom learning environment and can dramatically increase a student's access to information. Criticism of CAI generally focuses on two issues: it lacks an adequate foundation in educational theory and the software is difficult to implement…

  9. Variational time integrators in computational solid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, Adrian Jose

    This thesis develops the theory and implementation of variational integrators for computational solid mechanics problems, and to some extent, for fluid mechanics problems as well. Variational integrators for finite dimensional mechanical systems are succinctly reviewed, and used as the foundations for the extension to continuum systems. The latter is accomplished by way of a space-tune formulation for Lagrangian continuum mechanics that unifies the derivation of tyre balance of linear momentum, energy and configurational forces, all of there as Euler-Lagrange equations of an extended Hamilton's principle. In this formulation, energy conservation and the path independence of the J- and L-integrals are conserved quantities emanating from Noether's theorem. Variational integrators for continuum mechanics are constructed by mimicking this variational structure, and a discrete Noether's theorem for rather general space-tune discretizations is presented. Additionally, the algorithms are automatically (multi)symplectic, and the (multi)symplectic form is uniquely defined by the theory. For instance, in nonlinear elastodynamics the algorithms exactly preserve linear and angular momenta, whenever the continuous system does. A class of variational algorithms is constructed, termed asynchronous variational integrators (AVI), which permit: the selection of independent time steps in each element of a finite element mesh, and the local time steps need riot bear an integral relation to each other. The conservation properties of both synchronous and asynchronous variational integrators are discussed in detail. In particular, AVI are found to nearly conserve energy both locally and globally, a distinguishing feature of variational integrators. The possibility of adapting the elemental time step to exactly satisfy the local energy balance equation, obtained from the extended variational principle, is analyzed. The AVI are also extended to include dissipative systems. The excellent

  10. Experience gained at ZAO Ural Turbine Works with the use of computer-aided design systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortenko, V. V.; Valamin, A. E.; Shanturov, D. N.; Sokolov, E. V.; Toibich, S. V.; Glushchenko, A. N.

    2008-08-01

    The results of work accomplished in the field of computer-aided design at ZAO Ural Turbine Works (UTZ) are presented. A concept is described following which the tasks for a specialist’s workstations being developed at the UTZ are solved. Results from solution of problems with the use of modern numerical simulation computer programs for analyzing gas dynamic processes, casting, welding, and strength of complex structures are given. An example is given to show efficient use of a computer-aided design system for shifting an enterprise to a modern level of automation.

  11. Study on computer-aided alignment method of reflective zoom systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jide; Chang, Jun; Xie, Guijuan; Zhang, Ke

    2015-08-01

    Computer-aided alignment is an effective method to improve the imaging quality of high-precision, complex, and off-axis optical systems. However, how to determine the misalignment quickly, exactly and constantly is essential to the technology of computer-aided alignment. Owing to the varying optical characteristics of a zoom system, sensitivity matrices are used in the alignment rather than a single matrix. Thus, the processing of sensitivity matrices is important for the computer-aided alignment of the reflective zoom system. So, the total least squares is proposed in order to solve the problems of the numerical instability and the result inaccuracy which result from the solution of the least squares method directly. Finally, the simulant calculation is processed using the numerical analysis model established in the essay. The results demonstrate that the computation method is rational and effective.

  12. An integrated radiation physics computer code system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyn, J. J.; Harris, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    An integrated computer code system for the semi-automatic and rapid analysis of experimental and analytic problems in gamma photon and fast neutron radiation physics is presented. Such problems as the design of optimum radiation shields and radioisotope power source configurations may be studied. The system codes allow for the unfolding of complex neutron and gamma photon experimental spectra. Monte Carlo and analytic techniques are used for the theoretical prediction of radiation transport. The system includes a multichannel pulse-height analyzer scintillation and semiconductor spectrometer coupled to an on-line digital computer with appropriate peripheral equipment. The system is geometry generalized as well as self-contained with respect to material nuclear cross sections and the determination of the spectrometer response functions. Input data may be either analytic or experimental.

  13. Platform-independent method for computer aided schematic drawings

    DOEpatents

    Vell, Jeffrey L [Slingerlands, NY; Siganporia, Darius M [Clifton Park, NY; Levy, Arthur J [Fort Lauderdale, FL

    2012-02-14

    A CAD/CAM method is disclosed for a computer system to capture and interchange schematic drawing and associated design information. The schematic drawing and design information are stored in an extensible, platform-independent format.

  14. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, M.S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device. 27 figs.

  15. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1999-10-26

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  16. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  17. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2001-06-05

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  18. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.; Wang, Chunwei; Jevons, Luis C.; Bernhart, Derek H.; Lipshutz, Robert J.

    2004-05-11

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  19. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2003-08-19

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  20. Enhanced characterization of solid solitary pulmonary nodules with Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Perandini, Simone; Soardi, Gian Alberto; Motton, Massimiliano; Augelli, Raffaele; Dallaserra, Chiara; Puntel, Gino; Rossi, Arianna; Sala, Giuseppe; Signorini, Manuel; Spezia, Laura; Zamboni, Federico; Montemezzi, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the accuracy gain of Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) vs human judgment alone in characterizing solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) at computed tomography (CT). The study included 100 randomly selected SPNs with a definitive diagnosis. Nodule features at first and follow-up CT scans as well as clinical data were evaluated individually on a 1 to 5 points risk chart by 7 radiologists, firstly blinded then aware of Bayesian Inference Malignancy Calculator (BIMC) model predictions. Raters’ predictions were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and decision analysis. Overall ROC area under the curve was 0.758 before and 0.803 after the disclosure of CAD predictions (P = 0.003). A net gain in diagnostic accuracy was found in 6 out of 7 readers. Mean risk class of benign nodules dropped from 2.48 to 2.29, while mean risk class of malignancies rose from 3.66 to 3.92. Awareness of CAD predictions also determined a significant drop on mean indeterminate SPNs (15 vs 23.86 SPNs) and raised the mean number of correct and confident diagnoses (mean 39.57 vs 25.71 SPNs). This study provides evidence supporting the integration of the Bayesian analysis-based BIMC model in SPN characterization. PMID:27648166

  1. Computer-Aided Detection of Prostate Cancer on Tissue Sections

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Chuang, Shang-Tian; Yang, Ximing J.

    2009-01-01

    We report an automated computer technique for detection of prostate cancer in prostate tissue sections processed with immunohistochemistry. Two sets of color optical images were acquired from prostate tissue sections stained with a double-chromogen triple-antibody cocktail combining alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), p63, and high-molecular-weight cytokeratin (HMWCK). The first set of images consisted of 20 training images (10 malignant) used for developing the computer technique and 15 test images (7 malignant) used for testing and optimizing the technique. The second set of images consisted of 299 images (114 malignant) used for evaluation of the performance of the computer technique. The computer technique identified image segments of AMACR-labeled malignant epithelial cells (red), p63-and HMWCK-labeled benign basal cells (brown), and secretory and stromal cells (blue) for identifying prostate cancer automatically. The sensitivity and specificity of the computer technique were 94% (16/17) and 94% (17/18), respectively, on the first (training and test) set of images, and 88% (79/90) and 97% (136/140), respectively, on the second (validation) set of images. If high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), which is a precursor of cancer, and atypical cases were included, the sensitivity and specificity were 85% (97/114) and 89% (165/185), respectively. These results show that the novel automated computer technique can accurately identify prostatic adenocarcinoma in the triple-antibody cocktail-stained prostate sections. PMID:19417626

  2. Use of agents to implement an integrated computing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, M.A.; Craig, J.I.

    1995-09-01

    Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) embodies the simultaneous application to both system and quality engineering methods throughout an iterative design process. The use of IPPD results in the time-conscious, cost-saving development of engineering systems. To implement IPPD, a Decision-Based Design perspective is encapsulated in an approach that focuses on the role of the human designer in product development. The approach has two parts and is outlined in this paper. First, an architecture, called DREAMS, is being developed that facilitates design from a decision-based perspective. Second, a supporting computing infrastructure, called IMAGE, is being designed. Agents are used to implement the overall infrastructure on the computer. Successful agent utilization requires that they be made of three components: the resource, the model, and the wrap. Current work is focused on the development of generalized agent schemes and associated demonstration projects. When in place, the technology independent computing infrastructure will aid the designer in systematically generating knowledge used to facilitate decision-making.

  3. Evaluating Computer Technology Integration in a Centralized School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eteokleous, N.

    2008-01-01

    The study evaluated the current situation in Cyprus elementary classrooms regarding computer technology integration in an attempt to identify ways of expanding teachers' and students' experiences with computer technology. It examined how Cypriot elementary teachers use computers, and the factors that influence computer integration in their…

  4. Microcomputed tomography marginal fit evaluation of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing crowns with different methods of virtual model acquisition.

    PubMed

    das Neves, Flavio Domingues; do Prado, Celio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Carneiro, Thiago Almeida Prado Naves; Zancope, Karla; Davi, Leticia Resende; Mendonca, Gustavo; Cooper, Lyndon; Soares, Carlos Jose

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study used microcomputed tomography to evaluate the marginal fit of crowns fabricated using a chairside computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system with different methods of virtual model acquisition. Crowns were fabricated to fit in a cast containing a single human premolar. Four methods of virtual model acquisition were used: Group 1 (control), digital impressioning of a typodont; Group 2, digital impressioning of a powdered typodont; Group 3, digital impressioning of a regular impression; and Group 4, digital impressioning of a master cast. Statistically significant differences were found between the marginal gap of Group 2 and the other groups (P < 0.05); no differences were found among Groups 1, 3, and 4. The results showed that crowns fabricated using the chairside CAD/CAM system exhibited significantly smaller vertical misfit when a thin layer of powder was applied over the typodont before digital impressioning.

  5. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system for construction of spinal orthosis for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, M S

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spinal orthoses are commonly prescribed to patients with moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) for prevention of further curve deterioration. In conventional manufacturing method, plaster bandages are used to obtain the patient's body contour and then the plaster cast is rectified manually. With computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system, a series of automated processes from body scanning to digital rectification and milling of the positive model can be performed in a fast and accurate fashion. The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce the application of CAD/CAM system to the construction of spinal orthosis for patients with AIS. Based on evidence within the literature, CAD/CAM method can achieve similar clinical outcomes but with higher efficiency than the conventional fabrication method. Therefore, CAD/CAM method should be considered a substitute to the conventional method in fabrication of spinal orthoses for patients with AIS.

  6. A computer-aided drug discovery system for chemistry teaching.

    PubMed

    Gledhill, Robert; Kent, Sarah; Hudson, Brian; Richards, W Graham; Essex, Jonathan W; Frey, Jeremy G

    2006-01-01

    The Schools Malaria Project (http://emalaria.soton.ac.uk/) brings together school students with university researchers in the hunt for a new antimalaria drug. The design challenge being offered to students is to use a distributed drug search and selection system to design potential antimalaria drugs. The system is accessed via a Web interface. This e-science project displays the results of the trials in an accessible manner, giving students an opportunity for discussion and debate both with peers and with the university contacts. The project has been implemented by using distributed computing techniques, spreading computer load over a network of machines that cross institutional boundaries, forming a grid. This provides access to greater computing power and allows a much more complex and detailed formulation of the drug design problem to be tackled for research, teaching, and learning.

  7. Human performance models for computer-aided engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkind, Jerome I. (Editor); Card, Stuart K. (Editor); Hochberg, Julian (Editor); Huey, Beverly Messick (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses a topic important to the field of computational human factors: models of human performance and their use in computer-based engineering facilities for the design of complex systems. It focuses on a particular human factors design problem -- the design of cockpit systems for advanced helicopters -- and on a particular aspect of human performance -- vision and related cognitive functions. By focusing in this way, the authors were able to address the selected topics in some depth and develop findings and recommendations that they believe have application to many other aspects of human performance and to other design domains.

  8. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  9. National Ignition Facility integrated computer control system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Arsdall, P.J., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The NIF design team is developing the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which is based on an object-oriented software framework applicable to event-driven control systems. The framework provides an open, extensible architecture that is sufficiently abstract to construct future mission-critical control systems. The ICCS will become operational when the first 8 out of 192 beams are activated in mid 2000. The ICCS consists of 300 front-end processors attached to 60,000 control points coordinated by a supervisory system. Computers running either Solaris or VxWorks are networked over a hybrid configuration of switched fast Ethernet and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). ATM carries digital motion video from sensors to operator consoles. Supervisory software is constructed by extending the reusable framework components for each specific application. The framework incorporates services for database persistence, system configuration, graphical user interface, status monitoring, event logging, scripting language, alert management, and access control. More than twenty collaborating software applications are derived from the common framework. The framework is interoperable among different kinds of computers and functions as a plug-in software bus by leveraging a common object request brokering architecture (CORBA). CORBA transparently distributes the software objects across the network. Because of the pivotal role played, CORBA was tested to ensure adequate performance.

  10. National Ignition Facility integrated computer control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Arsdall, Paul J.; Bettenhausen, R. C.; Holloway, Frederick W.; Saroyan, R. A.; Woodruff, J. P.

    1999-07-01

    The NIF design team is developing the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which is based on an object-oriented software framework applicable to event-driven control system. The framework provides an open, extensive architecture that is sufficiently abstract to construct future mission-critical control systems. The ICCS will become operational when the first 8 out of 192 beams are activated in mid 2000. THe ICCS consists of 300 front-end processors attached to 60,000 control points coordinated by a supervisory system. Computers running either Solaris or VxWorks are networked over a hybrid configuration of switched fast Ethernet and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). ATM carries digital motion video from sensor to operator consoles. Supervisory software is constructed by extending the reusable framework components for each specific application. The framework incorporates services for database persistence, system configuration, graphical user interface, status monitoring, event logging, scripting language, alert management, and access control. More than twenty collaborating software applications are derived from the common framework. The framework is interoperable among different kinds of computers and functions as a plug-in software bus by leveraging a common object request brokering architecture (CORBA). CORBA transparently distributes the software objects across the network. Because of the pivotal role played, CORBA was tested to ensure adequate performance.

  11. Computer animation as a teaching aid: the Stirling cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laesecke, A.

    An instructional program has been developed for personal computers to visualize the motion inside a Stirling cryocooler. Used to supplement an experimental laboratory course, the program has turned out as a valuable pedagogical tool, greatly facilitating the understanding of this important thermodynamic cycle by the students.

  12. Computer-aided design of stripline ferrite junction circulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    A general design procedure is presented for stripline Y-junction circulators employing solid dielectric between ground planes. The resonator design and impedance matching are derived in a form suitable for computer evaluation. The procedure is applicable to cases where either the circulator bandwidth or the ground plane spacing is specified. An experimental S-band switching circulator design illustrates the technique.

  13. Computer-Aided School Bus Routing for Rural Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygard, Kendall E.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The computer-based system for routing school buses in rural areas which is discussed minimizes both transportation costs and the average student ride time. Route generation methodology is described and a flowchart of the algorithm is included. (Author/JJD)

  14. Application of Computer Aided Mathematics Teaching in a Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenitepe, Mehmet Emin; Karadag, Zekeriya

    2003-01-01

    This is a case study that examines the effect of using presentations developed by teacher in addition to using commercially produced educational software CD-ROM in Audio-Visual Room/Computer Laboratory after classroom teaching, on students' academic achievement, as a method of Teaching Mathematics compared with only classroom teaching or after…

  15. Computer-Guided-Teaching: An Effective Aid for Group Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira

    1984-01-01

    Describes a special application of the microcomputer for small and large group instruction called Computer-Guided-Teaching (CGT). Effective teaching strategies incorporated in CGT lessons are discussed, and a description of a formal geometry course illustrates their use in CGT lessons. (MBR)

  16. A Computer-aided Learning Exercise in Spectrophotometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamula, Frederick

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of a computer simulation program in teaching the concepts of spectrophotometry. Introduces several parts of the program and program usage. Presents an assessment activity to evaluate students' mastery of material. Concludes with the advantages of this approach to the student and to the assessor. (ASK)

  17. Design Principles for Computer-Aided Vocabulary Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Robin

    1994-01-01

    Presents six principles for the design of adaptive computer-assisted language learning (CALL) programs for vocabulary that incorporate a theory describing quality in the learning outcome and linking it to the learner's approach. Highlights include interactivity; general architecture of a software system; and diagnosis and modification. (Contains…

  18. Forecasting for Computer Aided Career Decisions: Prospects and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durstine, Richard M.

    This paper is the second step in the preparation of forecasts of occupational and industrial information which will meet the needs of the Information System for Vocational Decisions (ISVD). The author discusses the computation routines which need to be developed, tested and operationalized toward the goal of combining occupational and industrial…

  19. Applications of Computer-Aided Instruction in Business French Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrate, Jayne

    Computer software was developed by a faculty member for college-level introductory commercial French to facilitate mastery of basic vocabulary and vocabulary manipulation techniques. The materials targeted three common areas of student difficulty: large amounts of new vocabulary, unfamiliar business concepts, and the formal style of business…

  20. NASA CST aids U.S. industry. [computational structures technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housner, Jerry M.; Pinson, Larry D.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of NASA's computational structures Technology (CST) research on aerospace vehicle design and operation is discussed. The application of this research to proposed version of a high-speed civil transport, to composite structures in aerospace, to the study of crack growth, and to resolving field problems is addressed.

  1. Study on computer-aided diagnosis of hepatic MR imaging and mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xuejun

    2005-04-01

    It is well known that the liver is an organ easily attacked by diseases. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for helping radiologists to differentiate hepatic diseases more efficiently. Our software named LIVERANN integrated the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings with different pulse sequences to classify the five categories of hepatic diseases by using the artificial neural network (ANN) method. The intensity and homogeneity within the region of interest (ROI) delineated by a radiologist were automatically calculated to obtain numerical data by the program for input signals to the ANN. Outputs were the five pathological categories of hepatic diseases (hepatic cyst, hepatocellular carcinoma, dysplasia in cirrhosis, cavernous hemangioma, and metastasis). The experiment demonstrated a testing accuracy of 93% from 80 patients. In order to differentiate the cirrhosis from normal liver, the volume ratio of left to whole (LTW) was proposed to quantify the degree of cirrhosis by three-dimensional (3D) volume analysis. The liver region was firstly extracted from computed tomography (CT) or MR slices based on edge detection algorithms, and then separated into left lobe and right lobe by the hepatic umbilical fissure. The volume ratio of these two parts showed that the LTW ratio in the liver was significantly improved in the differentiation performance, with (25.6%{+-}4.3%) in cirrhosis versus the normal liver (16.4%{+-}5.4%). In addition, the application of the ANN method for detecting clustered microcalcifications in masses on mammograms was described here as well. A new structural ANN, so-called a shift-invariant artificial neural network (SIANN), was integrated with our triple-ring filter (TRF) method in our CAD system. As the result, the sensitivity of detecting clusters was improved from 90% by our previous TRF method to 95% by using both SIANN and TRF.

  2. Multicriteria aided design of integrated heating-cooling energy systems in buildings.

    PubMed

    Mróz, Tomasz M

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possible application of integrated heating-cooling systems in buildings. The general algorithm of integrated heating-cooling system design aid was formulated. The evaluation criteria of technically acceptable variants were defined. Fossil fuel energy consumption, carbon dioxide emission, investment, and total exploitation cost were identified as the most important factors describing the considered decision problem. The multicriteria decision aid method ELECTRE III was proposed as the decision tool for the choice of the most compromised variant. The proposed method was used for a case study calculation-the choice of an integrated heating-cooling system for an office building.

  3. Creating a strategic plan for configuration management using computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.R.; Sarfaty, R.

    1993-05-01

    This paper provides guidance in the definition, documentation, measurement, enhancement of processes, and validation of a strategic plan for configuration management (CM). The approach and methodology used in establishing a strategic plan is the same for any enterprise, including the Department of Energy (DOE), commercial nuclear plants, the Department of Defense (DOD), or large industrial complexes. The principles and techniques presented are used world wide by some of the largest corporations. The authors used industry knowledge and the areas of their current employment to illustrate and provide examples. Developing a strategic configuration and information management plan for DOE Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID) facilities is discussed in this paper. A good knowledge of CM principles is the key to successful strategic planning. This paper will describe and define CM elements, and discuss how CM integrates the facility`s physical configuration, design basis, and documentation. The strategic plan does not need the support of a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. However, the use of the CASE tool provides a methodology for consistency in approach, graphics, and database capability combined to form an encyclopedia and a method of presentation that is easily understood and aids the process of reengineering. CASE tools have much more capability than those stated above. Some examples are supporting a joint application development group (JAD) to prepare a software functional specification document and, if necessary, provide the capability to automatically generate software application code. This paper briefly discusses characteristics and capabilities of two CASE tools that use different methodologies to generate similar deliverables.

  4. Computer-aided methods in bespoke breast prosthesis design and fabrication.

    PubMed

    Eggbeer, D; Evans, P

    2011-01-01

    This case study presents a method of utilizing computer-aided design technologies to provide bespoke, external breast prostheses. The technique is illustrated through a case study of a mastectomy patient. Photogrammetry methods were used to capture the breast form when supported by a brassiere and the unsupported breast and defect side. Computer-aided design techniques were used to generate a digital prosthesis based upon the supported breast shape and with a fitting surface that matched the defect side. Furthermore, a two-part mould was designed and fabricated using rapid prototyping methods. A colour-matched prosthesis was then fabricated in a gel-based, platinum-cured silicone.

  5. Creation of Anatomically Accurate Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Solid Models from Medical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, John E.; Graham, R. Scott; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Oberlander, Eric J.; Broaddus, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Most surgical instrumentation and implants used in the world today are designed with sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. This software automates the mechanical development of a product from its conceptual design through manufacturing. CAD software also provides a means of manipulating solid models prior to Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Few surgical products are designed in conjunction with accurate CAD models of human anatomy because of the difficulty with which these models are created. We have developed a novel technique that creates anatomically accurate, patient specific CAD solids from medical images in a matter of minutes.

  6. Slide Star: An Approach to Videodisc/Computer Aided Instruction

    PubMed Central

    McEnery, Kevin W.

    1984-01-01

    One of medical education's primary goals is for the student to be proficient in the gross and microscopic identification of disease. The videodisc, with its storage capacity of up to 54,000 photomicrographs is ideally suited to assist in this educational process. “Slide Star” is a method of interactive instruction which is designed for use in any subject where it is essential to identify visual material. The instructional approach utilizes a computer controlled videodisc to display photomicrographs. In the demonstration program, these are slides of normal blood cells. The program is unique in that the instruction is created by the student's commands manipulating the photomicrograph data base. A prime feature is the use of computer generated multiple choice questions to reinforce the learning process.

  7. Bioassay Phantoms Using Medical Images and Computer Aided Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. X. Geroge Xu

    2011-01-28

    A radiation bioassay program relies on a set of standard human phantoms to calibrate and assess radioactivity levels inside a human body for radiation protection and nuclear medicine imaging purposes. However, the methodologies in the development and application of anthropomorphic phantoms, both physical and computational, had mostly remained the same for the past 40 years. We herein propose a 3-year research project to develop medical image-based physical and computational phantoms specifically for radiation bioassay applications involving internally deposited radionuclides. The broad, long-term objective of this research was to set the foundation for a systematic paradigm shift away from the anatomically crude phantoms in existence today to realistic and ultimately individual-specific bioassay methodologies. This long-term objective is expected to impact all areas of radiation bioassay involving nuclear power plants, U.S. DOE laboratories, and nuclear medicine clinics.

  8. Computers and terminals as an aid to international technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweeney, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    As technology transfer becomes more popular and proves to be an economical method for companies of all sizes to take advantage of a tremendous amount of new and available technology from sources all over the world, the introduction of computers and terminals into the international technology transfer process is proving to be a successful method for companies to take part in this beneficial approach to new business opportunities.

  9. Computer-aided-analysis of linear control system robustness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Ray, Laura R.

    1990-01-01

    Stochastic robustness is a simple technique used to estimate the stability and performance robustness of linear, time-invariant systems. The use of high-speed graphics workstations and control system design software in stochastic robustness analysis is discussed and demonstrated. It is shown that stochastic robustness makes good use of modern computational and graphic tools, and it is easily implemented using commercial control system design and analysis software.

  10. Intelligent Embedded Instruction for Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    8217 convenience and according to their individual learning preferences. This benefit is extremely valuable for adult professionals whose needs may be highly...solving problems. Adult designers tend to develop their own personal ways of using CAD software which can optimize a system’s use. This ability has been...average age for subjects with more than 1 year of computer experience was 34 whereas those with less than 2 months of experience averaged 41 years old

  11. Computer-Aided Process Model For Carbon/Phenolic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letson, Mischell A.; Bunker, Robert C.

    1996-01-01

    Computer program implements thermochemical model of processing of carbon-fiber/phenolic-matrix composite materials into molded parts of various sizes and shapes. Directed toward improving fabrication of rocket-engine-nozzle parts, also used to optimize fabrication of other structural components, and material-property parameters changed to apply to other materials. Reduces costs by reducing amount of laboratory trial and error needed to optimize curing processes and to predict properties of cured parts.

  12. Computer-Aided Decision Making for Ocean Towing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-12

    3 Resistance Prediction .............................................................................. 32 3.1 Tow Resistance...80,000 120,000 Wave Angle (deg) 0 60 120 180 Table 2.1. Data Base Towing Parameters. 31 Chapter 3 Resistance Prediction In order to use the extreme...this speed may be greater than or less than the desired tow speed. An exact solution is not computed because the accuracy of the resistance prediction methods

  13. Graphical Input Methodology for Computer Aided Analysis of Control Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Control Data Corporation (CDC) CYBER series computer (Ref 4,8). It is designed to run as an INTERCOM job under the NOS/BE operating system (Ref 1,3,5,9...19147-3, Contract- 5- -7. Seattle, Washington, Boeing Areospace Company, 1979. 8. Control Data Corporation . Fortran Extended Version 4 Reference...Manual. Pub. No. 614978%0, Revsion D. Sunnyvale,-California: Publications and Graphics n Division, 1978. 9. Control Data Corporation . INTERCOM Version 4

  14. Computer-aided design of the human aortic root.

    PubMed

    Ovcharenko, E A; Klyshnikov, K U; Vlad, A R; Sizova, I N; Kokov, A N; Nushtaev, D V; Yuzhalin, A E; Zhuravleva, I U

    2014-11-01

    The development of computer-based 3D models of the aortic root is one of the most important problems in constructing the prostheses for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. In the current study, we analyzed data from 117 patients with and without aortic valve disease and computed tomography data from 20 patients without aortic valvular diseases in order to estimate the average values of the diameter of the aortic annulus and other aortic root parameters. Based on these data, we developed a 3D model of human aortic root with unique geometry. Furthermore, in this study we show that by applying different material properties to the aortic annulus zone in our model, we can significantly improve the quality of the results of finite element analysis. To summarize, here we present four 3D models of human aortic root with unique geometry based on computational analysis of ECHO and CT data. We suggest that our models can be utilized for the development of better prostheses for transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

  15. Computer-aided breast MR image feature analysis for prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Aghaei, Faranak; Tan, Maxine; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin; Hollingsworth, Alan B.; Qian, Wei

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To identify a new clinical marker based on quantitative kinetic image features analysis and assess its feasibility to predict tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: The authors assembled a dataset involving breast MR images acquired from 68 cancer patients before undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Among them, 25 patients had complete response (CR) and 43 had partial and nonresponse (NR) to chemotherapy based on the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. The authors developed a computer-aided detection scheme to segment breast areas and tumors depicted on the breast MR images and computed a total of 39 kinetic image features from both tumor and background parenchymal enhancement regions. The authors then applied and tested two approaches to classify between CR and NR cases. The first one analyzed each individual feature and applied a simple feature fusion method that combines classification results from multiple features. The second approach tested an attribute selected classifier that integrates an artificial neural network (ANN) with a wrapper subset evaluator, which was optimized using a leave-one-case-out validation method. Results: In the pool of 39 features, 10 yielded relatively higher classification performance with the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.61 to 0.78 to classify between CR and NR cases. Using a feature fusion method, the maximum AUC = 0.85 ± 0.05. Using the ANN-based classifier, AUC value significantly increased to 0.96 ± 0.03 (p < 0.01). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that quantitative analysis of kinetic image features computed from breast MR images acquired prechemotherapy has potential to generate a useful clinical marker in predicting tumor response to chemotherapy.

  16. Computer-aided space shuttle orbiter wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. P.; Decker, J. P.; Rau, T. R.; Glatt, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been made to provide a space shuttle orbiter wing design that met the guideline requirements of landing performance, stability, and hypersonic trim for a specified center-of-gravity envelope. The analytical study was facilitated by the use of the Optimal Design Integration system (ODIN) and the experimental part of the investigation was conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel and the Langley continuous-flow hypersonic tunnel.

  17. Computer-Aided Process and Tools for Mobile Software Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    file?based runtime verification. A case study of formally specifying, validating, and verifying a set of requirements for an iPhone application that...Center for Strategic and International Studies The Making of a DoD Acquisition Lead System Integrator (LSI) Paul Montgomery, Ron Carlson, and John...code against the execution trace of the mobile apps using log file–based runtime verification. A case study of formally specifying, validating, and

  18. ASCR Cybersecurity for Scientific Computing Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Piesert, Sean

    2015-02-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility to address the energy, environmental, and nuclear security challenges that face our nation. Much of DOE’s enterprise involves distributed, collaborative teams; a signi¬cant fraction involves “open science,” which depends on multi-institutional, often international collaborations that must access or share signi¬cant amounts of information between institutions and over networks around the world. The mission of the Office of Science is the delivery of scienti¬c discoveries and major scienti¬c tools to transform our understanding of nature and to advance the energy, economic, and national security of the United States. The ability of DOE to execute its responsibilities depends critically on its ability to assure the integrity and availability of scienti¬c facilities and computer systems, and of the scienti¬c, engineering, and operational software and data that support its mission.

  19. Computer-aided analysis of nonlinear problems in transport phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.; Scriven, L. E.; Silliman, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes algorithms for equilibrium and steady-state problems with coefficients in the expansions derived by the Galerkin weighted residual method and calculated from the resulting sets of nonlinear algebraic equations by the Newton-Raphson method. Initial approximations are obtained from nearby solutions by continuation techniques as parameters are varied. The Newton-Raphson technique is preferred because the Jacobian of the solution is useful for continuation, for analyzing the stability of solutions, for detecting bifurcation of solution families, and for computing asymptotic estimates of the effects on any solution of small changes in parameters, boundary conditions, and boundary shape.

  20. Computer Aided Ballistic Orbit Classification Around Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villac, Benjamin F.; Anderson, Rodney L.; Pini, Alex J.

    2016-09-01

    Orbital dynamics around small bodies are as varied as the shapes and dynamical states of these bodies. While various classes of orbits have been analyzed in detail, the global overview of relevant ballistic orbits at particular bodies is not easily computed or organized. Yet, correctly categorizing these orbits will ease their future use in the overall trajectory design process. This paper overviews methods that have been used to organize orbits, focusing on periodic orbits in particular, and introduces new methods based on clustering approaches.

  1. A Functional Level Preprocessor for Computer Aided Digital Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    the parsing of ucer input, is based on that for the computer language, PASCAL [J2,1J. The procedure is tle author’s original design Each line of input...NIKLAUS WIR~iN. PASCAL -USER:I MANUAL AmD REPORT. NEW YORK, NY: SPRINGER-VERLAG 1978 Li LANCAST17R, DOIN. CMOS CoORBOLK(A. IND)IANAPOLIS, IND): HOWAI(D...34flGS 0151, OtTAll me:;genera ted by SISL, duri -ne iti; last run. Each message is of the foriiat: SutiWur Uk ;L ATLNG M1:SSA(;lE-, )’URIAT NUMBELR, and

  2. Computer-Aided Design of RNA Origami Structures.

    PubMed

    Sparvath, Steffen L; Geary, Cody W; Andersen, Ebbe S

    2017-01-01

    RNA nanostructures can be used as scaffolds to organize, combine, and control molecular functionalities, with great potential for applications in nanomedicine and synthetic biology. The single-stranded RNA origami method allows RNA nanostructures to be folded as they are transcribed by the RNA polymerase. RNA origami structures provide a stable framework that can be decorated with functional RNA elements such as riboswitches, ribozymes, interaction sites, and aptamers for binding small molecules or protein targets. The rich library of RNA structural and functional elements combined with the possibility to attach proteins through aptamer-based binding creates virtually limitless possibilities for constructing advanced RNA-based nanodevices.In this chapter we provide a detailed protocol for the single-stranded RNA origami design method using a simple 2-helix tall structure as an example. The first step involves 3D modeling of a double-crossover between two RNA double helices, followed by decoration with tertiary motifs. The second step deals with the construction of a 2D blueprint describing the secondary structure and sequence constraints that serves as the input for computer programs. In the third step, computer programs are used to design RNA sequences that are compatible with the structure, and the resulting outputs are evaluated and converted into DNA sequences to order.

  3. Computer-Aided Design of Photocured Polymer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Swarnavo; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Chiang, Martin

    Light-initiated free radical polymerization is widely used for manufacturing biomaterials, scaffolds for micomolding, and is being developed as a method for fast 3D fabrication. This process has a large set of control parameters in the composition of the photocurable matrix and the photocuring conditions. But a quantitative map between the choice of parameters and the properties of the resultant polymer is currently unavailable. We present a computational approach to simulate the growth of a polymer network using the stochastic differential equations of reactions and diffusion for a photocuring system. This method allows us to sample trajectories of a growing polymer network in silico. Thus, we provide a computational alternative to synthesize and probe a polymer network for properties like the degree of conversion, structure factor, density of states, and viscosity. We present simulation results that agree with the universal features observed in photopolymerization. Our proposed method enables a thorough and systematic search over the entire parameter space to discover interesting combinations for synthesis.

  4. Integrated Intelligent training and job aiding for combustion turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckeithan, Clifford M., Jr.; Quentin, George H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing program to augment such an expert system gas turbine startup advisor, known as the EPRI SA VANT System, by including an intelligent training package. It will give a brief background on the SA VANT development and an overview of its evolution into a full-blown Gas Turbine Information System (GTIS) for rapid access of on-line documentation, diagnostics, and training. In particular, the paper will address: (1) the conversion of the knowledge base used by the SA VANT startup advisor so that it can be used for both training and job aiding; and (2) the hypertext-oriented user manuals being incorporated into the system for rapidly accessing on-line documentation at the job site.

  5. Computer-aided drug discovery research at a global contract research organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchen, Douglas B.

    2016-11-01

    Computer-aided drug discovery started at Albany Molecular Research, Inc in 1997. Over nearly 20 years the role of cheminformatics and computational chemistry has grown throughout the pharmaceutical industry and at AMRI. This paper will describe the infrastructure and roles of CADD throughout drug discovery and some of the lessons learned regarding the success of several methods. Various contributions provided by computational chemistry and cheminformatics in chemical library design, hit triage, hit-to-lead and lead optimization are discussed. Some frequently used computational chemistry techniques are described. The ways in which they may contribute to discovery projects are presented based on a few examples from recent publications.

  6. Computer-aided drug discovery research at a global contract research organization.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Douglas B

    2016-11-01

    Computer-aided drug discovery started at Albany Molecular Research, Inc in 1997. Over nearly 20 years the role of cheminformatics and computational chemistry has grown throughout the pharmaceutical industry and at AMRI. This paper will describe the infrastructure and roles of CADD throughout drug discovery and some of the lessons learned regarding the success of several methods. Various contributions provided by computational chemistry and cheminformatics in chemical library design, hit triage, hit-to-lead and lead optimization are discussed. Some frequently used computational chemistry techniques are described. The ways in which they may contribute to discovery projects are presented based on a few examples from recent publications.

  7. Computer-aided modeling applied to microengineered pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgaras, C.; Samaan, Noel D.

    1998-04-01

    The development of miniaturized diaphragm structures is highly significant to the successful realization of many microengineered devices. Most industrial designs of physical sensors are now based upon detailed finite element modeling of the mechanical microstructures using software currently available for conventional mechanics. This paper investigates the effects of miniaturization on corrugated diaphragm structures through the use of advanced computer modeling and simulation techniques. By developing detailed models of the diaphragm structures using commercial finite element analysis software it is possible to investigate the effects on diaphragm performance when diaphragms are scaled from a macro level (eg. 10 mm diameter) down to a micro level (< 1 mm diameter). Case studies are presented and comparisons are made with research work published by other workers. With subsequent sensitivity analysis it is possible to explore the critical design parameters of the microengineered diaphragms, and parameterize the diaphragm such that its performance will be compensated to some degree from limitations imposed by processing parameters.

  8. Microplate based biosensing with a computer screen aided technique.

    PubMed

    Filippini, Daniel; Andersson, Tony P M; Svensson, Samuel P S; Lundström, Ingemar

    2003-10-30

    Melanophores, dark pigment cells from the frog Xenopus laevis, have the ability to change light absorbance upon stimulation by different biological agents. Hormone exposure (e.g. melatonin or alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone) has been used here as a reversible stimulus to test a new compact microplate reading platform. As an application, the detection of the asthma drug formoterol in blood plasma samples is demonstrated. The present system utilizes a computer screen as a (programmable) large area light source, and a standard web camera as recording media enabling even kinetic microplate reading with a versatile and broadly available platform, which suffices to evaluate numerous bioassays. Especially in the context of point of care testing or self testing applications these possibilities become advantageous compared with highly dedicated comparatively expensive commercial systems.

  9. Computer-aided instruction at the Ottawa General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Levine, D Z

    1973-02-17

    We have reviewed our experiences with the first systematic use of CAI at the University of Ottawa Medical School. The Bleich acid-base and electrolyte program was employed by senior clinical clerks in the Department of Medicine during the past year using APL version of the program, an IBM 360-65 computer linked by acoustic coupler to the typewriter-style IBM 2741 terminal. We have been impressed with the importance of: (1) minimizing technical difficulties, (2) enhancing the teaching capacity of the program (as opposed to its consultant function) and (3) carefully ensuring that the user understands its limitations. This pilot project in clinical CAI has identified problems which will likely be experienced in other medical centres and has suggested important areas for further development.

  10. Computer-aided communication satellite system analysis and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagl, T. W.; Morgan, N. H.; Morley, R. E.; Singh, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of the various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. A satellite Telecommunication analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) for costing and sensitivity analysis work in application of communication satellites to educational development is given. The modifications made to STAMP include: extension of the six beam capability to eight; addition of generation of multiple beams from a single reflector system with an array of feeds; an improved system costing to reflect the time value of money, growth in earth terminal population with time, and to account for various measures of system reliability; inclusion of a model for scintillation at microwave frequencies in the communication link loss model; and, an updated technological environment.

  11. Computer-aided selection of materials for cryogenic turbopump bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, R. E.; Pallini, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The life requirement for the angular contact ball bearings in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high-pressure-oxygen turbopump (HPOTP) is 7.5 hours. In actual operation, significantly shorter service life has been experienced. The objective of this current program is to identify bearing materials and/or materials processing techniques offering significant potential for extending HPOTP bearing performance life. A thermomechanical analysis of the HPOTP shaft/bearing system was performed with the SHABERTH (SHaft-BEaring-THermal) computer program. Bearing fatigue life, ball-race contact stress, heat generation rate, bulk ring temperatures, and circumferential stress in the inner rings were quantified as functions of radial load, thrust load, and ball-race contact friction. The analysis results were used to formulate criteria that are being used for the selection of special materials for future turbopump bearings.

  12. Computer-aided design tools for economical MEMS fabrication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Christian; Priebe, Andreas; Brueck, Rainer; Hahn, Kai

    1999-03-01

    Since the early 70s when microsystem technology was first introduce an enormous market for MST-products has been developed. Airbag sensors, micro pumps, ink jet nozzles etc. and the market is just about to start up. Establishing these products for a reasonable price requires mass production. Meanwhile, also computer-based design-tools have been developed in order to reduce the expenses for MST-design. In contrast to other physical design processes like e.g. in micro electronics, MEMS physical design is characterized by the fact that each product requires a tailored sequence of fabrication steps, usually selected from a variety of processing alternatives. The selection from these alternatives is based on economical constraints. Therefore, the design has a strong influence on the money and time spent to take an MST-product to market.

  13. Digital tomosynthesis aided by low-resolution exact computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Kai; Yu, Hengyong; Zhao, Shiying; Fajardo, Laurie Lee; Ruth, Christopher; Jing, Zhenxue; Wang, Ge

    2007-01-01

    Tomosynthesis reconstructs 3-dimensional images of an object from a significantly fewer number of projections as compared with that required by computed tomography (CT). A major problem with tomosynthesis is image artifacts associated with the data incompleteness. In this article, we propose a hybrid tomosynthesis approach to achieve higher image quality as compared with competing methods. In this approach, a low-resolution CT scan is followed by a high-resolution tomosynthesis scan. Then, both scans are combined to reconstruct images. To evaluate the image quality of the proposed method, we design a new breast phantom for numerical simulation and physical experiments. The results show that images obtained by our approach are clearly better than those obtained without such a CT scan.

  14. Computer-aided diagnosis and lipidomics analysis to detect and treat breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Bäse, Anke; Retter, Felix; Steinbrücker, Frank; Görke, Robert; Burgeth, Bernhard; Schlossbauer, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Multi-modality diagnosis techniques are more and more replacing traditional medical imaging for breast cancer detection. Newly emerging advances in both intelligent cancer detection systems and lipidomics technologies offer an excellent opportunity to detect tumors and to understand regulation at the molecular level in many diseases such as cancer. In this paper, we present a detailed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems combining motion artefact reduction and automated feature extraction and classification, and a novel data mining approach for visualization of gene therapy leading to apoptosis in U87 MG glioblastoma cells, a secondary tumor of breast cancer. The achieved results show that the CAD system represents a robust and integrative tool for reliable small contrast enhancing lesions. Graph-clustering methods are introduced as powerful correlation networks which enable a simultaneous exploration and visualization of co-regulation in glioblastoma data. These new paradigms are providing unique "fingerprints" by revealing how the intricate interactions at the lipidome level can be employed to induce apoptosis (cell death) and are thus opening a new window to biomedical frontiers.

  15. Computer-aided design of transformation toughened blast resistant naval hull steels: Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, A.; Olson, G. B.

    2007-07-01

    A systematic approach to computer-aided materials design has formulated a new class of ultratough, weldable secondary hardened plate steels combining new levels of strength and toughness while meeting processability requirements. A theoretical design concept integrated the mechanism of precipitated nickel-stabilized dispersed austenite for transformation toughening in an alloy strengthened by combined precipitation of M2C carbides and BCC copper both at an optimal ˜3 nm particle size for efficient strengthening. This concept was adapted to plate steel design by employing a mixed bainitic/martensitic matrix microstructure produced by air-cooling after solution-treatment and constraining the composition to low carbon content for weldability. With optimized levels of copper and M2C carbide formers based on a quantitative strength model, a required alloy nickel content of 6.5 wt% was predicted for optimal austenite stability for transformation toughening at the desired strength level of 160 ksi (1,100 MPa) yield strength. A relatively high Cu level of 3.65 wt% was employed to allow a carbon limit of 0.05 wt% for good weldability, without causing excessive solidification microsegregation.

  16. Investigation into the development of computer aided design software for space based sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pender, C. W.; Clark, W. L.

    1987-01-01

    The described effort is phase one of the development of a Computer Aided Design (CAD) software to be used to perform radiometric sensor design. The software package will be referred to as SCAD and is directed toward the preliminary phase of the design of space based sensor system. The approach being followed is to develop a modern, graphic intensive, user friendly software package using existing software as building blocks. The emphasis will be directed toward the development of a shell containing menus, smart defaults, and interfaces, which can accommodate a wide variety of existing application software packages. The shell will offer expected utilities such as graphics, tailored menus, and a variety of drivers for I/O devices. Following the development of the shell, the development of SCAD is planned as chiefly selection and integration of appropriate building blocks. The phase one development activities have included: the selection of hardware which will be used with SCAD; the determination of the scope of SCAD; the preliminary evaluation of a number of software packages for applicability to SCAD; determination of a method for achieving required capabilities where voids exist; and then establishing a strategy for binding the software modules into an easy to use tool kit.

  17. Computer-aided detection (CAD) of breast masses in mammography: combined detection and ensemble classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Dae Hoe; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Ro, Yong Man

    2014-07-01

    We propose a novel computer-aided detection (CAD) framework of breast masses in mammography. To increase detection sensitivity for various types of mammographic masses, we propose the combined use of different detection algorithms. In particular, we develop a region-of-interest combination mechanism that integrates detection information gained from unsupervised and supervised detection algorithms. Also, to significantly reduce the number of false-positive (FP) detections, the new ensemble classification algorithm is developed. Extensive experiments have been conducted on a benchmark mammogram database. Results show that our combined detection approach can considerably improve the detection sensitivity with a small loss of FP rate, compared to representative detection algorithms previously developed for mammographic CAD systems. The proposed ensemble classification solution also has a dramatic impact on the reduction of FP detections; as much as 70% (from 15 to 4.5 per image) at only cost of 4.6% sensitivity loss (from 90.0% to 85.4%). Moreover, our proposed CAD method performs as well or better (70.7% and 80.0% per 1.5 and 3.5 FPs per image respectively) than the results of mammography CAD algorithms previously reported in the literature.

  18. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission waypoints that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system.

  19. Formal design methods for reliable computer-aided diagnosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Faust, Oliver; Acharya, U Rajendra; Tamura, Toshiyo

    2012-01-01

    Physiological signals, medical images, and biosystems can be used to access the health of a subject and they can support clinicians by improving the diagnosis for treatment purposes. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in healthcare applications can help in automated decision making, visualization and extraction of hidden complex features to aid in the clinical diagnosis. These CAD systems focus on improving the quality of patient care with a minimum of fault due to device failures. In this paper, we argue that a formal and model driven design methodology can lead to systems which meet this requirement. Modeling is not new to CAD, but modeling for systems design is less explored. Therefore, we discuss selected systems design techniques and provide a more concrete design example on computer-aided diagnosis and automated decision making.

  20. Computer-aided design and three-dimensional printing in the manufacturing of an ocular prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Ruiters, Sébastien; Sun, Yi; de Jong, Stéphan; Politis, Constantinus; Mombaerts, Ilse

    2016-04-27

    Restoring the facial appearance in acquired anophthalmos entails precision fitting of a customised ocular prosthesis. The fabrication is an artisanal process, and is primarily based on an impression of the anophthalmic cavity. This is usually achieved by the impression-moulding method, which, however, may introduce errors, resulting in a poorly fitted prosthesis. We developed a new method in the manufacturing of a customised ocular prosthesis based on computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. An ocular prosthesis, based on a three-dimensional (3D) printed impression-free mould of the anophthalmic cavity, was successfully fitted in a 68-year-old male. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a customised ocular prosthesis designed with the aid of 3D printing.

  1. Analysis of proctor marking accuracy in a computer-aided personalized system of instruction course.

    PubMed

    Martin, Toby L; Pear, Joseph J; Martin, Garry L

    2002-01-01

    In a computer-aided version of Keller's personalized system of instruction (CAPSI), students within a course were assigned by a computer to be proctors for tests. Archived data from a CAPSI-taught behavior modification course were analyzed to assess proctor accuracy in marking answers as correct or incorrect. Overall accuracy was increased by having each test marked independently by two proctors, and was higher on incorrect answers when the degree of incorrectness was larger.

  2. Evolution of facility layout requirements and CAD (computer-aided design) system development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M. )

    1990-06-01

    The overall configuration of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) including the infrastructure and land boundary requirements were developed using a computer-aided design (CAD) system. The evolution of the facility layout requirements and the use of the CAD system are discussed. The emphasis has been on minimizing the amount of input required and maximizing the speed by which the output may be obtained. The computer system used to store the data is also described.

  3. Proceedings of the 1993 Conference on Intelligent Computer-Aided Training and Virtual Environment Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Patricia R.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    1993-01-01

    The volume 2 proceedings from the 1993 Conference on Intelligent Computer-Aided Training and Virtual Environment Technology are presented. Topics discussed include intelligent computer assisted training (ICAT) systems architectures, ICAT educational and medical applications, virtual environment (VE) training and assessment, human factors engineering and VE, ICAT theory and natural language processing, ICAT military applications, VE engineering applications, ICAT knowledge acquisition processes and applications, and ICAT aerospace applications.

  4. Computer-aided decision support systems for endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract: a review.

    PubMed

    Liedlgruber, Michael; Uhl, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Today, medical endoscopy is a widely used procedure to inspect the inner cavities of the human body. The advent of endoscopic imaging techniques-allowing the acquisition of images or videos-created the possibility for the development of the whole new branch of computer-aided decision support systems. Such systems aim at helping physicians to identify possibly malignant abnormalities more accurately. At the beginning of this paper, we give a brief introduction to the history of endoscopy, followed by introducing the main types of endoscopes which emerged so far (flexible endoscope, wireless capsule endoscope, and confocal laser endomicroscope). We then give a brief introduction to computer-aided decision support systems specifically targeted at endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract. Then we present general facts and figures concerning computer-aided decision support systems and summarize work specifically targeted at computer-aided decision support in the gastrointestinal tract. This summary is followed by a discussion of some common issues concerning the approaches reviewed and suggestions of possible ways to resolve them.

  5. Experiments Using Cell Phones in Physics Classroom Education: The Computer-Aided "g" Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen; Muller, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This paper continues the collection of experiments that describe the use of cell phones as experimental tools in physics classroom education. We describe a computer-aided determination of the free-fall acceleration "g" using the acoustical Doppler effect. The Doppler shift is a function of the speed of the source. Since a free-falling objects…

  6. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER-AIDED TOMOGRAPHY TO VISUALIZE AND QUANTIFY BIOGENIC STRUCTURES IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used computer-aided tomography (CT) for 3D visualization and 2D analysis of

    marine sediment cores from 3 stations (at 10, 75 and 118 m depths) with different environmental

    impact. Biogenic structures such as tubes and burrows were quantified and compared among st...

  7. The Effects of Computer-Aided Concept Cartoons and Outdoor Science Activities on Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Güliz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create an awareness of light pollution on seventh grade students via computer aided concept cartoon applications and outdoor science activities and to help them develop solutions; and to determine student opinions on the practices carried out. The study was carried out at a middle school in Mugla province of Aegean…

  8. When Summative Computer-Aided Assessments Go Wrong: Disaster Recovery after a Major Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Ian

    2005-01-01

    This case study outlines the events of a recent summative computer-aided assessment (CAA) failure involving 280 first-year undergraduate students. Post-test analysis found that the central server had become unexpectedly overloaded, thereby causing the CAA to be abandoned. Practical advice on just what to do in the event of a summative CAA failure…

  9. A novel application of computer-aided design and manufacturing for reduction cranioplasty.

    PubMed

    Dorafshar, Amir; Fisher, Mark; Borsuk, Daniel; Fishman, Elliot; Ahn, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Macrocephaly is a rare presentation of untreated hydrocephalus. In cases where medical management has failed, macrocephaly can be managed with reduction cranioplasty. Traditionally, reduction cranioplasty is highly dependent on intraoperative tailoring of bone segments to obtain the best possible result and involves high risks of associated severe blood loss and mortality. In this clinical report, we describe a patient with hydrocephalus macrocephaly treated with reduction cranioplasty with the innovative use of computer-aided design and manufacturing to reduce intraoperative risks and improve efficiency. We used computer-aided design to plan osteotomy sites and the final positioning of bone segments. We also utilized computer-aided manufacturing to produce cutting guides, positioning guides, and models to increase precision and improve the final positioning of the cranium. Computer-aided design and manufacturing technology has enabled a shift of the planning burden of complicated craniofacial reconstructions from the intraoperative to the preoperative phase. With a completed plan and premade guides and models, it is possible to minimize the risks, improve efficiency, and obtain a precise, aesthetic result.

  10. Implementation and Evaluation of Computer-Aided Mandarin Phonemes Training System for Hearing-Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long

    2005-01-01

    A computer-aided Mandarin phonemes training (CAMPT) system was developed and evaluated for training hearing-impaired students in their pronunciation of Mandarin phonemes. Deaf or hearing-impaired people have difficulty hearing their own voice, hence most of them cannot learn how to speak. Phonemes are the basis for learning to read and speak in…

  11. The Power of Computer-aided Tomography to Investigate Marine Benthic Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Utilization of Computer-aided-Tomography (CT) technology is a powerful tool to investigate benthic communities in aquatic systems. In this presentation, we will attempt to summarize our 15 years of experience in developing specific CT methods and applications to marine benthic co...

  12. Revisiting Computer-Aided Notetaking Technological Assistive Devices for Hearing-Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Dana L.; Pendegraft, Norman

    2005-01-01

    The first part of this article describes the use of Computer-aided note taking (CAN) for a fifth-grade student with a profound hearing loss who has been mainstreamed in her local grade school since first grade. As such, this is a case study of how technology can directly and dramatically impact the educational experience of a student with a…

  13. Effective Computer-Aided Assessment of Mathematics; Principles, Practice and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhow, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines some key issues for writing effective computer-aided assessment (CAA) questions in subjects with substantial mathematical or statistical content, especially the importance of control of random parameters and the encoding of wrong methods of solution (mal-rules) commonly used by students. The pros and cons of using CAA and…

  14. Persons with Alzheimer's Disease Make Phone Calls Independently Using a Computer-Aided Telephone System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Cassano, Germana; Cordiano, Noemi; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G.; Oliva, Doretta

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed whether four patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease could make independent phone calls via a computer-aided telephone system. The study was carried out according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. All participants started with baseline during which the telephone system was not available,…

  15. The Computer-Aided Analytic Process Model. Operations Handbook for the Analytic Process Model Demonstration Package

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Research Note 86-06 THE COMPUTER-AIDED ANALYTIC PROCESS MODEL : OPERATIONS HANDBOOK FOR THE ANALYTIC PROCESS MODEL DE ONSTRATION PACKAGE Ronald G...ic Process Model ; Operations Handbook; Tutorial; Apple; Systems Taxonomy Mod--l; Training System; Bradl1ey infantry Fighting * Vehicle; BIFV...8217. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * - ~ . - - * m- .. . . . . . . item 20. Abstract -continued companion volume-- "The Analytic Process Model for

  16. Optimizing the Efficiency of Computer-Aided Instruction. Final Report. Report No. 2992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feurzeig, Wallace; And Others

    To minimize training time, an adaptive training model for optimizing path sequencing in computer aided instruction was developed. The model reduced a course to logical components or quanta, then plotted the material for possible sequences and evaluated each component quanta as to importance to subject assimilation. For implementation and testing,…

  17. USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING TOOL IN POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-Aided Process Engineering has become established in industry as a design tool. With the establishment of the CAPE-OPEN software specifications for process simulation environments. CAPE-OPEN provides a set of "middleware" standards that enable software developers to acces...

  18. DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING TOOLS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of Computer-Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) and process simulation tools has become established industry practice to predict simulation software, new opportunities are available for the creation of a wide range of ancillary tools that can be used from within multiple sim...

  19. Multi-Input/Multi-Output Designated Eigenstructure (MODES): A Computer-Aided Control System Design Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    must. introduce some tools. The first of these is known as Newton’s Formulas ( Uspensky , 1948: 261). oA 4-32 ’ */ Newton’s Formulas relate the...Academic Press, Inc., 1976. Uspensky , J.V. Theory of Equations. New York: McGraw- Hill Book Company, 1948. Walker, Robert A., et al. "Computer-Aided

  20. Technology and Jobs: Computer-Aided Design. Numerical-Control Machine-Tool Operators. Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Michael; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three reports on the effects of high technology on the nature of work include (1) Stanton on applications and implications of computer-aided design for engineers, drafters, and architects; (2) Nardone on the outlook and training of numerical-control machine tool operators; and (3) Austin and Drake on the future of clerical occupations in automated…

  1. Data Management Standards in Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistic Support (CALS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferson, David K.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on data management standards in computer-aided acquisition and logistic support (CALS) are presented. CALS is intended to reduce cost, increase quality, and improve timeliness of weapon system acquisition and support by greatly improving the flow of technical information. The phase 2 standards, industrial environment, are discussed. The information resource dictionary system (IRDS) is described.

  2. Opinions of Mathematics Teacher Candidates towards Applying 7E Instructional Model on Computer Aided Instruction Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenilmez, Kursat; Ersoy, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine opinions of mathematics teacher candidates towards applying 7E instructional model on computer aided instruction environments. The descriptive case study model was used in this study. The sample of the study consists of 52 mathematics teacher candidates which were selected randomly from Eskisehir…

  3. An Empathic Avatar in a Computer-Aided Learning Program to Encourage and Persuade Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gwo-Dong; Lee, Jih-Hsien; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Chao, Po-Yao; Li, Liang-Yi; Lee, Tzung-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Animated pedagogical agents with characteristics such as facial expressions, gestures, and human emotions, under an interactive user interface are attractive to students and have high potential to promote students' learning. This study proposes a convenient method to add an embodied empathic avatar into a computer-aided learning program; learners…

  4. SMART USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA) TO CHARACTERIZE SPERM MOTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) has evolved over the past fifteen years to provide an objective, practical means of measuring and characterizing the velocity and parttern of sperm motion. CASA instruments use video frame-grabber boards to capture multiple images of spermato...

  5. A Multidisciplinary Research Team Approach to Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD) System Selection. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Ken; And Others

    A multidisciplinary research team was assembled to review existing computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems for the purpose of enabling staff in the Design Drafting Department at Linn Technical College (Missouri) to select the best system out of the many CAD systems in existence. During the initial stage of the evaluation project, researchers…

  6. Evaluation of Computer-Aided Instruction in a Gross Anatomy Course: A Six-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, John A.; Sonntag, Beth; Sinacore, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Web-based computer-aided instruction (CAI) has become increasingly important to medical curricula. This multi-year study investigated the effectiveness of CAI and the factors affecting level of individual use. Three CAI were tested that differed in specificity of applicability to the curriculum and in the level of student interaction with the CAI.…

  7. Minnesota Computer Aided Library System (MCALS); University of Minnesota Subsystem Cost/Benefits Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourey, Eugene D., Comp.

    The Minnesota Computer Aided Library System (MCALS) provides a basis of unification for library service program development in Minnesota for eventual linkage to the national information network. A prototype plan for communications functions is illustrated. A cost/benefits analysis was made to show the cost/effectiveness potential for MCALS. System…

  8. Effect of Computer-Aided Perspective Drawings on Spatial Orientation and Perspective Drawing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtulus, Aytac

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of computer-aided Perspective Drawings on eighth grade primary school students' achievement in Spatial Orientation and Perspective Drawing. The study made use of pre-test post-test control group experimental design. The study was conducted with thirty 8th grade students attending a primary school…

  9. Effect of Computer-Aided Instruction on Attitude and Achievement of Fifth Grade Math Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Traci L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group study was to test theories of constructivism and motivation, along with research-based teaching practices of differentiating instruction and instructing within a child's Zone of Proximal Development, in measuring the effect of computer-aided instruction on fifth grade students'…

  10. Graphical and Normative Analysis of Binocular Vision by Mini Computer: A Teaching Aid and Clinical Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kees, Martin; Schor, Clifton

    1981-01-01

    An inexpensive computer graphics systems (Commodore PET), used as a video aid for teaching students advanced case analysis, is described. The course provides students with the analytical tools for evaluating with graphical and statistical techniques and treating with lenses, prisms, and orthoptics various anomalies of binocular vision. (MLW)

  11. Performance Measures in Courses Using Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, C. R.; Pear, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    Archived data from four courses taught with computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI)--an online, self-paced, instructional program--were used to explore the relationship between objectively rescored final exam grades, peer reviewing, and progress rate--i.e., the rate at which students completed unit tests. There was a strong…

  12. Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction for the Virtual Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinser, W.; Pear, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI) and its implementations for both on-campus and off-campus teaching at the University of Manitoba. Highlights include electronic mail, student reactions, the use of data that are saved throughout the course, and future possibilities. (Author/LRW)

  13. Gathering Empirical Evidence Concerning Links between Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musta'amal, Aede Hatib; Norman, Eddie; Hodgson, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Discussion is often reported concerning potential links between computer-aided designing and creativity, but there is a lack of systematic enquiry to gather empirical evidence concerning such links. This paper reports an indication of findings from other research studies carried out in contexts beyond general education that have sought evidence…

  14. Prosthetic rehabilitation with an implant-supported fixed prosthesis using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing dental technology for a patient with a mandibulectomy: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-In; Han, Jung-Suk

    2016-02-01

    The fabrication of dental prostheses with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing shows acceptable marginal fits and favorable treatment outcomes. This clinical report describes the management of a patient who had undergone a mandibulectomy and received an implant-supported fixed prosthesis by using additive manufacturing for the framework and subtractive manufacturing for the monolithic zirconia restorations.

  15. Virtual reality versus computer-aided exposure treatments for fear of flying.

    PubMed

    Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Botella, Cristina; Llabrés, Jordi; Bretón-López, Juana María; del Amo, Antonio Riera; Baños, Rosa M; Gelabert, Joan M

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is growing that two modalities of computer-based exposure therapies--virtual reality and computer-aided psychotherapy--are effective in treating anxiety disorders, including fear of flying. However, they have not yet been directly compared. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of three computer-based exposure treatments for fear of flying: virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), computer-aided exposure with a therapist's (CAE-T) assistance throughout exposure sessions, and self-administered computer-aided exposure (CAE-SA). A total of 60 participants with flying phobia were randomly assigned to VRET, CAE-T, or CAE-SA. Results indicate that the three interventions were effective in reducing fear of flying at posttreatment and at 1-year follow-up; furthermore, there were no significant differences between them in any of the outcome measure. Large within-group effect sizes were found for all three treatment conditions at both posttreatment and at follow-up. The results suggest that therapist involvement might be minimized during computer-based treatments and that CAE can be as effective as VRET in reducing fear of flying.

  16. Computer aided detection of oral lesions on CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galib, S.; Islam, F.; Abir, M.; Lee, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    Oral lesions are important findings on computed tomography (CT) images. In this study, a fully automatic method to detect oral lesions in mandibular region from dental CT images is proposed. Two methods were developed to recognize two types of lesions namely (1) Close border (CB) lesions and (2) Open border (OB) lesions, which cover most of the lesion types that can be found on CT images. For the detection of CB lesions, fifteen features were extracted from each initial lesion candidates and multi layer perceptron (MLP) neural network was used to classify suspicious regions. Moreover, OB lesions were detected using a rule based image processing method, where no feature extraction or classification algorithm were used. The results were validated using a CT dataset of 52 patients, where 22 patients had abnormalities and 30 patients were normal. Using non-training dataset, CB detection algorithm yielded 71% sensitivity with 0.31 false positives per patient. Furthermore, OB detection algorithm achieved 100% sensitivity with 0.13 false positives per patient. Results suggest that, the proposed framework, which consists of two methods, has the potential to be used in clinical context, and assist radiologists for better diagnosis.

  17. Aiding Design of Wave Energy Converters via Computational Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebeli Aqdam, Hejar; Ahmadi, Babak; Raessi, Mehdi; Tootkaboni, Mazdak

    2015-11-01

    With the increasing interest in renewable energy sources, wave energy converters will continue to gain attention as a viable alternative to current electricity production methods. It is therefore crucial to develop computational tools for the design and analysis of wave energy converters. A successful design requires balance between the design performance and cost. Here an analytical solution is used for the approximate analysis of interactions between a flap-type wave energy converter (WEC) and waves. The method is verified using other flow solvers and experimental test cases. Then the model is used in conjunction with a powerful heuristic optimization engine, Charged System Search (CSS) to explore the WEC design space. CSS is inspired by charged particles behavior. It searches the design space by considering candidate answers as charged particles and moving them based on the Coulomb's laws of electrostatics and Newton's laws of motion to find the global optimum. Finally the impacts of changes in different design parameters on the power takeout of the superior WEC designs are investigated. National Science Foundation, CBET-1236462.

  18. Variance Analysis and Comparison in Computer-Aided Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, T.; Schiffer, T.; Schinko, C.; Fellner, D. W.

    2011-09-01

    The need to analyze and visualize differences of very similar objects arises in many research areas: mesh compression, scan alignment, nominal/actual value comparison, quality management, and surface reconstruction to name a few. In computer graphics, for example, differences of surfaces are used for analyzing mesh processing algorithms such as mesh compression. They are also used to validate reconstruction and fitting results of laser scanned surfaces. As laser scanning has become very important for the acquisition and preservation of artifacts, scanned representations are used for documentation as well as analysis of ancient objects. Detailed mesh comparisons can reveal smallest changes and damages. These analysis and documentation tasks are needed not only in the context of cultural heritage but also in engineering and manufacturing. Differences of surfaces are analyzed to check the quality of productions. Our contribution to this problem is a workflow, which compares a reference / nominal surface with an actual, laser-scanned data set. The reference surface is a procedural model whose accuracy and systematics describe the semantic properties of an object; whereas the laser-scanned object is a real-world data set without any additional semantic information.

  19. Intraoperative use of a tablet computer to aid rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Tsounis, M; Papadopoulou, D; Faris, C

    2017-01-01

    Open septorhinoplasty enables excellent exposure to the structural components of the nasal tip. Nevertheless, it runs the risk of weakening its support mechanisms, which can lead to notable changes to tip projection and rotation as well as to the nasolabial angle. It is therefore paramount that the surgeon reconstructs the nose to the desired endpoint at the end of the operation. Currently, the gold standard of care in rhinoplasty uses preoperative photographs with the patient sitting or standing. However, this is not a true representation of the face in the operative position as the patient is placed supine and so gravity affects the appearance of the nose in a different way. Other factors such as head drapes and traction on the endotracheal tube can also cause subtle changes. We therefore advocate additional intraoperative profile view photographs to improve the accuracy of nasal tip positioning. In our department, in addition to standard preoperative photographs, immediate preoperative profile photos are taken with the patient supine, intubated and draped. Images are captured using a tablet computer at a distance of 1 meter from the patient. We ensure that the Frankfort plane is perpendicular to the floor. The picture is enlarged so that the image is full scale and the tablet is subsequently placed immediately behind the patient for direct comparison. This is then used during the procedure to check tip projection and rotation as well as at the end of the procedure following closure of the columellar incision to ensure correct placement of the nasal tip.

  20. Integrating structure-based and ligand-based approaches for computational drug design.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gregory L; Lill, Markus A

    2011-04-01

    Methods utilized in computer-aided drug design can be classified into two major categories: structure based and ligand based, using information on the structure of the protein or on the biological and physicochemical properties of bound ligands, respectively. In recent years there has been a trend towards integrating these two methods in order to enhance the reliability and efficiency of computer-aided drug-design approaches by combining information from both the ligand and the protein. This trend resulted in a variety of methods that include: pseudoreceptor methods, pharmacophore methods, fingerprint methods and approaches integrating docking with similarity-based methods. In this article, we will describe the concepts behind each method and selected applications.