Science.gov

Sample records for computer based information

  1. Computer-Based Information Networks: Selected Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Larry

    The history, purpose, and operation of six computer-based information networks are described in general and nontechnical terms. In the introduction the many definitions of an information network are explored. Ohio College Library Center's network (OCLC) is the first example. OCLC began in 1963, and since early 1973 has been extending its services…

  2. Secure information transfer based on computing reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmoski, R. M.; Ferrari, F. A. S.; de S. Pinto, S. E.; Baptista, M. S.; Viana, R. L.

    2013-04-01

    There is a broad area of research to ensure that information is transmitted securely. Within this scope, chaos-based cryptography takes a prominent role due to its nonlinear properties. Using these properties, we propose a secure mechanism for transmitting data that relies on chaotic networks. We use a nonlinear on-off device to cipher the message, and the transfer entropy to retrieve it. We analyze the system capability for sending messages, and we obtain expressions for the operating time. We demonstrate the system efficiency for a wide range of parameters. We find similarities between our method and the reservoir computing.

  3. Computer Based Information Systems and the Middle Manager.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Why do some computer based information systems succeed while others fail. It concludes with eleven recommended areas that middle management must...understand in order to effectively use computer based information systems . (Modified author abstract)

  4. Computer-based manuals for procedural information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, S. H.; Rouse, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Display of procedural information as found in aircraft operating manuals is discussed. The problem of converting hardcopy manuals to a computer-based presentation is considered. The trade-off of faster retrieval and display integration possible with a cathode-ray tube (CRT) versus the limited size of a CRT is emphasized. Nine subjects participated in an experimental study of the effectiveness of three alternative displays. Displays were evaluated for the task of retrieving and carrying out emergency procedures in an environment where task interruptions were prevalent. It was found that an on-line manual which provided considerable user assistance was superior to a hardcopy manual in terms of both task completion time and errors. However, an on-line manual without user assistance was inferior to a hardcopy manual in terms of errors.

  5. Handbook of Standards for Computer-Based Career Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Computer-Based Systems for Career Information, Eugene, OR. Clearinghouse.

    This document presents standards for computer-based career information systems developed by the Association of Computer-Based Systems for Career Information (ACSCI). The adoption of ACSCI standards constitutes a voluntary means for organizations to declare that they subscribe to certain quality measures. These standards can be used to: (1) foster…

  6. Community readiness for a computer-based health information network.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Naomi E; Berry, Michelle M

    2006-01-01

    The need for timely and accurate communication among healthcare providers has prompted the development of computer-based health information networks that allow patient and client information to be shared among agencies. This article reports the findings of a study to assess whether residents of an upstate New York community were ready for a computer-based health information network to facilitate delivery of long term care services. Focus group sessions, which involved both consumers and professionals, revealed that security of personal information was of concern to healthcare providers, attorneys, and consumers. Physicians were the most enthusiastic about the possibility of a computer-based health information network. Consumers and other healthcare professionals, including nurses, indicated that such a network would be helpful to them personally. Nurses and other healthcare professionals need to be knowledgeable about the use of computer-based health information networks and other electronic information systems as this trend continues to spread across the U.S.

  7. INFORMATION DISPLAY: CONSIDERATIONS FOR DESIGNING COMPUTER-BASED DISPLAY SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    O'HARA,J.M.; PIRUS,D.; BELTRATCCHI,L.

    2004-09-19

    This paper discussed the presentation of information in computer-based control rooms. Issues associated with the typical displays currently in use are discussed. It is concluded that these displays should be augmented with new displays designed to better meet the information needs of plant personnel and to minimize the need for interface management tasks (the activities personnel have to do to access and organize the information they need). Several approaches to information design are discussed, specifically addressing: (1) monitoring, detection, and situation assessment; (2) routine task performance; and (3) teamwork, crew coordination, collaborative work.

  8. Symmetrically private information retrieval based on blind quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Yu, Jianping; Wang, Ping; Xu, Lingling

    2015-05-01

    Universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) is a new secure quantum computing protocol which allows a user Alice who does not have any sophisticated quantum technology to delegate her computing to a server Bob without leaking any privacy. Using the features of UBQC, we propose a protocol to achieve symmetrically private information retrieval, which allows a quantum limited Alice to query an item from Bob with a fully fledged quantum computer; meanwhile, the privacy of both parties is preserved. The security of our protocol is based on the assumption that malicious Alice has no quantum computer, which avoids the impossibility proof of Lo. For the honest Alice, she is almost classical and only requires minimal quantum resources to carry out the proposed protocol. Therefore, she does not need any expensive laboratory which can maintain the coherence of complicated quantum experimental setups.

  9. A Spread Willingness Computing-Based Information Dissemination Model

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhiming; Zhang, Shukui

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs a kind of spread willingness computing based on information dissemination model for social network. The model takes into account the impact of node degree and dissemination mechanism, combined with the complex network theory and dynamics of infectious diseases, and further establishes the dynamical evolution equations. Equations characterize the evolutionary relationship between different types of nodes with time. The spread willingness computing contains three factors which have impact on user's spread behavior: strength of the relationship between the nodes, views identity, and frequency of contact. Simulation results show that different degrees of nodes show the same trend in the network, and even if the degree of node is very small, there is likelihood of a large area of information dissemination. The weaker the relationship between nodes, the higher probability of views selection and the higher the frequency of contact with information so that information spreads rapidly and leads to a wide range of dissemination. As the dissemination probability and immune probability change, the speed of information dissemination is also changing accordingly. The studies meet social networking features and can help to master the behavior of users and understand and analyze characteristics of information dissemination in social network. PMID:25110738

  10. A computer-based information system for epilepsy and electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Finnerup, N B; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A; Røssel, P; Jennum, P

    1999-08-01

    This paper describes a standardised computer-based information system for electroencephalography (EEG) focusing on epilepsy. The system was developed using a prototyping approach. It is based on international recommendations for EEG examination, interpretation and terminology, international guidelines for epidemiological studies on epilepsy and classification of epileptic seizures and syndromes and international classification of diseases. It is divided into: (1) clinical information and epilepsy relevant data; and (2) EEG data, which is hierarchically structured including description and interpretation of EEG. Data is coded but is supplemented with unrestricted text. The resulting patient database can be integrated with other clinical databases and with the patient record system and may facilitate clinical and epidemiological research and development of standards and guidelines for EEG description and interpretation. The system is currently used for teleconsultation between Gentofte and Lisbon.

  11. A Comprehensive Computer-Based Medical Information System

    PubMed Central

    David, Sidney S.

    1977-01-01

    A comupter-based medical information system has been developed for patient care and clinical investigation. It is implemented on a large digital computer and employs techniques consistent with general purpose commercially available data management systems. It has been in operation since 1971 and contains the records of approximately 1600 patients. Incoming data are received from patients and clinical staff utilizing specialized forms. A wide diversity of output, including summaries, searches and statistics are provided. The system enhances the quality of care provided to patients, optimizes physician time spent on clinical management, improves many aspects of the supporting research, and is applicable to other areas of medicine.

  12. THE FUTURE OF COMPUTER-BASED TOXICITY PREDICTION: MECHANISM-BASED MODELS VS. INFORMATION MINING APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory


    The Future of Computer-Based Toxicity Prediction:
    Mechanism-Based Models vs. Information Mining Approaches

    When we speak of computer-based toxicity prediction, we are generally referring to a broad array of approaches which rely primarily upon chemical structure ...

  13. A Cloud Computing Based Patient Centric Medical Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ankur; Henehan, Nathan; Somashekarappa, Vivek; Pandya, A. S.; Kalva, Hari; Furht, Borko

    This chapter discusses an emerging concept of a cloud computing based Patient Centric Medical Information System framework that will allow various authorized users to securely access patient records from various Care Delivery Organizations (CDOs) such as hospitals, urgent care centers, doctors, laboratories, imaging centers among others, from any location. Such a system must seamlessly integrate all patient records including images such as CT-SCANS and MRI'S which can easily be accessed from any location and reviewed by any authorized user. In such a scenario the storage and transmission of medical records will have be conducted in a totally secure and safe environment with a very high standard of data integrity, protecting patient privacy and complying with all Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations.

  14. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  15. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  16. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  17. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  18. 18 CFR 3b.204 - Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...

  19. Design and evaluation of an onboard computer-based information system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, S. H.; Rouse, W. B.; Hammer, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Information seeking by human operators of technical systems is considered. Types of information and forms of presentation are discussed and important issues reviewed. This broad discussion provides a framework within which flight management is considered. The design of an onboard computer-based information system for aircraft is discussed. The aiding possibilities of a computer-based system are emphasized. Results of an experimental evaluation of a prototype system are presented. It is concluded that a computer-based information system can substantially lessen the frequency of human errors.

  20. A Method for Rating Computer-Based Career Information Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Deborah Perlmutter; Kinnison, Joyce Ford

    1989-01-01

    Developed a three-part rating system for computer-based career information delivery systems in the areas of comprehensiveness, accuracy, and effectiveness. Used system to rate five popular computer-based systems (C-LECT, CHOICES, CIS, DISCOVER, and GIS). Four systems were evaluated as being very similar, with CIS receiving highest scores.…

  1. INIS: A Computer-Based International Nuclear Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balakrishnan, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    Description of the International Nuclear Information System includes its history, organizational structure, subject classification scheme, thesaurus, input standards, and various products and services generated by the system. Appendices provide a list of participating countries, subjects covered by the system, and a sample output record.…

  2. The Impact of a Computer Based Information System (CBIS) on Foreign Investments Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Chester

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact that computer based information systems (CBIS) could have on U.S. multinational corporations operating in Canada, particularly in the province of Quebec, and the implications for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that went into effect on January 1, 1994. The study focused on how the…

  3. Attention Paid to Feedback Provided by a Computer-Based Assessment for Learning on Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmers, Caroline; Veldkamp, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Three studies are presented on attention paid to feedback provided by a computer-based assessment for learning on information literacy. Results show that the attention paid to feedback varies greatly. In general the attention focuses on feedback of incorrectly answered questions. In each study approximately fifty percent of the respondents paid…

  4. Computer-Based Storage and Retrieval of Geoscience Information: Bibliography 1970-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, C. F., Jr.

    The publication of papers describing activity in computer-based storage and retrieval and geoscience information has continued at a vigorous pace since release of the last bibliography, which covered the period 1946-69 (ED 076 203). A total of 211 references are identified, nearly all of which were published during the three-year period 1970-72…

  5. Intention and Usage of Computer Based Information Systems in Primary Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosizah; Kuntoro; Basuki N., Hari

    2016-01-01

    The computer-based information system (CBIS) is adopted by almost all of in health care setting, including the primary health center in East Java Province Indonesia. Some of softwares available were SIMPUS, SIMPUSTRONIK, SIKDA Generik, e-puskesmas. Unfortunately they were most of the primary health center did not successfully implemented. This…

  6. Optimal nonlinear information processing capacity in delay-based reservoir computers

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryeva, Lyudmila; Henriques, Julie; Larger, Laurent; Ortega, Juan-Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir computing is a recently introduced brain-inspired machine learning paradigm capable of excellent performances in the processing of empirical data. We focus in a particular kind of time-delay based reservoir computers that have been physically implemented using optical and electronic systems and have shown unprecedented data processing rates. Reservoir computing is well-known for the ease of the associated training scheme but also for the problematic sensitivity of its performance to architecture parameters. This article addresses the reservoir design problem, which remains the biggest challenge in the applicability of this information processing scheme. More specifically, we use the information available regarding the optimal reservoir working regimes to construct a functional link between the reservoir parameters and its performance. This function is used to explore various properties of the device and to choose the optimal reservoir architecture, thus replacing the tedious and time consuming parameter scannings used so far in the literature. PMID:26358528

  7. Optimal nonlinear information processing capacity in delay-based reservoir computers.

    PubMed

    Grigoryeva, Lyudmila; Henriques, Julie; Larger, Laurent; Ortega, Juan-Pablo

    2015-09-11

    Reservoir computing is a recently introduced brain-inspired machine learning paradigm capable of excellent performances in the processing of empirical data. We focus in a particular kind of time-delay based reservoir computers that have been physically implemented using optical and electronic systems and have shown unprecedented data processing rates. Reservoir computing is well-known for the ease of the associated training scheme but also for the problematic sensitivity of its performance to architecture parameters. This article addresses the reservoir design problem, which remains the biggest challenge in the applicability of this information processing scheme. More specifically, we use the information available regarding the optimal reservoir working regimes to construct a functional link between the reservoir parameters and its performance. This function is used to explore various properties of the device and to choose the optimal reservoir architecture, thus replacing the tedious and time consuming parameter scannings used so far in the literature.

  8. A Computer-Based System Integrating Instruction and Information Retrieval: A Description of Some Methodological Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selig, Judith A.; And Others

    This report, summarizing the activities of the Vision Information Center (VIC) in the field of computer-assisted instruction from December, 1966 to August, 1967, describes the methodology used to load a large body of information--a programed text on basic opthalmology--onto a computer for subsequent information retrieval and computer-assisted…

  9. Selective Dissemination of Information and Retrospective Searches. Computer Based Information Services from RIT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluchowicz, Zofia

    The purpose of this guide is to give an up-to-date presentation of the information service offered by the documentation center at the Royal Institute of Technology (RIT) and to facilitate the utilization of the service. The guide gives a general account of the multidisciplinary computerized current awareness service (SDI) and a detailed…

  10. Adaptability and the integration of computer-based information processing into the dynamics of organizations.

    PubMed

    Kampfner, Roberto R

    2006-07-01

    The structure of a system influences its adaptability. An important result of adaptability theory is that subsystem independence increases adaptability [Conrad, M., 1983. Adaptability. Plenum Press, New York]. Adaptability is essential in systems that face an uncertain environment such as biological systems and organizations. Modern organizations are the product of human design. And so it is their structure and the effect that it has on their adaptability. In this paper we explore the potential effects of computer-based information processing on the adaptability of organizations. The integration of computer-based processes into the dynamics of the functions they support and the effect it has on subsystem independence are especially relevant to our analysis.

  11. Three-dimensional information hierarchical encryption based on computer-generated holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dezhao; Shen, Xueju; Cao, Liangcai; Zhang, Hao; Zong, Song; Jin, Guofan

    2016-12-01

    A novel approach for encrypting three-dimensional (3-D) scene information hierarchically based on computer-generated holograms (CGHs) is proposed. The CGHs of the layer-oriented 3-D scene information are produced by angular-spectrum propagation algorithm at different depths. All the CGHs are then modulated by different chaotic random phase masks generated by the logistic map. Hierarchical encryption encoding is applied when all the CGHs are accumulated one by one, and the reconstructed volume of the 3-D scene information depends on permissions of different users. The chaotic random phase masks could be encoded into several parameters of the chaotic sequences to simplify the transmission and preservation of the keys. Optical experiments verify the proposed method and numerical simulations show the high key sensitivity, high security, and application flexibility of the method.

  12. Computer/Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birman, Ken; Roughgarden, Tim; Seltzer, Margo; Spohrer, Jim; Stolterman, Erik; Kearsley, Greg; Koszalka, Tiffany; de Jong, Ton

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of computer/information science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Ken Birman, Jennifer Rexford, Tim Roughgarden, Margo Seltzer, Jim Spohrer, and…

  13. Design Considerations of Help Options in Computer-Based L2 Listening Materials Informed by Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cárdenas-Claros, Mónica Stella

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of two qualitative exploratory studies that sought to investigate design features of help options in computer-based L2 listening materials. Informed by principles of participatory design, language learners, software designers, language teachers, and a computer programmer worked collaboratively in a series of…

  14. Enhancing performances of SSVEP-based brain-computer interfaces via exploiting inter-subject information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Peng; Chen, Xiaogang; Wang, Yijun; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai

    2015-08-01

    Objective. A new training-free framework was proposed for target detection in steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) using joint frequency-phase coding. Approach. The key idea is to transfer SSVEP templates from the existing subjects to a new subject to enhance the detection of SSVEPs. Under this framework, transfer template-based canonical correlation analysis (tt-CCA) methods were developed for single-channel and multi-channel conditions respectively. In addition, an online transfer template-based CCA (ott-CCA) method was proposed to update EEG templates by online adaptation. Main results. The efficiency of the proposed framework was proved with a simulated BCI experiment. Compared with the standard CCA method, tt-CCA obtained an 18.78% increase of accuracy with a data length of 1.5 s. A simulated test of ott-CCA further received an accuracy increase of 2.99%. Significance. The proposed simple yet efficient framework significantly facilitates the use of SSVEP BCIs using joint frequency-phase coding. This study also sheds light on the benefits from exploring and exploiting inter-subject information to the electroencephalogram (EEG)-based BCIs.

  15. Computer and information networks.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, M; Aronofsky, J; McKenney, J L; Massy, W F

    1973-10-05

    The most basic conclusion coming out of the EDUCOM seminars is that computer networking must be acknowledged as an important new mode for obtaining information and computation (15). It is a real alternative that needs to be given serious attention in current planning and decision-making. Yet the fact is that many institutions are not taking account of networks when they confer on whether or how to replace their main computer. Articulation of the possibilities of computer networks goes back to the early 1960's and before, and working networks have been in evidence for several years now, both commercially and in universities. What is new, however, is the unmistakable recognition-bordering on a sense of the inevitable-that networks are finally practical and here to stay. The visionary and promotional phases of computer networks are over. It is time for hard-nosed comparative analysis (16). Another conclusion of the seminars has to do with the factors that hinder the fuller development of networking. The major problems to be overcome in applying networks to research and education are political, organizational, and economic in nature rather than technological. This is not to say that the hardware and software problems of linking computers and information systems are completely solved, but they are not the big bottlenecks at present. Research and educational institutions must find ways to organize themselves as well as their computers to work together for greater resource sharing. The coming of age of networks takes on special significance as a result of widespread dissatisfactions expressed with the present computing situation. There is a feeling that the current mode of autonomous, self-sufficient operation in the provision of computing and information services is frequently wasteful, deficient, and unresponsive to users' needs because of duplication of effort from one installation to another, incompatibilities, and inadequate documentation, program support, and user

  16. SIGI: Field Test and Evaluation of a Computer-Based System of Interactive Guidance and Information. Volume II: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Warren; And Others

    The computer-based System of Interactive Guidance and Information (SIGI) was field tested and evaluated at five community colleges and one university. Developed by Educational Testing Service, SIGI assists students in the process of informed and rational career decision making. These appendices to the final evaluation report contain the manuals…

  17. A Comparative Assessment of Paper-Based and Computer-Based Maintenance Information Delivery Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    shipboard data bases have to be considered, such as the shipboard non-tactical ADP program (SNAP), the consolidated automatic support system ( CASS ...e.g., Brown. 1964; Goff, Schlesinger, & Parlog, 1969; Kieras , Tibbits, & Bovair, 1984; Nugent, 1988). Participation in the testing was voluntary. No...consolidated automatic support system ( CASS ), etc., to provide maximum usage of available maintenance data and to simplify parts ordering and documentation of

  18. Interactive Computer Based Assessment Tasks: How Problem-Solving Process Data Can Inform Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoanetti, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents key steps in the design and analysis of a computer based problem-solving assessment featuring interactive tasks. The purpose of the assessment is to support targeted instruction for students by diagnosing strengths and weaknesses at different stages of problem-solving. The first focus of this article is the task piloting…

  19. Application of a Micro Computer-Based Management Information System to Improve the USAF Service Reporting Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    ASD) SPO. The Service Reporting Management Information System (SRMIS) was implemented and evaluated in the Air Force One (AF-1) Replacement Aircraft SPO during a five month trial period.... Information System (MIS). MIS experts and System Program Office (SPO) acquisition managers; and software prototyping with an Aeronautical Systems Division...This study conducted research into the development, implementation and evaluation of a personal computer based Service Reporting (SR) Management

  20. Providing Computer-Based Information Services to an Academic Community. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Bernard

    The Mechanized Information Center (MIC) at the Ohio State University conducts retrospective and current awareness searches for faculty, students, and staff using data bases for agriculture, chemistry, education, psychology, and social sciences, as well as a multidisciplinary data base. The final report includes (1) a description of the background…

  1. Understanding Networks of Computing Chemical Droplet Neurons Based on Information Flow.

    PubMed

    Gruenert, Gerd; Gizynski, Konrad; Escuela, Gabi; Ibrahim, Bashar; Gorecki, Jerzy; Dittrich, Peter

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present general methods that can be used to explore the information processing potential of a medium composed of oscillating (self-exciting) droplets. Networks of Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) droplets seem especially interesting as chemical reaction-diffusion computers because their time evolution is qualitatively similar to neural network activity. Moreover, such networks can be self-generated in microfluidic reactors. However, it is hard to track and to understand the function performed by a medium composed of droplets due to its complex dynamics. Corresponding to recurrent neural networks, the flow of excitations in a network of droplets is not limited to a single direction and spreads throughout the whole medium. In this work, we analyze the operation performed by droplet systems by monitoring the information flow. This is achieved by measuring mutual information and time delayed mutual information of the discretized time evolution of individual droplets. To link the model with reality, we use experimental results to estimate the parameters of droplet interactions. We exemplarily investigate an evolutionary generated droplet structure that operates as a NOR gate. The presented methods can be applied to networks composed of at least hundreds of droplets.

  2. A network-based distributed, media-rich computing and information environment

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    Sunrise is a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) project started in October 1993. It is intended to be a prototype National Information Infrastructure development project. A main focus of Sunrise is to tie together enabling technologies (networking, object-oriented distributed computing, graphical interfaces, security, multi-media technologies, and data-mining technologies) with several specific applications. A diverse set of application areas was chosen to ensure that the solutions developed in the project are as generic as possible. Some of the application areas are materials modeling, medical records and image analysis, transportation simulations, and K-12 education. This paper provides a description of Sunrise and a view of the architecture and objectives of this evolving project. The primary objectives of Sunrise are three-fold: (1) To develop common information-enabling tools for advanced scientific research and its applications to industry; (2) To enhance the capabilities of important research programs at the Laboratory; (3) To define a new way of collaboration between computer science and industrially-relevant research.

  3. Digital Computer Simulation Models of Library-Based Information Retrieval Systems. Reports on File Organization Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Kevin D.

    A simulation study of library-based information retrieval systems is described. Basic models for each of several important aspects are presented: (1) user behavior, emphasizing response to quality and delays in services; (2) the scheduling of services and the organization of the machine-readable files; and (3) the distribution of conventional…

  4. An algorithm for computing moments-based flood quantile estimates when historical flood information is available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, T. A.; Lane, W. L.; Baier, W. G.

    This paper presents the expected moments algorithm (EMA), a simple and efficient method for incorporating historical and paleoflood information into flood frequency studies. EMA can utilize three types of at-site flood information: systematic stream gage record; information about the magnitude of historical floods; and knowledge of the number of years in the historical period when no large flood occurred. EMA employs an iterative procedure to compute method-of-moments parameter estimates. Initial parameter estimates are calculated from systematic stream gage data. These moments are then updated by including the measured historical peaks and the expected moments, given the previously estimated parameters, of the below-threshold floods from the historical period. The updated moments result in new parameter estimates, and the last two steps are repeated until the algorithm converges. Monte Carlo simulations compare EMA, Bulletin 17B's [United States Water Resources Council, 1982] historically weighted moments adjustment, and maximum likelihood estimators when fitting the three parameters of the log-Pearson type III distribution. These simulations demonstrate that EMA is more efficient than the Bulletin 17B method, and that it is nearly as efficient as maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The experiments also suggest that EMA has two advantages over MLE when dealing with the log-Pearson type III distribution: It appears that EMA estimates always exist and that they are unique, although neither result has been proven. EMA can be used with binomial or interval-censored data and with any distributional family amenable to method-of-moments estimation.

  5. An algorithm for computing moments-based flood quantile estimates when historical flood information is available

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, T.A.; Lane, W.L.; Baier, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the expected moments algorithm (EMA), a simple and efficient method for incorporating historical and paleoflood information into flood frequency studies. EMA can utilize three types of at-site flood information: systematic stream gage record: information about the magnitude of historical floods; and knowledge of the number of years in the historical period when no large flood occurred. EMA employs an iterative procedure to compute method-of-moments parameter estimates. Initial parameter estimates are calculated from systematic stream gage data. These moments are then updated by including the measured historical peaks and the expected moments, given the previously estimated parameters of the below-threshold floods from the historical period. The updated moments result in new parameter estimates, and the last two steps are repeated until the algorithm converges. Monte Carlo simulations compare EMA, Bulletin 17B's [United States Water Resources Council, 1982] historically weighted moments adjustment, and maximum likelihood estimators when fitting the three parameters of the log-Pearson type III distribution. These simulations demonstrate that EMA is more efficient than the Bulletin 17B method, and that it is nearly as efficient as maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The experiments also suggest that EMA has two advantages over MLE when dealing with the log-Pearson type III distribution: It appears that EMA estimates always exist and that they are unique, although neither result has been proven. EMA can be used with binomial or interval-censored data and with any distributional family amenable to method-of-moments estimation.

  6. Medical Information Processing by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinmuntz, Benjamin

    The use of the computer for medical information processing was introduced about a decade ago. Considerable inroads have now been made toward its applications to problems in medicine. Present uses of the computer, both as a computational and noncomputational device include the following: automated search of patients' files; on-line clinical data…

  7. Information processing, computation, and cognition.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, Gualtiero; Scarantino, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Computation and information processing are among the most fundamental notions in cognitive science. They are also among the most imprecisely discussed. Many cognitive scientists take it for granted that cognition involves computation, information processing, or both - although others disagree vehemently. Yet different cognitive scientists use 'computation' and 'information processing' to mean different things, sometimes without realizing that they do. In addition, computation and information processing are surrounded by several myths; first and foremost, that they are the same thing. In this paper, we address this unsatisfactory state of affairs by presenting a general and theory-neutral account of computation and information processing. We also apply our framework by analyzing the relations between computation and information processing on one hand and classicism, connectionism, and computational neuroscience on the other. We defend the relevance to cognitive science of both computation, at least in a generic sense, and information processing, in three important senses of the term. Our account advances several foundational debates in cognitive science by untangling some of their conceptual knots in a theory-neutral way. By leveling the playing field, we pave the way for the future resolution of the debates' empirical aspects.

  8. Subquantum information and computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, Antony

    2002-08-01

    It is argued that immense physical resources -- for nonlocal communication, espionage, and exponentially-fast computation -- are hidden from us by quantum noise, and that this noise is not fundamental but merely a property of an equilibrium state in which the universe happens to be at the present time. It is suggested that `non-quantum' or nonequilibrium matter might exist today in the form of relic particles from the early universe. We describe how such matter could be detected and put to practical use. Nonequilibrium matter could be used to send instantaneous signals, to violate the uncertainty principle, to distinguish non-orthogonal quantum states without disturbing them, to eavesdrop on quantum key distribution, and to outpace quantum computation (solving NP-complete problems in polynomial time).

  9. Effective solutions in introducing Server-Based Computing into a hospital information system.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Shigeki; Teramoto, Kei; Matsumura, Yasushi; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M; Kondoh, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Server-Based Computing (SBC) is a technology for terminal administration that achieves higher security at lower expense. Use of SBC in large hospitals, however, is not widespread because methods to effectively implement the technology have not been fully established. We present a system design that uses SBC in a large-scale hospital and then discuss the implementation problems and their solutions. With the exception of network traffic estimates, the server size estimates were validated. Three results from an evaluation of an SBC implementation were: 1) security was re-enforced by applying multiple-policy adaptation to a single client terminal, 2) cost reduction was realized by having fewer PC failures and a lower power consumption, and 3) user-roaming was found to be effective in reducing the number of iterative operations performed by users.

  10. Quantum Information, Computation and Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jonathan A.; Jaksch, Dieter

    2012-07-01

    Part I. Quantum Information: 1. Quantum bits and quantum gates; 2. An atom in a laser field; 3. Spins in magnetic fields; 4. Photon techniques; 5. Two qubits and beyond; 6. Measurement and entanglement; Part II. Quantum Computation: 7. Principles of quantum computing; 8. Elementary quantum algorithms; 9. More advanced quantum algorithms; 10. Trapped atoms and ions; 11. Nuclear magnetic resonance; 12. Large scale quantum computers; Part III. Quantum Communication: 13. Basics of information theory; 14. Quantum information; 15. Quantum communication; 16. Testing EPR; 17. Quantum cryptography; Appendixes; References; Index.

  11. Development of software for computing forming information using a component based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Kwang Hee; Park, Jiing Seo; Kim, Jung; Kim, Young Bum; Shin, Jong Gye

    2009-12-01

    In shipbuilding industry, the manufacturing technology> has advanced at an unprecedented pace for the last decade. As a result, many automatic systems for cutting, welding, etc. have been developed and employed in the manufacturing process and accordingly the productivity has been increased drastically. Despite such improvement in the manufacturing technology', however, development of an automatic system for fabricating a curved hull plate remains at the beginning stage since hardware and software for the automation of the curved hull fabrication process should be developed differently depending on the dimensions of plates, forming methods and manufacturing processes of each shipyard. To deal with this problem, it is necessary> to create a "plug-in ''framework, which can adopt various kinds of hardware and software to construct a full automatic fabrication system. In this paper, a frame-work for automatic fabrication of curved hull plates is proposed, which consists of four components and related software. In particular the software module for computing fabrication information is developed by using the ooCBD development methodology; which can interface with other hardware and software with minimum effort. Examples of the proposed framework applied to medium and large shipyards are presented.

  12. Quantum Information and Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, L.; Ohya, Masanori; Watanabe, N.

    2006-03-01

    Preface -- Coherent quantum control of [symbol]-atoms through the stochastic limit / L. Accardi, S. V. Kozyrev and A. N. Pechen -- Recent advances in quantum white noise calculus / L. Accardi and A. Boukas -- Control of quantum states by decoherence / L. Accardi and K. Imafuku -- Logical operations realized on the Ising chain of N qubits / M. Asano, N. Tateda and C. Ishii -- Joint extension of states of fermion subsystems / H. Araki -- Quantum filtering and optimal feedback control of a Gaussian quantum free particle / S. C. Edwards and V. P. Belavkin -- On existence of quantum zeno dynamics / P. Exner and T. Ichinose -- Invariant subspaces and control of decoherence / P. Facchi, V. L. Lepore and S. Pascazio -- Clauser-Horner inequality for electron counting statistics in multiterminal mesoscopic conductors / L. Faoro, F. Taddei and R. Fazio -- Fidelity of quantum teleportation model using beam splittings / K.-H. Fichtner, T. Miyadera and M. Ohya -- Quantum logical gates realized by beam splittings / W. Freudenberg ... [et al.] -- Information divergence for quantum channels / S. J. Hammersley and V. P. Belavkin -- On the uniqueness theorem in quantum information geometry / H. Hasegawa -- Noncanonical representations of a multi-dimensional Brownian motion / Y. Hibino -- Some of future directions of white noise theory / T. Hida -- Information, innovation and elemental random field / T. Hida -- Generalized quantum turing machine and its application to the SAT chaos algorithm / S. Iriyama, M. Ohya and I. Volovich -- A Stroboscopic approach to quantum tomography / A. Jamiolkowski -- Positive maps and separable states in matrix algebras / A. Kossakowski -- Simulating open quantum systems with trapped ions / S. Maniscalco -- A purification scheme and entanglement distillations / H. Nakazato, M. Unoki and K. Yuasa -- Generalized sectors and adjunctions to control micro-macro transitions / I. Ojima -- Saturation of an entropy bound and quantum Markov states / D. Petz -- An

  13. Computers in Information Data Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, Joe Ann, Ed.; Helgeson, Duane, Ed.

    This collection of ten conference reports begins with "Historical Impact of Computers on the Operation of Libraries and Information Systems: A Personal Perspective" and is followed by "Tips on Computer Software: Advantages and Methods of Program Dissemination" and "BLOCS--A Unique Multi-Dimensional Approach to On-Line Circulation". Next, libraries…

  14. A mobile Nursing Information System based on human-computer interaction design for improving quality of nursing.

    PubMed

    Su, Kuo-Wei; Liu, Cheng-Li

    2012-06-01

    A conventional Nursing Information System (NIS), which supports the role of nurse in some areas, is typically deployed as an immobile system. However, the traditional information system can't response to patients' conditions in real-time, causing delays on the availability of this information. With the advances of information technology, mobile devices are increasingly being used to extend the human mind's limited capacity to recall and process large numbers of relevant variables and to support information management, general administration, and clinical practice. Unfortunately, there have been few studies about the combination of a well-designed small-screen interface with a personal digital assistant (PDA) in clinical nursing. Some researchers found that user interface design is an important factor in determining the usability and potential use of a mobile system. Therefore, this study proposed a systematic approach to the development of a mobile nursing information system (MNIS) based on Mobile Human-Computer Interaction (M-HCI) for use in clinical nursing. The system combines principles of small-screen interface design with user-specified requirements. In addition, the iconic functions were designed with metaphor concept that will help users learn the system more quickly with less working-memory. An experiment involving learnability testing, thinking aloud and a questionnaire investigation was conducted for evaluating the effect of MNIS on PDA. The results show that the proposed MNIS is good on learning and higher satisfaction on symbol investigation, terminology and system information.

  15. Institutional computing (IC) information session

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kenneth R; Lally, Bryan R

    2011-01-19

    The LANL Institutional Computing Program (IC) will host an information session about the current state of unclassified Institutional Computing at Los Alamos, exciting plans for the future, and the current call for proposals for science and engineering projects requiring computing. Program representatives will give short presentations and field questions about the call for proposals and future planned machines, and discuss technical support available to existing and future projects. Los Alamos has started making a serious institutional investment in open computing available to our science projects, and that investment is expected to increase even more.

  16. Optimization of numerical weather/wave prediction models based on information geometry and computational techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanis, George; Famelis, Ioannis; Kalogeri, Christina

    2014-10-01

    The last years a new highly demanding framework has been set for environmental sciences and applied mathematics as a result of the needs posed by issues that are of interest not only of the scientific community but of today's society in general: global warming, renewable resources of energy, natural hazards can be listed among them. Two are the main directions that the research community follows today in order to address the above problems: The utilization of environmental observations obtained from in situ or remote sensing sources and the meteorological-oceanographic simulations based on physical-mathematical models. In particular, trying to reach credible local forecasts the two previous data sources are combined by algorithms that are essentially based on optimization processes. The conventional approaches in this framework usually neglect the topological-geometrical properties of the space of the data under study by adopting least square methods based on classical Euclidean geometry tools. In the present work new optimization techniques are discussed making use of methodologies from a rapidly advancing branch of applied Mathematics, the Information Geometry. The latter prove that the distributions of data sets are elements of non-Euclidean structures in which the underlying geometry may differ significantly from the classical one. Geometrical entities like Riemannian metrics, distances, curvature and affine connections are utilized in order to define the optimum distributions fitting to the environmental data at specific areas and to form differential systems that describes the optimization procedures. The methodology proposed is clarified by an application for wind speed forecasts in the Kefaloniaisland, Greece.

  17. The diffusion of computer-based information technology into health institutions of Republic of Serbia (FR Yugoslavia).

    PubMed

    Simić, S; Marinković, J; Bjegović, V; Stanisavljević, D

    1996-08-01

    The basic purpose of this study was to analyze the diffusion of computer-based information technology into the health care institutions of the Republic of Serbia in the year 1994, and to compare the results with a similar investigation in 1992 in order to determine the state and progress of its development. The instrument of investigation was a questionnaire with 24 questions, distributed to all the independent health institutions in Serbia (total 238). The overall response rate was 40.8%. Of the number of responding health institutions, 92.8% own computers which are in use, six PCs on average, and on average use two application softwares, obligatory one for accounting and billing. In conclusion, health care institutions in the Republic of Serbia are unsatisfactorily equipped with information technology and without the developed institutional information system, except on the level of the project. So, careful planning, selection, implementation and management with national coordination will be needed to ensure the appropriate use of technology and information systems in health care.

  18. An automated tuberculosis screening strategy combining X-ray-based computer-aided detection and clinical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez, Jaime; Sánchez, Clara I.; Philipsen, Rick H. H. M.; Maduskar, Pragnya; Dawson, Rodney; Theron, Grant; Dheda, Keertan; van Ginneken, Bram

    2016-04-01

    Lack of human resources and radiological interpretation expertise impair tuberculosis (TB) screening programmes in TB-endemic countries. Computer-aided detection (CAD) constitutes a viable alternative for chest radiograph (CXR) reading. However, no automated techniques that exploit the additional clinical information typically available during screening exist. To address this issue and optimally exploit this information, a machine learning-based combination framework is introduced. We have evaluated this framework on a database containing 392 patient records from suspected TB subjects prospectively recruited in Cape Town, South Africa. Each record comprised a CAD score, automatically computed from a CXR, and 12 clinical features. Comparisons with strategies relying on either CAD scores or clinical information alone were performed. Our results indicate that the combination framework outperforms the individual strategies in terms of the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (0.84 versus 0.78 and 0.72), specificity at 95% sensitivity (49% versus 24% and 31%) and negative predictive value (98% versus 95% and 96%). Thus, it is believed that combining CAD and clinical information to estimate the risk of active disease is a promising tool for TB screening.

  19. The Operation of a Specialized Scientific Information and Data Analysis Center With Computer Base and Associated Communications Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, William B.; And Others

    The Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) is a highly sophisticated scientific information center operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Its information file, which consists of both data and bibliographic information, is computer stored and numerous programs have been developed to facilitate the…

  20. Computer Abuse: Vandalizing the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnell, Steven M.; Warren, Matthew J.

    1997-01-01

    Computing and telecommunications, key to an information-based society, are increasingly targets for criminals and mischief makers. This article examines the effects of malicious computer abuse: hacking and viruses, highlights the apparent increase in incidents, and examines their effect on public perceptions of technology. Presents broad…

  1. A Study on the Learning Efficiency of Multimedia-Presented, Computer-Based Science Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Ying-Hua

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of multimedia presentations on the efficiency of learning scientific information (i.e. information on basic anatomy of human brains and their functions, the definition of cognitive psychology, and the structure of human memory). Experiment 1 investigated whether the modality effect could be observed when the…

  2. User-System Interface Design for Computer-Based Information Systems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    documentation is needed to oermit design review before software implementation, and continuing design coordination thereafter. Potential computer aids are...Replies were received from nine members of the group: Sara R. Abbott Union Carbide Corporation Christopher J. Arbak Systems Research Laboratories , Inc. J

  3. Design Guidelines for the User Interface to Computer-Based Information Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    units of measurement, do not display data in English units, or vice versa. Example: Computer time records that are not in directly usable format should...recommendation is ignored, such as the coding of English and Canadian postal zones. Reference: BB 2.5.1. -6 Meaningful Codes -6 Meaningful codes should be...transaction. I Natural Language - A type of dialogue in which users iormulate control entries in their natural language, e.g., English , Spanish, French

  4. An Evaluation of a Computer Based Medical Diagnostic/Information System for Nuclear Submarines,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    PERFDU), Cholecystitis (CHOLE), Small Bowel Obstruction (SBO), Renal Colic (R.COLIC), Non-specific Abdominal Pain (NSAP), and’ Dyspepsia (DYSPP...Small Bowel Obstruction , Cholecystitis, Diverticulitis and Perforated Duodenal Ulcer. This is not surprising since the sample of cases in this study is...Disease Computer Physician Non-Specific Pain 62.0 74.6 Dyspepsia 55.0 30.0 Renal Cholic 25.0 100.0 Small Bowel Obstruction 25.0 75.0 Cholistitis 57.1

  5. Computing Information Value from RDF Graph Properties

    SciTech Connect

    al-Saffar, Sinan; Heileman, Gregory

    2010-11-08

    Information value has been implicitly utilized and mostly non-subjectively computed in information retrieval (IR) systems. We explicitly define and compute the value of an information piece as a function of two parameters, the first is the potential semantic impact the target information can subjectively have on its recipient's world-knowledge, and the second parameter is trust in the information source. We model these two parameters as properties of RDF graphs. Two graphs are constructed, a target graph representing the semantics of the target body of information and a context graph representing the context of the consumer of that information. We compute information value subjectively as a function of both potential change to the context graph (impact) and the overlap between the two graphs (trust). Graph change is computed as a graph edit distance measuring the dissimilarity between the context graph before and after the learning of the target graph. A particular application of this subjective information valuation is in the construction of a personalized ranking component in Web search engines. Based on our method, we construct a Web re-ranking system that personalizes the information experience for the information-consumer.

  6. Policy Information System Computer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Roger E.; And Others

    The concepts and methodologies outlined in "A Policy Information System for Vocational Education" are presented in a simple computer format in this booklet. It also contains a sample output representing 5-year projections of various planning needs for vocational education. Computerized figures in the eight areas corresponding to those in the…

  7. Information-computational system for storage, search and analytical processing of environmental datasets based on the Semantic Web technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, A.; Gordov, E.; Okladnikov, I.

    2009-04-01

    a step in the process of development of a distributed collaborative information-computational environment to support multidisciplinary investigations of Earth regional environment [4]. Partial support of this work by SB RAS Integration Project 34, SB RAS Basic Program Project 4.5.2.2, APN Project CBA2007-08NSY and FP6 Enviro-RISKS project (INCO-CT-2004-013427) is acknowledged. References 1. E.P. Gordov, V.N. Lykosov, and A.Z. Fazliev. Web portal on environmental sciences "ATMOS" // Advances in Geosciences. 2006. Vol. 8. p. 33 - 38. 2. Gordov E.P., Okladnikov I.G., Titov A.G. Development of elements of web based information-computational system supporting regional environment processes investigations // Journal of Computational Technologies, Vol. 12, Special Issue #3, 2007, pp. 20 - 28. 3. Okladnikov I.G., Titov A.G. Melnikova V.N., Shulgina T.M. Web-system for processing and visualization of meteorological and climatic data // Journal of Computational Technologies, Vol. 13, Special Issue #3, 2008, pp. 64 - 69. 4. Gordov E.P., Lykosov V.N. Development of information-computational infrastructure for integrated study of Siberia environment // Journal of Computational Technologies, Vol. 12, Special Issue #2, 2007, pp. 19 - 30.

  8. A Rural Community's Involvement in the Design and Usability Testing of a Computer-Based Informed Consent Process for the Personalized Medicine Research Project

    PubMed Central

    Mahnke, Andrea N; Plasek, Joseph M; Hoffman, David G; Partridge, Nathan S; Foth, Wendy S; Waudby, Carol J; Rasmussen, Luke V; McManus, Valerie D; McCarty, Catherine A

    2014-01-01

    Many informed consent studies demonstrate that research subjects poorly retain and understand information in written consent documents. Previous research in multimedia consent is mixed in terms of success for improving participants’ understanding, satisfaction, and retention. This failure may be due to a lack of a community-centered design approach to building the interventions. The goal of this study was to gather information from the community to determine the best way to undertake the consent process. Community perceptions regarding different computer-based consenting approaches were evaluated, and a computer-based consent was developed and tested. A second goal was to evaluate whether participants make truly informed decisions to participate in research. Simulations of an informed consent process were videotaped to document the process. Focus groups were conducted to determine community attitudes towards a computer-based informed consent process. Hybrid focus groups were conducted to determine the most acceptable hardware device. Usability testing was conducted on a computer-based consent prototype using a touch-screen kiosk. Based on feedback, a computer-based consent was developed. Representative study participants were able to easily complete the consent, and all were able to correctly answer the comprehension check questions. Community involvement in developing a computer-based consent proved valuable for a population-based genetic study. These findings may translate to other types of informed consents, such as genetic clinical trials consents. A computer-based consent may serve to better communicate consistent, clear, accurate, and complete information regarding the risks and benefits of study participation. Additional analysis is necessary to measure the level of comprehension of the check-question answers by larger numbers of participants. The next step will involve contacting participants to measure whether understanding of what they consented to is

  9. Special data base of Informational - Computational System 'INM RAS - Black Sea' for solving inverse and data assimilation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Natalia; Piskovatsky, Nicolay; Gusev, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    Development of Informational-Computational Systems (ICS) for data assimilation procedures is one of multidisciplinary problems. To study and solve these problems one needs to apply modern results from different disciplines and recent developments in: mathematical modeling; theory of adjoint equations and optimal control; inverse problems; numerical methods theory; numerical algebra and scientific computing. The above problems are studied in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Science (INM RAS) in ICS for personal computers. In this work the results on the Special data base development for ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" are presented. In the presentation the input information for ICS is discussed, some special data processing procedures are described. In this work the results of forecast using ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" with operational observation data assimilation are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No 13-01-00753) and by Presidium Program of Russian Academy of Sciences (project P-23 "Black sea as an imitational ocean model"). References 1. V.I. Agoshkov, M.V. Assovskii, S.A. Lebedev, Numerical simulation of Black Sea hydrothermodynamics taking into account tide-forming forces. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 5-31. 2. E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 69-94. 3. V.B. Zalesny, N.A. Diansky, V.V. Fomin, S.N. Moshonkin, S.G. Demyshev, Numerical model of the circulation of Black Sea and Sea of Azov. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 95-111. 4. Agoshkov V.I.,Assovsky M.B., Giniatulin S. V., Zakharova N.B., Kuimov G.V., Parmuzin E.I., Fomin V.V. Informational Computational system of variational assimilation of observation data "INM RAS - Black sea"// Ecological

  10. Measuring the Effectiveness of Information Security Training: A Comparative Analysis of Computer-Based Training and Instructor-Based Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Financial institutions are increasingly finding difficulty defending against information security risks and threats, as they are often the number one target for information thieves. An effective information security training and awareness program can be a critical component of protecting an organization's information assets. Many financial…

  11. Developing a Standards-Based Information Model for Representing Computable Diagnostic Criteria: A Feasibility Study of the NQF Quality Data Model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoqian; Solbrig, Harold R; Pathak, Jyotishman; Chute, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a standards-based information model has been recognized as a major barrier for representing computable diagnostic criteria. In this paper we describe our efforts in examining the feasibility of the Quality Data Model (QDM)-developed by the National Quality Forum (NQF)-for representing computable diagnostic criteria. We collected the diagnostic criteria for a number of diseases and disorders (n=12) from textbooks and profiled the data elements of the criteria using the QDM data elements. We identified a number of common patterns informed by the QDM. In conclusion, the common patterns informed by the QDM are useful and feasible in building a standards-based information model for computable diagnostic criteria.

  12. Model of Procedure Usage – Results from a Qualitative Study to Inform Design of Computer-Based Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Johanna H Oxstrand; Katya L Le Blanc

    2012-07-01

    The nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. As a step toward the goal of improving procedure use performance, researchers, together with the nuclear industry, have been looking at replacing the current paper-based procedures with computer-based procedure systems. The concept of computer-based procedures is not new by any means; however most research has focused on procedures used in the main control room. Procedures reviewed in these efforts are mainly emergency operating procedures and normal operating procedures. Based on lessons learned for these previous efforts we are now exploring a more unknown application for computer based procedures - field procedures, i.e. procedures used by nuclear equipment operators and maintenance technicians. The Idaho National Laboratory, the Institute for Energy Technology, and participants from the U.S. commercial nuclear industry are collaborating in an applied research effort with the objective of developing requirements and specifications for a computer-based procedure system to be used by field operators. The goal is to identify the types of human errors that can be mitigated by using computer-based procedures and how to best design the computer-based procedures to do this. The underlying philosophy in the research effort is “Stop – Start – Continue”, i.e. what features from the use of paper-based procedures should we not incorporate (Stop), what should we keep (Continue), and what new features or work processes should be added (Start). One step in identifying the Stop – Start – Continue was to conduct a baseline study where affordances related to the current usage of paper-based procedures were identified. The purpose of the study was to develop a model of paper based procedure use which will help to identify desirable features for computer based procedure prototypes. Affordances such as note taking, markups

  13. Computing spatial information from Fourier coefficient distributions.

    PubMed

    Heinz, William F; Werbin, Jeffrey L; Lattman, Eaton; Hoh, Jan H

    2011-05-01

    The spatial relationships between molecules can be quantified in terms of information. In the case of membranes, the spatial organization of molecules in a bilayer is closely related to biophysically and biologically important properties. Here, we present an approach to computing spatial information based on Fourier coefficient distributions. The Fourier transform (FT) of an image contains a complete description of the image, and the values of the FT coefficients are uniquely associated with that image. For an image where the distribution of pixels is uncorrelated, the FT coefficients are normally distributed and uncorrelated. Further, the probability distribution for the FT coefficients of such an image can readily be obtained by Parseval's theorem. We take advantage of these properties to compute the spatial information in an image by determining the probability of each coefficient (both real and imaginary parts) in the FT, then using the Shannon formalism to calculate information. By using the probability distribution obtained from Parseval's theorem, an effective distance from the uncorrelated or most uncertain case is obtained. The resulting quantity is an information computed in k-space (kSI). This approach provides a robust, facile and highly flexible framework for quantifying spatial information in images and other types of data (of arbitrary dimensions). The kSI metric is tested on a 2D Ising model, frequently used as a model for lipid bilayer; and the temperature-dependent phase transition is accurately determined from the spatial information in configurations of the system.

  14. Novel information theory based method for superimposition of lateral head radiographs and cone beam computed tomography images

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, W; Nyssen, E; Bottenberg, P; de Groen, P; Vande Vannet, B

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to introduce a novel alignment criterion, focus mutual information (FMI), for the superimposition of lateral cephalometric radiographs and three dimensional (3D) cone beam computed images as well as the assessment of the alignment characteristics of the new method and comparison of the novel methodology with the region of interest (ROI) approach. Methods Implementation of a FMI criterion-based methodology that only requires the approximate indication of stable structures in one single image. The robustness of the method was first addressed in a phantom experiment comparing the new technique with a ROI approach. Two consecutive cephalometric radiographs were then obtained, one before and one after functional twin block application. These images were then superimposed using alignment by FMI where the following were focused on, in several ways: (1) cranial base and acoustic meatus, (2) palatal plane and (3) mandibular symphysis. The superimposed images were subtracted and coloured. The applicability to cone beam CT (CBCT) is illustrated by the alignment of CBCT images acquired before and after craniofacial surgery. Results The phantom experiment clearly shows superior alignment when compared to the ROI approach (Wilcoxon n = 17, Z = −3.290, and P = 0.001), and robustness with respect to the choice of parameters (one-sample t-test n = 50, t = −12.355, and P = 0.000). The treatment effects are revealed clearly in the subtraction image of well-aligned cephalometric radiographs. The colouring scheme of the subtraction image emphasises the areas of change and visualizes the remodelling of the soft tissue. Conclusions FMI allows for cephalometry without tracing, it avoids the error inherent to the use of landmarks and the interaction of the practitioner is kept to a minimum. The robustness to focal distribution variations limits the influence of possible examiner inaccuracy. PMID:20395459

  15. Pen-based computers: Computers without keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conklin, Cheryl L.

    1994-01-01

    The National Space Transportation System (NSTS) is comprised of many diverse and highly complex systems incorporating the latest technologies. Data collection associated with ground processing of the various Space Shuttle system elements is extremely challenging due to the many separate processing locations where data is generated. This presents a significant problem when the timely collection, transfer, collation, and storage of data is required. This paper describes how new technology, referred to as Pen-Based computers, is being used to transform the data collection process at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Pen-Based computers have streamlined procedures, increased data accuracy, and now provide more complete information than previous methods. The end results is the elimination of Shuttle processing delays associated with data deficiencies.

  16. Detailed requirements document for Stowage List and Hardware Tracking System (SLAHTS). [computer based information management system in support of space shuttle orbiter stowage configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keltner, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The stowage list and hardware tracking system, a computer based information management system, used in support of the space shuttle orbiter stowage configuration and the Johnson Space Center hardware tracking is described. The input, processing, and output requirements that serve as a baseline for system development are defined.

  17. Evaluating the Informative Quality of Documents in SGML Format from Judgements by Means of Fuzzy Linguistic Techniques Based on Computing with Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera-Viedma, Enrique; Peis, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Presents a fuzzy evaluation method of SGML documents based on computing with words. Topics include filtering the amount of information available on the Web to assist users in their search processes; document type definitions; linguistic modeling; user-system interaction; and use with XML and other markup languages. (Author/LRW)

  18. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Zongtao Li, Ying Zheng, Xibin Liu, Yan Dai, Jiting Kang, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  19. Computer Information System For Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, P. T.; Knowles, R. J.....; Tsen, O.

    1983-12-01

    To meet the complex needs of a nuclear medicine division serving a 1100-bed hospital, a computer information system has been developed in sequential phases. This database management system is based on a time-shared minicomputer linked to a broadband communications network. The database contains information on patient histories, billing, types of procedures, doses of radiopharmaceuticals, times of study, scanning equipment used, and technician performing the procedure. These patient records are cycled through three levels of storage: (a) an active file of 100 studies for those patients currently scheduled, (b) a temporary storage level of 1000 studies, and (c) an archival level of 10,000 studies containing selected information. Merging of this information with reports and various statistical analyses are possible. This first phase has been in operation for well over a year. The second phase is an upgrade of the size of the various storage levels by a factor of ten.

  20. Computer virus information update CIAC-2301

    SciTech Connect

    Orvis, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

  1. Improving Royal Australian Air Force Strategic Airlift Planning by Application of a Computer Based Management Information System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    perceived ability of system to support organisational goals and objectives. Other: With what other informtion systems should commaications be considered... informtion system ? A system is not required or justified. Potential exists for a system but not right now. A system may be justified. However, the envirornet...IMPROVING ROYAL AUSTRALIAN AIR FORCE STRATEGIC AIRLIFT PLANNING BY APPLICATION OF A (XM E BASED MANAGEEN INFORMATION SYSTEM THESIS Neil A. Cooper Squadron

  2. New Information Dispersal Techniques for Trustworthy Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parakh, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    Information dispersal algorithms (IDA) are used for distributed data storage because they simultaneously provide security, reliability and space efficiency, constituting a trustworthy computing framework for many critical applications, such as cloud computing, in the information society. In the most general sense, this is achieved by dividing data…

  3. Agent Based Computing Machine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-09

    coordinates as in cellular automata systems. But using biology as a model suggests that the most general systems must provide for partial, but constrained...17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 118. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRA REPORT THIS PAGE ABSTRACT...system called an "agent based computing" machine (ABC Machine). The ABC Machine is motivated by cellular biochemistry and it is based upon a concept

  4. Computer Software for Information Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesk, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Discusses software developed to organize and retrieve electronically stored data, examining structure of the databases in which information is stored and the physical structure of the storage medium. Hierarchical and relational databases, unordered files, B-trees, and storage/software for specific purposes (such as weather, stock market, and…

  5. Computer-Based Environmental Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppelt, Ralf

    2003-11-01

    This book provides professionals in environmental research and management with the information they need for computer modeling. Highlights include: A detailed summary of available software tools Presents cutting-edge mathematical methodology (e.g. fuzzy logic, hybrid Petri nets, optimum control theory) in a clear, understandable way Colour illustrations, flowcharts and worked examples that visualise and explain complex mathematical tasks. Case studies from various fields of application making it easier to apply simulation models for the solution of real-world problems Computer-Based Environmental Management is a unique reference for all environmental chemists, ecologists and agricultural scientists.

  6. The Laboratory for Information and Computer Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Alton P.; Slamecka, Vladimir

    This document briefly explains the relationship between the School of Information Science and the Laboratory for Information and Computer Science at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The explicit purposes of the information science laboratory are spelled out as well as the specific objectives for the 1969/70, 1970/71, and 1971/72 school years.…

  7. Information thermodynamics of near-equilibrium computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopenko, Mikhail; Einav, Itai

    2015-06-01

    In studying fundamental physical limits and properties of computational processes, one is faced with the challenges of interpreting primitive information-processing functions through well-defined information-theoretic as well as thermodynamic quantities. In particular, transfer entropy, characterizing the function of computational transmission and its predictability, is known to peak near critical regimes. We focus on a thermodynamic interpretation of transfer entropy aiming to explain the underlying critical behavior by associating information flows intrinsic to computational transmission with particular physical fluxes. Specifically, in isothermal systems near thermodynamic equilibrium, the gradient of the average transfer entropy is shown to be dynamically related to Fisher information and the curvature of system's entropy. This relationship explicitly connects the predictability, sensitivity, and uncertainty of computational processes intrinsic to complex systems and allows us to consider thermodynamic interpretations of several important extreme cases and trade-offs.

  8. Information thermodynamics of near-equilibrium computation.

    PubMed

    Prokopenko, Mikhail; Einav, Itai

    2015-06-01

    In studying fundamental physical limits and properties of computational processes, one is faced with the challenges of interpreting primitive information-processing functions through well-defined information-theoretic as well as thermodynamic quantities. In particular, transfer entropy, characterizing the function of computational transmission and its predictability, is known to peak near critical regimes. We focus on a thermodynamic interpretation of transfer entropy aiming to explain the underlying critical behavior by associating information flows intrinsic to computational transmission with particular physical fluxes. Specifically, in isothermal systems near thermodynamic equilibrium, the gradient of the average transfer entropy is shown to be dynamically related to Fisher information and the curvature of system's entropy. This relationship explicitly connects the predictability, sensitivity, and uncertainty of computational processes intrinsic to complex systems and allows us to consider thermodynamic interpretations of several important extreme cases and trade-offs.

  9. Integrated Sensing and Information Processing Theme-Based Redesign of the Undergraduate Electrical and Computer Engineering Curriculum at Duke University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybarra, Gary A.; Collins, Leslie M.; Huettel, Lisa G.; Brown, April S.; Coonley, Kip D.; Massoud, Hisham Z.; Board, John A.; Cummer, Steven A.; Choudhury, Romit Roy; Gustafson, Michael R.; Jokerst, Nan M.; Brooke, Martin A.; Willett, Rebecca M.; Kim, Jungsang; Absher, Martha S.

    2011-01-01

    The field of electrical and computer engineering has evolved significantly in the past two decades. This evolution has broadened the field of ECE, and subfields have seen deep penetration into very specialized areas. Remarkable devices and systems arising from innovative processes, exotic materials, high speed computer simulations, and complex…

  10. Using Interactive Computer to Communicate Scientific Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selnow, Gary W.

    1988-01-01

    Asks whether the computer is another channel of communication, if its interactive qualities make it an information source, or if it is an undefined hybrid. Concludes that computers are neither the medium nor the source but will in the future provide the possibility of a sophisticated interaction between human intelligence and artificial…

  11. Secure medical information sharing in cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhiyi; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Wenzheng; Zhao, Yi; Wu, Zhenqiang; Miao, Meixia

    2015-01-01

    Medical information sharing is one of the most attractive applications of cloud computing, where searchable encryption is a fascinating solution for securely and conveniently sharing medical data among different medical organizers. However, almost all previous works are designed in symmetric key encryption environment. The only works in public key encryption do not support keyword trapdoor security, have long ciphertext related to the number of receivers, do not support receiver revocation without re-encrypting, and do not preserve the membership of receivers. In this paper, we propose a searchable encryption supporting multiple receivers for medical information sharing based on bilinear maps in public key encryption environment. In the proposed protocol, data owner stores only one copy of his encrypted file and its corresponding encrypted keywords on cloud for multiple designated receivers. The keyword ciphertext is significantly shorter and its length is constant without relation to the number of designated receivers, i.e., for n receivers the ciphertext length is only twice the element length in the group. Only the owner knows that with whom his data is shared, and the access to his data is still under control after having been put on the cloud. We formally prove the security of keyword ciphertext based on the intractability of Bilinear Diffie-Hellman problem and the keyword trapdoor based on Decisional Diffie-Hellman problem.

  12. Computer games and information-processing skills.

    PubMed

    Yuji, H

    1996-10-01

    To assess the association of past use of computer games and parallel-processing skills as measured by tests of discrimination perception using computers 46 boys and girls in kindergarten, aged 4 to 6 years, were classified into 17 player and 17 nonplayer groups by their enthusiasm for computer games. There were no significant differences between the two groups in correct responses; however, RTs of players were significantly faster than those of nonplayers. RTs were different to color and shape. Experiences with computer games might develop information-processing skills.

  13. AFE base flow computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Palmer, Grant

    1991-01-01

    Hypersonic wake flows behind the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) geometry are analyzed using two Navier-Stokes flow solvers. Many of the AFE wake features observed in ballistic-range shadowgraphs are simulated using a simple, two-dimensional semicylinder geometry at moderate angles of attack. At free-stream conditions corresponding to a Hypersonic Free Flight Facility (HFFF) AFE experiment, the three-dimensional base flow for the AFE geometry is computed using an ideal-gas, Navier-Stokes solver. The computed results agree reasonably well with the shadowgraphs taken at the HFFF. An ideal-gas and a nonequilibrium Navier-Stokes solver have been coupled and applied to the complete flow around the AFE vehicle at the free-stream conditions corresponding to a nomial trajectory point. Limitations of the coupled ideal-gas and nonequilibrium solution are discussed. The nonequilibrium base flow solution is analyzed for the wake radiation and the radiation profiles along various lines of sight are compared. Finally, the wake unsteadiness is predicted using experimental correlations and the numerical solutions. An adaptive grid code, SAGE, has been used in all the simulations to enhance the solution accuracy. The grid adaptation is found to be necessary in obtaining base flow solutions with accurate flow features.

  14. Computing, Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, John; Tu, Eugene (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Computing, Information and Communications Technology Program (CICT) was established in 2001 to ensure NASA's Continuing leadership in emerging technologies. It is a coordinated, Agency-wide effort to develop and deploy key enabling technologies for a broad range of mission-critical tasks. The NASA CICT program is designed to address Agency-specific computing, information, and communications technology requirements beyond the projected capabilities of commercially available solutions. The areas of technical focus have been chosen for their impact on NASA's missions, their national importance, and the technical challenge they provide to the Program. In order to meet its objectives, the CICT Program is organized into the following four technology focused projects: 1) Computing, Networking and Information Systems (CNIS); 2) Intelligent Systems (IS); 3) Space Communications (SC); 4) Information Technology Strategic Research (ITSR).

  15. An Evaluation of a Computer-Based Videotext Information Delivery System for Farmers: The Green Thumb Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Paul D.; Clearfield, Frank

    The Green Thumb Project was designed to test the feasibility of operating a computerized system for disseminating weather, market, and other agricultural production and management information on a day-to-day basis; to develop a prototype software support system for the test; and to provide essential project information on conduct of the test to…

  16. (CICT) Computing, Information, and Communications Technology Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the Computing, Information, and Communications Technology (CICT) program is to enable NASA's Scientific Research, Space Exploration, and Aerospace Technology Missions with greater mission assurance, for less cost, with increased science return through the development and use of advanced computing, information and communications technologies. This viewgraph presentation includes diagrams of how the political guidance behind CICT is structured. The presentation profiles each part of the NASA Mission in detail, and relates the Mission to the activities of CICT. CICT's Integrated Capability Goal is illustrated, and hypothetical missions which could be enabled by CICT are profiled. CICT technology development is profiled.

  17. Reversible Data Hiding Based on DNA Computing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yingjie

    2017-01-01

    Biocomputing, especially DNA, computing has got great development. It is widely used in information security. In this paper, a novel algorithm of reversible data hiding based on DNA computing is proposed. Inspired by the algorithm of histogram modification, which is a classical algorithm for reversible data hiding, we combine it with DNA computing to realize this algorithm based on biological technology. Compared with previous results, our experimental results have significantly improved the ER (Embedding Rate). Furthermore, some PSNR (peak signal-to-noise ratios) of test images are also improved. Experimental results show that it is suitable for protecting the copyright of cover image in DNA-based information security. PMID:28280504

  18. Reversible Data Hiding Based on DNA Computing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Xie, Yingjie; Zhou, Shihua; Zhou, Changjun; Zheng, Xuedong

    2017-01-01

    Biocomputing, especially DNA, computing has got great development. It is widely used in information security. In this paper, a novel algorithm of reversible data hiding based on DNA computing is proposed. Inspired by the algorithm of histogram modification, which is a classical algorithm for reversible data hiding, we combine it with DNA computing to realize this algorithm based on biological technology. Compared with previous results, our experimental results have significantly improved the ER (Embedding Rate). Furthermore, some PSNR (peak signal-to-noise ratios) of test images are also improved. Experimental results show that it is suitable for protecting the copyright of cover image in DNA-based information security.

  19. Network selection, Information filtering and Scalable computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Changqing

    This dissertation explores two application scenarios of sparsity pursuit method on large scale data sets. The first scenario is classification and regression in analyzing high dimensional structured data, where predictors corresponds to nodes of a given directed graph. This arises in, for instance, identification of disease genes for the Parkinson's diseases from a network of candidate genes. In such a situation, directed graph describes dependencies among the genes, where direction of edges represent certain causal effects. Key to high-dimensional structured classification and regression is how to utilize dependencies among predictors as specified by directions of the graph. In this dissertation, we develop a novel method that fully takes into account such dependencies formulated through certain nonlinear constraints. We apply the proposed method to two applications, feature selection in large margin binary classification and in linear regression. We implement the proposed method through difference convex programming for the cost function and constraints. Finally, theoretical and numerical analyses suggest that the proposed method achieves the desired objectives. An application to disease gene identification is presented. The second application scenario is personalized information filtering which extracts the information specifically relevant to a user, predicting his/her preference over a large number of items, based on the opinions of users who think alike or its content. This problem is cast into the framework of regression and classification, where we introduce novel partial latent models to integrate additional user-specific and content-specific predictors, for higher predictive accuracy. In particular, we factorize a user-over-item preference matrix into a product of two matrices, each representing a user's preference and an item preference by users. Then we propose a likelihood method to seek a sparsest latent factorization, from a class of over

  20. Computers, Health Care, and Medical Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Thomas L.; Korpman, Ralph A.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the new discipline of medical information science (MIS) and examines some problem-solving approaches used in its application in the clinical laboratory, emphasizing automation by computer technology. The health care field is viewed as one having overlapping domains of clinical medicine, health management and statistics, and fundamental…

  1. Informing Mechanistic Toxicology with Computational Molecular Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computational molecular models of chemicals interacting with biomolecular targets provides toxicologists a valuable, affordable, and sustainable source of in silico molecular level information that augments, enriches, and complements in vitro and in vivo effo...

  2. Neural computation by concentrating information in time.

    PubMed Central

    Tank, D W; Hopfield, J J

    1987-01-01

    An analog model neural network that can solve a general problem of recognizing patterns in a time-dependent signal is presented. The networks use a patterned set of delays to collectively focus stimulus sequence information to a neural state at a future time. The computational capabilities of the circuit are demonstrated on tasks somewhat similar to those necessary for the recognition of words in a continuous stream of speech. The network architecture can be understood from consideration of an energy function that is being minimized as the circuit computes. Neurobiological mechanisms are known for the generation of appropriate delays. PMID:3470765

  3. Information theoretic approaches to multidimensional neural computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Jeffrey D.

    Many systems in nature process information by transforming inputs from their environments into observable output states. These systems are often difficult to study because they are performing computations on multidimensional inputs with many degrees of freedom using highly nonlinear functions. The work presented in this dissertation deals with some of the issues involved with characterizing real-world input/output systems and understanding the properties of idealized systems using information theoretic methods. Using the principle of maximum entropy, a family of models are created that are consistent with certain measurable correlations from an input/output dataset but are maximally unbiased in all other respects, thereby eliminating all unjustified assumptions about the computation. In certain cases, including spiking neurons, we show that these models also minimize the mutual information. This property gives one the advantage of being able to identify the relevant input/output statistics by calculating their information content. We argue that these maximum entropy models provide a much needed quantitative framework for characterizing and understanding sensory processing neurons that are selective for multiple stimulus features. To demonstrate their usefulness, these ideas are applied to neural recordings from macaque retina and thalamus. These neurons, which primarily respond to two stimulus features, are shown to be well described using only first and second order statistics, indicating that their firing rates encode information about stimulus correlations. In addition to modeling multi-feature computations in the relevant feature space, we also show that maximum entropy models are capable of discovering the relevant feature space themselves. This technique overcomes the disadvantages of two commonly used dimensionality reduction methods and is explored using several simulated neurons, as well as retinal and thalamic recordings. Finally, we ask how neurons in a

  4. Multimedia, visual computing, and the information superhighway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitson, Frederick L.

    1996-04-01

    The data types of graphics, images, audio and video or collectively multimedia are becoming standard components of most computer interfaces and applications. Medical imaging in particular will be able to exploit these capabilities in concert with the database engines or 'information furnaces' that will exist as part of the information superhighway. The ability to connect experts with patients electronically enables care delivery from remote diagnostics to remote surgery. Traditional visual computing tasks such as MRI, volume rendering, computer vision or image processing may also be available to more clinics and researchers as they become 'electronically local.' Video is the component of multimedia that provides the greatest sense of presence or visual realism yet has been the most difficult to offer digitally due to its high transmission, storage and computation requirements. Advanced 3D graphics have also been a scarce or at least expensive resource. This paper addresses some of the recent innovations in media processing and client/server technology that will facilitate PCs, workstations or even set-top/TV boxes to process both video and graphics in real-time.

  5. Introduction to Quantum Information/Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    mωX + iP) sqrt(2mhω) BCS Theory – Named for John Bardeen , Leon Cooper, and Robert Schrieffer. According to theory, the...Theory and Reliable Communication, John Wiley & Sons 1998 2. M.A. Nielsen, I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information, Cambridge...France and by John Wiley & Sons. 6. H. Goldstein, Classical Mechanics, 1950 Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. 7. L.S. Brown and G

  6. Computer Aided Management for Information Processing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akman, Ibrahim; Kocamustafaogullari, Kemal

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the nature of information processing projects and discusses some project management programming packages. Describes an in-house interface program developed to utilize a selected project management package (TIMELINE) by using Oracle Data Base Management System tools and Pascal programming language for the management of information system…

  7. The computer-based lecture.

    PubMed

    Wofford, M M; Spickard, A W; Wofford, J L

    2001-07-01

    Advancing computer technology, cost-containment pressures, and desire to make innovative improvements in medical education argue for moving learning resources to the computer. A reasonable target for such a strategy is the traditional clinical lecture. The purpose of the lecture, the advantages and disadvantages of "live" versus computer-based lectures, and the technical options in computerizing the lecture deserve attention in developing a cost-effective, complementary learning strategy that preserves the teacher-learner relationship. Based on a literature review of the traditional clinical lecture, we build on the strengths of the lecture format and discuss strategies for converting the lecture to a computer-based learning presentation.

  8. Computer-based communication in support of scientific and technical work. [conferences on management information systems used by scientists of NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallee, J.; Wilson, T.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported of the first experiments for a computer conference management information system at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Between August 1975 and March 1976, two NASA projects with geographically separated participants (NASA scientists) used the PLANET computer conferencing system for portions of their work. The first project was a technology assessment of future transportation systems. The second project involved experiments with the Communication Technology Satellite. As part of this project, pre- and postlaunch operations were discussed in a computer conference. These conferences also provided the context for an analysis of the cost of computer conferencing. In particular, six cost components were identified: (1) terminal equipment, (2) communication with a network port, (3) network connection, (4) computer utilization, (5) data storage and (6) administrative overhead.

  9. Computer-Based Hindi Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Tej K.

    This paper brings out the structure and salient features of the Computer-Based Hindi Teaching (CBHT) course, which is being developed at the University of Illinois. The following topics are treated specifically: (1) areas of the Hindi Language course that can be efficiently and economically taught with computer-based pedagogy; (2) a demonstration…

  10. Computational inference of neural information flow networks.

    PubMed

    Smith, V Anne; Yu, Jing; Smulders, Tom V; Hartemink, Alexander J; Jarvis, Erich D

    2006-11-24

    Determining how information flows along anatomical brain pathways is a fundamental requirement for understanding how animals perceive their environments, learn, and behave. Attempts to reveal such neural information flow have been made using linear computational methods, but neural interactions are known to be nonlinear. Here, we demonstrate that a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) inference algorithm we originally developed to infer nonlinear transcriptional regulatory networks from gene expression data collected with microarrays is also successful at inferring nonlinear neural information flow networks from electrophysiology data collected with microelectrode arrays. The inferred networks we recover from the songbird auditory pathway are correctly restricted to a subset of known anatomical paths, are consistent with timing of the system, and reveal both the importance of reciprocal feedback in auditory processing and greater information flow to higher-order auditory areas when birds hear natural as opposed to synthetic sounds. A linear method applied to the same data incorrectly produces networks with information flow to non-neural tissue and over paths known not to exist. To our knowledge, this study represents the first biologically validated demonstration of an algorithm to successfully infer neural information flow networks.

  11. Information Based Numerical Practice.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    N I IIi I2 LA 1.6 liii I~JIIN MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK CAMPUS INSTITUTE FOR PHYSICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Technical Note S1-1059 INFORMATION BASED...K-0169 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NMEU AMC ADDRESS 16. PROGRAM CELEMNT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUNSERS, Institute for Physical Science and...BASED NUMERICAL PRACTICE I. Babuska Institute for Physical Science and Technology University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740 a Partially supported by

  12. The Lilongwe Central Hospital Patient Management Information System: A Success in Computer-Based Order Entry Where One Might Least Expect It

    PubMed Central

    GP, Douglas; RA, Deula; SE, Connor

    2003-01-01

    Computer-based order entry is a powerful tool for enhancing patient care. A pilot project in the pediatric department of the Lilongwe Central Hospital (LCH) in Malawi, Africa has demonstrated that computer-based order entry (COE): 1) can be successfully deployed and adopted in resource-poor settings, 2) can be built, deployed and sustained at relatively low cost and with local resources, and 3) has a greater potential to improve patient care in developing than in developed countries. PMID:14728338

  13. Computer-Based Confidence Testing: Alternatives to Conventional, Computer-Based Multiple-Choice Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard Ivan

    1982-01-01

    Describes confidence testing methods (confidence weighting, probabilistic marking, multiple alternative selection) as alternative to computer-based, multiple choice tests and explains potential benefits (increased reliability, improved examinee evaluation of alternatives, extended diagnostic information and remediation prescriptions, happier…

  14. CHESS: a computer-based system for providing information, referrals, decision support and social support to people facing medical and other health-related crises.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, D H; Bosworth, K; Hawkins, R P; Boberg, E W; Bricker, E

    1992-01-01

    CHESS (the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System) is an interactive, computer-based system to support people facing health-related crises or concerns. CHESS provides information, referral to service providers, support in making tough decisions and networking to experts and others facing the same concerns. CHESS will improve access to health and human services for people who would otherwise face psychological, social, economic or geographic barriers to receiving services. CHESS has developed programs in five specific topic areas: Academic Crisis, Adult Children of Alcoholics, AIDS/HIV Infection, Breast Cancer and Sexual Assault. The lessons learned, and the structures developed, will serve as a model for future implementation of CHESS programs in a broad range of other topic areas. CHESS is designed around three major desired outcomes: 1) improving the emotional health status of users; 2) increasing the cost-effective use of health and human services; and 3) reducing the incidence of risk-taking behaviors that can lead to injury or illness. Pilot-testing and initial analysis of controlled evaluation data has shown that CHESS is extensively used, is useful and easy-to-use, and produces positive emotional outcomes. Further evaluation in continuing.

  15. Computing and information sciences preliminary engineering design study

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J O; Pearson, E W; Thomas, J J; Brothers, J W; Campbell, W K; DeVaney, D M; Jones, D R; Littlefield, R J; Peterson, M J

    1991-04-01

    This document presents the preliminary design concept for the integrated computing and information system to be included in the Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington, for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The EMSL is scheduled for completion and occupancy in 1994 or 1995 and will support the DOE environmental mission, in particular hazardous waste remediation. The focus of the report is on the Computing and Information Sciences engineering task of providing a fully integrated state-of-the-art computing environment for simulation, experimentation and analysis in support of molecular research. The EMSL will house two major research organizations, the Molecular Sciences Research Center (MSRC) and part of the Environmental Sciences Research Center (ESRC). Included in the report is a preliminary description of the computing and information system to be included. The proposed system architecture is based on a preliminary understanding of the EMSL users' needs for computational resources. As users understand more about the scientific challenges they face, the definition of the functional requirements will change. At the same time, the engineering team will be gaining experience with new computing technologies. Accordingly, the design architecture must evolve to reflect this new understanding of functional requirements and enabling technologies. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Roots and promises of chemical-based computing.

    PubMed

    Rambidi, N

    2002-01-01

    General principles of information processing by chemical-based biomolecular systems (pseudobiological information processing paradigm) are discussed. These principles include very large scale parallelism of information processing, high behavioral complexity, complementarity of information features, self-organization, and multilevel architecture. Chemical-based information processing devices using these principles seem to be able to solve effectively problems of high computational complexity.

  17. 5 CFR 838.805 - OPM computation of formulas in computing the designated base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OPM computation of formulas in computing... computing the designated base. (a) A court order awarding a former spouse survivor annuity is not a court...) To provide sufficient instructions and information for OPM to compute the amount of a former...

  18. Paper-Based and Computer-Based Concept Mappings: The Effects on Computer Achievement, Computer Anxiety and Computer Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Yavuz

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of paper-based and computer-based concept mappings on computer hardware achievement, computer anxiety and computer attitude of the eight grade secondary school students. The students were randomly allocated to three groups and were given instruction on computer hardware. The teaching methods used…

  19. PREFACE: Quantum Information, Communication, Computation and Cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benatti, F.; Fannes, M.; Floreanini, R.; Petritis, D.

    2007-07-01

    The application of quantum mechanics to information related fields such as communication, computation and cryptography is a fast growing line of research that has been witnessing an outburst of theoretical and experimental results, with possible practical applications. On the one hand, quantum cryptography with its impact on secrecy of transmission is having its first important actual implementations; on the other hand, the recent advances in quantum optics, ion trapping, BEC manipulation, spin and quantum dot technologies allow us to put to direct test a great deal of theoretical ideas and results. These achievements have stimulated a reborn interest in various aspects of quantum mechanics, creating a unique interplay between physics, both theoretical and experimental, mathematics, information theory and computer science. In view of all these developments, it appeared timely to organize a meeting where graduate students and young researchers could be exposed to the fundamentals of the theory, while senior experts could exchange their latest results. The activity was structured as a school followed by a workshop, and took place at The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and The International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Trieste, Italy, from 12-23 June 2006. The meeting was part of the activity of the Joint European Master Curriculum Development Programme in Quantum Information, Communication, Cryptography and Computation, involving the Universities of Cergy-Pontoise (France), Chania (Greece), Leuven (Belgium), Rennes1 (France) and Trieste (Italy). This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical collects 22 contributions from well known experts who took part in the workshop. They summarize the present day status of the research in the manifold aspects of quantum information. The issue is opened by two review articles, the first by G Adesso and F Illuminati discussing entanglement in continuous variable

  20. QPSO-based adaptive DNA computing algorithm.

    PubMed

    Karakose, Mehmet; Cigdem, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) computing that is a new computation model based on DNA molecules for information storage has been increasingly used for optimization and data analysis in recent years. However, DNA computing algorithm has some limitations in terms of convergence speed, adaptability, and effectiveness. In this paper, a new approach for improvement of DNA computing is proposed. This new approach aims to perform DNA computing algorithm with adaptive parameters towards the desired goal using quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO). Some contributions provided by the proposed QPSO based on adaptive DNA computing algorithm are as follows: (1) parameters of population size, crossover rate, maximum number of operations, enzyme and virus mutation rate, and fitness function of DNA computing algorithm are simultaneously tuned for adaptive process, (2) adaptive algorithm is performed using QPSO algorithm for goal-driven progress, faster operation, and flexibility in data, and (3) numerical realization of DNA computing algorithm with proposed approach is implemented in system identification. Two experiments with different systems were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach with comparative results. Experimental results obtained with Matlab and FPGA demonstrate ability to provide effective optimization, considerable convergence speed, and high accuracy according to DNA computing algorithm.

  1. For operation of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmon, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Computer programs for relational information management data base systems, spherical roller bearing analysis, a generalized pseudoinverse of a rectangular matrix, and software design and documentation language are summarized.

  2. A simplified computational memory model from information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lanhua; Zhang, Dongsheng; Deng, Yuqin; Ding, Xiaoqian; Wang, Yan; Tang, Yiyuan; Sun, Baoliang

    2016-11-01

    This paper is intended to propose a computational model for memory from the view of information processing. The model, called simplified memory information retrieval network (SMIRN), is a bi-modular hierarchical functional memory network by abstracting memory function and simulating memory information processing. At first meta-memory is defined to express the neuron or brain cortices based on the biology and graph theories, and we develop an intra-modular network with the modeling algorithm by mapping the node and edge, and then the bi-modular network is delineated with intra-modular and inter-modular. At last a polynomial retrieval algorithm is introduced. In this paper we simulate the memory phenomena and functions of memorization and strengthening by information processing algorithms. The theoretical analysis and the simulation results show that the model is in accordance with the memory phenomena from information processing view.

  3. A simplified computational memory model from information processing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lanhua; Zhang, Dongsheng; Deng, Yuqin; Ding, Xiaoqian; Wang, Yan; Tang, Yiyuan; Sun, Baoliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper is intended to propose a computational model for memory from the view of information processing. The model, called simplified memory information retrieval network (SMIRN), is a bi-modular hierarchical functional memory network by abstracting memory function and simulating memory information processing. At first meta-memory is defined to express the neuron or brain cortices based on the biology and graph theories, and we develop an intra-modular network with the modeling algorithm by mapping the node and edge, and then the bi-modular network is delineated with intra-modular and inter-modular. At last a polynomial retrieval algorithm is introduced. In this paper we simulate the memory phenomena and functions of memorization and strengthening by information processing algorithms. The theoretical analysis and the simulation results show that the model is in accordance with the memory phenomena from information processing view. PMID:27876847

  4. Gauging Information and Computer Skills for Curriculum Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Janice M.; Ha, YooJin

    2012-01-01

    Background: All types of librarians are expected to possess information and computer skills to actively assist patrons in accessing information and in recognizing reputable sources. Mastery of information and computer skills is a high priority for library and information science programs since graduate students have varied multidisciplinary…

  5. Information-based clustering

    PubMed Central

    Slonim, Noam; Atwal, Gurinder Singh; Tkačik, Gašper; Bialek, William

    2005-01-01

    In an age of increasingly large data sets, investigators in many different disciplines have turned to clustering as a tool for data analysis and exploration. Existing clustering methods, however, typically depend on several nontrivial assumptions about the structure of data. Here, we reformulate the clustering problem from an information theoretic perspective that avoids many of these assumptions. In particular, our formulation obviates the need for defining a cluster “prototype,” does not require an a priori similarity metric, is invariant to changes in the representation of the data, and naturally captures nonlinear relations. We apply this approach to different domains and find that it consistently produces clusters that are more coherent than those extracted by existing algorithms. Finally, our approach provides a way of clustering based on collective notions of similarity rather than the traditional pairwise measures. PMID:16352721

  6. Computer-Based Weather Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-29

    F D-A994 020 SYSTEMS AND APPLZED SCIENCES CORP RIVERDALE MD FIG q/ COMPUTER BASED WEATHER RESEARCH.(U) FEB 80 A M GERLACH F19628-79-C-0033 Mrt F P0...AFGL-TR-80-0069 Na EIIIETEEII IBIBIIfIIIINI 0 Alan M4. Gerlach (ed.) I ~ stems and Applied Sciences Corporationl N~i eiworth Avenue I Riverdale...TITLE (and Si~bt,tle) 5 TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED 7 cientific X’epaartVo. 2. COMPUTER-BASED WEATHER RESEARCH I Dee 78 - 3/’ Nov 79 \\ 7AUTHOR B ~MER

  7. CICT Computing, Information, and Communications Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufenberg, Lawrence; Tu, Eugene (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CICT Program is part of the NASA Aerospace Technology Enterprise's fundamental technology thrust to develop tools. processes, and technologies that enable new aerospace system capabilities and missions. The CICT Program's four key objectives are: Provide seamless access to NASA resources- including ground-, air-, and space-based distributed information technology resources-so that NASA scientists and engineers can more easily control missions, make new scientific discoveries, and design the next-generation space vehicles, provide high-data delivery from these assets directly to users for missions, develop goal-oriented human-centered systems, and research, develop and evaluate revolutionary technology.

  8. The Computer Subroutine in Information Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Donald E.

    Generalized computational subroutines can reduce programing repetitions and wasteful computer storage use. The most useful are those that are flexible enough to handle a wide variety of situations. Subroutines may have details open to change in order to blend into the main program. They may be built into the computer library or supplied by the…

  9. 11 CFR 9003.6 - Production of computer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production of computer information. 9003.6... ELECTION FINANCING ELIGIBILITY FOR PAYMENTS § 9003.6 Production of computer information. (a) Categories of... explaining the computer system's software capabilities, such as user guides, technical manuals,...

  10. 11 CFR 9003.6 - Production of computer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production of computer information. 9003.6... ELECTION FINANCING ELIGIBILITY FOR PAYMENTS § 9003.6 Production of computer information. (a) Categories of... explaining the computer system's software capabilities, such as user guides, technical manuals,...

  11. 11 CFR 9003.6 - Production of computer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production of computer information. 9003.6... ELECTION FINANCING ELIGIBILITY FOR PAYMENTS § 9003.6 Production of computer information. (a) Categories of... explaining the computer system's software capabilities, such as user guides, technical manuals,...

  12. 11 CFR 9003.6 - Production of computer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production of computer information. 9003.6... ELECTION FINANCING ELIGIBILITY FOR PAYMENTS § 9003.6 Production of computer information. (a) Categories of... explaining the computer system's software capabilities, such as user guides, technical manuals,...

  13. 11 CFR 9003.6 - Production of computer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Production of computer information. 9003.6... ELECTION FINANCING ELIGIBILITY FOR PAYMENTS § 9003.6 Production of computer information. (a) Categories of... explaining the computer system's software capabilities, such as user guides, technical manuals,...

  14. A system of computer programs (WAT{_}MOVE) for transferring data among data bases in the US Geological Survey National Water Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.D.; Kerans, B.K.

    1991-11-01

    This report describes WAT{_}MOVE, a system of computer programs that was developed for moving National Water Information System data between US Geological Survey distributed computer databases. WAT{_}MOVE has three major sub-systems: one for retrieval, one for loading, and one for purging. The retrieval sub-system creates transaction files of retrieved data for transfer and invokes a file transfer to send the transaction files to the receiving site. The loading sub-system reads the control and transaction files retrieved from the source database and loads the data in the appropriate files. The purging sub-system deletes data from a database. Although WAT{_}MOVE was developed for use by the Geological Survey`s Hydrologic Investigations Program of the Yucca Mountain Project Branch, the software can be beneficial to any office maintaining data in the Site File, ADAPS (Automated Data Processing System), GWSI (Ground-Water Site Inventory), and QW (Quality of Water) sub-systems of the National Water Information System. The software also can be used to move data between databases on a single network node or to modify data within a database.

  15. Computer Based Virtual Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kenneth F.; Hosticka, Alice; Schriver, Martha; Bedell, Jackie

    This paper discusses computer based virtual field trips that use technologies commonly found in public schools in the United States. The discussion focuses on the advantages of both using and creating these field trips for an instructional situation. A virtual field trip to Cumberland Island National Seashore, St. Marys, Georgia is used as a point…

  16. Results of Computer Based Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    This report compares the projected savings of using computer based training to conduct training for newly hired pilots to the results of that application. New Hire training, one of a number of programs conducted continuously at the United Airline Flight Operations Training Center, is designed to assure that any newly hired pilot will be able to…

  17. Computer-Based Concept Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, K. M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is a computer-based tool, SemNet, which can be used by good and poor students to facilitate, extend, and polish their learning skills. Emphasized are skills associated with meaningful or deep-level learning. The components, use, and theoretical background of the software are discussed. (CW)

  18. Defining Information Needs of Computer Users: A Human Communication Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Kenneth L.

    This exploratory investigation of the process of defining the information needs of computer users and the impact of that process on information retrieval focuses on communication problems. Six sites were visited that used computers to process data or to provide information, including the California Department of Transportation, the California…

  19. Computer Human Interaction for Image Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, David Volk

    1991-01-01

    Presents an approach to developing viable image computer-human interactions (CHI) involving user metaphors for comprehending image data and methods for locating, accessing, and displaying computer images. A medical-image radiology workstation application is used as an example, and feedback and evaluation methods are discussed. (41 references) (LRW)

  20. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2014-12-30

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  1. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2015-01-27

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  2. Hypertext-based computer vision teaching packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. David

    1994-10-01

    The World Wide Web Initiative has provided a means for providing hypertext and multimedia based information across the whole INTERNET. Many applications have been developed on such http servers. At Cardiff we have developed a http hypertext based multimedia server, the Cardiff Information Server, using the widely available Mosaic system. The server provides a variety of information ranging from the provision of teaching modules, on- line documentation, timetables for departmental activities to more light hearted hobby interests. One important and novel development to the server has been the development of courseware facilities. This ranges from the provision of on-line lecture notes, exercises and their solutions to more interactive teaching packages. A variety of disciplines have benefitted notably Computer Vision, and Image Processing but also C programming, X Windows, Computer Graphics and Parallel Computing. This paper will address the issues of the implementation of the Computer Vision and Image Processing packages, the advantages gained from using a hypertext based system and also will relate practical experiences of using the packages in a class environment. The paper addresses issues of how best to provide information in such a hypertext based system and how interactive image processing packages can be developed and integrated into courseware. The suite of tools developed facilitates a flexible and powerful courseware package that has proved popular in the classroom and over the Internet. The paper will also detail many future developments we see possible. One of the key points raised in the paper is that Mosaic's hypertext language (html) is extremely powerful and yet relatively straightforward to use. It is also possible to link in Unix calls so that programs and shells can be executed. This provides a powerful suite of utilities that can be exploited to develop many packages.

  3. Computer-Based Information Management System. Project STEEL. A Special Project To Develop and Implement a Computer-Based Special Teacher Education and Evaluation Laboratory. Volume IV. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore W.; And Others

    The document is part of the final report on Project STEEL (Special Teacher Education and Evaluation Laboratory) intended to extend the utilization of technology in the training of preservice special education teachers. This volume focuses on the fourth of four project objectives, the development and preliminary evaluation of a computer-based…

  4. The Czechoslovak Computer Information System ASTI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrych, Miroslav; Fogl, Ing. Jiri

    1971-01-01

    Discussed is the Czechoslovak program of State Information Policy which aims at the construction of a unified, integrated national system of scientific, technological and economic information. (Author/SJ)

  5. The ABLEDATA System: Instant Information via Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1983

    1983-01-01

    ABLEDATA, a computerized information database, provides information on commercially available rehabilitation products in 13 major categories, including personal care, mobility, communication, and prosthetics. Product information includes manufacturer's name, availability, cost, and formal evaluation results. The network is accessible to anyone via…

  6. Computer Software Management and Information Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Computer programs for passive anti-roll tank, earth resources laboratory applications, the NIMBUS-7 coastal zone color scanner derived products, transportable applications executive, plastic and failure analysis of composites, velocity gradient method for calculating velocities in an axisymmetric annular duct, an integrated procurement management system, data I/O PRON for the Motorola exorcisor, aerodynamic shock-layer shape, kinematic modeling, hardware library for a graphics computer, and a file archival system are documented.

  7. Bridging the integration gap between imaging and information systems: a uniform data concept for content-based image retrieval in computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Welter, Petra; Riesmeier, Jörg; Fischer, Benedikt; Grouls, Christoph; Kuhl, Christiane; Deserno, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that content-based image retrieval (CBIR) can be extremely useful for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). However, CBIR has not been established in clinical practice yet. As a widely unattended gap of integration, a unified data concept for CBIR-based CAD results and reporting is lacking. Picture archiving and communication systems and the workflow of radiologists must be considered for successful data integration to be achieved. We suggest that CBIR systems applied to CAD should integrate their results in a picture archiving and communication systems environment such as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) structured reporting documents. A sample DICOM structured reporting template adaptable to CBIR and an appropriate integration scheme is presented. The proposed CBIR data concept may foster the promulgation of CBIR systems in clinical environments and, thereby, improve the diagnostic process.

  8. Can computational goals inform theories of vision?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barton L

    2015-04-01

    One of the most lasting contributions of Marr's posthumous book is his articulation of the different "levels of analysis" that are needed to understand vision. Although a variety of work has examined how these different levels are related, there is comparatively little examination of the assumptions on which his proposed levels rest, or the plausibility of the approach Marr articulated given those assumptions. Marr placed particular significance on computational level theory, which specifies the "goal" of a computation, its appropriateness for solving a particular problem, and the logic by which it can be carried out. The structure of computational level theory is inherently teleological: What the brain does is described in terms of its purpose. I argue that computational level theory, and the reverse-engineering approach it inspires, requires understanding the historical trajectory that gave rise to functional capacities that can be meaningfully attributed with some sense of purpose or goal, that is, a reconstruction of the fitness function on which natural selection acted in shaping our visual abilities. I argue that this reconstruction is required to distinguish abilities shaped by natural selection-"natural tasks" -from evolutionary "by-products" (spandrels, co-optations, and exaptations), rather than merely demonstrating that computational goals can be embedded in a Bayesian model that renders a particular behavior or process rational.

  9. Fostering an Informal Learning Community of Computer Technologies at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Lu; Carroll, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Computer technologies develop at a challenging fast pace. Formal education should not only teach students basic computer skills to meet current computer needs, but also foster student development of informal learning ability for a lifelong learning process. On the other hand, students growing up in the digital world are often more skilled with…

  10. Information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality and quantum computation

    SciTech Connect

    Morikoshi, Fumiaki

    2006-05-15

    An information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality is formulated to contrast classical and quantum computations. Any classical algorithm satisfies the inequality, while quantum ones can violate it. Therefore, the violation of the inequality is an immediate consequence of the quantumness in the computation. Furthermore, this approach suggests a notion of temporal nonlocality in quantum computation.

  11. Computing, Information, and Communications Technology (CICT) Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.

    2003-01-01

    The Computing, Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Program's goal is to enable NASA's Scientific Research, Space Exploration, and Aerospace Technology Missions with greater mission assurance, for less cost, with increased science return through the development and use of advanced computing, information and communication technologies

  12. International Computer and Information Literacy Study: Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraillon, Julian; Schulz, Wolfram; Ainley, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the International Computer and Information Literacy Study 2013 (ICILS 2013) is to investigate, in a range of countries, the ways in which young people are developing "computer and information literacy" (CIL) to support their capacity to participate in the digital age. To achieve this aim, the study will assess student…

  13. Remote sensing and geographically based information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicone, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The incorporation of remotely sensed digital data in a computer based information system is seen to be equivalent to the incorporation of any other spatially oriented layer of data. The growing interest in such systems indicates a need to develop a generalized geographically oriented data base management system that could be made commercially available for a wide range of applications. Some concepts that distinguish geographic information systems were reviewed, and a simple model which can serve as a conceptual framework for the design of a generalized geographic information system was examined.

  14. Computation of Semantic Number from Morphological Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Iris; Pinker, Steven; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bibi, Uri; Goldfarb, Liat

    2005-01-01

    The distinction between singular and plural enters into linguistic phenomena such as morphology, lexical semantics, and agreement and also must interface with perceptual and conceptual systems that assess numerosity in the world. Three experiments examine the computation of semantic number for singulars and plurals from the morphological…

  15. Applying Human Computation Methods to Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Christopher Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Human Computation methods such as crowdsourcing and games with a purpose (GWAP) have each recently drawn considerable attention for their ability to synergize the strengths of people and technology to accomplish tasks that are challenging for either to do well alone. Despite this increased attention, much of this transformation has been focused on…

  16. Computer-Based Medical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    SYMED, Inc., developed a unique electronic medical records and information management system. The S2000 Medical Interactive Care System (MICS) incorporates both a comprehensive and interactive medical care support capability and an extensive array of digital medical reference materials in either text or high resolution graphic form. The system was designed, in cooperation with NASA, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of physician practices. The S2000 is a MS (Microsoft) Windows based software product which combines electronic forms, medical documents, records management, and features a comprehensive medical information system for medical diagnostic support and treatment. SYMED, Inc. offers access to its medical systems to all companies seeking competitive advantages.

  17. Integrated computational and conceptual solutions for complex environmental information management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rückemann, Claus-Peter

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the recent results of the integration of computational and conceptual solutions for the complex case of environmental information management. The solution for the major goal of creating and developing long-term multi-disciplinary knowledge resources and conceptual and computational support was achieved by implementing and integrating key components. The key components are long-term knowledge resources providing required structures for universal knowledge creation, documentation, and preservation, universal multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual conceptual knowledge and classification, especially, references to Universal Decimal Classification (UDC), sustainable workflows for environmental information management, and computational support for dynamical use, processing, and advanced scientific computing with Integrated Information and Computing System (IICS) components and High End Computing (HEC) resources.

  18. Industrial information database service by personal computer network 'Saitamaken Industrial Information System'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Keiji

    Saitamaken Industrial Information System provides onlined database services, which does not rely on computers for the whole operation, but utilizes computers, optical disk files or facsimiles for certain operations as we think fit. It employes the method of providing information for various, outputs, that is, image information is sent from optical disk files to facsimiles, or other information is provided from computers to terminals as well as facsimiles. Locating computers as a core in the system, it enables integrated operations. The system at terminal side was developed separately with functions such as operation by turnkey style, down-loading of statistical information and the newest menu.

  19. The concept of information in scientific computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlieb, D.; Abarbanel, S.; Tadmor, E.

    The spectral approximation of discontinuous problems is discussed to show that when the solution is a complicated function the grid point value approximation is not acceptable, and to suggest different ways for the realization of the solution in such cases. The information contained and how to extract it is discussed for the case of a linear hyperbolic operator with variable coefficients and a discontinuous function. A smoothing procedure is outlined and its efficiency is demonstrated. A differential method for extracting information is described. It is shown that the use of digital filters to overcome the Gibbs phenomenon is applicable to this type of problem.

  20. Inversion based on computational simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.; Saquib, S.S.

    1998-09-01

    A standard approach to solving inversion problems that involve many parameters uses gradient-based optimization to find the parameters that best match the data. The authors discuss enabling techniques that facilitate application of this approach to large-scale computational simulations, which are the only way to investigate many complex physical phenomena. Such simulations may not seem to lend themselves to calculation of the gradient with respect to numerous parameters. However, adjoint differentiation allows one to efficiently compute the gradient of an objective function with respect to all the variables of a simulation. When combined with advanced gradient-based optimization algorithms, adjoint differentiation permits one to solve very large problems of optimization or parameter estimation. These techniques will be illustrated through the simulation of the time-dependent diffusion of infrared light through tissue, which has been used to perform optical tomography. The techniques discussed have a wide range of applicability to modeling including the optimization of models to achieve a desired design goal.

  1. Information modification and particle collisions in distributed computation.

    PubMed

    Lizier, Joseph T; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Zomaya, Albert Y

    2010-09-01

    Distributed computation can be described in terms of the fundamental operations of information storage, transfer, and modification. To describe the dynamics of information in computation, we need to quantify these operations on a local scale in space and time. In this paper we extend previous work regarding the local quantification of information storage and transfer, to explore how information modification can be quantified at each spatiotemporal point in a system. We introduce the separable information, a measure which locally identifies information modification events where separate inspection of the sources to a computation is misleading about its outcome. We apply this measure to cellular automata, where it is shown to be the first direct quantitative measure to provide evidence for the long-held conjecture that collisions between emergent particles therein are the dominant information modification events.

  2. Computationally Inexpensive Identification of Non-Informative Model Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, J.; Cuntz, M.; Kumar, R.; Zink, M.; Samaniego, L. E.; Schaefer, D.; Thober, S.; Rakovec, O.; Musuuza, J. L.; Craven, J. R.; Spieler, D.; Schrön, M.; Prykhodko, V.; Dalmasso, G.; Langenberg, B.; Attinger, S.

    2014-12-01

    Sensitivity analysis is used, for example, to identify parameters which induce the largest variability in model output and are thus informative during calibration. Variance-based techniques are employed for this purpose, which unfortunately require a large number of model evaluations and are thus ineligible for complex environmental models. We developed, therefore, a computational inexpensive screening method, which is based on Elementary Effects, that automatically separates informative and non-informative model parameters. The method was tested using the mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM) with 52 parameters. The model was applied in three European catchments with different hydrological characteristics, i.e. Neckar (Germany), Sava (Slovenia), and Guadalquivir (Spain). The method identified the same informative parameters as the standard Sobol method but with less than 1% of model runs. In Germany and Slovenia, 22 of 52 parameters were informative mostly in the formulations of evapotranspiration, interflow and percolation. In Spain 19 of 52 parameters were informative with an increased importance of soil parameters. We showed further that Sobol' indexes calculated for the subset of informative parameters are practically the same as Sobol' indexes before the screening but the number of model runs was reduced by more than 50%. The model mHM was then calibrated twice in the three test catchments. First all 52 parameters were taken into account and then only the informative parameters were calibrated while all others are kept fixed. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies were 0.87 and 0.83 in Germany, 0.89 and 0.88 in Slovenia, and 0.86 and 0.85 in Spain, respectively. This minor loss of at most 4% in model performance comes along with a substantial decrease of at least 65% in model evaluations. In summary, we propose an efficient screening method to identify non-informative model parameters that can be discarded during further applications. We have shown that sensitivity

  3. Inductive Information Retrieval Using Parallel Distributed Computation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    June 1984 ICS Report No. 8406 COGNITIVE SCIENCE ~ TCUT _______JUL 0 5 84 NI I E W I OF CALPOAMA, MANGO LA JOLLA, CALIPOWIA 9. o 0 03, 00 1T o4 I , , i...1N4 Michael C. Mater ONR Report W5 :.:L-::: Thh, e -ia __ -M %. %o ..- ’ -:." Unclassified L 1’ ’-,, t,% ,f--’ s &-:, * ,a a~t,-.j 4 T T%. ( Suit, i...help overcome incompleteness and imprecision in requests for information, as well as in the database itself. . e Accessioft For ITIS G1RA& -, MDIC TAB

  4. The Information Science Experiment System - The computer for science experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, Edwin C.; Husson, Charles

    1989-01-01

    The concept of the Information Science Experiment System (ISES), potential experiments, and system requirements are reviewed. The ISES is conceived as a computer resource in space whose aim is to assist computer, earth, and space science experiments, to develop and demonstrate new information processing concepts, and to provide an experiment base for developing new information technology for use in space systems. The discussion covers system hardware and architecture, operating system software, the user interface, and the ground communication link.

  5. Interactive Computer-Assisted Instruction in Acid-Base Physiology for Mobile Computer Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmuir, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    In this project, the traditional lecture hall presentation of acid-base physiology in the first-year medical school curriculum was replaced by interactive, computer-assisted instruction designed primarily for the iPad and other mobile computer platforms. Three learning modules were developed, each with ~20 screens of information, on the subjects…

  6. Web application for simplifying access to computer center resources and information.

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J. W.

    2013-05-01

    Lorenz is a product of the ASC Scientific Data Management effort. Lorenz is a web-based application designed to help computer centers make information and resources more easily available to their users.

  7. Object-based media and stream-based computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, V. Michael, Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Object-based media refers to the representation of audiovisual information as a collection of objects - the result of scene-analysis algorithms - and a script describing how they are to be rendered for display. Such multimedia presentations can adapt to viewing circumstances as well as to viewer preferences and behavior, and can provide a richer link between content creator and consumer. With faster networks and processors, such ideas become applicable to live interpersonal communications as well, creating a more natural and productive alternative to traditional videoconferencing. In this paper is outlined an example of object-based media algorithms and applications developed by my group, and present new hardware architectures and software methods that we have developed to enable meeting the computational requirements of object- based and other advanced media representations. In particular we describe stream-based processing, which enables automatic run-time parallelization of multidimensional signal processing tasks even given heterogenous computational resources.

  8. Computer Center: BASIC String Models of Genetic Information Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain, James D., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses some of the major genetic information processes which may be modeled by computer program string manipulation, focusing on replication and transcription. Also discusses instructional applications of using string models. (JN)

  9. Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.

    PubMed

    Kerren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses.

  10. An Information Security Education Initiative for Engineering and Computer Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Provost This report was prepared as part of the Naval Postgraduate School Center For Information Systems Security (INFOSEC) Studies and Research (NPS...Released by: DAN BOGER DAVID NETZER¾ý- Acting Dean of Division of Computer and Dean of Research Operations .- ’-rt7 rz Form approved REPORT...and Computer Science Shiu-Kai Chin Cynthia Irvine Department of Electrical and Center for INFOSEC Computer Engineering Studies and Research Syracuse

  11. Information Security in the Age of Cloud Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, J. Eric

    2012-01-01

    Information security has been a particularly hot topic since the enhanced internal control requirements of Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) were introduced in 2002. At about this same time, cloud computing started its explosive growth. Outsourcing of mission-critical functions has always been a gamble for managers, but the advantages of cloud computing are…

  12. Course Syllabus: The Social Impact of Computer Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behar, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    This syllabus describes the course background, central themes and issues, texts, resources, and recommended readings. Main topics are the sociology of information technology, computers and social change, telecommunications, computers and human interactions, applications in working, and social issues and political implications. (YP)

  13. Selective Bibliography on the History of Computing and Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspray, William

    1982-01-01

    Lists some of the better-known and more accessible books on the history of computing and information processing, covering: (1) popular general works; (2) more technical general works; (3) microelectronics and computing; (4) artificial intelligence and robotics; (5) works relating to Charles Babbage; (6) other biographical and personal accounts;…

  14. The Impact of Instructional Elements in Computer-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Florence; Klein, James D.; Sullivan, Howard

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of several elements of instruction (objectives, information, practice, examples and review) when they were combined in a systematic manner. College students enrolled in a computer literacy course used one of six different versions of a computer-based lesson delivered on the web to learn about input, processing,…

  15. Remote sensing and geographically based information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicone, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A structure is proposed for a geographically-oriented computer-based information system applicable to the analysis of remote sensing digital data. The structure, intended to answer a wide variety of user needs, would permit multiple views of the data, provide independent management of data security, quality and integrity, and rely on automatic data filing. Problems in geographically-oriented data systems, including those related to line encoding and cell encoding, are considered.

  16. Information security: where computer science, economics and psychology meet.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ross; Moore, Tyler

    2009-07-13

    Until ca. 2000, information security was seen as a technological discipline, based on computer science but with mathematics helping in the design of ciphers and protocols. That perspective started to change as researchers and practitioners realized the importance of economics. As distributed systems are increasingly composed of machines that belong to principals with divergent interests, incentives are becoming as important to dependability as technical design. A thriving new field of information security economics provides valuable insights not just into 'security' topics such as privacy, bugs, spam and phishing, but into more general areas of system dependability and policy. This research programme has recently started to interact with psychology. One thread is in response to phishing, the most rapidly growing form of online crime, in which fraudsters trick people into giving their credentials to bogus websites; a second is through the increasing importance of security usability; and a third comes through the psychology-and-economics tradition. The promise of this multidisciplinary research programme is a novel framework for analysing information security problems-one that is both principled and effective.

  17. Continued research on computer-based testing.

    PubMed Central

    Clyman, S. G.; Julian, E. R.; Orr, N. A.; Dillon, G. F.; Cotton, K. E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Board of Medical Examiners has developed computer-based examination formats for use in evaluating physicians in training. This paper describes continued research on these formats including attitudes about computers and effects of factors not related to the trait being measured; differences between paper-administered and computer-administered multiple-choice questions; and the characteristics of simulation formats. The implications for computer-based testing and further research are discussed. PMID:1807703

  18. Computer Self-Efficacy among Health Information Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Dorothy Marie

    2011-01-01

    Roles and functions of health information professionals are evolving due to the mandated electronic health record adoption process for healthcare facilities. A knowledgeable workforce with computer information technology skill sets is required for the successful collection of quality patient-care data, improvement of productivity, and…

  19. Splash, pop, sizzle: Information processing with phononic computing

    SciTech Connect

    Sklan, Sophia R.

    2015-05-15

    Phonons, the quanta of mechanical vibration, are important to the transport of heat and sound in solid materials. Recent advances in the fundamental control of phonons (phononics) have brought into prominence the potential role of phonons in information processing. In this review, the many directions of realizing phononic computing and information processing are examined. Given the relative similarity of vibrational transport at different length scales, the related fields of acoustic, phononic, and thermal information processing are all included, as are quantum and classical computer implementations. Connections are made between the fundamental questions in phonon transport and phononic control and the device level approach to diodes, transistors, memory, and logic. .

  20. Recommendations for responsible monitoring and regulation of clinical software systems. American Medical Informatics Association, Computer-based Patient Record Institute, Medical Library Association, Association of Academic Health Science Libraries, American Health Information Management Association, American Nurses Association.

    PubMed

    Miller, R A; Gardner, R M

    1997-01-01

    In mid-1996, the FDA called for discussions on regulation of clinical software programs as medical devices. In response, a consortium of organizations dedicated to improving health care through information technology has developed recommendations for the responsible regulation and monitoring of clinical software systems by users, vendors, and regulatory agencies. Organizations assisting in development of recommendations, or endorsing the consortium position include the American Medical Informatics Association, the Computer-based Patient Record Institute, the Medical Library Association, the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries, the American Health Information Management Association, the American Nurses Association, the Center for Healthcare Information Management, and the American College of Physicians. The consortium proposes four categories of clinical system risks and four classes of measured monitoring and regulatory actions that can be applied strategically based on the level of risk in a given setting. The consortium recommends local oversight of clinical software systems, and adoption by healthcare information system developers of a code of good business practices. Budgetary and other constraints limit the type and number of systems that the FDA can regulate effectively. FDA regulation should exempt most clinical software systems and focus on those systems posing highest clinical risk, with limited opportunities for competent human intervention.

  1. Embrittlement Database from the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Embrittlement Data Base (EDB) is a comprehensive collection of data from surveillance capsules of U.S. commercial nuclear power reactors and from experiments in material test reactors. The collected data are contained in either the Power Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (PR-EDB) or the Test Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (TR-EDB). The EDB work includes verification of the quality of the EDB, provision for user-friendly software to access and process the data, exploration and/or confirmation of embrittlement prediction models, provision for rapid investigation of regulatory issues, and provision for the technical bases for voluntary consensus standards or regulatory guides. The EDB is designed for use with a personal computer. The data are collected into "raw data files." Traceability of all data is maintained by including complete references along with the page numbers. External data verification of the PR-EDB is the responsibility of the vendors, who were responsible for the insertion and testing of the materials in the surveillance capsules. Internal verification is accomplished by checking against references and checking for inconsistencies. Examples of information contained in the EDBs are: Charpy data, tensile data, reactor type, irradiation environments, fracture toughness data, instrumented Charpy data, pressure-temperature (P-T) data, chemistry data, and material history. The TR-EDB additionally has annealing Charpy data. The current version of the PR-EDB contains the test results from 269 Charpy capsules irradiated in 101 reactors. These results include 320 plate data points, 123 forging data points, 113 standard reference materials (SRMS) or correlation monitor (CM) points, 244 weld material data points, and 220 heat-affected-zone (HAZ) material data points. Similarly, the TR-EDB contains information for 290 SRM or CM points, 342 plate data points, 165 forging data points, 378 welds, and 55 HAZ materials. [copied from http://rsicc.ornl.gov/RelatedLinks.aspx?t=edb

  2. Small Computer Applications for Base Supply.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    assistance. Special recognition goes to the members of the International Logistics Section. Third, to the members of the Supply community, for their... Recognition of Small Computers. . . 11 Major Command Applications .. ......... 12 Base Level Applications ... . .. . . . . 14 Problem Statement...computer use in the Air Force? Air Force Recognition of Small Computers The Air Force has recently realized the potential offered by these small

  3. Computer-Based Learning in Chemistry Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietzner, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Currently not many people would doubt that computers play an essential role in both public and private life in many countries. However, somewhat surprisingly, evidence of computer use is difficult to find in German state schools although other countries have managed to implement computer-based teaching and learning in their schools. This paper…

  4. Customizable Computer-Based Interaction Analysis for Coaching and Self-Regulation in Synchronous CSCL Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonchamp, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Computer-based interaction analysis (IA) is an automatic process that aims at understanding a computer-mediated activity. In a CSCL system, computer-based IA can provide information directly to learners for self-assessment and regulation and to tutors for coaching support. This article proposes a customizable computer-based IA approach for a…

  5. A Computer Data Base for Clinicians, Managers and Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Gottfredson, Douglas K.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1972 the Salt Lake VA Medical Center has designed, developed and upgraded a computer system to improve the quality of health care for veterans. The computer system has greatly increased the ease and accuracy with which information is gathered, stored, retrieved and analysed. Though it has not been possible to anticipate every question which might be asked, we have attempted to recognize the special interests of various groups and individuals and to tailor the computer data base to meet their needs. The SL VAMC computer system facilitates meeting accountability requirements established by different agencies to assure quality of care. Computer techniques provide clinicians with information for assessment, planning, providing treatment, following progress and establishing discharge and after-care plans. Managers are provided information vital for decisions and to complete required reports. Researchers can readily study the effectiveness of assessment, diagnoses and treatment and recommend program improvements.

  6. Computer programs: Information retrieval and data analysis, a compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The items presented in this compilation are divided into two sections. Section one treats of computer usage devoted to the retrieval of information that affords the user rapid entry into voluminous collections of data on a selective basis. Section two is a more generalized collection of computer options for the user who needs to take such data and reduce it to an analytical study within a specific discipline. These programs, routines, and subroutines should prove useful to users who do not have access to more sophisticated and expensive computer software.

  7. Computer-Based Job Aiding: Problem Solving at Work.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    KEY .ORDS (CUMue M mum. Wif. of aeeeM. am 8 F Wp Wi MMW) technical literacy , problem solving, computer based job aiding comliute~r based instruction...discourse processes, although those notions are opera- tionalized in a new way. Infomation Search in Technical Literacy as Problem Solving The dimensions of...computer-assisted technical literacy , information seeking strategies employed during an assembly task were analyzed in terms of overall group frequencies

  8. 75 FR 19428 - Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and... Cassandra Queen at the Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering at...

  9. 76 FR 61118 - Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting In... Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and.... Contact Person: Carmen Whitson, Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering,...

  10. 77 FR 24538 - Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science And Engineering; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science And Engineering; Notice of Meeting In... Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and...: Carmen Whitson, Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering, National...

  11. 76 FR 20051 - Advisory Committee for Computer and Information; Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Advisory Committee for Computer and Information; Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting: ] Name: Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and..., Directorate for Computer and Information, Science and Engineering, National Science Foundation, 4201...

  12. The Impact of Computers on the Retrieval and Utilization of Chemical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Barbara

    The use of computers in retrieving bibliographic chemical information is traced through the SDI, batch, and online modes, and related changes are noted in such areas as data base availability, cost, software, and amount of user control. The impact of these changes on both the quality and quantity of chemical information use is discussed, as well…

  13. How social and non-social information influence classification decisions: A computational modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Puskaric, Marin; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2017-08-01

    Social information such as observing others can improve performance in decision making. In particular, social information has been shown to be useful when finding the best solution on one's own is difficult, costly, or dangerous. However, past research suggests that when making decisions people do not always consider other people's behaviour when it is at odds with their own experiences. Furthermore, the cognitive processes guiding the integration of social information with individual experiences are still under debate. Here, we conducted two experiments to test whether information about other persons' behaviour influenced people's decisions in a classification task. Furthermore, we examined how social information is integrated with individual learning experiences by testing different computational models. Our results show that social information had a small but reliable influence on people's classifications. The best computational model suggests that in categorization people first make up their own mind based on the non-social information, which is then updated by the social information.

  14. "Glitch Logic" and Applications to Computing and Information Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Katkoori, Srinivas

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method of information processing in digital systems, and discusses its potential benefits to computing and information security. The new method exploits glitches caused by delays in logic circuits for carrying and processing information. Glitch processing is hidden to conventional logic analyses and undetectable by traditional reverse engineering techniques. It enables the creation of new logic design methods that allow for an additional controllable "glitch logic" processing layer embedded into a conventional synchronous digital circuits as a hidden/covert information flow channel. The combination of synchronous logic with specific glitch logic design acting as an additional computing channel reduces the number of equivalent logic designs resulting from synthesis, thus implicitly reducing the possibility of modification and/or tampering with the design. The hidden information channel produced by the glitch logic can be used: 1) for covert computing/communication, 2) to prevent reverse engineering, tampering, and alteration of design, and 3) to act as a channel for information infiltration/exfiltration and propagation of viruses/spyware/Trojan horses.

  15. Computer-Based Vocational Guidance Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J., Ed.

    Job and educational opportunities are increasing dramatically. School guidance counselors can no longer cope adequately with the available information, nor can they help all students to see the complex range of alternative life styles. Computers are now programed to give students information. They can also provide for students' decision-making…

  16. Computational spectrotemporal auditory model with applications to acoustical information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Tai-Shih

    A computational spectrotemporal auditory model based on neurophysiological findings in early auditory and cortical stages is described. The model provides a unified multiresolution representation of the spectral and temporal features of sound likely critical in the perception of timbre. Several types of complex stimuli are used to demonstrate the spectrotemporal information preserved by the model. Shown by these examples, this two stage model reflects the apparent progressive loss of temporal dynamics along the auditory pathway from the rapid phase-locking (several kHz in auditory nerve), to moderate rates of synchrony (several hundred Hz in midbrain), to much lower rates of modulations in the cortex (around 30 Hz). To complete this model, several projection-based reconstruction algorithms are implemented to resynthesize the sound from the representations with reduced dynamics. One particular application of this model is to assess speech intelligibility. The spectro-temporal Modulation Transfer Functions (MTF) of this model is investigated and shown to be consistent with the salient trends in the human MTFs (derived from human detection thresholds) which exhibit a lowpass function with respect to both spectral and temporal dimensions, with 50% bandwidths of about 16 Hz and 2 cycles/octave. Therefore, the model is used to demonstrate the potential relevance of these MTFs to the assessment of speech intelligibility in noise and reverberant conditions. Another useful feature is the phase singularity emerged in the scale space generated by this multiscale auditory model. The singularity is shown to have certain robust properties and carry the crucial information about the spectral profile. Such claim is justified by perceptually tolerable resynthesized sounds from the nonconvex singularity set. In addition, the singularity set is demonstrated to encode the pitch and formants at different scales. These properties make the singularity set very suitable for traditional

  17. Computing, information, and communications: Technologies for the 21. Century

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    To meet the challenges of a radically new and technologically demanding century, the Federal Computing, Information, and Communications (CIC) programs are investing in long-term research and development (R and D) to advance computing, information, and communications in the United States. CIC R and D programs help Federal departments and agencies to fulfill their evolving missions, assure the long-term national security, better understand and manage the physical environment, improve health care, help improve the teaching of children, provide tools for lifelong training and distance learning to the workforce, and sustain critical US economic competitiveness. One of the nine committees of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), the Committee on Computing, Information, and Communications (CCIC)--through its CIC R and D Subcommittee--coordinates R and D programs conducted by twelve Federal departments and agencies in cooperation with US academia and industry. These R and D programs are organized into five Program Component Areas: (1) HECC--High End Computing and Computation; (2) LSN--Large Scale Networking, including the Next Generation Internet Initiative; (3) HCS--High Confidence Systems; (4) HuCS--Human Centered Systems; and (5) ETHR--Education, Training, and Human Resources. A brief synopsis of FY 1997 accomplishments and FY 1998 goals by PCA is presented. This report, which supplements the President`s Fiscal Year 1998 Budget, describes the interagency CIC programs.

  18. A DDC Bibliography on Computers in Information Sciences. Volume I. Information Sciences Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The unclassified and unlimited bibliography compiles references dealing specifically with the role of computers in information sciences. The volume contains 249 annotated references grouped under two major headings: Time Shared, On-Line, and Real Time Systems, and Computer Components. The references are arranged in accesion number (AD-number)…

  19. Curriculum Development of Computer and Information Literacy in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsuijker, Ard P.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a national project on computer and information literacy in the Netherlands for all students in lower secondary education, i.e., the 12- to 16-year-old age group. Curriculum development is discussed with emphasis on equal participation by female students and teachers, and hardware and software specifications are noted. (LRW)

  20. Large-scale temporal analysis of computer and information science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soos, Sandor; Kampis, George; Gulyás, László

    2013-09-01

    The main aim of the project reported in this paper was twofold. One of the primary goals was to produce an extensive source of network data for bibliometric analyses of field dynamics in the case of Computer and Information Science. To this end, we rendered the raw material of the DBLP computer and infoscience bibliography into a comprehensive collection of dynamic network data, promptly available for further statistical analysis. The other goal was to demonstrate the value of our data source via its use in mapping Computer and Information Science (CIS). An analysis of the evolution of CIS was performed in terms of collaboration (co-authorship) network dynamics. Dynamic network analysis covered three quarters of the XX. century (76 years, from 1936 to date). Network evolution was described both at the macro- and the mezo level (in terms of community characteristics). Results show that the development of CIS followed what appears to be a universal pattern of growing into a "mature" discipline.

  1. Issues in Text Design and Layout for Computer Based Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Lee W.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of computer-based communications (CBC) focuses on issues involved with screen design and layout for electronic text, based on experiences with electronic messaging, conferencing, and publishing within the Australian Open Learning Information Network (AOLIN). Recommendations for research on design and layout for printed text are also…

  2. Bioinformatics process management: information flow via a computational journal

    PubMed Central

    Feagan, Lance; Rohrer, Justin; Garrett, Alexander; Amthauer, Heather; Komp, Ed; Johnson, David; Hock, Adam; Clark, Terry; Lushington, Gerald; Minden, Gary; Frost, Victor

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the Bioinformatics Computational Journal (BCJ), a framework for conducting and managing computational experiments in bioinformatics and computational biology. These experiments often involve series of computations, data searches, filters, and annotations which can benefit from a structured environment. Systems to manage computational experiments exist, ranging from libraries with standard data models to elaborate schemes to chain together input and output between applications. Yet, although such frameworks are available, their use is not widespread–ad hoc scripts are often required to bind applications together. The BCJ explores another solution to this problem through a computer based environment suitable for on-site use, which builds on the traditional laboratory notebook paradigm. It provides an intuitive, extensible paradigm designed for expressive composition of applications. Extensive features facilitate sharing data, computational methods, and entire experiments. By focusing on the bioinformatics and computational biology domain, the scope of the computational framework was narrowed, permitting us to implement a capable set of features for this domain. This report discusses the features determined critical by our system and other projects, along with design issues. We illustrate the use of our implementation of the BCJ on two domain-specific examples. PMID:18053179

  3. Evolving the Land Information System into a Cloud Computing Service

    SciTech Connect

    Houser, Paul R.

    2015-02-17

    The Land Information System (LIS) was developed to use advanced flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation frameworks to integrate extremely large satellite- and ground-based observations with advanced land surface models to produce continuous high-resolution fields of land surface states and fluxes. The resulting fields are extremely useful for drought and flood assessment, agricultural planning, disaster management, weather and climate forecasting, water resources assessment, and the like. We envisioned transforming the LIS modeling system into a scientific cloud computing-aware web and data service that would allow clients to easily setup and configure for use in addressing large water management issues. The focus of this Phase 1 project was to determine the scientific, technical, commercial merit and feasibility of the proposed LIS-cloud innovations that are currently barriers to broad LIS applicability. We (a) quantified the barriers to broad LIS utility and commercialization (high performance computing, big data, user interface, and licensing issues); (b) designed the proposed LIS-cloud web service, model-data interface, database services, and user interfaces; (c) constructed a prototype LIS user interface including abstractions for simulation control, visualization, and data interaction, (d) used the prototype to conduct a market analysis and survey to determine potential market size and competition, (e) identified LIS software licensing and copyright limitations and developed solutions, and (f) developed a business plan for development and marketing of the LIS-cloud innovation. While some significant feasibility issues were found in the LIS licensing, overall a high degree of LIS-cloud technical feasibility was found.

  4. Effective information spreading based on local information in correlated networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Wei; Pan, Liming; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2016-12-01

    Using network-based information to facilitate information spreading is an essential task for spreading dynamics in complex networks. Focusing on degree correlated networks, we propose a preferential contact strategy based on the local network structure and local informed density to promote the information spreading. During the spreading process, an informed node will preferentially select a contact target among its neighbors, basing on their degrees or local informed densities. By extensively implementing numerical simulations in synthetic and empirical networks, we find that when only consider the local structure information, the convergence time of information spreading will be remarkably reduced if low-degree neighbors are favored as contact targets. Meanwhile, the minimum convergence time depends non-monotonically on degree-degree correlation, and a moderate correlation coefficient results in the most efficient information spreading. Incorporating the local informed density information into contact strategy, the convergence time of information spreading can be further reduced, and be minimized by an moderately preferential selection.

  5. Use of computers and the Internet for health information by patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Escoffery, Cam; Diiorio, Colleen; Yeager, Katherine A; McCarty, Frances; Robinson, Elise; Reisinger, Elizabeth; Henry, Thomas; Koganti, Archana

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe computer and Internet use among an online group and a clinic-based group of people with epilepsy. Greater than 95% of the online group and 60% of the clinic group have access to computers and the Internet. More than 99% of the online group and 57% of the clinic group used the Internet to find health information. A majority of people reported being likely to employ an Internet-based self-management program to control their epilepsy. About 43% reported searching for general information on epilepsy, 30% for medication, 23% for specific types of epilepsy, and 20% for treatment. This study found that people with epilepsy have access to computers and the Internet, desire epilepsy-specific information, and are receptive to online health information on how to manage their epilepsy.

  6. A novel bit-quad-based Euler number computing algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bin; He, Lifeng; Kang, Shiying; Chao, Yuyan; Zhao, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The Euler number of a binary image is an important topological property in computer vision and pattern recognition. This paper proposes a novel bit-quad-based Euler number computing algorithm. Based on graph theory and analysis on bit-quad patterns, our algorithm only needs to count two bit-quad patterns. Moreover, by use of the information obtained during processing the previous bit-quad, the average number of pixels to be checked for processing a bit-quad is only 1.75. Experimental results demonstrated that our method outperforms significantly conventional Euler number computing algorithms.

  7. A bibliometric study on chemical information and computer sciences focusing on literature of JCICS.

    PubMed

    Onodera, N

    2001-01-01

    A bibliometric approach was used to survey the state-of-the-art of research in the field of chemical information and computer sciences (CICS). By examining the CA database for the articles abstracted under the subsection "Chemical information, documentation, and data processing", Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences (JCICS) was identified to have been the top journal in this subsection for the last 30 years. Based on this result, CA subsections and controlled index terms given to JCICS articles were analyzed to see trends in subjects and topics in the CICS field during the last two decades. These analyses revealed that the subjects of research in CICS have diversified from traditional information science and computer applications to chemistry to "molecular information sciences". The SCISEARCH database was used to grasp interdependency between JCICS and other key journals and also the international nature of JCICS in its publications and citedness.

  8. Mobile healthcare information management utilizing Cloud Computing and Android OS.

    PubMed

    Doukas, Charalampos; Pliakas, Thomas; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2010-01-01

    Cloud Computing provides functionality for managing information data in a distributed, ubiquitous and pervasive manner supporting several platforms, systems and applications. This work presents the implementation of a mobile system that enables electronic healthcare data storage, update and retrieval using Cloud Computing. The mobile application is developed using Google's Android operating system and provides management of patient health records and medical images (supporting DICOM format and JPEG2000 coding). The developed system has been evaluated using the Amazon's S3 cloud service. This article summarizes the implementation details and presents initial results of the system in practice.

  9. Computer-Based Training: An Institutional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Philip; Manji, Karim

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of issues related to computer-assisted learning (CAL) and computer-based training (CBT) describes approaches to electronic learning; principles underlying courseware development to support these approaches; and a plan for creation of a CAL/CBT development center, including its functional role, campus services, staffing, and equipment…

  10. [Computational chemistry in structure-based drug design].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ran; Li, Wei; Sun, Han-Zi; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Niu

    2013-07-01

    Today, the understanding of the sequence and structure of biologically relevant targets is growing rapidly and researchers from many disciplines, physics and computational science in particular, are making significant contributions to modern biology and drug discovery. However, it remains challenging to rationally design small molecular ligands with desired biological characteristics based on the structural information of the drug targets, which demands more accurate calculation of ligand binding free-energy. With the rapid advances in computer power and extensive efforts in algorithm development, physics-based computational chemistry approaches have played more important roles in structure-based drug design. Here we reviewed the newly developed computational chemistry methods in structure-based drug design as well as the elegant applications, including binding-site druggability assessment, large scale virtual screening of chemical database, and lead compound optimization. Importantly, here we address the current bottlenecks and propose practical solutions.

  11. All-optical reservoir computer based on saturation of absorption.

    PubMed

    Dejonckheere, Antoine; Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Fang, Li; Oudar, Jean-Louis; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2014-05-05

    Reservoir computing is a new bio-inspired computation paradigm. It exploits a dynamical system driven by a time-dependent input to carry out computation. For efficient information processing, only a few parameters of the reservoir needs to be tuned, which makes it a promising framework for hardware implementation. Recently, electronic, opto-electronic and all-optical experimental reservoir computers were reported. In those implementations, the nonlinear response of the reservoir is provided by active devices such as optoelectronic modulators or optical amplifiers. By contrast, we propose here the first reservoir computer based on a fully passive nonlinearity, namely the saturable absorption of a semiconductor mirror. Our experimental setup constitutes an important step towards the development of ultrafast low-consumption analog computers.

  12. Department of Energy: MICS (Mathematical Information, and Computational Sciences Division). High performance computing and communications program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This document is intended to serve two purposes. Its first purpose is that of a program status report of the considerable progress that the Department of Energy (DOE) has made since 1993, the time of the last such report (DOE/ER-0536, {open_quotes}The DOE Program in HPCC{close_quotes}), toward achieving the goals of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program. The second purpose is that of a summary report of the many research programs administered by the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences (MICS) Division of the Office of Energy Research under the auspices of the HPCC Program and to provide, wherever relevant, easy access to pertinent information about MICS-Division activities via universal resource locators (URLs) on the World Wide Web (WWW). The information pointed to by the URL is updated frequently, and the interested reader is urged to access the WWW for the latest information.

  13. A computer-supported information system for forensic services.

    PubMed

    Petrila, J P; Hedlund, J L

    1983-05-01

    Recently many state departments of mental health have decentralized their forensic services programs. This trend has increased administrative needs for accurate, easily accessible information on the forensic services' caseload. The Missouri Department of Mental Health and the Missouri Institute of Psychiatry have developed and implemented a computer-supported system that provides data on the number of cases referred by criminal courts, the questions asked by the courts, the clinical answers to those questions, and demographic information about the evaluated population. The system is a part of the department's other computer systems so that forensic clients may be tracked through various mental health facilities. Mental health administrators may use the system to monitor department policies, ensure appropriate allocation of resources, and improve the quality of forensic reports.

  14. Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…

  15. Information Hiding based Trusted Computing System Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-18

    This has also been identified in the Defense Science Board study on High Performance Microchip Supply, “Trust cannot be added to integrated circuits...Science Board Task Force on High Performance Microchip Supply, February 2005. [27] B.S. Cohen. “On Integrated Circuits Supply Chain Issues in a Global

  16. MTA Computer Based Evaluation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Lisa P.; And Others

    The MTA PLATO-based evaluation system, which has been implemented by a consortium of schools of medical technology, is designed to be general-purpose, modular, data-driven, and interactive, and to accommodate other national and local item banks. The system provides a comprehensive interactive item-banking system in conjunction with online student…

  17. Computer-based Guideline Implementation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Richard N.; Liaw, Yischon; Brandt, Cynthia A.; Corb, Geoffrey J.

    1999-01-01

    In this systematic review, the authors analyze the functionality provided by recent computer-based guideline implementation systems and characterize the effectiveness of the systems. Twenty-five studies published between 1992 and January 1998 were identified. Articles were included if the authors indicated an intent to implement guideline recommendations for clinicians and if the effectiveness of the system was evaluated. Provision of eight information management services and effects on guideline adherence, documentation, user satisfaction, and patient outcome were noted. All systems provided patient-specific recommendations. In 19, recommendations were available concurrently with care. Explanation services were described for nine systems. Nine systems allowed interactive documentation, and 17 produced paper-based output. Communication services were present most often in systems integrated with electronic medical records. Registration, calculation, and aggregation services were infrequently reported. There were 10 controlled trials (9 randomized) and 10 time-series correlational studies. Guideline adherence improved in 14 of 18 systems in which it was measured. Documentation improved in 4 of 4 studies. PMID:10094063

  18. Acausal measurement-based quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-01

    In measurement-based quantum computing, there is a natural "causal cone" among qubits of the resource state, since the measurement angle on a qubit has to depend on previous measurement results in order to correct the effect of by-product operators. If we respect the no-signaling principle, by-product operators cannot be avoided. Here we study the possibility of acausal measurement-based quantum computing by using the process matrix framework [Oreshkov, Costa, and Brukner, Nat. Commun. 3, 1092 (2012), 10.1038/ncomms2076]. We construct a resource process matrix for acausal measurement-based quantum computing restricting local operations to projective measurements. The resource process matrix is an analog of the resource state of the standard causal measurement-based quantum computing. We find that if we restrict local operations to projective measurements the resource process matrix is (up to a normalization factor and trivial ancilla qubits) equivalent to the decorated graph state created from the graph state of the corresponding causal measurement-based quantum computing. We also show that it is possible to consider a causal game whose causal inequality is violated by acausal measurement-based quantum computing.

  19. Storing and managing information artifacts collected by information analysts using a computing device

    DOEpatents

    Pike, William A; Riensche, Roderick M; Best, Daniel M; Roberts, Ian E; Whyatt, Marie V; Hart, Michelle L; Carr, Norman J; Thomas, James J

    2012-09-18

    Systems and computer-implemented processes for storage and management of information artifacts collected by information analysts using a computing device. The processes and systems can capture a sequence of interactive operation elements that are performed by the information analyst, who is collecting an information artifact from at least one of the plurality of software applications. The information artifact can then be stored together with the interactive operation elements as a snippet on a memory device, which is operably connected to the processor. The snippet comprises a view from an analysis application, data contained in the view, and the sequence of interactive operation elements stored as a provenance representation comprising operation element class, timestamp, and data object attributes for each interactive operation element in the sequence.

  20. Selected computer system controls at the Energy Information Administration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of our review of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) computer system was to evaluate disk and tape information storage and the adequacy of internal controls in the operating system programs. We used a set of computer-assisted audit techniques called CAATS, developed by the US Department of Transportation, Office of Inspector General, in performing the review at the EIA Forrestal Computer Facility. Improved procedures are needed to assure more efficient use of disk space. By transferring data sets from disk to tape, deleting invalid data, releasing unused reserve space and blocking data efficiently, disk space with an estimated value of $1.1 million a year could be recovered for current use. Also, procedures governing the maximum times for storage of information on tapes should be enforced to help ensure that data is not lost. In addition, improved internal controls are needed over granting users system-wide privileges and over authorized program library names to prevent unauthorized access to the system and possible destruction or manipulation of data. Automated Data Processing (ADP) Services Staff officials indicated that software maintenance was not current, due to contractual difficulties with the operating contractor for the Forrestal Facility. Our review confirmed that improvements were needed to help prevent malfunctions of the operating system, which could cause performance degradations, system failures, or loss of either system or user data. Management generally concurred with the recommendations in the report.

  1. Information based universal feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Mohammad; Brause, Rüdiger

    2015-02-01

    In many real world image based pattern recognition tasks, the extraction and usage of task-relevant features are the most crucial part of the diagnosis. In the standard approach, they mostly remain task-specific, although humans who perform such a task always use the same image features, trained in early childhood. It seems that universal feature sets exist, but they are not yet systematically found. In our contribution, we tried to find those universal image feature sets that are valuable for most image related tasks. In our approach, we trained a neural network by natural and non-natural images of objects and background, using a Shannon information-based algorithm and learning constraints. The goal was to extract those features that give the most valuable information for classification of visual objects hand-written digits. This will give a good start and performance increase for all other image learning tasks, implementing a transfer learning approach. As result, in our case we found that we could indeed extract features which are valid in all three kinds of tasks.

  2. Ontology for cell-based geographic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Huang, Lina; Lu, Xinhai

    2009-10-01

    Inter-operability is a key notion in geographic information science (GIS) for the sharing of geographic information (GI). That requires a seamless translation among different information sources. Ontology is enrolled in GI discovery to settle the semantic conflicts for its natural language appearance and logical hierarchy structure, which are considered to be able to provide better context for both human understanding and machine cognition in describing the location and relationships in the geographic world. However, for the current, most studies on field ontology are deduced from philosophical theme and not applicable for the raster expression in GIS-which is a kind of field-like phenomenon but does not physically coincide to the general concept of philosophical field (mostly comes from the physics concepts). That's why we specifically discuss the cell-based GI ontology in this paper. The discussion starts at the investigation of the physical characteristics of cell-based raster GI. Then, a unified cell-based GI ontology framework for the recognition of the raster objects is introduced, from which a conceptual interface for the connection of the human epistemology and the computer world so called "endurant-occurrant window" is developed for the better raster GI discovery and sharing.

  3. An Investigation of Computer Coaching for Informal Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Richard R.; Brown, John Seely

    This paper provides an in-depth view of computer based tutoring/coaching systems and (1) the philosophy behind them, (2) the kinds of diagnostic modeling strategies required to infer a student's shortcomings from observing his behavior, and (3) the range of explicit tutorial strategies needed for directing the tutor to say the right thing at the…

  4. DPMA Model Curriculum for Undergraduate Computer Information Systems Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, David R., Ed.; Athey, Thomas H., Ed.

    Designed primarily for 4-year undergraduate programs for business applications programmer/analysts offered through schools of business or through applied computer science programs that require a concentration of business courses, these guidelines are based on national and regional conferences, questionnaire surveys, and consultation with computer…

  5. Impact of Computer Based Online Entrepreneurship Distance Education in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shree Ram, Bhagwan; Selvaraj, M.

    2012-01-01

    The success of Indian enterprises and professionals in the computer and information technology (CIT) domain during the twenty year has been spectacular. Entrepreneurs, bureaucrats and technocrats are now advancing views about how India can ride CIT bandwagon and leapfrog into a knowledge-based economy in the area of entrepreneurship distance…

  6. SpecialNet. A National Computer-Based Communications Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Alfred J.

    1986-01-01

    "SpecialNet," a computer-based communications network for educators at all administrative levels, has been established and is managed by National Systems Management, Inc. Users can send and receive electronic mail, share information on electronic bulletin boards, participate in electronic conferences, and send reports and other documents to each…

  7. Computer security: a necessary element of integrated information systems.

    PubMed Central

    Butzen, F; Furler, F

    1986-01-01

    The Matheson Report sees the medical library as playing a key role in a network of interlocking information bases that will extend from central repositories of medical information to each physician's personal records. It appears, however, that the role of security in this vision has not been fully delineated. This paper discusses problems in maintaining the security of confidential medical information, the state of the applicable law, and techniques for security (with special emphasis on the UNIX operating system). It is argued that the absence of security threatens any plan to build an information network, as there will be resistance to any system that may give intruders access to confidential data. PMID:3742113

  8. The Intersection of Community-Based Writing and Computer-Based Writing: A Cyberliteracy Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabor, Catherine

    The learning goals that inform service learning as a whole can contribute to the computers and writing field significantly. This paper demonstrates how two lines of inquiry can be furthered, community-based writing and computers and writing, through new data and critical reflection on learning goals and communication tools. The paper presents a…

  9. Power of surface-based DNA computation

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Weiping; Condon, A.E.; Corn, R.M.

    1997-12-01

    A new model of DNA computation that is based on surface chemistry is studied. Such computations involve the manipulation of DNA strands that are immobilized on a surface, rather than in solution as in the work of Adleman. Surface-based chemistry has been a critical technology in many recent advances in biochemistry and offers several advantages over solution-based chemistry, including simplified handling of samples and elimination of loss of strands, which reduce error in the computation. The main contribution of this paper is in showing that in principle, surface-based DNA chemistry can efficiently support general circuit computation on many inputs in parallel. To do this, an abstract model of computation that allows parallel manipulation of binary inputs is described. It is then shown that this model can be implemented by encoding inputs as DNA strands and repeatedly modifying the strands in parallel on a surface, using the chemical processes of hybridization, exonuclease degradation, polymerase extension, and ligation. Thirdly, it is shown that the model supports efficient circuit simulation in the following sense: exactly those inputs that satisfy a circuit can be isolated and the number of parallel operations needed to do this is proportional to the size of the circuit. Finally, results are presented on the power of the model when another resource of DNA computation is limited, namely strand length. 12 refs.

  10. Autonomous management of distributed information systems using evolutionary computation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oates, Martin J.

    1999-03-01

    As the size of typical industrial strength information systems continues to rise, particularly in the arena of Internet based management information systems and multimedia servers, the issue of managing data distribution over clusters or `farms' to overcome performance and scalability issues is becoming of paramount importance. Further, where access is global, this can cause points of geographically localized load contention to `follow the sun' during the day. Traditional site mirroring is not overly effective in addressing this contention and so a more dynamic approach is being investigated to tackle load balancing. The general objective is to manage a self-adapting, distributed database so as to reliably and consistently provide near optimal performance as perceived by client applications. Such a management system must be ultimately capable of operating over a range of time varying usage profiles and fault scenarios, incorporate considerations for communications network delays, multiple updates and maintenance operations. It must also be shown to be capable of being scaled in a practical fashion to ever larger sized networks and databases. Two key components of such an automated system are an optimiser capable of efficiently finding new configuration options, and a suitable model of the system capable of accurately reflecting the performance (or any other required quality of service metric) of the real world system. As conditions change in the real world system, these are fed into the model. The optimiser is then run to find new configurations which are tested in the model prior to implementation in the real world. The model therefore forms an evaluation function which the optimiser utilises to direct its search. Whilst it has already been shown that Genetic Algorithms can provide good solutions to this problem, there are a number of issues associated with this approach. In particular, for industrial strength applications, it must be shown that the GA employed

  11. Establishing performance requirements of computer based systems subject to uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.

    1997-02-01

    An organized systems design approach is dictated by the increasing complexity of computer based systems. Computer based systems are unique in many respects but share many of the same problems that have plagued design engineers for decades. The design of complex systems is difficult at best, but as a design becomes intensively dependent on the computer processing of external and internal information, the design process quickly borders chaos. This situation is exacerbated with the requirement that these systems operate with a minimal quantity of information, generally corrupted by noise, regarding the current state of the system. Establishing performance requirements for such systems is particularly difficult. This paper briefly sketches a general systems design approach with emphasis on the design of computer based decision processing systems subject to parameter and environmental variation. The approach will be demonstrated with application to an on-board diagnostic (OBD) system for automotive emissions systems now mandated by the state of California and the Federal Clean Air Act. The emphasis is on an approach for establishing probabilistically based performance requirements for computer based systems.

  12. An Interactive Computer-Based Revision Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, J. M.; Harris, F. T. C.

    1977-01-01

    A computer-based review system has been developed, based on the multiple-choice technique, at the University of London for medical students. The user can enter an answer or can have a list of questions to take away and enter later. Student response has been favorable. (LBH)

  13. A computer-based specification methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munck, Robert G.

    1986-01-01

    Standard practices for creating and using system specifications are inadequate for large, advanced-technology systems. A need exists to break away from paper documents in favor of documents that are stored in computers and which are read and otherwise used with the help of computers. An SADT-based system, running on the proposed Space Station data management network, could be a powerful tool for doing much of the required technical work of the Station, including creating and operating the network itself.

  14. Using a small/low cost computer in an information center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilde, D. U.

    1972-01-01

    Small/low cost computers are available with I/O capacities that make them suitable for SDI and retrospective searching on any of the many commercially available data bases. A small two-tape computer system is assumed, and an analysis of its run-time equations leads to a three-step search procedure. Run times and costs are shown as a function of file size, number of search terms, and input transmission rates. Actual examples verify that it is economically feasible for an information center to consider its own small, dedicated computer system.

  15. Information and Computing Technology and the Gap between School Pedagogy and Children's Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Birgitte Holm

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the gap between the use of Information and Computing Technology (ICT) in schools and the use made of ICT in children's everyday life outside school. Particular emphasis is placed on the communities of practice that young people create through their use of digital technology. The article is based on data collected over five…

  16. An Exploratory Study of Malaysian Publication Productivity in Computer Science and Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Yinian

    2002-01-01

    Explores the Malaysian computer science and information technology publication productivity as indicated by data collected from three Web-based databases. Relates possible reasons for the amount and pattern of contributions to the size of researcher population, the availability of refereed scholarly journals, and the total expenditure allocated to…

  17. The Use of Information Technologies for Education in Science, Mathematics, and Computers. An Agenda for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Technology Center, Cambridge, MA.

    Developed to guide the research of the Educational Technology Center, a consortium based at Harvard Graduate School of Education, this report addresses the use of new information technologies to enrich, extend, and transform current instructional practice in science, mathematics, and computer education. A discussion of the basic elements required…

  18. Informing One-to-One Computing in Primary Schools: Student Use of Netbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Kevin; Finger, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Although one-to-one laptop programs are being introduced in many schools, minimal research has been conducted regarding their effectiveness in primary schools. Evidence-based research is needed to inform significant funding, deployment and student use of computers. This article analyses key findings from a study conducted in four Year 7 classrooms…

  19. In-silico design of computational nucleic acids for molecular information processing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Within recent years nucleic acids have become a focus of interest for prototype implementations of molecular computing concepts. During the same period the importance of ribonucleic acids as components of the regulatory networks within living cells has increasingly been revealed. Molecular computers are attractive due to their ability to function within a biological system; an application area extraneous to the present information technology paradigm. The existence of natural information processing architectures (predominately exemplified by protein) demonstrates that computing based on physical substrates that are radically different from silicon is feasible. Two key principles underlie molecular level information processing in organisms: conformational dynamics of macromolecules and self-assembly of macromolecules. Nucleic acids support both principles, and moreover computational design of these molecules is practicable. This study demonstrates the simplicity with which one can construct a set of nucleic acid computing units using a new computational protocol. With the new protocol, diverse classes of nucleic acids imitating the complete set of boolean logical operators were constructed. These nucleic acid classes display favourable thermodynamic properties and are significantly similar to the approximation of successful candidates implemented in the laboratory. This new protocol would enable the construction of a network of interconnecting nucleic acids (as a circuit) for molecular information processing. PMID:23647621

  20. Report of the Panel on Computer and Information Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundstrom, Stephen F.; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1984-01-01

    Aircraft have become more and more dependent on computers (information processing) for improved performance and safety. It is clear that this activity will grow, since information processing technology has advanced by a factor of 10 every 5 years for the past 35 years and will continue to do so. Breakthroughs in device technology, from vacuum tubes through transistors to integrated circuits, contribute to this rapid pace. This progress is nearly matched by similar, though not as dramatic, advances in numerical software and algorithms. Progress has not been easy. Many technical and nontechnical challenges were surmounted. The outlook is for continued growth in capability but will require surmounting new challenges. The technology forecast presented in this report has been developed by extrapolating current trends and assessing the possibilities of several high-risk research topics. In the process, critical problem areas that require research and development emphasis have been identified. The outlook assumes a positive perspective; the projected capabilities are possible by the year 2000, and adequate resources will be made available to achieve them. Computer and information technology forecasts and the potential impacts of this technology on aeronautics are identified. Critical issues and technical challenges underlying the achievement of forecasted performance and benefits are addressed.

  1. Department of Energy Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences Division: High Performance Computing and Communications Program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This document is intended to serve two purposes. Its first purpose is that of a program status report of the considerable progress that the Department of Energy (DOE) has made since 1993, the time of the last such report (DOE/ER-0536, The DOE Program in HPCC), toward achieving the goals of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program. The second purpose is that of a summary report of the many research programs administered by the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences (MICS) Division of the Office of Energy Research under the auspices of the HPCC Program and to provide, wherever relevant, easy access to pertinent information about MICS-Division activities via universal resource locators (URLs) on the World Wide Web (WWW).

  2. Representing spatial information in a computational model for network management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaisdell, James H.; Brownfield, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    While currently available relational database management systems (RDBMS) allow inclusion of spatial information in a data model, they lack tools for presenting this information in an easily comprehensible form. Computer-aided design (CAD) software packages provide adequate functions to produce drawings, but still require manual placement of symbols and features. This project has demonstrated a bridge between the data model of an RDBMS and the graphic display of a CAD system. It is shown that the CAD system can be used to control the selection of data with spatial components from the database and then quickly plot that data on a map display. It is shown that the CAD system can be used to extract data from a drawing and then control the insertion of that data into the database. These demonstrations were successful in a test environment that incorporated many features of known working environments, suggesting that the techniques developed could be adapted for practical use.

  3. Effective information spreading based on local information in correlated networks

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Wei; Pan, Liming; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Using network-based information to facilitate information spreading is an essential task for spreading dynamics in complex networks. Focusing on degree correlated networks, we propose a preferential contact strategy based on the local network structure and local informed density to promote the information spreading. During the spreading process, an informed node will preferentially select a contact target among its neighbors, basing on their degrees or local informed densities. By extensively implementing numerical simulations in synthetic and empirical networks, we find that when only consider the local structure information, the convergence time of information spreading will be remarkably reduced if low-degree neighbors are favored as contact targets. Meanwhile, the minimum convergence time depends non-monotonically on degree-degree correlation, and a moderate correlation coefficient results in the most efficient information spreading. Incorporating the local informed density information into contact strategy, the convergence time of information spreading can be further reduced, and be minimized by an moderately preferential selection. PMID:27910882

  4. Computer based safety training: an investigation of methods

    PubMed Central

    Wallen, E; Mulloy, K

    2005-01-01

    Background: Computer based methods are increasingly being used for training workers, although our understanding of how to structure this training has not kept pace with the changing abilities of computers. Information on a computer can be presented in many different ways and the style of presentation can greatly affect learning outcomes and the effectiveness of the learning intervention. Many questions about how adults learn from different types of presentations and which methods best support learning remain unanswered. Aims: To determine if computer based methods, which have been shown to be effective on younger students, can also be an effective method for older workers in occupational health and safety training. Methods: Three versions of a computer based respirator training module were developed and presented to manufacturing workers: one consisting of text only; one with text, pictures, and animation; and one with narration, pictures, and animation. After instruction, participants were given two tests: a multiple choice test measuring low level, rote learning; and a transfer test measuring higher level learning. Results: Participants receiving the concurrent narration with pictures and animation scored significantly higher on the transfer test than did workers receiving the other two types of instruction. There were no significant differences between groups on the multiple choice test. Conclusions: Narration with pictures and text may be a more effective method for training workers about respirator safety than other popular methods of computer based training. Further study is needed to determine the conditions for the effective use of this technology. PMID:15778259

  5. Automatic generation of computable implementation guides from clinical information models.

    PubMed

    Boscá, Diego; Maldonado, José Alberto; Moner, David; Robles, Montserrat

    2015-06-01

    Clinical information models are increasingly used to describe the contents of Electronic Health Records. Implementation guides are a common specification mechanism used to define such models. They contain, among other reference materials, all the constraints and rules that clinical information must obey. However, these implementation guides typically are oriented to human-readability, and thus cannot be processed by computers. As a consequence, they must be reinterpreted and transformed manually into an executable language such as Schematron or Object Constraint Language (OCL). This task can be difficult and error prone due to the big gap between both representations. The challenge is to develop a methodology for the specification of implementation guides in such a way that humans can read and understand easily and at the same time can be processed by computers. In this paper, we propose and describe a novel methodology that uses archetypes as basis for generation of implementation guides. We use archetypes to generate formal rules expressed in Natural Rule Language (NRL) and other reference materials usually included in implementation guides such as sample XML instances. We also generate Schematron rules from NRL rules to be used for the validation of data instances. We have implemented these methods in LinkEHR, an archetype editing platform, and exemplify our approach by generating NRL rules and implementation guides from EN ISO 13606, openEHR, and HL7 CDA archetypes.

  6. Mutual information-based facial expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

  7. Computer-Based Instruction in Dietetics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Lois; Kent, Phyllis

    1982-01-01

    Details the development and system design of a computer-based instruction (CBI) program designed to provide tutorial training in diet modification as part of renal therapy and provides the results of a study that compared the effectiveness of the CBI program with the traditional lecture/laboratory method. (EAO)

  8. Computational Viscoplasticity Based on Overstress (CVBO) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zheng; Ruggles-wrenn, Marina; Fish, Jacob

    2014-03-01

    This article presents an efficient computational viscoplasticity based on an overstress (CVBO) model, including three-dimensional formulation, implicit stress update procedures, consistent tangent, and systematic calibration of the model parameters to experimental data. The model has been validated for PMR 15 neat resin, including temperature and aging dependence.

  9. Computer-Based Training Starter Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Interagency Group for Computer-Based Training, Washington, DC.

    Intended for use by training professionals with little or no background in the application of automated data processing (ADP) systems, processes, or procurement requirements, this reference manual provides guidelines for establishing a computer based training (CBT) program within a federal agency of the United States government. The manual covers:…

  10. Educator Beliefs Regarding Computer-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, D. LaDon; Branson, Floyd, Jr.; Talbert, B. Allen

    2003-01-01

    Extension educators (n=17) completed two of five technical sections from an aquaculture CD-ROM tutorial. Evidence from pre/post-training questionnaires, content assessments, and follow-up interviews reveals favorable attitudes toward computer-based inservice training. The ability to spend less time out of their county and to review materials after…

  11. Computer Based Decision Support in Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Ina-Veronika; Schneider, Werner

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses computer-based decision support in the following areas: the dental patient record system; diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the oral mucosa; treatment strategy in complex clinical situations; diagnosis and treatment of functional disturbances of the masticatory system; and patient recall. (DB)

  12. Computer Based Simulation of Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edward, Norrie S.

    1997-01-01

    Examines computer based simulations of practical laboratory experiments in engineering. Discusses the aims and achievements of lab work (cognitive, process, psychomotor, and affective); types of simulations (model building and behavioral); and the strengths and weaknesses of simulations. Describes the development of a centrifugal pump simulation,…

  13. Network based high performance concurrent computing

    SciTech Connect

    Sunderam, V.S.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to investigate research issues pertaining to programming tools and efficiency issues in network based concurrent computing systems. The basis for these efforts is the PVM project that evolved during my visits to Oak Ridge Laboratories under the DOE Faculty Research Participation program; I continue to collaborate with researchers at Oak Ridge on some portions of the project.

  14. Computer-Based Testing: Test Site Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Gerald A.

    Computer-based testing places great burdens on all involved parties to ensure test security. A task analysis of test site security might identify the areas of protecting the test, protecting the data, and protecting the environment as essential issues in test security. Protecting the test involves transmission of the examinations, identifying the…

  15. Computer-Game-Based Tutoring of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Fengfeng

    2013-01-01

    This in-situ, descriptive case study examined the potential of implementing computer mathematics games as an anchor for tutoring of mathematics. Data were collected from middle school students at a rural pueblo school and an urban Hispanic-serving school, through in-field observation, content analysis of game-based tutoring-learning interactions,…

  16. Computer Based Instructional Systems--1985-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micheli, Gene S.; And Others

    This report discusses developments in computer based instruction (CBI) and presents initiatives for the improvement of Navy instructional management in the 1985 to 1995 time frame. The state of the art in instructional management and delivery is assessed, projections for the capabilities for instructional management and delivery systems during…

  17. Prototyping of Computer-Based Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, D. E.; Black, T. R.

    1994-01-01

    Defines prototyping as an original version or model on which a completed software system for computer-based training is formed; examines the development process of a prototype; describes how prototyping can assist in facilitating communication between educational technology, software engineering, and project management; and discusses why…

  18. Logistical Consideration in Computer-Based Screening of Astronaut Applicants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galarza, Laura

    2000-01-01

    This presentation reviews the logistical, ergonomic, and psychometric issues and data related to the development and operational use of a computer-based system for the psychological screening of astronaut applicants. The Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHPG) at the Johnson Space Center upgraded its astronaut psychological screening and selection procedures for the 1999 astronaut applicants and subsequent astronaut selection cycles. The questionnaires, tests, and inventories were upgraded from a paper-and-pencil system to a computer-based system. Members of the BHPG and a computer programmer designed and developed needed interfaces (screens, buttons, etc.) and programs for the astronaut psychological assessment system. This intranet-based system included the user-friendly computer-based administration of tests, test scoring, generation of reports, the integration of test administration and test output to a single system, and a complete database for past, present, and future selection data. Upon completion of the system development phase, four beta and usability tests were conducted with the newly developed system. The first three tests included 1 to 3 participants each. The final system test was conducted with 23 participants tested simultaneously. Usability and ergonomic data were collected from the system (beta) test participants and from 1999 astronaut applicants who volunteered the information in exchange for anonymity. Beta and usability test data were analyzed to examine operational, ergonomic, programming, test administration and scoring issues related to computer-based testing. Results showed a preference for computer-based testing over paper-and -pencil procedures. The data also reflected specific ergonomic, usability, psychometric, and logistical concerns that should be taken into account in future selection cycles. Conclusion. Psychological, psychometric, human and logistical factors must be examined and considered carefully when developing and

  19. Towards Information-Based Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Blaise

    An information society is one in which the expression "to earn one's daily bread by the sweat of one's brow" appears decidedly anachronistic. People have been seduced by the rhetoric of novelty and confused by the surface significance of terms which have become accepted parts of everyday speech. What do rubrics such as information society,…

  20. 78 FR 57839 - Request for Information on Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Request for Information on Computer Security Incident... submitting comments relating to Computer Security Incident Coordination. NIST experienced technical... Technology (NIST) announced that it was soliciting comments relating to Computer Security...

  1. 78 FR 79014 - Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting: NAME: Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science...

  2. Waveguide-QED-based photonic quantum computation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huaixiu; Gauthier, Daniel J; Baranger, Harold U

    2013-08-30

    We propose a new scheme for quantum computation using flying qubits--propagating photons in a one-dimensional waveguide interacting with matter qubits. Photon-photon interactions are mediated by the coupling to a four-level system, based on which photon-photon π-phase gates (CONTROLLED-NOT) can be implemented for universal quantum computation. We show that high gate fidelity is possible, given recent dramatic experimental progress in superconducting circuits and photonic-crystal waveguides. The proposed system can be an important building block for future on-chip quantum networks.

  3. New Mathematics of Information: Homotopical and Higher Categorical Foundations of Information and Computation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-13

    specialists in mathematics , logic, and computer science with diverse backgrounds rang- ing from homotopical algebra and category theory to theoretical and...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0227 New Mathematics of Information Homotopical Steven Awodey CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY Final Report 09/24/2014 DISTRIBUTION A...RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 13-09-2014 FINAL 15 JUNE 2011 - 30 APR 2014 FINAL REPORT FOR AWARD: "NEW MATHEMATICS OF

  4. Distributed computer taxonomy based on O/S structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, Edwin C.

    1985-01-01

    The taxonomy considers the resource structure at the operating system level. It compares a communication based taxonomy with the new taxonomy to illustrate how the latter does a better job when related to the client's view of the distributed computer. The results illustrate the fundamental features and what is required to construct fully distributed processing systems. The problem of using network computers on the space station is addressed. A detailed discussion of the taxonomy is not given here. Information is given in the form of charts and diagrams that were used to illustrate a talk.

  5. Advanced information processing system: Inter-computer communication services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Masotto, Tom; Sims, J. Terry; Whittredge, Roy; Alger, Linda S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to document the functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Inter-Computer Communications Services (ICCS) of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS). An introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS and to present an overview of the ICCS. An overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a brief description of the AIPS software is given. The guarantees of the ICCS are provided, and the ICCS is described as a seven-layered International Standards Organization (ISO) Model. The ICCS functional requirements, functional design, and detailed specifications as well as each layer of the ICCS are also described. A summary of results and suggestions for future work are presented.

  6. Hanford general employee training: Computer-based training instructor's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The Computer-Based Training portion of the Hanford General Employee Training course is designed to be used in a classroom setting with a live instructor. Future references to this course'' refer only to the computer-based portion of the whole. This course covers the basic Safety, Security, and Quality issues that pertain to all employees of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The topics that are covered were taken from the recommendations and requirements for General Employee Training as set forth by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) in INPO 87-004, Guidelines for General Employee Training, applicable US Department of Energy orders, and Westinghouse Hanford Company procedures and policy. Besides presenting fundamental concepts, this course also contains information on resources that are available to assist students. It does this using Interactive Videodisk technology, which combines computer-generated text and graphics with audio and video provided by a videodisk player.

  7. 77 FR 66873 - Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and... impact of its policies, programs and activities on the Computer and Information Science and...

  8. Geometric algebra and information geometry for quantum computational software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafaro, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    The art of quantum algorithm design is highly nontrivial. Grover's search algorithm constitutes a masterpiece of quantum computational software. In this article, we use methods of geometric algebra (GA) and information geometry (IG) to enhance the algebraic efficiency and the geometrical significance of the digital and analog representations of Grover's algorithm, respectively. Specifically, GA is used to describe the Grover iterate and the discretized iterative procedure that exploits quantum interference to amplify the probability amplitude of the target-state before measuring the query register. The transition from digital to analog descriptions occurs via Stone's theorem which relates the (unitary) Grover iterate to a suitable (Hermitian) Hamiltonian that controls Schrodinger's quantum mechanical evolution of a quantum state towards the target state. Once the discrete-to-continuos transition is completed, IG is used to interpret Grover's iterative procedure as a geodesic path on the manifold of the parametric density operators of pure quantum states constructed from the continuous approximation of the parametric quantum output state in Grover's algorithm. Finally, we discuss the dissipationless nature of quantum computing, recover the quadratic speedup relation, and identify the superfluity of the Walsh-Hadamard operation from an IG perspective with emphasis on statistical mechanical considerations.

  9. A Comparative Evaluation of Computer Based and Non-Computer Based Instructional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Ian

    1988-01-01

    Compares the computer assisted instruction (CAI) tutorial with its non-computerized pedagogical roots: the Socratic Dialog with Skinner's Programmed Instruction. Tests the effectiveness of a CAI tutorial on diffusion and osmosis against four other interactive and non-interactive instructional strategies. Notes computer based strategies were…

  10. Computer-based and web-based radiation safety training

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, C., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The traditional approach to delivering radiation safety training has been to provide a stand-up lecture of the topic, with the possible aid of video, and to repeat the same material periodically. New approaches to meeting training requirements are needed to address the advent of flexible work hours and telecommuting, and to better accommodate individuals learning at their own pace. Computer- based and web-based radiation safety training can provide this alternative. Computer-based and web- based training is an interactive form of learning that the student controls, resulting in enhanced and focused learning at a time most often chosen by the student.

  11. Managing geometric information with a data base management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dube, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    The strategies for managing computer based geometry are described. The computer model of geometry is the basis for communication, manipulation, and analysis of shape information. The research on integrated programs for aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD) focuses on the use of data base management system (DBMS) technology to manage engineering/manufacturing data. The objectives of IPAD is to develop a computer based engineering complex which automates the storage, management, protection, and retrieval of engineering data. In particular, this facility must manage geometry information as well as associated data. The approach taken on the IPAD project to achieve this objective is discussed. Geometry management in current systems and the approach taken in the early IPAD prototypes are examined.

  12. Nanoinformatics and DNA-based computing: catalyzing nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Maojo, Victor; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Kulikowski, Casimir; Rodriguez-Paton, Alfonso; Fritts, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Five decades of research and practical application of computers in biomedicine has given rise to the discipline of medical informatics, which has made many advances in genomic and translational medicine possible. Developments in nanotechnology are opening up the prospects for nanomedicine and regenerative medicine where informatics and DNA computing can become the catalysts enabling health care applications at sub-molecular or atomic scales. Although nanomedicine promises a new exciting frontier for clinical practice and biomedical research, issues involving cost-effectiveness studies, clinical trials and toxicity assays, drug delivery methods, and the implementation of new personalized therapies still remain challenging. Nanoinformatics can accelerate the introduction of nano-related research and applications into clinical practice, leading to an area that could be called "translational nanoinformatics." At the same time, DNA and RNA computing presents an entirely novel paradigm for computation. Nanoinformatics and DNA-based computing are together likely to completely change the way we model and process information in biomedicine and impact the emerging field of nanomedicine most strongly. In this article, we review work in nanoinformatics and DNA (and RNA)-based computing, including applications in nanopediatrics. We analyze their scientific foundations, current research and projects, envisioned applications and potential problems that might arise from them.

  13. Cloud computing: a new business paradigm for biomedical information sharing.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Arnon; Mork, Peter; Li, Maya Hao; Stanford, Jean; Koester, David; Reynolds, Patti

    2010-04-01

    We examine how the biomedical informatics (BMI) community, especially consortia that share data and applications, can take advantage of a new resource called "cloud computing". Clouds generally offer resources on demand. In most clouds, charges are pay per use, based on large farms of inexpensive, dedicated servers, sometimes supporting parallel computing. Substantial economies of scale potentially yield costs much lower than dedicated laboratory systems or even institutional data centers. Overall, even with conservative assumptions, for applications that are not I/O intensive and do not demand a fully mature environment, the numbers suggested that clouds can sometimes provide major improvements, and should be seriously considered for BMI. Methodologically, it was very advantageous to formulate analyses in terms of component technologies; focusing on these specifics enabled us to bypass the cacophony of alternative definitions (e.g., exactly what does a cloud include) and to analyze alternatives that employ some of the component technologies (e.g., an institution's data center). Relative analyses were another great simplifier. Rather than listing the absolute strengths and weaknesses of cloud-based systems (e.g., for security or data preservation), we focus on the changes from a particular starting point, e.g., individual lab systems. We often find a rough parity (in principle), but one needs to examine individual acquisitions--is a loosely managed lab moving to a well managed cloud, or a tightly managed hospital data center moving to a poorly safeguarded cloud?

  14. Computer-based theory of strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Findler, N.V.

    1983-01-01

    Some of the objectives and working tools of a new area of study, tentatively called theory of strategies, are described. It is based on the methodology of artificial intelligence, decision theory, utility theory, operations research and digital gaming. The latter refers to computing activity that incorporates model building, simulation and learning programs in conflict situations. The author also discusses three long-term projects which aim at automatically analyzing and synthesizing strategies. 27 references.

  15. A rule based computer aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1986-01-01

    A Computer Aided Design (CAD) system is presented which supports the iterative process of design, the dimensional continuity between mating parts, and the hierarchical structure of the parts in their assembled configuration. Prolog, an interactive logic programming language, is used to represent and interpret the data base. The solid geometry representing the parts is defined in parameterized form using the swept volume method. The system is demonstrated with a design of a spring piston.

  16. Call Admission Control Scheme Based on Statistical Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Takayuki; Oki, Eiji; Shiomoto, Kohei

    A call admission control (CAC) scheme based on statistical information is proposed, called the statistical CAC scheme. A conventional scheme needs to manage session information for each link to update the residual bandwidth of a network in real time. This scheme has a scalability problem in terms of network size. The statistical CAC rejects session setup requests in accordance to a pre-computed ratio, called the rejection ratio. The rejection ratio is computed by using statistical information about the bandwidth requested for each link so that the congestion probability is less than an upper bound specified by a network operator. The statistical CAC is more scalable in terms of network size than the conventional scheme because it does not need to keep accommodated session state information. Numerical results show that the statistical CAC, even without exact session state information, only slightly degrades network utilization compared with the conventional scheme.

  17. Computing border bases using mutant strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, E.; Abbas Khan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Border bases, a generalization of Gröbner bases, have actively been addressed during recent years due to their applicability to industrial problems. In cryptography and coding theory a useful application of border based is to solve zero-dimensional systems of polynomial equations over finite fields, which motivates us for developing optimizations of the algorithms that compute border bases. In 2006, Kehrein and Kreuzer formulated the Border Basis Algorithm (BBA), an algorithm which allows the computation of border bases that relate to a degree compatible term ordering. In 2007, J. Ding et al. introduced mutant strategies bases on finding special lower degree polynomials in the ideal. The mutant strategies aim to distinguish special lower degree polynomials (mutants) from the other polynomials and give them priority in the process of generating new polynomials in the ideal. In this paper we develop hybrid algorithms that use the ideas of J. Ding et al. involving the concept of mutants to optimize the Border Basis Algorithm for solving systems of polynomial equations over finite fields. In particular, we recall a version of the Border Basis Algorithm which is actually called the Improved Border Basis Algorithm and propose two hybrid algorithms, called MBBA and IMBBA. The new mutants variants provide us space efficiency as well as time efficiency. The efficiency of these newly developed hybrid algorithms is discussed using standard cryptographic examples.

  18. Shuttle Program Information Management System (SPIMS) data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Program Information Management System (SPIMS) is a computerized data base operations system. The central computer is the CDC 170-730 located at Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, Texas. There are several applications which have been developed and supported by SPIMS. A brief description is given.

  19. A Research Roadmap for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, Ronald; Mandelli, Diego; Joe, Jeffrey; Smith, Curtis; Groth, Katrina

    2015-08-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research through the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to extend the life of the currently operating fleet of commercial nuclear power plants. The Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) research pathway within LWRS looks at ways to maintain and improve the safety margins of these plants. The RISMC pathway includes significant developments in the area of thermalhydraulics code modeling and the development of tools to facilitate dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). PRA is primarily concerned with the risk of hardware systems at the plant; yet, hardware reliability is often secondary in overall risk significance to human errors that can trigger or compound undesirable events at the plant. This report highlights ongoing efforts to develop a computation-based approach to human reliability analysis (HRA). This computation-based approach differs from existing static and dynamic HRA approaches in that it: (i) interfaces with a dynamic computation engine that includes a full scope plant model, and (ii) interfaces with a PRA software toolset. The computation-based HRA approach presented in this report is called the Human Unimodels for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER) and incorporates in a hybrid fashion elements of existing HRA methods to interface with new computational tools developed under the RISMC pathway. The goal of this research effort is to model human performance more accurately than existing approaches, thereby minimizing modeling uncertainty found in current plant risk models.

  20. Quantum One Go Computation and the Physical Computation Level of Biological Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnoli, Giuseppe

    2010-02-01

    By extending the representation of quantum algorithms to problem-solution interdependence, the unitary evolution part of the algorithm entangles the register containing the problem with the register containing the solution. Entanglement becomes correlation, or mutual causality, between the two measurement outcomes: the string of bits encoding the problem and that encoding the solution. In former work, we showed that this is equivalent to the algorithm knowing in advance 50% of the bits of the solution it will find in the future, which explains the quantum speed up. Mutual causality between bits of information is also equivalent to seeing quantum measurement as a many body interaction between the parts of a perfect classical machine whose normalized coordinates represent the qubit populations. This “hidden machine” represents the problem to be solved. The many body interaction (measurement) satisfies all the constraints of a nonlinear Boolean network “together and at the same time”—in one go—thus producing the solution. Quantum one go computation can formalize the physical computation level of the theories that place consciousness in quantum measurement. In fact, in visual perception, we see, thus recognize, thus process, a significant amount of information “together and at the same time”. Identifying the fundamental mechanism of consciousness with that of the quantum speed up gives quantum consciousness, with respect to classical consciousness, a potentially enormous evolutionary advantage.

  1. Microcomputer Based School Information Management Systems (SIMS) in Alberta Junior and Senior High Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, P.; Valbonesi, P.

    This report comprises a detailed evaluation of three IBM microcomputer-based school information management systems: Student Information and Records System (SIRS) by Management Information Group, The School System (TSS) by Columbia Computing Services, and Computer Educational Management Accounting System (CEMAS) by Computerlib. These three systems…

  2. 2.5D dictionary learning based computed tomography reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiajia; Eri, Haneda; Can, Ali; Ramani, Sathish; Fu, Lin; De Man, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    A computationally efficient 2.5D dictionary learning (DL) algorithm is proposed and implemented in the model- based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) framework for low-dose CT reconstruction. MBIR is based on the minimization of a cost function containing data-fitting and regularization terms to control the trade-off between data-fidelity and image noise. Due to the strong denoising performance of DL, it has previously been considered as a regularizer in MBIR, and both 2D and 3D DL implementations are possible. Compared to the 2D case, 3D DL keeps more spatial information and generates images with better quality although it requires more computation. We propose a novel 2.5D DL scheme, which leverages the computational advantage of 2D-DL, while attempting to maintain reconstruction quality similar to 3D-DL. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this new 2.5D DL scheme for MBIR in low-dose CT. By applying the 2D DL method in three different orthogonal planes and calculating the sparse coefficients accordingly, much of the 3D spatial information can be preserved without incurring the computational penalty of the 3D DL method. For performance evaluation, we use baggage phantoms with different number of projection views. In order to quantitatively compare the performance of different algorithms, we use PSNR, SSIM and region based standard deviation to measure the noise level, and use the edge response to calculate the resolution. Experimental results with full view datasets show that the different DL based algorithms have similar performance and 2.5D DL has the best resolution. Results with sparse view datasets show that 2.5D DL outperforms both 2D and 3D DL in terms of noise reduction. We also compare the computational costs, and 2.5D DL shows strong advantage over 3D DL in both full-view and sparse-view cases.

  3. New Trends in Taylor Series Based Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunovský, Jiří; Kraus, Michal; Šátek, Václav

    2009-09-01

    Motto: For the derivatives of all decent functions analytic formulas can be found but with integration this is only true for very special decent functions. The aim of our paper is to describe a new modern numerical method based on the Taylor Series Method and to show how to evaluate the high accuracy and speed of the corresponding computations. It is also the aim of our paper to show how to calculate finite integrals that are the fundamental part in signal processing, especially in Fourier analysis and how to use it for symbolic operations. It is a fact that the accuracy and stability of the algorithms we have designed significantly exceeds the presently known systems. In particular, the paper wants to concentrate, using the previous results and latest development trends, on the simulation of dynamic systems and on extremely exact mathematical computations.

  4. Detecting Soft Errors in Stencil based Computations

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, V.; Gopalkrishnan, G.; Bronevetsky, G.

    2015-05-06

    Given the growing emphasis on system resilience, it is important to develop software-level error detectors that help trap hardware-level faults with reasonable accuracy while minimizing false alarms as well as the performance overhead introduced. We present a technique that approaches this idea by taking stencil computations as our target, and synthesizing detectors based on machine learning. In particular, we employ linear regression to generate computationally inexpensive models which form the basis for error detection. Our technique has been incorporated into a new open-source library called SORREL. In addition to reporting encouraging experimental results, we demonstrate techniques that help reduce the size of training data. We also discuss the efficacy of various detectors synthesized, as well as our future plans.

  5. UNIVIEW: A computer graphics platform bringing information databases to life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnstam, J.

    2008-06-01

    Uniview is a PC-based software platform for three-dimensional exploration of the Universe and the visualisation of information that is located at any position in this Universe, be it on the surface of the Earth or many light-years away from home. What began as a collaborative project with the American Museum of Natural History1 in New York in 2003 has now evolved into one of the leading visualisation platforms for the planetarium and science centre market with customers in both Europe and USA.

  6. Psychopathy-related traits and the use of reward and social information: a computational approach

    PubMed Central

    Brazil, Inti A.; Hunt, Laurence T.; Bulten, Berend H.; Kessels, Roy P. C.; de Bruijn, Ellen R. A.; Mars, Rogier B.

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathy is often linked to disturbed reinforcement-guided adaptation of behavior in both clinical and non-clinical populations. Recent work suggests that these disturbances might be due to a deficit in actively using information to guide changes in behavior. However, how much information is actually used to guide behavior is difficult to observe directly. Therefore, we used a computational model to estimate the use of information during learning. Thirty-six female subjects were recruited based on their total scores on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), a self-report psychopathy list, and performed a task involving simultaneous learning of reward-based and social information. A Bayesian reinforcement-learning model was used to parameterize the use of each source of information during learning. Subsequently, we used the subscales of the PPI to assess psychopathy-related traits, and the traits that were strongly related to the model's parameters were isolated through a formal variable selection procedure. Finally, we assessed how these covaried with model parameters. We succeeded in isolating key personality traits believed to be relevant for psychopathy that can be related to model-based descriptions of subject behavior. Use of reward-history information was negatively related to levels of trait anxiety and fearlessness, whereas use of social advice decreased as the perceived ability to manipulate others and lack of anxiety increased. These results corroborate previous findings suggesting that sub-optimal use of different types of information might be implicated in psychopathy. They also further highlight the importance of considering the potential of computational modeling to understand the role of latent variables, such as the weight people give to various sources of information during goal-directed behavior, when conducting research on psychopathy-related traits and in the field of forensic psychiatry. PMID:24391615

  7. Bio-Inspired Computing, Information Swarms, and the Problem of Data Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordmann, Brian

    The problem of information overload becomes a huge challenge, particularly when attempting to understanding how to introduce more and more disparate data streams into a data system. Little has been done on how to make those data streams understandable and usable by an analyst. A new paradigm is constructed here, unconstrained by the limits of the current desktop computer, to develop new ways of processing and analyzing data based on the behavior of cellular scale organisms. The additional issue of analytic "groupthink" or "information swarms" is also addressed, with potential solutions to the problem of "paralysis by analysis."

  8. Space-Based Information Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.

    With useful data now beginning to flow from earth observation and navigation satellites, it is an active time for the development of space services - all types of satellites are now being put to work, not just Comsats. However derived products require a blend of innovative software design, low cost operational support and a real insight into the information needs of the customer. Science Systems is meeting this challenge through a series of on-going projects, three of which are summarised here (addressing navigation, communications and earth observation). By demonstrating a broad range of related disciplines; from monitoring and control to back-room billing; from data management to intelligent systems, Science Systems hopes to play a key role in this developing market.

  9. Base information content in organic formulas

    PubMed

    Graham; Schacht

    2000-07-01

    Three questions are addressed concerning organic formulas at their most primitive level: (1) What is the information per atomic symbol? (2) What is the level of system redundancy? (3) How are high-information formulas distinguished from low-information ones? The results are simple yet interesting. Carbon chemistry embodies a code which is low in base information and high in redundancy, irrespective of database size. Moreover, code units associated with halocarbons, proteins, and polynucleotides are especially high in information. Low-information units are more often associated with simple alkanes, aromatics, and common functional groups. Overall, the work for this paper quantifies the base information content in organic formulas; this contributes to research on symbolic language, chemical information, and molecular diversity.

  10. Phonetics Information Base and Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the linguistic and technological challenges involved in creating a cross-linguistic data set to undertake phonological typology. I then address the question of whether more sophisticated, knowledge-based approaches to data modeling, coupled with a broad cross-linguistic data set, can extend previous typological…

  11. Safeguards instrumentation: a computer-based catalog

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G.; Keisch, B.

    1981-08-01

    The information contained in this catalog is needed to provide a data base for safeguards studies and to help establish criteria and procedures for international safeguards for nuclear materials and facilities. The catalog primarily presents information on new safeguards equipment. It also describes entire safeguards systems for certain facilities, but it does not describe the inspection procedures. Because IAEA safeguards do not include physical security, devices for physical protection (as opposed to containment and surveillance) are not included. An attempt has been made to list capital costs, annual maintenance costs, replacement costs, and useful lifetime for the equipment. For equipment which is commercially available, representative sources have been listed whenever available.

  12. An object oriented computer-based patient record reference model.

    PubMed Central

    Doré, L.; Lavril, M.; Jean, F. C.; Degoulet, P.

    1995-01-01

    In the context of health care information systems based on client/server architecture, we address the problem of a common Computer-based Patient Record (CPR). We define it as a collection of faithful observations about patients care, with respect to the free expression of physicians. This CPR model supports several views of the medical data, in order to provide applications with a comprehensive and standardized access to distributed patient data. Finally, we validated our CPR approach as a primary data model server for an application for hypertensive patient management. PMID:8563306

  13. Unified framework for information integration based on information geometry.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Masafumi; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Amari, Shun-Ichi

    2016-12-20

    Assessment of causal influences is a ubiquitous and important subject across diverse research fields. Drawn from consciousness studies, integrated information is a measure that defines integration as the degree of causal influences among elements. Whereas pairwise causal influences between elements can be quantified with existing methods, quantifying multiple influences among many elements poses two major mathematical difficulties. First, overestimation occurs due to interdependence among influences if each influence is separately quantified in a part-based manner and then simply summed over. Second, it is difficult to isolate causal influences while avoiding noncausal confounding influences. To resolve these difficulties, we propose a theoretical framework based on information geometry for the quantification of multiple causal influences with a holistic approach. We derive a measure of integrated information, which is geometrically interpreted as the divergence between the actual probability distribution of a system and an approximated probability distribution where causal influences among elements are statistically disconnected. This framework provides intuitive geometric interpretations harmonizing various information theoretic measures in a unified manner, including mutual information, transfer entropy, stochastic interaction, and integrated information, each of which is characterized by how causal influences are disconnected. In addition to the mathematical assessment of consciousness, our framework should help to analyze causal relationships in complex systems in a complete and hierarchical manner.

  14. Unified framework for information integration based on information geometry

    PubMed Central

    Oizumi, Masafumi; Amari, Shun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of causal influences is a ubiquitous and important subject across diverse research fields. Drawn from consciousness studies, integrated information is a measure that defines integration as the degree of causal influences among elements. Whereas pairwise causal influences between elements can be quantified with existing methods, quantifying multiple influences among many elements poses two major mathematical difficulties. First, overestimation occurs due to interdependence among influences if each influence is separately quantified in a part-based manner and then simply summed over. Second, it is difficult to isolate causal influences while avoiding noncausal confounding influences. To resolve these difficulties, we propose a theoretical framework based on information geometry for the quantification of multiple causal influences with a holistic approach. We derive a measure of integrated information, which is geometrically interpreted as the divergence between the actual probability distribution of a system and an approximated probability distribution where causal influences among elements are statistically disconnected. This framework provides intuitive geometric interpretations harmonizing various information theoretic measures in a unified manner, including mutual information, transfer entropy, stochastic interaction, and integrated information, each of which is characterized by how causal influences are disconnected. In addition to the mathematical assessment of consciousness, our framework should help to analyze causal relationships in complex systems in a complete and hierarchical manner. PMID:27930289

  15. Information Gain Based Dimensionality Selection for Classifying Text Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2013-06-01

    Selecting the optimal dimensions for various knowledge extraction applications is an essential component of data mining. Dimensionality selection techniques are utilized in classification applications to increase the classification accuracy and reduce the computational complexity. In text classification, where the dimensionality of the dataset is extremely high, dimensionality selection is even more important. This paper presents a novel, genetic algorithm based methodology, for dimensionality selection in text mining applications that utilizes information gain. The presented methodology uses information gain of each dimension to change the mutation probability of chromosomes dynamically. Since the information gain is calculated a priori, the computational complexity is not affected. The presented method was tested on a specific text classification problem and compared with conventional genetic algorithm based dimensionality selection. The results show an improvement of 3% in the true positives and 1.6% in the true negatives over conventional dimensionality selection methods.

  16. Model-based neuroimaging for cognitive computing.

    PubMed

    Poznanski, Roman R

    2009-09-01

    The continuity of the mind is suggested to mean the continuous spatiotemporal dynamics arising from the electrochemical signature of the neocortex: (i) globally through volume transmission in the gray matter as fields of neural activity, and (ii) locally through extrasynaptic signaling between fine distal dendrites of cortical neurons. If the continuity of dynamical systems across spatiotemporal scales defines a stream of consciousness then intentional metarepresentations as templates of dynamic continuity allow qualia to be semantically mapped during neuroimaging of specific cognitive tasks. When interfaced with a computer, such model-based neuroimaging requiring new mathematics of the brain will begin to decipher higher cognitive operations not possible with existing brain-machine interfaces.

  17. Symbolic Computation Using Cellular Automata-Based Hyperdimensional Computing.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozgur

    2015-12-01

    This letter introduces a novel framework of reservoir computing that is capable of both connectionist machine intelligence and symbolic computation. A cellular automaton is used as the reservoir of dynamical systems. Input is randomly projected onto the initial conditions of automaton cells, and nonlinear computation is performed on the input via application of a rule in the automaton for a period of time. The evolution of the automaton creates a space-time volume of the automaton state space, and it is used as the reservoir. The proposed framework is shown to be capable of long-term memory, and it requires orders of magnitude less computation compared to echo state networks. As the focus of the letter, we suggest that binary reservoir feature vectors can be combined using Boolean operations as in hyperdimensional computing, paving a direct way for concept building and symbolic processing. To demonstrate the capability of the proposed system, we make analogies directly on image data by asking, What is the automobile of air?

  18. A Unified Computational Architecture for Preprocessing Visual Information in Space and Time.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, Josef

    1986-06-01

    The success of autonomous mobile robots depends on the ability to understand continuously changing scenery. Present techniques for analysis of images are not always suitable because in sequential paradigm, computation of visual functions based on absolute values of stimuli is inefficient. Important aspects of visual information are encoded in discontinuities of intensity, hence a representation in terms of relative values seems advantageous. We present the computing architecture of a massively parallel vision module which optimizes the detection of relative intensity changes in space and time. Visual information must remain constant despite variation in ambient light level or velocity of target and robot. Constancy can be achieved by normalizing motion and lightness scales. In both cases, basic computation involves a comparison of the center pixels with the context of surrounding values. Therefore, a similar computing architecture, composed of three functionally-different and hierarchically-arranged layers of overlapping operators, can be used for two integrated parts of the module. The first part maintains high sensitivity to spatial changes by reducing noise and normalizing the lightness scale. The result is used by the second part to maintain high sensitivity to temporal discontinuities and to compute relative motion information. Simulation results show that response of the module is proportional to contrast of the stimulus and remains constant over the whole domain of intensity. It is also proportional to velocity of motion limited to any small portion of the visual field. Uniform motion throughout the visual field results in constant response, independent of velocity. Spatial and temporal intensity changes are enhanced because computationally, the module resembles the behavior of a DOG function.

  19. An analysis of computer-related patient safety incidents to inform the development of a classification

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mei-Sing; Runciman, William; Coiera, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze patient safety incidents associated with computer use to develop the basis for a classification of problems reported by health professionals. Design Incidents submitted to a voluntary incident reporting database across one Australian state were retrieved and a subset (25%) was analyzed to identify ‘natural categories’ for classification. Two coders independently classified the remaining incidents into one or more categories. Free text descriptions were analyzed to identify contributing factors. Where available medical specialty, time of day and consequences were examined. Measurements Descriptive statistics; inter-rater reliability. Results A search of 42 616 incidents from 2003 to 2005 yielded 123 computer related incidents. After removing duplicate and unrelated incidents, 99 incidents describing 117 problems remained. A classification with 32 types of computer use problems was developed. Problems were grouped into information input (31%), transfer (20%), output (20%) and general technical (24%). Overall, 55% of problems were machine related and 45% were attributed to human–computer interaction. Delays in initiating and completing clinical tasks were a major consequence of machine related problems (70%) whereas rework was a major consequence of human–computer interaction problems (78%). While 38% (n=26) of the incidents were reported to have a noticeable consequence but no harm, 34% (n=23) had no noticeable consequence. Conclusion Only 0.2% of all incidents reported were computer related. Further work is required to expand our classification using incident reports and other sources of information about healthcare IT problems. Evidence based user interface design must focus on the safe entry and retrieval of clinical information and support users in detecting and correcting errors and malfunctions. PMID:20962128

  20. Biomedical signals monitoring based in mobile computing.

    PubMed

    Serigioli, Nilton; Reina Munoz, Rodrigo; Rodriguez, Edgar Charry

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this project consists in the development of a biomedical instrumentation prototype for acquisition, processing and transmission of biomedical signals. These biomedical signals are acquired and then processed with a microcontroller. After processing, all data are sent to a communication interface that can send this information to a personal computer or a cell phone. The prototype developed, which is a digital blood pressure meter, is intended to allow remote monitoring of patients living in areas with limited access to medical assistance or scarce clinical resources. We believe that this development could be helpful to improve people's quality of life, as well as to allow an improvement in the government attendance indices.

  1. An Overview of Computer-Based Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gevarter, William B.

    Computer-based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer-based creations to interact with machines using natural languages (English, Japanese, German, etc.) rather than formal computer languages. NLP is a major research area in the fields of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. Commercial…

  2. Impacts of Personal Characteristics on Computer Attitude and Academic Users Information System Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kee-Sook

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that evaluated the effects of computer experience, gender, and academic performance on computer attitude and user information system satisfaction in a university setting. Results of an analysis of variance showed that the personal characteristics made a difference in computer attitudes but not in academic computer system user…

  3. Analyzing Log Files to Predict Students' Problem Solving Performance in a Computer-Based Physics Tutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether information saved in the log files of a computer-based tutor can be used to predict the problem solving performance of students. The log files of a computer-based physics tutoring environment called Andes Physics Tutor was analyzed to build a logistic regression model that predicted success and failure of students'…

  4. NLM Evidence-based Information at Your Fingertips - NBNA

    SciTech Connect

    Womble, R.

    2010-08-06

    The workshop titled, National Library of Medicine: Evidence-based Information At Your Fingertips, is a computer training class designed to meet the needs of nurses who require access to information on specific medical topics and on the adverse health effects of exposure to hazardous substances. The Specialized Information Services Division of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is sponsoring this workshop for the National Black Nurses Association to increase the awareness of health professionals of the availability and value of the free NLM medical, environmental health, and toxicology databases.

  5. Information-time based futures pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Simon; Wang, Jai Jen

    2009-09-01

    This study follows Clark [P.K. Clark, A subordinated stochastic process model with finite variance for speculative prices, Econometrica 41 (1973) 135-155] and Chang, Chang and Lim [C.W. Chang, S.K. Chang, K.G. Lim, Information-time option pricing: Theory and empirical evidence, Journal of Financial Economics 48 (1998) 211-242] to subordinate an information-time based directing process into calendar-time based parent processes. A closed-form futures pricing formula is derived after taking into account the information-time setting and the stochasticity of the spot price, interest rate, and convenience yield. According to the empirical results on the TAIEX and TFETX data from 1998/7/21 to 2003/12/31, the information-time based model performs better than its calendar-time based counterpart and the cost of carry model, especially when the information arrival intensity estimates become larger.

  6. Computer Center (VAXcluster Libraries/DTNSRDC (Commands and General Information).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    SURFACE EFFECTS DEPARTMENT DEPARTMENT k’ A 15 16 I - STRUCTURES COMPUTATION, I",,STRUCTURES MATHEMATICS AND -- = DEPARTMENT LOGISTICS DEPARTMENT " 17...18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES % ’- 19. KEY WORDS IContinue on reverse side if necessary and identify by block numberl " ,’.. Computer...documentation .16 q’ 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side if necessary and identify by block number) - * The Computer Center DEC VAXcluster Libraries

  7. Instrumentation for Scientific Computing in Neural Networks, Information Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Applied Mathematics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    This was an instrumentation grant to purchase equipment of support of research in neural networks, information science , artificial intelligence, and applied mathematics. Computer lab equipment, motor control and robotics lab equipment, speech analysis equipment and computational vision equipment were purchased.

  8. 76 FR 37111 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Computer Sciences Corporation and Its Identified...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Computer Sciences Corporation and Its Identified... contractor, Computer Sciences Corporation of Chantilly, VA and Its Identified Subcontractors, to...

  9. Developing Visualization Techniques for Semantics-based Information Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Hall, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Information systems incorporating complex network structured information spaces with a semantic underpinning - such as hypermedia networks, semantic networks, topic maps, and concept maps - are being deployed to solve some of NASA s critical information management problems. This paper describes some of the human interaction and navigation problems associated with complex semantic information spaces and describes a set of new visual interface approaches to address these problems. A key strategy is to leverage semantic knowledge represented within these information spaces to construct abstractions and views that will be meaningful to the human user. Human-computer interaction methodologies will guide the development and evaluation of these approaches, which will benefit deployed NASA systems and also apply to information systems based on the emerging Semantic Web.

  10. Computational algebraic topology-based video restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochel, Alban; Ziou, Djemel; Auclair-Fortier, Marie-Flavie

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents a scheme for video denoising by diffusion of gray levels, based on the Computational Algebraic Topology (CAT) image model. The diffusion approach is similar to the one used to denoise static images. Rather than using the heat transfer partial differential equation, discretizing it and solving it by a purely mathematical process, the CAT approach considers the global expression of the heat transfer and decomposes it into elementary physical laws. Some of these laws describe conservative relations, leading to error-free expressions, whereas others depend on metric quantities and require approximation. This scheme allows for a physical interpretation for each step of the resolution process. We propose a nonlinear and an anisotropic diffusion algorithms based on the extension to video of an existing 2D algorithm thanks to the flexibility of the topological support. Finally it is validated with experimental results.

  11. Ultrasound-based liver computer assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Windyga, P; Hiransakolwong, N; Vu, K; Medina, R; Onik, G

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing research toward development of a computer-assisted, ultrasound-based software/hardware tool to improve instrument positioning in moving organs during minimally invasive abdominal surgery is presented. The main objective of this research is to calculate, in real time and without user intervention, the pre-/intra-operative 3D/2D image misalignment due to patient respiration and the shift induced by the surgical instrument. Our methodology applied to the particular case of the liver, and partial results related to the image registration approach, based on organ segmentation and shape description, are presented. Preliminary results are highly encouraging. Among other benefits, use of this tool will increase surgeon confidence and improve surgery outcomes.

  12. [Forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yun-Liang; Peng, Ming-Qi

    2013-12-01

    As an important component of judicial expertise, forensic science is broad and highly specialized. With development of network technology, increasement of information resources, and improvement of people's legal consciousness, forensic scientists encounter many new problems, and have been required to meet higher evidentiary standards in litigation. In view of this, evidence-based concept should be established in forensic medicine. We should find the most suitable method in forensic science field and other related area to solve specific problems in the evidence-based mode. Evidence-based practice can solve the problems in legal medical field, and it will play a great role in promoting the progress and development of forensic science. This article reviews the basic theory of evidence-based medicine and its effect, way, method, and evaluation in the forensic medicine in order to discuss the application value of forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks.

  13. American Bar Association—Computer Law Division Legal Protection for the Value of Information in Computer Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, Laurance J.

    1983-01-01

    The U. S. legal structure for protecting intellectual property is comprised of patent, copyright and trade secret concepts. Whether it be in self-contained desk top models, mainframes or national networks, that structure is finding awkward application in protecting the value of information in computer systems. The Computer Law Division of the Science and Technology Section of the American Bar Association has developed a project to analyze and provide for and protect the economic value of information in computer systems. The goal of the project is to provide a comprehensive and authoritative analysis of all aspects of U. S. legal protections for the value of information in computer systems. Such an analysis has not been attempted before, and if successful, could have a major impact upon the understanding of the bar and bench, as well as legislators, of the problems our present legal system presents for our infant information economy.

  14. Some Computational Aspects of the Brain Computer Interfaces Based on Inner Music

    PubMed Central

    Klonowski, Wlodzimierz; Duch, Wlodzisław; Perovic, Aleksandar; Jovanovic, Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the BCI based on inner tones and inner music. We had some success in the detection of inner tones, the imagined tones which are not sung aloud. Rather easily imagined and controlled, they offer a set of states usable for BCI, with high information capacity and high transfer rates. Imagination of sounds or musical tunes could provide a multicommand language for BCI, as if using the natural language. Moreover, this approach could be used to test musical abilities. Such BCI interface could be superior when there is a need for a broader command language. Some computational estimates and unresolved difficulties are presented. PMID:19503802

  15. From Both Sides, Now: Librarians Team up with Computer Scientist to Deliver Virtual Computer-Information Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loesch, Martha Fallahay

    2011-01-01

    Two members of the library faculty at Seton Hall University teamed up with a respected professor of mathematics and computer science, in order to create an online course that introduces information literacy both from the perspectives of the computer scientist and from the instruction librarian. This collaboration is unique in that it addresses the…

  16. PACS-Based Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. K. (Bernie); Liu, Brent J.; Le, Anh HongTu; Documet, Jorge

    The ultimate goal of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS)-based Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis (CAD) is to integrate CAD results into daily clinical practice so that it becomes a second reader to aid the radiologist's diagnosis. Integration of CAD and Hospital Information System (HIS), Radiology Information System (RIS) or PACS requires certain basic ingredients from Health Level 7 (HL7) standard for textual data, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard for images, and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) workflow profiles in order to comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requirements to be a healthcare information system. Among the DICOM standards and IHE workflow profiles, DICOM Structured Reporting (DICOM-SR); and IHE Key Image Note (KIN), Simple Image and Numeric Report (SINR) and Post-processing Work Flow (PWF) are utilized in CAD-HIS/RIS/PACS integration. These topics with examples are presented in this chapter.

  17. Big data computing: Building a vision for ARS information management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements are needed within the ARS to increase scientific capacity and keep pace with new developments in computer technologies that support data acquisition and analysis. Enhancements in computing power and IT infrastructure are needed to provide scientists better access to high performance com...

  18. Thermodynamic cost of computation, algorithmic complexity and the information metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, W. H.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithmic complexity is discussed as a computational counterpart to the second law of thermodynamics. It is shown that algorithmic complexity, which is a measure of randomness, sets limits on the thermodynamic cost of computations and casts a new light on the limitations of Maxwell's demon. Algorithmic complexity can also be used to define distance between binary strings.

  19. Assessment of Competencies for Computer Information Systems Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womble, Myra N.

    1993-01-01

    In a survey of 80 managerial and 130 entry-level computer professionals, most entry workers believed they possessed competencies identified in Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) curricula; most managers did not agree. Most managers rated 28% of ACM competencies moderately to not important; 63% were so rated by entry workers. (SK)

  20. Information and Communicative Technology--Computers as Research Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarsani, Mahender Reddy

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of "the electronic age,/electronic cottages/the electronic world" has affected the whole world; particularly the emergence of computers has penetrated everyone's life to a remarkable degree. They are being used in various fields including education. Recent advances, especially in the area of computer technology have…

  1. Information Dissemination of Public Health Emergency on Social Networks and Intelligent Computation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongzhi; Mao, Huajuan; Hu, Xiaohua; Hu, Feng; Sun, Xuemin; Jing, Zaiping; Duan, Yunsuo

    2015-01-01

    Due to the extensive social influence, public health emergency has attracted great attention in today's society. The booming social network is becoming a main information dissemination platform of those events and caused high concerns in emergency management, among which a good prediction of information dissemination in social networks is necessary for estimating the event's social impacts and making a proper strategy. However, information dissemination is largely affected by complex interactive activities and group behaviors in social network; the existing methods and models are limited to achieve a satisfactory prediction result due to the open changeable social connections and uncertain information processing behaviors. ACP (artificial societies, computational experiments, and parallel execution) provides an effective way to simulate the real situation. In order to obtain better information dissemination prediction in social networks, this paper proposes an intelligent computation method under the framework of TDF (Theory-Data-Feedback) based on ACP simulation system which was successfully applied to the analysis of A (H1N1) Flu emergency. PMID:26609303

  2. Computer-Based Technologies in Dentistry: Types and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Albuha Al-Mussawi, Raja’a M.; Farid, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    During dental education, dental students learn how to examine patients, make diagnosis, plan treatment and perform dental procedures perfectly and efficiently. However, progresses in computer-based technologies including virtual reality (VR) simulators, augmented reality (AR) and computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems have resulted in new modalities for instruction and practice of dentistry. Virtual reality dental simulators enable repeated, objective and assessable practice in various controlled situations. Superimposition of three-dimensional (3D) virtual images on actual images in AR allows surgeons to simultaneously visualize the surgical site and superimpose informative 3D images of invisible regions on the surgical site to serve as a guide. The use of CAD/CAM systems for designing and manufacturing of dental appliances and prostheses has been well established. This article reviews computer-based technologies, their application in dentistry and their potentials and limitations in promoting dental education, training and practice. Practitioners will be able to choose from a broader spectrum of options in their field of practice by becoming familiar with new modalities of training and practice. PMID:28392819

  3. Education as an Information Based Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Pamela

    Because information is quickly becoming the key resource in many industries globally, it seems natural to utilize and incorporate it as the primary resource in education, an institution that affects our entire society. A definition of an information-based organization (IBO) is proposed, steps to making an organization an IBO are identified, and a…

  4. Finding Evidence-Based Practice Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Gary M.

    2009-01-01

    Locating sources that are rich in evidence-based practice information can be more difficult for physical as well as occupational therapists in practice settings in which there is not direct access to a health sciences library. In addition, once information has been found, there may not be an easy way to access the data. This commentary will…

  5. Physical Optics Based Computational Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivas, Stephen Joseph

    imaging systems share a common theme in that they seek to accomplish camera designs that meet more demanding system requirements through the use of additional measurements made possible by hardware modifications, while relying on modeling and computational methods in order to provide valuable scene information.

  6. Synaptic information transfer in computer models of neocortical columns

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Kimberle M.; Fenton, André A.; Lytton, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the direction and quantity of information flowing in neuronal networks is a fundamental problem in neuroscience. Brains and neuronal networks must at the same time store information about the world and react to information in the world. We sought to measure how the activity of the network alters information flow from inputs to output patterns. Using neocortical column neuronal network simulations, we demonstrated that networks with greater internal connectivity reduced input/output correlations from excitatory synapses and decreased negative correlations from inhibitory synapses, measured by Kendall's τ correlation. Both of these changes were associated with reduction in information flow, measured by normalized transfer entropy (nTE). Information handling by the network reflected the degree of internal connectivity. With no internal connectivity, the feedforward network transformed inputs through nonlinear summation and thresholding. With greater connectivity strength, the recurrent network translated activity and information due to contribution of activity from intrinsic network dynamics. This dynamic contribution amounts to added information drawn from that stored in the network. At still higher internal synaptic strength, the network corrupted the external information, producing a state where little external information came through. The association of increased information retrieved from the network with increased gamma power supports the notion of gamma oscillations playing a role in information processing. PMID:20556639

  7. The anomaly data base of screwworm information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    Standard statistical processing of anomaly data in the screwworm eradication data system is possible from data compiled on magnetic tapes with the Univac 1108 computer. The format and organization of the data in the data base, which is also available on dedicated disc storage, are described.

  8. Biophysical and biochemical aspects of antifreeze proteins: Using computational tools to extract atomistic information.

    PubMed

    Kar, Rajiv K; Bhunia, Anirban

    2015-11-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are the key biomolecules that protect species from extreme climatic conditions. Studies of AFPs, which are based on recognition of ice plane and structural motifs, have provided vital information that point towards the mechanism responsible for executing antifreeze activity. Importantly, the use of experimental techniques has revealed key information for AFPs, but the exact microscopic details are still not well understood, which limits the application and design of novel antifreeze agents. The present review focuses on the importance of computational tools for investigating (i) molecular properties, (ii) structure-function relationships, and (iii) AFP-ice interactions at atomistic levels. In this context, important details pertaining to the methodological approaches used in molecular dynamics studies of AFPs are also discussed. It is hoped that the information presented herein is helpful for enriching our knowledge of antifreeze properties, which can potentially pave the way for the successful design of novel antifreeze biomolecular agents.

  9. Human computers: the first pioneers of the information age.

    PubMed

    Grier, D A

    2001-03-01

    Before computers were machines, they were people. They were men and women, young and old, well educated and common. They were the workers who convinced scientists that large-scale calculation had value. Long before Presper Eckert and John Mauchly built the ENIAC at the Moore School of Electronics, Philadelphia, or Maurice Wilkes designed the EDSAC for Manchester University, human computers had created the discipline of computation. They developed numerical methodologies and proved them on practical problems. These human computers were not savants or calculating geniuses. Some knew little more than basic arithmetic. A few were near equals of the scientists they served and, in a different time or place, might have become practicing scientists had they not been barred from a scientific career by their class, education, gender or ethnicity.

  10. Biotechnology Computing: Information Science for the Era of Molecular Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masys, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution from classical genetics to biotechnology, an area of research involving key macromolecules in living cells, is chronicled and the current state of biotechnology is described, noting related advances in computing and clinical medicine. (MSE)

  11. Investigation of network-based information system model

    SciTech Connect

    Konrad, A.M.; Perez, M.; Rivera, J.; Rodriguez, Y.; Durst, M.J.; Merrill, D.W.; Holmes, H.H.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the DOE-LBNL summer student research program in computer and information sciences focused on investigating database- based http-based information architectures, and implementation of a prototype using DOE`s Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) metadata or Epidemiology Guide content. We were successful in identifying the components of such an information system, and appropriate configuration given the requirements, and in implementing a prototype. This work comprised investigation of various information systems architectures or variants, evaluation and selection of various tools, products, and packages, preparation of databases, database content, output formats, and graphical (World Wide Web- compatible) interfaces. We successfully prepared and demonstrated network access to content from both the CEDR structured documentation and from the DOD Epidemiology Guides (site archive records).

  12. An Applet-based Anonymous Distributed Computing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, David; Wills, Craig E.; Ciaraldi, Michael J.; Amorin, Kevin; Covati, Adam; Lee, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Defines anonymous distributed computing systems and focuses on the specifics of a Java, applet-based approach for large-scale, anonymous, distributed computing on the Internet. Explains the possibility of a large number of computers participating in a single computation and describes a test of the functionality of the system. (Author/LRW)

  13. Arbitrary Order Hierarchical Bases for Computational Electromagnetics

    SciTech Connect

    Rieben, R N; White, D; Rodrigue, G

    2002-12-20

    We present a clear and general method for constructing hierarchical vector bases of arbitrary polynomial degree for use in the finite element solution of Maxwell's equations. Hierarchical bases enable p-refinement methods, where elements in a mesh can have different degrees of approximation, to be easily implemented. This can prove to be quite useful as sections of a computational domain can be selectively refined in order to achieve a greater error tolerance without the cost of refining the entire domain. While there are hierarchical formulations of vector finite elements in publication (e.g. [1]), they are defined for tetrahedral elements only, and are not generalized for arbitrary polynomial degree. Recently, Hiptmair, motivated by the theory of exterior algebra and differential forms presented a unified mathematical framework for the construction of conforming finite element spaces [2]. In [2], both 1-form (also called H(curl)) and 2-form (also called H(div)) conforming finite element spaces and the definition of their degrees of freedom are presented. These degrees of freedom are weighted integrals where the weighting function determines the character of the bases, i.e. interpolatory, hierarchical, etc.

  14. A High Performance COTS Based Computer Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patte, Mathieu; Grimoldi, Raoul; Trautner, Roland

    2014-08-01

    Using Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) electronic components for space applications is a long standing idea. Indeed the difference in processing performance and energy efficiency between radiation hardened components and COTS components is so important that COTS components are very attractive for use in mass and power constrained systems. However using COTS components in space is not straightforward as one must account with the effects of the space environment on the COTS components behavior. In the frame of the ESA funded activity called High Performance COTS Based Computer, Airbus Defense and Space and its subcontractor OHB CGS have developed and prototyped a versatile COTS based architecture for high performance processing. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: in a first section we will start by recapitulating the interests and constraints of using COTS components for space applications; then we will briefly describe existing fault mitigation architectures and present our solution for fault mitigation based on a component called the SmartIO; in the last part of the paper we will describe the prototyping activities executed during the HiP CBC project.

  15. A Microcomputer-Based Computer Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compeau, Larry D.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the use of the microcomputer in computer science programs as an alternative to time-sharing computers at North Country Community College. Discusses factors contributing to the program's success, security problems, outside application possibilities, and program implementation concerns. (DMM)

  16. An innovative thinking-based intelligent information fusion algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huimin; Hu, Liang; Liu, Gang; Zhou, Jin

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes an intelligent algorithm that can realize information fusion in reference to the relative research achievements in brain cognitive theory and innovative computation. This algorithm treats knowledge as core and information fusion as a knowledge-based innovative thinking process. Furthermore, the five key parts of this algorithm including information sense and perception, memory storage, divergent thinking, convergent thinking, and evaluation system are simulated and modeled. This algorithm fully develops innovative thinking skills of knowledge in information fusion and is a try to converse the abstract conception of brain cognitive science to specific and operable research routes and strategies. Furthermore, the influences of each parameter of this algorithm on algorithm performance are analyzed and compared with those of classical intelligent algorithms trough test. Test results suggest that the algorithm proposed in this study can obtain the optimum problem solution by less target evaluation times, improve optimization effectiveness, and achieve the effective fusion of information.

  17. Semantic analysis based forms information retrieval and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, Tanzila; Alqahtani, Fatimah Ayidh

    2013-09-01

    Data entry forms are employed in all types of enterprises to collect hundreds of customer's information on daily basis. The information is filled manually by the customers. Hence, it is laborious and time consuming to use human operator to transfer these customers information into computers manually. Additionally, it is expensive and human errors might cause serious flaws. The automatic interpretation of scanned forms has facilitated many real applications from speed and accuracy point of view such as keywords spotting, sorting of postal addresses, script matching and writer identification. This research deals with different strategies to extract customer's information from these scanned forms, interpretation and classification. Accordingly, extracted information is segmented into characters for their classification and finally stored in the forms of records in databases for their further processing. This paper presents a detailed discussion of these semantic based analysis strategies for forms processing. Finally, new directions are also recommended for future research. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Computer Vision-Based Image Analysis of Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Jonas; Nordenfelt, Pontus

    2017-01-01

    Microscopy is an essential tool for studying bacteria, but is today mostly used in a qualitative or possibly semi-quantitative manner often involving time-consuming manual analysis. It also makes it difficult to assess the importance of individual bacterial phenotypes, especially when there are only subtle differences in features such as shape, size, or signal intensity, which is typically very difficult for the human eye to discern. With computer vision-based image analysis - where computer algorithms interpret image data - it is possible to achieve an objective and reproducible quantification of images in an automated fashion. Besides being a much more efficient and consistent way to analyze images, this can also reveal important information that was previously hard to extract with traditional methods. Here, we present basic concepts of automated image processing, segmentation and analysis that can be relatively easy implemented for use with bacterial research.

  19. DNA-based computing of strategic assignment problems.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jian-Jun; Wang, Qi-Wen; Yong, Kian-Yan

    2011-05-06

    DNA-based computing is a novel technique to tackle computationally difficult problems, in which computing time grows exponentially corresponding to problematic size. A strategic assignment problem is a typical nondeterministic polynomial problem, which is often associated with strategy applications. In this Letter, a new approach dealing with strategic assignment problems is proposed based on manipulating DNA strands, which is believed to be better than the conventional silicon-based computing in solving the same problem.

  20. Computing Models for FPGA-Based Accelerators

    PubMed Central

    Herbordt, Martin C.; Gu, Yongfeng; VanCourt, Tom; Model, Josh; Sukhwani, Bharat; Chiu, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Field-programmable gate arrays are widely considered as accelerators for compute-intensive applications. A critical phase of FPGA application development is finding and mapping to the appropriate computing model. FPGA computing enables models with highly flexible fine-grained parallelism and associative operations such as broadcast and collective response. Several case studies demonstrate the effectiveness of using these computing models in developing FPGA applications for molecular modeling. PMID:21603152

  1. Brain-computer interface using water-based electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volosyak, Ivan; Valbuena, Diana; Malechka, Tatsiana; Peuscher, Jan; Gräser, Axel

    2010-12-01

    Current brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) that make use of EEG acquisition techniques require unpleasant electrode gel causing skin abrasion during the standard preparation procedure. Electrodes that require tap water instead of electrolytic electrode gel would make both daily setup and clean up much faster, easier and comfortable. This paper presents the results from ten subjects that controlled an SSVEP-based BCI speller system using two EEG sensor modalities: water-based and gel-based surface electrodes. Subjects performed in copy spelling mode using conventional gel-based electrodes and water-based electrodes with a mean information transfer rate (ITR) of 29.68 ± 14.088 bit min-1 and of 26.56 ± 9.224 bit min-1, respectively. A paired t-test failed to reveal significant differences in the information transfer rates and accuracies of using gel- or water-based electrodes for EEG acquisition. This promising result confirms the operational readiness of water-based electrodes for BCI applications.

  2. Real-time computing without stable states: a new framework for neural computation based on perturbations.

    PubMed

    Maass, Wolfgang; Natschläger, Thomas; Markram, Henry

    2002-11-01

    A key challenge for neural modeling is to explain how a continuous stream of multimodal input from a rapidly changing environment can be processed by stereotypical recurrent circuits of integrate-and-fire neurons in real time. We propose a new computational model for real-time computing on time-varying input that provides an alternative to paradigms based on Turing machines or attractor neural networks. It does not require a task-dependent construction of neural circuits. Instead, it is based on principles of high-dimensional dynamical systems in combination with statistical learning theory and can be implemented on generic evolved or found recurrent circuitry. It is shown that the inherent transient dynamics of the high-dimensional dynamical system formed by a sufficiently large and heterogeneous neural circuit may serve as universal analog fading memory. Readout neurons can learn to extract in real time from the current state of such recurrent neural circuit information about current and past inputs that may be needed for diverse tasks. Stable internal states are not required for giving a stable output, since transient internal states can be transformed by readout neurons into stable target outputs due to the high dimensionality of the dynamical system. Our approach is based on a rigorous computational model, the liquid state machine, that, unlike Turing machines, does not require sequential transitions between well-defined discrete internal states. It is supported, as the Turing machine is, by rigorous mathematical results that predict universal computational power under idealized conditions, but for the biologically more realistic scenario of real-time processing of time-varying inputs. Our approach provides new perspectives for the interpretation of neural coding, the design of experiments and data analysis in neurophysiology, and the solution of problems in robotics and neurotechnology.

  3. Cloud based emergency health care information service in India.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, N; Sukanesh, R

    2012-12-01

    A hospital is a health care organization providing patient treatment by expert physicians, surgeons and equipments. A report from a health care accreditation group says that miscommunication between patients and health care providers is the reason for the gap in providing emergency medical care to people in need. In developing countries, illiteracy is the major key root for deaths resulting from uncertain diseases constituting a serious public health problem. Mentally affected, differently abled and unconscious patients can't communicate about their medical history to the medical practitioners. Also, Medical practitioners can't edit or view DICOM images instantly. Our aim is to provide palm vein pattern recognition based medical record retrieval system, using cloud computing for the above mentioned people. Distributed computing technology is coming in the new forms as Grid computing and Cloud computing. These new forms are assured to bring Information Technology (IT) as a service. In this paper, we have described how these new forms of distributed computing will be helpful for modern health care industries. Cloud Computing is germinating its benefit to industrial sectors especially in medical scenarios. In Cloud Computing, IT-related capabilities and resources are provided as services, via the distributed computing on-demand. This paper is concerned with sprouting software as a service (SaaS) by means of Cloud computing with an aim to bring emergency health care sector in an umbrella with physical secured patient records. In framing the emergency healthcare treatment, the crucial thing considered necessary to decide about patients is their previous health conduct records. Thus a ubiquitous access to appropriate records is essential. Palm vein pattern recognition promises a secured patient record access. Likewise our paper reveals an efficient means to view, edit or transfer the DICOM images instantly which was a challenging task for medical practitioners in the

  4. The computer-based control system of the NAC accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdzik, G. F.; Bouckaert, R. F. A.; Cloete, I.; Dutoit, J. S.; Kohler, I. H.; Truter, J. N. J.; Visser, K.; Wikner, V. C. S. J.

    The National Accelerator Center (NAC) of the CSIR is building a two-stage accelerator which will provide charged-particle beams for use in medical and research applications. The control system for this accelerator is based on three mini-computers and a CAMAC interfacing network. Closed-loop control is being relegated to the various subsystems of the accelerators, and the computers and CAMAC network will be used in the first instance for data transfer, monitoring and servicing of the control consoles. The processing power of the computers will be utilized for automating start-up and beam-change procedures, for providing flexible and convenient information at the control consoles, for fault diagnosis and for beam-optimizing procedures. Tasks of a localized or dedicated nature are being off-loaded onto microcomputers, which are being used either in front-end devices or as slaves to the mini-computers. On the control consoles only a few instruments for setting and monitoring variables are being provided, but these instruments are universally-linkable to any appropriate machine variable.

  5. Integrating structure-based and ligand-based approaches for computational drug design.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gregory L; Lill, Markus A

    2011-04-01

    Methods utilized in computer-aided drug design can be classified into two major categories: structure based and ligand based, using information on the structure of the protein or on the biological and physicochemical properties of bound ligands, respectively. In recent years there has been a trend towards integrating these two methods in order to enhance the reliability and efficiency of computer-aided drug-design approaches by combining information from both the ligand and the protein. This trend resulted in a variety of methods that include: pseudoreceptor methods, pharmacophore methods, fingerprint methods and approaches integrating docking with similarity-based methods. In this article, we will describe the concepts behind each method and selected applications.

  6. Description of a Mobile-based Electronic Informed Consent System Development.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Min-A; Kwak, In Ja

    2015-01-01

    Seoul National University Hospital constructed and implemented a computer-based informed consent system in December 2011. As of 2013, 30% of the informed consents were still filled out manually on paper. Patients and medical staff continuously suggested the implementation of a system for electronic informed consent using portable devices. Therefore, a mobile-based system for electronic informed consent was developed in 2013 to prevent the issues that arise with computer-based systems and paper informed consent. The rate of filling out electronic informed consent increased from 69% to 95% following the implementation of the mobile-based electronic informed consent. This construction of a mobile-based electronic informed consent system would be a good reference point for the development of a mobile-based Electronic Medical Record and for various mobile system environments in medical institutions.

  7. Computational investigation of rocket based combined cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Zhan-xue; Liu, Zeng-wen

    2013-03-01

    Based on Computational Fluid Dynamic technology, the mixing process of Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion system is researched. The idea of RBCC propulsion system means combining rocket engine with ramjet engine effectively, which can flight from sea level to high altitude in wide Mach ranges. In order to analyze how the length of the mixing part affects mixing process, different length of mixing part are researched. As it is indicated, with a constant Mach number, increasing the length of mixing part makes main flow and second flow mix more evenly. Moreover, the length of mixing part has a slight impact on the thrust. Obviously the main consequence of increasing the length of mixing part is promoting the mix of main flow and second flow. Therefore, in order to decrease the weight of aircraft, it is of importance to reduce the length. Through comparing distribution of different cases, when working in the situation of maximum power, the flow in the nozzle of rocket engine is under expansion, while that in the nozzle is fully expanded. Nevertheless, in the case of high altitude and high Mach number, there exists a vortex in the nozzle of rocket engine because of over expansion; meanwhile, the flow in the nozzle is under expansion. Therefore, it is necessary to adjust nozzle throat area in order to increase the thrust of RBCC at high altitude.

  8. "TIS": An Intelligent Gateway Computer for Information and Modeling Networks. Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Viktor E.; And Others

    TIS (Technology Information System) is being used at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop software for Intelligent Gateway Computers (IGC) suitable for the prototyping of advanced, integrated information networks. Dedicated to information management, TIS leads the user to available information resources, on TIS or…

  9. Demystifying the GMAT: Computer-Based Testing Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based testing can be a powerful means to make all aspects of test administration not only faster and more efficient, but also more accurate and more secure. While the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exam is a computer adaptive test, there are other approaches. This installment presents a primer of computer-based testing terms.

  10. Measurement-Based and Universal Blind Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Kashefi, Elham

    Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) is a novel approach to quantum computation where the notion of measurement is the main driving force of computation. This is in contrast with the more traditional circuit model which is based on unitary operation. We review here the mathematical model underlying MBQC and the first quantum cryptographic protocol designed using the unique features of MBQC.

  11. Computer-Based Cognitive Tools: Description and Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, David; McNaught, Carmel

    With computers, tangible tools are represented by the hardware (e.g., the central processing unit, scanners, and video display unit), while intangible tools are represented by the software. There is a special category of computer-based software tools (CBSTs) that have the potential to mediate cognitive processes--computer-based cognitive tools…

  12. TestMaker: A Computer-Based Test Development Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, William J.; Lario-Gibbs, Annette M.

    This paper discusses a computer-based prototype called TestMaker that enables educators to create computer-based tests. Given the functional needs of faculty, the host of research implications computer technology has for assessment, and current educational perspectives such as constructivism and their impact on testing, the purposes for developing…

  13. Introducing Discipline-Based Computing in Undergraduate Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magana, Alejandra J.; Falk, Michael L.; Reese, Michael J., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the effectiveness of a course employing a discipline-based computing approach. The research questions driving this study were: (1) Can experiences with discipline-based computing promote students' acquisition and application of foundational computing concepts and procedures? (2) How do students perceive and experience the…

  14. 75 FR 70672 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Computer Sciences Corporation and Its Identified...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Computer Sciences Corporation and Its Identified... contractor, Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) of Chantilly, VA and Its Identified Subcontractors, to access... required to support OPPT computer applications; OPPT staff; and their development staff. Specific types...

  15. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Computers and Performance in the Accounting Information Systems Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenard, Mary Jane; Wessels, Susan; Khanlarian, Cindi

    2010-01-01

    Using a model developed by Young (2000), this paper explores the relationship between performance in the Accounting Information Systems course, self-assessed computer skills, and attitudes toward computers. Results show that after taking the AIS course, students experience a change in perception about their use of computers. Females'…

  16. Methods and apparatus for capture and storage of semantic information with sub-files in a parallel computing system

    DOEpatents

    Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M; Tzelnic, Percy; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron

    2015-02-03

    Techniques are provided for storing files in a parallel computing system using sub-files with semantically meaningful boundaries. A method is provided for storing at least one file generated by a distributed application in a parallel computing system. The file comprises one or more of a complete file and a plurality of sub-files. The method comprises the steps of obtaining a user specification of semantic information related to the file; providing the semantic information as a data structure description to a data formatting library write function; and storing the semantic information related to the file with one or more of the sub-files in one or more storage nodes of the parallel computing system. The semantic information provides a description of data in the file. The sub-files can be replicated based on semantically meaningful boundaries.

  17. Web information retrieval based on ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Information Retrieval (IR) is to find a set of documents that are relevant for a specific information need of a user. Traditional Information Retrieval model commonly used in commercial search engine is based on keyword indexing system and Boolean logic queries. One big drawback of traditional information retrieval is that they typically retrieve information without an explicitly defined domain of interest to the users so that a lot of no relevance information returns to users, which burden the user to pick up useful answer from these no relevance results. In order to tackle this issue, many semantic web information retrieval models have been proposed recently. The main advantage of Semantic Web is to enhance search mechanisms with the use of Ontology's mechanisms. In this paper, we present our approach to personalize web search engine based on ontology. In addition, key techniques are also discussed in our paper. Compared to previous research, our works concentrate on the semantic similarity and the whole process including query submission and information annotation.

  18. Implementing security in computer based patient records clinical experiences.

    PubMed

    Iversen, K R; Heimly, V; Lundgren, T I

    1995-01-01

    In Norway, organizational changes in hospitals and a stronger focus on patient safety have changed the way of organizing and managing paper based patient records. Hospital-wide patient records tend to replace department based records. Since not only clinicians, but also other non-medical staff have access to the paper records, they also have easy access to all the information which is available on a specific patient; such a system has obvious 'side effects' on privacy and security. Computer based patient records (CPRs) can provide the solution to this apparent paradox if the complex aspects of security, privacy, effectiveness, and user friendliness are focused on jointly from the outset in designing such systems. Clinical experiences in Norway show that it is possible to design patient record systems that provide a very useful tool for clinicians and other health care personnel (HCP) while fully complying with comprehensive security and privacy requirements.

  19. Electronic Forms-Based Computing for Evidentiary Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Luse, Andy; Mennecke, Brian; Townsend, Anthony

    2009-07-01

    The paperwork associated with evidentiary collection and analysis is a highly repetitive and time-consuming process which often involves duplication of work and can frequently result in documentary errors. Electronic entry of evidence-related information can facilitate greater accuracy and less time spent on data entry. This manuscript describes a general framework for the implementation of an electronic tablet-based system for evidentiary processing. This framework is then utilized in the design and implementation of an electronic tablet-based evidentiary input prototype system developed for use by forensic laboratories which serves as a verification of the proposed framework. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of implications and recommendations for the implementation and use of tablet-based computing for evidence analysis.

  20. 78 FR 61870 - Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 193 (Friday, October 4, 2013)] [Notices] [Pages 61870-61871] [FR Doc No: 2013-24277] NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Computer and Information...: Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering (1115). Date/Time: Oct 31, 2013:...

  1. International Computer and Information Literacy Study: ICILS 2013 User Guide for the International Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Michael, Ed.; Carstens, Ralph, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS) 2013, conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), studied how students in different countries develop the knowledge, understanding, attitudes, dispositions, and skills that comprise computer and information literacy (CIL). The aim…

  2. Group Awareness and Self-Presentation in Computer-Supported Information Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    A common challenge in many situations of computer-supported collaborative learning is increasing the willingness of those involved to share their knowledge with other group members. As a prototypical situation of computer-supported information exchange, a shared-database setting was chosen for the current study. This information-exchange situation…

  3. Identifying Musical Performance Behavior in Instrumentalists Using Computer-Based Sound Spectrum Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Fred J.; Michelis, Rainer M.

    1991-01-01

    Examines relationships between musical information processed by a computer-based sound analysis system and the audiovisual record of a performer's response to musical assignments. Concludes that computer analysis permits identification of performance behavior. Suggests that a database could be designed to provide both diagnostic response to…

  4. Biological Information as Set-Based Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Galas, David J.; Nykter, Matti; Carter, Gregory W.; Price, Nathan D.; Shmulevich, Ilya

    2010-01-01

    Summary It is not obvious what fraction of all the potential information residing in the molecules and structures of living systems is significant or meaningful to the system. Sets of random sequences or identically repeated sequences, for example, would be expected to contribute little or no useful information to a cell. This issue of quantitation of information is important since the ebb and flow of biologically significant information is essential to our quantitative understanding of biological function and evolution. Motivated specifically by these problems of biological information, we propose here a class of measures to quantify the contextual nature of the information in sets of objects, based on Kolmogorov's intrinsic complexity. Such measures discount both random and redundant information and are inherent in that they do not require a defined state space to quantify the information. The maximization of this new measure, which can be formulated in terms of the universal information distance, appears to have several useful and interesting properties, some of which we illustrate with examples. PMID:27857450

  5. Formal and Information Learning in a Computer Clubhouse Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Anne; Lowe, Jenny; Hopkins, Josie

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the establishment and running of an after-school Computer Clubhouse, describing aspects of the leadership, mentoring and learning activities undertaken there. Research data has been collected from examination of documents associated with the Clubhouse, interviews with its founders, Director, session leaders and mentors, and…

  6. Computational Psychiatry: towards a mathematically informed understanding of mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Huys, Quentin J M; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Computational Psychiatry aims to describe the relationship between the brain's neurobiology, its environment and mental symptoms in computational terms. In so doing, it may improve psychiatric classification and the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. It can unite many levels of description in a mechanistic and rigorous fashion, while avoiding biological reductionism and artificial categorisation. We describe how computational models of cognition can infer the current state of the environment and weigh up future actions, and how these models provide new perspectives on two example disorders, depression and schizophrenia. Reinforcement learning describes how the brain can choose and value courses of actions according to their long-term future value. Some depressive symptoms may result from aberrant valuations, which could arise from prior beliefs about the loss of agency (‘helplessness’), or from an inability to inhibit the mental exploration of aversive events. Predictive coding explains how the brain might perform Bayesian inference about the state of its environment by combining sensory data with prior beliefs, each weighted according to their certainty (or precision). Several cortical abnormalities in schizophrenia might reduce precision at higher levels of the inferential hierarchy, biasing inference towards sensory data and away from prior beliefs. We discuss whether striatal hyperdopaminergia might have an adaptive function in this context, and also how reinforcement learning and incentive salience models may shed light on the disorder. Finally, we review some of Computational Psychiatry's applications to neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, and some pitfalls to avoid when applying its methods. PMID:26157034

  7. Recruiting Women into Computer Science and Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad, Steven; McGee, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    While many technical disciplines have reached or are moving toward gender parity in the number of bachelors degrees in those fields, the percentage of women graduating in computer science remains stubbornly low. Many recent efforts to address this situation have focused on retention of undergraduate majors or graduate students, recruiting…

  8. An Ontology Based Approach to Information Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Teresa; Santos, Henrique

    The semantically structure of knowledge, based on ontology approaches have been increasingly adopted by several expertise from diverse domains. Recently ontologies have been moved from the philosophical and metaphysics disciplines to be used in the construction of models to describe a specific theory of a domain. The development and the use of ontologies promote the creation of a unique standard to represent concepts within a specific knowledge domain. In the scope of information security systems the use of an ontology to formalize and represent the concepts of security information challenge the mechanisms and techniques currently used. This paper intends to present a conceptual implementation model of an ontology defined in the security domain. The model presented contains the semantic concepts based on the information security standard ISO/IEC_JTC1, and their relationships to other concepts, defined in a subset of the information security domain.

  9. A Comparison of Baccalaureate Programs in Information Technology with Baccalaureate Programs in Computer Science and Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichgelt, Han; Lunt, Barry; Ashford, Tina; Phelps, Andy; Slazinski, Erick; Willis, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    A number of universities have recently started to add baccalaureate programs in Information Technology (IT) to their existing programs in Computer Science (CS) and (Management) Information Systems (IS). While some have welcomed this development, others have argued that (a) there are significant differences between the baccalaureate programs in IT…

  10. Blind topological measurement-based quantum computation.

    PubMed

    Morimae, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    Blind quantum computation is a novel secure quantum-computing protocol that enables Alice, who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal, to delegate her quantum computation to Bob, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output and algorithm. A recent proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating blind quantum computation in an optical system has raised new challenges regarding the scalability of blind quantum computation in realistic noisy conditions. Here we show that fault-tolerant blind quantum computation is possible in a topologically protected manner using the Raussendorf-Harrington-Goyal scheme. The error threshold of our scheme is 4.3 × 10(-3), which is comparable to that (7.5 × 10(-3)) of non-blind topological quantum computation. As the error per gate of the order 10(-3) was already achieved in some experimental systems, our result implies that secure cloud quantum computation is within reach.

  11. Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Klimova, Blanka

    2016-01-01

    At present there is a rapid growth of aging population groups worldwide, which brings about serious economic and social problems. Thus, there is considerable effort to prolong the active life of these older people and keep them independent. The purpose of this mini review is to explore available clinical studies implementing computer-based cognitive training programs as intervention tools in the prevention and delay of cognitive decline in aging, with a special focus on their effectiveness. This was done by conducting a literature search in the databases Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE and Springer, and consequently by evaluating the findings of the relevant studies. The findings show that computerized cognitive training can lead to the improvement of cognitive functions such as working memory and reasoning skills in particular. However, this training should be performed over a longer time span since a short-term cognitive training mainly has an impact on short-term memory with temporary effects. In addition, the training must be intense to become effective. Furthermore, the results indicate that it is important to pay close attention to the methodological standards in future clinical studies. PMID:28066236

  12. Access Control to Information in Pervasive Computing Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Encrypt(〈ID1,1, . . . , ID1,t1〉, . . . , 〈 IDh ,1, . . . , IDh ,th〉,M,Q0, params)→ C: Af- ter choosing a node in each hierarchy, a service uses this...of G1.) 4. Compute (non-secret) Qi,j = si,jP0 for 1 ≤ j ≤ ti − 1. • Encrypt(〈ID1,1, . . . , ID1,t1〉, . . . , 〈 IDh ,1, . . . , IDh ,th〉,M,Q0, params)→ C...encrypted using the sequences of IDs 〈ID1,1, . . . , ID1,t1〉, . . . , 〈 IDh ,1, . . . , IDh ,th〉. To decrypt C, compute V ⊕H2( h∏ i=1 ê(U0, Si,ti) h∏ i=1 ti

  13. Information Sharing for Computing Trust Metrics on COTS Electronic Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Photograph of Xbox internals.....................3 Figure 2. Photograph used to identify Xbox 360 DVD drives ...computer (PC) hardware. The Xbox is essentially a PC with an Intel Mobile Celeron processor, hard drive , nVidia GeForce video card, random access memory...media (e.g., boot from the Xbox hard drive vice the DVD drive ). The altered BIOS and bootloader prompted the widespread piracy of Xbox games

  14. A region growing vessel segmentation algorithm based on spectrum information.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huiyan; He, Baochun; Fang, Di; Ma, Zhiyuan; Yang, Benqiang; Zhang, Libo

    2013-01-01

    We propose a region growing vessel segmentation algorithm based on spectrum information. First, the algorithm does Fourier transform on the region of interest containing vascular structures to obtain its spectrum information, according to which its primary feature direction will be extracted. Then combined edge information with primary feature direction computes the vascular structure's center points as the seed points of region growing segmentation. At last, the improved region growing method with branch-based growth strategy is used to segment the vessels. To prove the effectiveness of our algorithm, we use the retinal and abdomen liver vascular CT images to do experiments. The results show that the proposed vessel segmentation algorithm can not only extract the high quality target vessel region, but also can effectively reduce the manual intervention.

  15. Laser Based Information Systems (Selected Pages),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-22

    CO lasers . Microwaves, 1967, M* 7. 85. W e I s s P. F., T o h n s o n R. E. Laser tracking wiht automatic reacquisi- tion capability. Appl. Optics, 1968, Vol. 7, M* 6. I it 313 lab- Now - ...DIVISIONCD LASER BASED INFORMATION SYSTEMS (Selected Pages) bDTIC L.Z. Kriksunov EL’, %N16 86 4. I’, Approved for public release; Distribution...HUMAN TRANSLATION FTD-ID(RS)T-0563-85 22 May 1986 MICROFICHE NR: FTD-86-C-O01863 LASER BASED INFORMATION SYSTEMS (Selected Pages) By: L.Z.

  16. Computer-Based Arithmetic Test Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trocchi, Robert F.

    1973-01-01

    The computer can be a welcome partner in the instructional process, but only if there is man-machine interaction. Man should not compromise system design because of available hardware; the computer must fit the system design for the result to represent an acceptable solution to instructional technology. The Arithmetic Test Generator system fits…

  17. Individual information beam broadcasting system using a PAL-SLM based CGH beam former for the location based information services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Shunichi; Itoh, Hideo; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Takuichi; Lin, Xin; Tokuda, Masamitsu

    2006-01-01

    As an implementation of ubiquitous information service environments, we have been researching location-based information service systems at indoor and short distance area. The system should provide adequate information services, which fit the user's attributes, such as language, knowledge level and the volume of information, what is so-called "Right now, Here, and for Me" information services. Keeping privacy and security of the user is an important issue. Spatial optical communication technique is used for the system because the technique is easy to implement a location- and direction-based communication system. Information broadcasting in an area can be realized by an omnidirectional modulated light emission. However, the omnidirectional beam causes spill out of secure information to others, and has lower energy conservation than a focused beam communication. In this paper, a new spatial optical information broadcasting system, which can focus modulated beams only to intended users. CGH (Computer Generated Hologram) technique on a SLM (Spatial Light Modulator) is proposed and demonstrated. The system is composed of a PAL-SLM (Parallel Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator), an eye-safe semiconductor laser or a semiconductor laser pumped YAG laser for the beam emitter, and an infrared video camera with an infrared LED illuminator for user locator. Experimental results of beam deflecting characteristics are described on beam uniformity, deflecting angle and the enhancement, communication characteristics, and real time tracking of user with a corner-reflecting sheet.

  18. Ubiquitous information for ubiquitous computing: expressing clinical data sets with openEHR archetypes.

    PubMed

    Garde, Sebastian; Hovenga, Evelyn; Buck, Jasmin; Knaup, Petra

    2006-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing requires ubiquitous access to information and knowledge. With the release of openEHR Version 1.0 there is a common model available to solve some of the problems related to accessing information and knowledge by improving semantic interoperability between clinical systems. Considerable work has been undertaken by various bodies to standardise Clinical Data Sets. Notwithstanding their value, several problems remain unsolved with Clinical Data Sets without the use of a common model underpinning them. This paper outlines these problems like incompatible basic data types and overlapping and incompatible definitions of clinical content. A solution to this based on openEHR archetypes is motivated and an approach to transform existing Clinical Data Sets into archetypes is presented. To avoid significant overlaps and unnecessary effort during archetype development, archetype development needs to be coordinated nationwide and beyond and also across the various health professions in a formalized process.

  19. Kalman filter-based fast track reconstruction for charged particles in a Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment using parallel computing on a multicore server at the Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablyazimov, T. O.; Zyzak, M. V.; Ivanov, V. V.; Kisel, P. I.

    2015-05-01

    One of the main goals in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment (GSI, Germany) is to find parameters of charged particle trajectories. An online full event reconstruction is planned to be carried out in this experiment, thus demanding fast algorithms be developed, which make the most of the capabilities of modern CPU and GPU architectures. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Kalman filter-based track reconstruction for charged particles implemented by using various code parallelization methods. A multicore server located at the Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (LIT JINR), with two CPU Intel Xeon X5660 processors and a GPU Nvidia GTX 480 video card is used.

  20. Short Feasibility Study on Using the Post Office Telex Network for On-Line Computer Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, D. F.; Hall, F. J.

    In 1972 there were 33,000 Telex installations in the United Kingdom with 240,000 predicted by 1983. The feasibility of using these Telex systems for on-line accession of computer based information systems was investigated in this report. Comparisons between the Telex system and the Teletypewriter or Teleprinter system now in use reveal that the…

  1. Scrapping Patched Computer Systems: Integrated Data Processing for Information Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Linda

    1991-01-01

    Colleges and universities must find a way to streamline and integrate information management processes across the organization. The Georgia Institute of Technology responded to an acute problem of dissimilar operating systems with a campus-wide integrated administrative system using a machine independent relational database management system. (MSE)

  2. Computers, Schools, and Society: American Education in an Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlig, George E.

    The microcomputer is only the very visible tip of a technological iceberg which demands a national technological literacy. Other important new technologies include the laser or optical videodisc and satellite-ground information transfer and telecommunications. National technological literacy requires changes in curriculum development beginning…

  3. School Librarians Teach Subject Area 10: Computer and Information Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Mirah J. Ingram

    2010-01-01

    School librarians currently speak about school libraries as the largest classroom in the building. If so, how can these librarians describe what they teach? This article explains the user-centered instructional role of secondary school librarians in teaching information and technology literacy skills, as well as how they can authoritatively ensure…

  4. Computers and Information Systems in Planning and Related Governmental Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Dorothy; Vance, Mary, Ed.

    The 266 items cited include material published since July 1960, organized in the following ten groups: (1) general discussion, and feasibility; (2) statewide electronic data processing (EDP) systems; (3) EDP in local governments; (4) intergovernmental EDP systems; (5) EDP in the planning agency; (6) data banks and information systems; (7) computer…

  5. 26 CFR 1.809-10 - Computation of equity base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computation of equity base. 1.809-10 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.809-10 Computation of equity base. (a) In general. For purposes of section 809, the equity base of a life insurance company includes...

  6. 26 CFR 1.809-10 - Computation of equity base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Computation of equity base. 1.809-10 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.809-10 Computation of equity base. (a) In general. For purposes of section 809, the equity base of a life insurance company includes...

  7. 26 CFR 1.809-10 - Computation of equity base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Computation of equity base. 1.809-10 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.809-10 Computation of equity base. (a) In general. For purposes of section 809, the equity base of a life insurance company includes...

  8. 26 CFR 1.809-10 - Computation of equity base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of equity base. 1.809-10 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.809-10 Computation of equity base. (a) In general. For purposes of section 809, the equity base of a life insurance company includes the amount of...

  9. 26 CFR 1.809-10 - Computation of equity base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Computation of equity base. 1.809-10 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.809-10 Computation of equity base. (a) In general. For purposes of section 809, the equity base of a life insurance company includes...

  10. Base Numeration Systems and Introduction to Computer Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, K. Ed.; And Others

    This teaching guide is for the instructor of an introductory course in computer programming using FORTRAN language. Five FORTRAN programs are incorporated in this guide, which has been used as a FORTRAN IV SELF TEACHER. The base eight, base four, and base two concepts are integrated with FORTRAN computer programs, geoblock activities, and related…

  11. The Acceptance and Use of Computer Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzis, Vasileios; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2011-01-01

    The effective development of a computer based assessment (CBA) depends on students' acceptance. The purpose of this study is to build a model that demonstrates the constructs that affect students' behavioral intention to use a CBA. The proposed model, Computer Based Assessment Acceptance Model (CBAAM) is based on previous models of technology…

  12. Information Warfare: Issues Associated with the Defense of DOD Computers and Computer Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    DOD for computer network defense and computer network attack. As such, it is the trigger-puller for this new branch of warfare. It is the pathfinder ...Forces CNA Capabilit ies CINC & Unif ied Command Support JTF-CNO is the pathfinder organization for new warfare area Tailored CINC Support Teams... Lisa Hoffman, “A Surprise: Fewer Cyber-Attacks after 9-11,” Scripps Howard News Service available at URL: <www.knowstudio.com/shns/story.cfm?pk

  13. Laptop Computer - Based Facial Recognition System Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Cain; G. B. Singleton

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrolling facial images in a database from remote locations and conducting real-time searches against a database of previously enrolled images. The assessment involved creating a database of 40 images and conducting 2 series of tests to determine the product's ability to recognize and match subject faces under varying conditions. This report describes the test results and includes a description of the factors affecting the results. After an extensive market survey, we selected Visionics' FaceIt{reg_sign} software package for evaluation and a review of the Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2000 (FRVT 2000). This test was co-sponsored by the US Department of Defense (DOD) Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office, the National Institute of Justice, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Administered in May-June 2000, the FRVT 2000 assessed the capabilities of facial recognition systems that were currently available for purchase on the US market. Our selection of this Visionics product does not indicate that it is the ''best'' facial recognition software package for all uses. It was the most appropriate package based on the specific applications and requirements for this specific application. In this assessment, the system configuration was evaluated for effectiveness in identifying individuals by searching for facial images captured from video displays against those stored in a facial image database. An additional criterion was that the system be capable of operating discretely. For this application, an operational facial recognition system would consist of one central computer hosting the master image database with multiple standalone systems configured with duplicates of the master operating in

  14. Quizzing and Feedback in Computer-Based and Book-Based Training for Workplace Safety and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlman, Diane S.; Eckerman, David A.; Ammerman, Tammara A.; Fercho, Heather L.; Lundeen, Christine A.; Blomquist, Carrie; Anger, W. Kent

    2005-01-01

    Participants received different amounts of information in either a cTRAIN computer-based instruction (CBI) program or in a booklet format, presented before or concurrently with interactive questions about the information. An interactive CBI presentation that required an overt response during training produced equivalent acquisition and retention…

  15. Computer-Based Education: Fact or Fad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Janice E.

    1983-01-01

    The author notes the growth of computer technology in the schools and suggests that a bionic perspective which explores the relationship between teachers and educational machine technology may be helpful. She warns against letting hardware influence instructional decisions. (CL)

  16. Computer-Based Experiments to Measure RC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Francis X.

    2000-01-01

    Finds that few electricity and magnetism experiments make use of computers for data acquisition. Reports on the use of a Vernier system for the measurement of the RC time constant for the charging and discharging of a capacitor. (CCM)

  17. A Total Concept of Computer-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Bettye D.

    Computer-based instruction (CBI) encompasses the functions of computer administered and managed instruction supplemented by utilities and interfaces. The course author's function in computer-administered instruction (CAI) is to construct the lesson for input in one of three formats: (1) batch entry used by those with knowledge of programing…

  18. Effectiveness of Computer-Based Education in Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, James A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This metaanalysis of 32 comparative studies shows that computer-based education has generally had positive effects on the achievement of elementary school pupils. However, these effects are different for off-line computer managed instruction and interactive computer assisted instruction (CAI); interactive CAI produces greater increases in student…

  19. Computer Based Social Studies Instruction: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulusoy, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the quality of the computer and Internet based social studies course was investigated. A case study design was chosen to understand, a) how computers are used in the eighth grade classroom, b) what the students' and teachers' perceptions are about the advantages and problems of using computers. Qualitative data sources showed that…

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 19: Computer and information technology and aerospace knowledge diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Bishop, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    To remain a world leader in aerospace, the US must improve and maintain the professional competency of its engineers and scientists, increase the research and development (R&D) knowledge base, improve productivity, and maximize the integration of recent technological developments into the R&D process. How well these objectives are met, and at what cost, depends on a variety of factors, but largely on the ability of US aerospace engineers and scientists to acquire and process the results of federally funded R&D. The Federal Government's commitment to high speed computing and networking systems presupposes that computer and information technology will play a major role in the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. However, we know little about information technology needs, uses, and problems within the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. The use of computer and information technology by US aerospace engineers and scientists in academia, government, and industry is reported.

  1. Multimodal computational microscopy based on transport of intensity equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiaji; Chen, Qian; Sun, Jiasong; Zhang, Jialin; Zuo, Chao

    2016-12-01

    Transport of intensity equation (TIE) is a powerful tool for phase retrieval and quantitative phase imaging, which requires intensity measurements only at axially closely spaced planes without a separate reference beam. It does not require coherent illumination and works well on conventional bright-field microscopes. The quantitative phase reconstructed by TIE gives valuable information that has been encoded in the complex wave field by passage through a sample of interest. Such information may provide tremendous flexibility to emulate various microscopy modalities computationally without requiring specialized hardware components. We develop a requisite theory to describe such a hybrid computational multimodal imaging system, which yields quantitative phase, Zernike phase contrast, differential interference contrast, and light field moment imaging, simultaneously. It makes the various observations for biomedical samples easy. Then we give the experimental demonstration of these ideas by time-lapse imaging of live HeLa cell mitosis. Experimental results verify that a tunable lens-based TIE system, combined with the appropriate postprocessing algorithm, can achieve a variety of promising imaging modalities in parallel with the quantitative phase images for the dynamic study of cellular processes.

  2. Analysis of Technological Information Transfer among Japanese Computer Scientists at a Research Front.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Masaya

    1986-01-01

    Describes the methodology and results of a study that examined information flow at the technological research front by analyzing a Japanese national project in computer technology. Various formats of information dissemination are identified, and a classification of researchers and engineers by information transfer activities is presented. (4…

  3. The Computer Applications in Some Libraries and Information Institutes in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiang, Dong, Jiang; Xiao-Quing, Liu

    1983-01-01

    Provides a brief introduction to computer applications in information organizations in China. Highlights include information retrieval (personnel, equipment, bibliographic databases, information retrieval programs and systems, service status); library management; and Chinese character processing (code method, character root method). History,…

  4. Dissemination of Information in Developing Countries: The Personal Computer and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wai-Man

    2005-01-01

    With the blooming of information in digital format, dissemination of information is becoming a big challenge for developing countries. It is not only due to the limited provision of personal computers--in addition, the technological infrastructure and the ability to access information are also becoming major concerns in developing countries. This…

  5. Factors Influencing Learners' Perceptions of the Quality of Computer Based Learning Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambrook, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Online and paper instruments were used by 159 learners to evaluate 5 computer-based learning materials requiring information technology skills. Top factors influencing perceptions of quality were as follows: user friendliness, presentation, graphics, engagement, information, knowledge, understanding, level, learning mode, and language. (SK)

  6. DIADS: Computer-Based System for Development of School Drug Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris; Yoast, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Describes Drug Information, Assessment and Decisions for Schools (DIADS), computer-based information and decisions support system for development of school drug abuse prevention programs. Explains how DIADS provides access to cost-effective planning resource, helps schools assess program effectiveness, and guides selection of future activities.…

  7. A Computer-Based Atlas of a Rat Dissection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quentin-Baxter, Megan; Dewhurst, David

    1990-01-01

    A hypermedia computer program that uses text, graphics, sound, and animation with associative information linking techniques to teach the functional anatomy of a rat is described. The program includes a nonintimidating tutor, to which the student may turn. (KR)

  8. Evaluation of computer-based ultrasonic inservice inspection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.V. Jr.; Angel, L.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Park, W.R.; Schuster, G.J.; Taylor, T.T.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents the principles, practices, terminology, and technology of computer-based ultrasonic testing for inservice inspection (UT/ISI) of nuclear power plants, with extensive use of drawings, diagrams, and LTT images. The presentation is technical but assumes limited specific knowledge of ultrasonics or computers. The report is divided into 9 sections covering conventional LTT, computer-based LTT, and evaluation methodology. Conventional LTT topics include coordinate axes, scanning, instrument operation, RF and video signals, and A-, B-, and C-scans. Computer-based topics include sampling, digitization, signal analysis, image presentation, SAFI, ultrasonic holography, transducer arrays, and data interpretation. An evaluation methodology for computer-based LTT/ISI systems is presented, including questions, detailed procedures, and test block designs. Brief evaluations of several computer-based LTT/ISI systems are given; supplementary volumes will provide detailed evaluations of selected systems.

  9. IMMAN: free software for information theory-based chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Urias, Ricardo W Pino; Barigye, Stephen J; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; García-Jacas, César R; Valdes-Martiní, José R; Perez-Gimenez, Facundo

    2015-05-01

    The features and theoretical background of a new and free computational program for chemometric analysis denominated IMMAN (acronym for Information theory-based CheMoMetrics ANalysis) are presented. This is multi-platform software developed in the Java programming language, designed with a remarkably user-friendly graphical interface for the computation of a collection of information-theoretic functions adapted for rank-based unsupervised and supervised feature selection tasks. A total of 20 feature selection parameters are presented, with the unsupervised and supervised frameworks represented by 10 approaches in each case. Several information-theoretic parameters traditionally used as molecular descriptors (MDs) are adapted for use as unsupervised rank-based feature selection methods. On the other hand, a generalization scheme for the previously defined differential Shannon's entropy is discussed, as well as the introduction of Jeffreys information measure for supervised feature selection. Moreover, well-known information-theoretic feature selection parameters, such as information gain, gain ratio, and symmetrical uncertainty are incorporated to the IMMAN software ( http://mobiosd-hub.com/imman-soft/ ), following an equal-interval discretization approach. IMMAN offers data pre-processing functionalities, such as missing values processing, dataset partitioning, and browsing. Moreover, single parameter or ensemble (multi-criteria) ranking options are provided. Consequently, this software is suitable for tasks like dimensionality reduction, feature ranking, as well as comparative diversity analysis of data matrices. Simple examples of applications performed with this program are presented. A comparative study between IMMAN and WEKA feature selection tools using the Arcene dataset was performed, demonstrating similar behavior. In addition, it is revealed that the use of IMMAN unsupervised feature selection methods improves the performance of both IMMAN and WEKA

  10. Operation of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The major operational areas of the COSMIC center are described. Quantitative data on the software submittals, program verification, and evaluation are presented. The dissemination activities are summarized. Customer services and marketing activities of the center for the calendar year are described. Those activities devoted to the maintenance and support of selected programs are described. A Customer Information system, the COSMIC Abstract Recording System Project, and the COSMIC Microfiche Project are summarized. Operational cost data are summarized.

  11. Human-Computer Interaction and Information Management Research Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    biological, social, economic, and regulatory influences and effects • Long-term archival of large data sets 3.3 DOE/SC Mary Anne Scott...C. Cassatt , Director, Division of Cell Biology and Biophysics, National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), National Institutes of Health... Cassatt described the Biomedical Information Science and Technology Initiative (BISTI) .6 Because of the biomedical community’s increased use of

  12. Interactive computer-assisted instruction in acid-base physiology for mobile computer platforms.

    PubMed

    Longmuir, Kenneth J

    2014-03-01

    In this project, the traditional lecture hall presentation of acid-base physiology in the first-year medical school curriculum was replaced by interactive, computer-assisted instruction designed primarily for the iPad and other mobile computer platforms. Three learning modules were developed, each with ∼20 screens of information, on the subjects of the CO2-bicarbonate buffer system, other body buffer systems, and acid-base disorders. Five clinical case modules were also developed. For the learning modules, the interactive, active learning activities were primarily step-by-step learner control of explanations of complex physiological concepts, usually presented graphically. For the clinical cases, the active learning activities were primarily question-and-answer exercises that related clinical findings to the relevant basic science concepts. The student response was remarkably positive, with the interactive, active learning aspect of the instruction cited as the most important feature. Also, students cited the self-paced instruction, extensive use of interactive graphics, and side-by-side presentation of text and graphics as positive features. Most students reported that it took less time to study the subject matter with this online instruction compared with subject matter presented in the lecture hall. However, the approach to learning was highly examination driven, with most students delaying the study of the subject matter until a few days before the scheduled examination. Wider implementation of active learning computer-assisted instruction will require that instructors present subject matter interactively, that students fully embrace the responsibilities of independent learning, and that institutional administrations measure instructional effort by criteria other than scheduled hours of instruction.

  13. Evolving technologies for Space Station Freedom computer-based workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Dean G.; Rudisill, Marianne

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on evolving technologies for Space Station Freedom computer-based workstations are presented. The human-computer computer software environment modules are described. The following topics are addressed: command and control workstation concept; cupola workstation concept; Japanese experiment module RMS workstation concept; remote devices controlled from workstations; orbital maneuvering vehicle free flyer; remote manipulator system; Japanese experiment module exposed facility; Japanese experiment module small fine arm; flight telerobotic servicer; human-computer interaction; and workstation/robotics related activities.

  14. 10 CFR 727.5 - What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... information on DOE computers? 727.5 Section 727.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONSENT FOR ACCESS TO INFORMATION ON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPUTERS § 727.5 What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers? An individual may not be granted access to information on a...

  15. 10 CFR 727.5 - What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... information on DOE computers? 727.5 Section 727.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONSENT FOR ACCESS TO INFORMATION ON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPUTERS § 727.5 What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers? An individual may not be granted access to information on a...

  16. 10 CFR 727.5 - What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... information on DOE computers? 727.5 Section 727.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONSENT FOR ACCESS TO INFORMATION ON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPUTERS § 727.5 What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers? An individual may not be granted access to information on a...

  17. 10 CFR 727.5 - What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... information on DOE computers? 727.5 Section 727.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONSENT FOR ACCESS TO INFORMATION ON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPUTERS § 727.5 What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers? An individual may not be granted access to information on a...

  18. 10 CFR 727.5 - What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... information on DOE computers? 727.5 Section 727.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONSENT FOR ACCESS TO INFORMATION ON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPUTERS § 727.5 What acknowledgment and consent is required for access to information on DOE computers? An individual may not be granted access to information on a...

  19. Image based Monte Carlo Modeling for Computational Phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Mengyun; Wang, Wen; Zhao, Kai; Fan, Yanchang; Long, Pengcheng; Wu, Yican

    2014-06-01

    The evaluation on the effects of ionizing radiation and the risk of radiation exposure on human body has been becoming one of the most important issues for radiation protection and radiotherapy fields, which is helpful to avoid unnecessary radiation and decrease harm to human body. In order to accurately evaluate the dose on human body, it is necessary to construct more realistic computational phantom. However, manual description and verfication of the models for Monte carlo(MC)simulation are very tedious, error-prone and time-consuming. In addiation, it is difficult to locate and fix the geometry error, and difficult to describe material information and assign it to cells. MCAM (CAD/Image-based Automatic Modeling Program for Neutronics and Radiation Transport Simulation) was developed as an interface program to achieve both CAD- and image-based automatic modeling by FDS Team (Advanced Nuclear Energy Research Team, http://www.fds.org.cn). The advanced version (Version 6) of MCAM can achieve automatic conversion from CT/segmented sectioned images to computational phantoms such as MCNP models. Imaged-based automatic modeling program(MCAM6.0) has been tested by several medical images and sectioned images. And it has been applied in the construction of Rad-HUMAN. Following manual segmentation and 3D reconstruction, a whole-body computational phantom of Chinese adult female called Rad-HUMAN was created by using MCAM6.0 from sectioned images of a Chinese visible human dataset. Rad-HUMAN contains 46 organs/tissues, which faithfully represented the average anatomical characteristics of the Chinese female. The dose conversion coefficients(Dt/Ka) from kerma free-in-air to absorbed dose of Rad-HUMAN were calculated. Rad-HUMAN can be applied to predict and evaluate dose distributions in the Treatment Plan System (TPS), as well as radiation exposure for human body in radiation protection.

  20. Hospital nurses' use of knowledge-based information resources.

    PubMed

    Tannery, Nancy Hrinya; Wessel, Charles B; Epstein, Barbara A; Gadd, Cynthia S

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the information-seeking practices of nurses before and after access to a library's electronic collection of information resources. This is a pre/post intervention study of nurses at a rural community hospital. The hospital contracted with an academic health sciences library for access to a collection of online knowledge-based resources. Self-report surveys were used to obtain information about nurses' computer use and how they locate and access information to answer questions related to their patient care activities. In 2001, self-report surveys were sent to the hospital's 573 nurses during implementation of access to online resources with a post-implementation survey sent 1 year later. At the initiation of access to the library's electronic resources, nurses turned to colleagues and print textbooks or journals to satisfy their information needs. After 1 year of access, 20% of the nurses had begun to use the library's electronic resources. The study outcome suggests ready access to knowledge-based electronic information resources can lead to changes in behavior among some nurses.

  1. Access to Max '91 information via computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiplinger, Alan L.

    1989-01-01

    Various types of flare information, activity, active region reports, x ray plots and daily Campaign Action notices are now available on SPAN, and INTERNET. Although this system was developed for use by Max '91 participants during campaigns, it is updated daily and maintained at times outside of campaigns. Thus it is available for general use outside of campaigns. The Space Environment Laboratory maintains VAX and Apollo systems, both of which are on INTERNET. The VAX is also on the SPAN network as node SELVAX or 9555. Details of access to files on the VAX are given.

  2. BrucellaBase: Genome information resource.

    PubMed

    Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Vishnu, Udayakumar S; Khader, L K M Abdul; Sridhar, Jayavel; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2016-09-01

    Brucella sp. causes a major zoonotic disease, brucellosis. Brucella belongs to the family Brucellaceae under the order Rhizobiales of Alphaproteobacteria. We present BrucellaBase, a web-based platform, providing features of a genome database together with unique analysis tools. We have developed a web version of the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (Whatmore et al., 2007) and phylogenetic analysis of Brucella spp. BrucellaBase currently contains genome data of 510 Brucella strains along with the user interfaces for BLAST, VFDB, CARD, pairwise genome alignment and MLST typing. Availability of these tools will enable the researchers interested in Brucella to get meaningful information from Brucella genome sequences. BrucellaBase will regularly be updated with new genome sequences, new features along with improvements in genome annotations. BrucellaBase is available online at http://www.dbtbrucellosis.in/brucellabase.html or http://59.99.226.203/brucellabase/homepage.html.

  3. Traditional classroom education versus computer-based learning: how nurses learn about pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Esche, Carol Ann; Warren, Joan I; Woods, Anne B; Jesada, Elizabeth C; Iliuta, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the Nurse Professional Development specialist is to utilize the most effective educational strategies when educating staff nurses about pressure ulcer prevention. More information is needed about the effect of computer-based learning and traditional classroom learning on pressure ulcer education for the staff nurse. This study compares computer-based learning and traditional classroom learning on immediate and long-term knowledge while evaluating the impact of education on pressure ulcer risk assessment, staging, and documentation.

  4. AQUIS: A PC-based source information manager

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.E.; Huber, C.C.; Tschanz, J. . Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.); Ryckman, S.J. Jr. . Environmental Engineering Div.)

    1993-01-01

    The Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS) was developed to calculate emissions and track them along with related information about sources, stacks, controls, and permits. The system runs on IBM- compatible personal computers with dBASE IV and tracks more than 1, 200 data items distributed among various source categories. AQUIS is currently operating at 11 US Air Force facilities, which have up to 1, 000 sources, and two headquarters. The system provides a flexible reporting capability that permits users who are unfamiliar with database structure to design and prepare reports containing user- specified information. In addition to the criteria pollutants, AQUIS calculates compound-specific emissions and allows users to enter their own emission estimates.

  5. AQUIS: A PC-based source information manager

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.E.; Huber, C.C.; Tschanz, J.; Ryckman, S.J. Jr.

    1993-05-01

    The Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS) was developed to calculate emissions and track them along with related information about sources, stacks, controls, and permits. The system runs on IBM- compatible personal computers with dBASE IV and tracks more than 1, 200 data items distributed among various source categories. AQUIS is currently operating at 11 US Air Force facilities, which have up to 1, 000 sources, and two headquarters. The system provides a flexible reporting capability that permits users who are unfamiliar with database structure to design and prepare reports containing user- specified information. In addition to the criteria pollutants, AQUIS calculates compound-specific emissions and allows users to enter their own emission estimates.

  6. Information system based on the mathematical model of the EPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalimoldayev, Maksat N.; Abdildayeva, Assel A.; Mamyrbayev, Orken Zh.; Akhmetzhanov, Maksat

    2016-11-01

    This article discusses the structure of an information system, the mathematical and information models of electric power systems. Currently, the major application areas include system relaying data communication systems and automation, automated dispatching and technological management of electric power facilities, as well as computer-aided calculation of energy resources. Automatic control of excitation (ARV) synchronous machines is one of the most effective ways to ensure the stability of power systems. However, the variety of possible options and modes even in a single grid pose significant obstacles to the development of the best means of ensuring sustainability. Thus, the use of ARVs to ensure stability in some cases may not be sufficient. Therefore, there is a need to develop an information system based on a mathematical model.

  7. A Web-based Distributed Voluntary Computing Platform for Large Scale Hydrological Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, I.; Agliamzanov, R.

    2014-12-01

    Distributed volunteer computing can enable researchers and scientist to form large parallel computing environments to utilize the computing power of the millions of computers on the Internet, and use them towards running large scale environmental simulations and models to serve the common good of local communities and the world. Recent developments in web technologies and standards allow client-side scripting languages to run at speeds close to native application, and utilize the power of Graphics Processing Units (GPU). Using a client-side scripting language like JavaScript, we have developed an open distributed computing framework that makes it easy for researchers to write their own hydrologic models, and run them on volunteer computers. Users will easily enable their websites for visitors to volunteer sharing their computer resources to contribute running advanced hydrological models and simulations. Using a web-based system allows users to start volunteering their computational resources within seconds without installing any software. The framework distributes the model simulation to thousands of nodes in small spatial and computational sizes. A relational database system is utilized for managing data connections and queue management for the distributed computing nodes. In this paper, we present a web-based distributed volunteer computing platform to enable large scale hydrological simulations and model runs in an open and integrated environment.

  8. A brain computer interface-based explorer.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lijuan; Yu, Tianyou; Li, Yuanqing

    2015-04-15

    In recent years, various applications of brain computer interfaces (BCIs) have been studied. In this paper, we present a hybrid BCI combining P300 and motor imagery to operate an explorer. Our system is mainly composed of a BCI mouse, a BCI speller and an explorer. Through this system, the user can access his computer and manipulate (open, close, copy, paste, and delete) files such as documents, pictures, music, movies and so on. The system has been tested with five subjects, and the experimental results show that the explorer can be successfully operated according to subjects' intentions.

  9. Cone beam x-ray luminescence computed tomography reconstruction with a priori anatomical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Pei-An; Lin, Meng-Lung; Jin, Shih-Chun; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Lin, Syue-Liang; Chang, C. Allen; Chiang, Huihua Kenny

    2014-09-01

    X-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) is a novel molecular imaging modality that reconstructs the optical distribution of x-ray-excited phosphor particles with prior informational of anatomical CT image. The prior information improves the accuracy of image reconstruction. The system can also present anatomical CT image. The optical system based on a high sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) is perpendicular with a CT system. In the XLCT system, the xray was adopted to excite the phosphor of the sample and CCD camera was utilized to acquire luminescence emitted from the sample in 360 degrees projection free-space. In this study, the fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT)-like algorithm was used for image reconstruction, the structural prior information was incorporated in the reconstruction by adding a penalty term to the minimization function. The phosphor used in this study is Gd2O2S:Tb. For the simulation and experiments, the data was collected from 16 projections. The cylinder phantom was 40 mm in diameter and contains 8 mm diameter inclusion; the phosphor in the in vivo study was 5 mm in diameter at a depth of 3 mm. Both the errors were no more than 5%. Based on the results from these simulation and experimental studies, the novel XLCT method has demonstrated the feasibility for in vivo animal model studies.

  10. Study on GIS-based sport-games information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hongzhi; Yang, Lingbin; Deng, Meirong; Han, Yongshun

    2008-10-01

    With the development of internet and such info-technologies as, Information Superhighway, Computer Technology, Remote Sensing(RS), Global Positioning System(GPS), Digital Communication and National Information Network(NIN),etc. Geographic Information System (GIS) becomes more and more popular in fields of science and industries. It is not only feasible but also necessary to apply GIS to large-scale sport games. This paper firstly discussed GIS technology and its application, then elaborated on the frame and content of Sport-Games Geography Information System(SG-GIS) with the function of gathering, storing, processing, sharing, exchanging and utilizing all kind of spatial-temporal information about sport games, and lastly designed and developed a public service GIS for the 6th Asian Winter Games in Changchun, China(CAWGIS). The application of CAWGIS showed that the established SG-GIS was feasible and GIS-based sport games information system was able to effectively process a large amount of sport-games information and provide the real-time sport games service for governors, athletes and the public.

  11. Overview of computational vaccinology: vaccine development through information technology.

    PubMed

    Vaishnav, Nishita; Gupta, Aparna; Paul, Sneha; John, Georrge J

    2015-08-01

    Pathogenic organisms, causes of various infectious diseases, possess a rich repository of antigenic proteins that engender an immune response in a host. These types of diseases are usually treated with the use of pharmaceuticals; unfortunately, many of these also have a potential to induce fatal side effects, especially allergic responses in the diseased host. In addition, many pathogens evolve (by selective survival) single or multi-drug resistance (MDR). Therefore, a means to prevent the host from becoming susceptible to the pathogen from the onset, rather than trying to devise pharmacologic protocols to treat an ongoing infection, are increasingly seen as desirable to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases altogether. To this end, cost-effective development and use of "safe" vaccines is key. This paper provides an overview on the new and expanding area of computational vaccinology and a brief background on pathogen antigenicity, identification of pathogen-specific antigens, and screening of candidate antigens using various tools and databases developed in the recent past.

  12. Spacecraft On-Board Information Extraction Computer (SOBIEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenman, David; Decaro, Robert E.; Jurasek, David W.

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the Technical Monitor on an SBIR Program issued for Irvine Sensors Corporation to develop a highly compact, dual use massively parallel processing node known as SOBIEC. SOBIEC couples 3D memory stacking technology provided by nCUBE. The node contains sufficient network Input/Output to implement up to an order-13 binary hypercube. The benefit of this network, is that it scales linearly as more processors are added, and it is a superset of other commonly used interconnect topologies such as: meshes, rings, toroids, and trees. In this manner, a distributed processing network can be easily devised and supported. The SOBIEC node has sufficient memory for most multi-computer applications, and also supports external memory expansion and DMA interfaces. The SOBIEC node is supported by a mature set of software development tools from nCUBE. The nCUBE operating system (OS) provides configuration and operational support for up to 8000 SOBIEC processors in an order-13 binary hypercube or any subset or partition(s) thereof. The OS is UNIX (USL SVR4) compatible, with C, C++, and FORTRAN compilers readily available. A stand-alone development system is also available to support SOBIEC test and integration.

  13. The Training Information Management System. Volume 4. User’s Manual for the Training Base Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM : User’s Manual for the Training Base Station Perceptroni cs N for ARI Field Unit...COVERED THE TRAINING INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM : Final Report, Vol. 4 User’s Manual for the Training Base Station April B4 - January 86 5. PERFORMING ORG...ideuMIfy’ b7 block numbov) >The Training Information Management System (TIMS) is a computer-based system which can be used by Army personnel to collect

  14. What's New in Software? Current Sources of Information Boost Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, Nancy J.

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews current resources on computer-assisted instruction. Included are sources of software and hardware evaluations, advances in current technology, research, an information hotline, and inventories of available technological assistance. (DB)

  15. For operation of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmon, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Progress report on current status of computer software management and information center (COSMIC) includes the following areas: inventory, evaluation and publication, marketing, customer service, maintenance and support, and budget summary.

  16. Ranking streamflow model performance based on Information theory metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Gonzalo; Pachepsky, Yakov; Pan, Feng; Wagener, Thorsten; Nicholson, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy-based model performance metrics not necessarily reflect the qualitative correspondence between simulated and measured streamflow time series. The objective of this work was to use the information theory-based metrics to see whether they can be used as complementary tool for hydrologic model evaluation and selection. We simulated 10-year streamflow time series in five watersheds located in Texas, North Carolina, Mississippi, and West Virginia. Eight model of different complexity were applied. The information-theory based metrics were obtained after representing the time series as strings of symbols where different symbols corresponded to different quantiles of the probability distribution of streamflow. The symbol alphabet was used. Three metrics were computed for those strings - mean information gain that measures the randomness of the signal, effective measure complexity that characterizes predictability and fluctuation complexity that characterizes the presence of a pattern in the signal. The observed streamflow time series has smaller information content and larger complexity metrics than the precipitation time series. Watersheds served as information filters and and streamflow time series were less random and more complex than the ones of precipitation. This is reflected the fact that the watershed acts as the information filter in the hydrologic conversion process from precipitation to streamflow. The Nash Sutcliffe efficiency metric increased as the complexity of models increased, but in many cases several model had this efficiency values not statistically significant from each other. In such cases, ranking models by the closeness of the information-theory based parameters in simulated and measured streamflow time series can provide an additional criterion for the evaluation of hydrologic model performance.

  17. AMA Statistical Information Based Analysis of a Compressive Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, D.; Prasad, S.

    analysis of a compressive imaging system based on a new highly efficient and robust method that enables us to evaluate statistical entropies. Our method is based on the notion of density of states (DOS), which plays a major role in statistical mechanics by allowing one to express macroscopic thermal averages in terms of the number of configuration states of a system for a certain energy level. Instead of computing the number of states at a certain energy level, however, we compute the number of possible configurations (states) of a particular image scene that correspond to a certain probability value. This allows us to compute the probability for each possible state, or configuration, of the scene being imaged. We assess the performance of a single pixel compressive imaging system based on the amount of information encoded and transmitted in parameters that characterize the information in the scene. Amongst many examples, we study the problem of faint companion detection. Here, we show how information in the recorded images depends on the choice of basis for representing the scene and the amount of measurement noise. The noise creates confusion when associating a recorded image with the correct member of the ensemble that produced the image. We show that multiple measurements enable one to mitigate this confusion noise.

  18. Heterogeneous information-based artificial stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, S.; Ponta, L.; Cincotti, S.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, an information-based artificial stock market is considered. The market is populated by heterogeneous agents that are seen as nodes of a sparsely connected graph. Agents trade a risky asset in exchange for cash. Besides the amount of cash and assets owned, each agent is characterized by a sentiment. Moreover, agents share their sentiments by means of interactions that are identified by the graph. Interactions are unidirectional and are supplied with heterogeneous weights. The agent's trading decision is based on sentiment and, consequently, the stock price process depends on the propagation of information among the interacting agents, on budget constraints and on market feedback. A central market maker (clearing house mechanism) determines the price process at the intersection of the demand and supply curves. Both closed- and open-market conditions are considered. The results point out the validity of the proposed model of information exchange among agents and are helpful for understanding the role of information in real markets. Under closed market conditions, the interaction among agents' sentiments yields a price process that reproduces the main stylized facts of real markets, e.g. the fat tails of the returns distributions and the clustering of volatility. Within open-market conditions, i.e. with an external cash inflow that results in asset price inflation, also the unitary root stylized fact is reproduced by the artificial stock market. Finally, the effects of model parameters on the properties of the artificial stock market are also addressed.

  19. Computer-Based Physics: An Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Ronald, Ed.

    Designed to serve as a guide for integrating interactive problem-solving or simulating computers into a college-level physics course, this anthology contains nine articles each of which includes an introduction, a student manual, and a teacher's guide. Among areas covered in the articles are the computerized reduction of data to a Gaussian…

  20. Optical Computing Based on Neuronal Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    walking, and cognition are far too complex for existing sequential digital computers. Therefore new architectures, hardware, and algorithms modeled...collective behavior, and iterative processing into optical processing and artificial neurodynamical systems. Another intriguing promise of neural nets is...with architectures, implementations, and programming; and material research s -7- called for. Our future research in neurodynamics will continue to

  1. Cloud Computing Based E-Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zoube, Mohammed; El-Seoud, Samir Abou; Wyne, Mudasser F.

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing technologies although in their early stages, have managed to change the way applications are going to be developed and accessed. These technologies are aimed at running applications as services over the internet on a flexible infrastructure. Microsoft office applications, such as word processing, excel spreadsheet, access database…

  2. Evoll - A Computer Based Natural Selection Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ramil C.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a computer-generated natural selection game which deals with various factors influencing survival and speciation processes. Variation of population size, growth rate, brood size, and selection pressure are permitted by the program, which is written in ASA Basic FORTRAN IV. (PR)

  3. Computer-Based Instruction in Elementary Hindi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachru, Yamuna; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction for Hindi courses at the University of Illinois is described in relation to the technical aspects of programming Hindi on the PLATO system and the curriculum components. The program focuses on review of the materials already covered in class and building understanding of a number of grammatical constructions by using…

  4. Computer-Based Education Project Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarenpa, Dennis E.

    In this paper a rationale is presented for the formation of teams of college faculty (subject experts), computer programmers, and instructional designers to develop instructional software for use with classroom and laboratory microcomputers. The advent of an "electronic publishing" industry, one of the major products of which is…

  5. High Assurance Challenges for Cloud Based Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    transactions to exploits for eaves dropping, ex-filtration, session high-jacking, data corruption, man-in-the-middle, masquerade, blocking or...technology correspondent, guardian.co.uk, Cloud computing is a trap, warns GNU founder Richard Stallman, 29 September 2008, http

  6. A New Computer-Based Examination System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Arcos, J. M.; Vano, E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a computer-managed instructional system used to formulate, print, and evaluate true-false questions for testing purposes. The design of the system and its application in medical and nuclear engineering courses in two Spanish institutions of higher learning are detailed. (RAO)

  7. Computer-Based Education: Is It a Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Janis

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the history and theory of computer-based education (CBE) and reviews five meta-analyses that investigated the effectiveness of computer-based applications on individuals by measuring student achievement on a final exam for both CBE and traditional teaching. Concludes that CBE should supplement traditional instruction, not replace it.…

  8. Computer-Based Integrated Learning Systems: Research and Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira, Ed.; Becker, Henry Jay, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The eight chapters of this theme issue discuss recent research and theory concerning computer-based integrated learning systems. Following an introduction about their theoretical background and current use in schools, the effects of using computer-based integrated learning systems in the elementary school classroom are considered. (SLD)

  9. Adult Learning in a Computer-Based ESL Acquisition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Karen Renee

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the self-efficacy of students learning English as a Second Language on the computer-based Rosetta Stone program. The research uses a qualitative approach to explore how a readily available computer-based learning program, Rosetta Stone, can help adult immigrant students gain some English competence and so acquire a greater…

  10. 78 FR 64255 - Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Computer and Information Science and Engineering; Cancellation of Meeting SUMMARY... issuing this notice to cancel the October 31 to November 1, 2013 Advisory Committee for Computer...

  11. A Guide to Computer Literature; An Introductory Survey of the Sources of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Alan

    Sources of information in the computer field (especially in the United Kingdom and the United States) and instruction in the bibliographical control of the literature are provided in this survey which was designed to be of particular use to companies operating or concerned with computer systems. Sources are divided into three categories: primary…

  12. Computer-based assessment of movement difficulties in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Laura M; Nugent, Chris D; Moore, George; Finlay, Dewar D; Craig, David

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) is increasing due to an ageing population. It is an unpredictable disease which requires regular assessment and monitoring. Current techniques used to assess PD are subjective. Clinicians observe movements made by a patient and subsequently rate the level of severity of, for example tremor or slowness of movement. Within this work, we have developed and evaluated a prototype computer-based assessment tool capable of collecting information on the movement difficulties present in PD. Twenty participants took part in an assessment of the tool, 10 of whom were diagnosed with PD and 10 were without the disease. Following the usage of the tool, it was found that there was a significant difference (p = 0.038) in the speed of movement between the two groups. We envisage that this tool could have the potential to enable more objective clinical conclusions to be made.

  13. Personal Computer (PC) based image processing applied to fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y.-C.; McLachlan, B. G.

    1987-10-01

    A PC based image processing system was employed to determine the instantaneous velocity field of a two-dimensional unsteady flow. The flow was visualized using a suspension of seeding particles in water, and a laser sheet for illumination. With a finite time exposure, the particle motion was captured on a photograph as a pattern of streaks. The streak pattern was digitized and processed using various imaging operations, including contrast manipulation, noise cleaning, filtering, statistical differencing, and thresholding. Information concerning the velocity was extracted from the enhanced image by measuring the length and orientation of the individual streaks. The fluid velocities deduced from the randomly distributed particle streaks were interpolated to obtain velocities at uniform grid points. For the interpolation a simple convolution technique with an adaptive Gaussian window was used. The results are compared with a numerical prediction by a Navier-Stokes computation.

  14. Personal Computer (PC) based image processing applied to fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y.-C.; Mclachlan, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    A PC based image processing system was employed to determine the instantaneous velocity field of a two-dimensional unsteady flow. The flow was visualized using a suspension of seeding particles in water, and a laser sheet for illumination. With a finite time exposure, the particle motion was captured on a photograph as a pattern of streaks. The streak pattern was digitized and processed using various imaging operations, including contrast manipulation, noise cleaning, filtering, statistical differencing, and thresholding. Information concerning the velocity was extracted from the enhanced image by measuring the length and orientation of the individual streaks. The fluid velocities deduced from the randomly distributed particle streaks were interpolated to obtain velocities at uniform grid points. For the interpolation a simple convolution technique with an adaptive Gaussian window was used. The results are compared with a numerical prediction by a Navier-Stokes computation.

  15. Autonomous Organization-Based Adaptive Information Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    intentional Multi - agent System (MAS) approach [10]. While these approaches are functional AIS systems, they lack the ability to reorganize and adapt...extended a multi - agent system with a self- reorganizing architecture to create an autonomous, adaptive information system. Design Our organization-based...goals. An advantage of a multi - agent system using the organization theoretic model is its extensibility. The practical, numerical limits to the

  16. Many-core computing for space-based stereoscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Paul; Torres, Gildo; LeGrand, Keith; Adjouadi, Malek; Liu, Chen; Darling, Jacob; Pernicka, Henry

    The potential benefits of using parallel computing in real-time visual-based satellite proximity operations missions are investigated. Improvements in performance and relative navigation solutions over single thread systems can be achieved through multi- and many-core computing. Stochastic relative orbit determination methods benefit from the higher measurement frequencies, allowing them to more accurately determine the associated statistical properties of the relative orbital elements. More accurate orbit determination can lead to reduced fuel consumption and extended mission capabilities and duration. Inherent to the process of stereoscopic image processing is the difficulty of loading, managing, parsing, and evaluating large amounts of data efficiently, which may result in delays or highly time consuming processes for single (or few) processor systems or platforms. In this research we utilize the Single-Chip Cloud Computer (SCC), a fully programmable 48-core experimental processor, created by Intel Labs as a platform for many-core software research, provided with a high-speed on-chip network for sharing information along with advanced power management technologies and support for message-passing. The results from utilizing the SCC platform for the stereoscopic image processing application are presented in the form of Performance, Power, Energy, and Energy-Delay-Product (EDP) metrics. Also, a comparison between the SCC results and those obtained from executing the same application on a commercial PC are presented, showing the potential benefits of utilizing the SCC in particular, and any many-core platforms in general for real-time processing of visual-based satellite proximity operations missions.

  17. Information Filtering Based on Users' Negative Opinions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qiang; Li, Yang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2013-05-01

    The process of heat conduction (HC) has recently found application in the information filtering [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 154301 (2007)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. The classical HC model predicts users' potential interested objects based on their interesting objects regardless to the negative opinions. In terms of the users' rating scores, we present an improved user-based HC (UHC) information model by taking into account users' positive and negative opinions. Firstly, the objects rated by users are divided into positive and negative categories, then the predicted interesting and dislike object lists are generated by the UHC model. Finally, the recommendation lists are constructed by filtering out the dislike objects from the interesting lists. By implementing the new model based on nine similarity measures, the experimental results for MovieLens and Netflix datasets show that the new model considering negative opinions could greatly enhance the accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, from 0.049 to 0.036 for Netflix and from 0.1025 to 0.0570 for Movielens dataset, reduced by 26.53% and 44.39%, respectively. Since users prefer to give positive ratings rather than negative ones, the negative opinions contain much more information than the positive ones, the negative opinions, therefore, are very important for understanding users' online collective behaviors and improving the performance of HC model.

  18. Administrative Decision-Making and Computer-Based Planning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weischadle, David E.

    This paper presents the overall conceptual framework in which information gathered and stored by computers can be transformed into a comprehensive planning system useful in administrative decisionmaking. Identified and discussed are information needs (enrollment, costs, resources, and measurements) and a sample system (STEP - System for Trenton's…

  19. Spaceborne computer executive routine functional design specification. Volume 2: Computer executive design for space station/base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, J. R.; Fitzpatrick, W. S.

    1971-01-01

    The computer executive functional system design concepts derived from study of the Space Station/Base are presented. Information Management System hardware configuration as directly influencing the executive design is reviewed. The hardware configuration and generic executive design requirements are considered in detail in a previous report (System Configuration and Executive Requirements Specifications for Reusable Shuttle and Space Station/Base, 9/25/70). This report defines basic system primitives and delineates processes and process control. Supervisor states are considered for describing basic multiprogramming and multiprocessing systems. A high-level computer executive including control of scheduling, allocation of resources, system interactions, and real-time supervisory functions is defined. The description is oriented to provide a baseline for a functional simulation of the computer executive system.

  20. Towards Web-based representation and processing of health information

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Yi, Xiaolun; Anton, Francois; Oldfield, Eddie; Coleman, David J

    2009-01-01

    Background There is great concern within health surveillance, on how to grapple with environmental degradation, rapid urbanization, population mobility and growth. The Internet has emerged as an efficient way to share health information, enabling users to access and understand data at their fingertips. Increasingly complex problems in the health field require increasingly sophisticated computer software, distributed computing power, and standardized data sharing. To address this need, Web-based mapping is now emerging as an important tool to enable health practitioners, policy makers, and the public to understand spatial health risks, population health trends and vulnerabilities. Today several web-based health applications generate dynamic maps; however, for people to fully interpret the maps they need data source description and the method used in the data analysis or statistical modeling. For the representation of health information through Web-mapping applications, there still lacks a standard format to accommodate all fixed (such as location) and variable (such as age, gender, health outcome, etc) indicators in the representation of health information. Furthermore, net-centric computing has not been adequately applied to support flexible health data processing and mapping online. Results The authors of this study designed a HEalth Representation XML (HERXML) schema that consists of the semantic (e.g., health activity description, the data sources description, the statistical methodology used for analysis), geometric, and cartographical representations of health data. A case study has been carried on the development of web application and services within the Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI) framework for community health programs of the New Brunswick Lung Association. This study facilitated the online processing, mapping and sharing of health information, with the use of HERXML and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services. It brought a new

  1. A computational-grid based system for continental drainage network extraction using SRTM digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curkendall, David W.; Fielding, Eric J.; Pohl, Josef M.; Cheng, Tsan-Huei

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new effort for the computation of elevation derivatives using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) results. Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) SRTM has produced a near global database of highly accurate elevation data. The scope of this database enables computing precise stream drainage maps and other derivatives on Continental scales. We describe a computing architecture for this computationally very complex task based on NASA's Information Power Grid (IPG), a distributed high performance computing network based on the GLOBUS infrastructure. The SRTM data characteristics and unique problems they present are discussed. A new algorithm for organizing the conventional extraction algorithms [1] into a cooperating parallel grid is presented as an essential component to adapt to the IPG computing structure. Preliminary results are presented for a Southern California test area, established for comparing SRTM and its results against those produced using the USGS National Elevation Data (NED) model.

  2. Computer based human-centered display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Still, David L. (Inventor); Temme, Leonard A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A human centered informational display is disclosed that can be used with vehicles (e.g. aircraft) and in other operational environments where rapid human centered comprehension of an operational environment is required. The informational display integrates all cockpit information into a single display in such a way that the pilot can clearly understand with a glance, his or her spatial orientation, flight performance, engine status and power management issues, radio aids, and the location of other air traffic, runways, weather, and terrain features. With OZ the information is presented as an integrated whole, the pilot instantaneously recognizes flight path deviations, and is instinctively drawn to the corrective maneuvers. Our laboratory studies indicate that OZ transfers to the pilot all of the integrated display information in less than 200 milliseconds. The reacquisition of scan can be accomplished just as quickly. Thus, the time constants for forming a mental model are near instantaneous. The pilot's ability to keep up with rapidly changing and threatening environments is tremendously enhanced. OZ is most easily compatible with aircraft that has flight path information coded electronically. With the correct sensors (which are currently available) OZ can be installed in essentially all current aircraft.

  3. TIS: an Intelligent Gateway Computer for information and modeling networks. Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hampel, V.E.; Bailey, C.; Kawin, R.A.; Lann, N.A.; McGrogan, S.K.; Scott, W.S.; Stammers, S.M.; Thomas, J.L.

    1983-08-01

    The Technology Information System (TIS) is being used to develop software for Intelligent Gateway Computers (IGC) suitable for the prototyping of advanced, integrated information networks. Dedicated to information management, TIS leads the user to available information resources, on TIS or elsewhere, by means of a master directory and automated access procedures. Other geographically distributed information centers accessible through TIS include federal and commercial systems like DOE/RECON, NASA/RECON, DOD/DROLS, DOT/TIC, CIS, and DIALOG in the United States, the chemical information systems DARC in France, and DECHEMA in West Germany. New centers are added as required.

  4. Dynamic stepping information process method in mobile bio-sensing computing environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Seong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the interest toward human longevity free from diseases is being converged as one system frame along with the development of mobile computing environment, diversification of remote medical system and aging society. Such converged system enables implementation of a bioinformatics system created as various supplementary information services by sensing and gathering health conditions and various bio-information of mobile users to set up medical information. The existing bio-information system performs static and identical process without changes after the bio-information process defined at the initial system configuration executes the system. However, such static process indicates ineffective execution in the application of mobile bio-information system performing mobile computing. Especially, an inconvenient duty of having to perform initialization of new definition and execution is accompanied during the process configuration of bio-information system and change of method. This study proposes a dynamic process design and execution method to overcome such ineffective process.

  5. AI tools in computer based problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beane, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.

  6. Experiential Based Transcripts and a Test Item Data Bank: Distributed Computing Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jesse C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The design development of a minicomputer-based information system for physician assistant students at the University of Nebraska Medical Center is reported. A system built on modern concepts of experiential based learning and a computer-assisted instruction curriculum is described. (Author/MLW)

  7. The Role of Informative and Ambiguous Feedback in Avoidance Behavior: Empirical and Computational Findings

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Sheynin, Jony; Myers, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance behavior is a critical component of many psychiatric disorders, and as such, it is important to understand how avoidance behavior arises, and whether it can be modified. In this study, we used empirical and computational methods to assess the role of informational feedback and ambiguous outcome in avoidance behavior. We adapted a computer-based probabilistic classification learning task, which includes positive, negative and no-feedback outcomes; the latter outcome is ambiguous as it might signal either a successful outcome (missed punishment) or a failure (missed reward). Prior work with this task suggested that most healthy subjects viewed the no-feedback outcome as strongly positive. Interestingly, in a later version of the classification task, when healthy subjects were allowed to opt out of (i.e. avoid) responding, some subjects (“avoiders”) reliably avoided trials where there was a risk of punishment, but other subjects (“non-avoiders”) never made any avoidance responses at all. One possible interpretation is that the “non-avoiders” valued the no-feedback outcome so positively on punishment-based trials that they had little incentive to avoid. Another possible interpretation is that the outcome of an avoided trial is unspecified and that lack of information is aversive, decreasing subjects’ tendency to avoid. To examine these ideas, we here tested healthy young adults on versions of the task where avoidance responses either did or did not generate informational feedback about the optimal response. Results showed that provision of informational feedback decreased avoidance responses and also decreased categorization performance, without significantly affecting the percentage of subjects classified as “avoiders.” To better understand these results, we used a modified Q-learning model to fit individual subject data. Simulation results suggest that subjects in the feedback condition adjusted their behavior faster following better

  8. The Role of Informative and Ambiguous Feedback in Avoidance Behavior: Empirical and Computational Findings.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ahmed A; Sheynin, Jony; Myers, Catherine E

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance behavior is a critical component of many psychiatric disorders, and as such, it is important to understand how avoidance behavior arises, and whether it can be modified. In this study, we used empirical and computational methods to assess the role of informational feedback and ambiguous outcome in avoidance behavior. We adapted a computer-based probabilistic classification learning task, which includes positive, negative and no-feedback outcomes; the latter outcome is ambiguous as it might signal either a successful outcome (missed punishment) or a failure (missed reward). Prior work with this task suggested that most healthy subjects viewed the no-feedback outcome as strongly positive. Interestingly, in a later version of the classification task, when healthy subjects were allowed to opt out of (i.e. avoid) responding, some subjects ("avoiders") reliably avoided trials where there was a risk of punishment, but other subjects ("non-avoiders") never made any avoidance responses at all. One possible interpretation is that the "non-avoiders" valued the no-feedback outcome so positively on punishment-based trials that they had little incentive to avoid. Another possible interpretation is that the outcome of an avoided trial is unspecified and that lack of information is aversive, decreasing subjects' tendency to avoid. To examine these ideas, we here tested healthy young adults on versions of the task where avoidance responses either did or did not generate informational feedback about the optimal response. Results showed that provision of informational feedback decreased avoidance responses and also decreased categorization performance, without significantly affecting the percentage of subjects classified as "avoiders." To better understand these results, we used a modified Q-learning model to fit individual subject data. Simulation results suggest that subjects in the feedback condition adjusted their behavior faster following better-than-expected outcomes

  9. CFD Optimization on Network-Based Parallel Computer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson H.; Holst, Terry L. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Combining multiple engineering workstations into a network-based heterogeneous parallel computer allows application of aerodynamic optimization with advance computational fluid dynamics codes, which is computationally expensive in mainframe supercomputer. This paper introduces a nonlinear quasi-Newton optimizer designed for this network-based heterogeneous parallel computer on a software called Parallel Virtual Machine. This paper will introduce the methodology behind coupling a Parabolized Navier-Stokes flow solver to the nonlinear optimizer. This parallel optimization package has been applied to reduce the wave drag of a body of revolution and a wing/body configuration with results of 5% to 6% drag reduction.

  10. Hybrid architecture for encoded measurement-based quantum computation

    PubMed Central

    Zwerger, M.; Briegel, H. J.; Dür, W.

    2014-01-01

    We present a hybrid scheme for quantum computation that combines the modular structure of elementary building blocks used in the circuit model with the advantages of a measurement-based approach to quantum computation. We show how to construct optimal resource states of minimal size to implement elementary building blocks for encoded quantum computation in a measurement-based way, including states for error correction and encoded gates. The performance of the scheme is determined by the quality of the resource states, where within the considered error model a threshold of the order of 10% local noise per particle for fault-tolerant quantum computation and quantum communication. PMID:24946906

  11. Parallel CFD design on network-based computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson

    1995-01-01

    Combining multiple engineering workstations into a network-based heterogeneous parallel computer allows application of aerodynamic optimization with advanced computational fluid dynamics codes, which can be computationally expensive on mainframe supercomputers. This paper introduces a nonlinear quasi-Newton optimizer designed for this network-based heterogeneous parallel computing environment utilizing a software called Parallel Virtual Machine. This paper will introduce the methodology behind coupling a Parabolized Navier-Stokes flow solver to the nonlinear optimizer. This parallel optimization package is applied to reduce the wave drag of a body of revolution and a wing/body configuration with results of 5% to 6% drag reduction.

  12. Learning with Computer-Based Learning Environments: A Literature Review of Computer Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Although computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) are becoming more prevalent in the classroom, empirical research has demonstrated that some students have difficulty learning with these environments. The motivation construct of computer-self efficacy plays an integral role in learning with CBLEs. This literature review synthesizes research…

  13. Computer Assisted Project-Based Instruction: The Effects on Science Achievement, Computer Achievement and Portfolio Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Yavuz; Dede, Dinçer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of computer assisted project-based instruction on learners' achievement in a science and technology course, in a computer course and in portfolio development. With this aim in mind, a quasi-experimental design was used and a sample of 70 seventh grade secondary school students from Org. Esref…

  14. Inquiry-Based Learning Case Studies for Computing and Computing Forensic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss the use of specifically-developed, inquiry-based learning materials for Computing and Forensic Computing students. Small applications have been developed which require investigation in order to de-bug code, analyse data issues and discover "illegal" behaviour. The applications…

  15. A proven knowledge-based approach to prioritizing process information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1991-01-01

    Many space-related processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect is rapid analysis of the changing process information. During a disturbance, this task can overwhelm humans as well as computers. Humans deal with this by applying heuristics in determining significant information. A simple, knowledge-based approach to prioritizing information is described. The approach models those heuristics that humans would use in similar circumstances. The approach described has received two patents and was implemented in the Alarm Filtering System (AFS) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). AFS was first developed for application in a nuclear reactor control room. It has since been used in chemical processing applications, where it has had a significant impact on control room environments. The approach uses knowledge-based heuristics to analyze data from process instrumentation and respond to that data according to knowledge encapsulated in objects and rules. While AFS cannot perform the complete diagnosis and control task, it has proven to be extremely effective at filtering and prioritizing information. AFS was used for over two years as a first level of analysis for human diagnosticians. Given the approach's proven track record in a wide variety of practical applications, it should be useful in both ground- and space-based systems.

  16. Basing quantum theory on information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Howard

    2008-03-01

    I consider information-based derivations of the quantum formalism, in a framework encompassing quantum and classical theory and a broad spectrum of theories serving as foils to them. The most ambitious hope for such a derivation is a role analogous to Einstein's development of the dynamics and kinetics of macroscopic bodies, and later of their gravitational interactions, on the basis of simple principles with clear operational meanings and experimental consequences. Short of this, it could still provide a principled understanding of the features of quantum mechanics that account for its greater-than-classical information-processing power, helping guide the search for new quantum algorithms and protocols. I summarize the convex operational framework for theories, and discuss information-processing in theories therein. Results include the fact that information that can be obtained without disturbance is inherently classical, generalized no-cloning and no-broadcasting theorems, exponentially secure bit commitment in all non-classical theories without entanglement, properties of theories that allow teleportation, and properties of theories that allow ``remote steering'' of ensembles using entanglement. Joint work with collaborators including Jonathan Barrett, Matthew Leifer, Alexander Wilce, Oscar Dahlsten, and Ben Toner.

  17. KBGIS-2: A knowledge-based geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, T.; Peuquet, D.; Menon, S.; Agarwal, P.

    1986-01-01

    The architecture and working of a recently implemented knowledge-based geographic information system (KBGIS-2) that was designed to satisfy several general criteria for the geographic information system are described. The system has four major functions that include query-answering, learning, and editing. The main query finds constrained locations for spatial objects that are describable in a predicate-calculus based spatial objects language. The main search procedures include a family of constraint-satisfaction procedures that use a spatial object knowledge base to search efficiently for complex spatial objects in large, multilayered spatial data bases. These data bases are represented in quadtree form. The search strategy is designed to reduce the computational cost of search in the average case. The learning capabilities of the system include the addition of new locations of complex spatial objects to the knowledge base as queries are answered, and the ability to learn inductively definitions of new spatial objects from examples. The new definitions are added to the knowledge base by the system. The system is currently performing all its designated tasks successfully, although currently implemented on inadequate hardware. Future reports will detail the performance characteristics of the system, and various new extensions are planned in order to enhance the power of KBGIS-2.

  18. Advances in Navy pharmacy information technology: accessing Micromedex via the Composite Healthcare Computer System and local area networks.

    PubMed

    Koerner, S D; Becker, F

    1999-07-01

    The pharmacy profession has long used technology to more effectively bring health care to the patient. Navy pharmacy has embraced technology advances in its daily operations, from computers to dispensing robots. Evolving from the traditional role of compounding and dispensing specialists, pharmacists are establishing themselves as vital team members in direct patient care: on the ward, in ambulatory clinics, in specialty clinics, and in other specialty patient care programs (e.g., smoking cessation). An important part of the evolution is the timely access to the most up-to-date information available. Micromedex, Inc. (Denver, Colorado), has developed a number of computer CD-ROM-based full-text pharmacy, toxicology, emergency medicine, and patient education products. Micromedex is a recognized leader with regard to total pharmaceutical information availability. This article discusses the implementation of Micromedex products within the established Composite Healthcare Computer System and the subsequent use by and effect on the international Navy pharmacy community.

  19. Methods and apparatus for multi-resolution replication of files in a parallel computing system using semantic information

    DOEpatents

    Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M.; Tzelnic, Percy; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron

    2015-10-20

    Techniques are provided for storing files in a parallel computing system using different resolutions. A method is provided for storing at least one file generated by a distributed application in a parallel computing system. The file comprises one or more of a complete file and a sub-file. The method comprises the steps of obtaining semantic information related to the file; generating a plurality of replicas of the file with different resolutions based on the semantic information; and storing the file and the plurality of replicas of the file in one or more storage nodes of the parallel computing system. The different resolutions comprise, for example, a variable number of bits and/or a different sub-set of data elements from the file. A plurality of the sub-files can be merged to reproduce the file.

  20. ELAS - A geobased information system that is transferable to several computers. [Earth resources Laboratory Applications Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, S. L.; Pearson, R. W.; Seyfarth, B. R.; Graham, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    In the early years of remote sensing, emphasis was placed on the processing and analysis of data from a single multispectral sensor, such as the Landsat Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). However, in connection with attempts to use the data for resource management, it was realized that many deficiencies existed in single data sets. A need was established to geographically reference the MSS data and to register with it data from disparate sources. Technological transfer activities have required systems concepts that can be easily transferred to computers of different types in other organizations. ELAS (Earth Resources Laboratory Applications Software), a geographically based information system, was developed to meet the considered needs. ELAS accepts data from a variety of sources. It contains programs to geographically reference the data to the Universal Transverse Mercator grid. One of the primary functions of ELAS is to produce a surface cover map.

  1. Localized Ambient Solidity Separation Algorithm Based Computer User Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Zhang, Tongda; Chai, Yueting; Liu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Most of popular clustering methods typically have some strong assumptions of the dataset. For example, the k-means implicitly assumes that all clusters come from spherical Gaussian distributions which have different means but the same covariance. However, when dealing with datasets that have diverse distribution shapes or high dimensionality, these assumptions might not be valid anymore. In order to overcome this weakness, we proposed a new clustering algorithm named localized ambient solidity separation (LASS) algorithm, using a new isolation criterion called centroid distance. Compared with other density based isolation criteria, our proposed centroid distance isolation criterion addresses the problem caused by high dimensionality and varying density. The experiment on a designed two-dimensional benchmark dataset shows that our proposed LASS algorithm not only inherits the advantage of the original dissimilarity increments clustering method to separate naturally isolated clusters but also can identify the clusters which are adjacent, overlapping, and under background noise. Finally, we compared our LASS algorithm with the dissimilarity increments clustering method on a massive computer user dataset with over two million records that contains demographic and behaviors information. The results show that LASS algorithm works extremely well on this computer user dataset and can gain more knowledge from it.

  2. Localized Ambient Solidity Separation Algorithm Based Computer User Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao; Zhang, Tongda; Chai, Yueting; Liu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Most of popular clustering methods typically have some strong assumptions of the dataset. For example, the k-means implicitly assumes that all clusters come from spherical Gaussian distributions which have different means but the same covariance. However, when dealing with datasets that have diverse distribution shapes or high dimensionality, these assumptions might not be valid anymore. In order to overcome this weakness, we proposed a new clustering algorithm named localized ambient solidity separation (LASS) algorithm, using a new isolation criterion called centroid distance. Compared with other density based isolation criteria, our proposed centroid distance isolation criterion addresses the problem caused by high dimensionality and varying density. The experiment on a designed two-dimensional benchmark dataset shows that our proposed LASS algorithm not only inherits the advantage of the original dissimilarity increments clustering method to separate naturally isolated clusters but also can identify the clusters which are adjacent, overlapping, and under background noise. Finally, we compared our LASS algorithm with the dissimilarity increments clustering method on a massive computer user dataset with over two million records that contains demographic and behaviors information. The results show that LASS algorithm works extremely well on this computer user dataset and can gain more knowledge from it. PMID:26221133

  3. A Study to Compare Curriculum of Computer Information Systems and Computer Education and Instructional Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2008-01-01

    Today, developments of information and communication technologies have been developing very fast all over the world. These new technologies were taking an important place in education like other sciences. For this reason, education was developing parallel to new developments on the new technologies. Departments which cover curriculum of new…

  4. Computer User's Guide to the Protection of Information Resources. NIST Special Publication 500-171.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsing, Cheryl; And Others

    Computers have changed the way information resources are handled. Large amounts of information are stored in one central place and can be accessed from remote locations. Users have a personal responsibility for the security of the system and the data stored in it. This document outlines the user's responsibilities and provides security and control…

  5. A Computational Model and Multi-Agent Simulation for Information Assurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    simulation is presented that introduces several innovations in multi - agent systems including iconnectors, a biologically inspired visual language and...198 14. SUBJECT TERMS information assurance, information security, computer security, security model, modeling, agents, multi - agent system , multi...adaptive behavior in an IA environment. A multi-agent simulation is presented that introduces several innovations in multi - agent systems including

  6. Learners' Perceived Information Overload in Online Learning via Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chun-Ying; Pedersen, Susan; Murphy, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies report information overload as one of the main problems that students encounter in online learning via computer-mediated communication. This study aimed to explore the sources of online students' information overload and offer suggestions for increasing students' cognitive resources for learning. Participants were 12 graduate students…

  7. A Computer-Assisted Approach for Conducting Information Technology Applied Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hui-Chun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Pei Jin; Yang, Tzu-Chi

    2009-01-01

    The growing popularity of computer and network technologies has attracted researchers to investigate the strategies and the effects of information technology applied instructions. Previous research has not only demonstrated the benefits of applying information technologies to the learning process, but has also revealed the difficulty of applying…

  8. Computer/information security design approaches for Complex 21/Reconfiguration facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hunteman, W.J.; Zack, N.R.; Jaeger, C.D.

    1993-08-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories have been designated the technical lead laboratories to develop the design of the computer/information security, safeguards, and physical security systems for all of the DOE Complex 21/Reconfiguration facilities. All of the automated information processing systems and networks in these facilities will be required to implement the new DOE orders on computer and information security. The planned approach for a highly integrated information processing capability in each of the facilities will require careful consideration of the requirements in DOE Orders 5639.6 and 1360.2A. The various information protection requirements and user clearances within the facilities will also have a significant effect on the design of the systems and networks. Fulfilling the requirements for proper protection of the information and compliance with DOE orders will be possible because the computer and information security concerns are being incorporated in the early design activities. This paper will discuss the computer and information security addressed in the integrated design effort, uranium/lithium, plutonium, plutonium high explosive/assembly facilities.

  9. Information Systems Security and Computer Crime in the IS Curriculum: A Detailed Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, C. Bryan; Renwick, Janet S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the extent to which information systems (IS) security and computer crime are covered in information systems programs. Results suggest that IS faculty believe security coverage should be increased in required, elective, and non-IS courses. However, respondent faculty members are concerned that existing curricula leave little…

  10. Information-Technology Based Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, K. H.

    2001-04-01

    Developing countries emphasize expansion of the educated population but demand for quality improvement follows later. Current science education reform is driven in part by post cold war restructuring of the global economy and associated focus on the education of a more scientifically literate society, due to the industrial change from labor-intensive to high-technology type, and the societal change inherent in the present information era. Industry needs employees of broad and flexible background with inter disciplinary training, engineers with better physics training, and well trained physicists. Education researches have proved that active-learning based methods are superior to the traditional methods and the information technology (IT) has lot to offer in this. Use of IT for improving physics education is briefly discussed with prospects for collaboration in the Asia-Pacific region via Asian Physics Education Network (ASPEN), UNESCO University Foundation Course in Physics (UUFCP), etc.

  11. Enabling computer decisions based on EEG input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, Benjamin J.; Keller, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Multilayer neural networks were successfully trained to classify segments of 12-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) data into one of five classes corresponding to five cognitive tasks performed by a subject. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to segregate obvious artifact EEG components from other sources, and a frequency-band representation was used to represent the sources computed by ICA. Examples of results include an 85% accuracy rate on differentiation between two tasks, using a segment of EEG only 0.05 s long and a 95% accuracy rate using a 0.5-s-long segment.

  12. Evidence-based guidelines for the wise use of computers by children: physical development guidelines.

    PubMed

    Straker, L; Maslen, B; Burgess-Limerick, R; Johnson, P; Dennerlein, J

    2010-04-01

    Computer use by children is common and there is concern over the potential impact of this exposure on child physical development. Recently principles for child-specific evidence-based guidelines for wise use of computers have been published and these included one concerning the facilitation of appropriate physical development. This paper reviews the evidence and presents detailed guidelines for this principle. The guidelines include encouraging a mix of sedentary and whole body movement tasks, encouraging reasonable postures during computing tasks through workstation, chair, desk, display and input device selection and adjustment and special issues regarding notebook computer use and carriage, computing skills and responding to discomfort. The evidence limitations highlight opportunities for future research. The guidelines themselves can inform parents and teachers, equipment designers and suppliers and form the basis of content for teaching children the wise use of computers. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Many children use computers and computer-use habits formed in childhood may track into adulthood. Therefore child-computer interaction needs to be carefully managed. These guidelines inform those responsible for children to assist in the wise use of computers.

  13. A Computer-Based Simulation of an Acid-Base Titration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boblick, John M.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews the advantages of computer simulated environments for experiments, referring in particular to acid-base titrations. Includes pre-lab instructions and a sample computer printout of a student's use of an acid-base simulation. Ten references. (PR)

  14. Definitions of database files and fields of the Personal Computer-Based Water Data Sources Directory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, J. Wayne

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the data-base files and fields of the personal computer-based Water Data Sources Directory (WDSD). The personal computer-based WDSD was derived from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mainframe computer version. The mainframe version of the WDSD is a hierarchical data-base design. The personal computer-based WDSD is a relational data- base design. This report describes the data-base files and fields of the relational data-base design in dBASE IV (the use of brand names in this abstract is for identification purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey) for the personal computer. The WDSD contains information on (1) the type of organization, (2) the major orientation of water-data activities conducted by each organization, (3) the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of offices within each organization from which water data may be obtained, (4) the types of data held by each organization and the geographic locations within which these data have been collected, (5) alternative sources of an organization's data, (6) the designation of liaison personnel in matters related to water-data acquisition and indexing, (7) the volume of water data indexed for the organization, and (8) information about other types of data and services available from the organization that are pertinent to water-resources activities.

  15. A Data-Based Financial Management Information System (FMIS) for Administrative Sciences Department

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Financial Management Information System that would result in improved management of financial assets, better use of clerical skills, and more detailed...develops and implements a personal computer-based Management Information System for the Management of the many funding accounts controlled by the...different software programs, into a single all-encompassing Management Information System . The system was written using dBASE IV and is currently operational.

  16. Computer-Based Interactive Flight Training.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    includes the following procedural components. 1. Initial approach between the final enroute navigation point or final nav fix and the outer marker (OM). 2...Path 1. Inoperative DME (distance measuring equipment) coupled with a tailwind, leading to overshoot of the ILS path. (This becomes probable if the...pilot relies solely on the DME for ground speed, distance, and timing information.) Phase 3. Outer Marker Outbound 1. Faulted directional gyroscope (DG

  17. High Available COTS Based Computer for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, J.; Magistrati, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    The availability and reliability factors of a system are central requirements of a target application. From a simple fuel injection system used in cars up to a flight control system of an autonomous navigating spacecraft, each application defines its specific availability factor under the target application boundary conditions. Increasing quality requirements on data processing systems used in space flight applications calling for new architectures to fulfill the availability, reliability as well as the increase of the required data processing power. Contrary to the increased quality request simplification and use of COTS components to decrease costs while keeping the interface compatibility to currently used system standards are clear customer needs. Data processing system design is mostly dominated by strict fulfillment of the customer requirements and reuse of available computer systems were not always possible caused by obsolescence of EEE-Parts, insufficient IO capabilities or the fact that available data processing systems did not provide the required scalability and performance.

  18. Computational based functional analysis of Bacillus phytases.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anukriti; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Gaur, Smriti

    2016-02-01

    Phytase is an enzyme which catalyzes the total hydrolysis of phytate to less phosphorylated myo-inositol derivatives and inorganic phosphate and digests the undigestable phytate part present in seeds and grains and therefore provides digestible phosphorus, calcium and other mineral nutrients. Phytases are frequently added to the feed of monogastric animals so that bioavailability of phytic acid-bound phosphate increases, ultimately enhancing the nutritional value of diets. The Bacillus phytase is very suitable to be used in animal feed because of its optimum pH with excellent thermal stability. Present study is aimed to perform an in silico comparative characterization and functional analysis of phytases from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to explore physico-chemical properties using various bio-computational tools. All proteins are acidic and thermostable and can be used as suitable candidates in the feed industry.

  19. Milestones Toward Majorana-Based Quantum Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aasen, David; Hell, Michael; Mishmash, Ryan V.; Higginbotham, Andrew; Danon, Jeroen; Leijnse, Martin; Jespersen, Thomas S.; Folk, Joshua A.; Marcus, Charles M.; Flensberg, Karsten; Alicea, Jason

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a scheme for preparation, manipulation, and read out of Majorana zero modes in semiconducting wires with mesoscopic superconducting islands. Our approach synthesizes recent advances in materials growth with tools commonly used in quantum-dot experiments, including gate control of tunnel barriers and Coulomb effects, charge sensing, and charge pumping. We outline a sequence of milestones interpolating between zero-mode detection and quantum computing that includes (1) detection of fusion rules for non-Abelian anyons using either proximal charge sensors or pumped current, (2) validation of a prototype topological qubit, and (3) demonstration of non-Abelian statistics by braiding in a branched geometry. The first two milestones require only a single wire with two islands, and additionally enable sensitive measurements of the system's excitation gap, quasiparticle poisoning rates, residual Majorana zero-mode splittings, and topological-qubit coherence times. These pre-braiding experiments can be adapted to other manipulation and read out schemes as well.

  20. Computer-Based Semantic Network in Molecular Biology: A Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callman, Joshua L.; And Others

    This paper analyzes the hardware and software features that would be desirable in a computer-based semantic network system for representing biology knowledge. It then describes in detail a prototype network of molecular biology knowledge that has been developed using Filevision software and a Macintosh computer. The prototype contains about 100…