Science.gov

Sample records for computer aided intervention

  1. Electromagnetic tracking for abdominal interventions in computer aided surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Banovac, Filip; Lin, Ralph; Glossop, Neil; Wood, Bradford J; Lindisch, David; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-05-01

    Electromagnetic tracking has great potential for assisting physicians in precision placement of instruments during minimally invasive interventions in the abdomen, since electromagnetic tracking is not limited by the line-of-sight restrictions of optical tracking. A new generation of electromagnetic tracking has recently become available, with sensors small enough to be included in the tips of instruments. To fully exploit the potential of this technology, our research group has been developing a computer aided, image-guided system that uses electromagnetic tracking for visualization of the internal anatomy during abdominal interventions. As registration is a critical component in developing an accurate image-guided system, we present three registration techniques: 1) enhanced paired-point registration (time-stamp match registration and dynamic registration); 2) orientation-based registration; and 3) needle shape-based registration. Respiration compensation is another important issue, particularly in the abdomen, where respiratory motion can make precise targeting difficult. To address this problem, we propose reference tracking and affine transformation methods. Finally, we present our prototype navigation system, which integrates the registration, segmentation, path-planning and navigation functions to provide real-time image guidance in the clinical environment. The methods presented here have been tested with a respiratory phantom specially designed by our group and in swine animal studies under approved protocols. Based on these tests, we conclude that our system can provide quick and accurate localization of tracked instruments in abdominal interventions, and that it offers a user-friendly display for the physician.

  2. The Effectiveness of a Tablet Computer-Aided Intervention Program for Improving Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özbek, Ahmet Bilal; Girli, Alev

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of a tablet computer-aided intervention program for improving reading fluency. It also investigates the opinions of students and parents about this intervention by using skill- and performance-based techniques, which have been investigated qualitatively. Three students with a learning…

  3. ASSESSING HIV/AIDS INTERVENTION STRATEGIES USING AN INTEGRATIVE MACRO-MICRO LEVEL COMPUTATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGIC MODELING APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    Tameru, Berhanu; Habtemariam, Tsegaye; Nganwa, David; Gerbi, Gemechu; Bogale, Asseged; Robnett, Vinaida; Wilson, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiologic research involves the study of a complex set of host, environmental and causative agent factors as they interact to impact health and diseases in any population. The most advanced of these efforts have focused on micro (cellular) or macro (human) population level studies but lacked the integrative framework as presented in this article. Modeling the cumulative impact of HIV/AIDS at the cellular, molecular, and individual behaviors at the population-level can be complex. The main objective of our research is to develop a macro-micro level computational epidemiologic model that integrates the dynamic interplay of HIV/AIDS at the cellular and molecular level (micro-epidemiologic modeling), and the dynamic interplay of multifactorial determinants: biomedical, behavioral, and socioeconomic factors at the human population level (macro-epidemiologic modeling). Methods The computational epidemiologic model was constructed using systems dynamics modeling methodology. The dynamics of the relationships was described by means of ordinary/partial differential equations. All state equations in the model were approximated using the Runge-Kutta 4th order numerical approximation method. Results Computational tools and mathematical approaches that integrate models from micro to macro levels in a seamless fashion have been developed to study the population-level effects of various intervention strategies on HIV/AIDS. The critical variables that facilitate transmission of HIV and intracellular interactions and molecular kinetics were examined to assess different interventions strategies. Such multilevel models are essential if we are to develop quantitative, predictive models of complex biological systems such as HIV/AIDS. PMID:20521416

  4. Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard

    This document contains course outlines in computer-aided manufacturing developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The four units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM); (2) CAM…

  5. Computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for children using cochlear implants or hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia; Lyxell, Björn; Sahlén, Birgitta; Dahlström, Orjan; Lindgren, Magnus; Ors, Marianne; Kallioinen, Petter; Uhlén, Inger

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children in Sweden using cochlear implants or hearing aids, or a combination of both. The study included 48 children, 5, 6 and 7 years of age. Sixteen children with normal hearing (NH) served as a reference group. The first purpose of the study was to compare NH and DHH children's reading ability at pre and post-intervention. The second purpose was to investigate effects of the intervention. Cognitive and demographic factors were analyzed in relation to reading improvement. Results showed no statistically significant difference for reading ability at the group level, although NH children showed overall higher reading scores at both test points. Age comparisons revealed a statistically significant higher reading ability in the NH 7-year-olds compared to the DHH 7-year-olds. The intervention proved successful for word decoding accuracy, passage comprehension and as a reduction of nonword decoding errors in both NH and DHH children. Reading improvement was associated with complex working memory and phonological processing skills in NH children. Correspondent associations were observed with visual working memory and letter knowledge in the DHH children. Age was the only demographic factor that was significantly correlated with reading improvement. The results suggest that DHH children's beginning reading may be influenced by visual strategies that might explain the reading delay in the older children. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Computer Aided Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Explores the conceptual components of a computer program designed to enhance creative thinking and reviews software that aims to stimulate creative thinking. Discusses BRAIN and ORACLE, programs intended to aid in creative problem solving. (JOW)

  7. Computer Aided Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Explores the conceptual components of a computer program designed to enhance creative thinking and reviews software that aims to stimulate creative thinking. Discusses BRAIN and ORACLE, programs intended to aid in creative problem solving. (JOW)

  8. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  9. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  10. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  11. Is Computer-Aided Instruction an Effective Tier-One Intervention for Kindergarten Students at Risk for Reading Failure in an Applied Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreskey, Donna DeVaughn; Truscott, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) as an intervention for kindergarten students at risk for reading failure. Headsprout Early Reading (Headsprout 2005), a type of CAI, provides internet-based, reading instruction incorporating the critical components of reading instruction cited by the National Reading Panel (NRP…

  12. Is Computer-Aided Instruction an Effective Tier-One Intervention for Kindergarten Students at Risk for Reading Failure in an Applied Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreskey, Donna DeVaughn; Truscott, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) as an intervention for kindergarten students at risk for reading failure. Headsprout Early Reading (Headsprout 2005), a type of CAI, provides internet-based, reading instruction incorporating the critical components of reading instruction cited by the National Reading Panel (NRP…

  13. Computer aided drug design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, A.

    2017-08-01

    Computer based method can help in discovery of leads and can potentially eliminate chemical synthesis and screening of many irrelevant compounds, and in this way, it save time as well as cost. Molecular modeling systems are powerful tools for building, visualizing, analyzing and storing models of complex molecular structure that can help to interpretate structure activity relationship. The use of various techniques of molecular mechanics and dynamics and software in Computer aided drug design along with statistics analysis is powerful tool for the medicinal chemistry to synthesis therapeutic and effective drugs with minimum side effect.

  14. From Medical Image Computing to Computer Aided Intervention: Development of a Research Interface for Image Guided Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Papademetris, Xenophon; DeLorenzo, Christine; Flossmann, Sven; Neff, Markus; Vives, Kenneth P.; Spencer, Dennis D.; Staib, Lawrence H.; Duncan, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper describes the development and application of a research interface to integrate research image analysis software with a commercial image guided surgery navigation system. This interface enables bi-directional transfer of data such as images, visualizations and tool positions in real time. Methods We describe both the design and the application programming interface of the research interface, as well as show the function of an example client program. The resulting interface provides a practical and versatile link for bringing image analysis research techniques into the operating room (OR). Results We present examples from the successful use of this research interface in both phantom experiments and in real neurosurgeries. In particular we demonstrate that the integrated dual-computer system achieves tool tracking performance that is comparable to the more typical single-computer scenario. Conclusions Network interfaces for this type are viable solutions for the integration of commercial image-guided navigation systems and research software. PMID:19301361

  15. Accelerated Peri-Implant Soft Tissue Conditioning With Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Technology and Surgical Intervention: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hyoung; Sohn, Dong-Seok

    2015-12-01

    The conventional soft tissue conditioning technique around implant demands time and effort for optimizing soft tissue contour. This article describes an alternative technique for achieving proper emergence profile with a custom-milled titanium abutment, interim restoration, and surgical intervention. With this technique, peri-implant soft tissue is conditioned and healed against a correct designed interim restoration without composite resin addition.

  16. Computer-aided manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, E. J.

    1981-11-01

    The present status and near term applications of computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is discussed. Introduction of CAM is projected to speed medium range production, for products which are batch processed, and to help ease the shortage of skilled machinists. Primary technical problems are to increase the versatility of the systems, to automate maintenance, and to automate machine component assembly. The state of the art in flexible machining systems is reviewed and flow charts are provided for interfaces between the master control, the direct numerical control, and data entry units, to allow communication between the operator and the central minicomputer. A fully automated factory is expected to be built in the mid-1980's, and the development of a metamorphic machine, consisting of a number of modules that can assemble themselves on command into a variety of machine tools, in Japan is noted.

  17. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  18. Computer Aids to Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krollmann, Friedrich

    1981-01-01

    Describes the structure and modes of operation of the Bundessprachenamt's (BSprA: Federal Office of Languages of the Federal Republic of Germany) terminology data bank as an aid to translation. Analyzes advantages and disadvantages of each user mode, and discusses probable developments in the immediate future of machine-aided translation. (MES)

  19. A Three-Phase Decision Model of Computer-Aided Coding for the Iranian Classification of Health Interventions (IRCHI).

    PubMed

    Azadmanjir, Zahra; Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeedi, Marjan; Mokhtaran, Mehrshad; Kameli, Mohammad Esmail

    2017-06-01

    Accurate coded data in the healthcare are critical. Computer-Assisted Coding (CAC) is an effective tool to improve clinical coding in particular when a new classification will be developed and implemented. But determine the appropriate method for development need to consider the specifications of existing CAC systems, requirements for each type, our infrastructure and also, the classification scheme. The aim of the study was the development of a decision model for determining accurate code of each medical intervention in Iranian Classification of Health Interventions (IRCHI) that can be implemented as a suitable CAC system. first, a sample of existing CAC systems was reviewed. Then feasibility of each one of CAC types was examined with regard to their prerequisites for their implementation. The next step, proper model was proposed according to the structure of the classification scheme and was implemented as an interactive system. There is a significant relationship between the level of assistance of a CAC system and integration of it with electronic medical documents. Implementation of fully automated CAC systems is impossible due to immature development of electronic medical record and problems in using language for medical documenting. So, a model was proposed to develop semi-automated CAC system based on hierarchical relationships between entities in the classification scheme and also the logic of decision making to specify the characters of code step by step through a web-based interactive user interface for CAC. It was composed of three phases to select Target, Action and Means respectively for an intervention. The proposed model was suitable the current status of clinical documentation and coding in Iran and also, the structure of new classification scheme. Our results show it was practical. However, the model needs to be evaluated in the next stage of the research.

  20. A Three-Phase Decision Model of Computer-Aided Coding for the Iranian Classification of Health Interventions (IRCHI)

    PubMed Central

    Azadmanjir, Zahra; Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeedi, Marjan; Mokhtaran, Mehrshad; Kameli, Mohammad Esmail

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Accurate coded data in the healthcare are critical. Computer-Assisted Coding (CAC) is an effective tool to improve clinical coding in particular when a new classification will be developed and implemented. But determine the appropriate method for development need to consider the specifications of existing CAC systems, requirements for each type, our infrastructure and also, the classification scheme. Aim: The aim of the study was the development of a decision model for determining accurate code of each medical intervention in Iranian Classification of Health Interventions (IRCHI) that can be implemented as a suitable CAC system. Methods: first, a sample of existing CAC systems was reviewed. Then feasibility of each one of CAC types was examined with regard to their prerequisites for their implementation. The next step, proper model was proposed according to the structure of the classification scheme and was implemented as an interactive system. Results: There is a significant relationship between the level of assistance of a CAC system and integration of it with electronic medical documents. Implementation of fully automated CAC systems is impossible due to immature development of electronic medical record and problems in using language for medical documenting. So, a model was proposed to develop semi-automated CAC system based on hierarchical relationships between entities in the classification scheme and also the logic of decision making to specify the characters of code step by step through a web-based interactive user interface for CAC. It was composed of three phases to select Target, Action and Means respectively for an intervention. Conclusion: The proposed model was suitable the current status of clinical documentation and coding in Iran and also, the structure of new classification scheme. Our results show it was practical. However, the model needs to be evaluated in the next stage of the research. PMID:28883671

  1. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1990-02-19

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

  2. Computer Aided Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Elisabeth

    An approach to using the computer to assemble German tests is described. The purposes of the system would be: (1) an expansion of the bilingual lexical memory bank to list and store idioms of all degrees of difficulty, with frequency data and with complete and sophisticated retrieval possibility for assembly; (2) the creation of an…

  3. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R E

    1987-11-01

    The aims of this research are the creation of new surface forms and the determination of geometric and physical properties of surfaces. The full sweep from constructive mathematics through the implementation of algorithms and the interactive computer graphics display of surfaces is utilized. Both three-dimensional and multi- dimensional surfaces are considered. Particular emphasis is given to the scientific computing solution of Department of Energy problems. The methods that we have developed and that we are proposing to develop allow applications such as: Producing smooth contour maps from measured data, such as weather maps. Modeling the heat distribution inside a furnace from sample measurements. Terrain modeling based on satellite pictures. The investigation of new surface forms includes the topics of triangular interpolants, multivariate interpolation, surfaces defined on surfaces and monotone and/or convex surfaces. The geometric and physical properties considered include contours, the intersection of surfaces, curvatures as a interrogation tool, and numerical integration.

  4. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1991-04-02

    Modern computing resources permit the generation of large amounts of numerical data. These large data sets, if left in numerical form, can be overwhelming. Such large data sets are usually discrete points from some underlying physical phenomenon. Because we need to evaluate the phenomenon at places where we don't have data, a continuous representation (a surface'') is required. A simple example is a weather map obtained from a discrete set of weather stations. (For more examples including multi-dimensional ones, see the article by Dr. Rosemary Chang in the enclosed IRIS Universe). In order to create a scientific structure encompassing the data, we construct an interpolating mathematical surface which can evaluate at arbitrary locations. We can also display and analyze the results via interactive computer graphics. In our research we construct a very wide variety of surfaces for applied geometry problems that have sound theoretical foundations. However, our surfaces have the distinguishing feature that they are constructed to solve short or long term practical problems. This DOE-funded project has developed the premiere research team in the subject of constructing surfaces (3D and higher dimensional) that provide smooth representations of real scientific and engineering information, including state of the art computer graphics visualizations. However, our main contribution is in the development of fundamental constructive mathematical methods and visualization techniques which can be incorporated into a wide variety of applications. This project combines constructive mathematics, algorithms, and computer graphics, all applied to real problems. The project is a unique resource, considered by our peers to be a de facto national center for this type of research.

  5. The Effectiveness of a Single Intervention of Computer-Aided Argument Mapping in a Marketing and a Financial Accounting Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Michal; Chen, Richard; Davies, Martin; Kaur, Jagjit; Neville, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    An argument map visually represents the structure of an argument, outlining its informal logical connections and informing judgments as to its worthiness. Argument mapping can be augmented with dedicated software that aids the mapping process. Empirical evidence suggests that semester-length subjects using argument mapping along with dedicated…

  6. The Effectiveness of a Single Intervention of Computer-Aided Argument Mapping in a Marketing and a Financial Accounting Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Michal; Chen, Richard; Davies, Martin; Kaur, Jagjit; Neville, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    An argument map visually represents the structure of an argument, outlining its informal logical connections and informing judgments as to its worthiness. Argument mapping can be augmented with dedicated software that aids the mapping process. Empirical evidence suggests that semester-length subjects using argument mapping along with dedicated…

  7. Computer aided airship design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. J.; Rosenstein, H.

    1975-01-01

    The Comprehensive Airship Sizing and Performance Computer Program (CASCOMP) is described which was developed and used in the design and evaluation of advanced lighter-than-air (LTA) craft. The program defines design details such as engine size and number, component weight buildups, required power, and the physical dimensions of airships which are designed to meet specified mission requirements. The program is used in a comparative parametric evaluation of six advanced lighter-than-air concepts. The results indicate that fully buoyant conventional airships have the lightest gross lift required when designed for speeds less than 100 knots and the partially buoyant concepts are superior above 100 knots. When compared on the basis of specific productivity, which is a measure of the direct operating cost, the partially buoyant lifting body/tilting prop-rotor concept is optimum.

  8. Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, S. J.; Stiffler, J. J.; Bryant, L. A.; Petersen, P. L.

    1986-01-01

    CARE III (Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation, Third Generation) helps estimate reliability of complex, redundant, fault-tolerant systems. Program specifically designed for evaluation of fault-tolerant avionics systems. However, CARE III general enough for use in evaluation of other systems as well.

  9. Computer Aided Drafting. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Michael A.

    This guide is intended for use in introducing students to the operation and applications of computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons: understanding CAD (CAD versus traditional manual drafting and care of software and hardware); using the components of a CAD system (primary and other input…

  10. Computer-Aided Geometry Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoosmith, J. N. (Compiler); Fulton, R. E. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Techniques in computer-aided geometry modeling and their application are addressed. Mathematical modeling, solid geometry models, management of geometric data, development of geometry standards, and interactive and graphic procedures are discussed. The applications include aeronautical and aerospace structures design, fluid flow modeling, and gas turbine design.

  11. Development of Computer-Aided Cognitive Training Program for Elderly and Its Effectiveness through a 6 Months Group Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Tsunehiro; Tanemura, Rumi; Noda, Kazue; Nagao, Toru; Sakai, Hiroshi; Luo, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Since the increasing population of aging, cognitive training is focused as one of the non-pharmacological preventive approach of cognitive decline. Although the accumulation of the knowledge, they hardly reflect to the programs for clinical use. We developed a task set named "Atama-no-dojo," designed to activate multiple cognitive functions and enhance motivational incentives. The objective of our study is to confirm the effect of our program through a 6 months group intervention program. The intervention program conducted in a day service center for 6 months in the duration of 45 minutes per day, 4 days per month for a total of 25 sessions. Participants worked to the tasks on the screen all together with filling in the answering sheet. Neuropsychological tests, SF36 and GDS were assessed at pre-/post-intervention periods. Participants filled in a questionnaire about impression to the program at the last training session. Fourteen women (82.2 ± 2.9 years old) were analyzed and significant changes were found in the improvement of memory, attention, inhibition, GDS and some items of SF36. All participants recognized the program as fun and wanted to continue. Some of the participants' positive impressions to the program correlated to cognitive improvement. The improved cognitive functions by 6 months intervention of "Atama-no-dojo" were mainly related to prefrontal cortex and the motivational incentives seemed supported the effect of task contents. We recognized the importance of task difficulty setting and motivational incentives to reduce frustration from working on difficult tasks and enhance the effects of improvement from activating brain function.

  12. Computer aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    The application of computer technology to the construction of the NASA Thesaurus and in NASA Lexical Dictionary development is discussed in a brief overview. Consideration is given to the printed and online versions of the Thesaurus, retrospective indexing, the NASA RECON frequency command, demand indexing, lists of terms by category, and the STAR and IAA annual subject indexes. The evolution of computer methods in the Lexical Dictionary program is traced, from DOD and DOE subject switching to LCSH machine-aided indexing and current techniques for handling natural language (e.g., the elimination of verbs to facilitate breakdown of sentences into words and phrases).

  13. Computer aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    The application of computer technology to the construction of the NASA Thesaurus and in NASA Lexical Dictionary development is discussed in a brief overview. Consideration is given to the printed and online versions of the Thesaurus, retrospective indexing, the NASA RECON frequency command, demand indexing, lists of terms by category, and the STAR and IAA annual subject indexes. The evolution of computer methods in the Lexical Dictionary program is traced, from DOD and DOE subject switching to LCSH machine-aided indexing and current techniques for handling natural language (e.g., the elimination of verbs to facilitate breakdown of sentences into words and phrases).

  14. Computer-Aided Remote Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    1994-01-01

    System for remote control of robotic land vehicle requires only small radio-communication bandwidth. Twin video cameras on vehicle create stereoscopic images. Operator views cross-polarized images on two cathode-ray tubes through correspondingly polarized spectacles. By use of cursor on frozen image, remote operator designates path. Vehicle proceeds to follow path, by use of limited degree of autonomous control to cope with unexpected conditions. System concept, called "computer-aided remote driving" (CARD), potentially useful in exploration of other planets, military surveillance, firefighting, and clean-up of hazardous materials.

  15. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  16. Computer-aided system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  17. Computer Instructional Aids for Undergraduate Control Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volz, Richard A.; And Others

    Engineering is coming to rely more and more heavily upon the computer for computations, analyses, and graphic displays which aid the design process. A general purpose simulation system, the Time-shared Automatic Control Laboratory (TACL), and a set of computer-aided design programs, Control Oriented Interactive Graphic Analysis and Design…

  18. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  19. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  20. Computer-aided design and computer science technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Voigt, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A description is presented of computer-aided design requirements and the resulting computer science advances needed to support aerospace design. The aerospace design environment is examined, taking into account problems of data handling and aspects of computer hardware and software. The interactive terminal is normally the primary interface between the computer system and the engineering designer. Attention is given to user aids, interactive design, interactive computations, the characteristics of design information, data management requirements, hardware advancements, and computer science developments.

  1. Quality Indexing with Computer-Aided Lexicography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchan, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of computer-aided indexing activity focuses on examples from projects at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Standardization and quality in providing subject access to databases are considered; and computer-aided lexicography, including thesaurus construction, access vocabulary, definitions preparation,…

  2. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  3. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  4. New Paradigms for Computer Aids to Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, M. Diane

    Many people are interested in computer aids to rhetorical invention and want to know how to evaluate an invention aid, what the criteria are for a good one, and how to assess the trade-offs involved in buying one product or another. The frame of reference for this evaluation is an "old paradigm," which treats the computer as if it were…

  5. Computer aided engineering analysis of automotive bumpers

    SciTech Connect

    Glance, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a description of a general purpose, computer-aided engineering design methodology which has been employed in the design of automotive bumper systems. A comparison of computer-aided analysis predictions with actual test data is presented. Two case histories of bumper system designs are discussed.

  6. User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

  7. User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

  8. Interactive computer aided shift scheduling.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, J

    2001-12-01

    This paper starts with a discussion of computer aided shift scheduling. After a brief review of earlier approaches, two conceptualizations of this field are introduced: First, shift scheduling as a field that ranges from extremely stable rosters at one pole to rather market-like approaches on the other pole. Unfortunately, already small alterations of a scheduling problem (e.g., the number of groups, the number of shifts) may call for rather different approaches and tools. Second, their environment shapes scheduling problems and scheduling has to be done within idiosyncratic organizational settings. This calls for the amalgamation of scheduling with other tasks (e.g., accounting) and for reflections whether better solutions might become possible by changes in the problem definition (e.g., other service levels, organizational changes). Therefore shift scheduling should be understood as a highly connected problem. Building upon these two conceptualizations, a few examples of software that ease scheduling in some areas of this field are given and future research questions are outlined.

  9. Computer-aided design of LSI topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliutin, V. A.

    The problems and methods of the computer-aided design of the topology of LSI circuits and computer-aided manufacture of LSI templates are reviewed. Topics discussed include algorithms for the layout of cells and circuit units, algorithms for tracing connections, the design of the topology of matrix LSI, and the topology of functional LSI circuit units based on MIS structures. The discussion also covers the design of the layout of LSI circuits with single-layer commutation, application examples, and the main trends in the computer-aided design of LSI circuits.

  10. Computer-Aided Medical Diagnosis. Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-15

    BOUCKAERT, A., Computer-aided diagnosis of goitres in a cancer department, Int. J. Bio-’Med. Comput., 3 (1972) p. 3. BOYLE, J. A., GREIG, W. R., FRANKLIN, D...toxic goitre , Q. J. Med., 35 (1966) p. 565. Bricetti, A. B. and Bleich, H. L., A computer program that evaluates patients with hypercalcemia, J

  11. Prerequisites for Computer-Aided Cognitive Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legrand, Colette

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes computer-aided cognitive rehabilitation for mentally deficient persons. It lists motor, cognitive, emotional, and educational prerequisites to such rehabilitation and states advantages and disadvantages in using the prerequisites. (JDD)

  12. Quality indexing with computer-aided lexicography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Indexing with computers is a far cry from indexing with the first indexing tool, the manual card sorter. With the aid of computer-aided lexicography, both indexing and indexing tools can provide standardization, consistency, and accuracy, resulting in greater quality control than ever before. A brief survey of computer activity in indexing is presented with detailed illustrations from NASA activity. Applications from techniques mentioned, such as Retrospective Indexing (RI), can be made to many indexing systems. In addition to improving the quality of indexing with computers, the improved efficiency with which certain tasks can be done is demonstrated.

  13. Computers: The New Classroom Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The articles in this journal issue describe various aspects of the computer revolution's impact on social studies teaching. The first two articles address the theoretical background of computer implementation in social studies classrooms. Robert Consigli and Mark Jarrett describe how the computer should be used in "The Social Studies Revolution…

  14. Computer Code Aids Design Of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.; Darden, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    AERO2S computer code developed to aid design engineers in selection and evaluation of aerodynamically efficient wing/canard and wing/horizontal-tail configurations that includes simple hinged-flap systems. Code rapidly estimates longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of conceptual airplane lifting-surface arrangements. Developed in FORTRAN V on CDC 6000 computer system, and ported to MS-DOS environment.

  15. Computer-Aided Instruction and Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euler, Dieter

    1990-01-01

    Investigates effect of computer-aided instruction (CAI) on acquisition of communication skills. Sketches a tutorial of the basic communication structure. Recommends confining CAI to cognitive learning because CAI cannot advance communication skills. Maintains that integrating CAI in social arrangements will allow the computer to remain an…

  16. Computer Code Aids Design Of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.; Darden, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    AERO2S computer code developed to aid design engineers in selection and evaluation of aerodynamically efficient wing/canard and wing/horizontal-tail configurations that includes simple hinged-flap systems. Code rapidly estimates longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of conceptual airplane lifting-surface arrangements. Developed in FORTRAN V on CDC 6000 computer system, and ported to MS-DOS environment.

  17. A computer-aided regulator design.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmarkar, J. S.; Siljak, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    A unified computer-aided method for the design of linear and nonlinear regulators is discussed. The general mathematical programming approach considered involves the determination of a vector that solves the problem of minimizing the objective function subject to constraints. Classical design problems stated are related to stability design, dominant mode design, and comprehensive design. A computer algorithm is also developed.

  18. Integrated Computer-Aided Drafting Instruction (ICADI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, C. Y.; McCampbell, David H.

    Until recently, computer-aided drafting and design (CAD) systems were almost exclusively operated on mainframes or minicomputers and their cost prohibited many schools from offering CAD instruction. Today, many powerful personal computers are capable of performing the high-speed calculation and analysis required by the CAD application; however,…

  19. Photogrammetry and computer-aided piping design

    SciTech Connect

    Keneflick, J.F.; Chirillo, R.D.

    1985-02-18

    Three-dimensional measurements taken from photographs of a plant model can be digitized and linked with computer-aided piping design. This can short-cut the design and construction of new plants and expedite repair and retrofitting projects. Some designers bridge the gap between model and computer by digitizing from orthographic prints obtained via orthography or the laser scanning of model sections. Such valve or fitting then processed is described in this paper. The marriage of photogrammetry and computer-aided piping design can economically produce such numerical drawings.

  20. Computer-aided detection of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Llobet, Rafael; Pérez-Cortés, Juan C; Toselli, Alejandro H; Juan, Alfons

    2007-07-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in men and is a major cause of mortality in developed countries. Detection of prostate carcinoma at an early stage is crucial for successful treatment. A method for the analysis of transrectal ultrasound images aimed at computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer is tested in this paper. First, two classifiers based on k-nearest neighbors and Hidden Markov models are compared. Second, the diagnostic capacity of our system is tested by means of a set of experiments where humans with varying degrees of experience classified a set of ultrasound images with and without the aid of the computer-aided system. The corpus used in this study was specifically acquired for this purpose. It consists of 4944 ultrasound images corresponding to 303 patients, and is publicly available for non-commercial use upon request. The best classification results achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 61.6%. However, the diagnostic capacity of an expert urologist using the computer-aided system improves only slightly compared with his/her capacity without the aid of the system. Despite the difficulty of this task, the obtained results indicate that discrimination between cancerous and non-cancerous tissue is possible to a certain degree. The computer-aided system helps an inexperienced user to make a better diagnosis, however it must be able to perform better in order to be useful in a real-world clinical context.

  1. The Computer as Library Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truett, Carol

    1983-01-01

    Discusses use of computer programs in handling such library tasks as cataloging, inventory, and circulation. Reviews several programs and provides a listing of available library software. These include library catalog programs, circulation/overdues programs, and inventory control. (JN)

  2. Engineering Technology Programs Courses Guide for Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide describes the requirements for courses in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) that are part of engineering technology programs conducted in vocational-technical schools in Georgia. The guide is organized in five sections. The first section provides a rationale for occupations in design and in production,…

  3. Engineering Technology Programs Courses Guide for Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide describes the requirements for courses in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) that are part of engineering technology programs conducted in vocational-technical schools in Georgia. The guide is organized in five sections. The first section provides a rationale for occupations in design and in production,…

  4. Computer-aided decision making.

    Treesearch

    Keith M. Reynolds; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2006-01-01

    Several major classes of software technologies have been used in decisionmaking for forest management applications over the past few decades. These computer-based technologies include mathematical programming, expert systems, network models, multi-criteria decisionmaking, and integrated systems. Each technology possesses unique advantages and disadvantages, and has...

  5. COMPUTER-AIDED WORD RESEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SILIAKUS, H.J.

    IN PREPARATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A GENERAL FREQUENCY WORD LIST IN GERMAN DESIGNED TO MEET THE NEEDS OF THE INTERMEDIATE AND ADVANCED LEVELS OF READING IN THE GERMAN CURRICULUM, A COMPUTER-BASED WORD COUNT WAS BEGUN IN AUSTRALIA'S UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE. USING MAGNETIC TAPES CONTAINING (1) A TEXT OF OVER 100,000 RUNNING WORDS, (2) 1,000 MOST…

  6. Computer Aided Drug Design: Success and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mohammad Hassan; Ahmad, Khurshid; Roy, Sudeep; Ashraf, Jalaluddin Mohammad; Adil, Mohd; Siddiqui, Mohammad Haris; Khan, Saif; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Provazník, Ivo; Choi, Inho

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, computer-aided drug design has emerged as a powerful technique playing a crucial role in the development of new drug molecules. Structure-based drug design and ligand-based drug design are two methods commonly used in computer-aided drug design. In this article, we discuss the theory behind both methods, as well as their successful applications and limitations. To accomplish this, we reviewed structure based and ligand based virtual screening processes. Molecular dynamics simulation, which has become one of the most influential tool for prediction of the conformation of small molecules and changes in their conformation within the biological target, has also been taken into account. Finally, we discuss the principles and concepts of molecular docking, pharmacophores and other methods used in computer-aided drug design.

  7. CAFE: Computer aided fabric evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.E.

    1994-05-06

    With the intent of automating the inspection of color printed fabrics for defects, the Engineering Research Division of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in addition with several other national labs, in conjunction with the textile industry has initiated the CAFE project. The projects objective is predicated on the development, implementation and testing of an algorithm for the inspection of color printed fabrics. We attempt to take advantage of the wide ranging applications possible with Computer Vision in order to achieve this. The first job of the algorithm is to teach the computer the {open_quote}correct{close_quote} repeat as the reference, tests the remaining repeats in the pattern. There are two different ways to go about doing the first job and with this paper we will describe both methods.

  8. Computer Aided Authoring and Editing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    information in to reduce the cost and time required for various forms or to repeat it in various authors to create documents that teach places, the computer... teach this Skill, first the displayed and minor editorial changes task was divided into parts. Docu~ments were made using word processing type with...training illustrates this point. The teaching of weather symbols, Navy flags and Morse code represent a a NAE OFFINffRO ;;171wparticular class of

  9. Machine Learning for Computer-aided Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Mitsutaka; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Nomura, Yukihiro; Hanaoka, Shohei; Miki, Soichiro; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Ootomo, Kuni

    Machine learning algorithms are to analyze any dataset to extract data-driven model, prediction rule, or decision rule from the dataset. Various machine learning algorithms are now used to develop high-performance medical image processing systems such as computer-aided detection (CADe) system which detects clinically significant objects from medical images and computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system which quantifies malignancy of manually or automatically detected clinical objects. In this paper, we introduce some applications of machine learning algorithms to the development of medical image processing system.

  10. Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowell, Louis

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management at John F. Kennedy Space Center. The contents include: 1) Corrosion at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC); 2) Requirements and Objectives; 3) Program Description, Background and History; 4) Approach and Implementation; 5) Challenges; 6) Lessons Learned; 7) Successes and Benefits; and 8) Summary and Conclusions.

  11. Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics: Software Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yushau, B.; Bokhari, M. A.; Wessels, D. C. J.

    2004-01-01

    Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics (CALM) has been in use for some time in the Prep-Year Mathematics Program at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. Different kinds of software (both locally designed and imported) have been used in the quest of optimizing the recitation/problem session hour of the mathematics classes. This paper…

  12. Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics: Software Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yushau, B.; Bokhari, M. A.; Wessels, D. C. J.

    2004-01-01

    Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics (CALM) has been in use for some time in the Prep-Year Mathematics Program at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. Different kinds of software (both locally designed and imported) have been used in the quest of optimizing the recitation/problem session hour of the mathematics classes. This paper…

  13. Computer-Aided Design in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Peter, Ed.

    This publication updates the 1982 occasional paper that was intended to foster staff awareness and assist colleges in Great Britain considering the use of computer-aided design (CAD) material in engineering courses. The paper begins by defining CAD and its place in the Integrated Business System with a brief discussion of the effect of CAD on the…

  14. Computer-Aided Design in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Peter, Ed.

    This publication updates the 1982 occasional paper that was intended to foster staff awareness and assist colleges in Great Britain considering the use of computer-aided design (CAD) material in engineering courses. The paper begins by defining CAD and its place in the Integrated Business System with a brief discussion of the effect of CAD on the…

  15. Computer-aided light sheet flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Kathryn; Severance, Kurt; Childers, Brooks A.

    1993-01-01

    A computer-aided flow visualization process has been developed to analyze video images acquired from rotating and translating light sheet visualization systems. The computer process integrates a mathematical model for image reconstruction, advanced computer graphics concepts, and digital image processing to provide a quantitative and visual analysis capability. The image reconstruction model, based on photogrammetry, uses knowledge of the camera and light sheet locations and orientations to project two-dimensional light sheet video images into three-dimensional space. A sophisticated computer visualization package, commonly used to analyze computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data sets, was chosen to interactively display the reconstructed light sheet images, along with the numerical surface geometry for the model or aircraft under study. A description is provided of the photogrammetric reconstruction technique, and the image processing and computer graphics techniques and equipment. Results of the computer aided process applied to both a wind tunnel translating light sheet experiment and an in-flight rotating light sheet experiment are presented. The capability to compare reconstructed experimental light sheet images and CFD solutions in the same graphics environment is also demonstrated.

  16. Computer-Aided Light Sheet Flow Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Kathryn; Severance, Kurt; Childers, Brooks A.

    1993-01-01

    A computer-aided flow visualization process has been developed to analyze video images acquired from rotating and translating light sheet visualization systems. The computer process integrates a mathematical model for image reconstruction, advanced computer graphics concepts, and digital image processing to provide a quantitative and visual analysis capability. The image reconstruction model, based on photogrammetry, uses knowledge of the camera and light sheet locations and orientations to project two-dimensional light sheet video images into three-dimensional space. A sophisticated computer visualization package, commonly used to analyze computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data sets, was chosen to interactively display the reconstructed light sheet images, along with the numerical surface geometry for the model or aircraft under study. A description is provided of the photogrammetric reconstruction technique, and the image processing and computer graphics techniques and equipment. Results of the computer aided process applied to both a wind tunnel translating light sheet experiment and an in-flight rotating light sheet experiment are presented. The capability to compare reconstructed experimental light sheet images and CFD solutions in the same graphics environment is also demonstrated.

  17. Continuing education through computer-aided instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.

    1981-01-01

    Computer-aided and managed instruction has been incorporated into the continuing education program in the Electronics Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two Control Data Corporation PLATO terminals have been installed in the learning center, and have been providing individualized instruction to the employees for approximately 2 years. Reactions from users and total usage figures indicate that there are unique advantages to computer-aided instruction. User interaction with a computer assures individual response from a student. The learner must be actively involved in the course and cannot passively allow content to flow by. Complex simulations can be programed and used in the learning process; thus, expensive equipment can be spared the wear and tear attributed to learners. The breadth of course topics included in the on-line library assures that PLATO has a continuing education offering for most employees. New lessons appear on line at the rate of three or four per week; PLATO cost effectiveness is thus certified. Comparisons of courses taken on the terminal to the same or similar courses offered elsewhere indicate that PLATO is advantageous. Computer-aided instruction is available when the learner is ready for initial instruction and later for reviews. At Los Alamos, the demand for PLATO service is growing. The Laboratory will have eight terminals installed and operating by April 1981. 8 tables.

  18. CAVES - Computer-Aided Vehicle Embarkation System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    14. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES It. KEY WORDS (Continue on rewer@* olde it necessary and identify by block number) Pallet loading Vehicle loading Cutting...loading problem. A computer-aided vehicle embarkation system (CAVES) is developed to assist embarkation personnel to load vehicles on board a ship. Caves...load vehicles on board a ship. CAVES provides the Embarkation Officer the flexibility and portability needed to make real time decisions about vehicle

  19. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-12-16

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  20. Computer aided nonlinear electrical networks analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slapnicar, P.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques used in simulating an electrical circuit with nonlinear elements for use in computer-aided circuit analysis programs are described. Elements of the circuit include capacitors, resistors, inductors, transistors, diodes, and voltage and current sources (constant or time varying). Simulation features are discussed for dc, ac, and/or transient circuit analysis. Calculations are based on the model approach of formulating the circuit equations. A particular solution of transient analysis for nonlinear storage elements is described.

  1. A rule based computer aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1986-01-01

    A Computer Aided Design (CAD) system is presented which supports the iterative process of design, the dimensional continuity between mating parts, and the hierarchical structure of the parts in their assembled configuration. Prolog, an interactive logic programming language, is used to represent and interpret the data base. The solid geometry representing the parts is defined in parameterized form using the swept volume method. The system is demonstrated with a design of a spring piston.

  2. Computer-assisted instruction in programming: AID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, J.; Atkinson, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Lessons for training students on how to program and operate computers to and AID language are given. The course consists of a set of 50 lessons, plus summaries, reviews, tests, and extra credit problems. No prior knowledge is needed for the course, the only requirement being a strong background in algebra. A student manual, which includes instruction for operating the instructional program and a glossary of terms used in the course, is included in the appendices.

  3. Perceptual challenges to computer-aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yulei

    2012-03-01

    We review the motivation and development of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in diagnostic medical imaging, particularly in breast cancer screening. After briefly describe in generic terms of typical CAD methods, we focus on the question of whether CAD helps improve diagnostic accuracy. We review both studies that support the notion that CAD helps improve diagnostic accuracy and studies that do not. We further identify difficulties in conducting this type of evaluation studies and suggest areas of perceptual challenges to applications of CAD.

  4. An intervention for parents with AIDS and their adolescent children.

    PubMed

    Rotheram-Borus, M J; Lee, M B; Gwadz, M; Draimin, B

    2001-08-01

    This study evaluated an intervention designed to improve behavioral and mental health outcomes among adolescents and their parents with AIDS. Parents with AIDS (n = 307) and their adolescent children (n = 412) were randomly assigned to an intensive intervention or a standard care control condition. Ninety-five percent of subjects were reassessed at least once annually over 2 years. Adolescents in the intensive intervention condition reported significantly lower levels of emotional distress, of multiple problem behaviors, of conduct problems, and of family-related stressors and higher levels of self-esteem than adolescents in the standard care condition. Parents with AIDS in the intervention condition also reported significantly lower levels of emotional distress and multiple problem behaviors. Coping style, levels of disclosure regarding serostatus, and formation of legal custody plans were similar across intervention conditions. Interventions can reduce the long-term impact of parents' HIV status on themselves and their children.

  5. Interfacing Computer Aided Parallelization and Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    When porting sequential applications to parallel computer architectures, the program developer will typically go through several cycles of source code optimization and performance analysis. We have started a project to develop an environment where the user can jointly navigate through program structure and performance data information in order to make efficient optimization decisions. In a prototype implementation we have interfaced the CAPO computer aided parallelization tool with the Paraver performance analysis tool. We describe both tools and their interface and give an example for how the interface helps within the program development cycle of a benchmark code.

  6. Integrated computer-aided design using minicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, O. O.

    1980-01-01

    Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), a highly interactive software, has been implemented on minicomputers at the NASA Langley Research Center. CAD/CAM software integrates many formerly fragmented programs and procedures into one cohesive system; it also includes finite element modeling and analysis, and has been interfaced via a computer network to a relational data base management system and offline plotting devices on mainframe computers. The CAD/CAM software system requires interactive graphics terminals operating at a minimum of 4800 bits/sec transfer rate to a computer. The system is portable and introduces 'interactive graphics', which permits the creation and modification of models interactively. The CAD/CAM system has already produced designs for a large area space platform, a national transonic facility fan blade, and a laminar flow control wind tunnel model. Besides the design/drafting element analysis capability, CAD/CAM provides options to produce an automatic program tooling code to drive a numerically controlled (N/C) machine. Reductions in time for design, engineering, drawing, finite element modeling, and N/C machining will benefit productivity through reduced costs, fewer errors, and a wider range of configuration.

  7. Integrated computer-aided design using minicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, O. O.

    1980-01-01

    Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), a highly interactive software, has been implemented on minicomputers at the NASA Langley Research Center. CAD/CAM software integrates many formerly fragmented programs and procedures into one cohesive system; it also includes finite element modeling and analysis, and has been interfaced via a computer network to a relational data base management system and offline plotting devices on mainframe computers. The CAD/CAM software system requires interactive graphics terminals operating at a minimum of 4800 bits/sec transfer rate to a computer. The system is portable and introduces 'interactive graphics', which permits the creation and modification of models interactively. The CAD/CAM system has already produced designs for a large area space platform, a national transonic facility fan blade, and a laminar flow control wind tunnel model. Besides the design/drafting element analysis capability, CAD/CAM provides options to produce an automatic program tooling code to drive a numerically controlled (N/C) machine. Reductions in time for design, engineering, drawing, finite element modeling, and N/C machining will benefit productivity through reduced costs, fewer errors, and a wider range of configuration.

  8. Computer aided system engineering for space construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racheli, Ugo

    1989-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation covers the following topics. Construction activities envisioned for the assembly of large platforms in space (as well as interplanetary spacecraft and bases on extraterrestrial surfaces) require computational tools that exceed the capability of conventional construction management programs. The Center for Space Construction is investigating the requirements for new computational tools and, at the same time, suggesting the expansion of graduate and undergraduate curricula to include proficiency in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) though design courses and individual or team projects in advanced space systems design. In the center's research, special emphasis is placed on problems of constructability and of the interruptability of planned activity sequences to be carried out by crews operating under hostile environmental conditions. The departure point for the planned work is the acquisition of the MCAE I-DEAS software, developed by the Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC), and its expansion to the level of capability denoted by the acronym IDEAS**2 currently used for configuration maintenance on Space Station Freedom. In addition to improving proficiency in the use of I-DEAS and IDEAS**2, it is contemplated that new software modules will be developed to expand the architecture of IDEAS**2. Such modules will deal with those analyses that require the integration of a space platform's configuration with a breakdown of planned construction activities and with a failure modes analysis to support computer aided system engineering (CASE) applied to space construction.

  9. Evaluating Evidence Aid as a complex, multicomponent knowledge translation intervention.

    PubMed

    Mellon, Dominic

    2015-02-01

    Evidence Aid, an initiative established by members of The Cochrane Collaboration in the aftermath of the Indian Ocean Tsunami in December 2004, celebrates its first 10 years later this year. Whilst the principles of the Evidence Aid initiative are firmly rooted in evidence-based medicine and public health practice, the initiative itself was born of a humanitarian imperative, compassion and the expressed moral duty to help. The evidence-base for Evidence Aid, (that is, for knowledge translation interventions focused on dissemination of evidence), was not, and is not, well-established This article, which is based on a presentation at the Evidence Aid Symposium on 20 September 2014, at Hyderabad, India presents a unifying conceptual framework for use when researching the impact of Evidence Aid as a knowledge translation intervention. It highlights how each of the core activities can be mapped to this framework and identifies key outcomes of interest for evaluation.

  10. Psychological Interventions with AIDS and HIV: Prevention and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Debra A.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that research to date has yielded important findings for primary prevention efforts for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and has identified psychological dimensions relevant to mental health interventions for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sees pressing need for more systematic intervention outcome research in…

  11. Survey of Intelligent Computer-Aided Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) systems integrate artificial intelligence and simulation technologies to deliver training for complex, procedural tasks in a distributed, workstation-based environment. Such systems embody both the knowledge of how to perform a task and how to train someone to perform that task. This paper briefly reviews the antecedents of ICAT systems and describes the approach to their creation developed at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. In addition to the general ICAT architecture, specific ICAT applications that have been or are currently under development are discussed. ICAT systems can offer effective solutions to a number of training problems of interest to the aerospace community.

  12. Survey of Intelligent Computer-Aided Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) systems integrate artificial intelligence and simulation technologies to deliver training for complex, procedural tasks in a distributed, workstation-based environment. Such systems embody both the knowledge of how to perform a task and how to train someone to perform that task. This paper briefly reviews the antecedents of ICAT systems and describes the approach to their creation developed at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. In addition to the general ICAT architecture, specific ICAT applications that have been or are currently under development are discussed. ICAT systems can offer effective solutions to a number of training problems of interest to the aerospace community.

  13. A Suggested Computer Aided Drafting Curriculum (Dacum Based).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedras, Melvin J.; Hoggard, David

    Computer-aided drawing can bring new technology into the drafting classroom. One approach to computer-aided drafting (CAD) involves use of a personal computer and purchased software. Existing school computers could be shared to reduce costs. Following this narrative introduction, a suggested curriculum for the teaching of CAD is presented in…

  14. Emergency Management Computer-Aided Trainer (EMCAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, R. C.; Johnson, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    The Emergency Management Computer-Aided Trainer (EMCAT) developed by Essex Corporation or NASA and the Federal Emergency Management Administration's (FEMA) National Fire Academy (NFA) is described. It is a computer based training system for fire fighting personnel. A prototype EMCAT system was developed by NASA first using video tape images and then video disk images when the technology became available. The EMCAT system is meant to fill the training needs of the fire fighting community with affordable state-of-the-art technologies. An automated real time simulation of the fire situation was needed to replace the outdated manual training methods currently being used. In order to be successful, this simulator had to provide realism, be user friendly, be affordable, and support multiple scenarios. The EMCAT system meets these requirements and therefore represents an innovative training tool, not only for the fire fighting community, but also for the needs of other disciplines.

  15. Effective Computer Aided Instruction in Biomedical Science

    PubMed Central

    Hause, Lawrence L.

    1985-01-01

    A menu-driven Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) package was integrated with word processing and effectively applied in five curricula at the Medical College of Wisconsin. Integration with word processing facilitates the ease of CAI development by instructors and was found to be the most important step in the development of CAI. CAI modules were developed and are currently used to reinforce lectures in medical pathology, laboratory quality control, computer programming and basic science reviews of medicine. Modules help the lecturer efficiently cover fundamentals and provide the student with a self-directed learning alternative. A structured approach to CAI has helped build a CAI program which supports other traditional modes of instruction at MCW.

  16. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, it has been the primary goal of this grant to design and implement software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. The work carried out under this grant was performed jointly with members of the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) of NASA LaRC, Computer Sciences Corp., and Vigyan Corp. This has resulted in the development of several packages and design studies. Primary among these are the interactive geometric modeling tool, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (smart), and the integration and execution tools provided by the Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). In addition, it is the purpose of the personnel of this grant to provide consultation in the areas of structural design, algorithm development, and software development and implementation, particularly in the areas of computer aided design, geometric surface representation, and parallel algorithms.

  17. Computer-aided periodontal disease diagnosis using computer vision.

    PubMed

    Juan, M C; Alcañiz, M; Monserrat, C; Grau, V; Knoll, C

    1999-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are the major cause of tooth loss. The study of the evolution of these diseases is crucial to achieve adequate planning and treatment. Depth probing is essential to know the periodontal disease stage. In this paper we present a new system for Computer-Aided Periodontal Disease Diagnosis using computer vision. The system automates the depth probing and incorporates a colour camera fitted together with a plastic probe that automatically and exactly obtains the depth probing measure. The system has been tested by several periodontists and with 125 teeth of different patients. The differences between the values taken by the system and two periodontists have not been significant.

  18. Computer-Aided Socket Design For Amputees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novicov, Aleksey; Foort, James

    1983-07-01

    The fitting of sockets and artificial legs to amputees' stumps is a difficult and lengthy process that can take numerous trials. It has been proposed that most amputees can be fitted with a standard socket shape with minimal changes to the socket. To perform this task, a procedure is being developed at the Medical Engineering Resource Unit for computer aided socket design for amputees. An interactive PASCAL program, operating on a microcomputer, will prompt the operator (or prosthetist) by asking him to determine the condition of the stump. While the operator is inputing this information into the computer, together with a few critical anatomical measurements, a standard socket shape, viewed on the video monitor, will begin to change. Throughout the "shape fitting" procedure, the operator will have the ability to modify the socket shape on the screen with the use of a light pen. It will also be possible to view various cross-sections and different perspectives. The shape fitting procedure continues until a suitable socket shape is designed. Future efforts will focus on transferring the computer designed socket into a physical socket. The overall goal is to provide amputees with a better fit in less time and to objectify socket fitting so that new prosthetists may be easily taught.

  19. Computer aided diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekh, Viktor; Soliz, Peter; McGrew, Elizabeth; Barriga, Simon; Burge, Mark; Luan, Shuang

    2014-03-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) refers to the nerve damage that can occur in diabetes patients. It most often affects the extremities, such as the feet, and can lead to peripheral vascular disease, deformity, infection, ulceration, and even amputation. The key to managing diabetic foot is prevention and early detection. Unfortunately, current existing diagnostic techniques are mostly based on patient sensations and exhibit significant inter- and intra-observer differences. We have developed a computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The thermal response of the feet of diabetic patients following cold stimulus is captured using an infrared camera. The plantar foot in the images from a thermal video are segmented and registered for tracking points or specific regions. The temperature recovery of each point on the plantar foot is extracted using our bio-thermal model and analyzed. The regions that exhibit abnormal ability to recover are automatically identified to aid the physicians to recognize problematic areas. The key to our CAD system is the segmentation of infrared video. The main challenges for segmenting infrared video compared to normal digital video are (1) as the foot warms up, it also warms up the surrounding, creating an ever changing contrast; and (2) there may be significant motion during imaging. To overcome this, a hybrid segmentation algorithm was developed based on a number of techniques such as continuous max-flow, model based segmentation, shape preservation, convex hull, and temperature normalization. Verifications of the automatic segmentation and registration using manual segmentation and markers show good agreement.

  20. Computer-aided tissue engineering: overview, scope and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Darling, Andrew; Starly, Binil; Nam, Jae

    2004-02-01

    Advances in computer-aided technology and its application with biology, engineering and information science to tissue engineering have evolved a new field of computer-aided tissue engineering (CATE). This emerging field encompasses computer-aided design (CAD), image processing, manufacturing and solid free-form fabrication (SFF) for modelling, designing, simulation and manufacturing of biological tissue and organ substitutes. The present Review describes some salient advances in this field, particularly in computer-aided tissue modeling, computer-aided tissue informatics and computer-aided tissue scaffold design and fabrication. Methodologies of development of CATE modelling from high-resolution non-invasive imaging and image-based three-dimensional reconstruction, and various reconstructive techniques for CAD-based tissue modelling generation will be described. The latest development in SFF to tissue engineering and a framework of bio-blueprint modelling for three-dimensional cell and organ printing will also be introduced.

  1. RASCAL: A Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John Christopher

    Both the background of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems in general and the requirements of a computer-aided learning system which would be a reasonable assistant to a teacher are discussed. RASCAL (Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning) is a first attempt at defining a CAI system which would individualize the learning…

  2. Using Computer-Aided Instruction to Support the Systematic Practice of Phonological Skills in Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a randomised control trial investigating the use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) for practising phonological awareness skills with beginning readers. Two intervention groups followed the same phonological awareness programme: one group undertook practice exercises using a computer and the other group undertook…

  3. Using Computer-Aided Instruction to Support the Systematic Practice of Phonological Skills in Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a randomised control trial investigating the use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) for practising phonological awareness skills with beginning readers. Two intervention groups followed the same phonological awareness programme: one group undertook practice exercises using a computer and the other group undertook…

  4. An Expert Assistant for Computer Aided Parallelization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Chun, Robert; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

    2004-01-01

    The prototype implementation of an expert system was developed to assist the user in the computer aided parallelization process. The system interfaces to tools for automatic parallelization and performance analysis. By fusing static program structure information and dynamic performance analysis data the expert system can help the user to filter, correlate, and interpret the data gathered by the existing tools. Sections of the code that show poor performance and require further attention are rapidly identified and suggestions for improvements are presented to the user. In this paper we describe the components of the expert system and discuss its interface to the existing tools. We present a case study to demonstrate the successful use in full scale scientific applications.

  5. Intelligent computer-aided training authoring environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Robert D.

    1994-01-01

    Although there has been much research into intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), there are few authoring systems available that support ITS metaphors. Instructional developers are generally obliged to use tools designed for creating on-line books. We are currently developing an authoring environment derived from NASA's research on intelligent computer-aided training (ICAT). The ICAT metaphor, currently in use at NASA has proven effective in disciplines from satellite deployment to high school physics. This technique provides a personal trainer (PT) who instructs the student using a simulated work environment (SWE). The PT acts as a tutor, providing individualized instruction and assistance to each student. Teaching in an SWE allows the student to learn tasks by doing them, rather than by reading about them. This authoring environment will expedite ICAT development by providing a tool set that guides the trainer modeling process. Additionally, this environment provides a vehicle for distributing NASA's ICAT technology to the private sector.

  6. Applications of intelligent computer-aided training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent computer-aided training (ICAT) systems simulate the behavior of an experienced instructor observing a trainee, responding to help requests, diagnosing and remedying trainee errors, and proposing challenging new training scenarios. This paper presents a generic ICAT architecture that supports the efficient development of ICAT systems for varied tasks. In addition, details of ICAT projects, built with this architecture, that deliver specific training for Space Shuttle crew members, ground support personnel, and flight controllers are presented. Concurrently with the creation of specific ICAT applications, a general-purpose software development environment for ICAT systems is being built. The widespread use of such systems for both ground-based and on-orbit training will serve to preserve task and training expertise, support the training of large numbers of personnel in a distributed manner, and ensure the uniformity and verifiability of training experiences.

  7. Computer aided control of a mechanical arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Zermuehlen, r. O.

    1979-01-01

    A method for computer-aided remote control of a six-degree-of-freedom manipulator arm involved in the on-orbit servicing of a spacecraft is presented. The control configuration features a supervisory type of control in which each of the segments of a module exchange trajectory is controlled automatically under human supervision, with manual commands to proceed to the next step and in the event of a failure or undesirable outcome. The implementation of the supervisory system is discussed in terms of necessary onboard and ground- or Orbiter-based hardware and software, and a one-g demonstration system built to allow further investigation of system operation is described. Possible applications of the system include the construction of satellite solar power systems, environmental testing and the control of heliostat solar power stations.

  8. 5 Axes computer aided laser milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccolini, G.; Orazi, L.; Fortunato, A.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper a 5 axes CAM procedure for the laser milling of free form surfaces has been developed and experimentally verified. The laser beam is deflected by a galvanometric scanning head and is directly moved on the working surface by the CNC controlled axes of a machine center. The procedure has been implemented in a software called CALM (computer aided laser manufacturing) able to generate the laser paths and the movements of the controlled axes reducing the defects on the workpiece. The approach is based on the sequential overlapping of the scanning passes on the working area. The different working areas in every laser displacement are obtained directly from the triangulation of the whole surface to machine.

  9. From Phonomecanocardiography to Phonocardiography computer aided

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados, J.; Tavera, F.; López, G.; Velázquez, J. M.; Hernández, R. T.; López, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    Due to lack of training doctors to identify many of the disorders in the heart by conventional listening, it is necessary to add an objective and methodological analysis to support this technique. In order to obtain information of the performance of the heart to be able to diagnose heart disease through a simple, cost-effective procedure by means of a data acquisition system, we have obtained Phonocardiograms (PCG), which are images of the sounds emitted by the heart. A program of acoustic, visual and artificial vision recognition was elaborated to interpret them. Based on the results of previous research of cardiologists a code of interpretation of PCG and associated diseases was elaborated. Also a site, within the university campus, of experimental sampling of cardiac data was created. Phonocardiography computer-aided is a viable and low cost procedure which provides additional medical information to make a diagnosis of complex heart diseases. We show some previous results.

  10. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1992-01-01

    The goal was the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. Several packages and design studies were completed, including two software tools currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) and the Environment for Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and additionally provides initial mass property analysis. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand alone analysis codes that result in the streamlining of the exchange of data between programs, reducing errors and improving efficiency.

  11. Washington DC Area Computer Aided Surgery Society Monthly Meetings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    05-1-0072 TITLE: Washington DC Area Computer Aided Surgery Society Monthly Meetings PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kevin R. Cleary, Ph.D...Feb 2005-21 Feb 2009 4. Title and Subtitle Washington DC Area Computer Aided Surgery Society Monthly Meetings 5. Award Number W81XWH-05-1-0072...Area Computer-Aided Surgery Society (WashCAS) has become the major vehicle in the Washington/Baltimore area for exploring the issues in the emerging

  12. Computer-Aided Video Differential Planimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Michael; Djoleto, Ben D.

    1984-08-01

    THE VIDEO DIFFERENTIAL PLANIMETER (VDP)1 is a re-mote sensing instrument that can measure minute changes in the area of any object seen by an optical scanning system. The composite video waveforms obtained by scanning the object against a contrasting back-ground are amplified and shaped to yield a sequence of constant amplitude pulses whose polarity distinguishes the studied area from its background and whose varying widths reflect the dynamics of the viewed object. These pulses are passed through a relatively long time-constant capacitor-resistor circuit and are then fed into an integrator. The net integration voltage resulting from the most recent sequence of object-background time pulses is recorded and the integrator is returned to zero at the end of each video frame. If the object's area remains constant throughout the following frame, the integrator's summation will also remain constant. However, if the object's area varies, the positive and negative time pulses entering the integrator will change, and the integrator's summation will vary proportionately. The addition of a computer interface and a video recorder enhances the versatility and the resolving power of the VDP by permitting the repeated study and analysis of selected portions of the recorded data, thereby uncovering the major sources of the object's dynamics. Among the medical and biological procedures for which COMPUTER-AIDED VIDEO DIFFERENTIAL PLANIMETRY is suitable are Ophthalmoscopy, Endoscopy, Microscopy, Plethysmography, etc. A recent research study in Ophthalmoscopy2 will be cited to suggest a useful application of Video Differential Planimetry.

  13. Computer-aided design for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Fehér, Tamás; Carbonell, Pablo; Pauthenier, Cyrille; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-12-20

    The development and application of biotechnology-based strategies has had a great socio-economical impact and is likely to play a crucial role in the foundation of more sustainable and efficient industrial processes. Within biotechnology, metabolic engineering aims at the directed improvement of cellular properties, often with the goal of synthesizing a target chemical compound. The use of computer-aided design (CAD) tools, along with the continuously emerging advanced genetic engineering techniques have allowed metabolic engineering to broaden and streamline the process of heterologous compound-production. In this work, we review the CAD tools available for metabolic engineering with an emphasis, on retrosynthesis methodologies. Recent advances in genetic engineering strategies for pathway implementation and optimization are also reviewed as well as a range of bionalytical tools to validate in silico predictions. A case study applying retrosynthesis is presented as an experimental verification of the output from Retropath, the first complete automated computational pipeline applicable to metabolic engineering. Applying this CAD pipeline, together with genetic reassembly and optimization of culture conditions led to improved production of the plant flavonoid pinocembrin. Coupling CAD tools with advanced genetic engineering strategies and bioprocess optimization is crucial for enhanced product yields and will be of great value for the development of non-natural products through sustainable biotechnological processes.

  14. Computer-aided control in nonround process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangjie; Huang, Shenghua

    1995-11-01

    Currently, un-round process (such as piston in internal-combustion engine etc.) is mainly realized by hard contact turning and ellipse milling. This paper introduces the computer-aided control in non-round process, using a high speed voice coil motor which can move to and fro in straight line to drive the cutting tool directly and so as to realize the un-round process under the control of computer. The precision can reach 1 micrometer. It exemplifies the process on convex varying elliptical piston. The best process curve is deduced. Double-CPUs are adopted to realize high speed detection and curve imitation in on-line process. IGBT is selected to drive the motor, optics grid decoder with the resolution of 0.25 micrometer for position detection. The self-adaptive control and feed forward control of sliding model on varying structure assures the request on system's dynamic response and stability. The simulation results reach the expected goal of system design.

  15. Computer-Aided Drug Design Methods.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenbo; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2017-01-01

    Computational approaches are useful tools to interpret and guide experiments to expedite the antibiotic drug design process. Structure-based drug design (SBDD) and ligand-based drug design (LBDD) are the two general types of computer-aided drug design (CADD) approaches in existence. SBDD methods analyze macromolecular target 3-dimensional structural information, typically of proteins or RNA, to identify key sites and interactions that are important for their respective biological functions. Such information can then be utilized to design antibiotic drugs that can compete with essential interactions involving the target and thus interrupt the biological pathways essential for survival of the microorganism(s). LBDD methods focus on known antibiotic ligands for a target to establish a relationship between their physiochemical properties and antibiotic activities, referred to as a structure-activity relationship (SAR), information that can be used for optimization of known drugs or guide the design of new drugs with improved activity. In this chapter, standard CADD protocols for both SBDD and LBDD will be presented with a special focus on methodologies and targets routinely studied in our laboratory for antibiotic drug discoveries.

  16. Removal of Supernumerary Teeth Utilizing a Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing Surgical Guide.

    PubMed

    Jo, Chanwoo; Bae, Doohwan; Choi, Byungho; Kim, Jihun

    2017-05-01

    Supernumerary teeth need to be removed because they can cause various complications. Caution is needed because their removal can cause damage to permanent teeth or tooth germs in the local vicinity. Surgical guides have recently been used in maxillofacial surgery. Because surgical guides are designed through preoperative analysis by computer-aided design software and fabricated using a 3-dimensional printer applying computer-aided manufacturing technology, they increase the accuracy and predictability of surgery. This report describes 2 cases of removal of a mesiodens-1 from a child and 1 from an adolescent-using a surgical guide; these would have been difficult to remove with conventional surgical methods. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing skull base drill.

    PubMed

    Couldwell, William T; MacDonald, Joel D; Thomas, Charles L; Hansen, Bradley C; Lapalikar, Aniruddha; Thakkar, Bharat; Balaji, Alagar K

    2017-05-01

    The authors have developed a simple device for computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) that uses an image-guided system to define a cutting tool path that is shared with a surgical machining system for drilling bone. Information from 2D images (obtained via CT and MRI) is transmitted to a processor that produces a 3D image. The processor generates code defining an optimized cutting tool path, which is sent to a surgical machining system that can drill the desired portion of bone. This tool has applications for bone removal in both cranial and spine neurosurgical approaches. Such applications have the potential to reduce surgical time and associated complications such as infection or blood loss. The device enables rapid removal of bone within 1 mm of vital structures. The validity of such a machining tool is exemplified in the rapid (< 3 minutes machining time) and accurate removal of bone for transtemporal (for example, translabyrinthine) approaches.

  18. An esthetics rehabilitation with computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    Mazaro, Josá Vitor Quinelli; de Mello, Caroline Cantieri; Zavanelli, Adriana Cristina; Santiago, Joel Ferreira; Amoroso, Andressa Paschoal; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a case of a rehabilitation involving Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD-CAM) system in implant supported and dental supported prostheses using zirconia as framework. The CAD-CAM technology has developed considerably over last few years, becoming a reality in dental practice. Among the widely used systems are the systems based on zirconia which demonstrate important physical and mechanical properties of high strength, adequate fracture toughness, biocompatibility and esthetics, and are indicated for unitary prosthetic restorations and posterior and anterior framework. All the modeling was performed by using CAD-CAM system and prostheses were cemented using resin cement best suited for each situation. The rehabilitation of the maxillary arch using zirconia framework demonstrated satisfactory esthetic and functional results after a 12-month control and revealed no biological and technical complications. This article shows the important of use technology CAD/CAM in the manufacture of dental prosthesis and implant-supported.

  19. Foreign Aid versus Military Intervention in the War on Terror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azam, Jean-Paul; Thelen, Veronique

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework and some empirical results showing that the level of foreign aid received reduces the supply of terrorist attacks from recipient countries, while U.S. military interventions are liable to increase this supply. Due account is taken of endogeneity problems in producing these results. They suggest that…

  20. Foreign Aid versus Military Intervention in the War on Terror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azam, Jean-Paul; Thelen, Veronique

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework and some empirical results showing that the level of foreign aid received reduces the supply of terrorist attacks from recipient countries, while U.S. military interventions are liable to increase this supply. Due account is taken of endogeneity problems in producing these results. They suggest that…

  1. A review of HIV/AIDS system-level interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Tross, Susan; Ehrhardt, Anke A.

    2010-01-01

    The escalating HIV/AIDS epidemic worldwide demands that on-going prevention efforts be strengthened, disseminated, and scaled-up. System-level interventions refer to programs aiming to improve the functioning of an agency as well as the delivery of its services to the community. System-level interventions are a promising approach to HIV/AIDS prevention because they focus on (a) improving the agency’s ability to adopt evidence-based HIV prevention and care programs; (b) develop and establish policies and procedures that maximize the sustainability of on-going prevention and care efforts; and (c) improve decision-making processes such as incorporating the needs of communities into their tailored services. We reviewed studies focusing on system-level interventions by searching multiple electronic abstracting indices, including PsycInfo, PubMed, and ProQuest. Twenty-three studies out of 624 peer-reviewed studies (published from January 1985 to February 2007) met study criteria. Most of the studies focused on strengthening agency infrastructure, while other studies included collaborative partnerships and technical assistance programs. Our findings suggest that system-level interventions are promising in strengthening HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment efforts. Based on our findings, we propose recommendations for future work in developing and evaluating system-level interventions. PMID:18369722

  2. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  3. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  4. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.; Olariu, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of this grant has been the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles particularly focused on the elements of geometric design, graphical user interfaces, and the interaction of the multitude of software typically used in this engineering environment. This has resulted in the development of several analysis packages and design studies. These include two major software systems currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are SMART, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool, and EASIE, the Environment for Software Integration and Execution. Additional software tools were designed and implemented to address the needs of the engineer working in the conceptual design environment. SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and several engineering analysis capabilities. In addition, SMART has a carefully engineered user interface that makes it easy to learn and use. Finally, a number of specialty characteristics have been built into SMART which allow it to be used efficiently as a front end geometry processor for other analysis packages. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand-alone, analysis codes. Resulting in a streamlining of the exchange of data between programs reducing errors and improving the efficiency. EASIE provides both a methodology and a collection of software tools to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes.

  5. Computer-aided detection for screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Kevin S.; Sallam, Maha

    1999-06-01

    Computer-aided detection of breast cancer in screening mammography is just now becoming a clinically useful tool for radiologist. Systems are being implemented to act as second readers of mammograms. These systems automatically detect suspicious regions in digitized films, or directly acquired digital images, then prompt the radiologists to examine the identified regions more carefully. The purpose of using a computerized system as a second reader is to reduce the chances of overlooking visible signs of malignancies and hence improve the breast cancer detection rates in screening programs. This paper present an overview of a mammogram image analysis system developed at Intelligent Systems, M.D., Inc. for identifying all primary signal of cancer in mammogram images. The system has been tested on a set of 88 mammography cases of four views each. The cases contain a total of 96 malignant abnormalities. They system currently achieves 91 percent sensitivity at an average of just over one false prompt per image. Ongoing system refinement and updates are expected to further improve performance.

  6. Computer-Aided Parallelizer and Optimizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Haoqiang

    2011-01-01

    The Computer-Aided Parallelizer and Optimizer (CAPO) automates the insertion of compiler directives (see figure) to facilitate parallel processing on Shared Memory Parallel (SMP) machines. While CAPO currently is integrated seamlessly into CAPTools (developed at the University of Greenwich, now marketed as ParaWise), CAPO was independently developed at Ames Research Center as one of the components for the Legacy Code Modernization (LCM) project. The current version takes serial FORTRAN programs, performs interprocedural data dependence analysis, and generates OpenMP directives. Due to the widely supported OpenMP standard, the generated OpenMP codes have the potential to run on a wide range of SMP machines. CAPO relies on accurate interprocedural data dependence information currently provided by CAPTools. Compiler directives are generated through identification of parallel loops in the outermost level, construction of parallel regions around parallel loops and optimization of parallel regions, and insertion of directives with automatic identification of private, reduction, induction, and shared variables. Attempts also have been made to identify potential pipeline parallelism (implemented with point-to-point synchronization). Although directives are generated automatically, user interaction with the tool is still important for producing good parallel codes. A comprehensive graphical user interface is included for users to interact with the parallelization process.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jia; Poirson, Allen

    2007-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths, and ranks third for new cancer cases and cancer mortality for both men and women. However, its death rate can be dramatically reduced by appropriate treatment when early detection is available. The purpose of colonoscopy is to identify and assess the severity of lesions, which may be flat or protruding. Due to the subjective nature of the examination, colonoscopic proficiency is highly variable and dependent upon the colonoscopist's knowledge and experience. An automated image processing system providing an objective, rapid, and inexpensive analysis of video from a standard colonoscope could provide a valuable tool for screening and diagnosis. In this paper, we present the design, functionality and preliminary results of its Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system for colonoscopy - ColonoCAD TM. ColonoCAD is a complex multi-sensor, multi-data and multi-algorithm image processing system, incorporating data management and visualization, video quality assessment and enhancement, calibration, multiple view based reconstruction, feature extraction and classification. As this is a new field in medical image processing, our hope is that this paper will provide the framework to encourage and facilitate collaboration and discussion between industry, academia, and medical practitioners.

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis in hysteroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Neofytou, M S; Tanos, V; Constantinou, I; Kyriacou, E C; Pattichis, M S; Pattichis, C S

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents the development of a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system for the early detection of endometrial cancer. The proposed CAD system supports reproducibility through texture feature standardization, standardized multifeature selection, and provides physicians with comparative distributions of the extracted texture features. The CAD system was validated using 516 regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from 52 subjects. The ROIs were equally distributed among normal and abnormal cases. To support reproducibility, the RGB images were first gamma corrected and then converted into HSV and YCrCb. From each channel of the gamma-corrected YCrCb, HSV, and RGB color systems, we extracted the following texture features: 1) statistical features (SFs), 2) spatial gray-level dependence matrices (SGLDM), and 3) gray-level difference statistics (GLDS). The texture features were then used as inputs with support vector machines (SVMs) and the probabilistic neural network (PNN) classifiers. After accounting for multiple comparisons, texture features extracted from abnormal ROIs were found to be significantly different than texture features extracted from normal ROIs. Compared to texture features extracted from normal ROIs, abnormal ROIs were characterized by lower image intensity, while variance, entropy, and contrast gave higher values. In terms of ROI classification, the best results were achieved by using SF and GLDS features with an SVM classifier. For this combination, the proposed CAD system achieved an 81% correct classification rate.

  9. Intelligent computer-aided training and tutoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    Specific autonomous training systems based on artificial intelligence technology for use by NASA astronauts, flight controllers, and ground-based support personnel that demonstrate an alternative to current training systems are described. In addition to these specific systems, the evolution of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems that integrates many of the features of traditional training programs with artificial intelligence techniques is presented. These Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) systems would provide, for the trainee, much of the same experience that could be gained from the best on-the-job training. By integrating domain expertise with a knowledge of appropriate training methods, an ICAT session should duplicate, as closely as possible, the trainee undergoing on-the-job training in the task environment, benefitting from the full attention of a task expert who is also an expert trainer. Thus, the philosophy of the ICAT system is to emulate the behavior of an experienced individual devoting his full time and attention to the training of a novice - proposing challenging training scenarios, monitoring and evaluating the actions of the trainee, providing meaningful comments in response to trainee errors, responding to trainee requests for information, giving hints (if appropriate), and remembering the strengths and weaknesses displayed by the trainee so that appropriate future exercises can be designed.

  10. Intelligent Image Based Computer Aided Education (IICAE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Amos A.; Thiery, Odile; Crehange, Marion

    1989-03-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) has found its way into Computer Aided Education (CAE), and there are several systems constructed to put in evidence its interesting advantages. We believe that images (graphic or real) play an important role in learning. However, the use of images, outside their use as illustration, makes it necessary to have applications such as AI. We shall develop the application of AI in an image based CAE and briefly present the system under construction to put in evidence our concept. We shall also elaborate a methodology for constructing such a system. Futhermore we shall briefly present the pedagogical and psychological activities in a learning process. Under the pedagogical and psychological aspect of learning, we shall develop areas such as the importance of image in learning both as pedagogical objects as well as means for obtaining psychological information about the learner. We shall develop the learner's model, its use, what to build into it and how. Under the application of AI in an image based CAE, we shall develop the importance of AI in exploiting the knowledge base in the learning environment and its application as a means of implementing pedagogical strategies.

  11. Computer Aided Modeling and Post Processing with NASTRAN Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroughs, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Computer aided engineering systems are invaluable tools in performing NASTRAN finite element analysis. These techniques are implemented in both the pre-processing and post-processing phases of the NASTRAN analysis. The finite element model development, or pre-processing phase, was automated with a computer aided modeling program called Supertabl, and the review and interpretation of the results of the NASTRAN analysis, or post-processing phase, was automated with a computer aided plotting program called Output Display. An intermediate program, Nasplot, which was developed in-house, has also helped to cut down on the model checkout time and reduce errors in the model. An interface has been established between the finite element computer aided engineering system and the Learjet computer aided design system whereby data can be transferred back and forth between the two. These systems have significantly improved productivity and the ability to perform NASTRAN analysis in response to product development requests.

  12. Parallelization of ARC3D with Computer-Aided Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Haoqiang; Hribar, Michelle; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A series of efforts have been devoted to investigating methods of porting and parallelizing applications quickly and efficiently for new architectures, such as the SCSI Origin 2000 and Cray T3E. This report presents the parallelization of a CFD application, ARC3D, using the computer-aided tools, Cesspools. Steps of parallelizing this code and requirements of achieving better performance are discussed. The generated parallel version has achieved reasonably well performance, for example, having a speedup of 30 for 36 Cray T3E processors. However, this performance could not be obtained without modification of the original serial code. It is suggested that in many cases improving serial code and performing necessary code transformations are important parts for the automated parallelization process although user intervention in many of these parts are still necessary. Nevertheless, development and improvement of useful software tools, such as Cesspools, can help trim down many tedious parallelization details and improve the processing efficiency.

  13. Interventions to improve hearing aid use in adult auditory rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Barker, Fiona; Mackenzie, Emma; Elliott, Lynette; Jones, Simon; de Lusignan, Simon

    2016-08-18

    Acquired adult-onset hearing loss is a common long-term condition for which the most common intervention is hearing aid fitting. However, up to 40% of people fitted with a hearing aid either fail to use it or may not gain optimal benefit from it. This is an update of a review first published in The Cochrane Library in 2014. To assess the long-term effectiveness of interventions to promote the use of hearing aids in adults with acquired hearing loss fitted with at least one hearing aid. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane ENT Trials Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 5); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 13 June 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions designed to improve or promote hearing aid use in adults with acquired hearing loss compared with usual care or another intervention. We excluded interventions that compared hearing aid technology. We classified interventions according to the 'chronic care model' (CCM). The primary outcomes were hearing aid use (measured as adherence or daily hours of use) and adverse effects (inappropriate advice or clinical practice, or patient complaints). Secondary patient-reported outcomes included quality of life, hearing handicap, hearing aid benefit and communication. Outcomes were measured over the short ( 12 to < 52 weeks) and long term (one year plus). We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included 37 studies involving a total of 4129 participants. Risk of bias across the included studies was variable. We judged the GRADE quality of evidence to be very low or low for the primary outcomes where data were available.The majority of participants were over 65 years of age with mild to moderate adult-onset hearing loss. There was a mix of new and experienced hearing

  14. CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacture). A Brief Guide to Materials in the Library of Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havas, George D.

    This brief guide to materials in the Library of Congress (LC) on computer aided design and/or computer aided manufacturing lists reference materials and other information sources under 13 headings: (1) brief introductions; (2) LC subject headings used for such materials; (3) textbooks; (4) additional titles; (5) glossaries and handbooks; (6)…

  15. Retrofitting a crown to a sleep apnea device by using computer-aided design and computer-aided milling technology.

    PubMed

    Biethman, Rick; Land, Martin F; Hruskocy, Heather; Colgin, Bruce

    2014-07-01

    Retrofitting a new crown to an existing dental device is challenging. The continued evolution of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) significantly simplifies the process. This article demonstrates retrofitting a gold crown to an existing sleep apnea device.

  16. Single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guide.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Moon-Key; Lee, Ji-Yeon

    2016-04-01

    This clinical note introduces a method to assist surgeons in performing single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy. For use in this method, a surgical guide was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and was based on preoperative surgical simulation data. This method was highly conducive to successful single-tooth dento-osseous segmental osteotomy.

  17. Single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guide

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This clinical note introduces a method to assist surgeons in performing single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy. For use in this method, a surgical guide was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and was based on preoperative surgical simulation data. This method was highly conducive to successful single-tooth dento-osseous segmental osteotomy. PMID:27162756

  18. Computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) for colposcopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Holger; Ferris, Daron G.

    2005-04-01

    Uterine cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Colposcopy is a diagnostic method, whereby a physician (colposcopist) visually inspects the lower genital tract (cervix, vulva and vagina), with special emphasis on the subjective appearance of metaplastic epithelium comprising the transformation zone on the cervix. Cervical cancer precursor lesions and invasive cancer exhibit certain distinctly abnormal morphologic features. Lesion characteristics such as margin; color or opacity; blood vessel caliber, intercapillary spacing and distribution; and contour are considered by colposcopists to derive a clinical diagnosis. Clinicians and academia have suggested and shown proof of concept that automated image analysis of cervical imagery can be used for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis, having the potential to have a direct impact on improving women"s health care and reducing associated costs. STI Medical Systems is developing a Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system for colposcopy -- ColpoCAD. At the heart of ColpoCAD is a complex multi-sensor, multi-data and multi-feature image analysis system. A functional description is presented of the envisioned ColpoCAD system, broken down into: Modality Data Management System, Image Enhancement, Feature Extraction, Reference Database, and Diagnosis and directed Biopsies. The system design and development process of the image analysis system is outlined. The system design provides a modular and open architecture built on feature based processing. The core feature set includes the visual features used by colposcopists. This feature set can be extended to include new features introduced by new instrument technologies, like fluorescence and impedance, and any other plausible feature that can be extracted from the cervical data. Preliminary results of our research on detecting the three most important features: blood vessel structures, acetowhite regions and lesion margins are shown. As this is a new

  19. Pulmonary lobar volumetry using novel volumetric computer-aided diagnosis and computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Iwano, Shingo; Kitano, Mariko; Matsuo, Keiji; Kawakami, Kenichi; Koike, Wataru; Kishimoto, Mariko; Inoue, Tsutomu; Li, Yuanzhong; Naganawa, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the accuracy of pulmonary lobar volumetry using the conventional number of segments method and novel volumetric computer-aided diagnosis using 3D computed tomography images. METHODS We acquired 50 consecutive preoperative 3D computed tomography examinations for lung tumours reconstructed at 1-mm slice thicknesses. We calculated the lobar volume and the emphysematous lobar volume < −950 HU of each lobe using (i) the slice-by-slice method (reference standard), (ii) number of segments method, and (iii) semi-automatic and (iv) automatic computer-aided diagnosis. We determined Pearson correlation coefficients between the reference standard and the three other methods for lobar volumes and emphysematous lobar volumes. We also compared the relative errors among the three measurement methods. RESULTS Both semi-automatic and automatic computer-aided diagnosis results were more strongly correlated with the reference standard than the number of segments method. The correlation coefficients for automatic computer-aided diagnosis were slightly lower than those for semi-automatic computer-aided diagnosis because there was one outlier among 50 cases (2%) in the right upper lobe and two outliers among 50 cases (4%) in the other lobes. The number of segments method relative error was significantly greater than those for semi-automatic and automatic computer-aided diagnosis (P < 0.001). The computational time for automatic computer-aided diagnosis was 1/2 to 2/3 than that of semi-automatic computer-aided diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS A novel lobar volumetry computer-aided diagnosis system could more precisely measure lobar volumes than the conventional number of segments method. Because semi-automatic computer-aided diagnosis and automatic computer-aided diagnosis were complementary, in clinical use, it would be more practical to first measure volumes by automatic computer-aided diagnosis, and then use semi-automatic measurements if automatic computer-aided

  20. Computer-aided design development transition for IPAD environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, H. G.; Mock, W. D.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of federally sponsored computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) programs to the aircraft life cycle design process, an overview of NAAD'S CAD development program, an evaluation of the CAD design process, a discussion of the current computing environment within which NAAD is developing its CAD system, some of the advantages/disadvantages of the NAAD-IPAD approach, and CAD developments during transition into the IPAD system are discussed.

  1. Computer-aided design development transition for IPAD environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, H. G.; Mock, W. D.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of federally sponsored computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) programs to the aircraft life cycle design process, an overview of NAAD'S CAD development program, an evaluation of the CAD design process, a discussion of the current computing environment within which NAAD is developing its CAD system, some of the advantages/disadvantages of the NAAD-IPAD approach, and CAD developments during transition into the IPAD system are discussed.

  2. Computer-aided marginal artery detection on computed tomographic colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhuoshi; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Shijun; Liu, Jiamin; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-03-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for colonic polyps and cancer screening. The marginal artery of the colon, also known as the marginal artery of Drummond, is the blood vessel that connects the inferior mesenteric artery with the superior mesenteric artery. The marginal artery runs parallel to the colon for its entire length, providing the blood supply to the colon. Detecting the marginal artery may benefit computer-aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyp. It can be used to identify teniae coli based on their anatomic spatial relationship. It can also serve as an alternative marker for colon localization, in case of colon collapse and inability to directly compute the endoluminal centerline. This paper proposes an automatic method for marginal artery detection on CTC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work presented for this purpose. Our method includes two stages. The first stage extracts the blood vessels in the abdominal region. The eigenvalue of Hessian matrix is used to detect line-like structures in the images. The second stage is to reduce the false positives in the first step. We used two different masks to exclude the false positive vessel regions. One is a dilated colon mask which is obtained by colon segmentation. The other is an eroded visceral fat mask which is obtained by fat segmentation in the abdominal region. We tested our method on a CTC dataset with 6 cases. Using ratio-of-overlap with manual labeling of the marginal artery as the standard-of-reference, our method yielded true positive, false positive and false negative fractions of 89%, 33%, 11%, respectively.

  3. The Effectiveness of an Intervention Program on Hearing Aid Maintenance for Teenagers and Their Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Most, Tova

    2002-01-01

    The impact of an intervention program on hearing aid functioning and maintenance was evaluated using 29 adolescents who wore hearing aids and 7 of their teachers. The number of functioning hearing aids increased significantly following the 6-week intervention and continued to increase even after intervention ended. (Contains references.)…

  4. Microwave processing of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Pendola, Martin; Saha, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Because of their favorable mechanical properties and natural esthetics, ceramics are widely used in restorative dentistry. The conventional ceramic sintering process required for their use is usually slow, however, and the equipment has an elevated energy consumption. Sintering processes that use microwaves have several advantages compared to regular sintering: shorter processing times, lower energy consumption, and the capacity for volumetric heating. The objective of this study was to test the mechanical properties of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) after the specimens were processed with microwave hybrid sintering. Density, hardness, and bending strength were measured. When ceramic specimens were sintered with microwaves, the processing times were reduced and protocols were simplified. Hardness was improved almost 20% compared to regular sintering, and flexural strength measurements suggested that specimens were approximately 50% stronger than specimens sintered in a conventional system. Microwave hybrid sintering may preserve or improve the mechanical properties of dental ceramics designed for CAD/CAM processing systems, reducing processing and waiting times.

  5. Adhesive Bonding to Computer-aided Design/ Computer-aided Manufacturing Esthetic Dental Materials: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Awad, Mohamed Moustafa; Alqahtani, H; Al-Mudahi, A; Murayshed, M S; Alrahlah, A; Bhandi, Shilpa H

    2017-07-01

    To review the adhesive bonding to different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) esthetic restorative materials. The use of CAD/CAM esthetic restorative materials has gained popularity in recent years. Several CAD/ CAM esthetic restorative materials are commercially available. Adhesive bonding is a major determinant of success of CAD/ CAM restorations. Review result: An account of the currently available bonding strategies are discussed with their rationale in various CAD/ CAM materials. Different surface treatment methods as well as adhesion promoters can be used to achieve reliable bonding of CAD/CAM restorative materials. Selection of bonding strategy to such material is determined based on its composition. Further evidence is required to evaluate the effect of new surface treatment methods, such as nonthermal atmospheric plasma and self-etching ceramic primer on bonding to different dental ceramics. An understanding of the currently available bonding strategies to CA/CAM materials can help the clinician to select the most indicated system for each category of materials.

  6. PLAID- A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    PLAID is a three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) system which enables the user to interactively construct, manipulate, and display sets of highly complex geometric models. PLAID was initially developed by NASA to assist in the design of Space Shuttle crewstation panels, and the detection of payload object collisions. It has evolved into a more general program for convenient use in many engineering applications. Special effort was made to incorporate CAD techniques and features which minimize the users workload in designing and managing PLAID models. PLAID consists of three major modules: the Primitive Object Generator (BUILD), the Composite Object Generator (COG), and the DISPLAY Processor. The BUILD module provides a means of constructing simple geometric objects called primitives. The primitives are created from polygons which are defined either explicitly by vertex coordinates, or graphically by use of terminal crosshairs or a digitizer. Solid objects are constructed by combining, rotating, or translating the polygons. Corner rounding, hole punching, milling, and contouring are special features available in BUILD. The COG module hierarchically organizes and manipulates primitives and other previously defined COG objects to form complex assemblies. The composite object is constructed by applying transformations to simpler objects. The transformations which can be applied are scalings, rotations, and translations. These transformations may be defined explicitly or defined graphically using the interactive COG commands. The DISPLAY module enables the user to view COG assemblies from arbitrary viewpoints (inside or outside the object) both in wireframe and hidden line renderings. The PLAID projection of a three-dimensional object can be either orthographic or with perspective. A conflict analysis option enables detection of spatial conflicts or collisions. DISPLAY provides camera functions to simulate a view of the model through different lenses. Other

  7. PLAID- A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    PLAID is a three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) system which enables the user to interactively construct, manipulate, and display sets of highly complex geometric models. PLAID was initially developed by NASA to assist in the design of Space Shuttle crewstation panels, and the detection of payload object collisions. It has evolved into a more general program for convenient use in many engineering applications. Special effort was made to incorporate CAD techniques and features which minimize the users workload in designing and managing PLAID models. PLAID consists of three major modules: the Primitive Object Generator (BUILD), the Composite Object Generator (COG), and the DISPLAY Processor. The BUILD module provides a means of constructing simple geometric objects called primitives. The primitives are created from polygons which are defined either explicitly by vertex coordinates, or graphically by use of terminal crosshairs or a digitizer. Solid objects are constructed by combining, rotating, or translating the polygons. Corner rounding, hole punching, milling, and contouring are special features available in BUILD. The COG module hierarchically organizes and manipulates primitives and other previously defined COG objects to form complex assemblies. The composite object is constructed by applying transformations to simpler objects. The transformations which can be applied are scalings, rotations, and translations. These transformations may be defined explicitly or defined graphically using the interactive COG commands. The DISPLAY module enables the user to view COG assemblies from arbitrary viewpoints (inside or outside the object) both in wireframe and hidden line renderings. The PLAID projection of a three-dimensional object can be either orthographic or with perspective. A conflict analysis option enables detection of spatial conflicts or collisions. DISPLAY provides camera functions to simulate a view of the model through different lenses. Other

  8. Computer-aided Instructional System for Transmission Line Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, Erwin A.; Roth, Charles H., Jr.

    A computer-aided instructional system has been developed which utilizes dynamic computer-controlled graphic displays and which requires student interaction with a computer simulation in an instructional mode. A numerical scheme has been developed for digital simulation of a uniform, distortionless transmission line with resistive terminations and…

  9. COMPUTER-AIDED DATA ACQUISITION FOR COMBUSTION EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article describes the use of computer-aided data acquisition techniques to aid the research program of the Combustion Research Branch (CRB) of the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in Research Triangle Park, NC, in particular on CRB's bench-sca...

  10. COMPUTER-AIDED DATA ACQUISITION FOR COMBUSTION EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article describes the use of computer-aided data acquisition techniques to aid the research program of the Combustion Research Branch (CRB) of the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in Research Triangle Park, NC, in particular on CRB's bench-sca...

  11. Issues of a Computer-Aided Design of Hydraulic Jacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averchenkov, V. I.; Averchenkov, A. V.; Kolyakinand, V. V.; Orekhov, O. D.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the issues of a computer-aided design of hydraulic equipment, namely hydraulic jacks. Design principles of the hydraulic jack CAD system are described. In addition, the possibilities for the system improvement and expansion are considered.

  12. Computer-Aided Diagnosis and Automated Screening of Digital Mammogram.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    AD GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-94-J-4328 TITLE: Computer-Aided Diagnosis and Automated Screening of Digital Mammogram PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kevin S...and Automated Screening of Digital Mammogram 6. AUTHOR(S) Kevin S. Woods, Ph.D, 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...to&E<yrirtRto. Breast Cancer, computer-aided diagnosis, digital mammography 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 19 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  13. Computer Aided Lip Reading Training Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarmasik, Gamze; Dalkilic, Gokhan; Kut, Alp; Cebi, Yalcin; Serbetcioglu, Bulent

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide auditory-verbal education is becoming widespread for deaf children. But many prelingually, late-diagnosed deaf children and adults may utilize neither hearing aids nor cochlear implants and needed the support of lip-reading. Therefore, lip-reading skill remains to be important for oral education programmes of hearing impaired. The…

  14. TARGET: Research in Computer Aids for Translators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Donald; Strazds, Andris E.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the background of the "TARGET Project for Aids to Translation," its current facilities, and its goals. Describes the system's central feature as an interactive, multilingual terminology database intended to eliminate time wasted in researching unknown terms and to facilitate final document production, study of person-machine…

  15. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now. PMID:27095912

  16. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology.

    PubMed

    Calamia, J R

    1994-01-01

    Although the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology and the benefits of increased productivity became obvious in the automobile and aerospace industries in the 1970s, investigations of this technology's application in the field of dentistry did not begin until the 1980s. Only now are we beginning to see the fruits of this work with the commercial availability of some systems; the potential for this technology seems boundless. This article reviews the recent literature with emphasis on the period from June 1992 to May 1993. This review should familiarize the reader with some of the latest developments in this technology, including a brief description of some systems currently available and the clinical and economical rationale for their acceptance into the dental mainstream. This article concentrates on a particular system, the Cerec (Siemens/Pelton and Crane, Charlotte, NC) system, for three reasons: first, this system has been available since 1985 and, as a result, has a track record of almost 7 years of data. Most of the data have just recently been released and consequently, much of this year's literature on CAD-CAM is monopolized by studies using this system. Second, this system was developed as a mobile, affordable, direct chairside CAD-CAM restorative method. As such, it is of special interest to the dentist who will offer this new technology directly to the patient, providing a one-visit restoration. Third, the author is currently engaged in research using this particular system and has a working knowledge of this system's capabilities.

  17. Computer Aids Instruction in Photojournalism Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of paper versions and computer versions of 10 ethical situations posed for student photojournalists. Finds that in-depth situations presented through computer software can give students more information on photojournalism ethics than 2-sentence scenarios on paper. (MS)

  18. Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction: A Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Novak, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Presents an evaluation of a computer-aided personalized system of instruction program in two undergraduate psychology courses. The computer presented short essay tests and arranged for students who had completed various assignments satisfactorily to help evaluate other students' mastery of those assignments. Student response generally was…

  19. The Journal of Computer- Aided Molecular Design: a bibliometric note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes the articles in, and the citations to, volumes 2-24 of the Journal of Computer- Aided Molecular Design. The citations to the journal come from almost 2000 different sources that span a very wide range of academic subjects, with the most heavily cited articles being descriptions of software systems and of computational methods.

  20. WINCADRE INORGANIC (WINDOWS COMPUTER-AIDED DATA REVIEW AND EVALUATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    WinCADRE (Computer-Aided Data Review and Evaluation) is a Windows -based program designed for computer-assisted data validation. WinCADRE is a powerful tool which significantly decreases data validation turnaround time. The electronic-data-deliverable format has been designed in...

  1. Research in Computer-Aided Performance Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigney, Joseph W.; Towne, Douglas M.

    The principal emphasis of this three-year research program was on developing better ways to utilize the power of the digital computer in computer-aided performance training. Two large programs, collectively called TASKTEACH, were developed and tested. These programs combined simulation and gaming techniques. The dialog with the student is…

  2. Computer-aided engineering: the step beyond CAD/CAM

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, L.; Trost, S.R.; O'Brien, D.W.; Pomernacki, C.L.

    1981-11-06

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the need for increased engineering productivity, coupled with increasingly difficult engineering problems, presents a significant challenge. Advances in computer technology coupled with successful CAD/CAM experiences suggest that computer-aided engineering (CAE) will help meet this challenge. Requirements for a CAE system are developed, a CAE system plan is outlined, and some remaining problem areas are discussed.

  3. WINCADRE (COMPUTER-AIDED DATA REVIEW AND EVALUATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    WinCADRE (Computer-Aided Data Review and Evaluation) is a Windows -based program designed for computer-assisted data validation. WinCADRE is a powerful tool which significantly decreases data validation turnaround time. The electronic-data-deliverable format has been designed ...

  4. WINCADRE INORGANIC (WINDOWS COMPUTER-AIDED DATA REVIEW AND EVALUATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    WinCADRE (Computer-Aided Data Review and Evaluation) is a Windows -based program designed for computer-assisted data validation. WinCADRE is a powerful tool which significantly decreases data validation turnaround time. The electronic-data-deliverable format has been designed in...

  5. Competing Ideologies in Software Design for Computer-Aided Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Illustrates the ideological foundations of computer-assisted composition (CAC) software by comparing two computer-writing aids: "Grammatik II" and "Interchange." Notes that many of the best CAC programs have come out of the composition classroom. Argues that English departments must support and reward those who work in CAC design. (RS)

  6. Competing Ideologies in Software Design for Computer-Aided Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Illustrates the ideological foundations of computer-assisted composition (CAC) software by comparing two computer-writing aids: "Grammatik II" and "Interchange." Notes that many of the best CAC programs have come out of the composition classroom. Argues that English departments must support and reward those who work in CAC design. (RS)

  7. WINCADRE (COMPUTER-AIDED DATA REVIEW AND EVALUATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    WinCADRE (Computer-Aided Data Review and Evaluation) is a Windows -based program designed for computer-assisted data validation. WinCADRE is a powerful tool which significantly decreases data validation turnaround time. The electronic-data-deliverable format has been designed ...

  8. Computer-aided design at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Eiffert, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories uses computer-aided design (CAD) equipment for electrical, mechanical, plant facilities and site modeling applications in support of its responsibilities as a prime contractor to the Department of Energy. This paper describes how CAD assists in product design and definition with use of the geometric data base for engineering analysis and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM). The benefits of CAD to these applications are emphasized. Geometric models and their mass properties are passed through a network of CAD computers to a super minicomputer for plot post-processing, analysis, animation and the generation of numerical control codes. Examples of these applications are presented, and some future activities are projected.

  9. Computer-aided design of GPCR ligands.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo; Keränen, Henrik; Azuaje, Jhonny; Rodríguez, David; Åqvist, Johan; Sotelo, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    The recent availability of several GPCR crystal structures now contributes decisively to the perspective of structure-based ligand design. In this context, computational approaches are extremely helpful, particularly if properly integrated in drug design projects with cooperation between computational and medicinal chemistry teams. Here, we present the pipelines used in one such project, devoted to the design of novel potent and selective antagonists for the different adenosine receptors. The details of the computational strategies are described, and particular attention is given to explain how these procedures can effectively guide the synthesis of novel chemical entities.

  10. Computer Aided Diagnosis of Acute Gynaecologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fengling

    1982-01-01

    In this article, the application of electronic computers for diagnosis of ten common gynaecologic diseases is discussed. Verification by 1038 cases shows that the discussed method of diagnosis has an accuracy of 95.57%.

  11. Computer-Aided Collaborative Music Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, James A.

    1991-01-01

    At the New England Conservatory of Music, computer-assisted instruction is used not only to teach harmony through collaborative learning and aural feedback, but also to bring the roles of composer, performer, and audience closer together. (SK)

  12. Computer Aided Data Analysis in Sociometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langeheine, Rolf

    1978-01-01

    A computer program which analyzes sociometric data is presented. The SDAS program provides classical sociometric analysis. Multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis techniques may be combined with the MSP program. (JKS)

  13. Micro-computer system aids in scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Anker, R.

    1986-11-01

    MLP (Mainline Pipeline Ltd.) is a petroleum system operated since 1973, by Esso, on behalf of three other oil companies and itself. To assist in pre- and post-startup planning of the revised pipe line network, Scicon developed a computer-based system based on a Scicon program, SCI-CLOPS. This pipe line simulator applies to a wide range of pipe line networks. By using a computer-based system, Esso plans operations far more effectively than with manual methods.

  14. Computer-aided tutor of power electronic systems CATPELS

    SciTech Connect

    Rajagopalan, V.; Brillon, D.; Yao, Z.; Neacsu, D.O.; Doumbia, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    This paper outlines the major requirements and concepts of a computer-aided learning aid for power electronic systems and gives the characteristics of a prototype of an expert system named CATPELS. The open architecture of the run-time version of the CATPELS software provides not only the basic information for beginners and all the required tools for specialists but also permits a user (an instructor or a researcher) to expand the capabilities to customize his/her specific requirements.

  15. Computer-aided software development process design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe an intelligent tool designed to aid managers of software development projects in planning, managing, and controlling the development process of medium- to large-scale software projects. Its purpose is to reduce uncertainties in the budget, personnel, and schedule planning of software development projects. It is based on dynamic model for the software development and maintenance life-cycle process. This dynamic process is composed of a number of time-varying, interacting developmental phases, each characterized by its intended functions and requirements. System dynamics is used as a modeling methodology. The resulting Software LIfe-Cycle Simulator (SLICS) and the hybrid expert simulation system of which it is a subsystem are described.

  16. Computer-aided software development process design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe an intelligent tool designed to aid managers of software development projects in planning, managing, and controlling the development process of medium- to large-scale software projects. Its purpose is to reduce uncertainties in the budget, personnel, and schedule planning of software development projects. It is based on dynamic model for the software development and maintenance life-cycle process. This dynamic process is composed of a number of time-varying, interacting developmental phases, each characterized by its intended functions and requirements. System dynamics is used as a modeling methodology. The resulting Software LIfe-Cycle Simulator (SLICS) and the hybrid expert simulation system of which it is a subsystem are described.

  17. Computer graphics aid mission operations. [NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.

  18. Computer aided design of spur gear teeth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. L.; Mavriplis, D.; Oswald, F. B.

    1989-01-01

    Procedures for computer-modeling of spur gear tooth fabrication are given. It is shown that the standard involute tooth form results from a cutter with an involute shape rolling onto a gear blank. Specifically, the envelope of an involute is an involute. Examples are given and applications are discussed.

  19. Computer Aided Design in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duelm, Brian Lee

    Estimates calling for 1.2 million computer-assisted design (CAD) operator positions to be available by 1990 have prompted educational institutions throughout the country to incorporate instruction in CAD into their industrial arts curricula. Therefore, the question for schools is not whether to buy but rather what to buy. An effective strategy for…

  20. Developments in Computer Aided Software Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    differences in intelligence ( Adorno et al, 1950). The present authors speculate, however, that there may be a correlation between programming ability and...Administrative Side." Computer Decisions, October 1973. Adorno , T.W., Frenkel-Brunswick, E., Levinson, D.J., and Sanford, R.N. The Authoritarian

  1. Special Computer Aided Education Using Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San, Lei Chu; Hong, Io Hio

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the use of computer-assisted instruction with multimedia for people with disabilities. Considers the needs of children with disabilities and learning difficulties, and presents an example of a voice-assistant system for blind people. Further applications are also discussed. (LRW)

  2. Computer aided interactive remote diagnosis of Parkinsonians.

    PubMed

    Fazekas, Csaba; Vörös, Tibor; Keresztényi, Zoltán; Kozmann, György; Laczkó, József

    2002-01-01

    We develop a diagnostic tool to support the objective diagnosis of Parkinsonians. We suggest a cost and time efficient diagnostic tool: patients may complete exercises using a personal computer at home and the data is gathered for further studies via Internet in a central database.

  3. Computer Program Aids Design Of Impeller Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wei-Chung; Galazin, John V.

    1992-01-01

    Impeller blades for centrifugal turbopumps designed quickly with help of computer program. Generates blade contours and continually subjects them to evaluation. Checks physical parameters to ensure they are compatible with required performance and recycles design if criteria not met. Program written for centrifugal turbomachinery, also adapted to such axial pump components as inducer blades and stator vanes.

  4. Computer Aided Layout Programs. A Contemporary Appraisal,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Hale [4], Ritzman [15], Hitchings and Cottam [8], and Scriabin and Vergin [16]. Unfortunately, all of these studies dealt with the quadratic assignment...Algorithms for Plant Loca’tion," Management Science, Vol. 18, pp. 240-248, 1972. [16] Scriabin , M., and R. C. Vergin, "Comparison of Computer Algorithms and

  5. An Interactive Computer-Based Revision Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, J. M.; Harris, F. T. C.

    1977-01-01

    A computer-based review system has been developed, based on the multiple-choice technique, at the University of London for medical students. The user can enter an answer or can have a list of questions to take away and enter later. Student response has been favorable. (LBH)

  6. Computer-aided surgery: concepts and applications in vascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kaladji, Adrien; Lucas, Antoine; Cardon, Alain; Haigron, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided surgery makes use of a variety of technologies and information sources. The challenge over the last ten years has been to apply these methods to tissues that deform, as do vessels when relatively rigid flexible objects are introduced into them (Lunderquist rigid guidewire, aortic prosthesis, etc.) Three stages of computer-aided endovascular surgery are examined: sizing, planning and intra-operative assistance. Our work shows that an approach based on optimized use of the imaging data acquired during the various observation phases (pre and intra-operative), involving only lightweight computer equipment that is relatively transparent for the user, makes it possible to provide useful (i.e. necessary and sufficient) information at the appropriate moment, in order to aid decision-making and enhance the security of endovascular procedures. PMID:22513982

  7. Computer aided radiation analysis for manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew H.; Griffin, Brand N.; Tanner, Ernest R., II; Pogue, William R.; Golightly, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to assist in the design of radiation shielding an analytical tool is presented that can be employed in combination with CAD facilities and NASA transport codes. The nature of radiation in space is described, and the operational requirements for protection are listed as background information for the use of the technique. The method is based on the Boeing radiation exposure model (BREM) for combining NASA radiation transport codes and CAD facilities, and the output is given as contour maps of the radiation-shield distribution so that dangerous areas can be identified. Computational models are used to solve the 1D Boltzmann transport equation and determine the shielding needs for the worst-case scenario. BREM can be employed directly with the radiation computations to assess radiation protection during all phases of design which saves time and ultimately spacecraft weight.

  8. Computer aided radiation analysis for manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew H.; Griffin, Brand N.; Tanner, Ernest R., II; Pogue, William R.; Golightly, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to assist in the design of radiation shielding an analytical tool is presented that can be employed in combination with CAD facilities and NASA transport codes. The nature of radiation in space is described, and the operational requirements for protection are listed as background information for the use of the technique. The method is based on the Boeing radiation exposure model (BREM) for combining NASA radiation transport codes and CAD facilities, and the output is given as contour maps of the radiation-shield distribution so that dangerous areas can be identified. Computational models are used to solve the 1D Boltzmann transport equation and determine the shielding needs for the worst-case scenario. BREM can be employed directly with the radiation computations to assess radiation protection during all phases of design which saves time and ultimately spacecraft weight.

  9. Program for computer aided reliability estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, F. P. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A computer program for estimating the reliability of self-repair and fault-tolerant systems with respect to selected system and mission parameters is presented. The computer program is capable of operation in an interactive conversational mode as well as in a batch mode and is characterized by maintenance of several general equations representative of basic redundancy schemes in an equation repository. Selected reliability functions applicable to any mathematical model formulated with the general equations, used singly or in combination with each other, are separately stored. One or more system and/or mission parameters may be designated as a variable. Data in the form of values for selected reliability functions is generated in a tabular or graphic format for each formulated model.

  10. Computer aided processing using laser measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. M.; Koch, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The challenge exists of processing the STS and its cargo through KSC facilities in the most timely and cost effective manner possible. To do this a 3-D computer graphics data base was established into which was entered the STS, payloads, and KSC facilities. The facility drawing data are enhanced by laser theodolite measurements into an as-built configuration. Elements of the data base were combined to study orbiter/facility interfaces payload/facility access problems and design/arrangement of various GSE to support processing requirements. With timely analysis/design utilizing the 3-D computer graphics system, costly delays can be avoided. Better methodology can be analyzed to determine procedures for cost avoidance.

  11. Ab Initio Reactive Computer Aided Molecular Design.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Todd J

    2017-03-21

    Few would dispute that theoretical chemistry tools can now provide keen insights into chemical phenomena. Yet the holy grail of efficient and reliable prediction of complex reactivity has remained elusive. Fortunately, recent advances in electronic structure theory based on the concepts of both element- and rank-sparsity, coupled with the emergence of new highly parallel computer architectures, have led to a significant increase in the time and length scales which can be simulated using first principles molecular dynamics. This opens the possibility of new discovery-based approaches to chemical reactivity, such as the recently proposed ab initio nanoreactor. We argue that due to these and other recent advances, the holy grail of computational discovery for complex chemical reactivity is rapidly coming within our reach.

  12. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-05-03

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This system is defined as a Commercial-Off the-Shelf computer dispatching system providing both text and graphical display information while interfacing with the diverse reporting system within the Hanford Facility. This system also provided expansion capabilities to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center and provides back-up capabilities for the Plutonium Processing Facility.

  13. PCACE-Personal-Computer-Aided Cabling Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1987-01-01

    PCACE computer program developed to provide inexpensive, interactive system for learning and using engineering approach to interconnection systems. Basically database system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records. Directly emulates typical manual engineering methods of handling data, thus making interface between user and program very natural. Apple version written in P-Code Pascal and IBM PC version of PCACE written in TURBO Pascal 3.0

  14. Mathematical modelling in the computer-aided process planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitin, S.; Bochkarev, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents new approaches to organization of manufacturing preparation and mathematical models related to development of the computer-aided multi product process planning (CAMPP) system. CAMPP system has some peculiarities compared to the existing computer-aided process planning (CAPP) systems: fully formalized developing of the machining operations; a capacity to create and to formalize the interrelationships among design, process planning and process implementation; procedures for consideration of the real manufacturing conditions. The paper describes the structure of the CAMPP system and shows the mathematical models and methods to formalize the design procedures.

  15. Computer-aided protective system (CAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method of improving the security of materials in transit is described. The system provides a continuously monitored position location system for the transport vehicle, an internal computer-based geographic delimiter that makes continuous comparisons of actual positions with the preplanned routing and schedule, and a tamper detection/reaction system. The position comparison is utilized to institute preprogrammed reactive measures if the carrier is taken off course or schedule, penetrated, or otherwise interfered with. The geographic locater could be an independent internal platform or an external signal-dependent system utilizing GPS, Loran or similar source of geographic information; a small (micro) computer could provide adequate memory and computational capacity; the insurance of integrity of the system indicates the need for a tamper-proof container and built-in intrusion sensors. A variant of the system could provide real-time transmission of the vehicle position and condition to a central control point for; such transmission could be encrypted to preclude spoofing.

  16. Software Aids Visualization of Computed Unsteady Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Kenwright, David

    2003-01-01

    Unsteady Flow Analysis Toolkit (UFAT) is a computer program that synthesizes motions of time-dependent flows represented by very large sets of data generated in computational fluid dynamics simulations. Prior to the development of UFAT, it was necessary to rely on static, single-snapshot depictions of time-dependent flows generated by flow-visualization software designed for steady flows. Whereas it typically takes weeks to analyze the results of a largescale unsteady-flow simulation by use of steady-flow visualization software, the analysis time is reduced to hours when UFAT is used. UFAT can be used to generate graphical objects of flow visualization results using multi-block curvilinear grids in the format of a previously developed NASA data-visualization program, PLOT3D. These graphical objects can be rendered using FAST, another popular flow visualization software developed at NASA. Flow-visualization techniques that can be exploited by use of UFAT include time-dependent tracking of particles, detection of vortex cores, extractions of stream ribbons and surfaces, and tetrahedral decomposition for optimal particle tracking. Unique computational features of UFAT include capabilities for automatic (batch) processing, restart, memory mapping, and parallel processing. These capabilities significantly reduce analysis time and storage requirements, relative to those of prior flow-visualization software. UFAT can be executed on a variety of supercomputers.

  17. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-09-27

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This document outlines the negotiated requirements as agreed to by GTE Northwest during technical contract discussions. This system defines a commercial off-the-shelf computer dispatching system providing both test and graphic display information while interfacing with diverse alarm reporting system within the Hanford Site. This system provided expansion capability to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center. The system also provided back-up capability for the Plutonium Processing Facility (PFP).

  18. Computer Aided Self-Forging Fragment Design,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    T i > > > > > so iii iso eu 250 300 ~~~~~~~ . . — - ~~ - ~: Fig 4 HEMP solution and flash x—ray of copper plate bending test IS; Fig 5 HEMP ...Fig 6 HEMP solution and flash x—ray for SADARM designed to produce a flared copper rod , which fractured in test firing...Laboratory, the HEMP computer code has been developed to serve as an effective design tool to simplify this task considerably. Using this code, warheads 78 06

  19. Space systems computer-aided design technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) system is described, together with planned capability increases in the IDEAS system. The system's disciplines consist of interactive graphics and interactive computing. A single user at an interactive terminal can create, design, analyze, and conduct parametric studies of earth-orbiting satellites, which represents a timely and cost-effective method during the conceptual design phase where various missions and spacecraft options require evaluation. Spacecraft concepts evaluated include microwave radiometer satellites, communication satellite systems, solar-powered lasers, power platforms, and orbiting space stations.

  20. Memory interface simulator: A computer design aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, D. S.; Williams, T.; Weatherbee, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of a study conducted with a digital simulation model being used in the design of the Automatically Reconfigurable Modular Multiprocessor System (ARMMS), a candidate computer system for future manned and unmanned space missions. The model simulates the activity involved as instructions are fetched from random access memory for execution in one of the system central processing units. A series of model runs measured instruction execution time under various assumptions pertaining to the CPU's and the interface between the CPU's and RAM. Design tradeoffs are presented in the following areas: Bus widths, CPU microprogram read only memory cycle time, multiple instruction fetch, and instruction mix.

  1. Data-driven computer aided synthesis design.

    PubMed

    Ravitz, Orr

    2013-09-01

    Enabled by an increasing body of electronically available experimental data and by advances in computer hardware and software, new technologies are emerging that are designed to support the creativity of chemists during synthesis planning. Leading this development are innovative synthetic route prediction tools that are designed to suggest new reactions and paths to target molecules as an idea-generating engine. Other tools are using known reactions in a combinatorial fashion to suggest new routes that are cost-optimized or satisfy some other global criteria. We review the latest developments and the main tools in this domain.

  2. Computer-aided forensics: facial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Turner, Wesley; Tu, Peter; Kelliher, Timothy; Brown, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    The 3D reconstruction of facial features from skeletal remains is a key component to the identification of missing persons and victims of violent crime. A comprehensive Computed Tomography (CT) head-scan database is currently being collected which will enable a new approach to forensic facial reconstruction. Using this unique resource, we show how a face space can be tailored to a specific unknown, or questioned skull. A set of database derived estimates of the questioned face is constructed by first computing non-rigid transformations between the known head-scan skulls and the questioned skull followed by application of these transformations to the known head-scan faces. This effectively factors out influences due to skeletal variation. A tailored face space is formed by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to this ensemble of estimates of the questioned face. Thus, the face space is a direct approximation of correlated soft tissue variance indicative of the population. Ours is the first mathematical representation of the face continuum associated with a given skull. Embedded in this space resides the elements needed for recognition.

  3. Computer aided selection of candidate vaccine antigens

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Immunoinformatics is an emergent branch of informatics science that long ago pullulated from the tree of knowledge that is bioinformatics. It is a discipline which applies informatic techniques to problems of the immune system. To a great extent, immunoinformatics is typified by epitope prediction methods. It has found disappointingly limited use in the design and discovery of new vaccines, which is an area where proper computational support is generally lacking. Most extant vaccines are not based around isolated epitopes but rather correspond to chemically-treated or attenuated whole pathogens or correspond to individual proteins extract from whole pathogens or correspond to complex carbohydrate. In this chapter we attempt to review what progress there has been in an as-yet-underexplored area of immunoinformatics: the computational discovery of whole protein antigens. The effective development of antigen prediction methods would significantly reduce the laboratory resource required to identify pathogenic proteins as candidate subunit vaccines. We begin our review by placing antigen prediction firmly into context, exploring the role of reverse vaccinology in the design and discovery of vaccines. We also highlight several competing yet ultimately complementary methodological approaches: sub-cellular location prediction, identifying antigens using sequence similarity, and the use of sophisticated statistical approaches for predicting the probability of antigen characteristics. We end by exploring how a systems immunomics approach to the prediction of immunogenicity would prove helpful in the prediction of antigens. PMID:21067543

  4. Intelligent computer-aided instruction in statics

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    An expert system was developed to model the problem solving knowledge of Dr. J.L. Meriam from his text Engineering Mechanics Volume I, Statics. The rules of heuristics for solving two-dimensional truss problems were then implemented in the MRS language. The expert system was then validated by solving problems from the text in the same manner as Meriam. Linked to the expert system were three learning-style modules. The learning styles modeled in this study were drill-and-practice, learning-by-example, and a new style called buddy-study. The buddy-state learning style represents an implementation of the Whimbley-pairs technique for computer-based learning. The learning system comprising the expert system, learning-style modules, and associated support programs were then tested for correctness and completeness. Results of the expert system validation demonstrated a system capable of solving problems within the domain as Meriam did. The learning-style module testing showed procedures commensurate with accepted classroom uses of the styles. The buddy-study method demonstrated a computer-learning strategy that places the expert system and the student user as colleagues in a problem-solving environment.

  5. Single photon emission computed tomography in AIDS dementia complex

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, P.; Vogl, G.; Fill, H.; Roessler, H.Z.; Zangerle, R.; Gerstenbrand, F.

    1988-08-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies were performed in AIDS dementia complex using IMP in 12 patients (and HM-PAO in four of these same patients). In all patients, SPECT revealed either multiple or focal uptake defects, the latter corresponding with focal signs or symptoms in all but one case. Computerized tomography showed a diffuse cerebral atrophy in eight of 12 patients, magnetic resonance imaging exhibited changes like atrophy and/or leukoencephalopathy in two of five cases. Our data indicate that both disturbance of cerebral amine metabolism and alteration of local perfusion share in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex. SPECT is an important aid in the diagnosis of AIDS dementia complex and contributes to the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder.

  6. The NASA computer aided design and test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, J. M.; Juergensen, K.

    1973-01-01

    A family of computer programs facilitating the design, layout, evaluation, and testing of digital electronic circuitry is described. CADAT (computer aided design and test system) is intended for use by NASA and its contractors and is aimed predominantly at providing cost effective microelectronic subsystems based on custom designed metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) large scale integrated circuits (LSIC's). CADAT software can be easily adopted by installations with a wide variety of computer hardware configurations. Its structure permits ease of update to more powerful component programs and to newly emerging LSIC technologies. The components of the CADAT system are described stressing the interaction of programs rather than detail of coding or algorithms. The CADAT system provides computer aids to derive and document the design intent, includes powerful automatic layout software, permits detailed geometry checks and performance simulation based on mask data, and furnishes test pattern sequences for hardware testing.

  7. A critically appraised topic review of computer-aided design/computer-aided machining of removable partial denture frameworks.

    PubMed

    Lang, Lisa A; Tulunoglu, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    A critically appraised topic (CAT) review is presented about the use of computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided machining (CAM) removable partial denture (RPD) frameworks. A systematic search of the literature supporting CAD/CAM RPD systems revealed no randomized clinical trials, hence the CAT review was performed. A PubMed search yielded 9 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Each article was characterized by study design and level of evidence. No clinical outcomes research has been published on the use of CAD/CAM RPDs. Low levels of evidence were found in the available literature. Clinical research studies are needed to determine the efficacy of this treatment modality.

  8. Computer-Tailored Intervention for Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Deborah A; Johnson, Janet L; Welch, Carol A; Prochaska, Janice M; Fernandez, Anne C

    2012-01-01

    Studies assessing the efficacy of juvenile justice interventions show small effects on recidivism and other outcomes. This paper describes the development of a prototype of a multimedia computer-tailored intervention ("Rise Above Your Situation"or RAYS) that relies on an evidence-based model of behavior change, the Transtheoretical Model, and expert system technology to deliver assessments, feedback, printed reports, and counselor reports with intervention ideas. In a feasibility test involving 60 system-involved youths and their counselors, evaluations of the program were favorable: 91.7% of youths agreed that the program could help them make positive changes, and 86.7% agreed that the program could give their counselor helpful information about them.

  9. Computer-Tailored Intervention for Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    LEVESQUE, DEBORAH A.; JOHNSON, JANET L.; WELCH, CAROL A.; PROCHASKA, JANICE M.; FERNANDEZ, ANNE C.

    2012-01-01

    Studies assessing the efficacy of juvenile justice interventions show small effects on recidivism and other outcomes. This paper describes the development of a prototype of a multimedia computer-tailored intervention (“Rise Above Your Situation”or RAYS) that relies on an evidence-based model of behavior change, the Transtheoretical Model, and expert system technology to deliver assessments, feedback, printed reports, and counselor reports with intervention ideas. In a feasibility test involving 60 system-involved youths and their counselors, evaluations of the program were favorable: 91.7% of youths agreed that the program could help them make positive changes, and 86.7% agreed that the program could give their counselor helpful information about them. PMID:23264754

  10. Computer aided coordination of line protection schemes IEEE committee report

    SciTech Connect

    Postforoosh, J.M.; Akamine, J.; Banerjee, H.N.; Cornelison, J.R.; Enns, M.K.; Grier, S.E.; Hass, R.W.; Hasenwinkle, I.O.; Johnson, R.W.; Mozina, C.J.; Ramaswami, R.; Smith, H.S.; Taylor, R.P.; Turley, J.R.; Zipp, J.A.

    1991-04-01

    IEEE PSRC working group on Computer Aided Coordination of Line Protection Schemes was established in 1985 to investigate the application of computers to the task of setting and verifying the setting of line protective devices. This report provides the findings of the working group regarding functional requirements of the data base, software, and hardware for this system as well as the methods of presenting the results to the protection engineer.

  11. Computer aids for integrated circuit design at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. W.

    A general framework for a hierarchical computer-aided design (CAD) system for VLSI design is described. The system supports both functional and physical design in the area of initial design specification, system synthesis, simulation, mask layout, verification, and documentation. The system is being implemented in phases within a user environment on a DECsystem 20-VAX 11/780 computer network. It supports evolutionary changes as new technologies, design strategies, and application programs are developed.

  12. Computer-Based Job Aiding: Problem Solving at Work.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    KEY .ORDS (CUMue M mum. Wif. of aeeeM. am 8 F Wp Wi MMW) technical literacy , problem solving, computer based job aiding comliute~r based instruction...discourse processes, although those notions are opera- tionalized in a new way. Infomation Search in Technical Literacy as Problem Solving The dimensions of...computer-assisted technical literacy , information seeking strategies employed during an assembly task were analyzed in terms of overall group frequencies

  13. Computer-Aided Instruction for Adult Professionals: A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Doris Smith

    1992-01-01

    Discusses computer-aided instruction (CAI) for adult learners and describes research conducted at the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory to study the impact of CAI on design professionals, i.e., architects and engineers. Attitudes of adult professionals are examined, and design requirements for a CAI system for professionals…

  14. An Elective Course on Computer-Aided Process Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerfeld, Jude T.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate chemical engineering course which has been offered at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The objectives, structure, instructional materials and content of this course, which emphasizes the structure and usage of computer-aided design systems, are also included. (HM)

  15. Does Computer-Aided Formative Assessment Improve Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannah, John; James, Alex; Williams, Phillipa

    2014-01-01

    Two first-year engineering mathematics courses used computer-aided assessment (CAA) to provide students with opportunities for formative assessment via a series of weekly quizzes. Most students used the assessment until they achieved very high (>90%) quiz scores. Although there is a positive correlation between these quiz marks and the final…

  16. Critiquing the Computer-Aided Design of Dental Prostheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, F. J.; And Others

    This paper describes RaPiD, a computer-aided assistant for the design of dental prostheses called removable partial dentures. The user manipulates icons directly to indicate the desired design solution to a given clinical situation. A developing design is represented as a logic database of components in a design; expert rules are applied as…

  17. Computer Aided Evaluation of Higher Education Tutors' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xenos, Michalis; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a method for computer-aided tutor evaluation: Bayesian Networks are used for organizing the collected data about tutors and for enabling accurate estimations and predictions about future tutor behavior. The model provides indications about each tutor's strengths and weaknesses, which enables the evaluator to exploit strengths…

  18. eWorkbook: A Computer Aided Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costagliola, Gennaro; Ferrucci, Filomena; Fuccella, Vittorio; Oliveto, Rocco

    2007-01-01

    Computer aided assessment (CAA) tools are more and more widely adopted in academic environments mixed to other assessment means. In this article, we present a CAA Web application, named eWorkbook, which can be used for evaluating learner's knowledge by creating (the tutor) and taking (the learner) on-line tests based on multiple choice, multiple…

  19. The Use of Computers to Aid Instruction in Beginning Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandey, Robert C.

    1971-01-01

    Describes computer-aided lessons for determining chemical formulas from composition by weight, quantities from chemical equations, and balancing equations for oxidation-reduction reactions. Lessons were developed and used on the PLATO system at the University of Illinois. A brief analysis of student attitudes and of effectiveness of the programs…

  20. How Effective Is Feedback in Computer-Aided Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Mundeep; Greenhow, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Computer-Aided Assessments (CAAs) have been used increasingly at Brunel University for over 10 years to test students' mathematical abilities. Recently, we have focussed on providing very rich feedback to the students; given the work involved in designing and coding such feedback, it is important to study the impact of the interaction between…

  1. Caesy: A software tool for computer-aided engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matt

    1993-01-01

    A new software tool, Caesy, is described. This tool provides a strongly typed programming environment for research in the development of algorithms and software for computer-aided control system design. A description of the user language and its implementation as they currently stand are presented along with a description of work in progress and areas of future work.

  2. National Survey of Computer Aided Manufacturing in Industrial Technology Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidari, Farzin

    The current status of computer-aided manufacturing in the 4-year industrial technology programs in the United States was studied. All industrial technology department chairs were mailed a questionnaire divided into program information, equipment information, and general comments sections. The questionnaire was designed to determine the subjects…

  3. Computer Assisted Financial Aid Disbursement and Loan Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry K.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the computer assisted system in use at Washington State University. It controls and reports funds requested by students, offered to students, and disbursed to students, writes financial aid checks, prepares fiscal year-end statements and performs loan collection processes according to federal government regulations, and provides internal…

  4. Computational modelling of the impact of AIDS on business.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Alan P

    2007-07-01

    An overview of computational modelling of the impact of AIDS on business in South Africa, with a detailed description of the AIDS Projection Model (APM) for companies, developed by the author, and suggestions for further work. Computational modelling of the impact of AIDS on business in South Africa requires modelling of the epidemic as a whole, and of its impact on a company. This paper gives an overview of epidemiological modelling, with an introduction to the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA) model, the most widely used such model for South Africa. The APM produces projections of HIV prevalence, new infections, and AIDS mortality on a company, based on the anonymous HIV testing of company employees, and projections from the ASSA model. A smoothed statistical model of the prevalence test data is computed, and then the ASSA model projection for each category of employees is adjusted so that it matches the measured prevalence in the year of testing. FURTHER WORK: Further techniques that could be developed are microsimulation (representing individuals in the computer), scenario planning for testing strategies, and models for the business environment, such as models of entire sectors, and mapping of HIV prevalence in time and space, based on workplace and community data.

  5. Evaluation and Assessment of a Biomechanics Computer-Aided Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, N.; Parnianpour, M.; Fraser, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Biomechanics Tutorial, a computer-aided instructional tool that was developed at Ohio State University to expedite the transition from lecture to application for undergraduate students. Reports evaluation results that used statistical analyses and student questionnaires to show improved performance on posttests as well as positive…

  6. Toward Computer-Aided Affective Learning Systems: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moridis, C. N.; Economides, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to provide an overview of the various components of "computer aided affective learning systems." The research is classified into 3 main scientific areas that are integral parts of the development of these kinds of systems. The three main scientific areas are: i) emotions and their connection to learning; ii) affect…

  7. Applications of computer-aided text analysis in natural resources.

    Treesearch

    David N. Bengston

    2000-01-01

    Ten contributed papers describe the use of a variety of approaches to computer-aided text analysis and their application to a wide range of research questions related to natural resources and the environment. Taken together, these papers paint a picture of a growing and vital area of research on the human dimensions of natural resource management.

  8. De novo computer-aided design of novel antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Massarotti, Alberto; Coluccia, Antonio; Sorba, Giovanni; Silvestri, Romano; Brancale, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided drug design techniques have become an integral part of the drug discovery process. In particular, de novo methodologies can be useful to identify putative ligands for a specific target relying only on the structural information of the target itself. Here we discuss the basic de novo approaches available and their application in antiviral drug design.:

  9. Computer program aids dual reflector antenna system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firnett, P.; Gerritsen, R.; Jarvie, P.; Ludwig, A.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program aids in the design of maximum efficiency dual reflector antenna systems. It designs a shaped cassegrainian antenna which has nearly 100 percent efficiency, and accepts input parameters specifying an existing conventional antenna and produces as output the modifications necessary to conform to a shaped design.

  10. Computer-Assisted Instruction in AIDS Infection Control for Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, T. J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A microcomputer program to provide health care workers with instruction in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) infection control was assessed by medical residents. The experimental group (n=24) acquired more knowledge than controls (n=33). Response to the method was positive, and computer-assisted instruction is seen as useful for AIDS…

  11. Evaluation and Assessment of a Biomechanics Computer-Aided Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, N.; Parnianpour, M.; Fraser, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Biomechanics Tutorial, a computer-aided instructional tool that was developed at Ohio State University to expedite the transition from lecture to application for undergraduate students. Reports evaluation results that used statistical analyses and student questionnaires to show improved performance on posttests as well as positive…

  12. Specification and Development of Computer Aids to ISD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, A. Fred

    This paper first notes the evolution of instructional development which has led to a need for the specification and development of computer aids to ISD activities, then notes several current efforts to meet this need, and finally describes the development of an Authoring Management System (AMS) designed to help manage the development phase of ISD.…

  13. Computer-aided programming of automated welding work cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukareko, Evgeni; Pashkevich, Anatoly; Khmel, Dmitry; Korzun, Alexander; Yurkevich, Yury

    1994-11-01

    The paper is devoted to computer-aided welding work cells design, path planning and programming. It presents specially developed algorithms and software tools for simulation of arc and spot welding robotic cells and generation of technological programs. The software has been tested in the automotive industry on the manufacturing floor.

  14. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  15. Electronic Computer Aided Design. Its Application in FE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    A study was conducted at the Electronics Industrial Unit at the Dorset Institute of Higher Education to investigate the feasibility of incorporating computer-aided design (CAD) in electrical and electronic courses. The aim was to investigate the application of CAD to electrical and electronic systems; the extent to which industrial developments…

  16. Computer aided detection of endobronchial valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Robert A.; Goldin, Jonathan G.; Abtin, Fereidoun; Ghurabi, Raffi; Rao, Ajay; Ahmad, Shama; da Costa, Irene; Brown, Matthew

    2008-03-01

    The ability to automatically detect and monitor implanted devices may serve an important role in patient care and the evaluation of device and treatment efficacy. The purpose of this research was to develop a system for the automated detection of one-way endobronchial valves implanted as part of a clinical trial for less invasive lung volume reduction. Volumetric thin section CT data was obtained for 275 subjects; 95 subjects implanted with 246 devices were used for system development and 180 subjects implanted with 354 devices were reserved for testing. The detection process consisted of pre-processing, pattern-recognition based detection, and a final device selection. Following the pre-processing, a set of classifiers were trained using AdaBoost to discriminate true devices from false positives (such as calcium deposits). The classifiers in the cascade used simple features (the mean or max attenuation) computed near control points relative to a template model of the valve. Visual confirmation of the system output served as the gold standard. FROC analysis was performed for the evaluation; the system could be set so the mean sensitivity was 96.5% with a mean of 0.18 false positives per subject. These generic device modeling and detection techniques may be applicable to other devices and useful for monitoring the placement and function of implanted devices.

  17. Technology-Delivered Mental Health Interventions for People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA): a Review of Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Huang, Chao-Hui; Savage, Robert; Safren, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS infection and psychiatric diagnoses are closely linked, with an estimated 50 % of HIV-infected individuals diagnosed with co-occurring mental health disorders. Mental health disorders have been shown to be associated with HIV acquisition as well as poor treatment outcomes for those infected with HIV. Therefore, behavioral interventions to improve HIV/AIDS health outcomes have included interventions addressing mental health co-morbidities, such as depression and anxiety, and the use of technology to facilitate such intervention is growing. The current review focuses on research published between January 2011 and April 2015, exploring technology-based interventions aimed to improve health outcomes among HIV/AIDS individuals with co-occurring mental health symptoms. Technologies identified in this review included telephone-delivered and computer-delivered interventions. Despite rapid advances in technology use in the medical professions, particularly in the area of psychiatric treatment, little has been translated into the area of mental health research in the context of HIV disease. This review reveals that the widespread dissemination of various technologies, especially technologies facilitating access to care among vulnerable and marginalized populations, may be a necessary way to offer evidence-based mental health interventions to HIV/AIDS populations in need. PMID:26452644

  18. Technology-Delivered Mental Health Interventions for People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA): a Review of Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Huang, Chao-Hui; Savage, Robert; Safren, Steven A

    2015-12-01

    HIV/AIDS infection and psychiatric diagnoses are closely linked, with an estimated 50 % of HIV-infected individuals diagnosed with co-occurring mental health disorders. Mental health disorders have been shown to be associated with HIV acquisition as well as poor treatment outcomes for those infected with HIV. Therefore, behavioral interventions to improve HIV/AIDS health outcomes have included interventions addressing mental health co-morbidities, such as depression and anxiety, and the use of technology to facilitate such intervention is growing. The current review focuses on research published between January 2011 and April 2015, exploring technology-based interventions aimed to improve health outcomes among HIV/AIDS individuals with co-occurring mental health symptoms. Technologies identified in this review included telephone-delivered and computer-delivered interventions. Despite rapid advances in technology use in the medical professions, particularly in the area of psychiatric treatment, little has been translated into the area of mental health research in the context of HIV disease. This review reveals that the widespread dissemination of various technologies, especially technologies facilitating access to care among vulnerable and marginalized populations, may be a necessary way to offer evidence-based mental health interventions to HIV/AIDS populations in need.

  19. Computer aided gene mining for gingerol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    James, Priyanka; Baby, Bincy; Charles, SonaSona; Nair, Lekshmysree Saraschandran; Nazeem, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    Inspite of the large body of genomic data obtained from the transcriptome of Zingiber officinale, very few studies have focused on the identification and characterization of miRNAs in gingerol biosynthesis. Zingiber officinale transcriptome was analyzed using EST dataset (38169 total) deposited in public domains. In this paper computational functional annotation of the available ESTs and identification of genes which play a significant role in gingerol biosynthesis are described. Zingiber officinale transcriptome was analyzed using EST dataset (38169 total) from ncbi. ESTs were clustered and assembled, resulting in 8624 contigs and 8821 singletons. Assembled dataset was then submitted to the EST functional annotation workflow including blast, gene ontology (go) analysis, and pathway enrichment by kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (kegg) and interproscan. The unigene datasets were further exploited to identify simple sequence repeats that enable linkage mapping. A total of 409 simple sequence repeats were identified from the contigs. Furthermore we examined the existence of novel miRNAs from the ESTs in rhizome, root and leaf tissues. EST analysis revealed the presence of single hypothetical miRNA in rhizome tissue. The hypothetical miRNA is warranted to play an important role in controlling genes involved in gingerol biosynthesis and hence demands experimental validation. The assembly and associated information of transcriptome data provides a comprehensive functional and evolutionary characterization of genomics of Zingiber officinale. As an effort to make the genomic and transcriptomic data widely available to the public domain, the results were integrated into a web-based Ginger EST database which is freely accessible at http://www.kaubic.in/gingerest/.

  20. Computer aided gene mining for gingerol biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    James, Priyanka; Baby, Bincy; Charles, SonaSona; Nair, Lekshmysree Saraschandran; Nazeem, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    Inspite of the large body of genomic data obtained from the transcriptome of Zingiber officinale, very few studies have focused on the identification and characterization of miRNAs in gingerol biosynthesis. Zingiber officinale transcriptome was analyzed using EST dataset (38169 total) deposited in public domains. In this paper computational functional annotation of the available ESTs and identification of genes which play a significant role in gingerol biosynthesis are described. Zingiber officinale transcriptome was analyzed using EST dataset (38169 total) from ncbi. ESTs were clustered and assembled, resulting in 8624 contigs and 8821 singletons. Assembled dataset was then submitted to the EST functional annotation workflow including blast, gene ontology (go) analysis, and pathway enrichment by kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (kegg) and interproscan. The unigene datasets were further exploited to identify simple sequence repeats that enable linkage mapping. A total of 409 simple sequence repeats were identified from the contigs. Furthermore we examined the existence of novel miRNAs from the ESTs in rhizome, root and leaf tissues. EST analysis revealed the presence of single hypothetical miRNA in rhizome tissue. The hypothetical miRNA is warranted to play an important role in controlling genes involved in gingerol biosynthesis and hence demands experimental validation. The assembly and associated information of transcriptome data provides a comprehensive functional and evolutionary characterization of genomics of Zingiber officinale. As an effort to make the genomic and transcriptomic data widely available to the public domain, the results were integrated into a web-based Ginger EST database which is freely accessible at http://www.kaubic.in/gingerest/. PMID:26229293

  1. Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Hydroxyapatite/Epoxide Acrylate Maleic Compound Construction for Craniomaxillofacial Bone Defects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Shen, Shunyao; Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Steve Guofang; Wang, Xudong

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing hydroxyapatite (HA)/epoxide acrylate maleic (EAM) compound construction artificial implants for craniomaxillofacial bone defects. Computed tomography, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing and three-dimensional reconstruction, as well as rapid prototyping were performed in 12 patients between 2008 and 2013. The customized HA/EAM compound artificial implants were manufactured through selective laser sintering using a rapid prototyping machine into the exact geometric shapes of the defect. The HA/EAM compound artificial implants were then implanted during surgical reconstruction. Color-coded superimpositions demonstrated the discrepancy between the virtual plan and achieved results using Geomagic Studio. As a result, the HA/EAM compound artificial bone implants were perfectly matched with the facial areas that needed reconstruction. The postoperative aesthetic and functional results were satisfactory. The color-coded superimpositions demonstrated good consistency between the virtual plan and achieved results. The three-dimensional maximum deviation is 2.12 ± 0.65  mm and the three-dimensional mean deviation is 0.27 ± 0.07  mm. No facial nerve weakness or pain was observed at the follow-up examinations. Only 1 implant had to be removed 2 months after the surgery owing to severe local infection. No other complication was noted during the follow-up period. In conclusion, computer-aided, individually fabricated HA/EAM compound construction artificial implant was a good craniomaxillofacial surgical technique that yielded improved aesthetic results and functional recovery after reconstruction.

  2. A discussion of HIV/AIDS family interventions: implications for family-focused nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Eustace, Rosemary W

    2013-07-01

    This article presents a discussion on the role of family interventions in HIV/AIDS disease prevention and care. Although HIV/AIDS epidemic and its impact on the society traditionally has been measured in terms of individual risk behaviours and individual-level HIV prevention, HIV/AIDS family-focused prevention and management strategies are increasingly becoming a priority. However, little is known as to what constitutes a HIV/AIDS family intervention. The search was limited to English and published literature starting in the year 1983 to date. CINAHL and PubMed were emphasized using a combination of text words and subject headings. Cochrane Library, PsycInfo, Scopus, and the ISI Web of Science databases were also searched using keywords and in the case of PsycInfo, subject headings were used. The main keywords were 'nurse', or 'nursing', 'HIV/AIDS', 'family interventions', 'family support' and 'family education', and/or 'family subsystems'. The process of theorizing about 'family interventions' and 'HIV/AIDS-family interventions' is critical for putting forth essential components unique for designing culturally specific HIV/AIDS family interventions. In addition, any proposed design of HIV/AIDS family intervention should consider the impact of HIV/AIDS on the family across the family life span, disease trajectory, and from an interdisciplinary perspective. Training needs of family nurses should be met when designing multidisciplinary HIV/AIDS-FIs. Furthermore, nurses should be proactive in advocating for HIV/AIDS family intervention and HIV/AIDS family policies to improve outcomes in family functioning, processes, and relationships. More needs to be done in regard to research on families, family interventions, effectiveness, and cost of family-focused approaches. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Possible Computer Vision Systems and Automated or Computer-Aided Edging and Trimming

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses research which is underway to help our industry reduce costs, increase product volume and value recovery, and market more accurately graded and described products. The research is part of a team effort to help the hardwood sawmill industry automate with computer vision systems, and computer-aided or computer controlled processing. This paper...

  4. 75 FR 3746 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Part C Early Intervention Services (EIS) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Part C Early..., Florida, that will ensure continuity of Part C, Early Intervention Services (EIS), HIV/AIDS care and...: Critical funding for HIV/AIDS care and treatment to the target populations in Orange County,...

  5. On computer-aided design of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski, J. E.; Voigt, S. J.; Fulton, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Digital computers are being used in many engineering activities to support design work. This paper provides an overview of some of this work as it relates to the design of aerospace vehicles. Discussions are given of some of the complexities of the design process which lead to large design costs and time. A number of important but disjointed computer capabilities have evolved over the years in analysis, optimization, and graphics, and such capabilities aid in addressing the problem of design complexity. Examples of existing computer-aided design (CAD) systems are given and trends for future CAD systems are indicated, as well as their relationship to pertinent data management technology. It is suggested that major gains in design capability will occur through continued development of CAD methodology and that these gains may be accelerated through a large focused effort.

  6. Investigations in Computer-Aided Instruction and Computer-Aided Controls. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, R.C.; And Others

    These research projects, designed to delve into certain relationships between humans and computers, are focused on computer-assisted instruction and on man-computer interaction. One study demonstrates that within the limits of formal engineering theory, a computer simulated laboratory (Dynamic Systems Laboratory) can be built in which freshmen…

  7. The Health Effects of Worksite HIV/AIDS Interventions. A Review of the Research Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mark G.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A literature review identified 12 studies reporting the impact of worksite HIV/AIDS intervention programs. Ten studies reported positive effects on knowledge and/or attitudes. Few had control or comparison groups. Given the small number of studies and poor methodology, the literature on worksite HIV/AIDS intervention was classified as weak.…

  8. Reducing Depression, Anxiety, and Trauma of Male Inmates: An HIV/AIDS Psychoeducational Group Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.; Kiam, Risa; Green, Diane L.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a quasi-experimental research study that found that a 10-session psychoeducational group intervention was effective in increasing knowledge of AIDS and decreasing depression, anxiety, and trauma symptoms among male inmates. The intervention consisted of both AIDS education topics and psychological support. Results indicate significant…

  9. WEMAP - A computer aided instructional tool for electromagnetics

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, V.K.; Ware, L.E.; Bogden, F.J.; DelVecchio, R.M.; Ashkin, M.; Woodward, W.S.

    1989-05-01

    The recent advances in computer technology and associated software have introduced new concepts and techniques into the traditional classroom environment of engineering education. WEMAP, an electromagnetic analysis computer code, is a part of a new breed of computer aided engineering tools for teaching electromagnetics to power engineering students. WEMAP is a stand-alone interactive graphics system for electromagnetic analysis, which includes electrostatics, magnetostatics, eddy currents (time harmonic as well as transient), and permanent magnet fields. These capabilities are described in this paper and examples are given to illustrate how this program enhances the classroom presentation of some of the electromagnetic phenomena.

  10. Wavelets for computer-aided breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Lemuel R., Jr.; Kocur, Catherine M.; Rogers, Steven K.; Eisenbies, Chris; Hoffmeister, Jeffrey W.

    1995-04-01

    More than 50 million women over the age of 40 are currently at risk for breast cancer in the United States. Computer-aided diagnosis, used as a `second opinion' to radiologists, will aid in decreasing the number of false readings of mammograms. A novel feature extraction method is presented that provides increased classification power. Wavelets, previously only exploited for their segmentation benefits, are explored as features for classification. Daubechies4, Daubechies20, and biorthogonal wavelets are each investigated. Applied to 94 difficult-to- diagnose digitized microcalcification cases, performance is 74 percent correct classifications. Feature selection techniques are presented which further improve wavelet classification performance to 88 percent correct classification.

  11. Computer-aided detection and diagnosis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michael J; Hoffmeister, Jeffrey; Worrell, Steven W

    2006-08-01

    The use of computer-aided detection (CAD) with film or digital mammography is now widely regarded as the standard of practice in mammography and has been shown to increase the rate of breast cancer detection. There are inherent limitations in 2D mammography, and new technologies involving 2D and 3D imaging with X-rays, ultrasound, and MRI are in use or under investigation. CAD can aid in the reduction of oversight error for these modalities and has the potential to assist the physician in unifying the interpretation across alternative modalities. We believe the result will be improved sensitivity and specificity due to both improved detection and diagnosis.

  12. Computer Vision Techniques for Transcatheter Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Feng; Roach, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive transcatheter technologies have demonstrated substantial promise for the diagnosis and the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. For example, transcatheter aortic valve implantation is an alternative to aortic valve replacement for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis, and transcatheter atrial fibrillation ablation is widely used for the treatment and the cure of atrial fibrillation. In addition, catheter-based intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography imaging of coronary arteries provides important information about the coronary lumen, wall, and plaque characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of these cross-sectional image data will be beneficial to the evaluation and the treatment of coronary artery diseases such as atherosclerosis. In all the phases (preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative) during the transcatheter intervention procedure, computer vision techniques (e.g., image segmentation and motion tracking) have been largely applied in the field to accomplish tasks like annulus measurement, valve selection, catheter placement control, and vessel centerline extraction. This provides beneficial guidance for the clinicians in surgical planning, disease diagnosis, and treatment assessment. In this paper, we present a systematical review on these state-of-the-art methods. We aim to give a comprehensive overview for researchers in the area of computer vision on the subject of transcatheter intervention. Research in medical computing is multi-disciplinary due to its nature, and hence, it is important to understand the application domain, clinical background, and imaging modality, so that methods and quantitative measurements derived from analyzing the imaging data are appropriate and meaningful. We thus provide an overview on the background information of the transcatheter intervention procedures, as well as a review of the computer vision techniques and methodologies applied in this area. PMID:27170893

  13. Virtual reality versus computer-aided exposure treatments for fear of flying.

    PubMed

    Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Botella, Cristina; Llabrés, Jordi; Bretón-López, Juana María; del Amo, Antonio Riera; Baños, Rosa M; Gelabert, Joan M

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is growing that two modalities of computer-based exposure therapies--virtual reality and computer-aided psychotherapy--are effective in treating anxiety disorders, including fear of flying. However, they have not yet been directly compared. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of three computer-based exposure treatments for fear of flying: virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), computer-aided exposure with a therapist's (CAE-T) assistance throughout exposure sessions, and self-administered computer-aided exposure (CAE-SA). A total of 60 participants with flying phobia were randomly assigned to VRET, CAE-T, or CAE-SA. Results indicate that the three interventions were effective in reducing fear of flying at posttreatment and at 1-year follow-up; furthermore, there were no significant differences between them in any of the outcome measure. Large within-group effect sizes were found for all three treatment conditions at both posttreatment and at follow-up. The results suggest that therapist involvement might be minimized during computer-based treatments and that CAE can be as effective as VRET in reducing fear of flying.

  14. Evaluation of computer-aided detection and diagnosis systemsa)

    PubMed Central

    Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Armato, Samuel G.; Bert, Alberto; Correale, Loredana; Delsanto, Silvia; Freedman, Matthew T.; Fryd, David; Gur, David; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Huo, Zhimin; Jiang, Yulei; Morra, Lia; Paquerault, Sophie; Raykar, Vikas; Samuelson, Frank; Summers, Ronald M.; Tourassi, Georgia; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Zheng, Bin; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) systems are increasingly being used as an aid by clinicians for detection and interpretation of diseases. Computer-aided detection systems mark regions of an image that may reveal specific abnormalities and are used to alert clinicians to these regions during image interpretation. Computer-aided diagnosis systems provide an assessment of a disease using image-based information alone or in combination with other relevant diagnostic data and are used by clinicians as a decision support in developing their diagnoses. While CAD systems are commercially available, standardized approaches for evaluating and reporting their performance have not yet been fully formalized in the literature or in a standardization effort. This deficiency has led to difficulty in the comparison of CAD devices and in understanding how the reported performance might translate into clinical practice. To address these important issues, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed the Computer Aided Detection in Diagnostic Imaging Subcommittee (CADSC), in part, to develop recommendations on approaches for assessing CAD system performance. The purpose of this paper is to convey the opinions of the AAPM CADSC members and to stimulate the development of consensus approaches and “best practices” for evaluating CAD systems. Both the assessment of a standalone CAD system and the evaluation of the impact of CAD on end-users are discussed. It is hoped that awareness of these important evaluation elements and the CADSC recommendations will lead to further development of structured guidelines for CAD performance assessment. Proper assessment of CAD system performance is expected to increase the understanding of a CAD system's effectiveness and limitations, which is expected to stimulate further research and development efforts on CAD technologies, reduce problems due to improper use, and eventually improve the utility and efficacy of CAD

  15. Computer-aided light sheet flow visualization using photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Kathryn; Severance, Kurt; Childers, Brooks A.

    1994-01-01

    A computer-aided flow visualization process has been developed to analyze video images acquired from rotating and translating light sheet visualization systems. The computer process integrates a mathematical model for image reconstruction, advanced computer graphics concepts, and digital image processing to provide a quantitative and a visual analysis capability. The image reconstruction model, based on photogrammetry, uses knowledge of the camera and light sheet locations and orientations to project two-dimensional light sheet video images into three-dimensional space. A sophisticated computer visualization package, commonly used to analyze computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results, was chosen to interactively display the reconstructed light sheet images with the numerical surface geometry for the model or aircraft under study. The photogrammetric reconstruction technique and the image processing and computer graphics techniques and equipment are described. Results of the computer-aided process applied to both a wind tunnel translating light sheet experiment and an in-flight rotating light sheet experiment are presented. The capability to compare reconstructed experimental light sheet images with CFD solutions in the same graphics environment is also demonstrated.

  16. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... applicable Federal communications law. (b) Electronic, computer or other technologic aids include, but are... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. 502.7... DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.7 Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. (a) Electronic, computer...

  17. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. 502.7... DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.7 Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. (a) Electronic, computer or... applicable Federal communications law. (b) Electronic, computer or other technologic aids include, but are...

  18. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. 502.7... DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.7 Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. (a) Electronic, computer or... applicable Federal communications law. (b) Electronic, computer or other technologic aids include, but are...

  19. 25 CFR 502.7 - Electronic, computer or other technologic aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. 502.7... DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.7 Electronic, computer or other technologic aid. (a) Electronic, computer or... applicable Federal communications law. (b) Electronic, computer or other technologic aids include, but are...

  20. Contextual Mediators influencing the Effectiveness of Behavioural Change Interventions: A Case of HIV/AIDS Prevention Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Musiimenta, Angella

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although Uganda had recorded declines in HIV infection rates around 1990’s, it is argued that HIV/AIDS risk sexual behaviour, especially among the youth, started increasing again from early 2000. School-based computer-assisted HIV interventions can provide interactive ways of improving the youth’s HIV knowledge, attitudes and skills. However, these interventions have long been reported to have limited success in improving the youth’s sexual behaviours, which is always the major aim of implementing such interventions. This could be because the commonly used health promotion theories employed by these interventions have limited application in HIV prevention. These theories tend to lack sufficient attention to contextual mediators that influence ones sexual behaviours. Moreover, literature increasingly expresses dissatisfaction with the dominant prevailing descriptive survey-type HIV/AIDS-related research. Objective and Methods: The objective of this research was to identify contextual mediators that influence the youth’s decision to adopt and maintain the HIV/AIDS preventive behaviour advocated by a computer-assisted intervention. To achieve this objective, this research employed qualitative method, which provided in-depth understanding of how different contexts interact to influence the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS interventions. The research question was: What contextual mediators are influencing the youth’s decision to adopt and maintain the HIV/AIDS preventive behaviour advocated by a computer-assisted intervention? To answer this research question, 20 youth who had previously completed the WSWM intervention when they were still in secondary schools were telephone interviewed between Sept.08 and Dec.08. The collected data was then analysed, based on grounded theory’s coding scheme. Results: Findings demonstrate that although often ignored by HIV interventionists and researchers, variety of contextual mediators influence individual uptake of

  1. Computer Aided Grid Interface: An Interactive CFD Pre-Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.

    1997-01-01

    NASA maintains an applications oriented computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts complementary to and in support of the aerodynamic-propulsion design and test activities. This is especially true at NASA/MSFC where the goal is to advance and optimize present and future liquid-fueled rocket engines. Numerical grid generation plays a significant role in the fluid flow simulations utilizing CFD. An overall goal of the current project was to develop a geometry-grid generation tool that will help engineers, scientists and CFD practitioners to analyze design problems involving complex geometries in a timely fashion. This goal is accomplished by developing the CAGI: Computer Aided Grid Interface system. The CAGI system is developed by integrating CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) geometric system output and/or Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files (including all the NASA-IGES entities), geometry manipulations and generations associated with grid constructions, and robust grid generation methodologies. This report describes the development process of the CAGI system.

  2. Computer Aided Grid Interface: An Interactive CFD Pre-Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.

    1996-01-01

    NASA maintains an applications oriented computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts complementary to and in support of the aerodynamic-propulsion design and test activities. This is especially true at NASA/MSFC where the goal is to advance and optimize present and future liquid-fueled rocket engines. Numerical grid generation plays a significant role in the fluid flow simulations utilizing CFD. An overall goal of the current project was to develop a geometry-grid generation tool that will help engineers, scientists and CFD practitioners to analyze design problems involving complex geometries in a timely fashion. This goal is accomplished by developing the Computer Aided Grid Interface system (CAGI). The CAGI system is developed by integrating CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) geometric system output and / or Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files (including all the NASA-IGES entities), geometry manipulations and generations associated with grid constructions, and robust grid generation methodologies. This report describes the development process of the CAGI system.

  3. The effectiveness of an intervention program on hearing aid maintenance for teenagers and their teachers.

    PubMed

    Most, Tova

    2002-10-01

    The impact of an intervention program on hearing aid functioning and maintenance was evaluated. The program targeted 29 teenagers who wore hearing aids, and 7 of their teachers. Using an A-B-A paradigm, the researcher monitored student and clinician reports on the hearing aids' functioning over a 12-week period that began before intervention and concluded 3 weeks after intervention ended. Pretest and posttest student and teacher questionnaires tapped these two groups' knowledge and attitudes concerning hearing aids. The 6-week intervention comprised theoretical and practical instruction in hearing aid maintenance. The number of functioning hearing aids increased significantly following intervention, and continued to increase even after intervention ended. The gap between student and clinician reports on the functional status of the hearing aids was widest in the study's first stage and narrowest--indeed, negligible--in the third. The questionnaire results indicated that both students and teachers acquired new knowledge. The study findings underscore the need for intervention programs in hearing aid maintenance and their benefits to adolescent students and their teachers.

  4. Computer-aided design of polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This book on computer-aided design of polymers and composites introduces and discusses the subject from the viewpoint of atomic and molecular models. Thus, the origins of stiffness, strength, extensibility, and fracture toughness in composite materials can be analyzed directly in terms of chemical composition and molecular structure. Aspects of polymer composite reliability are considered along with characterization techniques for composite reliability, relations between atomic and molecular properties, computer aided design and manufacture, polymer CAD/CAM models, and composite CAD/CAM models. Attention is given to multiphase structural adhesives, fibrous composite reliability, metal joint reliability, polymer physical states and transitions, chemical quality assurance, processability testing, cure monitoring and management, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), surface NDE, elementary properties, ionic-covalent bonding, molecular analysis, acid-base interactions, the manufacturing science, and peel mechanics.

  5. Computer aided die design: A new open-source methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, Olga Sousa; Rajkumar, Ananth; Ferrás, Luís Lima; Fernandes, Célio; Sacramento, Alberto; Nóbrega, João Miguel

    2017-05-01

    In this work we present a detailed description of how to use open source based computer codes to aid the design of complex profile extrusion dies, aiming to improve its flow distribution. The work encompasses the description of the overall open-source die design methodology, the implementation of the energy conservation equation in an existing OpenFOAM® solver, which will be then capable of simulating the steady non-isothermal flow of an incompressible generalized Newtonian fluid, and two case studies to illustrate the capabilities and practical usefulness of the developed methodology. The results obtained with these case studies, used to solve real industrial problems, demonstrate that the computational design aid is an excellent alternative, from economical and technical points of view, to the experimental trial-and-error procedure commonly used in industry.

  6. Discriminating coastal rangeland production and improvements with computer aided techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. A.; Faulkner, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility and utility of using satellite data and computer-aided remote sensing analysis techniques to conduct range inventories were tested. This pilot study was focused over a 250,000 acre site in Galveston and Brazoria Counties along the Texas Gulf Coast. Rectified enlarged aircraft color infrared photographs of this site were used as the ground truth base. The different land categories were identified, delineated, and measured. Multispectral scanner (MSS) bulk data from LANDSAT-1 was received and analyzed with the Image 100 pattern recognition system. Features of interest were delineated on the image console giving the number of picture elements classified; the picture elements were converted to acreages and the accuracy of the technique was evaluated by comparison with data base results for three test sites. The accuracies for computer aided classification of coastal marshes ranged from 89% to 96%.

  7. Method of computer-aided measurement in a shooting range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chanlao; Zhang, Yun; Xiong, Rensheng; Sun, Yishang

    2000-10-01

    In the view of the blindness of photoelectric measurement scheme argument and the danger of live shell measurement in shooting range, this paper provided a computer aided measurement method guiding the measurement scheme argument and equipment researching and producing and driving the measurement process visiblization and standardization. The computer aided measurement in shooting range can be divided into the mathematical simulation of targets moving, the mathematical simulation of measurement method, the mathematical simulation of photoelectric system, the animated displaying of measurement process, and so on. By adding random jamming, Gaussian white noise and so on, the live measurement environment and condition was built. By using mathematical discretization, the time series pictures was obtained. By controlling the time changing and time unifying of several equipment, the animated displaying of measurement process was built. The programming language was MATLAB. The method was proved through simulating the intersection measurement trajectory of antiaircraft gun's shell successfully.

  8. Microstereolithography-based computer-aided manufacturing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Various solid freeform fabrication technologies have been introduced for constructing three-dimensional (3-D) freeform structures. Of these, microstereolithography (MSTL) technology performs the best in 3-D space because it not only has high resolution, but also fast fabrication speed. Using this technology, 3-D structures with mesoscale size and microscale resolution are achievable. Many researchers have been trying to apply this technology to tissue engineering to construct medically applicable scaffolds, which require a 3-D shape that fits a defect with a mesoscale size and microscale inner architecture for efficient regeneration of artificial tissue. This chapter introduces the principles of MSTL technology and representative systems. It includes fabrication and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) processes to show the automation process by which measurements from medical images are used to fabricate the required 3-D shape. Then, various tissue engineering applications based on MSTL are summarized.

  9. Computer-aided dental prostheses construction using reverse engineering.

    PubMed

    Solaberrieta, E; Minguez, R; Barrenetxea, L; Sierra, E; Etxaniz, O

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems with virtual articulators, which take into account the kinematics, constitutes a breakthrough in the construction of customised dental prostheses. This paper presents a multidisciplinary protocol involving CAM techniques to produce dental prostheses. This protocol includes a step-by-step procedure using innovative reverse engineering technologies to transform completely virtual design processes into customised prostheses. A special emphasis is placed on a novel method that permits a virtual location of the models. The complete workflow includes the optical scanning of the patient, the use of reverse engineering software and, if necessary, the use of rapid prototyping to produce CAD temporary prostheses.

  10. Computer-aided design of polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This book on computer-aided design of polymers and composites introduces and discusses the subject from the viewpoint of atomic and molecular models. Thus, the origins of stiffness, strength, extensibility, and fracture toughness in composite materials can be analyzed directly in terms of chemical composition and molecular structure. Aspects of polymer composite reliability are considered along with characterization techniques for composite reliability, relations between atomic and molecular properties, computer aided design and manufacture, polymer CAD/CAM models, and composite CAD/CAM models. Attention is given to multiphase structural adhesives, fibrous composite reliability, metal joint reliability, polymer physical states and transitions, chemical quality assurance, processability testing, cure monitoring and management, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), surface NDE, elementary properties, ionic-covalent bonding, molecular analysis, acid-base interactions, the manufacturing science, and peel mechanics.

  11. Analysis of Interval Changes on Mammograms for Computer Aided Diagnosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    research groups are in the process of developing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) methods which can provide a second opinion to the radiologist for the...benign lesions. 3- 8 Knowledge from di- features between current and previous mammograms of the verse areas such as signal and image processing , pattern...December 1999 2673 Sanjay-Gopal et al: A regional registration technique 26732673-p i n- iimages . The 74 temporal image pairs were comprised of 43 Cj

  12. CADEE: Computer-Aided Directed Evolution of Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Amrein, Beat Anton; Steffen-Munsberg, Fabian; Szeler, Ireneusz; Purg, Miha; Kulkarni, Yashraj; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2017-01-01

    The tremendous interest in enzymes as biocatalysts has led to extensive work in enzyme engineering, as well as associated methodology development. Here, a new framework for computer-aided directed evolution of enzymes (CADEE) is presented which allows a drastic reduction in the time necessary to prepare and analyze in silico semi-automated directed evolution of enzymes. A pedagogical example of the application of CADEE to a real biological system is also presented in order to illustrate the CADEE workflow.

  13. Computer-Aided Design of a Sulfate Encapsulating Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu; Bosano, Jerome J; Bonnesen, Peter V; Kertesz, Vilmos; Hay, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    A promising new approach towards more efficient self-assembled cage receptors through computer-aided design is demonstrated. The resulting M{sub 4}L{sub 6} tetrahedral cage, internally functionalized with accurately positioned urea hydrogen-bonding groups (see structure; yellow: predicted, blue: experimental, space-filling: SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), proved to be a remarkably strong sulfate receptor in water.

  14. CADEE: Computer-Aided Directed Evolution of Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Amrein, Beat Anton; Steffen-Munsberg, Fabian; Szeler, Ireneusz; Purg, Miha; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2017-01-01

    The tremendous interest in enzymes as biocatalysts has led to extensive work in enzyme engineering, as well as associated methodology development. Here, a new framework for computer-aided directed evolution of enzymes (CADEE) is presented which allows a drastic reduction in the time necessary to prepare and analyze in silico semi-automated directed evolution of enzymes. A pedagogical example of the application of CADEE to a real biological system is also presented in order to illustrate the CADEE workflow. PMID:28250941

  15. A Computer Aided Statistical Covariance Program for Missile System Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-01

    ENGINEERING RESEARCH OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY A COMPUTER AIDED STATISTICAL COVARIANCE PROGRAM FOR MISSILE SYSTEM ANALYSI. TO D JN2 U. S. Army Missile...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Office of Engineering Rsch, Oklahoma State Univ Agiculture...ANALYSIS by James R. Rowland and V. M. Gupta School of Electrical Engineering V Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Office of Engineering

  16. A Dynamic Scheduler for a Computer Aided Prototyping System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    9 D . OVERVIEW ......................................... .... 10 II. BACKGROUND AND DEVELOPMENT OF SCHEDULING ALGO- R IT H M S ...4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) S MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) NPS52-88-019 6a. NAME OF PERrORMING ORGANIZATION 6b OFFICE...DYNAMIC SCHEDULER FOR A COMPUTER AIDED PROTOTYPING SYSTEM (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR( S ) EATON, Susan L., LUQI 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 114

  17. Computer-Aided Final Design Cost Estimating System Overview.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    laboratory _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ /1— COMPUTER-AIDED FINAL DESIGN • COST ESTIMATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW © by...PROJECT . TASKAAEA~~ WORK UNIT NUMBERSCONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY ~~~~~~~~~ .• . — P.O. Box 4005 ~~ 4A7627~ %T4fldt11 Champa ign , IL 61820...Construction Division (FA), U.S. Army Construction Engineering Re- search Laboratory (CERL), Champaign , IL. The Principal Investigator was Mr. Michael

  18. Application of Particle Swarm Optimization in Computer Aided Setup Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafashi, Sajad; Shakeri, Mohsen; Abedini, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    New researches are trying to integrate computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) environments. The role of process planning is to convert the design specification into manufacturing instructions. Setup planning has a basic role in computer aided process planning (CAPP) and significantly affects the overall cost and quality of machined part. This research focuses on the development for automatic generation of setups and finding the best setup plan in feasible condition. In order to computerize the setup planning process, three major steps are performed in the proposed system: a) Extraction of machining data of the part. b) Analyzing and generation of all possible setups c) Optimization to reach the best setup plan based on cost functions. Considering workshop resources such as machine tool, cutter and fixture, all feasible setups could be generated. Then the problem is adopted with technological constraints such as TAD (tool approach direction), tolerance relationship and feature precedence relationship to have a completely real and practical approach. The optimal setup plan is the result of applying the PSO (particle swarm optimization) algorithm into the system using cost functions. A real sample part is illustrated to demonstrate the performance and productivity of the system.

  19. Vascular tissue engineering by computer-aided laser micromachining.

    PubMed

    Doraiswamy, Anand; Narayan, Roger J

    2010-04-28

    Many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds are not suitable for fabricating scaffolds with patient-specific attributes. For example, many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds do not provide control over overall scaffold geometry or over cell position within the scaffold. In this study, the use of computer-aided laser micromachining to create scaffolds for vascular tissue networks was investigated. Computer-aided laser micromachining was used to construct patterned surfaces in agarose or in silicon, which were used for differential adherence and growth of cells into vascular tissue networks. Concentric three-ring structures were fabricated on agarose hydrogel substrates, in which the inner ring contained human aortic endothelial cells, the middle ring contained HA587 human elastin and the outer ring contained human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Basement membrane matrix containing vascular endothelial growth factor and heparin was to promote proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells within the vascular tissue networks. Computer-aided laser micromachining provides a unique approach to fabricate small-diameter blood vessels for bypass surgery as well as other artificial tissues with complex geometries.

  20. Computer-Aided Design Of Optimal Infrared Detector Preamplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frodsham, D. Gary; Baker, Doran J.

    1980-11-01

    A mathematical model is given for a frequency-compensated detector/preamplifier appropriate for cryogenically-cooled infrared sensors operating under low background conditions. By use of a digital computer, this model is used to rapidly select the optimal combination of design values. These parameters include load resistance, compensation resistance, compensation capacitance, chopping frequency and detector area to meet desired specifications of noise equivalent power, frequency response, dynamic range, and level of output noise. This computer-aided optimal design approach is demonstrated using a contemporary infrared sensor application.

  1. Computer-aided drug design platform using PyMOL.

    PubMed

    Lill, Markus A; Danielson, Matthew L

    2011-01-01

    The understanding and optimization of protein-ligand interactions are instrumental to medicinal chemists investigating potential drug candidates. Over the past couple of decades, many powerful standalone tools for computer-aided drug discovery have been developed in academia providing insight into protein-ligand interactions. As programs are developed by various research groups, a consistent user-friendly graphical working environment combining computational techniques such as docking, scoring, molecular dynamics simulations, and free energy calculations is needed. Utilizing PyMOL we have developed such a graphical user interface incorporating individual academic packages designed for protein preparation (AMBER package and Reduce), molecular mechanics applications (AMBER package), and docking and scoring (AutoDock Vina and SLIDE). In addition to amassing several computational tools under one interface, the computational platform also provides a user-friendly combination of different programs. For example, utilizing a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation performed with AMBER as input for ensemble docking with AutoDock Vina. The overarching goal of this work was to provide a computational platform that facilitates medicinal chemists, many who are not experts in computational methodologies, to utilize several common computational techniques germane to drug discovery. Furthermore, our software is open source and is aimed to initiate collaborative efforts among computational researchers to combine other open source computational methods under a single, easily understandable graphical user interface.

  2. Computer-aided drug design platform using PyMOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lill, Markus A.; Danielson, Matthew L.

    2011-01-01

    The understanding and optimization of protein-ligand interactions are instrumental to medicinal chemists investigating potential drug candidates. Over the past couple of decades, many powerful standalone tools for computer-aided drug discovery have been developed in academia providing insight into protein-ligand interactions. As programs are developed by various research groups, a consistent user-friendly graphical working environment combining computational techniques such as docking, scoring, molecular dynamics simulations, and free energy calculations is needed. Utilizing PyMOL we have developed such a graphical user interface incorporating individual academic packages designed for protein preparation (AMBER package and Reduce), molecular mechanics applications (AMBER package), and docking and scoring (AutoDock Vina and SLIDE). In addition to amassing several computational tools under one interface, the computational platform also provides a user-friendly combination of different programs. For example, utilizing a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation performed with AMBER as input for ensemble docking with AutoDock Vina. The overarching goal of this work was to provide a computational platform that facilitates medicinal chemists, many who are not experts in computational methodologies, to utilize several common computational techniques germane to drug discovery. Furthermore, our software is open source and is aimed to initiate collaborative efforts among computational researchers to combine other open source computational methods under a single, easily understandable graphical user interface.

  3. Computer-aided design of antenna structures and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses computer-aided design procedures for antenna reflector structures and related components. The primary design aid is a computer program that establishes cross sectional sizes of the structural members by an optimality criterion. Alternative types of deflection-dependent objectives can be selected for designs subject to constraints on structure weight. The computer program has a special-purpose formulation to design structures of the type frequently used for antenna construction. These structures, in common with many in other areas of application, are represented by analytical models that employ only the three translational degrees of freedom at each node. The special-purpose construction of the program, however, permits coding and data management simplifications that provide advantages in problem size and execution speed. Size and speed are essentially governed by the requirements of structural analysis and are relatively unaffected by the added requirements of design. Computation times to execute several design/analysis cycles are comparable to the times required by general-purpose programs for a single analysis cycle. Examples in the paper illustrate effective design improvement for structures with several thousand degrees of freedom and within reasonable computing times.

  4. Software innovations in computed tomography for structural heart disease interventions.

    PubMed

    Hell, Michaela; Marwan, Mohamed; Gaede, Luise; Achenbach, Stephan

    2016-05-17

    Computed tomography (CT) provides high, isotropic spatial resolution and has become firmly established in pre-procedural imaging for structural heart disease interventions. It allows determination of the exact dimensions of the target structure, provides information regarding the access route and permits identification of fluoroscopic projection angles to provide optimal visualisation for device placement. Several software solutions are available and have been systematically evaluated in the context of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The use of software products to perform automated measurements can be useful, especially when the experience and expertise regarding evaluation of CT in the context of structural heart disease are limited. In scientific studies, software has been demonstrated to provide accurate support for annulus sizing and prosthesis selection, to aid in reliably identifying patients in whom a transfemoral access may be problematic, and to suggest suitable angulations for fluoroscopic imaging to achieve an orthogonal view onto the aortic valve during implantation.

  5. A Computer-Aided Telephone System to Enable Five Persons with Alzheimer's Disease to Make Phone Calls Independently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Laporta, Dominga; Paparella, Adele; Caffo, Alessandro O.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a computer-aided telephone system to enable five patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease to make phone calls independently. The patients were divided into two groups and exposed to intervention according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across groups. All patients started with baseline in…

  6. A Computer-Aided Telephone System to Enable Five Persons with Alzheimer's Disease to Make Phone Calls Independently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Laporta, Dominga; Paparella, Adele; Caffo, Alessandro O.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a computer-aided telephone system to enable five patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease to make phone calls independently. The patients were divided into two groups and exposed to intervention according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across groups. All patients started with baseline in…

  7. Computer Skill Acquisition and Retention: The Effects of Computer-Aided Self-Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Tai-Yin

    2016-01-01

    This research presents an experimental study to determine to what extent computer skill learners can benefit from generating self-explanation with the aid of different computer-based visualization technologies. Self-explanation was stimulated with dynamic visualization (Screencast), static visualization (Screenshot), or verbal instructions only,…

  8. Three-dimensional computer-aided surgical workflow to aid in reconstruction: From diagnosis to surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Sándor, George K; Bujtár, Péter; Wolf, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The development of three-dimensional computer-aided surgical workflow has simplified the planning of complex reconstruction cases. It can also be helpful in planning distraction osteogenesis cases. This article examines the evolving role of three-dimensional computer-aided surgical workflow in maxillofacial surgery.

  9. Assessment of Chair-side Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Restorations: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Baroudi, Kusai; Ibraheem, Shukran Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper aimed to evaluate the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and the factors that affect the survival of restorations. Materials and Methods: A thorough literature search using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library and Grey literature were performed from the year 2004 up to June 2014. Only relevant research was considered. Results: The use of chair-side CAD/CAM systems is promising in all dental branches in terms of minimizing time and effort made by dentists, technicians and patients for restoring and maintaining patient oral function and aesthetic, while providing high quality outcome. Conclusion: The way of producing and placing the restorations made with the chair-side CAD/CAM (CEREC and E4D) devices is better than restorations made by conventional laboratory procedures. PMID:25954082

  10. Correction of facial and mandibular asymmetry using a computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing prefabricated titanium implant.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jason; Hatamleh, Muhanad; Alwahadni, Ahed; Srinivasan, Dilip

    2014-05-01

    Patients with significant craniofacial asymmetry may have functional problems associated with their occlusion and aesthetic concerns related to the imbalance in soft and hard tissue profiles. This report details a case of facial asymmetry secondary to left mandible angle deficiency due to undergoing previous radiotherapy. We describe the correction of the bony deformity using computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing custom-made titanium onlay using novel direct metal laser sintering. The direct metal laser sintering onlay proved a very accurate operative fit and showed a good aesthetic correction of the bony defect with no reported complications postoperatively. It is a useful low-morbidity technique, and there is no resorption or associated donor-site complications.

  11. Dual-scan technique for the customization of zirconia computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing frameworks.

    PubMed

    Andreiuolo, Rafael Ferrone; Sabrosa, Carlos Eduardo; Dias, Katia Regina H Cervantes

    2013-09-01

    The use of bi-layered all-ceramic crowns has continuously grown since the introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia cores. Unfortunately, despite the outstanding mechanical properties of zirconia, problems related to porcelain cracking or chipping remain. One of the reasons for this is that ceramic copings are usually milled to uniform thicknesses of 0.3-0.6 mm around the whole tooth preparation. This may not provide uniform thickness or appropriate support for the veneering porcelain. To prevent these problems, the dual-scan technique demonstrates an alternative that allows the restorative team to customize zirconia CAD/CAM frameworks with adequate porcelain thickness and support in a simple manner.

  12. Classification of Computer-Aided Design-Computer-Aided Manufacturing Applications for the Reconstruction of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Defects.

    PubMed

    Wauters, Lauri D J; Miguel-Moragas, Joan San; Mommaerts, Maurice Y

    2015-11-01

    To gain insight into the methodology of different computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) applications for the reconstruction of cranio-maxillo-facial (CMF) defects. We reviewed and analyzed the available literature pertaining to CAD-CAM for use in CMF reconstruction. We proposed a classification system of the techniques of implant and cutting, drilling, and/or guiding template design and manufacturing. The system consisted of 4 classes (I-IV). These classes combine techniques used for both the implant and template to most accurately describe the methodology used. Our classification system can be widely applied. It should facilitate communication and immediate understanding of the methodology of CAD-CAM applications for the reconstruction of CMF defects.

  13. 78 FR 31568 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Ryan...

  14. Project-Based Teaching-Learning Computer-Aided Engineering Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoes, J. A.; Relvas, C.; Moreira, R.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, computer-aided analysis, reverse engineering and rapid prototyping are tools that play an important key role within product design. These are areas of technical knowledge that must be part of engineering and industrial design courses' curricula. This paper describes our teaching experience of…

  15. Project-Based Teaching-Learning Computer-Aided Engineering Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoes, J. A.; Relvas, C.; Moreira, R.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, computer-aided analysis, reverse engineering and rapid prototyping are tools that play an important key role within product design. These are areas of technical knowledge that must be part of engineering and industrial design courses' curricula. This paper describes our teaching experience of…

  16. Navigational ultrasound imaging: A novel imaging tool for aiding interventional therapies of equine musculoskeletal injuries.

    PubMed

    Lustgarten, M; Redding, W R; Schnabel, L V; Prange, T; Seiler, G S

    2016-03-01

    Navigational ultrasound imaging, also known as fusion imaging, is a novel technology that allows real-time ultrasound imaging to be correlated with a previously acquired computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. It has been used in man to aid interventional therapies and has been shown to be valuable for sampling and assessing lesions diagnosed with MRI or CT that are equivocal on ultrasonography. To date, there are no reports of the use of this modality in veterinary medicine. To assess whether navigational ultrasound imaging can be used to assist commonly performed interventional therapies for the treatment of equine musculoskeletal injuries diagnosed with MRI and determine the appropriateness of regional anatomical landmarks as registration sites. Retrospective, descriptive clinical study. Horses with musculoskeletal injuries of the distal limb diagnosed with MRI scheduled for ultrasound-guided interventional therapies were evaluated (n = 17 horses with a total of 29 lesions). Anatomical landmarks used for image registration for the navigational procedure were documented. Accuracy of lesion location and success of the procedure were assessed subjectively and described using a grading scale. All procedures were accurately registered using regional anatomical landmarks and considered successful based on our criteria. Anatomical landmarks were described for each lesion type. The addition of navigational imaging was considered to greatly aid the procedures in 59% of cases and added information to the remainder of the procedures. The technique was considered to improve the precision of these interventional procedures. Navigational ultrasound imaging is a complementary imaging modality that can be used for the treatment of equine soft tissue musculoskeletal injuries diagnosed with MRI. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Comprehensive Hearing Aid Intervention at a Free Subspecialty Clinic.

    PubMed

    Wertz, Aileen P; Mannarelli, Gregory; Shuman, Andrew G; McKean, Erin L

    2017-09-01

    Providing a model of a comprehensive free audiologic program may assist other health care professionals in developing their own similar program. To describe the structure, feasibility, and outcomes of a free subspecialty clinic providing hearing aids to develop a paradigm for other programs interested in implementing similar projects. A retrospective case series was conducted from September 1, 2013, through March 31, 2016. In a partnership between a free independent clinic for indigent patients and an academic medical center, 54 indigent patients were referred to the clinic for audiograms. A total of 50 of these patients had results of audiograms available for review and were therefore included in the study; 34 of these 50 patients were determined to be eligible for hearing aid fitting based on audiometric results. Free audiometric testing, hearing aid fitting, and hearing aid donation. The number of hearing aids donated, number of eligible patients identified, number of patients fitted with hearing aids, and work effort (hours) and start-up costs associated with implementation of this program were quantified. A total of 54 patients (31 women [57.4%] and 23 men [42.6%]; median age, 61 years; range, 33-85 years) had audiograms performed, and 84 hearing aids were donated to the program. The patients were provided with free audiograms, hearing aid molds, and hearing aid programming, as well as follow-up appointments to ensure continued proper functioning of their hearing aids. Since 2013, a total of 34 patients have been determined to be eligible for the free program and were offered hearing aid services. Of these, 20 patients (59%) have been fitted or are being fitted with free hearing aids. The value of services provided is estimated to be $2260 per patient. It is feasible to provide free, comprehensive audiologic care, including hearing aids and fitting, in a well-established, free clinic model. The opportunity for indigent patients to use hearing aids at minimal

  18. Application of artificial neural networks in computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bei

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis is a diagnostic procedure in which a radiologist uses the outputs of computer analysis of medical images as a second opinion in the interpretation of medical images, either to help with lesion detection or to help determine if the lesion is benign or malignant. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are usually employed to formulate the statistical models for computer analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves are used to evaluate the performance of the ANN alone, as well as the diagnostic performance of radiologists who take into account the ANN output as a second opinion. In this chapter, we use mammograms to illustrate how an ANN model is trained, tested, and evaluated, and how a radiologist should use the ANN output as a second opinion in CAD.

  19. The Computer Aided Aircraft-design Package (CAAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalif, Guy U.

    1994-01-01

    The preliminary design of an aircraft is a complex, labor-intensive, and creative process. Since the 1970's, many computer programs have been written to help automate preliminary airplane design. Time and resource analyses have identified, 'a substantial decrease in project duration with the introduction of an automated design capability'. Proof-of-concept studies have been completed which establish 'a foundation for a computer-based airframe design capability', Unfortunately, today's design codes exist in many different languages on many, often expensive, hardware platforms. Through the use of a module-based system architecture, the Computer aided Aircraft-design Package (CAAP) will eventually bring together many of the most useful features of existing programs. Through the use of an expert system, it will add an additional feature that could be described as indispensable to entry level engineers and students: the incorporation of 'expert' knowledge into the automated design process.

  20. HINT for Squint: A Computer Reliant Diagnostic Aid for Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Gieszl, Louis R.; Morris, Jacqueline; Guyton, David L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper provides an outline of methods used for the implementation of a computer reliant diagnostic aid in the medical specialty of Ophthalmology. Some problems have been associated with many previous diagnostic models. A careful review indicates that the most serious problems were: • inability to handle: - multiple diseases coexistent in the patient - partially described diseases - extraneous input symptoms - quantitative signs along with symptoms • inflexible and non-extendible prototype models • lack of inclusive physician-approved data banks The use of computer techniques developed for large scale wargaming has allowed the construction of an extendable prototype model. The hierarchical searching techniques used provided the necessary partial matching solution to the above set of computational problems. An active physician-analyst dialogue permitted the avoidance of the last problem, since the actual data and diagnostic logic was physician input.

  1. PACS-Based Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. K. (Bernie); Liu, Brent J.; Le, Anh HongTu; Documet, Jorge

    The ultimate goal of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS)-based Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis (CAD) is to integrate CAD results into daily clinical practice so that it becomes a second reader to aid the radiologist's diagnosis. Integration of CAD and Hospital Information System (HIS), Radiology Information System (RIS) or PACS requires certain basic ingredients from Health Level 7 (HL7) standard for textual data, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard for images, and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) workflow profiles in order to comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requirements to be a healthcare information system. Among the DICOM standards and IHE workflow profiles, DICOM Structured Reporting (DICOM-SR); and IHE Key Image Note (KIN), Simple Image and Numeric Report (SINR) and Post-processing Work Flow (PWF) are utilized in CAD-HIS/RIS/PACS integration. These topics with examples are presented in this chapter.

  2. Local Demand for a Global Intervention: Policy Priorities in the Time of AIDS

    PubMed Central

    DIONNE, KIM YI

    2012-01-01

    Summary — The success of global health and development interventions ultimately depends on local reception. This paper documents local demand for HIV/AIDS interventions in Africa and seeks to explain patterns of demand using data from a country hard-hit by AIDS. As international agencies and national governments scale up HIV/AIDS interventions in Africa, I find HIV-positive respondents more highly prioritize HIV/AIDS programs, however, cross-national opinion data paired with interviews of villagers and their headmen in rural Malawi show weak prioritization of HIV/AIDS. The data illustrate a misalignment of policy preferences in the global-to-local hierarchy, highlighting the import of studying preferences of intended beneficiaries. PMID:23585707

  3. Computer-Aided Experiment Planning toward Causal Discovery in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Matiasz, Nicholas J.; Wood, Justin; Wang, Wei; Silva, Alcino J.; Hsu, William

    2017-01-01

    Computers help neuroscientists to analyze experimental results by automating the application of statistics; however, computer-aided experiment planning is far less common, due to a lack of similar quantitative formalisms for systematically assessing evidence and uncertainty. While ontologies and other Semantic Web resources help neuroscientists to assimilate required domain knowledge, experiment planning requires not only ontological but also epistemological (e.g., methodological) information regarding how knowledge was obtained. Here, we outline how epistemological principles and graphical representations of causality can be used to formalize experiment planning toward causal discovery. We outline two complementary approaches to experiment planning: one that quantifies evidence per the principles of convergence and consistency, and another that quantifies uncertainty using logical representations of constraints on causal structure. These approaches operationalize experiment planning as the search for an experiment that either maximizes evidence or minimizes uncertainty. Despite work in laboratory automation, humans must still plan experiments and will likely continue to do so for some time. There is thus a great need for experiment-planning frameworks that are not only amenable to machine computation but also useful as aids in human reasoning. PMID:28243197

  4. Computer-Aided Experiment Planning toward Causal Discovery in Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Matiasz, Nicholas J; Wood, Justin; Wang, Wei; Silva, Alcino J; Hsu, William

    2017-01-01

    Computers help neuroscientists to analyze experimental results by automating the application of statistics; however, computer-aided experiment planning is far less common, due to a lack of similar quantitative formalisms for systematically assessing evidence and uncertainty. While ontologies and other Semantic Web resources help neuroscientists to assimilate required domain knowledge, experiment planning requires not only ontological but also epistemological (e.g., methodological) information regarding how knowledge was obtained. Here, we outline how epistemological principles and graphical representations of causality can be used to formalize experiment planning toward causal discovery. We outline two complementary approaches to experiment planning: one that quantifies evidence per the principles of convergence and consistency, and another that quantifies uncertainty using logical representations of constraints on causal structure. These approaches operationalize experiment planning as the search for an experiment that either maximizes evidence or minimizes uncertainty. Despite work in laboratory automation, humans must still plan experiments and will likely continue to do so for some time. There is thus a great need for experiment-planning frameworks that are not only amenable to machine computation but also useful as aids in human reasoning.

  5. CAGI: Computer Aided Grid Interface. A work in progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.; Yu, Tzu-Yi; Vaughn, David

    1992-01-01

    Progress realized in the development of a Computer Aided Grid Interface (CAGI) software system in integrating CAD/CAM geometric system output and/or Interactive Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES) files, geometry manipulations associated with grid generation, and robust grid generation methodologies is presented. CAGI is being developed in a modular fashion and will offer fast, efficient and economical response to geometry/grid preparation, allowing the ability to upgrade basic geometry in a step-by-step fashion interactively and under permanent visual control along with minimizing the differences between the actual hardware surface descriptions and corresponding numerical analog. The computer code GENIE is used as a basis. The Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) representation of sculptured surfaces is utilized for surface grid redistribution. The computer aided analysis system, PATRAN, is adapted as a CAD/CAM system. The progress realized in NURBS surface grid generation, the development of IGES transformer, and geometry adaption using PATRAN will be presented along with their applicability to grid generation associated with rocket propulsion applications.

  6. CAGI: Computer Aided Grid Interface. A work in progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.; Yu, Tzu-Yi; Vaughn, David

    1992-01-01

    Progress realized in the development of a Computer Aided Grid Interface (CAGI) software system in integrating CAD/CAM geometric system output and/or Interactive Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES) files, geometry manipulations associated with grid generation, and robust grid generation methodologies is presented. CAGI is being developed in a modular fashion and will offer fast, efficient and economical response to geometry/grid preparation, allowing the ability to upgrade basic geometry in a step-by-step fashion interactively and under permanent visual control along with minimizing the differences between the actual hardware surface descriptions and corresponding numerical analog. The computer code GENIE is used as a basis. The Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) representation of sculptured surfaces is utilized for surface grid redistribution. The computer aided analysis system, PATRAN, is adapted as a CAD/CAM system. The progress realized in NURBS surface grid generation, the development of IGES transformer, and geometry adaption using PATRAN will be presented along with their applicability to grid generation associated with rocket propulsion applications.

  7. Computer-aided drug design at Boehringer Ingelheim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muegge, Ingo; Bergner, Andreas; Kriegl, Jan M.

    2017-03-01

    Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) is an integral part of the drug discovery endeavor at Boehringer Ingelheim (BI). CADD contributes to the evaluation of new therapeutic concepts, identifies small molecule starting points for drug discovery, and develops strategies for optimizing hit and lead compounds. The CADD scientists at BI benefit from the global use and development of both software platforms and computational services. A number of computational techniques developed in-house have significantly changed the way early drug discovery is carried out at BI. In particular, virtual screening in vast chemical spaces, which can be accessed by combinatorial chemistry, has added a new option for the identification of hits in many projects. Recently, a new framework has been implemented allowing fast, interactive predictions of relevant on and off target endpoints and other optimization parameters. In addition to the introduction of this new framework at BI, CADD has been focusing on the enablement of medicinal chemists to independently perform an increasing amount of molecular modeling and design work. This is made possible through the deployment of MOE as a global modeling platform, allowing computational and medicinal chemists to freely share ideas and modeling results. Furthermore, a central communication layer called the computational chemistry framework provides broad access to predictive models and other computational services.

  8. Computer-aided drug design at Boehringer Ingelheim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muegge, Ingo; Bergner, Andreas; Kriegl, Jan M.

    2016-09-01

    Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) is an integral part of the drug discovery endeavor at Boehringer Ingelheim (BI). CADD contributes to the evaluation of new therapeutic concepts, identifies small molecule starting points for drug discovery, and develops strategies for optimizing hit and lead compounds. The CADD scientists at BI benefit from the global use and development of both software platforms and computational services. A number of computational techniques developed in-house have significantly changed the way early drug discovery is carried out at BI. In particular, virtual screening in vast chemical spaces, which can be accessed by combinatorial chemistry, has added a new option for the identification of hits in many projects. Recently, a new framework has been implemented allowing fast, interactive predictions of relevant on and off target endpoints and other optimization parameters. In addition to the introduction of this new framework at BI, CADD has been focusing on the enablement of medicinal chemists to independently perform an increasing amount of molecular modeling and design work. This is made possible through the deployment of MOE as a global modeling platform, allowing computational and medicinal chemists to freely share ideas and modeling results. Furthermore, a central communication layer called the computational chemistry framework provides broad access to predictive models and other computational services.

  9. [Computer-aided prescribing: from utopia to reality].

    PubMed

    Suárez-Varela Ubeda, J; Beltrán Calvo, C; Molina López, T; Navarro Marín, P

    2005-05-31

    To determine whether the introduction of computer-aided prescribing helped reduce the administrative burden at primary care centers. Descriptive, cross-sectional design. Torreblanca Health Center in the province of Seville, southern Spain. From 29 October 2003 to the present a pilot project involving nine pharmacies in the basic health zone served by this health center has been running to evaluate computer-aided prescribing (the Receta XXI project) with real patients. All patients on the center's list of patients who came to the center for an administrative consultation to renew prescriptions for medications or supplies for long-term treatment. Total number of administrative visits per patient for patients who came to the center to renew prescriptions for long-term treatment, as recorded by the Diraya system (Historia Clinica Digital del Ciudadano, or Citizen's Digital Medical Record) during the period from February to July 2004. Total number of the same type of administrative visits recorded by the previous system (TASS) during the period from February to July 2003. The mean number of administrative visits per month during the period from February to July 2003 was 160, compared to a mean number of 64 visits during the period from February to July 2004. The reduction in the number of visits for prescription renewal was 60%. Introducing a system for computer-aided prescribing significantly reduced the number of administrative visits for prescription renewal for long-term treatment. This could help reduce the administrative burden considerably in primary care if the system were used in all centers.

  10. A Comparative Evaluation of Two Interventions for Educator Training in HIV/AIDS in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Li-Wei; Gow, Jeff; Akintola, Olagoke; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two different methods to teach educators about HIV/AIDS. Sixty educators were selected from eight schools in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, to undergo HIV/AIDS training using an interactive CD-ROM intervention. Another sixty educators from other schools were selected to undergo a two-day Life Skills…

  11. Cultural Competence in a Group Intervention Designed for Latino Patients Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Although the trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has changed dramatically over the past 25 years, addressing the psychosocial needs of patients living with HIV/AIDS remains vital. Ensuring the effective delivery of services demands that interventions be rooted in cultural competence and aimed at vulnerable populations. This article describes a…

  12. Cultural Competence in a Group Intervention Designed for Latino Patients Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Although the trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has changed dramatically over the past 25 years, addressing the psychosocial needs of patients living with HIV/AIDS remains vital. Ensuring the effective delivery of services demands that interventions be rooted in cultural competence and aimed at vulnerable populations. This article describes a…

  13. A Model Human Sexuality--HIV/AIDS Prevention and Intervention Service-Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Clarence, M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with a service-learning program focused on human sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention at the Howard University Department of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies. Topics discussed include how this program was created, an overview of peer education, HIV/AIDS peer education training, and services provided to…

  14. AIDS: Legal Tools Helpful for Mental Health Counseling Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ann Lorentson; Hughes, Rosemary B.

    1994-01-01

    Complex HIV and AIDS related legal issues confronting mental health professionals are addressed, specifically: living will, statutes, durable power of attorney, durable power of attorney for health care, rational suicide, euthanasia, workplace discrimination, and laws affecting minors. (JBJ)

  15. AIDS: Legal Tools Helpful for Mental Health Counseling Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ann Lorentson; Hughes, Rosemary B.

    1994-01-01

    Complex HIV and AIDS related legal issues confronting mental health professionals are addressed, specifically: living will, statutes, durable power of attorney, durable power of attorney for health care, rational suicide, euthanasia, workplace discrimination, and laws affecting minors. (JBJ)

  16. Sinus barotrauma--late diagnosis and treatment with computer-aided endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anders Schermacher; Buchwald, Christian; Vesterhauge, Søren

    2003-02-01

    Sinus barotrauma is usually easy to diagnose, and treatment achieves good results. We present two severe cases where delayed diagnosis caused significant morbidity. The signs and symptoms were atypical and neither the patients themselves, nor the initial examiners recognized that the onset of symptoms coincided with descent in a commercial airliner. CT and MRI scans of the brain were normal, but in both cases showed opafication of the sphenoid sinuses, which lead to the correct diagnosis. Subsequent surgical intervention consisting of endoscopic computer-aided surgery showed blood and petechia in the affected sinuses. This procedure provided immediate relief.

  17. Improved Foundry Castings Utilizing CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/ Computer Aided Manufacture). Volume 1. Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-30

    several organizations. Members of the project staffs at the University of Pittsburgh, Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Blaw - Knox Foundry and Mill...with the University of Pittsburgh, James Echlin, Blaw - Knox , and A. Roulet, General Dynamics. Computing facilities on the DEC 10 system were made...Akgerman, A. Badawy, C. Wilson, and T. Altan. The project staff at Blaw - Knox included Mssrs. R. Nariman, KI Fahey, and S. Miller. Mr. W. Northey

  18. Computer-aided design of bevel gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuo, Hung Chang; Huston, Ronald L.; Coy, John J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided design procedure for generating bevel gears. The development is based on examining a perfectly plastic, cone-shaped gear blank rolling over a cutting tooth on a plane crown rack. The resulting impression on the plastic gear blank is the envelope of the cutting tooth. This impression and envelope thus form a conjugate tooth surface. Equations are presented for the locus of points on the tooth surface. The same procedures are then extended to simulate the generation of a spiral bevel gear. The corresponding governing equations are presented.

  19. Computer aided design of bevel gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided design procedure for generating bevel gears. The development is based on examining a perfectly plastic, cone-shaped gear blank rolling over a cutting tooth on a plane crown rack. The resulting impression on the plastic gear blank is the envelope of the cutting tooth. This impression and envelope thus form a conjugate tooth surface. Equations are presented for the locus of points on the tooth surface. The same procedures are then extended to simulate the generation of a spiral bevel gear. The corresponding governing equations are presented.

  20. CATIA - A computer aided design and manufacturing tridimensional system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, F.

    A properietary computer graphics-aided, three-dimensional interactive application (CATIA) design system is described. CATIA employs approximately 100 graphics displays, which are used by some 500 persons engaged in the definition of aircraft structures, structural strength analyses, the kinematic analysis of mobile elements, aerodynamic calculations, the choice of tooling in the machining of aircraft elements, and the programming of robotics. CATIA covers these diverse fields with a single data base. After a description of salient aspects of the system's hardware and software, graphics examples are given of the definition of curves, surfaces, complex volumes, and analytical tasks.

  1. SNL Mechanical Computer Aided Design (MCAD) guide 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Brandon; Pollice, Stephanie L.; Martinez, Jack R.

    2007-12-01

    This document is considered a mechanical design best-practice guide to new and experienced designers alike. The contents consist of topics related to using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, performing basic analyses, and using configuration management. The details specific to a particular topic have been leveraged against existing Product Realization Standard (PRS) and Technical Business Practice (TBP) requirements while maintaining alignment with sound engineering and design practices. This document is to be considered dynamic in that subsequent updates will be reflected in the main title, and each update will be published on an annual basis.

  2. Computer aided design and analysis of gear tooth geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A simulation method for gear hobbing and shaping of straight and spiral bevel gears is presented. The method is based upon an enveloping theory for gear tooth profile generation. The procedure is applicable in the computer aided design of standard and nonstandard tooth forms. An inverse procedure for finding a conjugate gear tooth profile is presented for arbitrary cutter geometry. The kinematic relations for the tooth surfaces of straight and spiral bevel gears are proposed. The tooth surface equations for these gears are formulated in a manner suitable for their automated numerical development and solution.

  3. A fast algorithm for computer aided collimation gamma camera (CACAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanguillaume, C.; Begot, S.; Quartuccio, M.; Douiri, A.; Franck, D.; Pihet, P.; Ballongue, P.

    2000-08-01

    The computer aided collimation gamma camera is aimed at breaking down the resolution sensitivity trade-off of the conventional parallel hole collimator. It uses larger and longer holes, having an added linear movement at the acquisition sequence. A dedicated algorithm including shift and sum, deconvolution, parabolic filtering and rotation is described. Examples of reconstruction are given. This work shows that a simple and fast algorithm, based on a diagonal dominant approximation of the problem can be derived. Its gives a practical solution to the CACAO reconstruction problem.

  4. Computer-aided structural design of a lunar radio telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akgul, Ferhat; Gerstle, Walter H.; Johnson, Stewart W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided structural design of the main reflector of a fully steerable radio telescope to be located (in the 21st century) on the moon, and presents the results of the structural analysis of the reflector. The reflector is a paraboloid with a surface area of 12,660 sq m and a focal ratio of 0.42. The reflector's surface will be covered by a 5.08 cm-thick sandwich panel made of thin-walled aluminum cells filled with low-density foam. The low weight of the design will be achieved by using graphite-epoxy as the structural material.

  5. A computer-aided approach to nonlinear control systhesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Anthony, Tobin

    1988-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to develop a computer-aided approach to nonlinear stability analysis and nonlinear control system design. This goal is to be obtained by refining the describing function method as a synthesis tool for nonlinear control design. The interim report outlines the approach by this study to meet these goals including an introduction to the INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program which was instrumental in meeting these study objectives. A single-input describing function (SIDF) design methodology was developed in this study; coupled with the software constructed in this study, the results of this project provide a comprehensive tool for design and integration of nonlinear control systems.

  6. Retrospective indexing (RI) - A computer-aided indexing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of a method for data base-updating designated 'computer-aided indexing' (CAI) which has been very efficiently implemented at NASA's Scientific and Technical Information Facility by means of retrospective indexing. Novel terms added to the NASA Thesaurus will therefore proceed directly into both the NASA-RECON aerospace information system and its portion of the ESA-Information Retrieval Service, giving users full access to material thus indexed. If a given term appears in the title of a record, it is given special weight. An illustrative graphic representation of the CAI search strategy is presented.

  7. Computer-Aided Synthesis of Nonlinear Autopilots for Missiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Nonlinear Studies Nonlinear Studies Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 173-198 , 2004 c©I&S Publishers Daytona Beach, FL 2004 Computer-Aided Synthesis of Nonlinear...Autopilots for Missiles P.K. Menon1, E. J. Ohlmeyer2 1 Optimal Synthesis Inc. 868 San Antonio Road Palo Alto, CA 94303-4622,U.S.A e-mail: menon...based on simulation models, they enable direct synthesis of nonlinear autopilots using missile models of arbitrary complexity. Airframe stabi- lization

  8. Computer-aided structural design of a lunar radio telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akgul, Ferhat; Gerstle, Walter H.; Johnson, Stewart W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided structural design of the main reflector of a fully steerable radio telescope to be located (in the 21st century) on the moon, and presents the results of the structural analysis of the reflector. The reflector is a paraboloid with a surface area of 12,660 sq m and a focal ratio of 0.42. The reflector's surface will be covered by a 5.08 cm-thick sandwich panel made of thin-walled aluminum cells filled with low-density foam. The low weight of the design will be achieved by using graphite-epoxy as the structural material.

  9. Computer-aided radio dispatch system streamlines operations

    SciTech Connect

    Meck, G.L.

    1985-10-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided radio dispatch system (CARDS) used by The East Ohio Gas Company to help improve customer satisfaction and the already high level of performance in customer service operations. East Ohio decided to develop its own system after establishing certain criteria. The heart of the Cards unit is the DEC microcomputer LSI-11 where data is transmitted between it and the dispatch centers at 1,200 baud. The large number of job functions that the system helps fulfill are discussed in this paper.

  10. Three-Dimensional Computer Aided Design of a Vertical Winnower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yumei; Lin, Saijia; Weng, Lijie

    The research states home and abroad of the winnowing technology and winnowers are reviewed in brief. For the air duct, the core component of the winnower, the relevant technical parameters in the winnowing process are calculated based on the winnowing principle. The three-dimensional computer aided design (3D-CAD) software Solidworks is applied. The designed vertical winnower is able to separate different raw materials by adjusting the air speed and has been put into practical production to separate the Chinese traditional medicine with high separating effect.

  11. Computer Aided Antenna Design and Frequency Selection for HF Communications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    EESIGN ON THE ADPE-.- NIF (GREEN MACHINE) ... .... . . . . . . . 57 E. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN USING ECAC1S ACCESSIBIE ANTENNA PACKAGE . . . . . . .. 57 F...8217 C8 L4 E-4 W 3a ’H 1 H -g I) - 4 ’ 0-4 =2 E-4 V. E-4 b. m 0 m 4 =- v- -4 3 4 E’- 4 = P4 H - ofC. I- 1 4 = W P4 w 4 I = N = V rq I 0-4 ~ to H W4

  12. Computer-Aided Design Of Sheet-Material Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Paternoster, Vincent Y.; Levitt, Maureen L.; Osterloh, Mark R.

    1991-01-01

    Computer-aided-design system partly automates tedious process of designing and guiding assembly of small pieces of flat sheet material into large surfaces that approximate smoothly curved surfaces having complicated three-dimensional shapes. Capability provides for flexibility enabling designer to assess quickly and easily effects of changes in design in making engineering compromises among various sizes and shapes. Saves time and money in both design and fabrication. Used in rocket-engine application and other applications requiring design of sheet-material parts.

  13. Computer aided design of multi-phase switched reluctance motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, N. K.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive computer-aided design (CAD) procedure of multiphase switched reluctance motor (SRM) is presented. Better approach for calculation of the outer dimensions, phase inductance, flux linkage and losses, and also a different concept for calculating the average torque of the motor are incorporated in the CAD program. The average torque is calculated based on the most effective 15° (for 8/6 SRM) of the static torque profile of the motor. A sample design of a 5hp SRM is presented in detail and the design is validated by conducting a two-dimensional finite element analysis of the motor.

  14. Application of infrared thermography in computer aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Oliver; Rajendra Acharya, U.; Ng, E. Y. K.; Hong, Tan Jen; Yu, Wenwei

    2014-09-01

    The invention of thermography, in the 1950s, posed a formidable problem to the research community: What is the relationship between disease and heat radiation captured with Infrared (IR) cameras? The research community responded with a continuous effort to find this crucial relationship. This effort was aided by advances in processing techniques, improved sensitivity and spatial resolution of thermal sensors. However, despite this progress fundamental issues with this imaging modality still remain. The main problem is that the link between disease and heat radiation is complex and in many cases even non-linear. Furthermore, the change in heat radiation as well as the change in radiation pattern, which indicate disease, is minute. On a technical level, this poses high requirements on image capturing and processing. On a more abstract level, these problems lead to inter-observer variability and on an even more abstract level they lead to a lack of trust in this imaging modality. In this review, we adopt the position that these problems can only be solved through a strict application of scientific principles and objective performance assessment. Computing machinery is inherently objective; this helps us to apply scientific principles in a transparent way and to assess the performance results. As a consequence, we aim to promote thermography based Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems. Another benefit of CAD systems comes from the fact that the diagnostic accuracy is linked to the capability of the computing machinery and, in general, computers become ever more potent. We predict that a pervasive application of computers and networking technology in medicine will help us to overcome the shortcomings of any single imaging modality and this will pave the way for integrated health care systems which maximize the quality of patient care.

  15. [Computer-aided cognitive behavioral therapy for depression].

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanine; Kersting, Anette; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature search in order to assess effectiveness of computer- and internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CCBT). Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and PsycINFO were searched for relevant articles. Only RCTs were included. Effect sizes were calculated and quality of studies was assessed. 16 studies were retrieved and included. Effect sizes depended on therapist time involvement and control group intervention (waiting list vs. active control group) and ranged between 0.0 and 1.1. CCBT provides an effective and potentially cost-effective interventional strategy for depressive disorders. Effects of no and minimal contact therapies are confounded with conditions of control groups and need further investigation. While patients with Major Depression seem to benefit from computer-based therapy with regular therapist contact, it remains unclear whether unattended self-help interventions over the internet are effective for this patient population. However, these interventions are effective in patients with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology. CCBT may serve as a first step of treatment within stepped care approaches and may help to offer treatment to individuals in remote areas and to decrease barriers to seek psychiatric care caused by stigma perception. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Computer aided lytic bone metastasis detection using regular CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; O'Connor, Stacy D.; Summers, Ronald

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a computer aided detection system to find lytic bone metastases in the spine. The CAD system is designed to run on routine chest and/or abdominal CT exams (5mm slice thickness) obtained during a patient's evaluation for other indications. The system can therefore serve as a background procedure to detect bone metastases. The spine is first automatically extracted based on adaptive thresholding, morphological operation, and region growing. The spinal cord is then traced from thoracic spine to lumbar spine using a dynamic graph search to set up a local spine coordinate system. A watershed algorithm is then applied to detect potential lytic bone lesions. A set of 26 quantitative features (density, shape and location) are computed for each detection. After a filter on the features, Support Vector Machines (SVM) are used as classifiers to determine if a detection is a true lesion. The SVM was trained using ground truth segmentation manually defined by experts.

  17. Shape Signatures: speeding up computer aided drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Meek, Peter J; Liu, ZhiWei; Tian, LiFeng; Wang, Ching Y; Welsh, William J; Zauhar, Randy J

    2006-10-01

    Identifying potential lead molecules is becoming a more automated process. We review Shape Signatures, a tool that is effective and easy to use compared with most computer aided drug design techniques. Laboratory researchers can apply this in silico technique cost-effectively without the need for specialized computer backgrounds. Identifying a potential lead molecule requires database screening, and this becomes rate-limiting once the database becomes too large. The use of Shape Signatures eliminates this concern and offers molecule screening rates that are in advance of any currently available method. Shape Signatures provides a conduit for researchers to conduct rapid identification of potential active molecules, and studies with this tool can be initiated with only one bioactive lead or receptor site.

  18. Use of computer modeling to aid in hydraulic barrier design

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, W.T.; Johnson, J.A.; Seaton, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Releases of No. 6 and No. 4 fuel oil were discovered at a private boarding school. The releases impact a nearby pond with non-aqueous phase liquid hydrocarbon (NAPL), and threaten to impact an adjacent wetland. Prior to implementation of a permanent remedial solution, such as surfactant treatment and bioremediation, immediate containment of the NAPL was proposed via a barrier-gate containment system. The proposed barrier-gate containment system consisted of a high-density polyethylene barrier, horizontal wells, three flow-through gates, and downgradient infiltration galleries. Computer modeling of groundwater and NAPL flow was conducted utilizing a finite element multiphase model to evaluate the impacts to local hydrogeology associated with the barrier. These impacts included upgradient groundwater mounding and restriction of groundwater flux to the wetland. Model simulations aided in the identification of improvements to the initial barrier design and guided subsequent design modifications. Results of the simulations indicate the usefulness of computer modeling in containment system design.

  19. Providing Formative Feedback From a Summative Computer-aided Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Robert D. E.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effectiveness of providing formative feedback for summative computer-aided assessment. Design Two groups of first-year undergraduate life science students in pharmacy and neuroscience who were studying an e-learning package in a common pharmacology module were presented with a computer-based summative assessment. A sheet with individualized feedback derived from each of the 5 results sections of the assessment was provided to each student. Students were asked via a questionnaire to evaluate the form and method of feedback. Assessment The students were able to reflect on their performance and use the feedback provided to guide their future study or revision. There was no significant difference between the responses from pharmacy and neuroscience students. Students' responses on the questionnaire indicated a generally positive reaction to this form of feedback. Conclusions Findings suggest that additional formative assessment conveyed by this style and method would be appreciated and valued by students. PMID:17533442

  20. Comparative study viruses with computer-aided phase microscope AIRYSCAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Koufal, Georgy E.; Perevedentseva, Elena V.; Vyshenskaia, Tatiana V.

    1996-12-01

    Traditionally viruses are studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after complicated procedure of sample preparation without the possibility to study it under natural conditions. We obtained images of viruses (Vaccinia virus, Rotavirus) and rickettsias (Rickettsia provazekii, Coxiella burnetti) in native state with computer-aided phase microscope airyscan -- the interference microscope of Linnik layout with phase modulation of the reference wave with dissector image tube as coordinate-sensitive photodetector and computer processing of phase image. A light source was the He-Ne laser. The main result is coincidence of dimensions and shape of phase images with available information concerning their morphology obtained with SEM and other methods. The fine structure of surface and nuclei is observed. This method may be applied for virus recognition and express identification, investigation of virus structure and the analysis of cell-virus interaction.

  1. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  2. Computer-aided conceptual design of Air Cushion Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, E. G. U.; Lavis, D. R.

    This paper describes the development and use of a computer-aided design tool which has been used to explore preferred options for amphibious Air-Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and Surface-Effect Ship (SES) designs in support of U.S. Navy and U.S. Army programs. The tool, referred to as the ACV Design Synthesis Model (ADSM), is an interactive computer program which provides a description of feasible ACV or SES concepts that could be developed, by a competent design team, to perform the mission described by the input parameters. The paper discusses how the program was used to explore parametrically the design of a range of self-propelled hoverbarges to meet requirements of the U.S. Army Logistics Over the Shore (LOTS) phases of an amphibious landing. Examples of results are presented to illustrate the method used in determining design and performance trade-offs.

  3. Accuracy of different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guides for dental implant placement

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wei; Liu, Changying; Su, Yucheng; Li, Jun; Zhou, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of implants placed using different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) surgical guides, including partially guided and totally guided templates, and determine the accuracy of these guides Materials and methods: In total, 111 implants were placed in 24 patients using CAD/CAM surgical guides. After implant insertion, the positions and angulations of the placed implants relative to those of the planned ones were determined using special software that matched pre- and postoperative computed tomography (CT) images, and deviations were calculated and compared between the different guides and templates. Results: The mean angular deviations were 1.72 ± 1.67 and 2.71 ± 2.58, the mean deviations in position at the neck were 0.27 ± 0.24 and 0.69 ± 0.66 mm, the mean deviations in position at the apex were 0.37 ± 0.35 and 0.94 ± 0.75 mm, and the mean depth deviations were 0.32 ± 0.32 and 0.51 ± 0.48 mm with tooth- and mucosa-supported stereolithographic guides, respectively (P < .05 for all). The mean distance deviations when partially guided (29 implants) and totally guided templates (30 implants) were used were 0.54 ± 0.50 mm and 0.89 ± 0.78 mm, respectively, at the neck and 1.10 ± 0.85 mm and 0.81 ± 0.64 mm, respectively, at the apex, with corresponding mean angular deviations of 2.56 ± 2.23° and 2.90 ± 3.0° (P > .05 for all). Conclusions: Tooth-supported surgical guides may be more accurate than mucosa-supported guides, while both partially and totally guided templates can simplify surgery and aid in optimal implant placement. PMID:26309497

  4. Computer aided analysis, simulation and optimisation of thermal sterilisation processes.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, C M; Banerjee, Arindam

    2013-04-01

    Although thermal sterilisation is a widely employed industrial process, little work is reported in the available literature including patents on the mathematical analysis and simulation of these processes. In the present work, software packages have been developed for computer aided optimum design of thermal sterilisation processes. Systems involving steam sparging, jacketed heating/cooling, helical coils submerged in agitated vessels and systems that employ external heat exchangers (double pipe, shell and tube and plate exchangers) have been considered. Both batch and continuous operations have been analysed and simulated. The dependence of del factor on system / operating parameters such as mass or volume of substrate to be sterilised per batch, speed of agitation, helix diameter, substrate to steam ratio, rate of substrate circulation through heat exchanger and that through holding tube have been analysed separately for each mode of sterilisation. Axial dispersion in the holding tube has also been adequately accounted for through an appropriately defined axial dispersion coefficient. The effect of exchanger characteristics/specifications on the system performance has also been analysed. The multiparameter computer aided design (CAD) software packages prepared are thus highly versatile in nature and they permit to make the most optimum choice of operating variables for the processes selected. The computed results have been compared with extensive data collected from a number of industries (distilleries, food processing and pharmaceutical industries) and pilot plants and satisfactory agreement has been observed between the two, thereby ascertaining the accuracy of the CAD softwares developed. No simplifying assumptions have been made during the analysis and the design of associated heating / cooling equipment has been performed utilising the most updated design correlations and computer softwares.

  5. Computer-aided auscultation learning system for nursing technique instruction.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chun-Ju; Chen, Yen-Ting; Hu, Ling-Chen; Chuang, Chih-Chieh; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Tsai, Ming-Shih

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary auscultation is a physical assessment skill learned by nursing students for examining the respiratory system. Generally, a sound simulator equipped mannequin is used to group teach auscultation techniques via classroom demonstration. However, nursing students cannot readily duplicate this learning environment for self-study. The advancement of electronic and digital signal processing technologies facilitates simulating this learning environment. This study aims to develop a computer-aided auscultation learning system for assisting teachers and nursing students in auscultation teaching and learning. This system provides teachers with signal recording and processing of lung sounds and immediate playback of lung sounds for students. A graphical user interface allows teachers to control the measuring device, draw lung sound waveforms, highlight lung sound segments of interest, and include descriptive text. Effects on learning lung sound auscultation were evaluated for verifying the feasibility of the system. Fifteen nursing students voluntarily participated in the repeated experiment. The results of a paired t test showed that auscultative abilities of the students were significantly improved by using the computer-aided auscultation learning system.

  6. Computer-aided tissue engineering of a human vertebral body.

    PubMed

    Wettergreen, M A; Bucklen, B S; Sun, W; Liebschner, M A K

    2005-10-01

    Tissue engineering is developing into a less speculative science involving the careful interplay of numerous design parameters and multidisciplinary professionals. Problem solving abilities and state of the art research tools are required to develop solutions for a wide variety of clinical issues. One area of particular interest is orthopedic biomechanics, a field that is responsible for the treatment of over 700,000 vertebral fractures in the United States alone last year. Engineers are currently lacking the technology and knowledge required to govern the subsistence of cells in vivo, let alone the knowledge to create a functional tissue replacement for a whole organ. Despite this, advances in computer-aided tissue engineering are continually growing. Using a combinatory approach to scaffold design, patient-specific implants may be constructed. Computer-aided design, optimization of geometry using voxel finite element models or other optimization routines, creation of a library of architectures with specific material properties, rapid prototyping, and determination of a defect site using imaging modalities highlight the current availability of design resources. This study proposes a novel methodology from start to finish which could, in the future, be used to design a tissue-engineered construct for the replacement of an entire vertebral body.

  7. Computer-aided subsite mapping of α-amylases.

    PubMed

    Mótyán, János A; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Harangi, János; Bagossi, Péter

    2011-02-15

    Subsite mapping is a crucial procedure in the characterization of α-amylases (EC 3.2.1.1), which are extensively used in starch-based industries and in diagnosis of pancreatic and salivary glands disorders. A computer-aided method has been developed for subsite mapping of α-amylases, which substitutes the difficult, expensive, and time-consuming experimental determination of action patterns to crystal structures based energy calculations. Interaction energies between enzymes and carbohydrate substrates were calculated after short energy minimization by a molecular mechanics program. A training set of wild type and mutant amylases with known experimental action patterns of 13 enzymes of wide range of origin was used to set up the procedure. Calculations for training set resulted in good correlation in case of subsite binding energies (r(2)=0.827-0.929) and bond cleavage frequencies (r(2)=0.727-0.835). A set of eight novel barley amylase 1 mutants was used to test our model. Subsite binding energies were predicted with r(2)=0.502 correlation coefficient, while bond cleavage frequency prediction resulted in r(2)=0.538. Our computer-aided procedure may supplement the experimental subsite mapping methods to predict and understand characteristic features of α-amylases.

  8. Computer-aided dermoscopy for diagnosis of melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Barzegari, Masoomeh; Ghaninezhad, Haiedeh; Mansoori, Parisa; Taheri, Arash; Naraghi, Zahra S; Asgari, Masood

    2005-01-01

    Background Computer-aided dermoscopy using artificial neural networks has been reported to be an accurate tool for the evaluation of pigmented skin lesions. We set out to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a computer-aided dermoscopy system for diagnosis of melanoma in Iranian patients. Methods We studied 122 pigmented skin lesions which were referred for diagnostic evaluation or cosmetic reasons. Each lesion was examined by two clinicians with naked eyes and all of their clinical diagnostic considerations were recorded. The lesions were analyzed using a microDERM® dermoscopy unit. The output value of the software for each lesion was a score between 0 and 10. All of the lesions were excised and examined histologically. Results Histopathological examination revealed melanoma in six lesions. Considering only the most likely clinical diagnosis, sensitivity and specificity of clinical examination for diagnosis of melanoma were 83% and 96%, respectively. Considering all clinical diagnostic considerations, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 89%. Choosing a cut-off point of 7.88 for dermoscopy score, the sensitivity and specificity of the score for diagnosis of melanoma were 83% and 96%, respectively. Setting the cut-off point at 7.34, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 90%. Conclusion The diagnostic accuracy of the dermoscopy system was at the level of clinical examination by dermatologists with naked eyes. This system may represent a useful tool for screening of melanoma, particularly at centers not experienced in the field of pigmented skin lesions. PMID:16000171

  9. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, B.H. ); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. ); Hunnum, W.H. ); Smith, D.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  10. Integrating aerodynamic surface modeling for computational fluid dynamics with computer aided structural analysis, design, and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.

  11. Integrating aerodynamic surface modeling for computational fluid dynamics with computer aided structural analysis, design, and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.

  12. Computer Aided Phenomenography: The Role of Leximancer Computer Software in Phenomenographic Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn-Edwards, Sorrel

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative research methodology of phenomenography has traditionally required a manual sorting and analysis of interview data. In this paper I explore a potential means of streamlining this procedure by considering a computer aided process not previously reported upon. Two methods of lexicological analysis, manual and automatic, were examined…

  13. [AIDS in Madagascar. I. Epidemiology, projections, socioeconomic impact, interventions].

    PubMed

    Andriamahenina, R; Ravelojaona, B; Rarivoharilala, E; Ravaoarimalala, C; Andriamiadana, J; Andriamahefazafy, B; May, J F; Behets, F; Rasamindrakotroka, A

    1998-01-01

    Madagascar is still among the rare states of low prevalence of HIV. The seroprevalence rate is nevertheless rising. The aim of this study is to show the current view of the epidemic, its future tendency, its economical and social impact on people and what measures to be taken at the national scale. In Madagascar, we can state by 1995 20 cases of notified AIDS and probably 130 cases of non-notified AIDS. Seroprevalence data are collected every year by the National Reference Laboratory STD/AIDS. But, they are insufficient to estimate the number of infected people. So, they had been completed by a serosurveillance study of AIDS and syphilis in middle of 1995 and at the beginning of 1996. Pregnant women, persons with STDs and prostitutes are been screened in the six biggest cities of the Island. Results show, not only a high prevalence of syphilis, but also indicate that now, we have about 5,000 seropositive people in the country. Besides, by the number of people with STDs, it is estimated that one million Malgasy adults risk to be infected. Based on estimates of the epidemic, be it the cases of a high scenario, (Kenya) or of a low one (Thailand) by the year 2015, the seroprevalence rate could represent 3% or 15% of adults. Demographic consequences of the epidemic will be serious, particularly if HIV spreads quickly. Nevertheless, it does not stop the increase of population. Therefore, there will be more infected people with the disease, especially young people between 15 and 49 years old. The increase of dead people will be serious. Social consequences of the epidemic (case of high scenario) will be gravely felt, in particular by the rise of the number of AIDS orphans. Tuberculosis outbreak can be observed too. This disease is already a serious problem in Madagascar. At last, the epidemic will bring with it a high increase of money spent on health and will have grave consequences on agriculture, industry and commerce. Nevertheless, Madagascar still benefit a big luck

  14. Psychosocial Interventions for Women with HIV/AIDS: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Julieta P.; Macgowan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Recent research on psychosocial interventions addressing the well-being of women with HIV/AIDS has brought new options for practitioners. This study critically reviews the treatment features, methodological quality, and efficacy of these interventions. Methods: A comprehensive search between 2000 and 2011 identified 19 studies employing…

  15. Psychosocial Interventions for Women with HIV/AIDS: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Julieta P.; Macgowan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Recent research on psychosocial interventions addressing the well-being of women with HIV/AIDS has brought new options for practitioners. This study critically reviews the treatment features, methodological quality, and efficacy of these interventions. Methods: A comprehensive search between 2000 and 2011 identified 19 studies employing…

  16. Computer aided design of microcircuits. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-09-01

    Government sponsored research covering the computer aided design, modeling, layout, and packaging of integrated and other microelectronic circuits are cited. Computer programs and the use of computer graphics are included.

  17. Computer aided diagnosis of prostate cancer: A texton based approach

    PubMed Central

    Rampun, Andrik; Tiddeman, Bernie; Zwiggelaar, Reyer; Malcolm, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper the authors propose a texton based prostate computer aided diagnosis approach which bypasses the typical feature extraction process such as filtering and convolution which can be computationally expensive. The study focuses the peripheral zone because 75% of prostate cancers start within this region and the majority of prostate cancers arising within this region are more aggressive than those arising in the transitional zone. Methods: For the model development, square patches were extracted at random locations from malignant and benign regions. Subsequently, extracted patches were aggregated and clustered using k-means clustering to generate textons that represent both regions. All textons together form a texton dictionary, which was used to construct a texton map for every peripheral zone in the training images. Based on the texton map, histogram models for each malignant and benign tissue samples were constructed and used as a feature vector to train our classifiers. In the testing phase, four machine learning algorithms were employed to classify each unknown sample tissue based on its corresponding feature vector. Results: The proposed method was tested on 418 T2-W MR images taken from 45 patients. Evaluation results show that the best three classifiers were Bayesian network (Az = 92.8% ± 5.9%), random forest (89.5% ± 7.1%), and k-NN (86.9% ± 7.5%). These results are comparable to the state-of-the-art in the literature. Conclusions: The authors have developed a prostate computer aided diagnosis method based on textons using a single modality of T2-W MRI without the need for the typical feature extraction methods, such as filtering and convolution. The proposed method could form a solid basis for a multimodality magnetic resonance imaging based systems. PMID:27782724

  18. 78 FR 25458 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services...

  19. Costs incurred by applying computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing techniques for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Melenberg, Alex; Sari-Rieger, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the additional costs incurred by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique for reconstructing maxillofacial defects by analyzing typical cases. The medical charts of 11 consecutive patients who were subjected to the CAD/CAM technique were considered, and invoices from the companies providing the CAD/CAM devices were reviewed for every case. The number of devices used was significantly correlated with cost (r = 0.880; p < 0.001). Significant differences in mean costs were found between cases in which prebent reconstruction plates were used (€3346.00 ± €29.00) and cases in which they were not (€2534.22 ± €264.48; p < 0.001). Significant differences were also obtained between the costs of two, three and four devices, even when ignoring the cost of reconstruction plates. Additional fees provided by statutory health insurance covered a mean of 171.5% ± 25.6% of the cost of the CAD/CAM devices. Since the additional fees provide financial compensation, we believe that the CAD/CAM technique is suited for wide application and not restricted to complex cases. Where additional fees/funds are not available, the CAD/CAM technique might be unprofitable, so the decision whether or not to use it remains a case-to-case decision with respect to cost versus benefit.

  20. A computer-aided program for helping patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease engage in verbal reminiscence.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Ferlisi, Gabriele; Zullo, Valeria; Schirone, Simona; Prisco, Raffaella; Denitto, Floriana

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed a simple computer-aided program for helping patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease engage in verbal reminiscence. In practice, the program was aimed at fostering the patient's verbal engagement on a number of life experiences/topics previously selected for him or her and introduced in the sessions through a friendly female, who appeared on the computer screen. The female asked the patient about the aforementioned experiences/topics, and provided him or her with positive attention, and possibly verbal guidance (i.e., prompts/encouragements). Eight patients were involved in the study, which was carried out according to non-concurrent multiple baseline designs across participants. Seven of them showed clear improvement during the intervention phase (i.e., with the program). Their mean percentages of intervals with verbal engagement/reminiscence ranged from close to zero to about 15 during the baseline and from above 50 to above 75 during the intervention. The results were discussed in relation to previous literature on reminiscence therapy, with specific emphasis on the need for (a) replication studies and (b) the development of new versions of the technology-aided program to improve its impact and reach a wider number of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Computer-Assisted Dieting: Effects of a Randomized Nutrition Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Kerstin E. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of a computer-assisted dieting intervention (CAD) with and without self-management training on dieting among 55 overweight and obese adults. Methods: Random assignment to a single-session nutrition intervention (CAD-only) or a combined CAD plus self-management group intervention (CADG). Dependent variables were…

  2. Computer-Assisted Dieting: Effects of a Randomized Nutrition Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Kerstin E. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of a computer-assisted dieting intervention (CAD) with and without self-management training on dieting among 55 overweight and obese adults. Methods: Random assignment to a single-session nutrition intervention (CAD-only) or a combined CAD plus self-management group intervention (CADG). Dependent variables were…

  3. Computer Aided Design of Computer Generated Holograms for electron beam fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urquhart, Kristopher S.; Lee, Sing H.; Guest, Clark C.; Feldman, Michael R.; Farhoosh, Hamid

    1989-01-01

    Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems that have been developed for electrical and mechanical design tasks are also effective tools for the process of designing Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs), particularly when these holograms are to be fabricated using electron beam lithography. CAD workstations provide efficient and convenient means of computing, storing, displaying, and preparing for fabrication many of the features that are common to CGH designs. Experience gained in the process of designing CGHs with various types of encoding methods is presented. Suggestions are made so that future workstations may further accommodate the CGH design process.

  4. Computer Aided Design of Computer Generated Holograms for electron beam fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urquhart, Kristopher S.; Lee, Sing H.; Guest, Clark C.; Feldman, Michael R.; Farhoosh, Hamid

    1989-01-01

    Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems that have been developed for electrical and mechanical design tasks are also effective tools for the process of designing Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs), particularly when these holograms are to be fabricated using electron beam lithography. CAD workstations provide efficient and convenient means of computing, storing, displaying, and preparing for fabrication many of the features that are common to CGH designs. Experience gained in the process of designing CGHs with various types of encoding methods is presented. Suggestions are made so that future workstations may further accommodate the CGH design process.

  5. IMPORTANCE OF MULTIPLE CRITERIA FOR PRIORITY SETTING OF HIV/AIDS INTERVENTIONS.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Noor; Prawiranegara, Rozar; Siregar, Adiatma; Sunjaya, Deni; Baltussen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the views of various stakeholders on the importance of different criteria for priority setting of HIV/AIDS interventions in Indonesia. Based on a general list of criteria and a focus group discussion with stakeholders (n = 6), a list was developed of thirty-two criteria that play a role in priority setting in HIV/AIDS control in West-Java province. Criteria were categorized according to the World Health Organization's health system goals and building block frameworks. People living with HIV/AIDS (n = 49), healthcare workers (HCW) (n = 41), the general population (n = 43), and policy makers (n = 22) rated the importance of thirty-two criteria on a 5-point Likert-scale. Thereafter, respondents ranked the highest rated criteria to express more detailed preferences. Stakeholders valued the following criteria as most important for the priority setting of HIV/AIDS interventions: an intervention's impact on the HIV/AIDS epidemic, reduction of stigma, quality of care, effectiveness on individual level, and feasibility in terms of current capacity of the health system (i.e., HCW, product, information, and service requirements), financial sustainability, and acceptance by donors. Overall, stakeholders' preferences for the importance of criteria are similar. Our study design outlines an approach for other settings to identify which criteria are important for priority setting of health interventions. For Indonesia, these study results may be used in priority setting processes for HIV/AIDS control and may contribute to more transparent and systematic allocation of resources.

  6. Orthodontics: computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Wei, Suyuan; Deng, Fanglin; Yao, Sen

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the outline of our newly developed computer-aided 3D dental cast analyzing system with laser scanning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system is composed of a scanning device and a personal computer as a scanning controller and post processor. The scanning device is composed of a laser beam emitter, two sets of linear CCD cameras and a table which is rotatable by two-degree-of-freedom. The rotating is controlled precisely by a personal computer. The dental cast is projected and scanned with a laser beam. Triangulation is applied to determine the location of each point. Generation of 3D graphics of the dental cast takes approximately 40 minutes. About 170,000 sets of X,Y,Z coordinates are store for one dental cast. Besides the conventional linear and angular measurements of the dental cast, we are also able to demonstrate the size of the top surface area of each molar. The advantage of this system is that it facilitates the otherwise complicated and time- consuming mock surgery necessary for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  7. Recent advances in computer-aided drug design.

    PubMed

    Song, Chun Meng; Lim, Shen Jean; Tong, Joo Chuan

    2009-09-01

    Modern drug discovery is characterized by the production of vast quantities of compounds and the need to examine these huge libraries in short periods of time. The need to store, manage and analyze these rapidly increasing resources has given rise to the field known as computer-aided drug design (CADD). CADD represents computational methods and resources that are used to facilitate the design and discovery of new therapeutic solutions. Digital repositories, containing detailed information on drugs and other useful compounds, are goldmines for the study of chemical reactions capabilities. Design libraries, with the potential to generate molecular variants in their entirety, allow the selection and sampling of chemical compounds with diverse characteristics. Fold recognition, for studying sequence-structure homology between protein sequences and structures, are helpful for inferring binding sites and molecular functions. Virtual screening, the in silico analog of high-throughput screening, offers great promise for systematic evaluation of huge chemical libraries to identify potential lead candidates that can be synthesized and tested. In this article, we present an overview of the most important data sources and computational methods for the discovery of new molecular entities. The workflow of the entire virtual screening campaign is discussed, from data collection through to post-screening analysis.

  8. An intervention study to enhance AIDS awareness among underprivileged population in Chandigarh.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Vikas; Swami, H M; Kaur, A P

    2004-01-01

    It is estimated that 4 million persons are suffering from HIV infection/AIDS in India. A family health awareness campaign (FHAC) has been implemented under the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) to scale up HIV/AIDS awareness in vulnerable groups. A community based study was conducted in April 2001 to find the impact of FHAC and IEC activities in 12 villages and slums with a population of 1-1.5 lakhs in Chandigarh. Information was collected from 643 persons in the age group of 15-49 years, 323 in the pre-intervention phase and 320 in the post-intervention phase. Awareness about AIDS increased from 58.2% to 70% (p The major sources of information were the mass media and friends. Knowledge regarding the mode of spread also increased after the campaign. Knowledge regarding prevention of AIDS by using condoms increased from 42% to 61.2%; having a single partner, from 59% to 72.3%; using safe blood, from 14.9% to 29%; and sterile needles/syringes, from 18.1% to 33.9%. Over 90% of respondents consider AIDS a dangerous disease. Community based intervention such as FHAC and IEC activities were successful in enhancing the awareness among underprivileged groups. Since a large section of the population still remained unaware, regular efforts must be made to achieve universal awareness about AIDS.

  9. Computer-aided classification of melanocytic lesions using dermoscopic images.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Laura K; Harkes, Jan A; Gilbert, Benjamin; Winger, Daniel G; Golubets, Kseniya; Akilov, Oleg; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev

    2015-11-01

    Computer-assisted diagnosis of dermoscopic images of skin lesions has the potential to improve melanoma early detection. We sought to evaluate the performance of a novel classifier that uses decision forest classification of dermoscopic images to generate a lesion severity score. Severity scores were calculated for 173 dermoscopic images of skin lesions with known histologic diagnosis (39 melanomas, 14 nonmelanoma skin cancers, and 120 benign lesions). A threshold score was used to measure classifier sensitivity and specificity. A reader study was conducted to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the classifier with those of 30 dermatology clinicians. The classifier sensitivity for melanoma was 97.4%; specificity was 44.2% in a test set of images. In the reader study, the classifier's sensitivity to melanoma was higher (P < .001) and specificity was lower (P < .001) than that of clinicians. This is a retrospective study using existing images primarily chosen for biopsy by a dermatologist. The size of the test set is small. Our classifier may aid clinicians in deciding if a skin lesion should be biopsied and can easily be incorporated into a portable tool (that uses no proprietary equipment) that could aid clinicians in noninvasively evaluating cutaneous lesions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Computer Aided Design: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Wan-Lee

    This instructional manual contains 12 learning activity packets for use in a workshop in computer-aided design and drafting (CADD). The lessons cover the following topics: introduction to computer graphics and computer-aided design/drafting; coordinate systems; advance space graphics hardware configuration and basic features of the IBM PC…

  11. Computer Aided Design: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Wan-Lee

    This instructional manual contains 12 learning activity packets for use in a workshop in computer-aided design and drafting (CADD). The lessons cover the following topics: introduction to computer graphics and computer-aided design/drafting; coordinate systems; advance space graphics hardware configuration and basic features of the IBM PC…

  12. Computer-aided boundary delineation of agricultural lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Thomas D.; Angelici, Gary L.; Slye, Robert E.; Ma, Matt

    1989-01-01

    The National Agricultural Statistics Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) presently uses labor-intensive aerial photographic interpretation techniques to divide large geographical areas into manageable-sized units for estimating domestic crop and livestock production. Prototype software, the computer-aided stratification (CAS) system, was developed to automate the procedure, and currently runs on a Sun-based image processing system. With a background display of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and United States Geological Survey Digital Line Graph data, the operator uses a cursor to delineate agricultural areas, called sampling units, which are assigned to strata of land-use and land-cover types. The resultant stratified sampling units are used as input into subsequent USDA sampling procedures. As a test, three counties in Missouri were chosen for application of the CAS procedures. Subsequent analysis indicates that CAS was five times faster in creating sampling units than the manual techniques were.

  13. Computer-aided surgery meets predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Joskowicz, Leo

    2017-03-01

    Computer-aided surgery (CAS) is now nearly 30 years old. It has brought to surgery a variety of tools, techniques, and paradigm changes that have had an impact on how surgeries are planned, executed, and evaluated. In this review, we examine the predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (PPPM) aspects of CAS. We present a brief history of CAS, summarize its the state of the art, and discuss current trends and future developments related to PPPM. Of the three Ps, we note that the most important impact of CAS is on Personalization, in all the steps of the surgical treatment: preoperative planning, intraoperative execution, and postoperative evaluation. Prediction in CAS is reflected in the preoperative evaluation of the various surgical options and in the evaluation of the possible surgical outcomes. Prevention in CAS is related to intraoperative execution, to help prevent possible surgical complications. We foresee that CAS will play an increasingly important role in PPPM in the coming years.

  14. Virus structure using the computer-aided phase microscope Airyscan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Kaverin, Nikolai V.; Perevedentseva, Elena V.; Vyshenskaia, Tatiana V.; Kufal, Georgy E.

    1997-04-01

    Investigation of features and functions of some small biological objects (smaller than 500 nm), in particular, viruses, with conventional optical microscopy is practically impossible. Usually their images are obtained with methods of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which precludes work with samples in a native state. We obtained images of different viruses including influenza A virus in native state with computer-aided phase microscope (CPM) Airyscan, in which an He-Ne laser is used as a light source. The main purpose of this work was to show the possibility to obtain adequate structure images of influenza viruses with diameter about 100 nm in conditions quite close to native and to investigate different stages of influenza virus budding. We suppose that these results may be considered as a basis for further studies of cell-virus interaction.

  15. Does computer-aided formative assessment improve learning outcomes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, John; James, Alex; Williams, Phillipa

    2014-02-01

    Two first-year engineering mathematics courses used computer-aided assessment (CAA) to provide students with opportunities for formative assessment via a series of weekly quizzes. Most students used the assessment until they achieved very high (>90%) quiz scores. Although there is a positive correlation between these quiz marks and the final exam marks, spending time on the CAA component of the course was negatively correlated with final exam performance. Students across the ability spectrum reduced their time commitment to CAA in their second semester, with weaker students achieving lower quiz totals, but with more able students' quiz marks hardly affected. Despite this lower quiz performance, the weaker students still improved their final exam marks in the second semester.

  16. Computer-aided detection of polyps in optical colonoscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    We present a computer-aided detection algorithm for polyps in optical colonoscopy images. Polyps are the precursors to colon cancer. In the US alone, 14 million optical colonoscopies are performed every year, mostly to screen for polyps. Optical colonoscopy has been shown to have an approximately 25% polyp miss rate due to the convoluted folds and bends present in the colon. In this work, we present an automatic detection algorithm to detect these polyps in the optical colonoscopy images. We use a machine learning algorithm to infer a depth map for a given optical colonoscopy image and then use a detailed pre-built polyp profile to detect and delineate the boundaries of polyps in this given image. We have achieved the best recall of 84.0% and the best specificity value of 83.4%.

  17. Computer-aided X-ray holographic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Morita, H.; Ando, K.; Sasaki, K.

    1981-07-01

    A computer-aided X-ray holographic imaging method is proposed. In this system a three-dimensional image of an object is reconstructed by extracting the hologram, which corresponds to the complete coherence, from the intensity signals obtained under temporally and spatially partial coherent illumination of the object. This method requires neither a priori information about the object's structures nor placement of a pointlike target near the object to obtain the reference waves. The coherence function is detected differentially from intensities of infinitesimal intervals on the hemispherical hologram plane so that it does not suffer from the short temporal coherence length of available X-ray sources. Two deconvolution processings to compensate the effects of the spatially and temporally partial coherency of the waves are also adopted. Principle, design conditions, and a few numerical results are given.

  18. Computer-aided optimization of phosphinic inhibitors of bacterial ureases.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, Stamatia; Kosikowska, Paulina; Grabowiecka, Agnieszka; Yiotakis, Athanasios; Kafarski, Paweł; Berlicki, Lukasz

    2010-08-12

    Urease inhibitors can be considered as a tool to control the damaging effect of ureolytic bacteria infections in humans which occur commonly in the developed countries. Computer-aided optimization of the aminomethylphosphinate structures by modifying both their N- and P-termini led to the invention of a novel group of inhibitors of bacterial ureases. Introduction of P-hydroxymethyl group into the molecule resulted in considerable increase of the inhibitory activity against enzymes purified from Bacillus pasteurii and Proteus vulgaris as compared with their P-methyl counterparts described previously. The designed compounds represent a competitive reversible class of urease inhibitors. The most potent, N-methyl-aminomethyl-P-hydroxymethylphosphinic acid, displayed K(i) = 360 nM against P. vulgaris enzyme.

  19. Computer Aided Design Of Electrical Machines For Variable Speed Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, R.; Aravind, S.; Materu, P.

    1987-10-01

    In recent years, the product life cycle has decreased and demands for new products have emerged due to competition, modern industrial needs and rapidly changing technology. This has necessitated changes in design, development and manufacturing processes so as to improve quality and efficiency as well as reducing costs. Computer Aided Design (CAD) helps to meet this challenge in the design evaluation and final product design stages. This paper presents the development of an interactive software for the optimal design of a motor intended for variable speed applications. The use of finite element analysis methods is proposed as an indispensable part of the CAD system for electrical machine design. An illustration of the method is given for the design of a switched reluctance motor.

  20. Computer-aided diagnosis of lumbar stenosis conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koompairojn, Soontharee; Hua, Kathleen; Hua, Kien A.; Srisomboon, Jintavaree

    2010-03-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems are indispensable tools for patients' healthcare in modern medicine. Nevertheless, the only fully automatic CAD system available for lumbar stenosis today is for X-ray images. Its performance is limited due to the limitations intrinsic to X-ray images. In this paper, we present a system for magnetic resonance images. It employs a machine learning classification technique to automatically recognize lumbar spine components. Features can then be extracted from these spinal components. Finally, diagnosis is done by applying a Multilayer Perceptron. This classification framework can learn the features of different spinal conditions from the training images. The trained Perceptron can then be applied to diagnose new cases for various spinal conditions. Our experimental studies based on 62 subjects indicate that the proposed system is reliable and significantly better than our older system for X-ray images.

  1. Computer aid molecular design based on meta-heuristics techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, T.; Bulacovschi, V.

    One of the challenges in modern chemistry is the problem of designing new molecules with desired properties. The traditional approach to this problem are usually expensive and time-consuming iterative process with the scientist or engineer hypothesizing a compound, synthesizing the material, testing for desired properties, and redesigning the candidate if the desired properties are not met. In the last years, a lot of scientists have reached to the conclusion that the artificial intelligence methods can improve/facilitate the design of new macromolecules with desired properties. One of the challenges in computer aid macromolecular design is to avoid local minima. Our paper present the use of meta-heuristics techniques that can solve this problem.

  2. Computer-Aided Diagnostic System For Mass Survey Chest Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Yoshizumi; Kinoshita, Yasuhiro; Emori, Yasufumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi

    1988-06-01

    In order to support screening of chest radiographs on mass survey, a computer-aided diagnostic system that automatically detects abnormality of candidate images using a digital image analysis technique has been developed. Extracting boundary lines of lung fields and examining their shapes allowed various kind of abnormalities to be detected. Correction and expansion were facilitated by describing the system control, image analysis control and judgement of abnormality in the rule type programing language. In the experiments using typical samples of student's radiograms, good results were obtained for the detection of abnormal shape of lung field, cardiac hypertrophy and scoliosis. As for the detection of diaphragmatic abnormality, relatively good results were obtained but further improvements will be necessary.

  3. Evolution of Geometric Sensitivity Derivatives from Computer Aided Design Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William T.; Lazzara, David; Haimes, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The generation of design parameter sensitivity derivatives is required for gradient-based optimization. Such sensitivity derivatives are elusive at best when working with geometry defined within the solid modeling context of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems. Solid modeling CAD systems are often proprietary and always complex, thereby necessitating ad hoc procedures to infer parameter sensitivity. A new perspective is presented that makes direct use of the hierarchical associativity of CAD features to trace their evolution and thereby track design parameter sensitivity. In contrast to ad hoc methods, this method provides a more concise procedure following the model design intent and determining the sensitivity of CAD geometry directly to its respective defining parameters.

  4. Decision trees and integrated features for computer aided mammographic screening

    SciTech Connect

    Kegelmeyer, W.P. Jr.; Groshong, B.; Allmen, M.; Woods, K.

    1997-02-01

    Breast cancer is a serious problem, which in the United States causes 43,000 deaths a year, eventually striking 1 in 9 women. Early detection is the only effective countermeasure, and mass mammography screening is the only reliable means for early detection. Mass screening has many shortcomings which could be addressed by a computer-aided mammographic screening system. Accordingly, we have applied the pattern recognition methods developed in earlier investigations of speculated lesions in mammograms to the detection of microcalcifications and circumscribed masses, generating new, more rigorous and uniform methods for the detection of both those signs. We have also improved the pattern recognition methods themselves, through the development of a new approach to combinations of multiple classifiers.

  5. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  6. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system.

    PubMed

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T = 62.6 ± 65.2 μm ; MC = 60.4 ± 38.4 μm; PMC = 58.1 ± 38.0 μm, and RI = 89.8 ± 62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T = 71.5%, RI = 49.2%, MC = 69.6%, and PMC = 71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T = 8.5%, RI = 0%, MC = 0.8%, and PMC = 3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  7. Fracture resistance of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-generated composite resin-based molar crowns.

    PubMed

    Harada, Akio; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Inagaki, Ryoichi; Örtengren, Ulf; Niwano, Yoshimi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether different fabrication processes, such as the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system or the manual build-up technique, affect the fracture resistance of composite resin-based crowns. Lava Ultimate (LU), Estenia C&B (EC&B), and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic IPS e.max press (EMP) were used. Four types of molar crowns were fabricated: CAD/CAM-generated composite resin-based crowns (LU crowns); manually built-up monolayer composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-monolayer crowns); manually built-up layered composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-layered crowns); and EMP crowns. Each type of crown was cemented to dies and the fracture resistance was tested. EC&B-layered crowns showed significantly lower fracture resistance compared with LU and EMP crowns, although there was no significant difference in flexural strength or fracture toughness between LU and EC&B materials. Micro-computed tomography and fractographic analysis showed that decreased strength probably resulted from internal voids in the EC&B-layered crowns introduced by the layering process. There was no significant difference in fracture resistance among LU, EC&B-monolayer, and EMP crowns. Both types of composite resin-based crowns showed fracture loads of >2000 N, which is higher than the molar bite force. Therefore, CAD/CAM-generated crowns, without internal defects, may be applied to molar regions with sufficient fracture resistance. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis of alcoholism-related EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; S, Vidya; Bhat, Shreya; Adeli, Hojjat; Adeli, Amir

    2014-12-01

    Alcoholism is a severe disorder that affects the functionality of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and alters the behavior of the affected person. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of subjects with alcoholism. The neurophysiological interpretation of EEG signals in persons with alcoholism (PWA) is based on observation and interpretation of the frequency and power in their EEGs compared to EEG signals from persons without alcoholism. This paper presents a review of the known features of EEGs obtained from PWA and proposes that the impact of alcoholism on the brain can be determined by computer-aided analysis of EEGs through extracting the minute variations in the EEG signals that can differentiate the EEGs of PWA from those of nonaffected persons. The authors advance the idea of automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of alcoholism by employing the EEG signals. This is achieved through judicious combination of signal processing techniques such as wavelet, nonlinear dynamics, and chaos theory and pattern recognition and classification techniques. A CAD system is cost-effective and efficient and can be used as a decision support system by physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism especially those who do not specialize in alcoholism or neurophysiology. It can also be of great value to rehabilitation centers to assess PWA over time and to monitor the impact of treatment aimed at minimizing or reversing the effects of the disease on the brain. A CAD system can be used to determine the extent of alcoholism-related changes in EEG signals (low, medium, high) and the effectiveness of therapeutic plans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The application of computer-aided technologies in automotive styling design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ze-feng; Zhang, Ji; Zheng, Ying

    2012-04-01

    In automotive industry, outline design is its life and creative design is its soul indeed. Computer-aided technology has been widely used in the automotive industry and more and more attention has been paid. This paper chiefly introduce the application of computer-aided technologies including CAD, CAM and CAE, analyses the process of automotive structural design and describe the development tendency of computer-aided design.

  10. Converting Between PLY and Ballistic Research Laboratory-Computer-Aided Design (BRL-CAD) File Formats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Converting Between PLY and Ballistic Research Laboratory–Computer-Aided Design (BRL-CAD) File Formats by Rishub Jain ARL-CR-0760...0760 February 2015 Converting Between PLY and Ballistic Research Laboratory–Computer-Aided Design (BRL-CAD) File Formats Rishub Jain US...and Ballistic Research Laboratory–Computer-Aided Design (BRL-CAD) File Formats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-10-2-0076 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  11. Target Impact Detection Algorithm Using Computer-aided Design (CAD) Model Geometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 558 Technical Report ARMET-TR-13024 TARGET IMPACT DETECTION ALGORITHM USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ( CAD ...DETECTION ALGORITHM USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ( CAD ) MODEL GEOMETRY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...This report documents a method and algorithm to export geometry from a three-dimensional, computer-aided design ( CAD ) model in a format that can be

  12. Can Computer-Mediated Interventions Change Theoretical Mediators of Safer Sex? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noar, Seth M.; Pierce, Larson B.; Black, Hulda G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of computer-mediated interventions (CMIs) aimed at changing theoretical mediators of safer sex. Meta-analytic aggregation of effect sizes from k = 20 studies indicated that CMIs significantly improved HIV/AIDS knowledge, d = 0.276, p less than 0.001, k = 15, N = 6,625; sexual/condom…

  13. Can Computer-Mediated Interventions Change Theoretical Mediators of Safer Sex? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noar, Seth M.; Pierce, Larson B.; Black, Hulda G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of computer-mediated interventions (CMIs) aimed at changing theoretical mediators of safer sex. Meta-analytic aggregation of effect sizes from k = 20 studies indicated that CMIs significantly improved HIV/AIDS knowledge, d = 0.276, p less than 0.001, k = 15, N = 6,625; sexual/condom…

  14. Computer-aided diagnosis and artificial intelligence in clinical imaging.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Doi, Kunio

    2011-11-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is rapidly entering the radiology mainstream. It has already become a part of the routine clinical work for the detection of breast cancer with mammograms. The computer output is used as a "second opinion" in assisting radiologists' image interpretations. The computer algorithm generally consists of several steps that may include image processing, image feature analysis, and data classification via the use of tools such as artificial neural networks (ANN). In this article, we will explore these and other current processes that have come to be referred to as "artificial intelligence." One element of CAD, temporal subtraction, has been applied for enhancing interval changes and for suppressing unchanged structures (eg, normal structures) between 2 successive radiologic images. To reduce misregistration artifacts on the temporal subtraction images, a nonlinear image warping technique for matching the previous image to the current one has been developed. Development of the temporal subtraction method originated with chest radiographs, with the method subsequently being applied to chest computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine bone scans. The usefulness of the temporal subtraction method for bone scans was demonstrated by an observer study in which reading times and diagnostic accuracy improved significantly. An additional prospective clinical study verified that the temporal subtraction image could be used as a "second opinion" by radiologists with negligible detrimental effects. ANN was first used in 1990 for computerized differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases in CAD. Since then, ANN has been widely used in CAD schemes for the detection and diagnosis of various diseases in different imaging modalities, including the differential diagnosis of lung nodules and interstitial lung diseases in chest radiography, CT, and position emission tomography/CT. It is likely that CAD will be integrated into picture archiving and

  15. Miscellaneous Topics in Computer-Aided Drug Design: Synthetic Accessibility and GPU Computing, and Other Topics.

    PubMed

    Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Mashimo, Tadaaki; Misoo, Kiyotaka; Wakabayashi, Yoshinori; Miyaki, Toshiaki; Ohta, Seiji; Nakamura, Mayu; Ikeda, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Computer-aided drug design is still a state-of-the-art process in medicinal chemistry, and the main topics in this field have been extensively studied and well reviewed. These topics include compound databases, ligand-binding pocket prediction, protein-compound docking, virtual screening, target/off-target prediction, physical property prediction, molecular simulation and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) prediction. Message and Conclusion: However, there are also a number of secondary or miscellaneous topics that have been less well covered. For example, methods for synthesizing and predicting the synthetic accessibility (SA) of designed compounds are important in practical drug development, and hardware/software resources for performing the computations in computer-aided drug design are crucial. Cloud computing and general purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) computing have been used in virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulations. Not surprisingly, there is a growing demand for computer systems which combine these resources. In the present review, we summarize and discuss these various topics of drug design.

  16. Miscellaneous Topics in Computer-Aided Drug Design: Synthetic Accessibility and GPU Computing, and Other Topics

    PubMed Central

    Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Mashimo, Tadaaki; Misoo, Kiyotaka; Wakabayashi, Yoshinori; Miyaki, Toshiaki; Ohta, Seiji; Nakamura, Mayu; Ikeda, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background Computer-aided drug design is still a state-of-the-art process in medicinal chemistry, and the main topics in this field have been extensively studied and well reviewed. These topics include compound databases, ligand-binding pocket prediction, protein-compound docking, virtual screening, target/off-target prediction, physical property prediction, molecular simulation and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) prediction. Message and Conclusion: However, there are also a number of secondary or miscellaneous topics that have been less well covered. For example, methods for synthesizing and predicting the synthetic accessibility (SA) of designed compounds are important in practical drug development, and hardware/software resources for performing the computations in computer-aided drug design are crucial. Cloud computing and general purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) computing have been used in virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulations. Not surprisingly, there is a growing demand for computer systems which combine these resources. In the present review, we summarize and discuss these various topics of drug design. PMID:27075578

  17. Drugs, AIDS, and Teens: Intervention and the School Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens-Smith, Patricia; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a model for intervention for addressing drug use and sexual permissiveness that seems to be effective and practical for use with adolescents. Describes four components of social cognitive learning theory of detrimental lifestyle change (informational, development of social and self-regulatory skills, skill enhancement through guided…

  18. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Lung Cancer and Pulmonary Embolism in Computed Tomography — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Zhou, Chuan; Sahiner, Berkman

    2009-01-01

    Computer-aided detection (CADe) and computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) have been important areas of research in the last two decades. Significant progresses have been made in the area of breast cancer detection, and CAD techniques are being developed in many other areas. Recent advances in multidetector row CT have made it an increasingly common modality for imaging of lung diseases. A thoracic examination using thin-section CT contains hundreds of images. Detection of lung cancer and pulmonary embolism on CT examinations are demanding tasks for radiologists because they have to search for abnormalities in a large number of images and the lesions can be subtle. If successfully developed, CAD can be a useful second opinion to radiologists in thoracic CT interpretation. In this review, we summarize the studies that have been reported in these areas, discuss some challenges in the development of CAD, and identify areas that deserve particular attention in future research. PMID:18423310

  19. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues

    PubMed Central

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research. PMID:27240360

  20. Computer-aided detection of colonic polyps using volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wei; Qiu, Feng; Marino, Joseph; Kaufman, Arie

    2007-03-01

    This work utilizes a novel pipeline for the computer-aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyps, assisting radiologists in locating polyps when using a virtual colonoscopy system. Our CAD pipeline automatically detects polyps while reducing the number of false positives (FPs). It integrates volume rendering and conformal colon flattening with texture and shape analysis. The colon is first digitally cleansed, segmented, and extracted from the CT dataset of the abdomen. The colon surface is then mapped to a 2D rectangle using conformal mapping. Using this colon flattening method, the CAD problem is converted from 3D into 2D. The flattened image is rendered using a direct volume rendering of the 3D colon dataset with a translucent transfer function. Suspicious polyps are detected by applying a clustering method on the 2D volume rendered image. The FPs are reduced by analyzing shape and texture features of the suspicious areas detected by the clustering step. Compared with shape-based methods, ours is much faster and much more efficient as it avoids computing curvature and other shape parameters for the whole colon wall. We tested our method with 178 datasets and found it to be 100% sensitive to adenomatous polyps with a low rate of FPs. The CAD results are seamlessly integrated into a virtual colonoscopy system, providing the radiologists with visual cues and likelihood indicators of areas likely to contain polyps, and allowing them to quickly inspect the suspicious areas and further exploit the flattened colon view for easy navigation and bookmark placement.

  1. Computer aided lung cancer diagnosis with deep learning algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenqing; Zheng, Bin; Qian, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Deep learning is considered as a popular and powerful method in pattern recognition and classification. However, there are not many deep structured applications used in medical imaging diagnosis area, because large dataset is not always available for medical images. In this study we tested the feasibility of using deep learning algorithms for lung cancer diagnosis with the cases from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) database. The nodules on each computed tomography (CT) slice were segmented according to marks provided by the radiologists. After down sampling and rotating we acquired 174412 samples with 52 by 52 pixel each and the corresponding truth files. Three deep learning algorithms were designed and implemented, including Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Deep Belief Networks (DBNs), Stacked Denoising Autoencoder (SDAE). To compare the performance of deep learning algorithms with traditional computer aided diagnosis (CADx) system, we designed a scheme with 28 image features and support vector machine. The accuracies of CNN, DBNs, and SDAE are 0.7976, 0.8119, and 0.7929, respectively; the accuracy of our designed traditional CADx is 0.7940, which is slightly lower than CNN and DBNs. We also noticed that the mislabeled nodules using DBNs are 4% larger than using traditional CADx, this might be resulting from down sampling process lost some size information of the nodules.

  2. Accelerating Battery Design Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Heon, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  3. A digital patient for computer-aided prosthesis design

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giorgio; Facoetti, Giancarlo; Rizzi, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This article concerns the design of lower limb prosthesis, both below and above knee. It describes a new computer-based design framework and a digital model of the patient around which the prosthesis is designed and tested in a completely virtual environment. The virtual model of the patient is the backbone of the whole system, and it is based on a biomechanical general-purpose model customized with the patient's characteristics (e.g. anthropometric measures). The software platform adopts computer-aided and knowledge-guided approaches with the goal of replacing the current development process, mainly hand made, with a virtual one. It provides the prosthetics with a set of tools to design, configure and test the prosthesis and comprehends two main environments: the prosthesis modelling laboratory and the virtual testing laboratory. The first permits the three-dimensional model of the prosthesis to be configured and generated, while the second allows the prosthetics to virtually set up the artificial leg and simulate the patient's postures and movements, validating its functionality and configuration. General architecture and modelling/simulation tools for the platform are described as well as main aspects and results of the experimentation. PMID:24427528

  4. Adaptive contrast-based computer aided detection for pulmonary embolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinesh, M. S.; Devarakota, Pandu; Raghupathi, Laks; Lakare, Sarang; Salganicoff, Marcos; Krishnan, Arun

    2009-02-01

    This work involves the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of pulmonary embolism (PE) in contrast-enhanced computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Contrast plays an important role in analyzing and identifying PE in CTPA. At times the contrast mixing in blood may be insufficient due to several factors such as scanning speed, body weight and injection duration. This results in a suboptimal study (mixing artifact) due to non-homogeneous enhancement of blood's opacity. Most current CAD systems are not optimized to detect PE in sub optimal studies. To this effect, we propose new techniques for CAD to work robustly in both optimal and suboptimal situations. First, the contrast level at the pulmonary trunk is automatically detected using a landmark detection tool. This information is then used to dynamically configure the candidate generation (CG) and classification stages of the algorithm. In CG, a fast method based on tobogganing is proposed which also detects wall-adhering emboli. In addition, our proposed method correctly encapsulates potential PE candidates that enable accurate feature calculation over the entire PE candidate. Finally a classifier gating scheme has been designed that automatically switches the appropriate classifier for suboptimal and optimal studies. The system performance has been validated on 86 real-world cases collected from different clinical sites. Results show around 5% improvement in the detection of segmental PE and 6% improvement in lobar and sub segmental PE with a 40% decrease in the average false positive rate when compared to a similar system without contrast detection.

  5. 3D Computer aided treatment planning in endodontics.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Wicher J; Vissink, Arjan; Ng, Yuan Ling; Gulabivala, Kishor

    2016-02-01

    Obliteration of the root canal system due to accelerated dentinogenesis and dystrophic calcification can challenge the achievement of root canal treatment goals. This paper describes the application of 3D digital mapping technology for predictable navigation of obliterated canal systems during root canal treatment to avoid iatrogenic damage of the root. Digital endodontic treatment planning for anterior teeth with severely obliterated root canal systems was accomplished with the aid of computer software, based on cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) scans and intra-oral scans of the dentition. On the basis of these scans, endodontic guides were created for the planned treatment through digital designing and rapid prototyping fabrication. The custom-made guides allowed for an uncomplicated and predictable canal location and management. The method of digital designing and rapid prototyping of endodontic guides allows for reliable and predictable location of root canals of teeth with calcifically metamorphosed root canal systems. The endodontic directional guide facilitates difficult endodontic treatments at little additional cost. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues.

    PubMed

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2016-05-26

    The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research.

  7. A handheld computer-aided diagnosis system and simulated analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Mingjian; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Brent; Su, Kening; Louie, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on cellphone and distributed cluster. One of the bottlenecks in building a CAD system for clinical practice is the storage and process of mass pathology samples freely among different devices, and normal pattern matching algorithm on large scale image set is very time consuming. Distributed computation on cluster has demonstrated the ability to relieve this bottleneck. We develop a system enabling the user to compare the mass image to a dataset with feature table by sending datasets to Generic Data Handler Module in Hadoop, where the pattern recognition is undertaken for the detection of skin diseases. A single and combination retrieval algorithm to data pipeline base on Map Reduce framework is used in our system in order to make optimal choice between recognition accuracy and system cost. The profile of lesion area is drawn by doctors manually on the screen, and then uploads this pattern to the server. In our evaluation experiment, an accuracy of 75% diagnosis hit rate is obtained by testing 100 patients with skin illness. Our system has the potential help in building a novel medical image dataset by collecting large amounts of gold standard during medical diagnosis. Once the project is online, the participants are free to join and eventually an abundant sample dataset will soon be gathered enough for learning. These results demonstrate our technology is very promising and expected to be used in clinical practice.

  8. Image Processing and Computer Aided Diagnosis in Computed Tomography of the Breast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, and D. B. Kopans, "Computerized detection of mass lesions in digital breast tomosynthesis images using two- and three...Kopans, L. M. Hadjiiski, and M. A. Helvie, "Computer-aided detection system for breast masses on digital tomosynthesis mammograms: Preliminary... tomosynthesis [9, 10]) and image processing techniques (such as the technique presented in the thesis) feasible. 1.2 Scatter Radiation and Its Degrading

  9. Optimization of Multicomponent Behavioral and Biobehavioral Interventions for the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Linda M.; Kugler, Kari C.; Gwadz, Marya Viorst

    2015-01-01

    To move society toward an AIDS-free generation, behavioral interventions for prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS must be not only effective, but also cost-effective, efficient, and readily scalable. The purpose of this article is to introduce to the HIV/AIDS research community the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST), a new methodological framework inspired by engineering principles and designed to develop behavioral interventions that have these important characteristics. Many behavioral interventions comprise multiple components. In MOST, randomized experimentation is conducted to assess the individual performance of each intervention component, and whether its presence/absence/setting has an impact on the performance of other components. This information is used to engineer an intervention that meets a specific optimization criterion, defined a priori in terms of effectiveness, cost, cost-effectiveness, and/or scalability. MOST will enable intervention science to develop a coherent knowledge base about what works and does not work. Ultimately this will improve behavioral interventions systematically and incrementally. PMID:26238037

  10. Optimization of Multicomponent Behavioral and Biobehavioral Interventions for the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Collins, Linda M; Kugler, Kari C; Gwadz, Marya Viorst

    2016-01-01

    To move society toward an AIDS-free generation, behavioral interventions for prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS must be not only effective, but also cost-effective, efficient, and readily scalable. The purpose of this article is to introduce to the HIV/AIDS research community the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST), a new methodological framework inspired by engineering principles and designed to develop behavioral interventions that have these important characteristics. Many behavioral interventions comprise multiple components. In MOST, randomized experimentation is conducted to assess the individual performance of each intervention component, and whether its presence/absence/setting has an impact on the performance of other components. This information is used to engineer an intervention that meets a specific optimization criterion, defined a priori in terms of effectiveness, cost, cost-effectiveness, and/or scalability. MOST will enable intervention science to develop a coherent knowledge base about what works and does not work. Ultimately this will improve behavioral interventions systematically and incrementally.

  11. Monitoring and Evaluating Psychosocial Intervention Outcomes in Humanitarian Aid

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Kaz; Ariti, Cono; van der Kam, Saskia; Mooren, Trudy; Shanks, Leslie; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Kleber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Existing tools for evaluating psychosocial interventions (un-validated self-reporting questionnaires) are not ideal for use in non-Western conflict settings. We implement a generic method of treatment evaluation, using client and counsellor feedback, in 18 projects in non-Western humanitarian settings. We discuss our findings from the perspective of validity and suggestions for future research. A retrospective analysis is executed using data gathered from psychosocial projects. Clients (n = 7,058) complete two (complaints and functioning) rating scales each session and counsellors rate the client’s status at exit. The client-completed pre- and post-intervention rating scales show substantial changes. Counsellor evaluation of the clients’ status shows a similar trend in improvement. All three multivariable models for each separate scale have similar associations between the scales and the investigated variables despite different cultural settings. The validity is good. Limitations are: ratings give only a general impression and clinical risk factors are not measured. Potential ceiling effects may influence change of scales. The intra and inter-rater reliability of the counsellors’ rating is not assessed. The focus on client and counsellor perspectives to evaluate treatment outcome seems a strong alternative for evaluation instruments frequently used in psychosocial programming. The session client rated scales helps client and counsellor to set mutual treatment objectives and reduce drop-out risk. Further research should test the scales against a cross-cultural valid gold standard to obtain insight into their clinical relevance. PMID:27315263

  12. Computer-Presented Organizational/Memory Aids as Instruction for Solving Pico-Fomi Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Esther R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes investigation of effectiveness of computer-presented organizational/memory aids (matrix and verbal charts controlled by computer or learner) as instructional technique for solving Pico-Fomi problems, and the acquisition of deductive inference rules when such aids are present. Results indicate chart use control should be adapted to…

  13. Teaching Computer-Aided Design of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Engineering Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosman, A. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a teaching program for fluid mechanics and heat transfer which contains both computer aided learning (CAL) and computer aided design (CAD) components and argues that the understanding of the physical and numerical modeling taught in the CAL course is essential to the proper implementation of CAD. (Author/CMV)

  14. Parallels in Computer-Aided Design Framework and Software Development Environment Efforts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    University - Software Engineering Institute Parallels In Computer-Aided Design Framework and Software Development Environment Efforts Susan A. Dart DTIC...Parallels in Computer-Aided Design Framework and Software Development Environment Efforts Susan A. Dart Environments Project Approved for public...release. Distribution unlimited. Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 This technical report was

  15. Computer-Presented Organizational/Memory Aids as Instruction for Solving Pico-Fomi Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Esther R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes investigation of effectiveness of computer-presented organizational/memory aids (matrix and verbal charts controlled by computer or learner) as instructional technique for solving Pico-Fomi problems, and the acquisition of deductive inference rules when such aids are present. Results indicate chart use control should be adapted to…

  16. Teaching Computer-Aided Design of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Engineering Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosman, A. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a teaching program for fluid mechanics and heat transfer which contains both computer aided learning (CAL) and computer aided design (CAD) components and argues that the understanding of the physical and numerical modeling taught in the CAL course is essential to the proper implementation of CAD. (Author/CMV)

  17. [The automatic iris map overlap technology in computer-aided iridiagnosis].

    PubMed

    He, Jia-feng; Ye, Hu-nian; Ye, Miao-yuan

    2002-11-01

    In the paper, iridology and computer-aided iridiagnosis technologies are briefly introduced and the extraction method of the collarette contour is then investigated. The iris map can be overlapped on the original iris image based on collarette contour extraction. The research on collarette contour extraction and iris map overlap is of great importance to computer-aided iridiagnosis technologies.

  18. Enhancing Engineering Computer-Aided Design Education Using Lectures Recorded on the PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrann, Roy T. R.

    2006-01-01

    Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) is a course that is required during the third year in the mechanical engineering curriculum at Binghamton University. The primary objective of the course is to educate students in the procedures of computer-aided engineering design. The solid modeling and analysis program Pro/Engineer[TM] (PTC[R]) is used as the…

  19. A Report from ICAMI: The Institute for Computer-Aided Mathematics Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Chris

    De Anza College's Institute for Computer-Aided Mathematics Instruction (ICAMI) is a direct outgrowth of the computer-aided mathematics program, in California, started at the California college in 1982. ICAMI focuses on the design and dissemination of effective instructional models for: (1) skill building for more efficient problem solving,…

  20. Effect of computer-aided instruction versus traditional modes on student PT's learning musculoskeletal special tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Gregory Scott

    2007-12-01

    Title. Effect of computer-aided instruction versus traditional modes on student PT's learning musculoskeletal special tests. Problem. Lack of quantitative evidence to support the use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) in PT education for both the cognitive and psychomotor domains and lack of qualitative support as to an understanding why CAI may or may not be effective. Design. 3 group single-blind pre-test, immediate post-test, final post-test repeated measures with qualitative survey for the CAI group. Methods. Subjects were randomly assigned to CAI, live demonstration or textbook learning groups. Three novel special tests were instructed. Analysis of performance on written and practical examinations was conducted across the 3 repeated measures. A qualitative survey was completed by the CAI group post intervention. Results. CAI is equally as effective as live demonstration and textbook learning of musculoskeletal special tests in the cognitive domain, however, CAI was superior to live demonstration and textbook instruction at final post-testing. Significance. The significance of this research is that a gap in the literature of PT education needs to be bridged as it pertains to the effect of CAI on learning in both the cognitive and psychomotor domains as well as attempt to understand why CAI results in certain student performance. The methods of this study allowed for a wide range of generalizability to any and all PT programs across the country.

  1. Using old technology to implement modern computer-aided decision support for primary diabetes care.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, D. L.; Haynes, R. B.; Morgan, D.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implementation rates of interventions known to be beneficial for people with diabetes mellitus are often suboptimal. Computer-aided decision support systems (CDSSs) can improve these rates. The complexity of establishing a fully integrated electronic medical record that provides decision support, however, often prevents their use. OBJECTIVE: To develop a CDSS for diabetes care that can be easily introduced into primary care settings and diabetes clinics. THE SYSTEM: The CDSS uses fax-machine-based optical character recognition software for acquiring patient information. Simple, 1-page paper forms, completed by patients or health practitioners, are faxed to a central location. The information is interpreted and recorded in a database. This initiates a routine that matches the information against a knowledge base so that patient-specific recommendations can be generated. These are formatted and faxed back within 4-5 minutes. IMPLEMENTATION: The system is being introduced into 2 diabetes clinics. We are collecting information on frequency of use of the system, as well as satisfaction with the information provided. CONCLUSION: Computer-aided decision support can be provided in any setting with a fax machine, without the need for integrated electronic medical records or computerized data-collection devices. PMID:11825194

  2. Computer-Aided Construction of Chemical Kinetic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Green, William H.

    2014-12-31

    The combustion chemistry of even simple fuels can be extremely complex, involving hundreds or thousands of kinetically significant species. The most reasonable way to deal with this complexity is to use a computer not only to numerically solve the kinetic model, but also to construct the kinetic model in the first place. Because these large models contain so many numerical parameters (e.g. rate coefficients, thermochemistry) one never has sufficient data to uniquely determine them all experimentally. Instead one must work in “predictive” mode, using theoretical rather than experimental values for many of the numbers in the model, and as appropriate refining the most sensitive numbers through experiments. Predictive chemical kinetics is exactly what is needed for computer-aided design of combustion systems based on proposed alternative fuels, particularly for early assessment of the value and viability of proposed new fuels before those fuels are commercially available. This project was aimed at making accurate predictive chemical kinetics practical; this is a challenging goal which requires a range of science advances. The project spanned a wide range from quantum chemical calculations on individual molecules and elementary-step reactions, through the development of improved rate/thermo calculation procedures, the creation of algorithms and software for constructing and solving kinetic simulations, the invention of methods for model-reduction while maintaining error control, and finally comparisons with experiment. Many of the parameters in the models were derived from quantum chemistry calculations, and the models were compared with experimental data measured in our lab or in collaboration with others.

  3. Computer aided morphometry of the neonatal fetal alcohol syndrome face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chik, Lawrence; Sokol, Robert J.; Martier, Susan S.

    1993-09-01

    Facial dysmorphology related to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) has been studied from neonatal snapshots with computer-aided imaging tools by looking at facial landmarks and silhouettes. Statistical methods were used to characterize FAS-related midfacial hypoplasia by using standardized landmark coordinates of frontal and profile snapshots. Additional analyses were performed by tracing a segment of the facial silhouettes from the profile snapshots. In spite of inherent distortions due to the coordinate standardization procedure, controlled for race, three significant facial landmark coordinates accounted for 30.6% of the explained variance of FAS. Residualized for race, eight points along the silhouettes were shown to be significant in explaining 45.8% of the outcome variance. Combining the landmark coordinates and silhouettes points, 57% of the outcome variance was explained. Finally, including birthweight with landmark coordinates and silhouettes, 63% of the outcome variance was explained, with a jackknifed sensitivity of 95% (19/20) and a specificity of 92.9% (52/56).

  4. Computer Aided Detection of SARS Based on Radiographs Data Mining.

    PubMed

    Xuanyang, Xie; Yuchang, Gong; Shouhong, Wan; Xi, Li

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces our work on how to use image mining techniques to detect SARS, the severe acute respiratory syndrome, automatically as the prototype of computer aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) system. Data used in this paper are digitalized PA(posterior anterior) X-ray images stored in the real-life picture archiving and communication system (PACS) of the 2nd Affiliation Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College. Association rule mining was applied first but results showed there was no significant difference between the locations of the lesions or infiltrate. Classification based on image textures was performed. A sample set contains both the pneumonia and SARS X-ray images was built in the first place. After modeling each sample by a feature vector, the sample set was partitioned to match the detection purpose: classification. Three methods were used: C4.5, neural network (NN) and CART. Final result shows that 70.94% SARS cases can be detected by CART. Data preparation, segmentation, feature extraction and data mining steps, with corresponding techniques are included in this paper. ROC charts and confusion matrix by all three methods are given and analyzed.

  5. Quantitative analysis of ultrasound images for computer-aided diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie Ying; Tuomi, Adam; Beland, Michael D.; Konrad, Joseph; Glidden, David; Grand, David; Merck, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. We propose an adaptable framework for analyzing ultrasound (US) images quantitatively to provide computer-aided diagnosis using machine learning. Our preliminary clinical targets are hepatic steatosis, adenomyosis, and craniosynostosis. For steatosis and adenomyosis, we collected US studies from 288 and 88 patients, respectively, as well as their biopsy or magnetic resonanceconfirmed diagnosis. Radiologists identified a region of interest (ROI) on each image. We filtered the US images for various texture responses and use the pixel intensity distribution within each ROI as feature parameterizations. Our craniosynostosis dataset consisted of 22 CT-confirmed cases and 22 age-matched controls. One physician manually measured the vectors from the center of the skull to the outer cortex at every 10 deg for each image and we used the principal directions as shape features for parameterization. These parameters and the known diagnosis were used to train classifiers. Testing with cross-validation, we obtained 72.74% accuracy and 0.71 area under receiver operating characteristics curve for steatosis (p<0.0001), 77.27% and 0.77 for adenomyosis (p<0.0001), and 88.63% and 0.89 for craniosynostosis (p=0.0006). Our framework is able to detect a variety of diseases with high accuracy. We hope to include it as a routinely available support system in the clinic. PMID:26835502

  6. Computer-aided interpretation approach for optical tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Christian D.; Klose, Alexander D.; Netz, Uwe J.; Scheel, Alexander K.; Beuthan, Jürgen; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2010-11-01

    A computer-aided interpretation approach is proposed to detect rheumatic arthritis (RA) in human finger joints using optical tomographic images. The image interpretation method employs a classification algorithm that makes use of a so-called self-organizing mapping scheme to classify fingers as either affected or unaffected by RA. Unlike in previous studies, this allows for combining multiple image features, such as minimum and maximum values of the absorption coefficient for identifying affected and not affected joints. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, and mutual information. Different methods (i.e., clinical diagnostics, ultrasound imaging, magnet resonance imaging, and inspection of optical tomographic images), were used to produce ground truth benchmarks to determine the performance of image interpretations. Using data from 100 finger joints, findings suggest that some parameter combinations lead to higher sensitivities, while others to higher specificities when compared to single parameter classifications employed in previous studies. Maximum performances are reached when combining the minimum/maximum ratio of the absorption coefficient and image variance. In this case, sensitivities and specificities over 0.9 can be achieved. These values are much higher than values obtained when only single parameter classifications were used, where sensitivities and specificities remained well below 0.8.

  7. A computer-aided diagnostic system for kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Jahantigh, Farzad Firouzi; Malmir, Behnam; Avilaq, Behzad Aslani

    2017-01-01

    Background Disease diagnosis is complicated since patients may demonstrate similar symptoms but physician may diagnose different diseases. There are a few number of investigations aimed to create a fuzzy expert system, as a computer aided system for disease diagnosis. Methods In this research, a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in a kidney clinic in Tehran, Iran in 2012. Medical diagnosis fuzzy rules applied, and a set of symptoms related to the set of considered diseases defined. The input case to be diagnosed defined by assigning a fuzzy value to each symptom and then three physicians asked about each suspected diseases. Then comments of those three physicians summarized for each disease. The fuzzy inference applied to obtain a decision fuzzy set for each disease, and crisp decision values attained to determine the certainty of existence for each disease. Results Results indicated that, in the diagnosis of seven cases of kidney disease by examining 21 indicators using fuzzy expert system, kidney stone disease with 63% certainty was the most probable, renal tubular was at the lowest level with 15%, and other kidney diseases were at the other levels. The most remarkable finding of this study was that results of kidney disease diagnosis (e.g., kidney stone) via fuzzy expert system were fully compatible with those of kidney physicians. Conclusion The proposed fuzzy expert system is a valid, reliable, and flexible instrument to diagnose several typical input cases. The developed system decreases the effort of initial physical checking and manual feeding of input symptoms. PMID:28392995

  8. CART V: recent advancements in computer-aided camouflage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Müller, Markus

    2011-05-01

    In order to facilitate systematic, computer aided improvements of camouflage and concealment assessment methods, the software system CART (Camouflage Assessment in Real-Time) was built up for the camouflage assessment of objects in multispectral image sequences (see contributions to SPIE 2007-2010 [1], [2], [3], [4]). It comprises a semi-automatic marking of target objects (ground truth generation) including their propagation over the image sequence and the evaluation via user-defined feature extractors as well as methods to assess the object's movement conspicuity. In this fifth part in an annual series at the SPIE conference in Orlando, this paper presents the enhancements over the recent year and addresses the camouflage assessment of static and moving objects in multispectral image data that can show noise or image artefacts. The presented methods fathom the correlations between image processing and camouflage assessment. A novel algorithm is presented based on template matching to assess the structural inconspicuity of an object objectively and quantitatively. The results can easily be combined with an MTI (moving target indication) based movement conspicuity assessment function in order to explore the influence of object movement to a camouflage effect in different environments. As the results show, the presented methods contribute to a significant benefit in the field of camouflage assessment.

  9. Computer-aided pattern classification system for dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Qaisar; Celebi, M Emre; Fondón, Irene

    2012-08-01

    Computer-aided pattern classification of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions is one of the most important tasks for clinical diagnosis. To differentiate between benign and malignant lesions, the extraction of color, architectural order, symmetry of pattern and homogeneity (CASH) is a challenging task. In this article, a novel pattern classification system (PCS) based on the clinical CASH rule is presented to classify among six classes of patterns. The PCS system consists of the following five steps: transformation to the CIE L*a*b* color space, pre-processing to enhance the tumor region and removal of hairs, tumor-area segmentation, color and texture feature extraction, and finally, classification based on a multiclass support vector machine. The PCS system is tested on a total of 180 dermoscopic images. To test the performance of the PCS diagnostic classifier, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) is utilized. The proposed classifier achieved a sensitivity of 91.64%, specificity of 94.14%, and AUC of 0.948. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed pattern classifier is highly accurate and classify between benign and malignant lesions into some extend. The PCS method is fully automatic and can accurately detect different patterns from dermoscopy images using color and texture properties. Additional pattern features can be included to investigate the impact of pattern classification based on the CASH rule. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Computer-aided photometric analysis of dynamic digital bioluminescent images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorski, Zbigniew; Bembnista, T.; Floryszak-Wieczorek, J.; Domanski, Marek; Slawinski, Janusz

    2003-04-01

    The paper deals with photometric and morphologic analysis of bioluminescent images obtained by registration of light radiated directly from some plant objects. Registration of images obtained from ultra-weak light sources by the single photon counting (SPC) technique is the subject of this work. The radiation is registered by use of a 16-bit charge coupled device (CCD) camera "Night Owl" together with WinLight EG&G Berthold software. Additional application-specific software has been developed in order to deal with objects that are changing during the exposition time. Advantages of the elaborated set of easy configurable tools named FCT for a computer-aided photometric and morphologic analysis of numerous series of quantitatively imperfect chemiluminescent images are described. Instructions are given how to use these tools and exemplified with several algorithms for the transformation of images library. Using the proposed FCT set, automatic photometric and morphologic analysis of the information hidden within series of chemiluminescent images reflecting defensive processes in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd) leaves affected by a pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea is revealed.

  11. A survey on computer aided diagnosis for ocular diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD), which can automate the detection process for ocular diseases, has attracted extensive attention from clinicians and researchers alike. It not only alleviates the burden on the clinicians by providing objective opinion with valuable insights, but also offers early detection and easy access for patients. Method We review ocular CAD methodologies for various data types. For each data type, we investigate the databases and the algorithms to detect different ocular diseases. Their advantages and shortcomings are analyzed and discussed. Result We have studied three types of data (i.e., clinical, genetic and imaging) that have been commonly used in existing methods for CAD. The recent developments in methods used in CAD of ocular diseases (such as Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma, Age-related Macular Degeneration and Pathological Myopia) are investigated and summarized comprehensively. Conclusion While CAD for ocular diseases has shown considerable progress over the past years, the clinical importance of fully automatic CAD systems which are able to embed clinical knowledge and integrate heterogeneous data sources still show great potential for future breakthrough. PMID:25175552

  12. Computer aiding for low-altitude helicopter flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.

    1991-01-01

    A computer-aiding concept for low-altitude helicopter flight was developed and evaluated in a real-time piloted simulation. The concept included an optimal control trajectory-generated algorithm based on dynamic programming, and a head-up display (HUD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor symbol. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and advanced navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission waypoints that minimizes threat exposure by seeking valleys. The pilot evaluation was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Sim Lab facility in both the fixed-base Interchangeable Cab (ICAB) simulator and the moving-base Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) by pilots representing NASA, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Air Force. The pilots manually tracked the trajectory generated by the algorithm utilizing the HUD symbology. They were able to satisfactorily perform the tracking tasks while maintaining a high degree of awareness of the outside world.

  13. [Computer-aided electronic prescribing in Spanish hospitals].

    PubMed

    Rubio Fernández, M; Aldaz Francés, R; García Gómez, C; Valladolid Walsh, A

    2005-01-01

    To describe electronic prescribing in a sample of Spanish hospitals and activities derived from its implementation in Hospital Pharmacy Departments, software features and acceptance. A survey that included data related to program implantation and performance in hospitals with diverse characteristics was designed. It was posted at the Sociedad Española de Farmacia Hospitalaria website for a 6-month period and completed by phone. A total of 47 hospitals answered the survey. 13 (27.7%) had electronic prescribing systems, and of these, 8 of them had more than 75% of beds included in the system. In 15 (31.9%) hospitals that did not have it, its implementation was in project in the near future. Software applications used in this new health technology were not homogeneous, while integration of applications that facilitate Pharmaceutical Care tasks was infrequent. In 61.5% of the hospitals with electronic prescribing, transcription used to be the pharmacist s task. In 92.3% of these hospitals, order validation is currently carried out by pharmacists. The degree of satisfaction with the system was rated as good or very good by 92.3% of pharmacists. Computer-aided electronic prescribing appears to be a helpful tool for restructuring Department organization and investing time in new activities. A more ambitious and effective approach to clinical activities will therefore be possible. System optimization requires taking into account factors such as worker time investment, since new activities will be developed, along with the need for training courses.

  14. The future of computer-aided sperm analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Sharon T; van der Horst, Gerhard; Mortimer, David

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) technology was developed in the late 1980s for analyzing sperm movement characteristics or kinematics and has been highly successful in enabling this field of research. CASA has also been used with great success for measuring semen characteristics such as sperm concentration and proportions of progressive motility in many animal species, including wide application in domesticated animal production laboratories and reproductive toxicology. However, attempts to use CASA for human clinical semen analysis have largely met with poor success due to the inherent difficulties presented by many human semen samples caused by sperm clumping and heavy background debris that, until now, have precluded accurate digital image analysis. The authors review the improved capabilities of two modern CASA platforms (Hamilton Thorne CASA-II and Microptic SCA6) and consider their current and future applications with particular reference to directing our focus towards using this technology to assess functional rather than simple descriptive characteristics of spermatozoa. Specific requirements for validating CASA technology as a semi-automated system for human semen analysis are also provided, with particular reference to the accuracy and uncertainty of measurement expected of a robust medical laboratory test for implementation in clinical laboratories operating according to modern accreditation standards. PMID:25926614

  15. Computer Aided Dosimetry and Verification of Exposure to Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Edward; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Leach, Karen E.; Lalonde, Louise

    2002-06-01

    In the timeframe following the September 11th attacks on the United States, increased emphasis has been placed on Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) preparedness. Of prime importance is rapid field assessment of potential radiation exposure to Canadian Forces field personnel. This work set up a framework for generating an 'expert' computer system for aiding and assisting field personnel in determining the extent of radiation insult to military personnel. Data was gathered by review of the available literature, discussions with medical and health physics personnel having hands-on experience dealing with radiation accident victims, and from experience of the principal investigator. Flow charts and generic data fusion algorithms were developed. Relationships between known exposure parameters, patient interview and history, clinical symptoms, clinical work-ups, physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry, and dose reconstruction as critical data indicators were investigated. The data obtained was examined in terms of information theory. A main goal was to determine how best to generate an adaptive model (i.e. when more data becomes available, how is the prediction improved). Consideration was given to determination of predictive algorithms for health outcome. In addition. the concept of coding an expert medical treatment advisor system was developed (U)

  16. Computer-aided kidney segmentation on abdominal CT images.

    PubMed

    Lin, Daw-Tung; Lei, Chung-Chih; Hung, Siu-Wan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an effective model-based approach for computer-aided kidney segmentation of abdominal CT images with anatomic structure consideration is presented. This automatic segmentation system is expected to assist physicians in both clinical diagnosis and educational training. The proposed method is a coarse to fine segmentation approach divided into two stages. First, the candidate kidney region is extracted according to the statistical geometric location of kidney within the abdomen. This approach is applicable to images of different sizes by using the relative distance of the kidney region to the spine. The second stage identifies the kidney by a series of image processing operations. The main elements of the proposed system are: 1) the location of the spine is used as the landmark for coordinate references; 2) elliptic candidate kidney region extraction with progressive positioning on the consecutive CT images; 3) novel directional model for a more reliable kidney region seed point identification; and 4) adaptive region growing controlled by the properties of image homogeneity. In addition, in order to provide different views for the physicians, we have implemented a visualization tool that will automatically show the renal contour through the method of second-order neighborhood edge detection. We considered segmentation of kidney regions from CT scans that contain pathologies in clinical practice. The results of a series of tests on 358 images from 30 patients indicate an average correlation coefficient of up to 88% between automatic and manual segmentation.

  17. Computer-aided interpretation approach for optical tomographic images.

    PubMed

    Klose, Christian D; Klose, Alexander D; Netz, Uwe J; Scheel, Alexander K; Beuthan, Jurgen; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2010-01-01

    A computer-aided interpretation approach is proposed to detect rheumatic arthritis (RA) in human finger joints using optical tomographic images. The image interpretation method employs a classification algorithm that makes use of a so-called self-organizing mapping scheme to classify fingers as either affected or unaffected by RA. Unlike in previous studies, this allows for combining multiple image features, such as minimum and maximum values of the absorption coefficient for identifying affected and not affected joints. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, and mutual information. Different methods (i.e., clinical diagnostics, ultrasound imaging, magnet resonance imaging, and inspection of optical tomographic images), were used to produce ground truth benchmarks to determine the performance of image interpretations. Using data from 100 finger joints, findings suggest that some parameter combinations lead to higher sensitivities, while others to higher specificities when compared to single parameter classifications employed in previous studies. Maximum performances are reached when combining the minimum/maximum ratio of the absorption coefficient and image variance. In this case, sensitivities and specificities over 0.9 can be achieved. These values are much higher than values obtained when only single parameter classifications were used, where sensitivities and specificities remained well below 0.8.

  18. Computer Aided Setup Planning Using Tolerance Analysis for Prismatic Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahid, Abedini; Mohsen, Shakeri; Sajad, Kafashi

    2011-01-01

    Computer aided process planning (CAPP) is the bridge between CAD and CAM. Setup planning is the major key to transform design concept into manufacturing domain, which is mainly experience based activity in modern manufacturing industry. Setup planning is a complicated non-linear task constrained by many factors such as tool approach direction, geometric feature relationship, fixturing constrain, tolerance requirement and manufacturing practice. The objective of setup planning is to determine the number of setup needed, the orientation of the workpiece and the machining surfaces in each setup. This paper focuses on the development of a formalized procedure for automatic generation of setup plan. Tolerance relations are used as critical constraints for setup planning. The tasks that are performed are: (a) identifying groups of features that can be machined in a single setup, (b) determining a suitable work piece orientation, i.e. the suitable datum planes for each setup, (c) determining all the feasible setup plans to machine the given set of features of prismatic parts, and (d) evaluating the feasible setup plans on the basis of technological conditions. Trial runs with industrial parts indicate that the system is applicable for industrial use.

  19. Toward a standard reference database for computer-aided mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Júlia E. E.; Gueld, Mark O.; de A. Araújo, Arnaldo; Ott, Bastian; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2008-03-01

    Because of the lack of mammography databases with a large amount of codified images and identified characteristics like pathology, type of breast tissue, and abnormality, there is a problem for the development of robust systems for computer-aided diagnosis. Integrated to the Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA) project, we present an available mammography database developed from the union of: The Mammographic Image Analysis Society Digital Mammogram Database (MIAS), The Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and routine images from the Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen. Using the IRMA code, standardized coding of tissue type, tumor staging, and lesion description was developed according to the American College of Radiology (ACR) tissue codes and the ACR breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS). The import was done automatically using scripts for image download, file format conversion, file name, web page and information file browsing. Disregarding the resolution, this resulted in a total of 10,509 reference images, and 6,767 images are associated with an IRMA contour information feature file. In accordance to the respective license agreements, the database will be made freely available for research purposes, and may be used for image based evaluation campaigns such as the Cross Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF). We have also shown that it can be extended easily with further cases imported from a picture archiving and communication system (PACS).

  20. Circle of Life HIV/AIDS-Prevention Intervention for American Indian and Alaska Native Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Carol E.; Litchfield, Anne; Schupman, Edwin; Mitchell, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the objectives, theoretical bases, development process, and evaluation efforts to-date for the Circle of Life (COL) curricula, HIV/AIDS prevention interventions designed for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth. The curricula are based on Indigenous models of learning and behavior encompassing concepts of Western…

  1. The effects of HIV/AIDS intervention groups for high-risk women in urban clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J A; Murphy, D A; Washington, C D; Wilson, T S; Koob, J J; Davis, D R; Ledezma, G; Davantes, B

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study reports the results of a behavior change intervention offered to women at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection seen in an urban primary health care clinic. METHODS. Participants were 197 women randomly assigned to either an HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk reduction group or a comparison group. Women in the HIV/AIDS intervention group attended five group sessions focusing on risk education; skills training in condom use, sexual assertiveness, problem solving, and risk trigger self-management; and peer support for change efforts. Women in the comparison group attended sessions on health topics unrelated to AIDS. RESULTS. At the 3-month follow-up, women in the HIV/AIDS intervention group had increased in sexual communication and negotiation skills. Unprotected sexual intercourse had declined significantly and condom use had increased from 26% to 56% of all intercourse occasions. Women in the comparison group showed no change. CONCLUSIONS. Socially disadvantaged women can be assisted in reducing their risk of contracting HIV infection. Risk reduction behavior change interventions should be offered routinely in primary health care clinics serving low-income and high-risk patients. PMID:7998630

  2. Teaching a Course in Abnormal Psychology and Behavior Intervention Skills for Nursing Home Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…

  3. Internet-Based Health Information Consumer Skills Intervention for People Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Cherry, Charsey; Cain, Demetria; Pope, Howard; Kalichman, Moira; Eaton, Lisa; Weinhardt, Lance; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2006-01-01

    Medical information can improve health, and there is an enormous amount of health information available on the Internet. A randomized clinical trial tested the effectiveness of an intervention based on social-cognitive theory to improve information use among people living with HIV/AIDS. Men and women (N = 448) were placed in either (a) an…

  4. Teaching a Course in Abnormal Psychology and Behavior Intervention Skills for Nursing Home Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…

  5. HIV/AIDS Interventions in an Aging U.S. Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 25 percent of people living with HIV in the United States in 2006 were age 50 and older. HIV prevention for people over 50 is an important health concern, especially as the U.S. population grows older. Scholarly research has identified the need for HIV/AIDS interventions in the…

  6. An Information Systems Approach to the Intervention and Prevention of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Li D.; Li, Ling X.

    1992-01-01

    Provides a conceptual framework for information systems (IS) that can be used in AIDS intervention and prevention (AIP). System components are analyzed, including a database, decision support systems (DSS), expert systems, and software; potential applications of ISAIP are suggested; and an example of a system implemented at Wright State University…

  7. [Fatigue and fracture resistance of the flared roots restored with computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing glass fiber posts].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Wang, Xin-zhi; Gao, Cheng-zhi; Ivo, Krejci

    2013-02-18

    To evaluate the fatigue and fracture resistance of the flared roots restored with computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) glass fiber posts. In the study, 32 maxillary central incisors with roots longer than 13 mm were selected and their canals were flared, and the roots were allocated into 4 groups (n=8) by a random number chart: CAD/CAM glass fiber posts, prefabricated quartz fiber posts, cast gold alloy posts, and CAD/CAM zirconia posts. The posts were luted to the roots by resin cement and fabricate zirconia crown for every specimen. An addition-type silicone impression material was used to simulate the periodontal ligament. All the specimens were submitted to 1.2×10(6) cycles loaded with a 49 N force, at 45 degree to the long axis of the teeth simultaneously with 3 000 thermal cycles (5 °C-50 °C-5 °C). After that, the specimens were subjected to a load at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min in a servo-hydraulic testing machine applied at 45 degree to the long axis of the tooth until fracture. The data were subjected to ANOVA test and the patterns of the failure were examined. After the cycling loading, 4 crowns from prefabricated quartz fiber posts groups were deboned, and no other failure was found after the cycling loading; the fracture strengths of CAD/CAM glass fiber posts group [(441.5± 103.2) N] and cast gold alloy posts group [(462.9±170.0) N] were higher (F=4.613, P<0.05) than those of CAD/CAM zirconia posts group [(284.1±99.0) N] and prefabricated quartz fiber posts group [(315.4±112.3) N]; the entire specimens presented unfavorable failures. Although further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary, the results of this study show that the use of CAD/CAM glass fiber posts and cast gold alloy posts may achieve better outcomes in flared roots than that of CAD/CAM zirconia posts and prefabricated quartz fiber posts.

  8. Fracture resistance of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing ceramic crowns cemented on solid abutments.

    PubMed

    Stona, Deborah; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2015-07-01

    Because no information was found in the dental literature regarding the fracture resistance of all-ceramic crowns using CEREC (Sirona) computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) system on solid abutments, the authors conducted a study. Sixty synOcta (Straumann) implant replicas and regular neck solid abutments were embedded in acrylic resin and randomly assigned (n = 20 per group). Three types of ceramics were used: feldspathic, CEREC VITABLOCS Mark II (VITA); leucite, IPS Empress CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent); and lithium disilicate, IPS e.max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent). The crowns were fabricated by the CEREC CAD-CAM system. After receiving glaze, the crowns were cemented with RelyX U200 (3M ESPE) resin cement under load of 1 kilogram. For each ceramic, one-half of the specimens were subjected to the fracture resistance testing in a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 millimeter per minute, and the other half were subjected to the fractured resistance testing after 1,000,000 cyclic fatigue loading at 100 newtons. According to a 2-way analysis of variance, the interaction between the material and mechanical cycling was significant (P = .0001). According to a Tukey test (α = .05), the fracture resistance findings with or without cyclic fatigue loading were as follows, respectively: CEREC VITABLOCKS Mark II (405 N/454 N) was statistically lower than IPS Empress CAD (1169 N/1240 N) and IPS e.max CAD (1378 N/1025 N) (P < .05). The IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD did not differ statistically (P > .05). According to a t test, there was no statistical difference in the fracture resistance with and without cyclic fatigue loading for CEREC VITABLOCS Mark II and IPS Empress CAD (P > .05). For IPS e.max CAD, the fracture resistance without cyclic fatigue loading was statistically superior to that obtained with cyclic fatigue loading (P < .05). The IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD showed higher fracture resistance compared with CEREC

  9. An Interactive Computer Aiding System for Group Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    In addition, system evaluation studies will continue. The specific items of work for the next period include: (1) Operational testing of the color...Aid with other DDF decision aids; and (3) continuation of full scale experimental studies of the Group Decision Aid. The following specific tasks were...experimental studies are in progress at Perceptronics’ California office. The previously completed experimental hypotheses and the CACI-developed scenario

  10. Evaluation of two AIDS prevention interventions for inner-city adolescent and young adult women.

    PubMed

    Quirk, M E; Godkin, M A; Schwenzfeier, E

    1993-01-01

    Two hundred and fourteen young women received acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention interventions at an inner-city family health center serving minority patients predominantly. The community in which the health center is located has a high incidence of intravenous (IV) drug abuse. Either a peer or a health care provider delivered the intervention. In the peer-delivered intervention, a trained peer educator reviewed with patients an AIDS "Rap" videotape and several AIDS brochures, which imparted information about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), its transmission, and prevention. In the provider-delivered intervention, family practice residents, attending physicians, and nurse practitioners used a patient-centered counseling approach to convey the same information. Questionnaires administered immediately before and after the intervention and at one month follow-up evaluated changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Analyses of data from both combined intervention groups revealed significant improvements in several areas of knowledge, including the effectiveness of using a condom and cleaning IV drug implements with bleach to prevent transmission of HIV. Many improvements were retained at the one-month follow-up. In addition, subjects in both groups who were sexually active stated immediately after the intervention that asking a sexual partner about past sexual experience would now be less difficult, and at one-month follow-up they reported a significant decrease in the frequency of vaginal sex. Our findings suggest that counseling by physicians can achieve more changes in knowledge of sexual risks, whereas peer education can achieve greater changes in knowledge about IV drug use. Results show that both approaches to AIDS prevention used in this study can significantly affect knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior.

  11. Adaptive Computer Aiding in Dynamic Decision Processes: An Experimental Study of Aiding Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    and a larger subject group. 1-2 Adaptive Decision Aiding 1-2 The primary function of ADDAM is not simply to model the decision maker’s behavior...maximum expected utility (OEVMAXEU) during the course of the test session was the primary measure of decision performance. As a group, the aided...in Chapter 3. The primary function of ADDAM is not simply to model the decision maker’s behavior but to provide a basis for decision aiding. Once

  12. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  13. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... a lapse in comprehensive primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will...

  14. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... prevent a lapse in comprehensive primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will...

  15. 78 FR 78976 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  16. 78 FR 10182 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  17. 78 FR 18989 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  18. Effectiveness and Cost Benefits of Computer-Based Decision Aids for Equipment Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    Computer-based assessment of problem solving. Computers in Human Behavior , 15, 269–282. Booher, H.R. (1978). Job performance aids: Research and...Perspectives on computer-based performance assessment of problem solving. Computers in Human Behavior , 15, 255–268. Orasanu, J., and Connolly, T. (1993). The

  19. Computer Simulated Visual and Tactile Feedback as an Aid to Manipulator and Vehicle Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-08

    STATEMENT ........................ 8 Artificial Intellegence Versus Supervisory Control ....... 8 Computer Generation of Operator Feedback...operator. Artificial Intelligence Versus Supervisory Control The use of computers to aid human operators can be divided into two catagories: artificial ...operator. Artificial intelligence ( A. I. ) attempts to give the computer maximum intelligence and to replace all operator functions by the computer

  20. Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Math Accuracy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Students in the United States demonstrate low proficiency in their math skills. One promising intervention, computer-assisted instruction, may be used for remediation. There is growing support that computer-assisted instruction is effective for increasing addition and multiplication accuracy and fluency, but more research is necessary in order to…

  1. Pilot decision making in a computer-aided flight management situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Y. Y.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental representation of a computer-aided multi-task flight management situation has been developed. A computer aiding program was implemented to serve as a back-up decision maker. An experiment was conducted with a balanced design of several subject runs for different workload levels. This was achieved using three levels of subsystem event arrival rates, three levels of control task involvement, and three levels of availability of computer aiding. Experimental results compared quite favorably with those from a computer simulation which employed a queueing model. It was shown that the aiding had enhanced system performance as well as subjective ratings, and that the adaptive aiding policy further reduced subsystem delay.

  2. A Learning Health Care System Using Computer-Aided Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James J

    2017-01-01

    Physicians intuitively apply pattern recognition when evaluating a patient. Rational diagnosis making requires that clinical patterns be put in the context of disease prior probability, yet physicians often exhibit flawed probabilistic reasoning. Difficulties in making a diagnosis are reflected in the high rates of deadly and costly diagnostic errors. Introduced 6 decades ago, computerized diagnosis support systems are still not widely used by internists. These systems cannot efficiently recognize patterns and are unable to consider the base rate of potential diagnoses. We review the limitations of current computer-aided diagnosis support systems. We then portray future diagnosis support systems and provide a conceptual framework for their development. We argue for capturing physician knowledge using a novel knowledge representation model of the clinical picture. This model (based on structured patient presentation patterns) holds not only symptoms and signs but also their temporal and semantic interrelations. We call for the collection of crowdsourced, automatically deidentified, structured patient patterns as means to support distributed knowledge accumulation and maintenance. In this approach, each structured patient pattern adds to a self-growing and -maintaining knowledge base, sharing the experience of physicians worldwide. Besides supporting diagnosis by relating the symptoms and signs with the final diagnosis recorded, the collective pattern map can also provide disease base-rate estimates and real-time surveillance for early detection of outbreaks. We explain how health care in resource-limited settings can benefit from using this approach and how it can be applied to provide feedback-rich medical education for both students and practitioners. PMID:28274905

  3. Semiautomatic segmentation for the computer aided diagnosis of clustered microcalcifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elter, Matthias; Held, Christian

    2008-03-01

    Screening mammography is recognized as the most effective tool for early breast cancer detection. However, its application in clinical practice shows some of its weaknesses. While clustered microcalcifications are often an early sign of breast cancer, the discrimination of benign from malignant clusters based on their appearance in mammograms is a very difficult task. Hence, it is not surprising that typically only 15% to 30% of breast biopsies performed on calcifications will be positive for malignancy. As this low positive predictive value of mammography regarding the diagnosis of calcification clusters results in many unnecessary biopsies performed on benign calcifications, we propose a novel computer aided diagnosis (CADx) approach with the goal to improve the reliability of microcalcification classification. As effective automatic classification of microcalcification clusters relies on good segmentations of the individual calcification particles, many approaches to the automatic segmentation of individual particles have been proposed in the past. Because none of the fully automatic approaches seem to result in optimal segmentations, we propose a novel semiautomatic approach that has automatic components but also allows some interaction of the radiologist. Based on the resulting segmentations we extract a broad range of features that characterize the morphology and distribution of calcification particles. Using regions of interest containing either benign or malignant clusters extracted from the digital database for screening mammography we evaluate the performance of our approach using a support vector machine and ROC analysis. The resulting ROC performance is very promising and we show that the performance of our semiautomatic segmentation is significantly higher than that of a comparable fully automatic approach.

  4. General purpose architecture for intelligent computer-aided training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen (Inventor); Wang, Lui (Inventor); Baffes, Paul T. (Inventor); Hua, Grace C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An intelligent computer-aided training system having a general modular architecture is provided for use in a wide variety of training tasks and environments. It is comprised of a user interface which permits the trainee to access the same information available in the task environment and serves as a means for the trainee to assert actions to the system; a domain expert which is sufficiently intelligent to use the same information available to the trainee and carry out the task assigned to the trainee; a training session manager for examining the assertions made by the domain expert and by the trainee for evaluating such trainee assertions and providing guidance to the trainee which are appropriate to his acquired skill level; a trainee model which contains a history of the trainee interactions with the system together with summary evaluative data; an intelligent training scenario generator for designing increasingly complex training exercises based on the current skill level contained in the trainee model and on any weaknesses or deficiencies that the trainee has exhibited in previous interactions; and a blackboard that provides a common fact base for communication between the other components of the system. Preferably, the domain expert contains a list of 'mal-rules' which typifies errors that are usually made by novice trainees. Also preferably, the training session manager comprises an intelligent error detection means and an intelligent error handling means. The present invention utilizes a rule-based language having a control structure whereby a specific message passing protocol is utilized with respect to tasks which are procedural or step-by-step in structure. The rules can be activated by the trainee in any order to reach the solution by any valid or correct path.

  5. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ziyue; Mansoor, Awais; Mollura, Daniel J.; Bagci, Ulas; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Luna, Brian; Kubler, Andre; Dey, Bappaditya; Jain, Sanjay; Foster, Brent; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Bishai, William R.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases.

  6. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ziyue; Bagci, Ulas; Mansoor, Awais; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Luna, Brian; Kubler, Andre; Dey, Bappaditya; Foster, Brent; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Bishai, William R.; Jain, Sanjay; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases. PMID:26133591

  7. Candidate determination for computer aided detection of colon polyps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, Ingmar; Aslam, Bushra; Huang, Adam; Summers, Ronald M.

    2005-04-01

    Given a segmented CT scan data of the colon represented as a triangle mesh, our water-plane algorithm will detect polyp candidates. The water-plane method comprises of pouring water into a polyp protrusion from the outside of the colon and in raising the "water-plane" until it cannot be incremented any further without causing water leakage. The method starts at a vertex and uses average normal of all triangles adjacent to the starting vertex to generate the initial water-plane, which will make the starting vertex "wet" but leave its neighboring vertices "dry". The method will continue to wet neighboring vertices one by one and then their neighbors and so on until the water-plane cannot move any further without causing water leakage. The water-plane movement alternates between just raising the water level in completely convex regions and tilting about one or two anchor vertices that have neighbors that would get wet if the water level was raised any more. The final set of wet vertices is a cluster that is an initial polyp candidate. The water-plane method was compared against the current polyp candidate detection method in our Computer Aided Detection of Colon Polyps software pipeline, called the surface curvature method. It finds clusters of connected vertices that all exhibit elliptical curvature. The water-plane method showed multiple improvements in polyp candidate detection. It detected polyp candidates missed by the surface curvature method. It exhibited continuous polyp candidate regions instead of non-uniform or incomplete regions detected by the surface curvature method. And finally, it avoided some false positive detections reported by surface curvature method.

  8. Local pulmonary structure classification for computer-aided nodule detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlmann, Claus; Li, Xianlin; Okada, Kazunori

    2006-03-01

    We propose a new method of classifying the local structure types, such as nodules, vessels, and junctions, in thoracic CT scans. This classification is important in the context of computer aided detection (CAD) of lung nodules. The proposed method can be used as a post-process component of any lung CAD system. In such a scenario, the classification results provide an effective means of removing false positives caused by vessels and junctions thus improving overall performance. As main advantage, the proposed solution transforms the complex problem of classifying various 3D topological structures into much simpler 2D data clustering problem, to which more generic and flexible solutions are available in literature, and which is better suited for visualization. Given a nodule candidate, first, our solution robustly fits an anisotropic Gaussian to the data. The resulting Gaussian center and spread parameters are used to affine-normalize the data domain so as to warp the fitted anisotropic ellipsoid into a fixed-size isotropic sphere. We propose an automatic method to extract a 3D spherical manifold, containing the appropriate bounding surface of the target structure. Scale selection is performed by a data driven entropy minimization approach. The manifold is analyzed for high intensity clusters, corresponding to protruding structures. Techniques involve EMclustering with automatic mode number estimation, directional statistics, and hierarchical clustering with a modified Bhattacharyya distance. The estimated number of high intensity clusters explicitly determines the type of pulmonary structures: nodule (0), attached nodule (1), vessel (2), junction (>3). We show accurate classification results for selected examples in thoracic CT scans. This local procedure is more flexible and efficient than current state of the art and will help to improve the accuracy of general lung CAD systems.

  9. A Learning Health Care System Using Computer-Aided Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cahan, Amos; Cimino, James J

    2017-03-08

    Physicians intuitively apply pattern recognition when evaluating a patient. Rational diagnosis making requires that clinical patterns be put in the context of disease prior probability, yet physicians often exhibit flawed probabilistic reasoning. Difficulties in making a diagnosis are reflected in the high rates of deadly and costly diagnostic errors. Introduced 6 decades ago, computerized diagnosis support systems are still not widely used by internists. These systems cannot efficiently recognize patterns and are unable to consider the base rate of potential diagnoses. We review the limitations of current computer-aided diagnosis support systems. We then portray future diagnosis support systems and provide a conceptual framework for their development. We argue for capturing physician knowledge using a novel knowledge representation model of the clinical picture. This model (based on structured patient presentation patterns) holds not only symptoms and signs but also their temporal and semantic interrelations. We call for the collection of crowdsourced, automatically deidentified, structured patient patterns as means to support distributed knowledge accumulation and maintenance. In this approach, each structured patient pattern adds to a self-growing and -maintaining knowledge base, sharing the experience of physicians worldwide. Besides supporting diagnosis by relating the symptoms and signs with the final diagnosis recorded, the collective pattern map can also provide disease base-rate estimates and real-time surveillance for early detection of outbreaks. We explain how health care in resource-limited settings can benefit from using this approach and how it can be applied to provide feedback-rich medical education for both students and practitioners.

  10. Breast Cancer: Computer-aided Detection with Digital Breast Tomosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Morra, Lia; Sacchetto, Daniela; Durando, Manuela; Agliozzo, Silvano; Carbonaro, Luca Alessandro; Delsanto, Silvia; Pesce, Barbara; Persano, Diego; Mariscotti, Giovanna; Marra, Vincenzo; Fonio, Paolo; Bert, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate a commercial tomosynthesis computer-aided detection (CAD) system in an independent, multicenter dataset. Diagnostic and screening tomosynthesis mammographic examinations (n = 175; cranial caudal and mediolateral oblique) were randomly selected from a previous institutional review board-approved trial. All subjects gave informed consent. Examinations were performed in three centers and included 123 patients, with 132 biopsy-proven screening-detected cancers, and 52 examinations with negative results at 1-year follow-up. One hundred eleven lesions were masses and/or microcalcifications (72 masses, 22 microcalcifications, 17 masses with microcalcifications) and 21 were architectural distortions. Lesions were annotated by radiologists who were aware of all available reports. CAD performance was assessed as per-lesion sensitivity and false-positive results per volume in patients with negative results. Use of the CAD system showed per-lesion sensitivity of 89% (99 of 111; 95% confidence interval: 81%, 94%), with 2.7 ± 1.8 false-positive rate per view, 62 of 72 lesions detected were masses, 20 of 22 were microcalcification clusters, and 17 of 17 were masses with microcalcifications. Overall, 37 of 39 microcalcification clusters (95% sensitivity, 95% confidence interval: 81%, 99%) and 79 of 89 masses (89% sensitivity, 95% confidence interval: 80%, 94%) were detected with the CAD system. On average, 0.5 false-positive rate per view were microcalcification clusters, 2.1 were masses, and 0.1 were masses and microcalcifications. A digital breast tomosynthesis CAD system can allow detection of a large percentage (89%, 99 of 111) of breast cancers manifesting as masses and microcalcification clusters, with an acceptable false-positive rate (2.7 per breast view). Further studies with larger datasets acquired with equipment from multiple vendors are needed to replicate the findings and to study the interaction of radiologists and CAD systems. (©) RSNA, 2015.

  11. Computational thermodynamics aided design of novel ferritic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ying; Chen, Tianyi; Tan, Lizhen

    2016-06-30

    With the aid of computational thermodynamics, Ni was identified to suppress the liquidus temperature of Fe2Zr and four Fe-Cr-Ni-Zr alloys were designed to study the Ni effect on the phase stability of Fe2Zr laves_phase. These alloys were fabricated through traditional arc-metling, followed by annealing at 1000 C for 336 hours and 700 C for 1275 hours. The microstructure were examined and characterized by SEM BSE image, EDS compositional mapping and point scan, XRD and TEM analysis. The major results were summarized below: 1)For investigated alloys with 12wt% Cr, 3~6wt% Zr and 3~9 wt%Ni, the phases in equilibrium with the BCC phase are C15_Laves phase, Fe23Zr6 phase. The volume fraction of intermetallic phases increases with Ni and Zr contents. 2)Instead of (Fe,Cr)2Zr C14_Laves phase, Ni stabilizes the C15_Laves structure in Fe-Cr-Ni-Zr alloys by substituting Fe and Cr atoms with Ni atoms in the first sublattice. 3)Fe23Zr6, that is metastable in the Fe-Cr-Zr ternary, is also stabilized by Ni addition. 4)Ni7Zr2 phase was observed in samples with high Ni/Zr ratio. Extensive solubility of Fe was identified in the phase. The microstructural and composition results obtained from this study will be incorportated into the the Fe-Cr-Ni-Zr database. The current samples will be subjected to ion irradiaition to be compared with those results for Fe-Cr-Zr alloys. Additional alloys will be designed to form (Fe,Cr,Ni)2Zr nanoprecipitates for further studies.

  12. The Rise of Computer-Aided Discovery in Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratius, V.; Blair, D. M.; Gowanlock, M.; Lind, F. D.; Erickson, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Next-generation Geoscience will need to handle rapidly growing data volumes and exploration of complex phenomena challenging human cognitive limits. With instruments digitizing large amounts of sensor data from many sources, the scientific discovery process becomes a large-scale search process. However, insight generation is still a key problem and is especially complex in Geoscience, particularly when exploratory studies involve fusion of large data from various instruments in a manual labor-intensive manner. We propose an approach for a computer-aided discovery infrastructure that automatically explores the connection between physics models and empirical data to accelerate the pace of new discoveries. The approach uses (1) A system engaging scientists to programmatically express hypothesized Geoscience scenarios, constraints, and model variations, so as to automatically explore and evaluate the combinatorial search space of possible explanations in parallel on a variety of data sets. This automated system employs machine learning to support algorithmic choice and workflow reconfiguration allowing systematic pruning of the search space of applied algorithms and parameters based on historical results. (2) A cloud-based environment allowing scientists to conduct powerful exploratory analyses on large data sets that reside in data centers. Various search modes are provided, including a mode where scientists can iteratively guide the search based on intermediate results. This functionality directs the system to identify more Geospace features that are analogous or related in various ways. (3) Scientist input is used to configure programmable crawlers that automate and scale the search for interesting phenomena on cloud-based infrastructures. We discuss various application scenarios to show the impact of workflow configuration on scientific feature detection. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge support from NSF ACI-1442997 and NASA AIST NNX15AG84G (PI: V. Pankratius).

  13. Effectiveness of computer aided detection for solitary pulmonary nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiayong; Li, Wenjie; Du, Xiangying; Lu, Huihai; Xu, Jianrong; Xu, Mantao; Rong, Dongdong

    2009-02-01

    This study is to investigate the incremental effect of using a high performance computer-aided detection (CAD) system in detection of solitary pulmonary nodules in chest radiographs. The Kodak Chest CAD system was evaluated by a panel of six radiologists at different levels of experience. The observer study consisted of two independent phases: readings without CAD and readings with assistance of CAD. The study was conducted over a set of chest radiographs comprising 150 cancer cases and 150 cancer-free cases. The actual sensitivity of the CAD system is 72% with 3.7 false positives per case. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the overall observer performance. The AUZ (area under ROC curve) showed a significantly improvement (P=0.0001) from 0.844 to 0.884 after using CAD. The ROC analysis was also applied for observer performances on nodules in different sizes and visibilities. The average AUZs are improved from 0.798 to 0.835 (P=0.0003) for 5-10mm nodules, 0.853 to 0.907 (P=0.001) for 10-15mm nodules, 0.864 to 0.897 (P=0.051) for 15-20 mm nodules and 0.859 to 0.896 (P=0.0342) for 20-30mm nodules, respectively. For different visibilities, the average AUZs are improved from 0.886 to 0.915 (P=0.0337), 0.803 to 0.840 (P=0.063), 0.830 to 0.893 (P=0.0001), and 0.813 to 0.847 (P=0.152), for nodules clearly visible, hidden by ribs, partially overlap with ribs, and overlap with other structures, respectively. These results showed that observer performance could be greatly improved when the CAD system is employed as a second reader, especially for small nodules and nodules occluded by ribs.

  14. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Junyi Mart, Christopher; Bayouth, John

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  15. Establishment of a Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) Process for the Production of Cold Forged Gears

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Continue on reverse side if necessary and Identify by block number) Computer Aided Design/Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), Spur and Helical Gears, Cold Forging...for cold forging spur and helical gears. The geometry of the spur and helical gears has been obtained from the kinematics of the hobbing/shaper machines...or shaping) to cut the electrode for a helical gear die were then computed using the corrections described above. A computer program called GEARDI

  16. Developing an AIDS prevention intervention for incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peres, Camila Alves; Peres, Rodrigo Alves; da Silveira, Fernando; Paiva, Vera; Hudes, Esther Sid; Hearst, Norman

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding AIDS among incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil and to develop an AIDS prevention intervention for this population. A questionnaire administered to 275 boys in São Paulo covered demographic and social characteristics, drugs, and HIV risk perception and behavior. Subsequently, we collected qualitative data on the development and implementation of a prevention program. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents were sexually experienced, most initiating by age 13; 22% were fathers. Injection drug use was reported by 5.5%, 12% had exchanged sex for money, 35% had more than 15 partners and 8% had homosexual experience. Although 72% had used condoms, only 9% used them consistently, and only 35% used one in their last intercourse before incarceration. Predictors of condom use included carrying condoms and endorsing the statement "I would use condoms with my girlfriend." Many said their lives include other risks more important than AIDS, such as survival in the crime scene. Initial efforts at prevention based on commonly used approaches of providing information to guide future rational decisions generated limited participation. However, when we worked with them to develop interventions based on their interests and needs, using modalities such as music, hip-hop arts, graffiti, and helping them to create an AIDS prevention compact disk, they responded with enthusiasm. These incarcerated adolescents are at extremely high social risk and report high levels of risk behavior for HIV infection. Interventions for these youth were better received when developed in collaboration with them and based on their beliefs, aspirations, and culture. The intervention that resulted went beyond AIDS to include issues such as violence, drugs, sexuality and human rights.

  17. Rubber airplane: Constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Rubber Airplane: Constraint-based Component-Modeling for Knowledge Representation in Computer Aided Conceptual Design are presented. Topics covered include: computer aided design; object oriented programming; airfoil design; surveillance aircraft; commercial aircraft; aircraft design; and launch vehicles.

  18. Evaluation of computer-aided monitoring of patients after heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, L H; Mac Vaugh, H; Stevens, J; Wechsler, A B; Worthington, G M

    1977-12-01

    The medical and economic benefits of a computer-aided monitoring system were evaluated in a prospective, randomized study of 810 patients after open-heart surgery. The design of the study separated benefits of systematized postoperative care from benefits unique to the computer system and established measurable criteria by which computer-aided monitoring systems could be objectively evaluated. Criteria for comparison included the rapidity, safety, and smoothness of convalescence and time spent for various nursing activities. The study showed that the computer-aided monitoring system did not provide discernible medical benefits nor favorably affect nursing activities. Downtime of the system averaged 1 day per week. Reliability and accuracy of the system were inadequate and the benefit/cost ratio was low. Future development of computer-aided monitoring systems for open cardiac surgery should stress reliability, accuracy and relevance of the monitored measurements.

  19. A Computer Based Educational Aid for the Instruction of Combat Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-27

    AD-A248 088 DTICSELECT- D DS_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __OF A COMPUTER BASED EDUCATIONAL AID FOR THE INSTRUCTION OF COMBAT MODELING THESIS Richard S...ENS/92M-21 DTIC ELECTE-S APR01D1992 A COMPUTER BASED EDUCATIONAL AID FOR THE INSTRUCTION OF Accesion For COMBAT MODELING NNTIS CRA&I ’ OTIC TAB...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS A COMPUTER BASED EDUCATIONAL AID FOR THE INSTRUCTION OF COMBAT MODELING 6. AUTHOR(S) Richard

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital Screening Mammography with and without Computer-aided Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Constance D.; Wellman, Robert D.; Buist, Diana S.M.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Miglioretti, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    Importance After the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved computer-aided detection (CAD) for mammography in 1998, and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) provided increased payment in 2002, CAD technology disseminated rapidly. Despite sparse evidence that CAD improves accuracy of mammographic interpretations, and costs over $400 million dollars a year, CAD is currently used for the majority of screening mammograms in the U.S. Objective To measure performance of digital screening mammography with and without computer-aided detection in U.S. community practice. Design, Setting and Participants We compared the accuracy of digital screening mammography interpreted with (N=495,818) vs. without (N=129,807) computer-aided detection from 2003 through 2009 in 323,973 women. Mammograms were interpreted by 271 radiologists from 66 facilities in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. Linkage with tumor registries identified 3,159 breast cancers in 323,973 women within one year of the screening. Main Outcomes and Measures Mammography performance (sensitivity, specificity, and screen detected and interval cancers per 1,000 women) was modeled using logistic regression with radiologist-specific random effects to account for correlation among examinations interpreted by the same radiologist, adjusting for patient age, race/ethnicity, time since prior mammogram, exam year, and registry. Conditional logistic regression was used to compare performance among 107 radiologists who interpreted mammograms both with and without computer-aided detection. Results Screening performance was not improved with computer-aided detection on any metric assessed. Mammography sensitivity was 85.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]=83.6–86.9) with and 87.3% (95% CI 84.5–89.7) without computer-aided detection. Specificity was 91.6% (95% CI=91.0–92.2) with and 91.4% (95% CI=90.6–92.0) without computer-aided detection. There was no difference in cancer detection rate (4

  1. AIDS-risk among street children and youth: implications for intervention.

    PubMed

    Richter, L M; Swart-kruger, J

    1995-03-01

    the transmission of AIDS than their counterparts in other countries. Information alone, however, is unlikely to induce behavior change. Study results are discussed in terms of their implications for intervention and the inadequacies of the Health Belief Model and related theories as the sole theoretical foundation for the design of intervention programs.

  2. Computer-aided classification of lung nodules on computed tomography images via deep learning technique.

    PubMed

    Hua, Kai-Lung; Hsu, Che-Hao; Hidayati, Shintami Chusnul; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has a poor prognosis when not diagnosed early and unresectable lesions are present. The management of small lung nodules noted on computed tomography scan is controversial due to uncertain tumor characteristics. A conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme requires several image processing and pattern recognition steps to accomplish a quantitative tumor differentiation result. In such an ad hoc image analysis pipeline, every step depends heavily on the performance of the previous step. Accordingly, tuning of classification performance in a conventional CAD scheme is very complicated and arduous. Deep learning techniques, on the other hand, have the intrinsic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature and tuning of performance in a seamless fashion. In this study, we attempted to simplify the image analysis pipeline of conventional CAD with deep learning techniques. Specifically, we introduced models of a deep belief network and a convolutional neural network in the context of nodule classification in computed tomography images. Two baseline methods with feature computing steps were implemented for comparison. The experimental results suggest that deep learning methods could achieve better discriminative results and hold promise in the CAD application domain.

  3. Computer-aided classification of lung nodules on computed tomography images via deep learning technique

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Kai-Lung; Hsu, Che-Hao; Hidayati, Shintami Chusnul; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has a poor prognosis when not diagnosed early and unresectable lesions are present. The management of small lung nodules noted on computed tomography scan is controversial due to uncertain tumor characteristics. A conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme requires several image processing and pattern recognition steps to accomplish a quantitative tumor differentiation result. In such an ad hoc image analysis pipeline, every step depends heavily on the performance of the previous step. Accordingly, tuning of classification performance in a conventional CAD scheme is very complicated and arduous. Deep learning techniques, on the other hand, have the intrinsic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature and tuning of performance in a seamless fashion. In this study, we attempted to simplify the image analysis pipeline of conventional CAD with deep learning techniques. Specifically, we introduced models of a deep belief network and a convolutional neural network in the context of nodule classification in computed tomography images. Two baseline methods with feature computing steps were implemented for comparison. The experimental results suggest that deep learning methods could achieve better discriminative results and hold promise in the CAD application domain. PMID:26346558

  4. Latinos and HIV/AIDS: Examining Factors Related to Disparity and Identifying Opportunities for Psychosocial Intervention Research

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, Ellen Setsuko; Collins, Erin Marie; Durán, Ron E.; Safren, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Latinos maintain an AIDS case rate more than 3 times higher than whites, a greater rate of progression to AIDS, and a higher rate of HIV/AIDS-related deaths. Three broad areas are reviewed related to these disparities: (1) relevant demographic, socioeconomic, and socio-cultural factors among Latinos; (2) drug abuse and mental health problems in Latinos relevant to HIV/AIDS outcomes; and (3) opportunities for psychosocial intervention. Latinos living with HIV are a rapidly growing group, are more severely impacted by HIV than whites, and confront unique challenges in coping with HIV/AIDS. A body of research suggests that depression, substance abuse, treatment adherence, health literacy, and access to healthcare may be fruitful targets for intervention research in this population. Though limited, the current literature suggests that psychosocial interventions that target these factors could help reduce HIV/AIDS disparities between Latinos and whites and could have important public health value. PMID:18498050

  5. Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Custom-Made Titanium Prosthesis: A Case Report on the Use of Virtual Surgical Planning and Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ow, Andrew; Tan, Winston; Pienkowski, Lukasz

    2016-09-01

    The use of virtual surgical planning and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing has been reported to enhance the planning for the reconstruction of mandibular continuity defects. This case report illustrates the use of this technology in the fabrication of a custom-made titanium prosthesis to restore a segmental mandibular defect. The design specifications and sequence of the custom-made titanium prosthesis are discussed. Although successful in this case, there are limitations in its application and case selection is of vital importance.

  6. Modification of planned postoperative occlusion in orthognathic surgery, based on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-engineered preoperative surgical simulation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Moon-Key; You, Tae-Kwon; Lee, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    In orthognathic surgery, it is important to have a planned postoperative occlusion. A 3-dimensional preoperative simulation, based on 3-dimensional optically scanned occlusion data, can predict how the planned postoperative occlusion will affect the maxilla-mandibular relationship that results from orthognathic surgery. In this study we modified the planned postoperative occlusion, based on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-engineered preoperative surgical simulations. This modification made it possible to resolve the facial asymmetry of the patient successfully with a simple bilateral intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy and no additional maxillary or mandibular surgery.

  7. Mandibular reconstructions using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing: A systematic review of a defect-based reconstructive algorithm.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Achille; Del Corso, Giacomo; Ciocca, Leonardo; Scotti, Roberto; Marchetti, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Modern planning techniques, including computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) can be used to plan reconstructive surgery, optimising aesthetic outcomes and functional rehabilitation. However, although many such applications are available, no systematic protocol yet describes the entire reconstructive procedure, which must include virtual planning, custom manufacture, and a reconstructive algorithm. We reviewed current practices in this novel field, analysed case series described in the literature, and developed a new, defect-based reconstructive algorithm. We also evaluated methods of mandibular reconstruction featuring virtual planning, the use of surgical guides, and laser printing of custom titanium bony plates to support composite free flaps, and evaluated their utility.

  8. [Computer Aided Support for Deciding on Applications for Rehabilitation ("CEBRA")].

    PubMed

    Gerdes, N; Karl, E-L; Jäckel, W H

    2007-02-01

    The CEBRA project aimed at developing a computer aided procedure by which applications for rehabilitation can be assessed according to uniform and transparent criteria so that the applications together with a recommendation for decision-making can be transferred to the sociomedical services for final decision. For this, we first analyzed the existing manuals and guidelines for assessing applications for rehabilitation with the aim of identifying the main criteria, and then to translate them into measurable parameters. We then developed questionnaires for physicians treating the applicants as well as for the applicants themselves. Finally, algorithms were defined which compress the various combinations of these parameters into a recommendation for decision-making. Between October 2004 and March 2005, a pilot study was performed which ran parallel to the normal processes of decision-making by the insurance administration. In the pilot study, 436 applications were included for which questionnaires were available both from a physician and an applicant. The recommendations given by the CEBRA programme were finally compared with the decisions that had in fact been made by the administration in these cases. The results of the pilot study showed that the algorithms employed are capable of distinguishing very clearly and in a meaningful way between applicants with only minor medical problems and disabilities, on the one hand, and with medium or severe problems on the other. The comparison with the administrative decisions in these cases showed a similar rate of approval (80%) in both procedures. This means that the CEBRA programme does not change the general rate of approval. With respect to the individual cases, however, the comparisons revealed no statistically significant concordance between the two procedures. Reasons for this finding may result from the fact that--even though the same persons were compared--the information underlying the CEBRA recommendations or the

  9. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  10. Effectiveness of Computer-Aided Detection in Community Mammography Practice

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Linn; Taplin, Stephen H.; Geller, Berta M.; Carney, Patricia A.; D’Orsi, Carl; Elmore, Joann G.; Barlow, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Computer-aided detection (CAD) is applied during screening mammography for millions of US women annually, although it is uncertain whether CAD improves breast cancer detection when used by community radiologists. Methods We investigated the association between CAD use during film-screen screening mammography and specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, cancer detection rates, and prognostic characteristics of breast cancers (stage, size, and node involvement). Records from 684 956 women who received more than 1.6 million film-screen mammograms at Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium facilities in seven states in the United States from 1998 to 2006 were analyzed. We used random-effects logistic regression to estimate associations between CAD and specificity (true-negative examinations among women without breast cancer), sensitivity (true-positive examinations among women with breast cancer diagnosed within 1 year of mammography), and positive predictive value (breast cancer diagnosed after positive mammograms) while adjusting for mammography registry, patient age, time since previous mammography, breast density, use of hormone replacement therapy, and year of examination (1998–2002 vs 2003–2006). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Of 90 total facilities, 25 (27.8%) adopted CAD and used it for an average of 27.5 study months. In adjusted analyses, CAD use was associated with statistically significantly lower specificity (OR = 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85 to 0.89, P < .001) and positive predictive value (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.80 to 0.99, P = .03). A non-statistically significant increase in overall sensitivity with CAD (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.84 to 1.33, P = .62) was attributed to increased sensitivity for ductal carcinoma in situ (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 0.83 to 2.91; P = .17), although sensitivity for invasive cancer was similar with or without CAD (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.75 to 1.24; P = .77). CAD was not associated with

  11. Computers in engineering 1983; Proceedings of the International Conference and Exhibit, Chicago, IL, August 7-11, 1983. Volume 1 - Computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokonis, T. J.

    The papers presented in this volume provide examples of the impact of computers on present engineering practice and indicate some future trends in computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation. Topics discussed include computer-aided design of turbine cycle configuration, managing and development of engineering computer systems, computer-aided manufacturing with robots in the automotive industry, and computer-aided design/analysis techniques of composite materials in the cure phase. Papers are also presented on computer simulation of vehicular propulsion systems, the performance of a hydraulic system simulator in a CAD environment, and computer simulation of hovercraft heave dynamics and control.

  12. A systematic review of microfinance-based interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Salcedo, Juan Pablo

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the scope of microfinance-based interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention. A systematic review was carried out of literature published between 1986 and 2012 from EBSCO, ProQuest, Science Direct, Emerald, and JSTOR. The search included original research articles that presented evaluated interventions. Books, dissertations, gray literature, and theoretical reviews were excluded. Findings revealed a total of fourteen studies focused on the evaluation of: the IMAGE project, female sex workers, life skills and risk behavior reduction, adherence to treatment, and children and their families. Most of these interventions have shown to have beneficial effects, although results depend on: the type of program, monitoring, sustainability of microcredits, and contextual conditions. The findings of this review should be complemented with interventions carried out by various NGOs and microfinance institutions in different countries that present their results in a dissimilar way.

  13. Use of computer games as an intervention for stroke.

    PubMed

    Proffitt, Rachel M; Alankus, Gazihan; Kelleher, Caitlin L; Engsberg, Jack R

    2011-01-01

    Current rehabilitation for persons with hemiparesis after stroke requires high numbers of repetitions to be in accordance with contemporary motor learning principles. The motivational characteristics of computer games can be harnessed to create engaging interventions for persons with hemiparesis after stroke that incorporate this high number of repetitions. The purpose of this case report was to test the feasibility of using computer games as a 6-week home therapy intervention to improve upper extremity function for a person with stroke. One person with left upper extremity hemiparesis after stroke participated in a 6-week home therapy computer game intervention. The games were customized to her preferences and abilities and modified weekly. Her performance was tracked and analyzed. Data from pre-, mid-, and postintervention testing using standard upper extremity measures and the Reaching Performance Scale (RPS) were analyzed. After 3 weeks, the participant demonstrated increased upper extremity range of motion at the shoulder and decreased compensatory trunk movements during reaching tasks. After 6 weeks, she showed functional gains in activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs despite no further improvements on the RPS. Results indicate that computer games have the potential to be a useful intervention for people with stroke. Future work will add additional support to quantify the effectiveness of the games as a home therapy intervention for persons with stroke.

  14. Computer Simulation Modeling: A Method for Predicting the Utilities of Alternative Computer-Aided Treat Evaluation Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    0 Technical Report 911 D~i. FiLE COPY Computer Simulation Modeling : A Method for Predicting the Utilities of Alternative Computer-Aided Threat...63007A 793 1202 HI 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Computer Simulation Modeling : A Method for Predicting the Utilities of Alternative...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE("wn Data Entered) ii Technical Report 911 Computer Simulation Modeling : A Method for Predicting the Utilities of

  15. Virtual Reality versus Computer-Aided Exposure Treatments for Fear of Flying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Botella, Cristina; Llabres, Jordi; Breton-Lopez, Juana Maria; del Amo, Antonio Riera; Banos, Rosa M.; Gelabert, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is growing that two modalities of computer-based exposure therapies--virtual reality and computer-aided psychotherapy--are effective in treating anxiety disorders, including fear of flying. However, they have not yet been directly compared. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of three computer-based exposure treatments for…

  16. Virtual Reality versus Computer-Aided Exposure Treatments for Fear of Flying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Botella, Cristina; Llabres, Jordi; Breton-Lopez, Juana Maria; del Amo, Antonio Riera; Banos, Rosa M.; Gelabert, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is growing that two modalities of computer-based exposure therapies--virtual reality and computer-aided psychotherapy--are effective in treating anxiety disorders, including fear of flying. However, they have not yet been directly compared. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of three computer-based exposure treatments for…

  17. Food security and nutrition interventions in response to the AIDS epidemic: assessing global action and evidence.

    PubMed

    Aberman, Noora-Lisa; Rawat, Rahul; Drimie, Scott; Claros, Joan M; Kadiyala, Suneetha

    2014-10-01

    The number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy in developing countries has increased dramatically. The last decade has brought an increased understanding of the interconnectedness between HIV/AIDS, food insecurity, and undernutrition and a surge of evidence on how to address the food security and nutrition dimensions of the epidemic. We review this evidence as well as the corresponding evolution of policy support for incorporating food security and nutrition concerns into HIV programming. The available evidence, although varied in scope and methodologies, shows that nutrition supplementation and safety nets in the form of food assistance and livelihood interventions have potential in certain contexts to improve food security and nutrition outcomes in an HIV/AIDS context. In the face of funding uncertainties and competing priorities, we must maintain momentum towards effective and sustainable solutions to the epidemic through continued systematic research to inform policy and through the strengthening of monitoring systems to dynamically inform intervention development.

  18. Impact of Asha intervention on stigma among rural Indian women with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Ekstrand, Maria; Salem, Benissa E; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ganguly, Kalyan K; Leake, Barbara

    2013-08-01

    Rural women living with HIV/AIDS (WLA) in India face multifarious challenges which affect access to antiretroviral regimens and management of HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this pilot study, using cluster randomization, is to compare the effectiveness of the Asha-Life (AL) intervention, delivered by HIV-trained village women, Asha (Accredited Social Health Activists), with a usual care group on reduction of internalized stigma and avoidant coping among 68 WLA in rural India over a 6-month period. The findings demonstrated that participation in the AL intervention was associated with significant reductions in internalized stigma and the use of avoidant coping strategies at follow-up. The findings of our study are promising in terms of the role rural village women (Asha) may play in reducing internalized stigma and avoidant coping in the lives of rural WLA in India.

  19. Evaluating social outcomes of HIV/AIDS interventions: a critical assessment of contemporary indicator frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Mannell, Jenevieve; Cornish, Flora; Russell, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Contemporary HIV-related theory and policy emphasize the importance of addressing the social drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability for a long-term response. Consequently, increasing attention is being given to social and structural interventions, and to social outcomes of HIV interventions. Appropriate indicators for social outcomes are needed in order to institutionalize the commitment to addressing social outcomes. This paper critically assesses the current state of social indicators within international HIV/AIDS monitoring and evaluation frameworks. Methods We analyzed the indicator frameworks of six international organizations involved in efforts to improve and synchronize the monitoring and evaluation of the HIV/AIDS response. Our analysis classifies the 328 unique indicators according to what they measure and assesses the degree to which they offer comprehensive measurement across three dimensions: domains of the social context, levels of change and organizational capacity. Results and discussion The majority of indicators focus on individual-level (clinical and behavioural) interventions and outcomes, neglecting structural interventions, community interventions and social outcomes (e.g. stigma reduction; community capacity building; policy-maker sensitization). The main tool used to address social aspects of HIV/AIDS is the disaggregation of data by social group. This raises three main limitations. Indicator frameworks do not provide comprehensive coverage of the diverse social drivers of the epidemic, particularly neglecting criminalization, stigma, discrimination and gender norms. There is a dearth of indicators for evaluating the social impacts of HIV interventions. Indicators of organizational capacity focus on capacity to effectively deliver and manage clinical services, neglecting capacity to respond appropriately and sustainably to complex social contexts. Conclusions Current indicator frameworks cannot adequately assess the social

  20. Medical robotics and computer-integrated interventional medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Russell H.

    2012-02-01

    Computer-Integrated Interventional Medicine (CIIM) promises to have a profound impact on health care in the next 20 years, much as and for many of the same reasons that the marriage of computers and information processing methods with other technology have had on manufacturing, transportation, and other sectors of our society. Our basic premise is that the steps of creating patient-specific computational models, using these models for planning, registering the models and plans with the actual patient in the operating room, and using this information with appropriate technology to assist in carrying out and monitoring the intervention are best viewed as part of a complete patient-specific intervention process that occurs over many time scales. Further, the information generated in computer-integrated interventions can be captured and analyzed statistically to improve treatment processes. This paper will explore these themes briefly, using examples drawn from our work at the Engineering Research Center for Computer-Integrated Surgical Systems and Technology (CISST ERC).