Science.gov

Sample records for computer based learning

  1. Computer-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Peggy, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Three essays on the ways in which colleges and universities use the computer as a teaching tool are presented, along with descriptions of 10 school programs that reflect the diversity of computer applications across the United States. In "A Place for Computing in Liberal Education," Karl L. Zinn likens the computer to personal resource tools, such…

  2. Index to Computer Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoye, Robert E., Ed.; Wang, Anastasia C., Ed.

    The computer-based programs and projects described in this index are listed under 98 different subject matter fields. Descrptions of programs include information on: subject field, program name and number, author, source, the program's curriculum content, prerequisites, level of instruction, type of student for which it is intended, total hours of…

  3. Computer-Based Learning in Chemistry Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietzner, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Currently not many people would doubt that computers play an essential role in both public and private life in many countries. However, somewhat surprisingly, evidence of computer use is difficult to find in German state schools although other countries have managed to implement computer-based teaching and learning in their schools. This paper…

  4. Learning with Computer-Based Learning Environments: A Literature Review of Computer Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Although computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) are becoming more prevalent in the classroom, empirical research has demonstrated that some students have difficulty learning with these environments. The motivation construct of computer-self efficacy plays an integral role in learning with CBLEs. This literature review synthesizes research…

  5. Cognitive Effects from Process Learning with Computer-Based Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Klaus; Kummer, Ruediger

    1990-01-01

    Discusses content learning versus process learning, describes process learning with computer-based simulations, and highlights an empirical study on the effects of process learning with problem-oriented, computer-managed simulations in technical vocational education classes in West Germany. Process learning within a model of the cognitive system…

  6. Adult Learning in a Computer-Based ESL Acquisition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Karen Renee

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the self-efficacy of students learning English as a Second Language on the computer-based Rosetta Stone program. The research uses a qualitative approach to explore how a readily available computer-based learning program, Rosetta Stone, can help adult immigrant students gain some English competence and so acquire a greater…

  7. Entanglement-based machine learning on a quantum computer.

    PubMed

    Cai, X-D; Wu, D; Su, Z-E; Chen, M-C; Wang, X-L; Li, Li; Liu, N-L; Lu, C-Y; Pan, J-W

    2015-03-20

    Machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, learns from previous experience to optimize performance, which is ubiquitous in various fields such as computer sciences, financial analysis, robotics, and bioinformatics. A challenge is that machine learning with the rapidly growing "big data" could become intractable for classical computers. Recently, quantum machine learning algorithms [Lloyd, Mohseni, and Rebentrost, arXiv.1307.0411] were proposed which could offer an exponential speedup over classical algorithms. Here, we report the first experimental entanglement-based classification of two-, four-, and eight-dimensional vectors to different clusters using a small-scale photonic quantum computer, which are then used to implement supervised and unsupervised machine learning. The results demonstrate the working principle of using quantum computers to manipulate and classify high-dimensional vectors, the core mathematical routine in machine learning. The method can, in principle, be scaled to larger numbers of qubits, and may provide a new route to accelerate machine learning. PMID:25839250

  8. Entanglement-based machine learning on a quantum computer.

    PubMed

    Cai, X-D; Wu, D; Su, Z-E; Chen, M-C; Wang, X-L; Li, Li; Liu, N-L; Lu, C-Y; Pan, J-W

    2015-03-20

    Machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, learns from previous experience to optimize performance, which is ubiquitous in various fields such as computer sciences, financial analysis, robotics, and bioinformatics. A challenge is that machine learning with the rapidly growing "big data" could become intractable for classical computers. Recently, quantum machine learning algorithms [Lloyd, Mohseni, and Rebentrost, arXiv.1307.0411] were proposed which could offer an exponential speedup over classical algorithms. Here, we report the first experimental entanglement-based classification of two-, four-, and eight-dimensional vectors to different clusters using a small-scale photonic quantum computer, which are then used to implement supervised and unsupervised machine learning. The results demonstrate the working principle of using quantum computers to manipulate and classify high-dimensional vectors, the core mathematical routine in machine learning. The method can, in principle, be scaled to larger numbers of qubits, and may provide a new route to accelerate machine learning.

  9. Entanglement-Based Machine Learning on a Quantum Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.-D.; Wu, D.; Su, Z.-E.; Chen, M.-C.; Wang, X.-L.; Li, Li; Liu, N.-L.; Lu, C.-Y.; Pan, J.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, learns from previous experience to optimize performance, which is ubiquitous in various fields such as computer sciences, financial analysis, robotics, and bioinformatics. A challenge is that machine learning with the rapidly growing "big data" could become intractable for classical computers. Recently, quantum machine learning algorithms [Lloyd, Mohseni, and Rebentrost, arXiv.1307.0411] were proposed which could offer an exponential speedup over classical algorithms. Here, we report the first experimental entanglement-based classification of two-, four-, and eight-dimensional vectors to different clusters using a small-scale photonic quantum computer, which are then used to implement supervised and unsupervised machine learning. The results demonstrate the working principle of using quantum computers to manipulate and classify high-dimensional vectors, the core mathematical routine in machine learning. The method can, in principle, be scaled to larger numbers of qubits, and may provide a new route to accelerate machine learning.

  10. An E-learning System based on Affective Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duo, Sun; Song, Lu Xue

    In recent years, e-learning as a learning system is very popular. But the current e-learning systems cannot instruct students effectively since they do not consider the emotional state in the context of instruction. The emergence of the theory about "Affective computing" can solve this question. It can make the computer's intelligence no longer be a pure cognitive one. In this paper, we construct an emotional intelligent e-learning system based on "Affective computing". A dimensional model is put forward to recognize and analyze the student's emotion state and a virtual teacher's avatar is offered to regulate student's learning psychology with consideration of teaching style based on his personality trait. A "man-to-man" learning environment is built to simulate the traditional classroom's pedagogy in the system.

  11. Widgets on the Web: Using Computer-Based Learning Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Darcy; Brown, Abbie; Robinson, LeAnne

    2002-01-01

    This article describes Widgets, computer-based learning tools designed to meet the instructional need for computer-based flexible tools that can be used across ability levels. It discusses development of three Widgets for students with mild disabilities: a multiplication with sets Widget, a number sense Widget, and a dollars and cents Widget.…

  12. Computer-Based Training: Capitalizing on Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedwell, Wendy L.; Salas, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Computer-based training (CBT) is a methodology for providing systematic, structured learning; a useful tool when properly designed. CBT has seen a resurgence given the serious games movement, which is at the forefront of integrating primarily entertainment computer-based games into education and training. This effort represents a multidisciplinary…

  13. Computer-based Training in Medicine and Learning Theories.

    PubMed

    Haag, Martin; Bauch, Matthias; Garde, Sebastian; Heid, Jörn; Weires, Thorsten; Leven, Franz-Josef

    2005-01-01

    Computer-based training (CBT) systems can efficiently support modern teaching and learning environments. In this paper, we demonstrate on the basis of the case-based CBT system CAMPUS that current learning theories and design principles (Bloom's Taxonomy and practice fields) are (i) relevant to CBT and (ii) are feasible to implement using computer-based training and adequate learning environments. Not all design principles can be fulfilled by the system alone, the integration of the system in adequate teaching and learning environments therefore is essential. Adequately integrated, CBT programs become valuable means to build or support practice fields for learners that build domain knowledge and problem-solving skills. Learning theories and their design principles can support in designing these systems as well as in assessing their value.

  14. Learning Machine, Vietnamese Based Human-Computer Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    The sixth session of IT@EDU98 consisted of seven papers on the topic of the learning machine--Vietnamese based human-computer interface, and was chaired by Phan Viet Hoang (Informatics College, Singapore). "Knowledge Based Approach for English Vietnamese Machine Translation" (Hoang Kiem, Dinh Dien) presents the knowledge base approach, which…

  15. How To Produce Computer-Based Learning Materials. Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Henry

    A sequel to the booklet "How Computers Can Be Used in Education," this booklet begins by looking at ways in which computer-based learning (CBL) materials can be used in different types of instructional situations, i.e., mass instruction, individualized learning, and group learning. The design and production of four types of conventional CBL…

  16. Traditional classroom education versus computer-based learning: how nurses learn about pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Esche, Carol Ann; Warren, Joan I; Woods, Anne B; Jesada, Elizabeth C; Iliuta, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the Nurse Professional Development specialist is to utilize the most effective educational strategies when educating staff nurses about pressure ulcer prevention. More information is needed about the effect of computer-based learning and traditional classroom learning on pressure ulcer education for the staff nurse. This study compares computer-based learning and traditional classroom learning on immediate and long-term knowledge while evaluating the impact of education on pressure ulcer risk assessment, staging, and documentation. PMID:25608093

  17. Traditional classroom education versus computer-based learning: how nurses learn about pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Esche, Carol Ann; Warren, Joan I; Woods, Anne B; Jesada, Elizabeth C; Iliuta, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the Nurse Professional Development specialist is to utilize the most effective educational strategies when educating staff nurses about pressure ulcer prevention. More information is needed about the effect of computer-based learning and traditional classroom learning on pressure ulcer education for the staff nurse. This study compares computer-based learning and traditional classroom learning on immediate and long-term knowledge while evaluating the impact of education on pressure ulcer risk assessment, staging, and documentation.

  18. Computer based learning in general practice--options and implementation.

    PubMed

    Mills, K A; McGlade, K

    1992-01-01

    A survey of the 30 departments of general practice in the UK revealed that only three are currently making use of any form of computer based learning materials for teaching their undergraduate students. One of the reasons for the low level of usage is likely to be the relatively poor availability of suitable courseware and lack of guidance as to how to utilise what is available. This short paper describes the types of courseware that are available and the advantages and disadvantages of using acquired courseware as opposed to writing your own. It also considers alternative strategies for making computer based learning (CBL) courseware available to students. PMID:1608334

  19. Smart learning services based on smart cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Svetlana; Song, Su-Mi; Yoon, Yong-Ik

    2011-01-01

    Context-aware technologies can make e-learning services smarter and more efficient since context-aware services are based on the user's behavior. To add those technologies into existing e-learning services, a service architecture model is needed to transform the existing e-learning environment, which is situation-aware, into the environment that understands context as well. The context-awareness in e-learning may include the awareness of user profile and terminal context. In this paper, we propose a new notion of service that provides context-awareness to smart learning content in a cloud computing environment. We suggest the elastic four smarts (E4S)--smart pull, smart prospect, smart content, and smart push--concept to the cloud services so smart learning services are possible. The E4S focuses on meeting the users' needs by collecting and analyzing users' behavior, prospecting future services, building corresponding contents, and delivering the contents through cloud computing environment. Users' behavior can be collected through mobile devices such as smart phones that have built-in sensors. As results, the proposed smart e-learning model in cloud computing environment provides personalized and customized learning services to its users.

  20. Smart Learning Services Based on Smart Cloud Computing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Svetlana; Song, Su-Mi; Yoon, Yong-Ik

    2011-01-01

    Context-aware technologies can make e-learning services smarter and more efficient since context-aware services are based on the user’s behavior. To add those technologies into existing e-learning services, a service architecture model is needed to transform the existing e-learning environment, which is situation-aware, into the environment that understands context as well. The context-awareness in e-learning may include the awareness of user profile and terminal context. In this paper, we propose a new notion of service that provides context-awareness to smart learning content in a cloud computing environment. We suggest the elastic four smarts (E4S)—smart pull, smart prospect, smart content, and smart push—concept to the cloud services so smart learning services are possible. The E4S focuses on meeting the users’ needs by collecting and analyzing users’ behavior, prospecting future services, building corresponding contents, and delivering the contents through cloud computing environment. Users’ behavior can be collected through mobile devices such as smart phones that have built-in sensors. As results, the proposed smart e-learning model in cloud computing environment provides personalized and customized learning services to its users. PMID:22164048

  1. Cloud Computing Based E-Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zoube, Mohammed; El-Seoud, Samir Abou; Wyne, Mudasser F.

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing technologies although in their early stages, have managed to change the way applications are going to be developed and accessed. These technologies are aimed at running applications as services over the internet on a flexible infrastructure. Microsoft office applications, such as word processing, excel spreadsheet, access database…

  2. Learning to Teach with Worked-out Examples: A Computer-Based Learning Environment for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, T. S.; Renkl, A.; Schworm, S.; Kessler, S.; Reiss, K.

    2008-01-01

    Learning from worked-out examples has been shown to be very effective in initial cognitive skill acquisition. In order to fully exploit the potential of example-based learning, teachers should, however, know how to effectively employ such examples in classroom instruction. Therefore, we have designed a computer-based learning environment in which…

  3. Students' Motivation toward Computer-Based Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genc, Gulten; Aydin, Selami

    2011-01-01

    The present article examined some factors affecting the motivation level of the preparatory school students in using a web-based computer-assisted language-learning course. The sample group of the study consisted of 126 English-as-a-foreign-language learners at a preparatory school of a state university. After performing statistical analyses…

  4. Computer-based learning in neuroanatomy: A longitudinal study of learning, transfer, and retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chariker, Julia H.

    A longitudinal experiment was conducted to explore computer-based learning of neuroanatomy. Using a realistic 3D graphical model of neuroanatomy, and sections derived from the model, exploratory graphical tools were integrated into interactive computer programs so as to allow adaptive exploration. 72 participants learned either sectional anatomy alone or learned whole anatomy followed by sectional anatomy. Sectional anatomy was explored either in perceptually continuous animation or discretely, as in the use of an anatomical atlas. Learning was measured longitudinally to a high performance criterion. After learning, transfer to biomedical images and long-term retention was tested. Learning whole anatomy prior to learning sectional anatomy led to a more efficient learning experience. Learners demonstrated high levels of transfer from whole anatomy to sectional anatomy and from sectional anatomy to complex biomedical images. All learning groups demonstrated high levels of retention at 2--3 weeks.

  5. Innovative computer-based learning for breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Karen Louise

    Discussions with student nurses when they have been on placement on the breast cancer surgery ward highlighted their lack of knowledge about breast cancer surgery. This lack of knowledge by student nurses necessitated the development of a computer-based learning tool. A distance-learning tool was found to be an effective way of providing education, due to lack of facilities and workload on the ward. The student nurses using this tool will have better understanding of the treatments their patients are undergoing, leading to improved patient care. PMID:17353818

  6. Inquiry-Based Learning Case Studies for Computing and Computing Forensic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss the use of specifically-developed, inquiry-based learning materials for Computing and Forensic Computing students. Small applications have been developed which require investigation in order to de-bug code, analyse data issues and discover "illegal" behaviour. The applications are based…

  7. Dynamic Scaffolding of Socially Regulated Learning in a Computer-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Inge; Roda, Claudia; van Boxtel, Carla; Sleegers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the effects of dynamically scaffolding social regulation of middle school students working in a computer-based learning environment. Dyads in the scaffolding condition (N=56) are supported with computer-generated scaffolds and students in the control condition (N=54) do not receive scaffolds. The scaffolds are…

  8. 2.5D dictionary learning based computed tomography reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiajia; Eri, Haneda; Can, Ali; Ramani, Sathish; Fu, Lin; De Man, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    A computationally efficient 2.5D dictionary learning (DL) algorithm is proposed and implemented in the model- based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) framework for low-dose CT reconstruction. MBIR is based on the minimization of a cost function containing data-fitting and regularization terms to control the trade-off between data-fidelity and image noise. Due to the strong denoising performance of DL, it has previously been considered as a regularizer in MBIR, and both 2D and 3D DL implementations are possible. Compared to the 2D case, 3D DL keeps more spatial information and generates images with better quality although it requires more computation. We propose a novel 2.5D DL scheme, which leverages the computational advantage of 2D-DL, while attempting to maintain reconstruction quality similar to 3D-DL. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this new 2.5D DL scheme for MBIR in low-dose CT. By applying the 2D DL method in three different orthogonal planes and calculating the sparse coefficients accordingly, much of the 3D spatial information can be preserved without incurring the computational penalty of the 3D DL method. For performance evaluation, we use baggage phantoms with different number of projection views. In order to quantitatively compare the performance of different algorithms, we use PSNR, SSIM and region based standard deviation to measure the noise level, and use the edge response to calculate the resolution. Experimental results with full view datasets show that the different DL based algorithms have similar performance and 2.5D DL has the best resolution. Results with sparse view datasets show that 2.5D DL outperforms both 2D and 3D DL in terms of noise reduction. We also compare the computational costs, and 2.5D DL shows strong advantage over 3D DL in both full-view and sparse-view cases.

  9. Computer Game-Based Learning: Perceptions and Experiences of Senior Chinese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feihong; Lockee, Barbara B.; Burton, John K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate senior Chinese adults' potential acceptance of computer game-based learning (CGBL) by probing their perceptions of computer game play and their perceived impacts of game play on their learning of computer skills and life satisfaction. A total of 60 senior adults from a local senior adult learning center…

  10. Computer-Based Learning in Open and Distance Learning Institutions in Nigeria: Cautions on Use of Internet for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okopi, Fidel Onjefu; Odeyemi, Olajumoke Janet; Adesina, Adewale

    2015-01-01

    The study has identified the areas of strengths and weaknesses in the current use of Computer Based Learning (CBL) tools in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) institutions in Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, the following research questions were proposed: (i) What are the computer-based learning tools (soft and hard ware) that are actually in…

  11. An Infrastructure for Web-Based Computer Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Mike; Muzykantskii, Boris; Rawles, Simon; Evans, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We describe an initiative under way at Warwick to provide a technical foundation for computer aided learning and computer-assisted assessment tools, which allows a rich dialogue sensitive to individual students' response patterns. The system distinguishes between dialogues for individual problems and the linking of problems. This enables a subject…

  12. Computer-Based Learning of Neuroanatomy: A Longitudinal Study of Learning, Transfer, and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah; Pani, John R.

    2011-01-01

    A longitudinal experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of new methods for learning neuroanatomy with computer-based instruction. Using a three-dimensional graphical model of the human brain and sections derived from the model, tools for exploring neuroanatomy were developed to encourage "adaptive exploration". This is an…

  13. The Effects of Study Tasks in a Computer-Based Chemistry Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urhahne, Detlef; Nick, Sabine; Poepping, Anna Christin; Schulz , Sarah Jayne

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of different study tasks on the acquisition of knowledge about acids and bases in a computer-based learning environment. Three different task formats were selected to create three treatment conditions: learning with gap-fill and matching tasks, learning with multiple-choice tasks, and learning only from text…

  14. Spiral and Project-Based Learning with Peer Assessment in a Computer Science Project Management Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaime, Arturo; Blanco, José Miguel; Domínguez, César; Sánchez, Ana; Heras, Jónathan; Usandizaga, Imanol

    2016-01-01

    Different learning methods such as project-based learning, spiral learning and peer assessment have been implemented in science disciplines with different outcomes. This paper presents a proposal for a project management course in the context of a computer science degree. Our proposal combines three well-known methods: project-based learning,…

  15. Dynamic tracking of elementary preservice teachers' experiences with computer-based mathematics learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Stephen R.

    2003-05-01

    A challenging task in educational research today is to understand the implications of recent developments in computer-based learning environments. On the other hand, questions regarding learning and mathematical cognition have long been a central focus of research in mathematics education. Adding technology compounds an already complex problematic. Fortunately, computer-based technology also provides researchers with new ways of studying cognition and instruction. This paper introduces a new method for dynamically tracking learners' experiences in computer-based learning environments. Dynamic tracking is illustrated in both a classroom and a clinical setting by drawing on two studies with elementary preservice teachers working in computer-based mathematics learning environments.

  16. Improving Transfer of Learning in a Computer Based Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jay Bee

    This report describes a program for improving the transfer of the learning of different techniques used in computer applications. The targeted population consisted of sophomores and juniors in a suburban high school in a middle class community. The problem was documented through teacher surveys, student surveys, anecdotal records and behavioral…

  17. Intel-Based Mac Computers Improve Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Today, Mac computers offer schools an easy and powerful way to engage students in learning, foster 21st century skills and leverage existing software assets. Innovative software and hardware built into the Mac allows students to demonstrate their individual strengths--empowering them to be creators of content, rather than just consumers. Judging…

  18. Development of an Interactive Computer-Based Learning Strategy to Assist in Teaching Water Quality Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigic, Sasha; Lemckert, Charles J.

    2007-01-01

    The following paper presents a computer-based learning strategy to assist in introducing and teaching water quality modelling to undergraduate civil engineering students. As part of the learning strategy, an interactive computer-based instructional (CBI) aid was specifically developed to assist students to set up, run and analyse the output from a…

  19. Visual Fidelity and Learning via Computer-Based Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Glen A.

    Effective classroom simulations can provide opportunities for end-users to analyze human teaching and learning behaviors and can also help prepare teachers for real-world experiences. This paper proposes a simulation project based on an aggregation of ideas associated with knowledge-based simulations, behavior observations, visualization, and the…

  20. Rationale, Design and Implementation of a Computer Vision-Based Interactive E-Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Richard Y. D.; Jin, Jesse S.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a schematic application of computer vision technologies to e-learning that is synchronous, peer-to-peer-based, and supports an instructor's interaction with non-computer teaching equipments. The article first discusses the importance of these focused e-learning areas, where the properties include accurate bidirectional…

  1. Reconceptualizing Pedagogical Usability of and Teachers' Roles in Computer Game-Based Learning in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzuo, Pei-Wen; Ling, Jennifer Isabelle Ong Pei; Yang, Chien-Hui; Chen, Vivian Hsueh-Hua

    2012-01-01

    At present, methods for the optimal use of two approaches to computer game-based learning in school to enhance students' learning, namely, computer game play and game design, are obscure because past research has been devoted more to designing rather than evaluating the implementation of these approaches in school. In addition, most studies…

  2. Effects of Feedback in a Computer-Based Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Kleij, Fabienne M.; Eggen, Theo J. H. M.; Timmers, Caroline F.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of written feedback in a computer-based assessment for learning on students' learning outcomes were investigated in an experiment at a Higher Education institute in the Netherlands. Students were randomly assigned to three groups, and were subjected to an assessment for learning with different kinds of feedback. These are immediate…

  3. Helping Students Soar to Success on Computers: An Investigation of the Soar Study Method for Computer-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jairam, Dharmananda; Kiewra, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    This study used self-report and observation techniques to investigate how students study computer-based materials. In addition, it examined if a study method called SOAR can facilitate computer-based learning. SOAR is an acronym that stands for the method's 4 theoretically driven and empirically supported components: select (S), organize (O),…

  4. Effects of people knowledge on science learning in a computer-based learning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Huang-Yao

    A weakness inherent in science education has been, and continues to be, its emphasis principally on the teaching of scientific knowledge, i.e. knowledge of the object (or the observed). Little attention has been directed to the teaching of people knowledge about scientists, i.e. knowledge of the subject (or the observer), who generates scientific knowledge. This study explored the possible effects of people knowledge on science learning. Participants in the study were 323 tenth graders from nine classes in a public school in Taipei, Taiwan. They were randomly assigned to three groups to self-study science in a computer-based learning environment. The control group was instructed to study various scientific laws discovered by three scientists in three science lessons. The other two groups were instructed to study the same science lessons after studying one of two kinds of people knowledge about the three scientists: achievement-oriented people knowledge (APK) and process-oriented people knowledge (PPK). APK profiles scientists' scientific achievements, and PPK describes scientists' struggles before making the scientific discoveries. The main findings were: Firstly, it was found from problem-solving tests that all three groups performed equally well in applying what they learned from the lessons to solve textbook problems. However, in applying what they learned to interpret the relationships between scientific laws, only the PPK group performed better. Secondly, regarding learning interest, among the students who showed high personal interest in science, the APK group tended to consider the lessons as less interesting than the control group. Among the students who demonstrated low personal interest in science, the PPK group tended to consider the science lessons as more interesting than the control group. Thirdly, in describing their image of the three scientists, the APK group tended to emphasize the abilities and successes of the scientists, whereas the PPK group

  5. The Effects of Computer-Supported Inquiry-Based Learning Methods and Peer Interaction on Learning Stellar Parallax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzhitskaya, Lanika

    2011-01-01

    The presented research study investigated the effects of computer-supported inquiry-based learning and peer interaction methods on effectiveness of learning a scientific concept. The stellar parallax concept was selected as a basic, and yet important in astronomy, scientific construct, which is based on a straightforward relationship of several…

  6. Problem-Based Learning Environment in Basic Computer Course: Pre-Service Teachers' Achievement and Key Factors for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efendioglu, Akin

    2015-01-01

    This experimental study aims to determine pre-service teachers' achievements and key factors that affect the learning process with regard to problem-based learning (PBL) and lecture-based computer course (LBCC) conditions. The research results showed that the pre-service teachers in the PBL group had significantly higher achievement scores than…

  7. Dopamine selectively remediates 'model-based' reward learning: a computational approach.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Madeleine E; Foerde, Karin; Daw, Nathaniel D; Shohamy, Daphna

    2016-02-01

    Patients with loss of dopamine due to Parkinson's disease are impaired at learning from reward. However, it remains unknown precisely which aspect of learning is impaired. In particular, learning from reward, or reinforcement learning, can be driven by two distinct computational processes. One involves habitual stamping-in of stimulus-response associations, hypothesized to arise computationally from 'model-free' learning. The other, 'model-based' learning, involves learning a model of the world that is believed to support goal-directed behaviour. Much work has pointed to a role for dopamine in model-free learning. But recent work suggests model-based learning may also involve dopamine modulation, raising the possibility that model-based learning may contribute to the learning impairment in Parkinson's disease. To directly test this, we used a two-step reward-learning task which dissociates model-free versus model-based learning. We evaluated learning in patients with Parkinson's disease tested ON versus OFF their dopamine replacement medication and in healthy controls. Surprisingly, we found no effect of disease or medication on model-free learning. Instead, we found that patients tested OFF medication showed a marked impairment in model-based learning, and that this impairment was remediated by dopaminergic medication. Moreover, model-based learning was positively correlated with a separate measure of working memory performance, raising the possibility of common neural substrates. Our results suggest that some learning deficits in Parkinson's disease may be related to an inability to pursue reward based on complete representations of the environment.

  8. Primary School Students' Anxiety and Attitudes toward Computer-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, SeokHoon; Choo, Mooi Lee

    The introduction and implementation of computer-based learning (CBL) in primary schools in Singapore has created both benefits and problems. This study examined the attitudes and level of anxiety of 77 students toward CBL through two scales, the Computer Programming Anxiety Scale and the Liking for Computer-Related Activities Scale. Results showed…

  9. Construction of a Digital Learning Environment Based on Cloud Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Jihong; Xiong, Caiping; Liu, Huazhong

    2015-01-01

    Constructing the digital learning environment for ubiquitous learning and asynchronous distributed learning has opened up immense amounts of concrete research. However, current digital learning environments do not fully fulfill the expectations on supporting interactive group learning, shared understanding and social construction of knowledge.…

  10. Development and validation of a computer-based learning module for wrist arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Obdeijn, M C; Alewijnse, J V; Mathoulin, C; Liverneaux, P; Tuijthof, G J M; Schijven, M P

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a computer-based module for wrist arthroscopy to which a group of experts could consent. The need for such a module was assessed with members of the European Wrist Arthroscopy Society (EWAS). The computer-based module was developed through several rounds of consulting experts on the content. The module's learning enhancement was tested in a randomized controlled trial with 28 medical students who were assigned to the computer-based module group or lecture group. The design process led to a useful tool, which is supported by a panel of experts. Although the computer based module did not enhance learning, the participants did find the module more pleasant to use. Developing learning tools such as this computer-based module can improve the teaching of wrist arthroscopy skills.

  11. Property Exchange Method for Designing Computer-Based Learning Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umetsu, Takanobu; Hirashima, Tsukasa

    Motivation is one of the most important factors in learning. Many researchers of learning environments, therefore, pay special attention to learning games as a remarkable approach to realize highly motivated learning. However, to make a learning game is not easy task. Although there are several investigations for design methods of learning games, most of them are only proposals of guidelines for the design or characteristics that learning games should have. Therefore, developers of learning games are required to have enough knowledge and experiences regarding learning and games in order to understand the guidelines or to deal with the characteristics. Then, it is very difficult for teachers to obtain learning games fitting for their learning issues.

  12. CBSS Outreach Project: Computer-Based Study Strategies for Students with Learning Disabilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Ditson, Mary

    This final report describes activities and accomplishments of the four-year Computer-Based Study Strategies (CBSS) Outreach Project at the University of Oregon. This project disseminated information about using computer-based study strategies as an intervention for students with learning disabilities and provided teachers in participating outreach…

  13. Discovery Learning, Representation, and Explanation within a Computer-Based Simulation: Finding the Right Mix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieber, Lloyd P.; Tzeng, Shyh-Chii; Tribble, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore how adult users interact and learn during an interactive computer-based simulation supplemented with brief multimedia explanations of the content. A total of 52 college students interacted with a computer-based simulation of Newton's laws of motion in which they had control over the motion of a simple…

  14. [Undergraduate nursing students experience of a computer-based learning course].

    PubMed

    Alves, Rosa Helena Kreutz; Cogo, Ana Luísa Petersen

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to get to know how undergraduate nursing students at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul Nursing School experienced the computer-based learning (CBL) course: "Socio-historical process in nursing education". Five female students, who had attended the course the previous semester, were interviewed. Data were analyzed according to the thematic analysis. The final categories were: "the students' experience in the use of computer technologies" and "the students in relation to the computer-based learning experience". The flexibilization of study time and venue was pointed out as a positive factor. The students realized that CBL requires more effort and dedication when compared to conventional learning activities. We concluded that computer-based learning is an inclusive modality that allows access of students who are already involved in the labor market. PMID:19320351

  15. The Influence of Self-Regulated Learning and Prior Knowledge on Knowledge Acquisition in Computer-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernacki, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how learners construct textbase and situation model knowledge in hypertext computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) and documented the influence of specific self-regulated learning (SRL) tactics, prior knowledge, and characteristics of the learner on posttest knowledge scores from exposure to a hypertext. A sample of 160…

  16. Inventing Motivates and Prepares Student Teachers for Computer-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glogger-Frey, I.; Kappich, J.; Schwonke, R.; Holzäpfel, L.; Nückles, M.; Renkl, A.

    2015-01-01

    A brief, problem-oriented phase such as an inventing activity is one potential instructional method for preparing learners not only cognitively but also motivationally for learning. Student teachers often need to overcome motivational barriers in order to use computer-based learning opportunities. In a preliminary experiment, we found that student…

  17. Learning Probabilities in Computer Engineering by Using a Competency- and Problem-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoumsi, Ahmed; Hadjou, Brahim

    2005-01-01

    Our department has redesigned its electrical and computer engineering programs by adopting a learning methodology based on competence development, problem solving, and the realization of design projects. In this article, we show how this pedagogical approach has been successfully used for learning probabilities and their application to computer…

  18. The MORPG-Based Learning System for Multiple Courses: A Case Study on Computer Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Kuo-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at developing a Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game-based (MORPG) Learning system which enabled instructors to construct a game scenario and manage sharable and reusable learning content for multiple courses. It used the curriculum of "Introduction to Computer Science" as a study case to assess students' learning…

  19. A Methodology for Integrating Computer-Based Learning Tools in Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadouris, Nicos; Constantinou, Constantinos P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a methodology for effectively integrating computer-based learning tools in science teaching and learning. This methodology provides a means of systematic analysis to identify the capabilities of particular software tools and to formulate a series of competencies relevant to physical science that could be developed by means…

  20. Computer-Based Learning: Interleaving Whole and Sectional Representation of Neuroanatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pani, John R.; Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah

    2013-01-01

    The large volume of material to be learned in biomedical disciplines requires optimizing the efficiency of instruction. In prior work with computer-based instruction of neuroanatomy, it was relatively efficient for learners to master whole anatomy and then transfer to learning sectional anatomy. It may, however, be more efficient to continuously…

  1. Argumentation-Based Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (ABCSCL): A Synthesis of 15 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noroozi, Omid; Weinberger, Armin; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Mulder, Martin; Chizari, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Learning to argue is an essential objective in education; and online environments have been found to support the sharing, constructing, and representing of arguments in multiple formats for what has been termed Argumentation-Based Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (ABCSCL). The purpose of this review is to give an overview of research in…

  2. Learners' Perceptions and Illusions of Adaptivity in Computer-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewaetere, Mieke; Vandercruysse, Sylke; Clarebout, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    Research on computer-based adaptive learning environments has shown exemplary growth. Although the mechanisms of effective adaptive instruction are unraveled systematically, little is known about the relative effect of learners' perceptions of adaptivity in adaptive learning environments. As previous research has demonstrated that the learners'…

  3. Exploring the Presentation and Format of Help in a Computer-Based Electrical Engineering Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisslein, Jana; Atkinson, Robert K.; Reisslein, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated whether it was more beneficial to provide the learners in computer-based learning environments access to on demand (self-regulated) help after they committed an error in problem solving or for the learning environment to externally regulate the presentation of instructional help. Furthermore, two different resentational…

  4. Assessing Medical Students' Self-Regulation as Aptitude in Computer-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hyuksoon S.; Kalet, Adina L.; Plass, Jan L.

    2011-01-01

    We developed a Self-Regulation Measure for Computer-based learning (SRMC) tailored toward medical students, by modifying Zimmerman's Self-Regulated Learning Interview Schedule (SRLIS) for K-12 learners. The SRMC's reliability and validity were examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 109 first-year medical students were asked to complete the SRMC.…

  5. Utilizing Computer-Mediated Communication Tools for Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Hao-Chang

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to strategically use computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools to build online communication environments for problem-based learning (PBL). A six-stage process was proposed for online PBL learning in this study: 1) identifying the problem, 2) brainstorming, 3) collecting and analyzing information, 4) synthesizing information, 5)…

  6. An Evaluation of the Webquest as a Computer-Based Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassanien, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the preparation and use of an internet activity for undergraduate learners in higher education (HE). It evaluates the effectiveness of using webquest as a computer-based learning (CBL) tool to support students to learn in HE. The evaluation undertaken offers insights into learner perceptions concerning the ease of use of the…

  7. Learning with Computer-Based Multimedia: Gender Effects on Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohnl, Sabine; Bogner, Franz X.

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, only a few studies in multimedia learning have focused on gender effects. While research has mostly focused on learning success, the effect of gender on instructional efficiency (IE) has not yet been considered. Consequently, we used a quasi-experimental design to examine possible gender differences in the learning success, mental…

  8. A Study of the Efficacy of Project-Based Learning Integrated with Computer-Based Simulation--STELLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskrootchi, Rogheyeh; Oskrochi, G. Reza

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating computer-simulation modelling into project-based learning may be effective but requires careful planning and implementation. Teachers, especially, need pedagogical content knowledge which refers to knowledge about how students learn from materials infused with technology. This study suggests that students learn best by actively…

  9. A Review of Evaluative Studies of Computer-based Learning in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael J.; Davies, Rebecca; Jenkins, David; Tait, Michael I.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the methods used in 25 reports of the evaluation of nursing computer-based learning packages revealed significant research design flaws invalidating many conclusions. Ways to improve evaluation research on the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction were recommended. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

  10. Optimizing Computer-Based Developmental Math Learning at an Arabic Women's University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havill, Dale; Hashim, Wafa Bani; Alalawi, Shaikha

    2004-01-01

    "Developmental" math courses give university students a chance to reestablish basic skills and knowledge needed in college algebra courses. Computer assisted learning can be an integral part of these developmental math courses. Colleges and universities implement computer-based courses in various ways (e.g., self-paced or supervised…

  11. Web-Based Learning in the Computer-Aided Design Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Wen-Tsai; Ou, S. C.

    2002-01-01

    Applies principles of constructivism and virtual reality (VR) to computer-aided design (CAD) curriculum, particularly engineering, by integrating network, VR and CAD technologies into a Web-based learning environment that expands traditional two-dimensional computer graphics into a three-dimensional real-time simulation that enhances user…

  12. Development and Assessment of a Chemistry-Based Computer Video Game as a Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Hernandez, Kermin Joel

    2010-01-01

    The chemistry-based computer video game is a multidisciplinary collaboration between chemistry and computer graphics and technology fields developed to explore the use of video games as a possible learning tool. This innovative approach aims to integrate elements of commercial video game and authentic chemistry context environments into a learning…

  13. Strategies, Challenges and Prospects for Active Learning in the Computer-Based Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbert, K. E.; Karady, G. G.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of computer-equipped classrooms into engineering education has brought with it a host of opportunities and issues. Herein, some of the challenges and successes for creating an environment for active learning within computer-based classrooms are described. The particular teaching approach developed for undergraduate electrical…

  14. Learning about Computer-Based Education in Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Patrick J.

    In 1979 the adult basic education department at the Alberta Vocational Centre (AVC), Edmonton, began to use the Control Data PLATO system. Results of the first PLATO project showed students using PLATO learned at least as much as students in regular classes. Students learned faster and reported great satisfaction with PLATO experiences. Staff and…

  15. Computer game-based and traditional learning method: a comparison regarding students’ knowledge retention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Educational computer games are examples of computer-assisted learning objects, representing an educational strategy of growing interest. Given the changes in the digital world over the last decades, students of the current generation expect technology to be used in advancing their learning requiring a need to change traditional passive learning methodologies to an active multisensory experimental learning methodology. The objective of this study was to compare a computer game-based learning method with a traditional learning method, regarding learning gains and knowledge retention, as means of teaching head and neck Anatomy and Physiology to Speech-Language and Hearing pathology undergraduate students. Methods Students were randomized to participate to one of the learning methods and the data analyst was blinded to which method of learning the students had received. Students’ prior knowledge (i.e. before undergoing the learning method), short-term knowledge retention and long-term knowledge retention (i.e. six months after undergoing the learning method) were assessed with a multiple choice questionnaire. Students’ performance was compared considering the three moments of assessment for both for the mean total score and for separated mean scores for Anatomy questions and for Physiology questions. Results Students that received the game-based method performed better in the pos-test assessment only when considering the Anatomy questions section. Students that received the traditional lecture performed better in both post-test and long-term post-test when considering the Anatomy and Physiology questions. Conclusions The game-based learning method is comparable to the traditional learning method in general and in short-term gains, while the traditional lecture still seems to be more effective to improve students’ short and long-term knowledge retention. PMID:23442203

  16. Brain computer interface learning for systems based on electrocorticography and intracortical microelectrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V.; Chen, Weidong; Wang, Wei; Foldes, Stephen; Yang, Ying; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C.; Collinger, Jennifer L.; Boninger, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) system transforms neural activity into control signals for external devices in real time. A BCI user needs to learn to generate specific cortical activity patterns to control external devices effectively. We call this process BCI learning, and it often requires significant effort and time. Therefore, it is important to study this process and develop novel and efficient approaches to accelerate BCI learning. This article reviews major approaches that have been used for BCI learning, including computer-assisted learning, co-adaptive learning, operant conditioning, and sensory feedback. We focus on BCIs based on electrocorticography and intracortical microelectrode arrays for restoring motor function. This article also explores the possibility of brain modulation techniques in promoting BCI learning, such as electrical cortical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and optogenetics. Furthermore, as proposed by recent BCI studies, we suggest that BCI learning is in many ways analogous to motor and cognitive skill learning, and therefore skill learning should be a useful metaphor to model BCI learning. PMID:26113812

  17. Brain computer interface learning for systems based on electrocorticography and intracortical microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V; Chen, Weidong; Wang, Wei; Foldes, Stephen; Yang, Ying; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Collinger, Jennifer L; Boninger, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) system transforms neural activity into control signals for external devices in real time. A BCI user needs to learn to generate specific cortical activity patterns to control external devices effectively. We call this process BCI learning, and it often requires significant effort and time. Therefore, it is important to study this process and develop novel and efficient approaches to accelerate BCI learning. This article reviews major approaches that have been used for BCI learning, including computer-assisted learning, co-adaptive learning, operant conditioning, and sensory feedback. We focus on BCIs based on electrocorticography and intracortical microelectrode arrays for restoring motor function. This article also explores the possibility of brain modulation techniques in promoting BCI learning, such as electrical cortical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and optogenetics. Furthermore, as proposed by recent BCI studies, we suggest that BCI learning is in many ways analogous to motor and cognitive skill learning, and therefore skill learning should be a useful metaphor to model BCI learning.

  18. Effects of Feedback in a Computer-Based Learning Environment on Students' Learning Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Kleij, Fabienne M.; Feskens, Remco C. W.; Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    In this meta-analysis, we investigated the effects of methods for providing item-based feedback in a computer-based environment on students' learning outcomes. From 40 studies, 70 effect sizes were computed, which ranged from -0.78 to 2.29. A mixed model was used for the data analysis. The results show that elaborated feedback (EF; e.g., providing…

  19. Computer-based learning--an aid to successful teaching of pharmacology?

    PubMed

    E Hughes, Ian

    2002-07-01

    Various types of software have been developed for use in pharmacology courses. These include: simple drill (question and answer) software; electronic books; video material; tutorial type programs; simulations; and electronic learning environments for course organisation and delivery. These different types of software can be used in different ways to achieve very different learning objectives and gains in teaching efficiency. For example, software can be used: in tutorial and small group teaching; in lectures; to better prepare students for practical work; as a replacement for practicals; to provide options within a limited course structure; to supplement lectures and enable students to work at their own pace; to provide ongoing access to self-assessment throughout a course; to aid distance learning; as remedial teaching and to extend the student learning experience in areas which are too expensive or too time consuming or for which staff expertise does not exist. Evidence indicates that it is insufficient simply to make computer based learning material available to students. Like a laboratory class, it must be fully integrated into a module if real benefits are to be obtained. Students need to be taught how to learn from computer-based learning materials and how to integrate this learning tool in their learning strategy. Teachers need to be supported not only with information about the availability of software but, equally importantly, about how it can be integrated into modules. We are all delivering teaching and facilitating learning in a changing environment and subject to a variety of increasing pressures. It may well be that computer based learning materials may help to maintain a high quality of pharmacology teaching within this changing environment but we need more pedagogical research at the discipline level to establish how this can best be done.

  20. Computer-based learning--an aid to successful teaching of pharmacology?

    PubMed

    E Hughes, Ian

    2002-07-01

    Various types of software have been developed for use in pharmacology courses. These include: simple drill (question and answer) software; electronic books; video material; tutorial type programs; simulations; and electronic learning environments for course organisation and delivery. These different types of software can be used in different ways to achieve very different learning objectives and gains in teaching efficiency. For example, software can be used: in tutorial and small group teaching; in lectures; to better prepare students for practical work; as a replacement for practicals; to provide options within a limited course structure; to supplement lectures and enable students to work at their own pace; to provide ongoing access to self-assessment throughout a course; to aid distance learning; as remedial teaching and to extend the student learning experience in areas which are too expensive or too time consuming or for which staff expertise does not exist. Evidence indicates that it is insufficient simply to make computer based learning material available to students. Like a laboratory class, it must be fully integrated into a module if real benefits are to be obtained. Students need to be taught how to learn from computer-based learning materials and how to integrate this learning tool in their learning strategy. Teachers need to be supported not only with information about the availability of software but, equally importantly, about how it can be integrated into modules. We are all delivering teaching and facilitating learning in a changing environment and subject to a variety of increasing pressures. It may well be that computer based learning materials may help to maintain a high quality of pharmacology teaching within this changing environment but we need more pedagogical research at the discipline level to establish how this can best be done. PMID:12107637

  1. A Multiple-Sessions Interactive Computer-Based Learning Tool for Ability Cultivation in Circuit Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Q.; Lai, L. L.; Tse, N. C. F.; Ichiyanagi, K.

    2011-01-01

    An interactive computer-based learning tool with multiple sessions is proposed in this paper, which teaches students to think and helps them recognize the merits and limitations of simulation tools so as to improve their practical abilities in electrical circuit simulation based on the case of a power converter with progressive problems. The…

  2. Computer-based learning for ESRD patient education: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Chambers, J K; Frisby, A J

    1995-07-01

    Computer use in everyday life has expanded human potential in virtually every possible arena. In health care, computer technology affects direct clinical care through diagnostics, treatment, monitoring, and documentation processes. Patient care systems use computer technology to manage billing, scheduling, and multiple other administrative functions. Computer technology for education of health care professionals has been primarily in selected undergraduate, graduate, and professional degree programs. Computer-based continuing education for health care professionals has been available for at least a decade, but computer-based patient education is just now beginning to emerge as a learning option. This article describes examples of patient education programs using different types of hardware and software and explores potential areas for further development of this area for end-stage renal disease patients and families. Computer technology is not a replacement for professional involvement in patient education, but rather offers a new arena of media to enhance and expand current teaching and learning resources. Computer-based learning is characterized by features representative of many highly regarded principles of adult education. Further, instructional design concepts used for program development are fundamentally sound for patient education.

  3. The impact of computer-based versus "traditional" textbook science instruction on selected student learning outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, Alan H.

    This study reports the results of research designed to examine the impact of computer-based science instruction on elementary school level students' science content achievement, their attitude about science learning, their level of critical thinking-inquiry skills, and their level of cognitive and English language development. The study compared these learning outcomes resulting from a computer-based approach compared to the learning outcomes from a traditional, textbook-based approach to science instruction. The computer-based approach was inherent in a curriculum titled The Voyage of the Mimi , published by The Bank Street College Project in Science and Mathematics (1984). The study sample included 209 fifth-grade students enrolled in three schools in a suburban school district. This sample was divided into three groups, each receiving one of the following instructional treatments: (a) Mixed-instruction primarily based on the use of a hardcopy textbook in conjunction with computer-based instructional materials as one component of the science course; (b) Non-Traditional, Technology-Based -instruction fully utilizing computer-based material; and (c) Traditional, Textbook-Based-instruction utilizing only the textbook as the basis for instruction. Pre-test, or pre-treatment, data related to each of the student learning outcomes was collected at the beginning of the school year and post-test data was collected at the end of the school year. Statistical analyses of pre-test data were used as a covariate to account for possible pre-existing differences with regard to the variables examined among the three student groups. This study concluded that non-traditional, computer-based instruction in science significantly improved students' attitudes toward science learning and their level of English language development. Non-significant, positive trends were found for the following student learning outcomes: overall science achievement and development of critical thinking

  4. Practical Problem-Based Learning in Computing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Computer Science (CS) is a relatively new disciple and how best to introduce it to new students remains an open question. Likewise, the identification of appropriate instructional strategies for the diverse topics that constitute the average curriculum remains open to debate. One approach considered by a number of practitioners in CS education…

  5. Computer Based Learning and Training in Colour Harmony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikov, Alexander S.; Georgiev, Georgi G.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an interactive computer program, COLOR-TEST, that was developed at the Technical University of Sofia (Bulgaria) to teach color harmony and color coordination to industrial design students. A brief evaluation of the program is presented, and further developments for the program are suggested. (nine references) (LRW)

  6. Curricular Improvements through Computation and Experiment Based Learning Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Fazeel; Singh, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Engineers often need to predict how a part, mechanism or machine will perform in service, and this insight is typically achieved thorough computer simulations. Therefore, instruction in the creation and application of simulation models is essential for aspiring engineers. The purpose of this project was to develop a unified approach to teaching…

  7. Evaluating interactive computer-based scenarios designed for learning medical technology.

    PubMed

    Persson, Johanna; Dalholm, Elisabeth Hornyánszky; Wallergård, Mattias; Johansson, Gerd

    2014-11-01

    The use of medical equipment is growing in healthcare, resulting in an increased need for resources to educate users in how to manage the various devices. Learning the practical operation of a device is one thing, but learning how to work with the device in the actual clinical context is more challenging. This paper presents a computer-based simulation prototype for learning medical technology in the context of critical care. Properties from simulation and computer games have been adopted to create a visualization-based, interactive and contextually bound tool for learning. A participatory design process, including three researchers and three practitioners from a clinic for infectious diseases, was adopted to adjust the form and content of the prototype to the needs of the clinical practice and to create a situated learning experience. An evaluation with 18 practitioners showed that practitioners were positive to this type of tool for learning and that it served as a good platform for eliciting and sharing knowledge. Our conclusion is that this type of tools can be a complement to traditional learning resources to situate the learning in a context without requiring advanced technology or being resource-demanding. PMID:24898339

  8. Evaluating interactive computer-based scenarios designed for learning medical technology.

    PubMed

    Persson, Johanna; Dalholm, Elisabeth Hornyánszky; Wallergård, Mattias; Johansson, Gerd

    2014-11-01

    The use of medical equipment is growing in healthcare, resulting in an increased need for resources to educate users in how to manage the various devices. Learning the practical operation of a device is one thing, but learning how to work with the device in the actual clinical context is more challenging. This paper presents a computer-based simulation prototype for learning medical technology in the context of critical care. Properties from simulation and computer games have been adopted to create a visualization-based, interactive and contextually bound tool for learning. A participatory design process, including three researchers and three practitioners from a clinic for infectious diseases, was adopted to adjust the form and content of the prototype to the needs of the clinical practice and to create a situated learning experience. An evaluation with 18 practitioners showed that practitioners were positive to this type of tool for learning and that it served as a good platform for eliciting and sharing knowledge. Our conclusion is that this type of tools can be a complement to traditional learning resources to situate the learning in a context without requiring advanced technology or being resource-demanding.

  9. Computer-based study strategies for students with learning disabilities: individual differences associated with adoption level.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Inman, L; Knox-Quinn, C; Horney, M A

    1996-09-01

    This article reports results from a study of the use of technology to support students with learning disabilities in the use of effective study strategies. Thirty secondary students were given laptop computers and taught a variety of computer-based study strategies designed to facilitate information recording, organization, and manipulation. Results suggest that students adopted this innovation at three levels: (a) Power Users (skilled, independent users, integrating the computer into their schoolwork); (b) Prompted Users (skilled computer users, but requiring prompting); and (c) Reluctant Users (having limited knowledge and working only under supervision). Intelligence and reading test scores were associated with adoption levels in a statistically significant way.

  10. Technology Support for Discussion Based Learning: From Computer Supported Collaborative Learning to the Future of Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosé, Carolyn Penstein; Ferschke, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a vision for technology supported collaborative and discussion-based learning at scale. It begins with historical work in the area of tutorial dialogue systems. It traces the history of that area of the field of Artificial Intelligence in Education as it has made an impact on the field of Computer-Supported Collaborative…

  11. Applying Web-Based Co-Regulated Learning to Develop Students' Learning and Involvement in a Blended Computing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated, via quasi-experiments, the effects of web-based co-regulated learning (CRL) on developing students' computing skills. Two classes of 68 undergraduates in a one-semester course titled "Applied Information Technology: Data Processing" were chosen for this research. The first class (CRL group, n = 38) received…

  12. Computer-based learning materials for medical education: a model production.

    PubMed

    Mooney, G A; Bligh, J G

    1997-05-01

    Computer-based learning materials (CBL or courseware) have the potential to be valuable learning resources for medical education. However, CBL has failed to realize its potential primarily because of unstructured approaches towards design and development. This paper describes the courseware development model (CDM), a conceptual model produced and used by the Medical Education Unit at The University of Liverpool. The model describes a structured multi-disciplinary approach to the design and production of CBL materials. It promotes meticulous planning, communication and organization. The CDM draws on three areas of expertise: (1) education; (2) computer science; and (3) medical content. PMID:9231139

  13. Spiral and Project-Based Learning with Peer Assessment in a Computer Science Project Management Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaime, Arturo; Blanco, José Miguel; Domínguez, César; Sánchez, Ana; Heras, Jónathan; Usandizaga, Imanol

    2016-06-01

    Different learning methods such as project-based learning, spiral learning and peer assessment have been implemented in science disciplines with different outcomes. This paper presents a proposal for a project management course in the context of a computer science degree. Our proposal combines three well-known methods: project-based learning, spiral learning and peer assessment. Namely, the course is articulated during a semester through the structured (progressive and incremental) development of a sequence of four projects, whose duration, scope and difficulty of management increase as the student gains theoretical and instrumental knowledge related to planning, monitoring and controlling projects. Moreover, the proposal is complemented using peer assessment. The proposal has already been implemented and validated for the last 3 years in two different universities. In the first year, project-based learning and spiral learning methods were combined. Such a combination was also employed in the other 2 years; but additionally, students had the opportunity to assess projects developed by university partners and by students of the other university. A total of 154 students have participated in the study. We obtain a gain in the quality of the subsequently projects derived from the spiral project-based learning. Moreover, this gain is significantly bigger when peer assessment is introduced. In addition, high-performance students take advantage of peer assessment from the first moment, whereas the improvement in poor-performance students is delayed.

  14. Improving the learning of clinical reasoning through computer-based cognitive representation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bian; Wang, Minhong; Johnson, Janice M.; Grotzer, Tina A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Clinical reasoning is usually taught using a problem-solving approach, which is widely adopted in medical education. However, learning through problem solving is difficult as a result of the contextualization and dynamic aspects of actual problems. Moreover, knowledge acquired from problem-solving practice tends to be inert and fragmented. This study proposed a computer-based cognitive representation approach that externalizes and facilitates the complex processes in learning clinical reasoning. The approach is operationalized in a computer-based cognitive representation tool that involves argument mapping to externalize the problem-solving process and concept mapping to reveal the knowledge constructed from the problems. Methods Twenty-nine Year 3 or higher students from a medical school in east China participated in the study. Participants used the proposed approach implemented in an e-learning system to complete four learning cases in 4 weeks on an individual basis. For each case, students interacted with the problem to capture critical data, generate and justify hypotheses, make a diagnosis, recall relevant knowledge, and update their conceptual understanding of the problem domain. Meanwhile, students used the computer-based cognitive representation tool to articulate and represent the key elements and their interactions in the learning process. Results A significant improvement was found in students’ learning products from the beginning to the end of the study, consistent with students’ report of close-to-moderate progress in developing problem-solving and knowledge-construction abilities. No significant differences were found between the pretest and posttest scores with the 4-week period. The cognitive representation approach was found to provide more formative assessment. Conclusions The computer-based cognitive representation approach improved the learning of clinical reasoning in both problem solving and knowledge construction. PMID:25518871

  15. Changing how and what children learn in school with computer-based technologies.

    PubMed

    Roschelle, J M; Pea, R D; Hoadley, C M; Gordin, D N; Means, B M

    2000-01-01

    Schools today face ever-increasing demands in their attempts to ensure that students are well equipped to enter the workforce and navigate a complex world. Research indicates that computer technology can help support learning, and that it is especially useful in developing the higher-order skills of critical thinking, analysis, and scientific inquiry. But the mere presence of computers in the classroom does not ensure their effective use. Some computer applications have been shown to be more successful than others, and many factors influence how well even the most promising applications are implemented. This article explores the various ways computer technology can be used to improve how and what children learn in the classroom. Several examples of computer-based applications are highlighted to illustrate ways technology can enhance how children learn by supporting four fundamental characteristics of learning: (1) active engagement, (2) participation in groups, (3) frequent interaction and feedback, and (4) connections to real-world contexts. Additional examples illustrate ways technology can expand what children learn by helping them to understand core concepts in subjects like math, science, and literacy. Research indicates, however, that the use of technology as an effective learning tool is more likely to take place when embedded in a broader education reform movement that includes improvements in teacher training, curriculum, student assessment, and a school's capacity for change. To help inform decisions about the future role of computers in the classroom, the authors conclude that further research is needed to identify the uses that most effectively support learning and the conditions required for successful implementation.

  16. Development of a Computer-Based Visualised Quantitative Learning System for Playing Violin Vibrato

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Tracy Kwei-Liang; Lin, Huann-shyang; Chen, Ching-Kong; Tsai, Jih-Long

    2015-01-01

    Traditional methods of teaching music are largely subjective, with the lack of objectivity being particularly challenging for violin students learning vibrato because of the existence of conflicting theories. By using a computer-based analysis method, this study found that maintaining temporal coincidence between the intensity peak and the target…

  17. The Effects of Integrating Computer-Based Concept Mapping for Physics Learning in Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Shih, Chang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    It generally is accepted that concept mapping has a noticeable impact on learning. But literatures show the use of concept mapping is not benefit all learners. The present study explored the effects of incorporating computer-based concept mapping in physics instruction. A total of 61 9th-grade students participated in this study. By using a…

  18. Learning Mathematics by Designing, Programming, and Investigating with Interactive, Dynamic Computer-Based Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Neil; Buteau, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    As part of their undergraduate mathematics curriculum, students at Brock University learn to create and use computer-based tools with dynamic, visual interfaces, called Exploratory Objects, developed for the purpose of conducting pure or applied mathematical investigations. A student's Development Process Model of creating and using an Exploratory…

  19. Knowledge Cultures and the Shaping of Work-Based Learning: The Case of Computer Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerland, Monika

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how the knowledge culture of computer engineering--that is, the ways in which knowledge is produced, distributed, accumulated and collectively approached within this profession--serve to construct work-based learning in specific ways. Typically, the epistemic infrastructures take the form of information structures with a global…

  20. Computer Based Learning in FE. A Staff Development Model. A Staff Development Publication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This booklet describes the development and content of a model staff development pack for use in training teachers to incorporate the techniques of computer-based learning into their subject teaching. The guide consists of three parts. Part 1 outlines the aims and objectives, content, and use of the pack. Described next are seven curriculum samples…

  1. Effects of Concreteness and Contiguity on Learning from Computer-Based Reference Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Sribhagyam; Lewis, Daphne D.; Crooks, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    Today's technology has reached new heights that have not been fully implemented. One of the areas where technology has not yet reached its full potential is in education. This study examined the effects of concreteness of location names and contiguity of location names with textual information on learning from computer-based reference maps. The…

  2. A Framework for the Contextual Analysis of Computer-Based Learning Environments. Technical Report No. 527.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael J.; Spiro, Rand J.

    Addressing the need for a framework to distinguish the conditions under which different types of educational computing environments are productive, this paper proposes a cognitively based Contextual Analysis Framework consisting of two primary elements: (1) conceptual characteristics of the knowledge domain being learned, including the complexity…

  3. Evaluation of Computer Based Foreign Language Learning Software by Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baz, Fatih Çagatay; Tekdal, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate Computer Based Foreign Language Learning software called Dynamic Education (DYNED) by teachers and students. The study is conducted with randomly chosen ten primary schools with the participants of 522 7th grade students and 7 English teachers. Three points Likert scale for teachers and five points Likert scale…

  4. Supporting Student Learning: The Use of Computer-Based Formative Assessment Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Mary; Franklin, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of a variety of computer-based assessment opportunities, both formative and summative, that are available to a large first-year biology class at the University of Sydney (Australia). Discusses online access to weekly quizzes, a mock exam, and special self-assessment modules that are beneficial to student learning.…

  5. Attention Paid to Feedback Provided by a Computer-Based Assessment for Learning on Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmers, Caroline; Veldkamp, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Three studies are presented on attention paid to feedback provided by a computer-based assessment for learning on information literacy. Results show that the attention paid to feedback varies greatly. In general the attention focuses on feedback of incorrectly answered questions. In each study approximately fifty percent of the respondents paid…

  6. Enhancing Learning Outcomes in Computer-Based Training via Self-Generated Elaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Haydee M.; Fiore, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the utility of an instructional strategy known as the "query method" for enhancing learning outcomes in computer-based training. The query method involves an embedded guided, sentence generation task requiring elaboration of key concepts in the training material that encourages learners to "stop and…

  7. Net Gain? The Integration of Computer-Based Learning in Six NSW Government Schools, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Debra; Schuck, Sandy; Segal, Gilda; Dwyer, Joanne; McEwen, Celina

    This study examined the impact on learning of the integration of computer-based technology (CBT). The study focused on six New South Wales (Australia) government schools that were at different stages of development of the integration of CBT. Data were gathered through classroom observations and structured interviews with key personnel, students,…

  8. Effects of Computer Based Learning on Students' Attitudes and Achievements towards Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcay, Hüsamettin; Durmaz, Asli; Tüysüz, Cengiz; Feyzioglu, Burak

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of computer-based learning and traditional method on students' attitudes and achievement towards analytical chemistry. Students from Chemistry Education Department at Dokuz Eylul University (D.E.U) were selected randomly and divided into three groups; two experimental (Eg-1 and Eg-2) and a control…

  9. The Use of Computer-Based Simulation to Aid Comprehension and Incidental Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohsen, Mohammed Ali

    2016-01-01

    One of the main issues in language learning is to find ways to enable learners to interact with the language input in an involved task. Given that computer-based simulation allows learners to interact with visual modes, this article examines how the interaction of students with an online video simulation affects their second language video…

  10. Effects of Multidimensional Concept Maps on Fourth Graders' Learning in Web-Based Computer Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hwa-Shan; Chiou, Chei-Chang; Chiang, Heien-Kun; Lai, Sung-Hsi; Huang, Chiun-Yen; Chou, Yin-Yu

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the effect of multidimensional concept mapping instruction on students' learning performance in a web-based computer course. The subjects consisted of 103 fourth graders from an elementary school in central Taiwan. They were divided into three groups: multidimensional concept map (MCM) instruction group, Novak concept map (NCM)…

  11. Development and Evaluation of Computer-Based Laboratory Practical Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandole, Y. B.

    2006-01-01

    Effective evaluation of educational software is a key issue for successful introduction of advanced tools in the curriculum. This paper details to developing and evaluating a tool for computer assisted learning of science laboratory courses. The process was based on the generic instructional system design model. Various categories of educational…

  12. Listening Strategy Use and Influential Factors in Web-Based Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, L.; Zhang, R.; Liu, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates second and foreign language (L2) learners' listening strategy use and factors that influence their strategy use in a Web-based computer assisted language learning (CALL) system. A strategy inventory, a factor questionnaire and a standardized listening test were used to collect data from a group of 82 Chinese students…

  13. Tool Use of Experienced Learners in Computer-Based Learning Environments: Can Tools Be Beneficial?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juarez Collazo, Norma A.; Corradi, David; Elen, Jan; Clarebout, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented the use of tools in computer-based learning environments as problematic, that is, learners do not use the tools and when they do, they tend to do it suboptimally. This study attempts to disentangle cause and effect of this suboptimal tool use for experienced learners. More specifically, learner variables (metacognitive and…

  14. Factors Affecting Learning of Vector Math from Computer-Based Practice: Feedback Complexity and Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckler, Andrew F.; Mikula, Brendon D.

    2016-01-01

    In experiments including over 450 university-level students, we studied the effectiveness and time efficiency of several levels of feedback complexity in simple, computer-based training utilizing static question sequences. The learning domain was simple vector math, an essential skill in introductory physics. In a unique full factorial design, we…

  15. A Computer-Based Spatial Learning Strategy Approach That Improves Reading Comprehension and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Hector R.; Mayer, Richard E.; Lopez, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the effectiveness of a computer-based spatial learning strategy approach for improving reading comprehension and writing. In reading comprehension, students received scaffolded practice in translating passages into graphic organizers. In writing, students received scaffolded practice in planning to write by filling in graphic…

  16. Development of Decision-Making Skills and Environmental Concern through Computer-Based, Scaffolded Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaou, Christiana Th.; Korfiatis, Konstantinos; Evagorou, Maria; Constantinou, Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of decision-making skills and environmental concern by 11- and 12-year-old students through computer-based, scaffolded learning activities. The enacted activities provided necessary scientific information and allowed for the consideration of multiple aspects of the problem, the study of the effects of every…

  17. An Empirical Evaluation of Puzzle-Based Learning as an Interest Approach for Teaching Introductory Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrick, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    This correspondence describes an adaptation of puzzle-based learning to teaching an introductory computer programming course. Students from two offerings of the course--with and without the puzzle-based learning--were surveyed over a two-year period. Empirical results show that the synthesis of puzzle-based learning concepts with existing course…

  18. The Implications of Cognitive Psychology for Computer-Based Learning Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Robert B.

    1987-01-01

    Defines cognitive computer tools as software programs that use the control capabilities of computers to amplify, extend, or enhance human cognition; suggests seven ways in which computers can aid learning; and describes the "Learning Tool," a software package for the Apple Macintosh microcomputer that is designed to aid learning of declarative…

  19. Learning with technology: use of case-based physical and computer simulations in professional education.

    PubMed

    Lyons, J; Miller, M; Milton, J

    1998-06-01

    This paper describes a multimedia technology project in midwifery education and how it is being developed to improve student learning experiences and outcomes. The role of the university providing quality education relevant to today's world and professional practice is emphasised. A collaborative (Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology and Australian Catholic University) interdisciplinary project 'Pregnancy Simulator: Developing and Enhancing Student Learning of Pregnancy Assessment Skills' was developed with university and direct Commonwealth support. This project consists of a physical simulation of a pregnant woman at term and case-based multimedia computer simulations designed to develop and enhance student learning of abdominal assessment skills. A key feature of the development has been to design a learning experience explicitly on an authoritative theory-based view of teaching, in this case Diana Laurillard's 'Conversational Framework'.

  20. The Effects of Inquiry-Based Computer Simulation with Cooperative Learning on Scientific Thinking and Conceptual Understanding of Gas Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Sopiah; Shariff, Adilah

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of inquiry-based computer simulation with heterogeneous-ability cooperative learning (HACL) and inquiry-based computer simulation with friendship cooperative learning (FCL) on (a) scientific reasoning (SR) and (b) conceptual understanding (CU) among Form Four students in Malaysian Smart…

  1. Evaluation of E-Rat, a Computer-based Rat Dissection in Terms of Student Learning Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Predavec, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Presents a study that used computer-based rat anatomy to compare student learning outcomes from computer-based instruction with a conventional dissection. Indicates that there was a significant relationship between the time spent on both classes and the marks gained. Shows that computer-based instruction can be a viable alternative to the use of…

  2. Learning Achievement in Solving Word-Based Mathematical Questions through a Computer-Assisted Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tzu-Hua; Liu, Yuan-Chen; Chang, Hsiu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a computer-assisted mathematical problem-solving system in the form of a network instruction website to help low-achieving second- and third-graders in mathematics with word-based addition and subtraction questions in Taiwan. According to Polya's problem-solving model, the system is designed to guide these low-achievers…

  3. A computational visual saliency model based on statistics and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ru-Je; Lin, Wei-Song

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the type of stimuli that attracts human visual attention has been an appealing topic for scientists for many years. In particular, marking the salient regions in images is useful for both psychologists and many computer vision applications. In this paper, we propose a computational approach for producing saliency maps using statistics and machine learning methods. Based on four assumptions, three properties (Feature-Prior, Position-Prior, and Feature-Distribution) can be derived and combined by a simple intersection operation to obtain a saliency map. These properties are implemented by a similarity computation, support vector regression (SVR) technique, statistical analysis of training samples, and information theory using low-level features. This technique is able to learn the preferences of human visual behavior while simultaneously considering feature uniqueness. Experimental results show that our approach performs better in predicting human visual attention regions than 12 other models in two test databases. PMID:25084782

  4. Implicational markedness and frequency in constraint-based computational models of phonological learning.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Gaja

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the interacting roles of implicational markedness and frequency from the joint perspectives of formal linguistic theory, phonological acquisition and computational modeling. The hypothesis that child grammars are rankings of universal constraints, as in Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004), that learning involves a gradual transition from an unmarked initial state to the target grammar, and that order of acquisition is guided by frequency, along the lines of Levelt, Schiller & Levelt (2000), is investigated. The study reviews empirical findings on syllable structure acquisition in Dutch, German, French and English, and presents novel findings on Polish. These comparisons reveal that, to the extent allowed by implicational markedness universals, frequency covaries with acquisition order across languages. From the computational perspective, the paper shows that interacting roles of markedness and frequency in a class of constraint-based phonological learning models embody this hypothesis, and their predictions are illustrated via computational simulation.

  5. Sentence-Based Attentional Mechanisms in Word Learning: Evidence from a Computational Model

    PubMed Central

    Alishahi, Afra; Fazly, Afsaneh; Koehne, Judith; Crocker, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    When looking for the referents of novel nouns, adults and young children are sensitive to cross-situational statistics (Yu and Smith, 2007; Smith and Yu, 2008). In addition, the linguistic context that a word appears in has been shown to act as a powerful attention mechanism for guiding sentence processing and word learning (Landau and Gleitman, 1985; Altmann and Kamide, 1999; Kako and Trueswell, 2000). Koehne and Crocker (2010, 2011) investigate the interaction between cross-situational evidence and guidance from the sentential context in an adult language learning scenario. Their studies reveal that these learning mechanisms interact in a complex manner: they can be used in a complementary way when context helps reduce referential uncertainty; they influence word learning about equally strongly when cross-situational and contextual evidence are in conflict; and contextual cues block aspects of cross-situational learning when both mechanisms are independently applicable. To address this complex pattern of findings, we present a probabilistic computational model of word learning which extends a previous cross-situational model (Fazly et al., 2010) with an attention mechanism based on sentential cues. Our model uses a framework that seamlessly combines the two sources of evidence in order to study their emerging pattern of interaction during the process of word learning. Simulations of the experiments of (Koehne and Crocker, 2010, 2011) reveal an overall pattern of results that are in line with their findings. Importantly, we demonstrate that our model does not need to explicitly assign priority to either source of evidence in order to produce these results: learning patterns emerge as a result of a probabilistic interaction between the two clue types. Moreover, using a computational model allows us to examine the developmental trajectory of the differential roles of cross-situational and sentential cues in word learning. PMID:22783211

  6. Role of computer-based learning in tooth carving in dentistry: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Juneja, Saurabh; Juneja, Manjushree

    2016-01-01

    Tooth carving is an important practical preclinical exercise in the curriculum in Indian dental education setup. It forms the basis of introduction to tooth anatomy, morphology and occlusion of primary and permanent teeth through practical approach. It requires enormous time and manpower to master the skill. Therefore, there is an imminent necessity to incorporate computer-based learning of the art of tooth carving for effective teaching and efficient student learning. This will ensure quality time to be spent on other academic and research activities by students and faculty in addition to adding value as a teaching aid. PMID:27563579

  7. Role of computer-based learning in tooth carving in dentistry: An Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Saurabh; Juneja, Manjushree

    2016-01-01

    Tooth carving is an important practical preclinical exercise in the curriculum in Indian dental education setup. It forms the basis of introduction to tooth anatomy, morphology and occlusion of primary and permanent teeth through practical approach. It requires enormous time and manpower to master the skill. Therefore, there is an imminent necessity to incorporate computer-based learning of the art of tooth carving for effective teaching and efficient student learning. This will ensure quality time to be spent on other academic and research activities by students and faculty in addition to adding value as a teaching aid. PMID:27563579

  8. Metacognitive Load--Useful, or Extraneous Concept? Metacognitive and Self-Regulatory Demands in Computer-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwonke, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Instructional design theories such as the "cognitive load theory" (CLT) or the "cognitive theory of multimedia learning" (CTML) explain learning difficulties in (computer-based) learning usually as a result of design deficiencies that hinder effective schema construction. However, learners often struggle even in well-designed…

  9. Learning Vocabulary in a Foreign Language: A Computer Software Based Model Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelbay Yilmaz, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at devising a vocabulary learning software that would help learners learn and retain vocabulary items effectively. Foundation linguistics and learning theories have been adapted to the foreign language vocabulary learning context using a computer software named Parole that was designed exclusively for this study. Experimental…

  10. Development and assessment of a chemistry-based computer video game as a learning tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Hernandez, Kermin Joel

    The chemistry-based computer video game is a multidisciplinary collaboration between chemistry and computer graphics and technology fields developed to explore the use of video games as a possible learning tool. This innovative approach aims to integrate elements of commercial video game and authentic chemistry context environments into a learning experience through gameplay. The project consists of three areas: development, assessment, and implementation. However, the foci of this study were the development and assessment of the computer video game including possible learning outcomes and game design elements. A chemistry-based game using a mixed genre of a single player first-person game embedded with action-adventure and puzzle components was developed to determine if students' level of understanding of chemistry concepts change after gameplay intervention. Three phases have been completed to assess students' understanding of chemistry concepts prior and after gameplay intervention. Two main assessment instruments (pre/post open-ended content survey and individual semi-structured interviews) were used to assess student understanding of concepts. In addition, game design elements were evaluated for future development phases. Preliminary analyses of the interview data suggest that students were able to understand most of the chemistry challenges presented in the game and the game served as a review for previously learned concepts as well as a way to apply such previous knowledge. To guarantee a better understanding of the chemistry concepts, additions such as debriefing and feedback about the content presented in the game seem to be needed. The use of visuals in the game to represent chemical processes, game genre, and game idea appear to be the game design elements that students like the most about the current computer video game.

  11. Assessing students' learning and decision-making skills using high performance web-based computational tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Akilah

    Using web-based computational tool in classrooms in conjunction with advanced computing models provide the opportunity for students to learn large scale processes, such as state, regional, and global environmental issues that are difficult to incorporate into student learning exercises with present basic models. These tools aided in bridging the gap between multi-field scale models and enhanced student learning. The expectations were that students would improve their decision-making skills by solving realistic and large scale (multi-field conditions) environmental issues that were made possible through faster computation time, larger datasets, larger scale (multi-field), and predictions over longer time periods using the Century soil organic carbon model. The Century Model was linked to a web-based series of functional pages through which students could run the model through. In this project, 239 undergraduate students' learning and decision-making skills using high performance classroom computing tools were assessed. Among the many Century Model parameters, the students were able to alter four variables (climate, crop, tillage, and soil texture). Students were able to simulate several scenarios simultaneously. The results of the study revealed that pretest for the four courses combined was found significant (P < 0.05), meaning that the pretest was a major contributor to their increased posttest score. Although, the scenario scale (multi-field conditions vs. single field conditions) factor was not statistically significant, the students completing the multi-field scenario assignment scored higher on the posttest and also had a higher increase in points from pretest to posttest. Overall, these results revealed that the tool provided had a positive impact on the students' learning which was evident in their enhanced pretest to posttest score and also their perceptions from the written evaluation they provided. Most students felt that the project was a good learning

  12. Learning about Earth and Space through computer-based argumentative activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frede, Valerie; Frappart, Soren; Tartas, Valerie

    Learning about the Earth and Space is a difficult task that requires a change in frame of reference. We observe indeed various misconceptions about several concepts related to the Space sciences in the literature like for instance the idea that gravity can't exist out of the Earth (if somebody drops a ball on the moon, the ball floats) or that force is needed to keep an object in orbit. We are interested in looking for strategies to help learners overcome those misconceptions. We will present a tool based on argumentation and discussion with peers that seem to us relevant to favour conceptual change in science in general. We have tested this computer-based collaborative learning approach, relying on both argumentation and inquiry (here a visit of a space museum) with elementary school children (grade 5). More precisely, children were working in a collaborative way through computers using software (DIGALO) that gave them the possibility to co-construct argumentative maps. We will present the software and examples of such maps when children had to debate about seasons. We have followed both the quantitative and qualitative understanding changes of some groups of children through a pre and post-test questionnaire and the argumentative maps analyses. We observed that this computerbased collaborative way of learning helped children share their knowledge, confront their ideas, move them to justify or prove their claims and thus increase their level of understanding. We are working now on the implementation of this method for high school students for space concepts related to gravity, orbits and spacecraft where misconceptions are important. We show how we plan to implement such computer-based argumentative activities in a learning sequence in class in order to facilitate knowledge acquisition and scientific reasoning (through debates, argumentation, proof. . . ) about Earth and Space.

  13. Computers and Early Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banet, Bernard

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect that microelectronic technology will have on elementary education in the decades ahead, and some of the uses of computers as learning aids for young children, including interactive games, tutorial systems, creative activity, and simulation. (MP)

  14. Causal learning with local computations.

    PubMed

    Fernbach, Philip M; Sloman, Steven A

    2009-05-01

    The authors proposed and tested a psychological theory of causal structure learning based on local computations. Local computations simplify complex learning problems via cues available on individual trials to update a single causal structure hypothesis. Structural inferences from local computations make minimal demands on memory, require relatively small amounts of data, and need not respect normative prescriptions as inferences that are principled locally may violate those principles when combined. Over a series of 3 experiments, the authors found (a) systematic inferences from small amounts of data; (b) systematic inference of extraneous causal links; (c) influence of data presentation order on inferences; and (d) error reduction through pretraining. Without pretraining, a model based on local computations fitted data better than a Bayesian structural inference model. The data suggest that local computations serve as a heuristic for learning causal structure.

  15. Aids to Computer-Based Multimedia Learning: A Comparison of Human Tutoring and Computer Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodicio, H. Garcia; Sanchez, E.

    2012-01-01

    Learners are usually provided with support devices because they find it difficult to learn from multimedia presentations. A key question, with no clear answer so far, is how best to present these support devices. One possibility is to insert them into the multimedia presentation (canned support), while another is to have a human agent provide them…

  16. Paper-Based Aids for Learning with a Computer-Based Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorella, Logan; Mayer, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the instructional value of adding paper-based metacognitive prompting features to a gamelike environment for learning about electrical circuits, called the Circuit Game. In Experiment 1, students who were prompted during Levels 1 through 9 to direct their attention to the most relevant features of the game and…

  17. Design and Development of a Sample "Computer Programming" Course Tool via Story-Based E-Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kose, Utku; Koc, Durmus; Yucesoy, Suleyman Anil

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a story-based e-learning oriented course tool that was designed and developed for using within "computer programming" courses. With this tool, students can easily adapt themselves to the subjects in the context of computer programming principles, thanks to the story-based, interactive processes. By using visually…

  18. Machine-learning-based coadaptive calibration for brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Vidaurre, Carmen; Sannelli, Claudia; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2011-03-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow users to control a computer application by brain activity as acquired (e.g., by EEG). In our classic machine learning approach to BCIs, the participants undertake a calibration measurement without feedback to acquire data to train the BCI system. After the training, the user can control a BCI and improve the operation through some type of feedback. However, not all BCI users are able to perform sufficiently well during feedback operation. In fact, a nonnegligible portion of participants (estimated 15%-30%) cannot control the system (a BCI illiteracy problem, generic to all motor-imagery-based BCIs). We hypothesize that one main difficulty for a BCI user is the transition from offline calibration to online feedback. In this work, we investigate adaptive machine learning methods to eliminate offline calibration and analyze the performance of 11 volunteers in a BCI based on the modulation of sensorimotor rhythms. We present an adaptation scheme that individually guides the user. It starts with a subject-independent classifier that evolves to a subject-optimized state-of-the-art classifier within one session while the user interacts continuously. These initial runs use supervised techniques for robust coadaptive learning of user and machine. Subsequent runs use unsupervised adaptation to track the features' drift during the session and provide an unbiased measure of BCI performance. Using this approach, without any offline calibration, six users, including one novice, obtained good performance after 3 to 6 minutes of adaptation. More important, this novel guided learning also allows participants with BCI illiteracy to gain significant control with the BCI in less than 60 minutes. In addition, one volunteer without sensorimotor idle rhythm peak at the beginning of the BCI experiment developed it during the course of the session and used voluntary modulation of its amplitude to control the feedback application.

  19. Population-based learning of load balancing policies for a distributed computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, Pankaj; Wah, Benjamin W.

    1993-01-01

    Effective load-balancing policies use dynamic resource information to schedule tasks in a distributed computer system. We present a novel method for automatically learning such policies. At each site in our system, we use a comparator neural network to predict the relative speedup of an incoming task using only the resource-utilization patterns obtained prior to the task's arrival. Outputs of these comparator networks are broadcast periodically over the distributed system, and the resource schedulers at each site use these values to determine the best site for executing an incoming task. The delays incurred in propagating workload information and tasks from one site to another, as well as the dynamic and unpredictable nature of workloads in multiprogrammed multiprocessors, may cause the workload pattern at the time of execution to differ from patterns prevailing at the times of load-index computation and decision making. Our load-balancing policy accommodates this uncertainty by using certain tunable parameters. We present a population-based machine-learning algorithm that adjusts these parameters in order to achieve high average speedups with respect to local execution. Our results show that our load-balancing policy, when combined with the comparator neural network for workload characterization, is effective in exploiting idle resources in a distributed computer system.

  20. The Goal Specificity Effect on Strategy Use and Instructional Efficiency during Computer-Based Scientific Discovery Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunsting, Josef; Wirth, Joachim; Paas, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Using a computer-based scientific discovery learning environment on buoyancy in fluids we investigated the "effects of goal specificity" (nonspecific goals vs. specific goals) for two goal types (problem solving goals vs. learning goals) on "strategy use" and "instructional efficiency". Our empirical findings close an important research gap,…

  1. MedEthEx Online: A Computer-based Learning Program in Medical Ethics and Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleetwood, Janet; Vaught, Wayne; Feldman, Debra; Gracely, Edward; Kassutto, Zach; Novack, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    Assessed MedEthEx Online, a computer-based learning program, in improving communication skills as part of a required bioethics course for medical students. Exam scores of users were comparable with non-users, although computerized-learning students scored higher in specific exam areas, felt somewhat more clinically prepared, and rated the course…

  2. Evaluating Students' Perceptions and Attitudes toward Computer-Mediated Project-Based Learning Environment: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seet, Ling Ying Britta; Quek, Choon Lang

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated 68 secondary school students' perceptions of their computer-mediated project-based learning environment and their attitudes towards Project Work (PW) using two instruments--Project Work Classroom Learning Environment Questionnaire (PWCLEQ) and Project Work Related Attitudes Instrument (PWRAI). In this project-based…

  3. Middle School Students' Self-Efficacy, Attitudes, and Achievement in a Computer-Enhanced Problem-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; Hsieh, Peggy (Pei-Hsuan); Cho, Yoonjung; Schallert, Diane

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a computer-enhanced problem-based learning (PBL) environment on middle school students' learning, investigating the relationship among students' self-efficacy, attitude toward science, and achievement. As Bandura defined it (1986), self-efficacy refers to the beliefs people have about whether or not they can…

  4. Simulator Building as a Problem-Based Learning Approach for Teaching Students in a Computer Architecture Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Li-minn; Seng, Kah Phooi

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approach to support and promote deeper student learning in a computer architecture course. A PBL approach using a simulator building activity was used to teach part of the course. The remainder of the course was taught using a traditional lecture-tutorial approach. Qualitative data was collected…

  5. The effects of computer-supported inquiry-based learning methods and peer interaction on learning stellar parallax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhitskaya, Lanika

    The presented research study investigated the effects of computer-supported inquiry-based learning and peer interaction methods on effectiveness of learning a scientific concept. The stellar parallax concept was selected as a basic, and yet important in astronomy, scientific construct, which is based on a straightforward relationship of several components presented in a simple mathematical equation: d = 1/p. The simplicity of the concept allowed the researchers to explore how the learners construct their conceptual knowledge, build mathematical skills and transfer their knowledge beyond the learning settings. A computer-based tutorial Stellar Parallax Interactive Restricted and Unrestricted Tutorial (SPIRUT) was developed for this study, and was designed to aid students' knowledge construction of the concept either in a learner-controlled or a program-controlled mode. The first investigated method in the study was enhancing engagement by the means of scaffolding for inquiry, which included scripted prompts and called for students' predictions and reflections while working in the learner-controlled or the computer-controlled version of SPIRUT. A second form of enhancing engagement was through peers working cooperatively during the learning activities. The students' level of understanding of the concept was measured by (1) the number of correct answers on a conceptual test with (2) several questions that require knowledge transfer to unfamiliar situations and (3) their ability to calculate the stellar parallax and find distances to stars. The study was conducted in the University of Missouri among 199 non-science major students enrolled in an introductory astronomy course in the fall semester 2010. The participants were divided into two main groups: one was working with SPIRUT and another group was a control group and utilized a paper-based tutorial. The SPIRUT group was further divided into the learner-controlled and the program-controlled subgroups. Students

  6. Computer-Based Exploratory Learning Systems for Communication-Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geoffrion, Leo D.; Goldenberg, E. Paul

    1981-01-01

    A rationale for exploratory learning via computers is presented, emphasizing the need for modeling normal communication development in children with communication handicaps, including deafness, cerebral palsy, and autism. (Author/CL)

  7. Developing an Efficient Computational Method that Estimates the Ability of Students in a Web-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young-Jin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a computational method that can efficiently estimate the ability of students from the log files of a Web-based learning environment capturing their problem solving processes. The computational method developed in this study approximates the posterior distribution of the student's ability obtained from the conventional Bayes…

  8. The Structure of the Help-Seeking Process in Collaboratively Using a Computer Coach in Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Julien; Frederiksen, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Research on help seeking with a computer coach providing on-demand help has not produced fully adequate models of the process from a cognitive perspective. The present study postulates a model of help seeking from a cognitive perspective and tests this model in a learning situation characterized as problem-based and computer-supported. The…

  9. Development and Use of a Computer-Based Interactive Resource for Teaching and Learning Probability in Primary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigueros, Maria; Lozano, Maria Dolores; Lage, Ana Elisa

    2006-01-01

    "Enciclomedia" is a Mexican project for primary school teaching using computers in the classroom. Within this project, and following an enactivist theoretical perspective and methodology, we have designed a computer-based package called "Dados", which, together with teaching guides, is intended to support the teaching and learning of probability.…

  10. To Compare the Effects of Computer Based Learning and the Laboratory Based Learning on Students' Achievement Regarding Electric Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayrak, Bekir; Kanli, Uygar; Ingec, Sebnem Kandil

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the research problem was: "Is the computer based physics instruction as effective as laboratory intensive physics instruction with regards to academic success on electric circuits 9th grade students?" For this research of experimental quality the design of pre-test and post-test are applied with an experiment and a control group.…

  11. To Compare the Effects of Computer Based Learning and the Laboratory Based Learning on Students' Achievement Regarding Electric Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayrak, Bekir; Kanli, Uygar; Kandil Ingeç, Sebnem

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the research problem was: "Is the computer based physics instruction as effective as laboratory intensive physics instruction with regards to academic success on electric circuits 9th grade students?" For this research of experimental quality the design of pre-test and post-test are applied with an experiment and a control…

  12. Supporting Self-Regulated Learning in Computer-Based Learning Environments: Systematic Review of Effects of Scaffolding in the Domain of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devolder, A.; van Braak, J.; Tondeur, J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the widespread assumption that students require scaffolding support for self-regulated learning (SRL) processes in computer-based learning environments (CBLEs), there is little clarity as to which types of scaffolds are most effective. This study offers a literature review covering the various scaffolds that support SRL processes in the…

  13. The Effectiveness of Self-Regulated Learning Scaffolds on Academic Performance in Computer-Based Learning Environments: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Lanqin

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined research on the effects of self-regulated learning scaffolds on academic performance in computer-based learning environments from 2004 to 2015. A total of 29 articles met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis with a total sample size of 2,648 students. Moderator analyses were performed using a…

  14. Factors affecting learning of vector math from computer-based practice: Feedback complexity and prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckler, Andrew F.; Mikula, Brendon D.

    2016-06-01

    In experiments including over 450 university-level students, we studied the effectiveness and time efficiency of several levels of feedback complexity in simple, computer-based training utilizing static question sequences. The learning domain was simple vector math, an essential skill in introductory physics. In a unique full factorial design, we studied the relative effects of "knowledge of correct response" feedback and "elaborated feedback" (i.e., a general explanation) both separately and together. A number of other factors were analyzed, including training time, physics course grade, prior knowledge of vector math, and student beliefs about both their proficiency in and the importance of vector math. We hypothesize a simple model predicting how the effectiveness of feedback depends on prior knowledge, and the results confirm this knowledge-by-treatment interaction. Most notably, elaborated feedback is the most effective feedback, especially for students with low prior knowledge and low course grade. In contrast, knowledge of correct response feedback was less effective for low-performing students, and including both kinds of feedback did not significantly improve performance compared to elaborated feedback alone. Further, while elaborated feedback resulted in higher scores, the learning rate was at best only marginally higher because the training time was slightly longer. Training time data revealed that students spent significantly more time on the elaborated feedback after answering a training question incorrectly. Finally, we found that training improved student self-reported proficiency and that belief in the importance of the learned domain improved the effectiveness of training. Overall, we found that computer based training with static question sequences and immediate elaborated feedback in the form of simple and general explanations can be an effective way to improve student performance on a physics essential skill, especially for less prepared and low

  15. The Reverse Modality Effect: Examining Student Learning from Interactive Computer-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inan, Fethi A.; Crooks, Steven M.; Cheon, Jongpil; Ari, Fatih; Flores, Raymond; Kurucay, Murat; Paniukov, Dmitrii

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of modality on learning from multimedia instruction. This study utilized a factorial between-subject design to examine the effects of modality on student learning outcomes, study patterns and mental effort. An interactive computer-presented diagram was developed to teach the places of…

  16. Development of a Personalized Educational Computer Game Based on Students' Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Sung, Han-Yu; Hung, Chun-Ming; Huang, Iwen; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have been engaged in the development of educational computer games; however, previous studies have indicated that, without supportive models that take individual students' learning needs or difficulties into consideration, students might only show temporary interest during the learning process, and their learning…

  17. Learning-based computing techniques in geoid modeling for precise height transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, B.; Erol, S.

    2013-03-01

    Precise determination of local geoid is of particular importance for establishing height control in geodetic GNSS applications, since the classical leveling technique is too laborious. A geoid model can be accurately obtained employing properly distributed benchmarks having GNSS and leveling observations using an appropriate computing algorithm. Besides the classical multivariable polynomial regression equations (MPRE), this study attempts an evaluation of learning based computing algorithms: artificial neural networks (ANNs), adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and especially the wavelet neural networks (WNNs) approach in geoid surface approximation. These algorithms were developed parallel to advances in computer technologies and recently have been used for solving complex nonlinear problems of many applications. However, they are rather new in dealing with precise modeling problem of the Earth gravity field. In the scope of the study, these methods were applied to Istanbul GPS Triangulation Network data. The performances of the methods were assessed considering the validation results of the geoid models at the observation points. In conclusion the ANFIS and WNN revealed higher prediction accuracies compared to ANN and MPRE methods. Beside the prediction capabilities, these methods were also compared and discussed from the practical point of view in conclusions.

  18. Computer-Supported Team-Based Learning: The Impact of Motivation, Enjoyment and Team Contributions on Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Elizabeth Avery; Wu, Dezhi; Passerini, Katia

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of teamwork and collaboration have long been advocated by many educational theories, such as constructivist and social learning models. Among the various applications of collaborative learning, the iterative team-based learning (TBL) process proposed by Michaelsen, Fink, and Knight (2002) has been successfully used in the classroom…

  19. Computer-Aided Diagnosis and Quantification of Cirrhotic Livers Based on Morphological Analysis and Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Wei; Luo, Jie; Dong, Chunhua; Han, Xianhua; Tateyama, Tomoko; Furukawa, Akira; Kanasaki, Shuzo

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that morphological changes of the liver and the spleen occur during the clinical course of chronic liver diseases. In this paper, we proposed a morphological analysis method based on statistical shape models (SSMs) of the liver and spleen for computer-aided diagnosis and quantification of the chronic liver. We constructed not only the liver SSM but also the spleen SSM and a joint SSM of the liver and the spleen for a morphologic analysis of the cirrhotic liver in CT images. The effective modes are selected based on both its accumulation contribution rate and its correlation with doctor's opinions (stage labels). We then learn a mapping function between the selected mode and the stage of chronic liver. The mapping function was used for diagnosis and staging of chronic liver diseases. PMID:24187579

  20. Examining Student Opinions on Computer Use Based on the Learning Styles in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgen, Kemal; Bindak, Recep

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the opinions of high school students, who have different learning styles, related to computer use in mathematics education. High school students' opinions on computer use in mathematics education were collected with both qualitative and quantitative approaches in the study conducted with a survey model. For…

  1. Effects of Computer-Based Visual Representation on Mathematics Learning and Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yung, Hsin I.; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Visual representation has been recognized as a powerful learning tool in many learning domains. Based on the assumption that visual representations can support deeper understanding, we examined the effects of visual representations on learning performance and cognitive load in the domain of mathematics. An experimental condition with visual…

  2. Computational intelligence-based polymerase chain reaction primer selection based on a novel teaching-learning-based optimisation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Huei

    2014-12-01

    Specific primers play an important role in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments, and therefore it is essential to find specific primers of outstanding quality. Unfortunately, many PCR constraints must be simultaneously inspected which makes specific primer selection difficult and time-consuming. This paper introduces a novel computational intelligence-based method, Teaching-Learning-Based Optimisation, to select the specific and feasible primers. The specified PCR product lengths of 150-300 bp and 500-800 bp with three melting temperature formulae of Wallace's formula, Bolton and McCarthy's formula and SantaLucia's formula were performed. The authors calculate optimal frequency to estimate the quality of primer selection based on a total of 500 runs for 50 random nucleotide sequences of 'Homo species' retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The method was then fairly compared with the genetic algorithm (GA) and memetic algorithm (MA) for primer selection in the literature. The results show that the method easily found suitable primers corresponding with the setting primer constraints and had preferable performance than the GA and the MA. Furthermore, the method was also compared with the common method Primer3 according to their method type, primers presentation, parameters setting, speed and memory usage. In conclusion, it is an interesting primer selection method and a valuable tool for automatic high-throughput analysis. In the future, the usage of the primers in the wet lab needs to be validated carefully to increase the reliability of the method.

  3. Computational intelligence-based polymerase chain reaction primer selection based on a novel teaching-learning-based optimisation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Huei

    2014-12-01

    Specific primers play an important role in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments, and therefore it is essential to find specific primers of outstanding quality. Unfortunately, many PCR constraints must be simultaneously inspected which makes specific primer selection difficult and time-consuming. This paper introduces a novel computational intelligence-based method, Teaching-Learning-Based Optimisation, to select the specific and feasible primers. The specified PCR product lengths of 150-300 bp and 500-800 bp with three melting temperature formulae of Wallace's formula, Bolton and McCarthy's formula and SantaLucia's formula were performed. The authors calculate optimal frequency to estimate the quality of primer selection based on a total of 500 runs for 50 random nucleotide sequences of 'Homo species' retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The method was then fairly compared with the genetic algorithm (GA) and memetic algorithm (MA) for primer selection in the literature. The results show that the method easily found suitable primers corresponding with the setting primer constraints and had preferable performance than the GA and the MA. Furthermore, the method was also compared with the common method Primer3 according to their method type, primers presentation, parameters setting, speed and memory usage. In conclusion, it is an interesting primer selection method and a valuable tool for automatic high-throughput analysis. In the future, the usage of the primers in the wet lab needs to be validated carefully to increase the reliability of the method. PMID:25429503

  4. Computer-Based Learning: Graphical Integration of Whole and Sectional Neuroanatomy Improves Long-Term Retention

    PubMed Central

    Naaz, Farah; Chariker, Julia H.; Pani, John R.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to test the hypothesis that instruction with graphically integrated representations of whole and sectional neuroanatomy is especially effective for learning to recognize neural structures in sectional imagery (such as MRI images). Neuroanatomy was taught to two groups of participants using computer graphical models of the human brain. Both groups learned whole anatomy first with a three-dimensional model of the brain. One group then learned sectional anatomy using two-dimensional sectional representations, with the expectation that there would be transfer of learning from whole to sectional anatomy. The second group learned sectional anatomy by moving a virtual cutting plane through the three-dimensional model. In tests of long-term retention of sectional neuroanatomy, the group with graphically integrated representation recognized more neural structures that were known to be challenging to learn. This study demonstrates the use of graphical representation to facilitate a more elaborated (deeper) understanding of complex spatial relations. PMID:24563579

  5. Learning-based image preprocessing for robust computer-aided detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghupathi, Laks; Devarakota, Pandu R.; Wolf, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that low dose computed tomography (LDCT) can be an effective screening tool to reduce lung cancer mortality. Computer-aided detection (CAD) would be a beneficial second reader for radiologists in such cases. Studies demonstrate that while iterative reconstructions (IR) improve LDCT diagnostic quality, it however degrades CAD performance significantly (increased false positives) when applied directly. For improving CAD performance, solutions such as retraining with newer data or applying a standard preprocessing technique may not be suffice due to high prevalence of CT scanners and non-uniform acquisition protocols. Here, we present a learning-based framework that can adaptively transform a wide variety of input data to boost an existing CAD performance. This not only enhances their robustness but also their applicability in clinical workflows. Our solution consists of applying a suitable pre-processing filter automatically on the given image based on its characteristics. This requires the preparation of ground truth (GT) of choosing an appropriate filter resulting in improved CAD performance. Accordingly, we propose an efficient consolidation process with a novel metric. Using key anatomical landmarks, we then derive consistent feature descriptors for the classification scheme that then uses a priority mechanism to automatically choose an optimal preprocessing filter. We demonstrate CAD prototype∗ performance improvement using hospital-scale datasets acquired from North America, Europe and Asia. Though we demonstrated our results for a lung nodule CAD, this scheme is straightforward to extend to other post-processing tools dedicated to other organs and modalities.

  6. Content and Processes in Problem-Based Learning: A Comparison of Computer-Mediated and Face-to-Face Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromso, H. I.; Grottum, P.; Lycke, K. H.

    2007-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in problem-based learning. One line of research has been to introduce synchronous, or simultaneous, communication attempting to create text-based digital real-time interaction. Compared with face-to-face (F2F) communication, CMC may be a poorer medium…

  7. Validating the ACE Model for Evaluating Student Performance Using a Teaching-Learning Process Based on Computational Modeling Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louzada, Alexandre Neves; Elia, Marcos da Fonseca; Sampaio, Fábio Ferrentini; Vidal, Andre Luiz Pestana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to adapt and test, in a Brazilian public school, the ACE model proposed by Borkulo for evaluating student performance as a teaching-learning process based on computational modeling systems. The ACE model is based on different types of reasoning involving three dimensions. In addition to adapting the model and introducing…

  8. Learners' Use of Communication Strategies in Text-Based and Video-Based Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication Environments: Opportunities for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Yu-Wan; Higgins, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the different learning opportunities enabled by text-based and video-based synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) from an interactionist perspective. Six Chinese-speaking learners of English and six English-speaking learners of Chinese were paired up as tandem (reciprocal) learning dyads. Each dyad participated…

  9. Assessing Medical Students’ Self-regulation as Aptitude in Computer-based Learning

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyuksoon S.; Kalet, Adina L.; Plass, Jan L.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a Self-Regulation Measure for Computer-based learning (SRMC) tailored toward medical students, by modifying Zimmerman’s Self-Regulated Learning Interview Schedule (SRLIS) for K-12 learners. The SRMC’s reliability and validity were examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 109 first-year medical students were asked to complete the SRMC. Bivariate correlation analysis results indicated that the SRMC scores had a moderate degree of correlation with student achievement in a teacher-developed test. In Study 2, 58 third-year clerkship students completed the SRMC. Regression analysis results indicated that the frequency of medical students’ usage of self-regulation strategies was associated with their general clinical knowledge measured by a nationally standardized licensing exam. These two studies provided evidence for the reliability and concurrent validity of the SRMC to assess medical students’ self-regulation as aptitude. Future work should provide evidence to guide and improve instructional design as well as inform educational policy. PMID:20872071

  10. Improving learning with science and social studies text using computer-based concept maps for students with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ciullo, Stephen; Falcomata, Terry S; Pfannenstiel, Kathleen; Billingsley, Glenna

    2015-01-01

    Concept maps have been used to help students with learning disabilities (LD) improve literacy skills and content learning, predominantly in secondary school. However, despite increased access to classroom technology, no previous studies have examined the efficacy of computer-based concept maps to improve learning from informational text for students with LD in elementary school. In this study, we used a concurrent delayed multiple probe design to evaluate the interactive use of computer-based concept maps on content acquisition with science and social studies texts for Hispanic students with LD in Grades 4 and 5. Findings from this study suggest that students improved content knowledge during intervention relative to a traditional instruction baseline condition. Learning outcomes and social validity information are considered to inform recommendations for future research and the feasibility of classroom implementation.

  11. Computer-Based Simulation in Blended Learning Curriculum for Hazardous Waste Site Worker Health and Safety Training

    PubMed Central

    West, Cheryl; Slatin, Craig; Sanborn, Wayne; Volicer, Beverly

    2008-01-01

    Intended for the interest of individuals and organizations who provide adult/worker training and education, we present a discussion of a computer-based simulation training tool used as part of a hazardous waste site worker health and safety training curriculum. Our objective is to present the simulation’s development, implementation, and assessment for learning utility from both trainee and trainer perspectives. The simulation is blended with other curriculum components of training courses and supports small group learning. Assessment included end-of-course trainee questionnaires and trainer focus groups to addressing simulation utility as a user-oriented learning tool. A majority of trainees reported simulation trainings as useful learning tools with numerous advantages that support a participatory, blended learning curriculum, and raise awareness of potential work site risks and hazards. Trainers reported that the simulation advanced training impact. Evaluation results indicate that the simulation successfully supports small group learning activities. PMID:19430576

  12. Probabilistic reward- and punishment-based learning in opioid addiction: Experimental and computational data.

    PubMed

    Myers, Catherine E; Sheynin, Jony; Balsdon, Tarryn; Luzardo, Andre; Beck, Kevin D; Hogarth, Lee; Haber, Paul; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Addiction is the continuation of a habit in spite of negative consequences. A vast literature gives evidence that this poor decision-making behavior in individuals addicted to drugs also generalizes to laboratory decision making tasks, suggesting that the impairment in decision-making is not limited to decisions about taking drugs. In the current experiment, opioid-addicted individuals and matched controls with no history of illicit drug use were administered a probabilistic classification task that embeds both reward-based and punishment-based learning trials, and a computational model of decision making was applied to understand the mechanisms describing individuals' performance on the task. Although behavioral results showed that opioid-addicted individuals performed as well as controls on both reward- and punishment-based learning, the modeling results suggested subtle differences in how decisions were made between the two groups. Specifically, the opioid-addicted group showed decreased tendency to repeat prior responses, meaning that they were more likely to "chase reward" when expectancies were violated, whereas controls were more likely to stick with a previously-successful response rule, despite occasional expectancy violations. This tendency to chase short-term reward, potentially at the expense of developing rules that maximize reward over the long term, may be a contributing factor to opioid addiction. Further work is indicated to better understand whether this tendency arises as a result of brain changes in the wake of continued opioid use/abuse, or might be a pre-existing factor that may contribute to risk for addiction. PMID:26381438

  13. Probabilistic reward- and punishment-based learning in opioid addiction: Experimental and computational data.

    PubMed

    Myers, Catherine E; Sheynin, Jony; Balsdon, Tarryn; Luzardo, Andre; Beck, Kevin D; Hogarth, Lee; Haber, Paul; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Addiction is the continuation of a habit in spite of negative consequences. A vast literature gives evidence that this poor decision-making behavior in individuals addicted to drugs also generalizes to laboratory decision making tasks, suggesting that the impairment in decision-making is not limited to decisions about taking drugs. In the current experiment, opioid-addicted individuals and matched controls with no history of illicit drug use were administered a probabilistic classification task that embeds both reward-based and punishment-based learning trials, and a computational model of decision making was applied to understand the mechanisms describing individuals' performance on the task. Although behavioral results showed that opioid-addicted individuals performed as well as controls on both reward- and punishment-based learning, the modeling results suggested subtle differences in how decisions were made between the two groups. Specifically, the opioid-addicted group showed decreased tendency to repeat prior responses, meaning that they were more likely to "chase reward" when expectancies were violated, whereas controls were more likely to stick with a previously-successful response rule, despite occasional expectancy violations. This tendency to chase short-term reward, potentially at the expense of developing rules that maximize reward over the long term, may be a contributing factor to opioid addiction. Further work is indicated to better understand whether this tendency arises as a result of brain changes in the wake of continued opioid use/abuse, or might be a pre-existing factor that may contribute to risk for addiction.

  14. Computability-theoretic learning complexity.

    PubMed

    Case, John; Kötzing, Timo

    2012-07-28

    Initially discussed are some of Alan Turing's wonderfully profound and influential ideas about mind and mechanism-including regarding their connection to the main topic of the present study, which is within the field of computability-theoretic learning theory. Herein is investigated the part of this field concerned with the algorithmic, trial-and-error inference of eventually correct programs for functions from their data points. As to the main content of this study: in prior papers, beginning with the seminal work by Freivalds et al. in 1995, the notion of intrinsic complexity is used to analyse the learning complexity of sets of functions in a Gold-style learning setting. Herein are pointed out some weaknesses of this notion. Offered is an alternative based on epitomizing sets of functions-sets that are learnable under a given learning criterion, but not under other criteria that are not at least as powerful. To capture the idea of epitomizing sets, new reducibility notions are given based on robust learning (closure of learning under certain sets of computable operators). Various degrees of epitomizing sets are characterized as the sets complete with respect to corresponding reducibility notions! These characterizations also provide an easy method for showing sets to be epitomizers, and they are then employed to prove several sets to be epitomizing. Furthermore, a scheme is provided to generate easily very strong epitomizers for a multitude of learning criteria. These strong epitomizers are the so-called self-learning sets, previously applied by Case & Kötzing in 2010. These strong epitomizers can be easily generated and employed in a myriad of settings to witness with certainty the strict separation in learning power between the criteria so epitomized and other not as powerful criteria!

  15. Learning Natural Selection in 4th Grade with Multi-Agent-Based Computational Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickes, Amanda Catherine; Sengupta, Pratim

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate how elementary school students develop multi-level explanations of population dynamics in a simple predator-prey ecosystem, through scaffolded interactions with a multi-agent-based computational model (MABM). The term "agent" in an MABM indicates individual computational objects or actors (e.g., cars), and these agents obey simple rules assigned or manipulated by the user (e.g., speeding up, slowing down, etc.). It is the interactions between these agents, based on the rules assigned by the user, that give rise to emergent, aggregate-level behavior (e.g., formation and movement of the traffic jam). Natural selection is such an emergent phenomenon, which has been shown to be challenging for novices (K16 students) to understand. Whereas prior research on learning evolutionary phenomena with MABMs has typically focused on high school students and beyond, we investigate how elementary students (4th graders) develop multi-level explanations of some introductory aspects of natural selection—species differentiation and population change—through scaffolded interactions with an MABM that simulates predator-prey dynamics in a simple birds-butterflies ecosystem. We conducted a semi-clinical interview based study with ten participants, in which we focused on the following: a) identifying the nature of learners' initial interpretations of salient events or elements of the represented phenomena, b) identifying the roles these interpretations play in the development of their multi-level explanations, and c) how attending to different levels of the relevant phenomena can make explicit different mechanisms to the learners. In addition, our analysis also shows that although there were differences between high- and low-performing students (in terms of being able to explain population-level behaviors) in the pre-test, these differences disappeared in the post-test.

  16. Implicational Markedness and Frequency in Constraint-Based Computational Models of Phonological Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosz, Gaja

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the interacting roles of implicational markedness and frequency from the joint perspectives of formal linguistic theory, phonological acquisition and computational modeling. The hypothesis that child grammars are rankings of universal constraints, as in Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004), that learning involves a…

  17. Connecting Expectations and Values: Students' Perceptions of Developmental Mathematics in a Computer-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Karen Latrice Terrell

    2014-01-01

    Students' perceptions influence their expectations and values. According to Expectations and Values Theory of Achievement Motivation (EVT-AM), students' expectations and values impact their behaviors (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). This study seeks to find students' perceptions of developmental mathematics in a mastery learning computer-based…

  18. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Web-Based Learning Design for Adult Computer Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonis, Konstantinos; Daradoumis, Thanasis; Papadakis, Spyros; Simos, Christos

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on work undertaken within a pilot study concerned with the design, development, and evaluation of online computer science training courses. Drawing on recent developments in e-learning technology, these courses were structured around the principles of a learner-oriented approach for use with adult learners. The paper describes a…

  19. Optimizing Cognitive Load for Learning from Computer-Based Science Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjeong; Plass, Jan L.; Homer, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    How can cognitive load in visual displays of computer simulations be optimized? Middle-school chemistry students (N = 257) learned with a simulation of the ideal gas law. Visual complexity was manipulated by separating the display of the simulations in two screens (low complexity) or presenting all information on one screen (high complexity). The…

  20. Motivating At-Risk Students through Computer-based Cooperative Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Siowck-Lee

    1999-01-01

    Malaysian at-risk students trained in information-technology skills were appointed to lead cooperative-learning groups engaged in computer-search activities. Activities were structured to incorporate individual accountability, positive interdependence and interaction, collaborative skills, and group processing. Motivation, self-confidence,…

  1. Evaluation of a Computer-Based, Asynchronous Activity on Student Learning of Leadership Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Barry L.; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl

    2002-01-01

    Students taught leadership and ethics using asynchronous computer simulation (n=83) were compared with 113 taught conventionally. The treatment group performed better on questions written at the knowledge, comprehension, and analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy, regardless of learning mode preferences. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  2. "Horses for Courses": Categories of Computer-Based Learning Program and Their Uses in Pharmacology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Ian E.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the pharma-CAL-ogy project, funded by Teaching and Learning Technology Programme (TLTP), which has developed various types of software for use in pharmacology courses. Topics include course organization and delivery software, drill and practice software, tutorial-type programs, simulations, and the need to integrate computer-assisted…

  3. Effects of Unidirectional vs. Reciprocal Teaching Strategies on Web-Based Computer Programming Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadiev, Rustam; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Yeh, Shih-Ching; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Wang, Jing-Liang; Han, Lin; Hsu, Guo-Liang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate an effectiveness of unidirectional and reciprocal teaching strategies on programming learning supported by web-based learning system (VPen); particularly, how differently effective these two teaching strategies would work. In this study novice programmers were exposed to three different conditions: 1) applying no…

  4. Thinking Tools in Computer-Based Assessment: Technology Enhancements in Assessments for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Yigal

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest concerns in schools today is how teachers can bring together assessment and learning in a way that is meaningful for students' thinking skills, while focusing on content standards. Better understanding of how different types of technology based thinking tools can be used for improving classroom teaching and learning,…

  5. A Computer-Assisted Learning Model Based on the Digital Game Exponential Reward System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Man-Ki; Jahng, Surng-Gahb; Kim, Tae-Yong

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to construct a motivational model which would stimulate voluntary and proactive learning using digital game methods offering players more freedom and control. The theoretical framework of this research lays the foundation for a pedagogical learning model based on digital games. We analyzed the game reward system, which…

  6. Corpora Processing and Computational Scaffolding for a Web-Based English Learning Environment: The CANDLE Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Hsien-Chin; Chang, Jason S; Chen, Hao-Jan; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Liaw, Meei-Ling; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Jang, Jyh-Shing Roger; Yeh, Yuli; Chuang, Thomas C.; You, Geeng-Neng

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an innovative web-based environment for English language learning with advanced data-driven and statistical approaches. The project uses various corpora, including a Chinese-English parallel corpus ("Sinorama") and various natural language processing (NLP) tools to construct effective English learning tasks…

  7. The Impact of Students' Exploration Strategies on Discovery Learning Using Computer-Based Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgarno, Barney; Kennedy, Gregor; Bennett, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Discovery-based learning designs incorporating active exploration are common within instructional software. However, researchers have highlighted empirical evidence showing that "pure" discovery learning is of limited value and strategies which reduce complexity and provide guidance to learners are important if potential learning…

  8. Using Computer-Based Testing as Alternative Assessment Method of Student Learning in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapriati, Amalia; Zuhairi, Aminudin

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of computer-based testing in distance education, based on the experience of Universitas Terbuka (UT), Indonesia. Computer-based testing has been developed at UT for reasons of meeting the specific needs of distance students as the following: (1) students' inability to sit for the scheduled test; (2) conflicting…

  9. The Effect of a Graph-Oriented Computer-Assisted Project-Based Learning Environment on Argumentation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, P. -S.; Van Dyke, M.; Chen, Y.; Smith, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to explore how seventh graders in a suburban school in the United States developed argumentation skills and science knowledge in a project-based learning environment that incorporated a graph-oriented, computer-assisted application. A total of 54 students (three classes) comprised this treatment…

  10. The Effects of CBI Lesson Sequence Type and Field Dependence on Learning from Computer-Based Cooperative Instruction in Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipek, Ismail

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CBI lesson sequence type and cognitive style of field dependence on learning from Computer-Based Cooperative Instruction (CBCI) in WEB on the dependent measures, achievement, reading comprehension and reading rate. Eighty-seven college undergraduate students were randomly assigned to…

  11. Student Conceptions about the DNA Structure within a Hierarchical Organizational Level: Improvement by Experiment- and Computer-Based Outreach Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langheinrich, Jessica; Bogner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    As non-scientific conceptions interfere with learning processes, teachers need both, to know about them and to address them in their classrooms. For our study, based on 182 eleventh graders, we analyzed the level of conceptual understanding by implementing the "draw and write" technique during a computer-supported gene technology module.…

  12. Effects of Computer-Based Instruction on Student Learning of Psychophysiological Detection of Deception Test Question Formulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janniro, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study conducted by the Department of Defense Polygraph Institute for their forensic science curriculum that investigated the effects of computer-based instruction on student learning of psychophysiological detection of deception test question formulation. Treatment of the experimental and control group is explained and posttest scores…

  13. Computer-Based Auditory Training (CBAT): Benefits for Children with Language- and Reading-Related Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Campbell, Nicci; Luxon, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence for computer-based auditory training (CBAT) in children with language, reading, and related learning difficulties, and evaluates the extent it can benefit children with auditory processing disorder (APD). Searches were confined to studies published between 2000 and 2008, and they are rated according to the level…

  14. Computer-Based Graphical Displays for Enhancing Mental Animation and Improving Reasoning in Novice Learning of Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Danielle E.; Wu, Erin Chia-ling

    2006-01-01

    Our research suggests static and animated graphics can lead to more animated thinking and more correct problem solving in computer-based probability learning. Pilot software modules were developed for graduate online statistics courses and representation research. A study with novice graduate student statisticians compared problem solving in five…

  15. Representational Tools in Computer-Supported Collaborative Argumentation-Based Learning: How Dyads Work with Constructed and Inspected Argumentative Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Amelsvoort, Marije; Andriessen, Jerry; Kanselaar, Gellof

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the conditions under which diagrammatic representations support collaborative argumentation-based learning in a computer environment. Thirty dyads of 15- to 18-year-old students participated in a writing task consisting of 3 phases. Students prepared by constructing a representation (text or diagram) individually. Then…

  16. GenieTutor: A Computer Assisted Second-Language Learning System Based on Semantic and Grammar Correctness Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Oh-Woog; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Young-Kil; Lee, Yunkeun

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a Dialog-Based Computer-Assisted second-Language Learning (DB-CALL) system using semantic and grammar correctness evaluations and the results of its experiment. While the system dialogues with English learners about a given topic, it automatically evaluates the grammar and content properness of their English utterances, then…

  17. A Practitioner Model of the Use of Computer-Based Tools and Resources to Support Mathematics Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthven, Kenneth; Hennessy, Sara

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the pedagogical ideas underpinning teachers' accounts of the successful use of computer-based tools and resources to support the teaching and learning of mathematics. Organizes central themes to form a pedagogical model capable of informing the use of such technologies in classroom teaching and generating theoretical conjectures for…

  18. Tool Use and Performance: Relationships between Tool- and Learner-Related Characteristics in a Computer-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juarez-Collazo, Norma A.; Elen, Jan; Clarebout, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    It is still unclear on what and how tool and learner characteristics influence tool use and consequently performance in computer-based learning environments (CBLEs). This study examines the relationships between tool-related characteristics (tool presentation: non-/embedded tool and instructional cues: non-/explained tool functionality) and…

  19. On the Development of a Computer Based Diagnostic Assessment Tool to Help in Teaching and Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Afaq; Al-Mashari, Ahmed; Al-Lawati, Ali

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a computer based diagnostic tool developed to facilitate the learning process. The developed tool is capable of generating possible error syndromes associated with the answers received. The developed tool simulates the error pattern of the test results and then accordingly models the action plan to help in children's learning…

  20. Developing Simulation-Based Computer Assisted Learning to Correct Students' Statistical Misconceptions Based on Cognitive Conflict Theory, Using "Correlation" as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tzu-Chien

    2010-01-01

    Understanding and applying statistical concepts is essential in modern life. However, common statistical misconceptions limit the ability of students to understand statistical concepts. Although simulation-based computer assisted learning (CAL) is promising for use in students learning statistics, substantial improvement is still needed. For…

  1. Using a Computer-Based Audiographic Telecommunication System for Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezabek, Landra L.; And Others

    By combining the use of an existing teleconferencing network with new computer-based video technologies, the University of Wyoming has enhanced its ability to provide distance educational opportunities for students at remote sites across the state. The new computer-based audiographic system was tested during the fall semester of 1988 during the…

  2. Computer Assisted Learning in Numeracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollin, Freda

    Computer-assisted learning in numeracy for adults is far less developed than computer-assisted learning in literacy. Although a great many software programs exist, few are suitable for adults and many offer only drill and practice exercises instead of teaching genuine computer skills. One approach instructors can take is to have their students use…

  3. Developing Long-Term Computing Skills among Low-Achieving Students via Web-Enabled Problem-Based Learning and Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Lee, Tsang-Hsiung; Shen, Pei-Di

    2013-01-01

    Many private vocational schools in Taiwan have taken to enrolling students with lower levels of academic achievement. The authors re-designed a course and conducted a series of quasi-experiments to develop students' long-term computing skills, and examined the longitudinal effects of web-enabled, problem-based learning (PBL) and…

  4. Effects of Textual and Animated Orienting Activities and Practice on Learning from Computer-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieber, Lloyd P.; Hannafin, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes study designed to examine the effects of textual and/or computer animated orienting strategies and practice on rule-using and problem-solving skills of elementary school students using computer-assisted instruction. Four different versions of a lesson based on Isaac Newton's Law of Motion are described, and results are analyzed. (28…

  5. Learning Natural Selection in 4th Grade with Multi-Agent-Based Computational Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickes, Amanda Catherine; Sengupta, Pratim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how elementary school students develop multi-level explanations of population dynamics in a simple predator-prey ecosystem, through scaffolded interactions with a multi-agent-based computational model (MABM). The term "agent" in an MABM indicates individual computational objects or actors (e.g., cars), and these…

  6. Learning with Artificial Worlds: Computer-Based Modelling in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellar, Harvey, Ed.; And Others

    With the advent of the British National Curriculum, computer-based modeling has become an integral part of the school curriculum. This book is about modeling in education and providing children with computer tools to create and explore representations of the world. Members of the London Mental Models Group contributed their research: (1)…

  7. Traditional versus Computer-Based Dissections in Enhancing Learning in a Tertiary Setting: A Student Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Sue; Peat, Mary; Lewis, Alison

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that investigates both the use and usefulness of laboratory dissections and computer-based dissections in a tertiary, first-year human biology course. Explores attitudes toward dissection. (DDR)

  8. Implementing computer-based testing in distance education for advanced practice nurses: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Caudle, Patricia; Bigness, Joanne; Daniels, Judi; Gillmor-Kahn, Mickey; Knestrick, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    A distance education program utilized by graduate nursing students worldwide faces unique problems with testing. This article presents the results of a pilot study on the implementation of computer-based testing at the Frontier Nursing University. A detailed analysis of the evaluative survey completed by students in the pilot study revealed issues of hi-directional respect and trust between faculty and students and technological anxiety among students using computer-based testing. PMID:22029246

  9. Learning Mathematics with Interactive Whiteboards and Computer-Based Graphing Utility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbas, Ayhan Kursat; Ince, Muge; Kaya, Sukru

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a technology-supported learning environment utilizing an interactive whiteboard (IWB) and NuCalc graphing software compared to a traditional direct instruction-based environment on student achievement in graphs of quadratic functions and attitudes towards mathematics and technology. Sixty-five…

  10. The Role of Visualization in Learning from Computer-Based Images. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piburn, Michael D.; Reynolds, Stephen J.; McAuliffe, Carla; Leedy, Debra E.; Birk, James P.; Johnson, Julia K.

    2005-01-01

    Among the sciences, the practice of geology is especially visual. To assess the role of spatial ability in learning geology, we designed an experiment using: (1) web-based versions of spatial visualization tests, (2) a geospatial test, and (3) multimedia instructional modules built around QuickTime Virtual Reality movies. Students in control and…

  11. Development of an experimental paradigm in which to examine human learning using two computer-based formats.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, H M; Colt, H G; Haas, A

    2001-01-01

    Computer-based self-instructional programs are frequently promoted as means to augment or replace the traditional anatomy curricula taught in medical schools. These programs may range from static slide shows to fully immersive virtual environments. However, the impact of these learning technologies on knowledge acquisition, and their comparative cost/benefit to education remain unclear. As a consequence, we are embarking on a series of experiments to compare knowledge acquisition and the meaningful use of information among students who are learning anatomy using one of two different computer-based self-instructional formats. These studies will be based on a specially developed learning module on basic lung anatomy; they will utilize a variety of assessment tools to measure factual knowledge, conceptual understanding of spatial-anatomic relationships, and the ability to apply newly acquired knowledge of anatomy to clinical problem-solving scenarios. The primary object of this paper is to describe the design and development of the underlying test module and to outline the two computer-based formats that will be evaluated. The virtual reality (VR) environment, UCSD's Anatomic VisualizeR, provides dynamic access to 3-dimensional polygonal models of the lesson content and supports student-centered exploration and learning. The multimedia environment, Microsoft PowerPoint, provides a structured presentation of the lesson content and illustrates important anatomic structures through the use of 2-dimensional images derived by screen captures of models available in the VR learning module. This paper also provides an overview of the first experiment in the series, a pilot study using first-year medical students without previous participation in a medical school anatomy curriculum. For this study, students will be prospectively randomized into two groups, each group learning the lung anatomy lesson using one of the computer-based formats described. Immediate knowledge

  12. Students' Perceptions of Computer-Based Learning Environments, Their Attitude towards Business Statistics, and Their Academic Achievement: Implications from a UK University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, ThuyUyen H.; Charity, Ian; Robson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates students' perceptions of computer-based learning environments, their attitude towards business statistics, and their academic achievement in higher education. Guided by learning environments concepts and attitudinal theory, a theoretical model was proposed with two instruments, one for measuring the learning environment and…

  13. Facilitating Place-Based Learning in Outdoor Informal Environments with Mobile Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Land, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper advocates for place-based education to guide research and design for mobile computers used in outdoor informal environments (e.g., backyards, nature centers and parks). By bringing together research on place-based education with research on location awareness, we developed three design guidelines to support learners to develop robust…

  14. The comparative effect of individually-generated vs. collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on science concept learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, So Young

    Using a quasi-experimental design, the researcher investigated the comparative effects of individually-generated and collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on middle school science concept learning. Qualitative data were analyzed to explain quantitative findings. One hundred sixty-one students (74 boys and 87 girls) in eight, seventh grade science classes at a middle school in Southeast Texas completed the entire study. Using prior science performance scores to assure equivalence of student achievement across groups, the researcher assigned the teacher's classes to one of the three experimental groups. The independent variable, group, consisted of three levels: 40 students in a control group, 59 students trained to individually generate concept maps on computers, and 62 students trained to collaboratively generate concept maps on computers. The dependent variables were science concept learning as demonstrated by comprehension test scores, and quality of concept maps created by students in experimental groups as demonstrated by rubric scores. Students in the experimental groups received concept mapping training and used their newly acquired concept mapping skills to individually or collaboratively construct computer-based concept maps during study time. The control group, the individually-generated concept mapping group, and the collaboratively-generated concept mapping group had equivalent learning experiences for 50 minutes during five days, excepting that students in a control group worked independently without concept mapping activities, students in the individual group worked individually to construct concept maps, and students in the collaborative group worked collaboratively to construct concept maps during their study time. Both collaboratively and individually generated computer-based concept mapping had a positive effect on seventh grade middle school science concept learning but neither strategy was more effective than the other. However

  15. Student conceptions about the DNA structure within a hierarchical organizational level: Improvement by experiment- and computer-based outreach learning.

    PubMed

    Langheinrich, Jessica; Bogner, Franz X

    2015-01-01

    As non-scientific conceptions interfere with learning processes, teachers need both, to know about them and to address them in their classrooms. For our study, based on 182 eleventh graders, we analyzed the level of conceptual understanding by implementing the "draw and write" technique during a computer-supported gene technology module. To give participants the hierarchical organizational level which they have to draw, was a specific feature of our study. We introduced two objective category systems for analyzing drawings and inscriptions. Our results indicated a long- as well as a short-term increase in the level of conceptual understanding and in the number of drawn elements and their grades concerning the DNA structure. Consequently, we regard the "draw and write" technique as a tool for a teacher to get to know students' alternative conceptions. Furthermore, our study points the modification potential of hands-on and computer-supported learning modules.

  16. Teaching scientific principles through a computer-based, design-centered learning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Michael Brian

    Research on science instruction indicates that the traditional science classroom is not always effective in improving students' scientific understanding. Physics courses, in particular, do not promote the ability to apply scientific principles for many reasons, based on their focus on procedural problem-solving and lab exercises. In this dissertation, I propose the Designing-to-Learn Architecture (DTLA), a design-centered goal-based scenario (GBS) architecture, theoretically grounded in the literature on design-centered learning environments, goal-based scenarios, intelligent tutoring systems and simulations. The DTLA offers an alternative approach to addressing the issues encountered in the traditional science classroom. The architecture consists of an artifact with associated design goals; components with component options; a simulation; a reference database; and guided tutorials. I describe the design of Goin' Up?, the prototype DTL application, serving as the basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the DTLA. I present results of interview and testing protocols from the formative evaluation of Goin' Up?, suggesting that learning outcomes, though not statistically significant, could be improved through DTLA enhancements informed by usage patterns in software sessions. I conclude with an analysis of the results and suggestions for improvements to the DTLA, including additional components to address reflection, provide support for novice designers, and offer tutorial guidance on the analysis of the artifact.

  17. Conducting Scientific Research on Learning and Health Behavior Change with Computer-Based Health Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Lieberman, Debra A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is a guide for researchers interested in assessing the effectiveness of serious computer-based games (or video games, digital games, or electronic games) intended to improve health and health care. It presents a definition of health games, a rationale for their use, an overview of the current state of research, and recommendations for…

  18. The Triarchic Theory of Intelligence and Computer-based Inquiry Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Bruce C.; McGee, Steven; Shin, Namsoo; Shia, Regina

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the triarchic theory of intelligence focuses on a study of ninth graders that explored the relationships between student abilities and the cognitive and attitudinal outcomes that resulted from student immersion in a computer-based inquiry environment. Examines outcome variables related to content understanding, problem solving, and…

  19. The Relationships among Measures of Intrinsic Motivation, Instructional Design, and Learning in Computer-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezabek, Randy

    The intent of this study was to explore the intrinsic aspects of motivation, and to see if the design of instruction could positively affect learners' levels of intrinsic motivation toward the subject matter. The following questions were addressed: (1) Will different computer-based instructional treatments which have been designed to reflect…

  20. From Concept Maps to Computer Based Learning: The Experience of NoteCards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleese, Ray

    This paper begins with a description of the context and background of cognitive research into knowledge acquisition and representation for computer based training. The nature of concept maps is alluded to and examples are given of the ways that maps can facilitate knowledge elicitation. It is noted that: (1) the concept knowledge in this research…

  1. Gifted Students' Individual Differences in Distance-Learning Computer-Based Calculus and Linear Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Eric W.; Suppes, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Examined student performance in distance computer-based calculus and linear algebra courses offered by Stanford University to pre-college students as part of their Education Program for Gifted youth (EPGY). Puts special emphasis on modeling student performance over time and on capturing long-term trend effects using stochastic and nonlinear…

  2. A Review of Research on Intercultural Learning through Computer-Based Digital Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çiftçi, Emrullah Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Intercultural communication is now a crucial part of our globalizing lives; however, not everyone has an opportunity to engage in an intercultural interaction with people from different cultures. Computer-based technologies are promising in creating environments for people to communicate with people from diverse cultures. This qualitative…

  3. Learning Resources and Academic Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terwilliger, Gloria

    1987-01-01

    Describes the phases of the integration of academic computing into the operations of the Learning Resource Center (LRC) at the Alexandria campus of Northern Virginia Community College. Reviews planning and operational stages and discusses future directions. (DMM)

  4. Virtual international experiences in veterinary medicine: an evaluation of students' attitudes toward computer-based learning.

    PubMed

    French, Brigitte C; Hird, David W; Romano, Patrick S; Hayes, Rick H; Nijhof, Ard M; Jongejan, Frans; Mellor, Dominic J; Singer, Randall S; Fine, Amanda E; Gay, John M; Davis, Radford G; Conrad, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    While many studies have evaluated whether or not factual information can be effectively communicated using computer-aided tools, none has focused on establishing and changing students' attitudes toward international animal-health issues. The study reported here was designed to assess whether educational modules on an interactive computer CD elicited a change in veterinary students' interest in and attitudes toward international animal-health issues. Volunteer veterinary students at seven universities (first-year students at three universities, second-year at one, third-year at one, and fourth-year at two) were given by random assignment either an International Animal Health (IAH) CD or a control CD, ParasitoLog (PL). Participants completed a pre-CD survey to establish baseline information on interest and attitudes toward both computers and international animal-health issues. Four weeks later, a post-CD questionnaire was distributed. On the initial survey, most students expressed an interest in working in the field of veterinary medicine in another country. Responses to the three pre-CD questions relating to attitudes toward the globalization of veterinary medicine, interest in foreign animal disease, and inclusion of a core course on international health issues in the veterinary curriculum were all positive, with average values above 3 (on a five-point scale where 5 represented strong agreement or interest). Almost all students considered it beneficial to learn about animal-health issues in other countries. After students reviewed the IAH CD, we found a decrease at four universities, an increase at one university, and no change at the remaining two universities in students' interest in working in some area of international veterinary medicine. However, none of the differences was statistically significant. PMID:18287480

  5. Individual Differences in Graduate Students' Help-Seeking Process in Using a Computer Coach in Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Julien; Frederiksen, C. H.

    2007-01-01

    There is a scarcity of research regarding help seeking in the context of computer learning environments providing on-demand help, a context in which help-seeking skills appear critical for learning [Aleven, V., Stahl, E., Schworm, S., Fisher, F., & Wallace, R. (2003). "Help seeking and help design in interactive learning environments." "Review of…

  6. Comparison of the traditional recall-based versus a new list-based method for computing semantic clustering on the California Verbal Learning Test: evidence from Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Delis, Dean C; Fine, Eric M; Stricker, John L; Houston, Wes S; Wetter, Spencer R; Cobell, Krystal; Jacobson, Mark W; Salmon, David P; Bondi, Mark W

    2010-01-01

    For over 50 years, cognitive psychologists and neuropsychologists have relied almost exclusively on a method for computing semantic clustering on list-learning tasks (recall-based formula) that was derived from an outdated assumption about how learning occurs. A new procedure for computing semantic clustering (list-based formula) was developed for the CVLT-II to correct the shortcomings of the traditional method. In the present study we compared the clinical utility of the traditional recall-based method versus the new list-based method using results from the original CVLT administered to 87 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 86 matched normal control participants. Logistic regression and score distribution analyses indicated that the new list-based method enhances the detection of differences in semantic-clustering ability between the groups.

  7. Does Participation in a Computer-Based Learning Program in Introductory Financial Accounting Course Lead to Choosing Accounting as a Major?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owhoso, Vincent; Malgwi, Charles A.; Akpomi, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine whether students who completed a computer-based intervention program, designed to help them develop abilities and skills in introductory accounting, later declared accounting as a major. A sample of 1,341 students participated in the study, of which 74 completed the intervention program (computer-based assisted learning [CBAL])…

  8. Computer Assisted Learning Feature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter; Minogue, Claire

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the Computer Working Party in Great Britain, presenting their assessment of current computer hardware and the market for economics software. Examines "Running the British Economy," a macroeconomic policy simulation that investigates the links between values and policy objectives and encourages questioning of economic models.…

  9. Computer Communications and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellman, Beryl L.

    1992-01-01

    Computer conferencing offers many opportunities for linking college students and faculty at a distance. From the Binational English and Spanish Telecommunications Network (BESTNET) has evolved a variety of bilingual video/computer/face-to-face instructional packages to serve institutions and nontraditional students on several continents. (MSE)

  10. Learning through Computer Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Ludwig

    Prior to the relatively easy access to computers which began in the mid-1960's, simulation was a tool only of researchers. Even now, students are frequently excluded from direct laboratory experiences for many reasons. However, computer simulation can open up these experiences, providing a powerful teaching tool for individuals, for small and…

  11. Learning with Ubiquitous Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenheck, Louisa

    2008-01-01

    If ubiquitous computing becomes a reality and is widely adopted, it will inevitably have an impact on education. This article reviews the background of ubiquitous computing and current research projects done involving educational "ubicomp." Finally it explores how ubicomp may and may not change education in both formal and informal settings and…

  12. A knowledge-based system with learning for computer communication network design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierre, Samuel; Hoang, Hai Hoc; Tropper-Hausen, Evelyne

    1990-01-01

    Computer communication network design is well-known as complex and hard. For that reason, the most effective methods used to solve it are heuristic. Weaknesses of these techniques are listed and a new approach based on artificial intelligence for solving this problem is presented. This approach is particularly recommended for large packet switched communication networks, in the sense that it permits a high degree of reliability and offers a very flexible environment dealing with many relevant design parameters such as link cost, link capacity, and message delay.

  13. A new computational account of cognitive control over reinforcement-based decision-making: Modeling of a probabilistic learning task.

    PubMed

    Zendehrouh, Sareh

    2015-11-01

    Recent work on decision-making field offers an account of dual-system theory for decision-making process. This theory holds that this process is conducted by two main controllers: a goal-directed system and a habitual system. In the reinforcement learning (RL) domain, the habitual behaviors are connected with model-free methods, in which appropriate actions are learned through trial-and-error experiences. However, goal-directed behaviors are associated with model-based methods of RL, in which actions are selected using a model of the environment. Studies on cognitive control also suggest that during processes like decision-making, some cortical and subcortical structures work in concert to monitor the consequences of decisions and to adjust control according to current task demands. Here a computational model is presented based on dual system theory and cognitive control perspective of decision-making. The proposed model is used to simulate human performance on a variant of probabilistic learning task. The basic proposal is that the brain implements a dual controller, while an accompanying monitoring system detects some kinds of conflict including a hypothetical cost-conflict one. The simulation results address existing theories about two event-related potentials, namely error related negativity (ERN) and feedback related negativity (FRN), and explore the best account of them. Based on the results, some testable predictions are also presented. PMID:26339919

  14. A new computational account of cognitive control over reinforcement-based decision-making: Modeling of a probabilistic learning task.

    PubMed

    Zendehrouh, Sareh

    2015-11-01

    Recent work on decision-making field offers an account of dual-system theory for decision-making process. This theory holds that this process is conducted by two main controllers: a goal-directed system and a habitual system. In the reinforcement learning (RL) domain, the habitual behaviors are connected with model-free methods, in which appropriate actions are learned through trial-and-error experiences. However, goal-directed behaviors are associated with model-based methods of RL, in which actions are selected using a model of the environment. Studies on cognitive control also suggest that during processes like decision-making, some cortical and subcortical structures work in concert to monitor the consequences of decisions and to adjust control according to current task demands. Here a computational model is presented based on dual system theory and cognitive control perspective of decision-making. The proposed model is used to simulate human performance on a variant of probabilistic learning task. The basic proposal is that the brain implements a dual controller, while an accompanying monitoring system detects some kinds of conflict including a hypothetical cost-conflict one. The simulation results address existing theories about two event-related potentials, namely error related negativity (ERN) and feedback related negativity (FRN), and explore the best account of them. Based on the results, some testable predictions are also presented.

  15. Impacts and Characteristics of Computer-Based Science Inquiry Learning Environments for Precollege Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Dermot F.; Linn, Marcia C.; Ludvigsen, Sten

    2014-01-01

    The National Science Foundation-sponsored report "Fostering Learning in the Networked World" called for "a common, open platform to support communities of developers and learners in ways that enable both to take advantage of advances in the learning sciences." We review research on science inquiry learning environments (ILEs)…

  16. Potential of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning for Learners with Different Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, X. Christine; Hinn, D. Michelle; Kanfer, Alaina G.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the effects of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) on learning style changes, learning outcomes, and learner satisfaction in a study conducted at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Results based on Kolb's Learning Style Theory and Learning Style Inventory showed CSCL supports diverse learning styles.…

  17. The Computational Science Education Reference Desk: A tool for increasing inquiry based learning in the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joiner, D. A.; Stevenson, D. E.; Panoff, R. M.

    2000-12-01

    The Computational Science Reference Desk is an online tool designed to provide educators in math, physics, astronomy, biology, chemistry, and engineering with information on how to use computational science to enhance inquiry based learning in the undergraduate and pre college classroom. The Reference Desk features a showcase of original content exploration activities, including lesson plans and background materials; a catalog of websites which contain models, lesson plans, software, and instructional resources; and a forum to allow educators to communicate their ideas. Many of the recent advances in astronomy rely on the use of computer simulation, and tools are being developed by CSERD to allow students to experiment with some of the models that have guided scientific discovery. One of these models allows students to study how scientists use spectral information to determine the makeup of the interstellar medium by modeling the interstellar extinction curve using spherical grains of silicate, amorphous carbon, or graphite. Students can directly compare their model to the average interstellar extinction curve, and experiment with how small changes in their model alter the shape of the interstellar extinction curve. A simpler model allows students to visualize spatial relationships between the Earth, Moon, and Sun to understand the cause of the phases of the moon. A report on the usefulness of these models in two classes, the Computational Astrophysics workshop at The Shodor Education Foundation and the Conceptual Astronomy class at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, will be presented.

  18. A Web-Based Computer-Aided Learning Module for an Anatomy Course Using Open Source Image Mapping Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, Renee E.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided learning (CAL) is used increasingly to teach anatomy in post-secondary programs. Studies show that augmentation of traditional cadaver dissection and model examination by CAL can be associated with positive student learning outcomes. In order to reduce costs associated with the purchase of skeletons and models and to encourage study…

  19. Measuring Knowledge Elaboration Based on a Computer-Assisted Knowledge Map Analytical Approach to Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Lanqin; Huang, Ronghuai; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Kaicheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively measure the level of knowledge elaboration and explore the relationships between prior knowledge of a group, group performance, and knowledge elaboration in collaborative learning. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the level of knowledge elaboration. The collaborative learning objective in…

  20. E-Learning and Instructional Management System Based on Local Computer Networks and Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khazaal, Hasan F.; Abbas, Riyadh A.; Abdulridha, Basim M.; Karam, Marc; Aglan, Heshmat

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the educational efforts invested at Wasit University (WU), in Wasit, Iraq, in order to make WU the first university in that country to implement campus-wide e-learning, which is essential for any country aiming for progress through the essential goal of "Education For All"; e-learning being economic, far-reaching,…

  1. An Evaluation of an Inquiry-Based Computer-Assisted Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maor, Dorit; Fraser, Barry

    1994-01-01

    This study focused on students' development of inquiry skills in a computerized learning environment. Seven Year-11 classes (n=120) interacted with a computerized database, "Birds of Antarctica," and curriculum materials while the teacher used an inquiry approach to learning. Students perceived their classes as more investigative and open-ended…

  2. Supporting the Learning Process with Collaborative Concept Mapping Using Computer-based Communication Tools and Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Simone, Christina; Schmid, Richard F.; McEwen, Laura A.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the effects of a combination of student collaboration, concept mapping, and electronic technologies with 26 students in a graduate level learning theories class. Findings suggest that concept mapping and collaborative learning techniques complement each other, and that students found the combined approach useful. (SLD)

  3. Project-Based Teaching-Learning Computer-Aided Engineering Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoes, J. A.; Relvas, C.; Moreira, R.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, computer-aided analysis, reverse engineering and rapid prototyping are tools that play an important key role within product design. These are areas of technical knowledge that must be part of engineering and industrial design courses' curricula. This paper describes our teaching experience of…

  4. Adaptive Device Context Based Mobile Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Haitao; Lin, Jinjiao; Song, Yanwei; Liu, Fasheng

    2011-01-01

    Mobile learning is e-learning delivered through mobile computing devices, which represents the next stage of computer-aided, multi-media based learning. Therefore, mobile learning is transforming the way of traditional education. However, as most current e-learning systems and their contents are not suitable for mobile devices, an approach for…

  5. Researching Computer-Based Collaborative Learning in Inclusive Classrooms in Cyprus: The Role of the Computer in Pupils' Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavrou, Katerina; Lewis, Ann; Douglas, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a study of the role of the computer in scaffolding pupils' interaction and its effects on the disabled (D) pupils' participation and inclusion in the context of socio-cultural theories and the ideals of inclusive education. The study investigated the interactions of pairs of D and non-disabled (ND) pupils…

  6. The Role of Computer Simulation in an Inquiry-Based Learning Environment: Reconstructing Geological Events as Geologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Fen; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Yeh, Yi-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Several researchers have investigated the effects of computer simulations on students' learning. However, few have focused on how simulations with authentic contexts influences students' inquiry skills. Therefore, for the purposes of this study, we developed a computer simulation (FossilSim) embedded in an authentic inquiry lesson. FossilSim…

  7. Computer-Mediated Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Ken; Nunan, David

    2004-01-01

    The study reported here investigates collaborative learning at the computer. Ten pairs of students were presented with a series of comprehension questions about Mary Shelley's novel "Frankenstein or a Modern Prometheus" along with a CD-ROM, "Frankenstein Illuminated," containing the novel and a variety of source material. Five students worked with…

  8. How Science Students Can Learn about Unobservable Phenomena Using Computer-Based Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trey, L.; Khan, S.

    2008-01-01

    A novel instructional computer simulation that incorporates a dynamic analogy to represent Le Chatelier's Principle was designed to investigate the contribution of this feature to students' understanding. Two groups of 12th grade Chemistry students (n=15) interacted with the computer simulation during the study. Both groups did the same…

  9. A Project-Based Learning Approach to Programmable Logic Design and Computer Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellett, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a course in programmable logic design and computer architecture as it is taught at the University of Newcastle, Australia. The course is designed around a major design project and has two supplemental assessment tasks that are also described. The context of the Computer Engineering degree program within which the course is…

  10. Region based stellate features combined with variable selection using AdaBoost learning in mammographic computer-aided detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hoe; Choi, Jae Young; Ro, Yong Man

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a new method is developed for extracting so-called region-based stellate features to correctly differentiate spiculated malignant masses from normal tissues on mammograms. In the proposed method, a given region of interest (ROI) for feature extraction is divided into three individual subregions, namely core, inner, and outer parts. The proposed region-based stellate features are then extracted to encode the different and complementary stellate pattern information by computing the statistical characteristics for each of the three different subregions. To further maximize classification performance, a novel variable selection algorithm based on AdaBoost learning is incorporated for choosing an optimal subset of variables of region-based stellate features. In particular, we develop a new variable selection metric (criteria) that effectively determines variable importance (ranking) within the conventional AdaBoost framework. Extensive and comparative experiments have been performed on the popular benchmark mammogram database (DB). Results show that our region-based stellate features (extracted from automatically segmented ROIs) considerably outperform other state-of-the-art features developed for mammographic spiculated mass detection or classification. Our results also indicate that combining region-based stellate features with the proposed variable selection strategy has an impressive effect on improving spiculated mass classification and detection.

  11. Learning and Teaching with a Computer Scanner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsic, G.; Gregorcic, B.; Etkina, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the readers to simple inquiry-based activities (experiments with supporting questions) that one can do with a computer scanner to help students learn and apply the concepts of relative motion in 1 and 2D, vibrational motion and the Doppler effect. We also show how to use these activities to help students think like…

  12. A Study on the Learning Efficiency of Multimedia-Presented, Computer-Based Science Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Ying-Hua

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of multimedia presentations on the efficiency of learning scientific information (i.e. information on basic anatomy of human brains and their functions, the definition of cognitive psychology, and the structure of human memory). Experiment 1 investigated whether the modality effect could be observed when the…

  13. Does Frontal EEG Beta Have Application in Anxiety Monitoring during Computer-Based Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, M.; Edmonds, E.

    2004-01-01

    One of the psychological states that can be monitored and influenced during learning in order to improve its various aspects is the state of anxiety, and one possible index of this state is frontal EEG beta. However, frontal EEG beta has also been associated with mental activities. This may imply that frontal EEG beta would not be a reliable index…

  14. Computer-Based Learning: Graphical Integration of Whole and Sectional Neuroanatomy Improves Long-Term Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naaz, Farah; Chariker, Julia H.; Pani, John R.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to test the hypothesis that instruction with graphically integrated representations of whole and sectional neuroanatomy is especially effective for learning to recognize neural structures in sectional imagery (such as magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]). Neuroanatomy was taught to two groups of participants using computer…

  15. Learning Universal Computations with Spikes

    PubMed Central

    Thalmeier, Dominik; Uhlmann, Marvin; Kappen, Hilbert J.; Memmesheimer, Raoul-Martin

    2016-01-01

    Providing the neurobiological basis of information processing in higher animals, spiking neural networks must be able to learn a variety of complicated computations, including the generation of appropriate, possibly delayed reactions to inputs and the self-sustained generation of complex activity patterns, e.g. for locomotion. Many such computations require previous building of intrinsic world models. Here we show how spiking neural networks may solve these different tasks. Firstly, we derive constraints under which classes of spiking neural networks lend themselves to substrates of powerful general purpose computing. The networks contain dendritic or synaptic nonlinearities and have a constrained connectivity. We then combine such networks with learning rules for outputs or recurrent connections. We show that this allows to learn even difficult benchmark tasks such as the self-sustained generation of desired low-dimensional chaotic dynamics or memory-dependent computations. Furthermore, we show how spiking networks can build models of external world systems and use the acquired knowledge to control them. PMID:27309381

  16. Learning Universal Computations with Spikes.

    PubMed

    Thalmeier, Dominik; Uhlmann, Marvin; Kappen, Hilbert J; Memmesheimer, Raoul-Martin

    2016-06-01

    Providing the neurobiological basis of information processing in higher animals, spiking neural networks must be able to learn a variety of complicated computations, including the generation of appropriate, possibly delayed reactions to inputs and the self-sustained generation of complex activity patterns, e.g. for locomotion. Many such computations require previous building of intrinsic world models. Here we show how spiking neural networks may solve these different tasks. Firstly, we derive constraints under which classes of spiking neural networks lend themselves to substrates of powerful general purpose computing. The networks contain dendritic or synaptic nonlinearities and have a constrained connectivity. We then combine such networks with learning rules for outputs or recurrent connections. We show that this allows to learn even difficult benchmark tasks such as the self-sustained generation of desired low-dimensional chaotic dynamics or memory-dependent computations. Furthermore, we show how spiking networks can build models of external world systems and use the acquired knowledge to control them. PMID:27309381

  17. Effects of Reflection Category and Reflection Quality on Learning Outcomes during Web-Based Portfolio Assessment Process: A Case Study of High School Students in Computer Application Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Pao-Nan; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of reflection category and reflection quality on learning outcomes during Web-based portfolio assessment process. Experimental subjects consist of forty-five eight-grade students in a "Computer Application" course. Through the Web-based portfolio assessment system, these students write reflection, and join…

  18. Computer Based Learning in the Soviet Union--II. A Report on a Study Visit to Moscow, November-December 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushby, N. J.

    This report examines the state of computer based learning (CBL) in the Soviet Union based upon information gained during a visit to the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, Moscow State University, and the Institute for Problems of Higher Schools. The visit had two aims: to study the political, educational, and technological pressures on CBL in…

  19. Computer-based auditory training (CBAT): benefits for children with language- and reading-related learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Campbell, Nicci; Luxon, Linda M

    2010-08-01

    This article reviews the evidence for computer-based auditory training (CBAT) in children with language, reading, and related learning difficulties, and evaluates the extent it can benefit children with auditory processing disorder (APD). Searches were confined to studies published between 2000 and 2008, and they are rated according to the level of evidence hierarchy proposed by the American Speech-Language Hearing Association (ASHA) in 2004. We identified 16 studies of two commercially available CBAT programs (13 studies of Fast ForWord (FFW) and three studies of Earobics) and five further outcome studies of other non-speech and simple speech sounds training, available for children with language, learning, and reading difficulties. The results suggest that, apart from the phonological awareness skills, the FFW and Earobics programs seem to have little effect on the language, spelling, and reading skills of children. Non-speech and simple speech sounds training may be effective in improving children's reading skills, but only if it is delivered by an audio-visual method. There is some initial evidence to suggest that CBAT may be of benefit for children with APD. Further research is necessary, however, to substantiate these preliminary findings.

  20. An embodiment effect in computer-based learning with animated pedagogical agents.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Richard E; DaPra, C Scott

    2012-09-01

    How do social cues such as gesturing, facial expression, eye gaze, and human-like movement affect multimedia learning with onscreen agents? To help address this question, students were asked to twice view a 4-min narrated presentation on how solar cells work in which the screen showed an animated pedagogical agent standing to the left of 11 successive slides. Across three experiments, learners performed better on a transfer test when a human-voiced agent displayed human-like gestures, facial expression, eye gaze, and body movement than when the agent did not, yielding an embodiment effect. In Experiment 2 the embodiment effect was found when the agent spoke in a human voice but not in a machine voice. In Experiment 3, the embodiment effect was found both when students were told the onscreen agent was consistent with their choice of agent characteristics and when inconsistent. Students who viewed a highly embodied agent also rated the social attributes of the agent more positively than did students who viewed a nongesturing agent. The results are explained by social agency theory, in which social cues in a multimedia message prime a feeling of social partnership in the learner, which leads to deeper cognitive processing during learning, and results in a more meaningful learning outcome as reflected in transfer test performance.

  1. An embodiment effect in computer-based learning with animated pedagogical agents.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Richard E; DaPra, C Scott

    2012-09-01

    How do social cues such as gesturing, facial expression, eye gaze, and human-like movement affect multimedia learning with onscreen agents? To help address this question, students were asked to twice view a 4-min narrated presentation on how solar cells work in which the screen showed an animated pedagogical agent standing to the left of 11 successive slides. Across three experiments, learners performed better on a transfer test when a human-voiced agent displayed human-like gestures, facial expression, eye gaze, and body movement than when the agent did not, yielding an embodiment effect. In Experiment 2 the embodiment effect was found when the agent spoke in a human voice but not in a machine voice. In Experiment 3, the embodiment effect was found both when students were told the onscreen agent was consistent with their choice of agent characteristics and when inconsistent. Students who viewed a highly embodied agent also rated the social attributes of the agent more positively than did students who viewed a nongesturing agent. The results are explained by social agency theory, in which social cues in a multimedia message prime a feeling of social partnership in the learner, which leads to deeper cognitive processing during learning, and results in a more meaningful learning outcome as reflected in transfer test performance. PMID:22642688

  2. The Effect of Using Exercise-Based Computer Games during the Process of Learning on Academic Achievement among Education Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kablan, Zeynel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to define whether using exercise-based games increase the performance of learning. For this reason, two basic questions were tried to be answered in the study. First, is there any difference in learning between the group that was given exercise-based games and the group that was not? Second, is there any difference in…

  3. Portraits of Middle School Students Constructing Evidence-Based Arguments during Problem-Based Learning: The Impact of Computer-Based Scaffolds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belland, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    A critical step in problem-based learning (PBL) units occurs when groups present their solution to the central problem. This is challenging for middle school students because it involves the creation of an evidence-based argument (Krajcik et al., "Journal of the Learning Sciences" 7:313-350, 1998). Using a mixed method design, this study…

  4. A Unified Framework for Reservoir Computing and Extreme Learning Machines based on a Single Time-delayed Neuron.

    PubMed

    Ortín, S; Soriano, M C; Pesquera, L; Brunner, D; San-Martín, D; Fischer, I; Mirasso, C R; Gutiérrez, J M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a unified framework for extreme learning machines and reservoir computing (echo state networks), which can be physically implemented using a single nonlinear neuron subject to delayed feedback. The reservoir is built within the delay-line, employing a number of "virtual" neurons. These virtual neurons receive random projections from the input layer containing the information to be processed. One key advantage of this approach is that it can be implemented efficiently in hardware. We show that the reservoir computing implementation, in this case optoelectronic, is also capable to realize extreme learning machines, demonstrating the unified framework for both schemes in software as well as in hardware.

  5. A Unified Framework for Reservoir Computing and Extreme Learning Machines based on a Single Time-delayed Neuron.

    PubMed

    Ortín, S; Soriano, M C; Pesquera, L; Brunner, D; San-Martín, D; Fischer, I; Mirasso, C R; Gutiérrez, J M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a unified framework for extreme learning machines and reservoir computing (echo state networks), which can be physically implemented using a single nonlinear neuron subject to delayed feedback. The reservoir is built within the delay-line, employing a number of "virtual" neurons. These virtual neurons receive random projections from the input layer containing the information to be processed. One key advantage of this approach is that it can be implemented efficiently in hardware. We show that the reservoir computing implementation, in this case optoelectronic, is also capable to realize extreme learning machines, demonstrating the unified framework for both schemes in software as well as in hardware. PMID:26446303

  6. Experiences of Student Mathematics-Teachers in Computer-Based Mathematics Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Ilhan

    2011-01-01

    Computer technology in mathematics education enabled the students find many opportunities for investigating mathematical relationships, hypothesizing, and making generalizations. These opportunities were provided to pre-service teachers through a faculty course. At the end of the course, the teachers were assigned project tasks involving…

  7. Computer-Based Reading and Spelling Practice for Children with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Daal, Victor H. P.; van der Leij, Aryan

    1992-01-01

    This study with 28 Netherlands children (mean age 9 years, 7 months) with written language disorders found that copying words from the computer screen resulted in significantly fewer spelling errors on the posttest than writing words from memory and that both these forms of practice led to fewer spelling errors than only reading the words.…

  8. Analyzing Team Based Engineering Design Process in Computer Supported Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dong-Kuk; Lee, Eun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    The engineering design process has been largely implemented in a collaborative project format. Recently, technological advancement has helped collaborative problem solving processes such as engineering design to have efficient implementation using computers or online technology. In this study, we investigated college students' interaction and…

  9. A Project-Based Learning Setting to Human-Computer Interaction for Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geyer, Cornelia; Geisler, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of fundamentals of human-computer interaction resp. usability engineering is getting more and more important in technical domains. However this interdisciplinary field of work and corresponding degree programs are not broadly known. Therefore at the Hochschule Ruhr West, University of Applied Sciences, a program was developed to give…

  10. Co-Operative Development Programme on Computer-Based Learning Systems for Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unite de Coordination de la Documentation et d'Incitation a la Recherche, Louvain (Belgium).

    The Documentation Coordination and Research Incentive Unit (UCODI) is part of an international effort to increase cooperation and coordination in investigations of the possibilities of computer-assisted instruction by providing documentation, information, coordination of research incentives, advice, and assistance to researchers, teachers, and…

  11. Deep learning for computational biology.

    PubMed

    Angermueller, Christof; Pärnamaa, Tanel; Parts, Leopold; Stegle, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances in genomics and imaging have led to an explosion of molecular and cellular profiling data from large numbers of samples. This rapid increase in biological data dimension and acquisition rate is challenging conventional analysis strategies. Modern machine learning methods, such as deep learning, promise to leverage very large data sets for finding hidden structure within them, and for making accurate predictions. In this review, we discuss applications of this new breed of analysis approaches in regulatory genomics and cellular imaging. We provide background of what deep learning is, and the settings in which it can be successfully applied to derive biological insights. In addition to presenting specific applications and providing tips for practical use, we also highlight possible pitfalls and limitations to guide computational biologists when and how to make the most use of this new technology. PMID:27474269

  12. Deep learning for computational biology.

    PubMed

    Angermueller, Christof; Pärnamaa, Tanel; Parts, Leopold; Stegle, Oliver

    2016-07-29

    Technological advances in genomics and imaging have led to an explosion of molecular and cellular profiling data from large numbers of samples. This rapid increase in biological data dimension and acquisition rate is challenging conventional analysis strategies. Modern machine learning methods, such as deep learning, promise to leverage very large data sets for finding hidden structure within them, and for making accurate predictions. In this review, we discuss applications of this new breed of analysis approaches in regulatory genomics and cellular imaging. We provide background of what deep learning is, and the settings in which it can be successfully applied to derive biological insights. In addition to presenting specific applications and providing tips for practical use, we also highlight possible pitfalls and limitations to guide computational biologists when and how to make the most use of this new technology.

  13. A Two-Tier Test-Based Approach to Improving Students' Computer-Programming Skills in a Web-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tzu-Chi; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Hwang, Gwo-Haur

    2015-01-01

    Computer programming is an important skill for engineering and computer science students. However, teaching and learning programming concepts and skills has been recognized as a great challenge to both teachers and students. Therefore, the development of effective learning strategies and environments for programming courses has become an important…

  14. Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Introduces the field of intelligent computer assisted language learning (ICALL) and relates them to current practice in computer assisted language learning (CALL) and second language learning. Points out that ICALL applies expertise from artificial intelligence and the computer and cognitive sciences to the development of language learning…

  15. Radiological Worker Computer Based Training

    2003-02-06

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed an interactive computer based training (CBT) version of the standardized DOE Radiological Worker training program. This CD-ROM based program utilizes graphics, animation, photographs, sound and video to train users in ten topical areas: radiological fundamentals, biological effects, dose limits, ALARA, personnel monitoring, controls and postings, emergency response, contamination controls, high radiation areas, and lessons learned.

  16. From Agents to Continuous Change via Aesthetics: Learning Mechanics with Visual Agent-Based Computational Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengupta, Pratim; Farris, Amy Voss; Wright, Mason

    2012-01-01

    Novice learners find motion as a continuous process of change challenging to understand. In this paper, we present a pedagogical approach based on agent-based, visual programming to address this issue. Integrating agent-based programming, in particular, Logo programming, with curricular science has been shown to be challenging in previous research…

  17. Situated Learning in Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theories of learning such as Wenger and Lave's situated learning have been suggested as alternatives to cognitive theories of learning like constructivism. This article examines situated learning within the context of computer science (CS) education. Situated learning accurately describes some CS communities like open-source software…

  18. Validating a Computer-Assisted Language Learning Attitude Instrument Used in Iranian EFL Context: An Evidence-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryadoust, Vahid; Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa

    2016-01-01

    A few computer-assisted language learning (CALL) instruments have been developed in Iran to measure EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' attitude toward CALL. However, these instruments have no solid validity argument and accordingly would be unable to provide a reliable measurement of attitude. The present study aimed to develop a CALL…

  19. Enhanced Student Learning with Problem Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, James

    2008-01-01

    Science educators define a learning environment in which the problem drives the learning as problem based learning (PBL). Problem based learning can be a learning methodology/process or a curriculum based on its application by the teacher. This paper discusses the basic premise of Problem base learning and successful applications of such learning.…

  20. A Blended Approach to Learning: Added Value and Lessons Learnt from Students' Use of Computer-Based Materials for Neurological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Alison; Ramsay, Jill; Lindfield, Helen; Couperthwaite, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines BSc Physiotherapy students' experiences of developing their neurological observational and analytical skills using a blend of traditional classroom activities and computer-based materials at the University of Birmingham. New teaching and learning resources were developed and supported in the School of Health Sciences using Web…

  1. The Other C in CMC: What Alternative Data Sources Can Tell Us about Text-Based Synchronous Computer Mediated Communication and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Breffni

    2008-01-01

    Most research on text-based synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) in language learning has used output logs as the sole data source. I review interactionist and sociocultural SCMC research, focusing in particular on the question of technological determinism, and conclude that, from whichever perspective, reliance on output logs leads…

  2. Discriminative Common Spatial Pattern Sub-bands Weighting Based on Distinction Sensitive Learning Vector Quantization Method in Motor Imagery Based Brain-computer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Jamaloo, Fatemeh; Mikaeili, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Common spatial pattern (CSP) is a method commonly used to enhance the effects of event-related desynchronization and event-related synchronization present in multichannel electroencephalogram-based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. In the present study, a novel CSP sub-band feature selection has been proposed based on the discriminative information of the features. Besides, a distinction sensitive learning vector quantization based weighting of the selected features has been considered. Finally, after the classification of the weighted features using a support vector machine classifier, the performance of the suggested method has been compared with the existing methods based on frequency band selection, on the same BCI competitions datasets. The results show that the proposed method yields superior results on “ay” subject dataset compared against existing approaches such as sub-band CSP, filter bank CSP (FBCSP), discriminative FBCSP, and sliding window discriminative CSP. PMID:26284171

  3. Supporting Students' Learning and Socioscientific Reasoning About Climate Change—the Effect of Computer-Based Concept Mapping Scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, Sabina; Nitsch, Anne; Boone, William J.; Nückles, Matthias; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most challenging problems facing today's global society (e.g., IPCC 2013). While climate change is a widely covered topic in the media, and abundant information is made available through the internet, the causes and consequences of climate change in its full complexity are difficult for individuals, especially non-scientists, to grasp. Science education is a field which can play a crucial role in fostering meaningful education of students to become climate literate citizens (e.g., NOAA 2009; Schreiner et al., 41, 3-50, 2005). If students are, at some point, to participate in societal discussions about the sustainable development of our planet, their learning with respect to such issues needs to be supported. This includes the ability to think critically, to cope with complex scientific evidence, which is often subject to ongoing inquiry, and to reach informed decisions on the basis of factual information as well as values-based considerations. The study presented in this paper focused on efforts to advance students in (1) their conceptual understanding about climate change and (2) their socioscientific reasoning and decision making regarding socioscientific issues in general. Although there is evidence that "knowledge" does not guarantee pro-environmental behavior (e.g. Schreiner et al., 41, 3-50, 2005; Skamp et al., 97(2), 191-217, 2013), conceptual, interdisciplinary understanding of climate change is an important prerequisite to change individuals' attitudes towards climate change and thus to eventually foster climate literate citizens (e.g., Clark et al. 2013). In order to foster conceptual understanding and socioscientific reasoning, a computer-based learning environment with an embedded concept mapping tool was utilized to support senior high school students' learning about climate change and possible solution strategies. The evaluation of the effect of different concept mapping scaffolds focused on the quality of student

  4. Evaluating Integrated Task Based Activities and Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, Khoirul; Husniah, Rohmy

    2016-01-01

    This study is to evaluate the implementation of Task Activities based on CALL which consist of observing, questioning, exploring, and communicating. The developed materials are nine chapters that had been implemented in two different classes of SMPN 1 Gresik and SMPM 4 Gresik in Indonesia. Of quesionnaires and interviews, the results indicate that…

  5. Neural computations underlying arbitration between model-based and model-free learning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Wan; Shimojo, Shinsuke; O'Doherty, John P

    2014-02-01

    There is accumulating neural evidence to support the existence of two distinct systems for guiding action selection, a deliberative "model-based" and a reflexive "model-free" system. However, little is known about how the brain determines which of these systems controls behavior at one moment in time. We provide evidence for an arbitration mechanism that allocates the degree of control over behavior by model-based and model-free systems as a function of the reliability of their respective predictions. We show that the inferior lateral prefrontal and frontopolar cortex encode both reliability signals and the output of a comparison between those signals, implicating these regions in the arbitration process. Moreover, connectivity between these regions and model-free valuation areas is negatively modulated by the degree of model-based control in the arbitrator, suggesting that arbitration may work through modulation of the model-free valuation system when the arbitrator deems that the model-based system should drive behavior.

  6. The impact of instructional design in a case-based, computer-assisted instruction module on learning liver pathology in a medical school pathology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, Patricia S.

    The purpose of this quantitative experimental study was to test the impact of three learning interventions on student learning and satisfaction when the interventions were embedded in the instructional design of case-based, Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) modules for learning liver pathology in an in-class, self-study, laboratory exercise during a Year-2 medical school Pathology course. The hypothesis was that inclusion of the learning interventions would enhance student satisfaction in using the CAI and improve subsequent CAI-directed exam performance. Three learning interventions were studied, including the use of microscopic virtual slides instead of only static images, the use of interactive image annotations instead of only still annotations, and the use of guiding questions before presenting new information. Students were randomly assigned to with one of eight CAI learning modules configured to control for each of the three learning interventions. Effectiveness of the CAI for student learning was assessed by student performance on questions included in subsequent CAI-directed exams in a pretest and on posttests immediately after the lab exercise, at two weeks and two months. Student satisfaction and perceived learning was assessed by a student survey. Results showed that the learning interventions did not improve subsequent student exam performance, although satisfaction and perceived learning with use of the CAI learning modules was enhanced. Student class rank was evaluated to determine if the learning interventions might have a differential effect based on class rank, but there were no significant differences. Class rank at the time of the lab exercise was itself the strongest predictor of exam performance. The findings suggest that the addition of virtual slides, interactive annotations and guiding questions as learning interventions in self-study, case-based CAI for learning liver pathology in a medical class room setting are not likely to increase

  7. What Are We Looking for in Computer-Based Learning Interventions in Medical Education? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Patrícia; Taveira-Gomes, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2016-01-01

    Background Computer-based learning (CBL) has been widely used in medical education, and reports regarding its usage and effectiveness have ranged broadly. Most work has been done on the effectiveness of CBL approaches versus traditional methods, and little has been done on the comparative effects of CBL versus CBL methodologies. These findings urged other authors to recommend such studies in hopes of improving knowledge about which CBL methods work best in which settings. Objective In this systematic review, we aimed to characterize recent studies of the development of software platforms and interventions in medical education, search for common points among studies, and assess whether recommendations for CBL research are being taken into consideration. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature published from 2003 through 2013. We included studies written in English, specifically in medical education, regarding either the development of instructional software or interventions using instructional software, during training or practice, that reported learner attitudes, satisfaction, knowledge, skills, or software usage. We conducted 2 latent class analyses to group articles according to platform features and intervention characteristics. In addition, we analyzed references and citations for abstracted articles. Results We analyzed 251 articles. The number of publications rose over time, and they encompassed most medical disciplines, learning settings, and training levels, totaling 25 different platforms specifically for medical education. We uncovered 4 latent classes for educational software, characteristically making use of multimedia (115/251, 45.8%), text (64/251, 25.5%), Web conferencing (54/251, 21.5%), and instructional design principles (18/251, 7.2%). We found 3 classes for intervention outcomes: knowledge and attitudes (175/212, 82.6%), knowledge, attitudes, and skills (11.8%), and online activity (12/212, 5.7%). About a quarter of the

  8. Learning and teaching with a computer scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planinsic, G.; Gregorcic, B.; Etkina, E.

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces the readers to simple inquiry-based activities (experiments with supporting questions) that one can do with a computer scanner to help students learn and apply the concepts of relative motion in 1 and 2D, vibrational motion and the Doppler effect. We also show how to use these activities to help students think like scientists. They will conduct simple experiments, construct different explanations for their observations, test their explanations in new experiments and represent their ideas in multiple ways.

  9. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, Instructional Design Principles, and Students with Learning Disabilities in Computer-Based and Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Diana L.; Crutchfield, Stephen A.; Woods, Kari L.

    2013-01-01

    Struggling learners and students with Learning Disabilities often exhibit unique cognitive processing and working memory characteristics that may not align with instructional design principles developed with typically developing learners. This paper explains the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning and underlying Cognitive Load Theory, and…

  10. A Unified Framework for Reservoir Computing and Extreme Learning Machines based on a Single Time-delayed Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Ortín, S.; Soriano, M. C.; Pesquera, L.; Brunner, D.; San-Martín, D.; Fischer, I.; Mirasso, C. R.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a unified framework for extreme learning machines and reservoir computing (echo state networks), which can be physically implemented using a single nonlinear neuron subject to delayed feedback. The reservoir is built within the delay-line, employing a number of “virtual” neurons. These virtual neurons receive random projections from the input layer containing the information to be processed. One key advantage of this approach is that it can be implemented efficiently in hardware. We show that the reservoir computing implementation, in this case optoelectronic, is also capable to realize extreme learning machines, demonstrating the unified framework for both schemes in software as well as in hardware. PMID:26446303

  11. Developing Interactive Learning Objects for a Computing Mathematics Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cher Ping; Lee, Siew Lie; Richards, Cameron

    2006-01-01

    Based on a case study of the online component of a Computing Mathematics module at a local polytechnic in Singapore, this article provides a descriptive account of the development and employment of interactive learning objects to enhance the learning experiences of the students in the course. The experimented learning objects were branded as…

  12. Changing Minds: Computers, Learning, and Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    diSessa, Andrea A.

    Rejecting the notion that the computer is merely a tool for more efficient instruction, this book shows how computers can be the basis for a new literacy that will change how people think and learn. It discusses the learning theory that explains why computers can be such powerful catalysts for change in education, in particular, how intuitive…

  13. A Tutorial for SPSS/PC+ Studentware. Study Guide for the Doctor of Arts in Computer-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, Thomas W.; Hou, Cheng-I

    The purpose of this tutorial is to provide the basic information needed for success with SPSS/PC+ Studentware, a student version of the statistical analysis software offered by SPSS, Inc., for the IBM PC+ and compatible computers. It is intended as a convenient summary of how to organize and conduct the most common computer-based statistical…

  14. Learning computer science concepts with Scratch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Armoni, Michal; (Moti) Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2013-09-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that is widely used by young people. We investigated if Scratch can be used to teach concepts of computer science (CS). We developed learning materials for middle-school students that were designed according to the constructionist philosophy of Scratch and evaluated them in a few schools during two years. Tests were constructed based upon a novel combination of the revised Bloom taxonomy and the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome taxonomy. These instruments were augmented with qualitative tools, such as observations and interviews. The results showed that students could successfully learn important concepts of CS, although there were problems with some concepts such as repeated execution, variables, and concurrency. We believe that these problems can be overcome by modifications to the teaching process that we suggest.

  15. Computer-enhanced learning in neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Tan, C K; Voon, F C; Rajendran, K

    1989-07-01

    The recent development of powerful microcomputers and the introduction of object-oriented programming languages has now made available to educationists software that can be easily used to design and develop computer-based learning material. We have developed courseware and tutorware in the field of neuroanatomy which are pedagogically structured and yet provide multiple paths of learning for the individual student. Neuroanatomy is a difficult subject to learn because of the structural intricacy and functional correlations that it entails. The courseware enables students to approach the subject at different levels of difficulty and progress at their own pace towards a comprehensive understanding of structure and function aided by text integrated with graphics, sound and animation. A significant advantage to authors of similar courseware is the option to update the contents easily when necessary in the future. PMID:2671612

  16. Gender and Equity Issues in Computer-Based Science Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Dennis W.; Agruso, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that computer and related technologies as tools for teaching, learning, and assessment are neither gender neutral nor benign in effect. Examines computers, equity, and access issues, computers as a technology, and the implications for computer-based assessment. (LZ)

  17. Learning an Intermittent Control Strategy for Postural Balancing Using an EMG-Based Human-Computer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Yoshiyuki; Tateyama, Shota; Nomura, Taishin

    2013-01-01

    It has been considered that the brain stabilizes unstable body dynamics by regulating co-activation levels of antagonist muscles. Here we critically reexamined this established theory of impedance control in a postural balancing task using a novel EMG-based human-computer interface, in which subjects were asked to balance a virtual inverted pendulum using visual feedback information on the pendulum's position. The pendulum was actuated by a pair of antagonist joint torques determined in real-time by activations of the corresponding pair of antagonist ankle muscles of subjects standing upright. This motor-task raises a frustrated environment; a large feedback time delay in the sensorimotor loop, as a source of instability, might favor adopting the non-reactive, preprogrammed impedance control, but the ankle muscles are relatively hard to co-activate, which hinders subjects from adopting the impedance control. This study aimed at discovering how experimental subjects resolved this frustrated environment through motor learning. One third of subjects adapted to the balancing task in a way of the impedance-like control. It was remarkable, however, that the majority of subjects did not adopt the impedance control. Instead, they acquired a smart and energetically efficient strategy, in which two muscles were inactivated simultaneously at a sequence of optimal timings, leading to intermittent appearance of periods of time during which the pendulum was not actively actuated. Characterizations of muscle inactivations and the pendulum¡Çs sway showed that the strategy adopted by those subjects was a type of intermittent control that utilizes a stable manifold of saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium that appeared in the state space of the pendulum when the active actuation was turned off. PMID:23717398

  18. Learning an intermittent control strategy for postural balancing using an EMG-based human-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Asai, Yoshiyuki; Tateyama, Shota; Nomura, Taishin

    2013-01-01

    It has been considered that the brain stabilizes unstable body dynamics by regulating co-activation levels of antagonist muscles. Here we critically reexamined this established theory of impedance control in a postural balancing task using a novel EMG-based human-computer interface, in which subjects were asked to balance a virtual inverted pendulum using visual feedback information on the pendulum's position. The pendulum was actuated by a pair of antagonist joint torques determined in real-time by activations of the corresponding pair of antagonist ankle muscles of subjects standing upright. This motor-task raises a frustrated environment; a large feedback time delay in the sensorimotor loop, as a source of instability, might favor adopting the non-reactive, preprogrammed impedance control, but the ankle muscles are relatively hard to co-activate, which hinders subjects from adopting the impedance control. This study aimed at discovering how experimental subjects resolved this frustrated environment through motor learning. One third of subjects adapted to the balancing task in a way of the impedance-like control. It was remarkable, however, that the majority of subjects did not adopt the impedance control. Instead, they acquired a smart and energetically efficient strategy, in which two muscles were inactivated simultaneously at a sequence of optimal timings, leading to intermittent appearance of periods of time during which the pendulum was not actively actuated. Characterizations of muscle inactivations and the pendulum¡Çs sway showed that the strategy adopted by those subjects was a type of intermittent control that utilizes a stable manifold of saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium that appeared in the state space of the pendulum when the active actuation was turned off.

  19. Fostering Equitable Consequences from Computer Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.

    The article discusses two interrelated aspects of computer education: the computer's potential for developing cognitive skills and ways in which the differential participation of males and females in computer experiences may lead to inequitable outcomes. The Assessing the Cognitive Consequences of Computer Environments for Learning Project…

  20. To Guide or Not to Guide: Issues in the Sequencing of Pedagogical Structure in Computational Model-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael J.; Kim, Beaumie; Pathak, Suneeta; Zhang, BaoHui

    2015-01-01

    This research explores issues related to the sequencing of structure that is provided as pedagogical guidance. A study was conducted that involved grade 10 students in Singapore as they learned concepts about electricity using four NetLogo Investigations of Electricity agent-based models. It was found that the low-to-high structure learning…

  1. Transitions between Short-Term and Long-Term Memory in Learning Meaningful Unrelated Paired Associates Using Computer Based Drills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Tzvika Y.; Turnure, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of short-term and long-term memory in learning paired associates focuses on two microcomputer-based instructional design experiments with eleventh and twelfth graders that were modeled after traditional drill and practice routines. Research questions are presented, treatment conditions are explained, and additional research is…

  2. A Computer-Assisted Framework Based on a Cognitivist Learning Theory for Teaching Mathematics in the Early Primary Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradmand, Nasrin; Datta, Amitava; Oakley, Grace

    2012-01-01

    With the world moving rapidly into digital media and information, the ways in which learning activities in mathematics can be created and delivered are changing. However, to get the best results from the integration of ICTs in education, any application's design and development needs to be based on pedagogically appropriate principles, in terms of…

  3. The Impact of Computational Experiment and Formative Assessment in Inquiry-Based Teaching and Learning Approach in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psycharis, Sarantos

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an instructional design model, based on the computational experiment approach, was employed in order to explore the effects of the formative assessment strategies and scientific abilities rubrics on students' engagement in the development of inquiry-based pedagogical scenario. In the following study, rubrics were used during the…

  4. User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

  5. Enhancing Learning through Human Computer Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Elspeth, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Enhancing Learning Through Human Computer Interaction is an excellent reference source for human computer interaction (HCI) applications and designs. This "Premier Reference Source" provides a complete analysis of online business training programs and e-learning in the higher education sector. It describes a range of positive outcomes for linking…

  6. Assessment of (Computer-Supported) Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strijbos, J. -W.

    2011-01-01

    Within the (Computer-Supported) Collaborative Learning (CS)CL research community, there has been an extensive dialogue on theories and perspectives on learning from collaboration, approaches to scaffold (script) the collaborative process, and most recently research methodology. In contrast, the issue of assessment of collaborative learning has…

  7. Exploring Cloud Computing for Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wu; Cernusca, Dan; Abdous, M'hammed

    2011-01-01

    The use of distance courses in learning is growing exponentially. To better support faculty and students for teaching and learning, distance learning programs need to constantly innovate and optimize their IT infrastructures. The new IT paradigm called "cloud computing" has the potential to transform the way that IT resources are utilized and…

  8. Situated Learning in Computer Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2004-06-01

    Sociocultural theories of learning such as Wenger and Lave's situated learning have been suggested as alternatives to cognitive theories of learning like constructivism. This article examines situated learning within the context of computer science (CS) education. Situated learning accurately describes some CS communities like open-source software development, but it is not directly applicable to other CS communities, especially those that deal with non-CS application areas. Nevertheless, situated learning can inform CS education by analyzing debates on curriculum and pedagogy within this framework. CS educators should closely examine professional CS communities of practice and design educational activities to model the actual activities of those communities.

  9. Computer Literacy and Inquiry Learning: When Geeks Learn Less

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wecker, C.; Kohnle, C.; Fischer, F.

    2007-01-01

    A low level of computer literacy has often been hypothesized as constituting a disadvantage in knowledge acquisition. However, within the field of computer-supported inquiry learning systematic investigations of these purported relations have not been conducted. This classroom study investigates the role of computer literacy (procedural…

  10. Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelsen, Larry K.; Sweet, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL), when properly implemented, includes many, if not all, of the common elements of evidence-based best practices. To explain this, a brief overview of TBL is presented. The authors examine the relationship between the best practices of evidence-based teaching and the principles that constitute team-based learning. (Contains…

  11. Computer Assisted Language Learning. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. This books provides an up-to date and comprehensive overview of…

  12. Promoting Technology-Assisted Active Learning in Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Jinzhu; Hargis, Jace

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes specific active learning strategies for teaching computer science, integrating both instructional technologies and non-technology-based strategies shown to be effective in the literature. The theoretical learning components addressed include an intentional method to help students build metacognitive abilities, as well as…

  13. The Sociability of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreijins, Karel; Kirschner, Paul A.; Jochems, Wim

    2002-01-01

    Discusses computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments in asynchronous distributed learning groups and proposes an intelligent CSCL environment based upon a theoretical framework that suggests embedding certain properties in the environment to act as social contextual facilitators to initiate and sustain learners' social…

  14. Students' Motivation towards Computer Use in EFL Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genc, Gulten; Aydin, Selami

    2010-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that language instruction that integrates technology has become popular, and has had a tremendous impact on language learning process whereas learners are expected to be more motivated in a web-based Computer assisted language learning program, and improve their comprehensive language ability. Thus, the present paper…

  15. Resource-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margie Klink

    1999-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of publications related to resource-based learning, which is defined as a student-centered learning environment grounded in learning theory in which the teacher and the library-media specialist collaborate to help students with information needs, information retrieval, analyzing and synthesizing the information,…

  16. Exploring Taiwanese College Students' Perceptions of Text-Based, Computer-Mediated Communication Technology in Learning Japanese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Makiko

    2015-01-01

    The use of computers as an educational tool has become very popular in the context of language teaching and learning. Research into computer mediated communication (CMC) in a Japanese as a foreign language (JFL) learning and teaching context can take advantage of various pedagogical possibilities, just as in the English classroom. This study…

  17. Developing Online Learning Resources: Big Data, Social Networks, and Cloud Computing to Support Pervasive Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshari, Muhammad; Alas, Yabit; Guan, Lim Sei

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing online learning resources (OLR) from multi channels in learning activities promise extended benefits from traditional based learning-centred to a collaborative based learning-centred that emphasises pervasive learning anywhere and anytime. While compiling big data, cloud computing, and semantic web into OLR offer a broader spectrum of…

  18. Teaching Computer Science Courses in Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huan, Xiaoli; Shehane, Ronald; Ali, Adel

    2011-01-01

    As the success of distance learning (DL) has driven universities to increase the courses offered online, certain challenges arise when teaching computer science (CS) courses to students who are not physically co-located and have individual learning schedules. Teaching CS courses involves high level demonstrations and interactivity between the…

  19. Learning Style Theory and Computer Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Hilary; Moore, David; Sharpe, Simon; Hobbs, Dave

    This paper looks at the low participation rates in computer mediated conferences (CMC) and argues that one of the causes of this may be an incompatibility between students' learning styles and the style adopted by CMC. Curry's Onion Model provides a well-established framework within which to view the main learning style theories (Riding and…

  20. Learning Computer Science: Perceptions, Actions and Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Anders; Eckerdal, Anna; Pears, Arnold; East, Philip; Kinnunen, Paivi; Malmi, Lauri; McCartney, Robert; Mostrom, Jan-Erik; Murphy, Laurie; Ratcliffe, Mark; Schulte, Carsten; Simon, Beth; Stamouli, Ioanna; Thomas, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenographic study opens the classroom door to investigate teachers' experiences of students learning difficult computing topics. Three distinct themes are identified and analysed. "Why" do students succeed or fail to learn these concepts? "What" actions do teachers perceive will ameliorate the difficulties facing students? "Who" is…

  1. Strategizing Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning toward Knowledge Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukama, Evode

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how university students can develop knowledge in small task-based groups while acquiring hands-on computer skills. Inspired by the sociocultural perspective, this study presents a theoretical framework on co-construction of knowledge and on computer-supported collaborative learning. The participants were…

  2. Computer use changes generalization of movement learning.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kunlin; Yan, Xiang; Kong, Gaiqing; Yin, Cong; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Qining; Kording, Konrad Paul

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, one of the most salient lifestyle changes for us has been the use of computers. For many of us, manual interaction with a computer occupies a large portion of our working time. Through neural plasticity, this extensive movement training should change our representation of movements (e.g., [1-3]), just like search engines affect memory [4]. However, how computer use affects motor learning is largely understudied. Additionally, as virtually all participants in studies of perception and actions are computer users, a legitimate question is whether insights from these studies bear the signature of computer-use experience. We compared non-computer users with age- and education-matched computer users in standard motor learning experiments. We found that people learned equally fast but that non-computer users generalized significantly less across space, a difference negated by two weeks of intensive computer training. Our findings suggest that computer-use experience shaped our basic sensorimotor behaviors, and this influence should be considered whenever computer users are recruited as study participants.

  3. The Impact of Computational Experiment and Formative Assessment in Inquiry-Based Teaching and Learning Approach in STEM Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psycharis, Sarantos

    2016-04-01

    In this study, an instructional design model, based on the computational experiment approach, was employed in order to explore the effects of the formative assessment strategies and scientific abilities rubrics on students' engagement in the development of inquiry-based pedagogical scenario. In the following study, rubrics were used during the model development, based on prompts provided to students during the development of their models. Our results indicate that modelling is a process that needs sequencing and instructional support, in the form of rubrics, focused on the scientific abilities needed for the inquiry process. In this research, eighty (80) prospective primary school teachers participated, and the results of the research indicate that the development of inquiry-based scenario is strongly affected by the scientific abilities rubrics.

  4. Computational approaches to motor learning by imitation.

    PubMed Central

    Schaal, Stefan; Ijspeert, Auke; Billard, Aude

    2003-01-01

    Movement imitation requires a complex set of mechanisms that map an observed movement of a teacher onto one's own movement apparatus. Relevant problems include movement recognition, pose estimation, pose tracking, body correspondence, coordinate transformation from external to egocentric space, matching of observed against previously learned movement, resolution of redundant degrees-of-freedom that are unconstrained by the observation, suitable movement representations for imitation, modularization of motor control, etc. All of these topics by themselves are active research problems in computational and neurobiological sciences, such that their combination into a complete imitation system remains a daunting undertaking-indeed, one could argue that we need to understand the complete perception-action loop. As a strategy to untangle the complexity of imitation, this paper will examine imitation purely from a computational point of view, i.e. we will review statistical and mathematical approaches that have been suggested for tackling parts of the imitation problem, and discuss their merits, disadvantages and underlying principles. Given the focus on action recognition of other contributions in this special issue, this paper will primarily emphasize the motor side of imitation, assuming that a perceptual system has already identified important features of a demonstrated movement and created their corresponding spatial information. Based on the formalization of motor control in terms of control policies and their associated performance criteria, useful taxonomies of imitation learning can be generated that clarify different approaches and future research directions. PMID:12689379

  5. Learning Oceanography from a Computer Simulation Compared with Direct Experience at Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, William; Stahr, Frederick; Sarason, Christian; Fruland, Ruth; Oppenheimer, Peter; Lee, Yen-Ling

    2006-01-01

    Considerable research has compared how students learn science from computer simulations with how they learn from "traditional" classes. Little research has compared how students learn science from computer simulations with how they learn from direct experience in the real environment on which the simulations are based. This study compared two…

  6. Computers as a Language Learning Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruschoff, Bernd

    1984-01-01

    Describes a computer-assisted language learning project at the University of Wuppertal (West Germany). It's hoped that teachers can overcome the two handicaps of the past--lack of teacher awareness of current audio-visual technical aids, as well as unsophisticated computer hardware--both problems by getting the opportunity to familiarize…

  7. Computer-Assisted Learning: Design and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Glyn; Kidd, Marilyn E.

    1980-01-01

    Issues related to design and implementation of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) programs on the university level are discussed. First, three points are noted that affect the way materials are conceived: the type of user and the way of giving choices regarding exercises, the fact that the computer is primarily a medium adapted to the written word,…

  8. Computer Learning Networks and Student Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschauer, Mark; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines whether computer networks can empower second-language learners, focusing on three aspects: autonomy, equality, and learning skills. The article concludes that these networks, appropriately used, can empower students, and provides pedagogical suggestions for effective computer networking in the second- and foreign-language classroom. (66…

  9. Computer Applications in Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halley, Fred S.; And Others

    Some examples of the usage of computers in teaching and learning are examination generation, automatic exam grading, student tracking, problem generation, computational examination generators, program packages, simulation, and programing skills for problem solving. These applications are non-trivial and do fulfill the basic assumptions necessary…

  10. The Four Scaffolding Modules for Collaborative Problem-Based Learning through the Computer Network on Moodle LMS for the Computer Programming Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiantong, Monchai; Teemuangsai, Sanit

    2013-01-01

    Scaffolding is a learning approach designed to promote a deeper understanding, it is the support given during the learning process which is tailored to the needs of the student with the intention of helping the student achieve the learning goals, including resources, a compelling task, templates and guides, and guidance on the development of…

  11. Reinforcement learning: Computational theory and biological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Doya, Kenji

    2007-05-01

    Reinforcement learning is a computational framework for an active agent to learn behaviors on the basis of a scalar reward signal. The agent can be an animal, a human, or an artificial system such as a robot or a computer program. The reward can be food, water, money, or whatever measure of the performance of the agent. The theory of reinforcement learning, which was developed in an artificial intelligence community with intuitions from animal learning theory, is now giving a coherent account on the function of the basal ganglia. It now serves as the "common language" in which biologists, engineers, and social scientists can exchange their problems and findings. This article reviews the basic theoretical framework of reinforcement learning and discusses its recent and future contributions toward the understanding of animal behaviors and human decision making.

  12. Reinforcement learning: Computational theory and biological mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Doya, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is a computational framework for an active agent to learn behaviors on the basis of a scalar reward signal. The agent can be an animal, a human, or an artificial system such as a robot or a computer program. The reward can be food, water, money, or whatever measure of the performance of the agent. The theory of reinforcement learning, which was developed in an artificial intelligence community with intuitions from animal learning theory, is now giving a coherent account on the function of the basal ganglia. It now serves as the “common language” in which biologists, engineers, and social scientists can exchange their problems and findings. This article reviews the basic theoretical framework of reinforcement learning and discusses its recent and future contributions toward the understanding of animal behaviors and human decision making. PMID:19404458

  13. Computer-Based Learning of Geometry from Integrated and Split-Attention Worked Examples: The Power of Self-Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindall-Ford, Sharon; Agostinho, Shirley; Bokosmaty, Sahar; Paas, Fred; Chandler, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the viability of learning by self-managing split-attention worked examples as an alternative to learning by studying instructor-managed integrated worked examples. Secondary school students learning properties of angles on parallel lines were taught to integrate spatially separated text and diagrammatic information by…

  14. Computer Based Library Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machalow, Robert

    This document presents computer-based lessons used to teach basic library skills to college students at York College of the City University of New York. The information for library orientation has been entered on a disk which must be used in conjunction with a word processing program, the Applewriter IIe, and an Apple IIe microcomputer. The…

  15. Computer-based and web-based radiation safety training

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, C., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The traditional approach to delivering radiation safety training has been to provide a stand-up lecture of the topic, with the possible aid of video, and to repeat the same material periodically. New approaches to meeting training requirements are needed to address the advent of flexible work hours and telecommuting, and to better accommodate individuals learning at their own pace. Computer- based and web-based radiation safety training can provide this alternative. Computer-based and web- based training is an interactive form of learning that the student controls, resulting in enhanced and focused learning at a time most often chosen by the student.

  16. Computer Support of Operator Training: Constructing and Testing a Prototype of a CAL (Computer Aided Learning) Supported Simulation Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zillesen, P. G. van Schaick; And Others

    Instructional feedback given to the learners during computer simulation sessions may be greatly improved by integrating educational computer simulation programs with hypermedia-based computer-assisted learning (CAL) materials. A prototype of a learning environment of this type called BRINE PURIFICATION was developed for use in corporate training…

  17. Developing Critical L2 Digital Literacy through the Use of Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Learning Management Systems such as Moodle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Second Language (L2) Digital Literacy is of emerging importance within English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Korea, and will evolve to become regarded as the most critical component of overall L2 English Literacy. Computer-based Internet-hosted Learning Management Systems (LMS), such as the popular open-source Moodle, are rapidly being adopted worldwide for distance education, and are also being applied to blended (hybrid) education. In EFL Education, they have a special potential: by setting the LMS to force English to be used exclusively throughout a course website, the meta-language can be made the target L2 language. Of necessity, students develop the ability to use English to navigate the Internet, access and contribute to online resources, and engage in computer-mediated communication. Through such pragmatic engagement with English, students significantly develop their L2 Digital Literacy.

  18. An Evaluation of Computer-based Instruction in Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkel, Susan M.; Walman, Laura B.; Leventhal, Jeremy S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses whether computer-based instructional materials improve student learning. Evaluates a computer-based hypermedia tutorial that was delivered over a web site. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)

  19. Animated pedagogical agents: How the presence and nonverbal communication of a virtual instructor affect perceptions and learning outcomes in a computer-based environment about basic physics concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frechette, M. Casey

    One important but under-researched area of instructional technology concerns the effects of animated pedagogical agents (APAs), or lifelike characters designed to enhance learning in computer-based environments. This research sought to broaden what is currently known about APAs' instructional value by investigating the effects of agents' visual presence and nonverbal communication. A theoretical framework based on APA literature published in the past decade guided the design of the study. This framework sets forth that APAs impact learning through their presence and communication. The communication displayed by an APA involves two distinct kinds of nonverbal cues: cognitive (hand and arm gestures) and affective (facial expressions). It was predicted that the presence of an agent would enhance learning and that nonverbal communication would amplify these effects. The research utilized a between-subjects experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment conditions in a controlled lab setting, and group means were compared with a MANCOVA. Participants received (1) a non-animated agent, (2) an agent with hand and arm gestures, (3) an agent with facial expressions, or (4) a fully animated agent. The agent appeared in a virtual learning environment focused on Kepler's laws of planetary motion. A control group did not receive the visual presence of an agent. Two effects were studied: participants' perceptions and their learning outcomes. Perceptions were measured with an attitudinal survey with five subscales. Learning outcomes were measured with an open-ended recall test, a multiple choice comprehension test, and an open-ended transfer test. Learners presented with an agent with affective nonverbal communication comprehended less than learners exposed to a non-animated agent. No significant differences were observed when a group exposed to a fully animated agent was compared to a group with a non-animated agent. Adding both nonverbal communication

  20. Intrinsically motivated action-outcome learning and goal-based action recall: a system-level bio-constrained computational model.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mannella, Francesco; Fiore, Vincenzo G; Redgrave, Peter; Gurney, Kevin; Mirolli, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Reinforcement (trial-and-error) learning in animals is driven by a multitude of processes. Most animals have evolved several sophisticated systems of 'extrinsic motivations' (EMs) that guide them to acquire behaviours allowing them to maintain their bodies, defend against threat, and reproduce. Animals have also evolved various systems of 'intrinsic motivations' (IMs) that allow them to acquire actions in the absence of extrinsic rewards. These actions are used later to pursue such rewards when they become available. Intrinsic motivations have been studied in Psychology for many decades and their biological substrates are now being elucidated by neuroscientists. In the last two decades, investigators in computational modelling, robotics and machine learning have proposed various mechanisms that capture certain aspects of IMs. However, we still lack models of IMs that attempt to integrate all key aspects of intrinsically motivated learning and behaviour while taking into account the relevant neurobiological constraints. This paper proposes a bio-constrained system-level model that contributes a major step towards this integration. The model focusses on three processes related to IMs and on the neural mechanisms underlying them: (a) the acquisition of action-outcome associations (internal models of the agent-environment interaction) driven by phasic dopamine signals caused by sudden, unexpected changes in the environment; (b) the transient focussing of visual gaze and actions on salient portions of the environment; (c) the subsequent recall of actions to pursue extrinsic rewards based on goal-directed reactivation of the representations of their outcomes. The tests of the model, including a series of selective lesions, show how the focussing processes lead to a faster learning of action-outcome associations, and how these associations can be recruited for accomplishing goal-directed behaviours. The model, together with the background knowledge reviewed in the paper

  1. Learning about Earthquakes: Getting Serious about Authenticity in Computer-Supported Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloian, Nelson; Pino, Jose A.; Hardings, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The discovery or re-construction of scientific explanations and understanding based on experience is a complex process, for which school learning often uses shortcuts. On the basis of the example of analyzing real seismic measurements, we propose a computer-facilitated collaborative learning scenario which meets many of the requirements for…

  2. Resource-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sally, Ed.; Smith, Brenda, Ed.

    The selections in this book encompass a broad spectrum of resource-based learning experiences, and are intended to help teachers and administrators gain a better understanding of the concepts and devise effective and efficient ways to use these materials. Titles include: "Introducing Resources for Learning" (Sally Brown and Brenda Smith);…

  3. Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah E.; Donham, Richard S.; Bernhardt, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), students working in collaborative groups learn by resolving complex, realistic problems under the guidance of faculty. There is some evidence of PBL effectiveness in medical school settings where it began, and there are numerous accounts of PBL implementation in various undergraduate contexts, replete with…

  4. The Effects of Different Computer-Supported Collaboration Scripts on Students' Learning Processes and Outcome in a Simulation-Based Collaborative Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Students benefit from collaborative learning activities, but they do not automatically reach desired learning outcomes when working together (Fischer, Kollar, Mandl, & Haake, 2007; King, 2007). Learners need instructional support to increase the quality of collaborative processes and individual learning outcomes. The core challenge is to find the…

  5. Liminal Spaces and Learning Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Robert; Boustedt, Jonas; Eckerdal, Anna; Mostrom, Jan Erik; Sanders, Kate; Thomas, Lynda; Zander, Carol

    2009-01-01

    "Threshold concepts" are concepts that, among other things, transform the way a student looks at a discipline. Although the term "threshold" might suggest that the transformation occurs at a specific point in time, an "aha" moment, it seems more common (at least in computing) that a longer time period is required. This time period is referred to…

  6. Learning Computers Inside-Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, N. Faye

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity for elementary school students that allows them to manipulate computer hardware. College students volunteered as trainers; and two workstations were used, one to teach students how to attach peripheral devices (e.g., keyboard, monitor, and printer) and one to teach how to remove a disk drive and the controller card. (LRW)

  7. Student Off-Task Behavior in Computer-Based Learning in the Philippines: Comparison to Prior Research in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Baker, Ryan S. J. D.; Rossi, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Off-task behavior can be defined as any behavior that does not involve the learning task or material, or where learning from the material is not the primary goal. One suggested path for understanding how to address off-task behavior is to study classrooms where off-task behavior is less common, particularly in Asia, in order to…

  8. Evaluating Computer-Based Simulations, Multimedia and Animations that Help Integrate Blended Learning with Lectures in First Year Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, David L.; Neumann, Michelle M.; Hood, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The discipline of statistics seems well suited to the integration of technology in a lecture as a means to enhance student learning and engagement. Technology can be used to simulate statistical concepts, create interactive learning exercises, and illustrate real world applications of statistics. The present study aimed to better understand the…

  9. Teaching, Learning and Inquiry Strategies Using Computer Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, A-Y.; Looi, Chee-K.

    1999-01-01

    Reports a case study in a Singapore school where a group of at-risk secondary students were given a series of linked computer-based projects. Describes the conceptual framework based on constructivism and situated learning and discusses benefits in academic performance, student motivation, language development, cooperation and stress management,…

  10. Statistical learning of peptide retention behavior in chromatographic separations: a new kernel-based approach for computational proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Nico; Leinenbach, Andreas; Huber, Christian G; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Background High-throughput peptide and protein identification technologies have benefited tremendously from strategies based on tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in combination with database searching algorithms. A major problem with existing methods lies within the significant number of false positive and false negative annotations. So far, standard algorithms for protein identification do not use the information gained from separation processes usually involved in peptide analysis, such as retention time information, which are readily available from chromatographic separation of the sample. Identification can thus be improved by comparing measured retention times to predicted retention times. Current prediction models are derived from a set of measured test analytes but they usually require large amounts of training data. Results We introduce a new kernel function which can be applied in combination with support vector machines to a wide range of computational proteomics problems. We show the performance of this new approach by applying it to the prediction of peptide adsorption/elution behavior in strong anion-exchange solid-phase extraction (SAX-SPE) and ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (IP-RP-HPLC). Furthermore, the predicted retention times are used to improve spectrum identifications by a p-value-based filtering approach. The approach was tested on a number of different datasets and shows excellent performance while requiring only very small training sets (about 40 peptides instead of thousands). Using the retention time predictor in our retention time filter improves the fraction of correctly identified peptide mass spectra significantly. Conclusion The proposed kernel function is well-suited for the prediction of chromatographic separation in computational proteomics and requires only a limited amount of training data. The performance of this new method is demonstrated by applying it to peptide retention time prediction in IP

  11. Topics in Computational Learning Theory and Graph Algorithms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, Raymond Acton

    This thesis addresses problems from two areas of theoretical computer science. The first area is that of computational learning theory, which is the study of the phenomenon of concept learning using formal mathematical models. The goal of computational learning theory is to investigate learning in a rigorous manner through the use of techniques…

  12. Using computer-assisted learning to engage diverse learning styles in understanding business management principles

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Mary E.; Derby, Dustin C.; Haan, Andrea G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Changes in small business and insurance present challenges for newly graduated chiropractors. Technology that reaches identified, diverse learning styles may assist the chiropractic student in business classes to meet course outcomes better. Thus, the purpose of our study is to determine if the use of technology-based instructional aids enhance students' mastery of course learning outcomes. Methods Using convenience sampling, 86 students completed a survey assessing course learning outcomes, learning style, and the helpfulness of lecture and computer-assisted learning related to content mastery. Quantitative analyses occurred. Results Although respondents reported not finding the computer-assisted learning as helpful as the lecture, significant relationships were found between pre- and post-assisted learning measures of the learning outcomes 1 and 2 for the visual and kinesthetic groups. Surprisingly, however, all learning style groups exhibited significant pre- and post-assisted learning appraisal relationships with learning outcomes 3 and 4. Conclusion While evidence exists within the current study of a relationship between students' learning of the course content corollary to the use of technologic instructional aids, the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear. PMID:24087903

  13. Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics: Software Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yushau, B.; Bokhari, M. A.; Wessels, D. C. J.

    2004-01-01

    Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics (CALM) has been in use for some time in the Prep-Year Mathematics Program at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. Different kinds of software (both locally designed and imported) have been used in the quest of optimizing the recitation/problem session hour of the mathematics classes. This paper…

  14. Learning Computer Science Concepts with Scratch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Armoni, Michal; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2013-01-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that is widely used by young people. We investigated if Scratch can be used to teach concepts of computer science (CS). We developed learning materials for middle-school students that were designed according to the constructionist philosophy of Scratch and evaluated them in a few schools during two…

  15. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Authoring Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Sue E. K.; Pusack, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) authoring refers to a wide variety of creative development activities using software tools that run the gamut from simple templates (easy-to-use predefined forms into which content is typed) to complex authoring environments (flexible but harder-to-use systems, requiring advanced skills and a great deal…

  16. Advances in Computer-Supported Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neto, Francisco; Brasileiro, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The Internet and growth of computer networks have eliminated geographic barriers, creating an environment where education can be brought to a student no matter where that student may be. The success of distance learning programs and the availability of many Web-supported applications and multimedia resources have increased the effectiveness of…

  17. Learning Algebra in a Computer Algebra Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drijvers, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises a doctoral thesis entitled "Learning algebra in a computer algebra environment, design research on the understanding of the concept of parameter" (Drijvers, 2003). It describes the research questions, the theoretical framework, the methodology and the results of the study. The focus of the study is on the understanding of…

  18. Inquiry-Based Learning of Molecular Phylogenetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campo, Daniel; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Reconstructing phylogenies from nucleotide sequences is a challenge for students because it strongly depends on evolutionary models and computer tools that are frequently updated. We present here an inquiry-based course aimed at learning how to trace a phylogeny based on sequences existing in public databases. Computer tools are freely available…

  19. AFE base flow computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Palmer, Grant

    1991-01-01

    Hypersonic wake flows behind the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) geometry are analyzed using two Navier-Stokes flow solvers. Many of the AFE wake features observed in ballistic-range shadowgraphs are simulated using a simple, two-dimensional semicylinder geometry at moderate angles of attack. At free-stream conditions corresponding to a Hypersonic Free Flight Facility (HFFF) AFE experiment, the three-dimensional base flow for the AFE geometry is computed using an ideal-gas, Navier-Stokes solver. The computed results agree reasonably well with the shadowgraphs taken at the HFFF. An ideal-gas and a nonequilibrium Navier-Stokes solver have been coupled and applied to the complete flow around the AFE vehicle at the free-stream conditions corresponding to a nomial trajectory point. Limitations of the coupled ideal-gas and nonequilibrium solution are discussed. The nonequilibrium base flow solution is analyzed for the wake radiation and the radiation profiles along various lines of sight are compared. Finally, the wake unsteadiness is predicted using experimental correlations and the numerical solutions. An adaptive grid code, SAGE, has been used in all the simulations to enhance the solution accuracy. The grid adaptation is found to be necessary in obtaining base flow solutions with accurate flow features.

  20. Minimizing inter-subject variability in fNIRS-based brain-computer interfaces via multiple-kernel support vector learning.

    PubMed

    Abibullaev, Berdakh; An, Jinung; Jin, Sang-Hyeon; Lee, Seung Hyun; Moon, Jeon Il

    2013-12-01

    Brain signal variation across different subjects and sessions significantly impairs the accuracy of most brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. Herein, we present a classification algorithm that minimizes such variation, using linear programming support-vector machines (LP-SVM) and their extension to multiple kernel learning methods. The minimization is based on the decision boundaries formed in classifiers' feature spaces and their relation to BCI variation. Specifically, we estimate subject/session-invariant features in the reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHS) induced with Gaussian kernels. The idea is to construct multiple subject/session-dependent RKHS and to perform classification with LP-SVMs. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, we applied it to oxy-hemoglobin data sets acquired from eight sessions and seven subjects as they performed two different mental tasks. Results show that our classifiers maintain good performance when applied to random patterns across varying sessions/subjects.

  1. a Radical Collaborative Approach: Developing a Model for Learning Theory, Human-Based Computation and Participant Motivation in a Rock-Art Heritage Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubt, R.

    2016-06-01

    This paper explores a Radical Collaborative Approach in the global and centralized Rock-Art Database project to find new ways to look at rock-art by making information more accessible and more visible through public contributions. It looks at rock-art through the Key Performance Indicator (KPI), identified with the latest Australian State of the Environment Reports to help develop a better understanding of rock-art within a broader Cultural and Indigenous Heritage context. Using a practice-led approach the project develops a conceptual collaborative model that is deployed within the RADB Management System. Exploring learning theory, human-based computation and participant motivation the paper develops a procedure for deploying collaborative functions within the interface design of the RADB Management System. The paper presents the results of the collaborative model implementation and discusses considerations for the next iteration of the RADB Universe within an Agile Development Approach.

  2. Using a computer-based simulation with an artificial intelligence component and discovery learning to formulate training needs for a new technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hillis, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    A computer-based simulation with an artificial intelligence component and discovery learning was investigated as a method to formulate training needs for new or unfamiliar technologies. Specifically, the study examined if this simulation method would provide for the recognition of applications and knowledge/skills which would be the basis for establishing training needs. The study also examined the effect of field-dependence/independence on recognition of applications and knowledge/skills. A pretest-posttest control group experimental design involving fifty-eight college students from an industrial technology program was used. The study concluded that the simulation was effective in developing recognition of applications and the knowledge/skills for a new or unfamiliar technology. And, the simulation's effectiveness for providing this recognition was not limited by an individual's field-dependence/independence.

  3. Understanding biological computation: reliable learning and recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, T; Huberman, B A

    1984-01-01

    We experimentally examine the consequences of the hypothesis that the brain operates reliably, even though individual components may intermittently fail, by computing with dynamical attractors. Specifically, such a mechanism exploits dynamic collective behavior of a system with attractive fixed points in its phase space. In contrast to the usual methods of reliable computation involving a large number of redundant elements, this technique of self-repair only requires collective computation with a few units, and it is amenable to quantitative investigation. Experiments on parallel computing arrays show that this mechanism leads naturally to rapid self-repair, adaptation to the environment, recognition and discrimination of fuzzy inputs, and conditional learning, properties that are commonly associated with biological computation. PMID:6593731

  4. Assessing the Roles of Student Engagement and Academic Emotions within Middle School Computer- Based Learning in College-Going Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Pedro, Maria Ofelia Z.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation research focuses on assessing student behavior, academic emotions, and knowledge from a middle school online learning environment, and analyzing their potential effects on decisions about going to college. Using students' longitudinal data ranging from their middle school, to high school, to postsecondary years, I leverage…

  5. From Information Searching to Learning: A Comparison of Contrasting Hypertextual Menu Designs for Computer-Based Instructional Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Yee-Rong; Waugh, Michael L.

    This study examined the influence of three different combinations of document structures and menu designs on users' attitude, performance, and learning in five different search tasks. The three types of combinations studied were: (1) an explicit menu signaling hierarchical structure where cross-referencing was not supported (EXH--explicit and…

  6. An Empirical Examination of EFL Learners' Perceptual Learning Styles and Acceptance of ASR-Based Computer-Assisted Pronunciation Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Liwei

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the structural relationships among the variables of EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' perceptual learning styles and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Three hundred and forty-one (n = 341) EFL learners were invited to join a self-regulated English pronunciation training program through automatic speech…

  7. Computer-Based Instruction: Effect of Cognitive Style, Instructional Format, and Subject-Matter Content on Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Linda J. Buehner

    This report describes an experiment investigating the effects of cognitive style, presentation format, and task content on learning. Cognitive style was described in terms of hemisphericity (i.e., left- or right-brain influence on perception). Presentation format consisted of graphics, text, and a combination of the two. The tasks consisted of…

  8. Shifting Contexts: Investigating the Role of Context in the Use of Ubiquitous Computing for Design-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Katharine S.; Corino, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    In design teaching ubiquitous technologies can offer new ways of situating learning within real world experiences. Yet they require new types of knowledge; both an understanding of how to work with the technology and also an understanding of how to use the technologies to respond to changing contexts such as the place and the people. We sought to…

  9. Accelerating Decoding-Related Skills in Poor Readers Learning a Foreign Language: A Computer-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björn, Piia Maria; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

    2013-01-01

    The results of Fast ForWord® training on English decoding-related skills were examined. Finnish fifth-grade students were identified as having reading fluency problems and poor skills in English as a foreign language learned at school and were randomly assigned to either a training group (TRG) or a control group. The TRG ("n"?=?13)…

  10. Enhancing Instruction through Constructivism, Cooperative Learning, and Cloud Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing technologies, such as Google Docs and Microsoft Office Live, have the potential to enhance instructional methods predicated on constructivism and cooperative learning. Cloud-based application features like file sharing and online publishing are prompting departments of education across the nation to adopt these technologies.…

  11. Engineering Students' Use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huczynski, Andrzej; Johnston, Scott Paul

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) by undergraduate engineering students studying a business and management course. Discussing both the relationship between management and engineering and CAL applied to engineering education, this study is based on a survey of 82 undergraduates and adopts a quantitative research…

  12. Learning with Interactive Computer Graphics in the Undergraduate Neuroscience Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pani, John R.; Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah; Mattingly, William; Roberts, Joshua; Sephton, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Instruction of neuroanatomy depends on graphical representation and extended self-study. As a consequence, computer-based learning environments that incorporate interactive graphics should facilitate instruction in this area. The present study evaluated such a system in the undergraduate neuroscience classroom. The system used the method of…

  13. Multimedia Instructional Tools and Student Learning in Computer Applications Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Debra Laier

    2013-01-01

    Advances in technology and changes in educational strategies have resulted in the integration of technology into the classroom. Multimedia instructional tools (MMIT) have been identified as a way to provide student-centered active-learning instructional material to students. MMITs are common in introductory computer applications courses based on…

  14. Computational Modelling and Simulation Fostering New Approaches in Learning Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Markus; Hoppe, Ulrich; Lingnau, Andreas; Wichmann, Astrid

    2006-01-01

    Discovery learning in mathematics in the domain of probability based on hands-on experiments is normally limited because of the difficulty in providing sufficient materials and data volume in terms of repetitions of the experiments. Our cooperative, computational modelling and simulation environment engages students and teachers in composing and…

  15. Computer-Guided Diagnosis of Learning Disabilities: A Prototype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbourn, Marlene Jones

    A computer based diagnostic system to assist educators in the assessment of learning disabled children aged 8 to 10 years in the area of reading is described and evaluated. The system is intended to guide the diagnosis of reading problems through step by step analysis of available data and requests for additional data. The system provides a…

  16. A Study of the Effects of Learning Style on Computer-Assisted Discovery Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jon-Chao; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined relationships between learning style and computer-assisted discovery learning. Secondary students used computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to learn biology under three discovery learning circumstances. The main factor affecting the effectiveness of learning was students' initial acquisition of biology. Learning style and type…

  17. Computer-based technological applications in psychotherapy training.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas

    2004-03-01

    Despite obvious and documented advantages of technological applications in education, psychotherapy training based on information technology is either still rare or limited to technical innovations such as videotape recordings. This article outlines opportunities new computer-based learning technology create for psychotherapy training. First, approaches that include computer-mediated communication between trainees and teachers/supervisors are presented. Then, computer-based learning technology for self-study purposes is discussed in the context of educational approaches to learning. Computer-based tools that have been developed and evaluated in the context of psychotherapy training are described. Evaluations of the tools are discussed.

  18. Gradient Learning Algorithms for Ontology Computing

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Zhu, Linli

    2014-01-01

    The gradient learning model has been raising great attention in view of its promising perspectives for applications in statistics, data dimensionality reducing, and other specific fields. In this paper, we raise a new gradient learning model for ontology similarity measuring and ontology mapping in multidividing setting. The sample error in this setting is given by virtue of the hypothesis space and the trick of ontology dividing operator. Finally, two experiments presented on plant and humanoid robotics field verify the efficiency of the new computation model for ontology similarity measure and ontology mapping applications in multidividing setting. PMID:25530752

  19. Enhancing Learning in Introductory Computer Science Courses through SCALE: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verginis, I.; Gogoulou, A.; Gouli, E.; Boubouka, M.; Grigoriadou, M.

    2011-01-01

    The work presented in this paper aims to support and promote the learning process in introductory computer science courses through the Web-based, adaptive, activity-oriented learning environment known as Supporting Collaboration and Adaptation in a Learning Environment (SCALE). The environment engages students actively in the learning process and…

  20. Learning Tools for Knowledge Nomads: Using Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) in Web-based Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Christian Sebastian

    2001-01-01

    Examines how mobile computers, or personal digital assistants (PDAs), can be used in a Web-based learning environment. Topics include wireless networks on college campuses; online learning; Web-based learning technologies; synchronous and asynchronous communication via the Web; content resources; Web connections; and collaborative learning. (LRW)

  1. Guided Discovery Learning with Computer-Based Simulation Games: Effects of Adaptive and Non-Adaptive Instructional Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutner, Detlev

    1993-01-01

    System-initiated adaptive advice and learner-requested nonadaptive background information were investigated in computer simulation game experiments with 64 seventh graders, 38 college students, and 80 seventh and eighth graders in Germany. Results are discussed in terms of theories of problem solving, intelligence, memory, and information…

  2. Theories of Learning and Computer-Mediated Instructional Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes four major models of learning: behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and social constructivism. Discusses situated cognition; differences between learning theories and instructional approaches; and how computer-mediated technologies can be integrated with learning theories. (LRW)

  3. Using Computer Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliee, Zeinab Shams; Jomhari, Nazean; Rezaei, Reza; Alias, Norlidah

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common problems in autistic children is split attention. Split attention prevents autism children from being able to focus attention on their learning, and tasks. As a result, it is important to identify how to make autistic individuals focus attention on learning. Considering autistic individuals have higher visual abilities in…

  4. Computer-Game-Based Tutoring of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Fengfeng

    2013-01-01

    This in-situ, descriptive case study examined the potential of implementing computer mathematics games as an anchor for tutoring of mathematics. Data were collected from middle school students at a rural pueblo school and an urban Hispanic-serving school, through in-field observation, content analysis of game-based tutoring-learning interactions,…

  5. Learning to Think by Learning LOGO: Rule Learning in Third-Grade Computer Programmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Henry, Jr.; Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Fifteen third-grade students learned LOGO during the school year. The group who received one hour per week of individual computer time (separate from in-class instruction) did significantly better on a conditional rule-learning task than did students who received one-half hour per week of individual computer time. (GC)

  6. Reinforcement learning in depression: A review of computational research.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong; Takahashi, Taiki; Nakagawa, Shin; Inoue, Takeshi; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2015-08-01

    Despite being considered primarily a mood disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by cognitive and decision making deficits. Recent research has employed computational models of reinforcement learning (RL) to address these deficits. The computational approach has the advantage in making explicit predictions about learning and behavior, specifying the process parameters of RL, differentiating between model-free and model-based RL, and the computational model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography. With these merits there has been an emerging field of computational psychiatry and here we review specific studies that focused on MDD. Considerable evidence suggests that MDD is associated with impaired brain signals of reward prediction error and expected value ('wanting'), decreased reward sensitivity ('liking') and/or learning (be it model-free or model-based), etc., although the causality remains unclear. These parameters may serve as valuable intermediate phenotypes of MDD, linking general clinical symptoms to underlying molecular dysfunctions. We believe future computational research at clinical, systems, and cellular/molecular/genetic levels will propel us toward a better understanding of the disease. PMID:25979140

  7. Reinforcement learning in depression: A review of computational research.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong; Takahashi, Taiki; Nakagawa, Shin; Inoue, Takeshi; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2015-08-01

    Despite being considered primarily a mood disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by cognitive and decision making deficits. Recent research has employed computational models of reinforcement learning (RL) to address these deficits. The computational approach has the advantage in making explicit predictions about learning and behavior, specifying the process parameters of RL, differentiating between model-free and model-based RL, and the computational model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography. With these merits there has been an emerging field of computational psychiatry and here we review specific studies that focused on MDD. Considerable evidence suggests that MDD is associated with impaired brain signals of reward prediction error and expected value ('wanting'), decreased reward sensitivity ('liking') and/or learning (be it model-free or model-based), etc., although the causality remains unclear. These parameters may serve as valuable intermediate phenotypes of MDD, linking general clinical symptoms to underlying molecular dysfunctions. We believe future computational research at clinical, systems, and cellular/molecular/genetic levels will propel us toward a better understanding of the disease.

  8. Developing Understanding of Image Formation by Lenses through Collaborative Learning Mediated by Multimedia Computer-Assisted Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Ping-Kee

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the use of a computer-based collaborative learning instruction designed to help students develop understanding of image formation by lenses. The study aims to investigate how students, working in dyads and mediated by multimedia computer-assisted learning (CAL) programs, construct shared knowledge and understanding. The…

  9. Concept-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schill, Bethany; Howell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A major part of developing concept-based instruction is the use of an overarching idea to provide a conceptual lens through which students view the content of a particular subject. By using a conceptual lens to focus learning, students think at a much deeper level about the content and its facts (Erickson 2007). Therefore, the authors collaborated…

  10. Seven Affordances of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: How to Support Collaborative Learning? How Can Technologies Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Heisawn; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes 7 core affordances of technology for collaborative learning based on theories of collaborative learning and CSCL (Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning) practices. Technology affords learner opportunities to (1) engage in a joint task, (2) communicate, (3) share resources, (4) engage in productive collaborative learning…

  11. A Cross-Cultural Study of Self-Regulated Learning in a Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Yongchao; Frederiksen, Carl H.; Muis, Krista R.

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) actions of 30 Canadian and 30 Chinese university students were studied in a face-to-face problem-based learning environment. Participants were randomly assigned to work in dyads consisting of Chinese, Canadian, or mixed Chinese-Canadian pairs to learn Analysis of Variance collaboratively using a computer coach. Dialog…

  12. Problem Based Learning in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Coral

    2009-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) is a recognised teaching and learning strategy used to engage students in deep rather than surface learning. It is also viewed as a successful strategy to align university courses with the real life professional work students are expected to undertake on graduation (Biggs, 2003). Problem based learning is practised…

  13. Unintended Results of Using Instructional Media, Part II: Learning from a Computer Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Robin C.; Black, John B.

    Computer-based learning environments are proliferating in an effort to make more resources available to more students in more timely and individualized ways without overtaxing diminishing budgets. Many computer-based learning environments are designed to facilitate meaningful interaction, however, interactivity is only one of the factors that…

  14. Immersive, Interactive, Web-Enabled Computer Simulation as a Trigger for Learning: The next Generation of Problem-Based Learning in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Dale; Reardon, R. M.; Becker, J. D.; Shakeshaft, C.; Bacon, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of advanced computer technology in an innovative educational leadership program. This program integrates full-motion video scenarios that simulate the leadership challenges typically faced by principals over the course of a full school year. These scenarios require decisions that are then coupled to consequences and…

  15. Twenty-First Century Learning: Communities, Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leh, Amy S.C.; Kouba, Barbara; Davis, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Advanced technology makes 21st century learning, communities and interactions unique and leads people to an era of ubiquitous computing. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the discussion of learning in the 21st century. The paper will review literature on learning community, community learning, interaction, 21st century learning and…

  16. Computational neurorehabilitation: modeling plasticity and learning to predict recovery.

    PubMed

    Reinkensmeyer, David J; Burdet, Etienne; Casadio, Maura; Krakauer, John W; Kwakkel, Gert; Lang, Catherine E; Swinnen, Stephan P; Ward, Nick S; Schweighofer, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in using computational approaches to inform medicine and neuroscience in the last 30 years, there have been few attempts to model the mechanisms underlying sensorimotor rehabilitation. We argue that a fundamental understanding of neurologic recovery, and as a result accurate predictions at the individual level, will be facilitated by developing computational models of the salient neural processes, including plasticity and learning systems of the brain, and integrating them into a context specific to rehabilitation. Here, we therefore discuss Computational Neurorehabilitation, a newly emerging field aimed at modeling plasticity and motor learning to understand and improve movement recovery of individuals with neurologic impairment. We first explain how the emergence of robotics and wearable sensors for rehabilitation is providing data that make development and testing of such models increasingly feasible. We then review key aspects of plasticity and motor learning that such models will incorporate. We proceed by discussing how computational neurorehabilitation models relate to the current benchmark in rehabilitation modeling - regression-based, prognostic modeling. We then critically discuss the first computational neurorehabilitation models, which have primarily focused on modeling rehabilitation of the upper extremity after stroke, and show how even simple models have produced novel ideas for future investigation. Finally, we conclude with key directions for future research, anticipating that soon we will see the emergence of mechanistic models of motor recovery that are informed by clinical imaging results and driven by the actual movement content of rehabilitation therapy as well as wearable sensor-based records of daily activity. PMID:27130577

  17. Computational neurorehabilitation: modeling plasticity and learning to predict recovery.

    PubMed

    Reinkensmeyer, David J; Burdet, Etienne; Casadio, Maura; Krakauer, John W; Kwakkel, Gert; Lang, Catherine E; Swinnen, Stephan P; Ward, Nick S; Schweighofer, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in using computational approaches to inform medicine and neuroscience in the last 30 years, there have been few attempts to model the mechanisms underlying sensorimotor rehabilitation. We argue that a fundamental understanding of neurologic recovery, and as a result accurate predictions at the individual level, will be facilitated by developing computational models of the salient neural processes, including plasticity and learning systems of the brain, and integrating them into a context specific to rehabilitation. Here, we therefore discuss Computational Neurorehabilitation, a newly emerging field aimed at modeling plasticity and motor learning to understand and improve movement recovery of individuals with neurologic impairment. We first explain how the emergence of robotics and wearable sensors for rehabilitation is providing data that make development and testing of such models increasingly feasible. We then review key aspects of plasticity and motor learning that such models will incorporate. We proceed by discussing how computational neurorehabilitation models relate to the current benchmark in rehabilitation modeling - regression-based, prognostic modeling. We then critically discuss the first computational neurorehabilitation models, which have primarily focused on modeling rehabilitation of the upper extremity after stroke, and show how even simple models have produced novel ideas for future investigation. Finally, we conclude with key directions for future research, anticipating that soon we will see the emergence of mechanistic models of motor recovery that are informed by clinical imaging results and driven by the actual movement content of rehabilitation therapy as well as wearable sensor-based records of daily activity.

  18. Game-Informed Learning: Applying Computer Game Processes to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begg, Michael; Dewhurst, David; Macleod, Hamish

    2005-01-01

    The term "game-based learning" has emerged as a general name for the use of computer games in education. Despite early work showing rich inferential learning taking place as a result of gameplay, most game-based learning has been geared towards using a game as a host into which curricular content can be embedded. This approach can be problematic,…

  19. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Effect of a Graph-Oriented Computer-Assisted Project-Based Learning Environment on Middle School Students' Science Knowledge and Argumentation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, P.-S.; Van Dyke, M.; Chen, Y.; Smith, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore how seventh graders in a suburban school in the United States and sixth graders in an urban school in Taiwan developed argumentation skills and science knowledge in a project-based learning environment that incorporated a graph-oriented, computer-assisted application (GOCAA). A total of 42…

  20. Computer-Based Interaction Analysis with DEGREE Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, B.; Verdejo, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    We review our research with "DEGREE" and analyse how our work has impacted the collaborative learning community since 2000. Our research is framed within the context of computer-based interaction analysis and the development of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) tools. We identify some aspects of our work which have been…

  1. Maze learning by a hybrid brain-computer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhaohui; Zheng, Nenggan; Zhang, Shaowu; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Liqiang; Su, Lijuan

    2016-09-01

    The combination of biological and artificial intelligence is particularly driven by two major strands of research: one involves the control of mechanical, usually prosthetic, devices by conscious biological subjects, whereas the other involves the control of animal behaviour by stimulating nervous systems electrically or optically. However, to our knowledge, no study has demonstrated that spatial learning in a computer-based system can affect the learning and decision making behaviour of the biological component, namely a rat, when these two types of intelligence are wired together to form a new intelligent entity. Here, we show how rule operations conducted by computing components contribute to a novel hybrid brain-computer system, i.e., ratbots, exhibit superior learning abilities in a maze learning task, even when their vision and whisker sensation were blocked. We anticipate that our study will encourage other researchers to investigate combinations of various rule operations and other artificial intelligence algorithms with the learning and memory processes of organic brains to develop more powerful cyborg intelligence systems. Our results potentially have profound implications for a variety of applications in intelligent systems and neural rehabilitation.

  2. Maze learning by a hybrid brain-computer system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhaohui; Zheng, Nenggan; Zhang, Shaowu; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Liqiang; Su, Lijuan

    2016-09-13

    The combination of biological and artificial intelligence is particularly driven by two major strands of research: one involves the control of mechanical, usually prosthetic, devices by conscious biological subjects, whereas the other involves the control of animal behaviour by stimulating nervous systems electrically or optically. However, to our knowledge, no study has demonstrated that spatial learning in a computer-based system can affect the learning and decision making behaviour of the biological component, namely a rat, when these two types of intelligence are wired together to form a new intelligent entity. Here, we show how rule operations conducted by computing components contribute to a novel hybrid brain-computer system, i.e., ratbots, exhibit superior learning abilities in a maze learning task, even when their vision and whisker sensation were blocked. We anticipate that our study will encourage other researchers to investigate combinations of various rule operations and other artificial intelligence algorithms with the learning and memory processes of organic brains to develop more powerful cyborg intelligence systems. Our results potentially have profound implications for a variety of applications in intelligent systems and neural rehabilitation.

  3. Maze learning by a hybrid brain-computer system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhaohui; Zheng, Nenggan; Zhang, Shaowu; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Liqiang; Su, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    The combination of biological and artificial intelligence is particularly driven by two major strands of research: one involves the control of mechanical, usually prosthetic, devices by conscious biological subjects, whereas the other involves the control of animal behaviour by stimulating nervous systems electrically or optically. However, to our knowledge, no study has demonstrated that spatial learning in a computer-based system can affect the learning and decision making behaviour of the biological component, namely a rat, when these two types of intelligence are wired together to form a new intelligent entity. Here, we show how rule operations conducted by computing components contribute to a novel hybrid brain-computer system, i.e., ratbots, exhibit superior learning abilities in a maze learning task, even when their vision and whisker sensation were blocked. We anticipate that our study will encourage other researchers to investigate combinations of various rule operations and other artificial intelligence algorithms with the learning and memory processes of organic brains to develop more powerful cyborg intelligence systems. Our results potentially have profound implications for a variety of applications in intelligent systems and neural rehabilitation. PMID:27619326

  4. Maze learning by a hybrid brain-computer system

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhaohui; Zheng, Nenggan; Zhang, Shaowu; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Liqiang; Su, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    The combination of biological and artificial intelligence is particularly driven by two major strands of research: one involves the control of mechanical, usually prosthetic, devices by conscious biological subjects, whereas the other involves the control of animal behaviour by stimulating nervous systems electrically or optically. However, to our knowledge, no study has demonstrated that spatial learning in a computer-based system can affect the learning and decision making behaviour of the biological component, namely a rat, when these two types of intelligence are wired together to form a new intelligent entity. Here, we show how rule operations conducted by computing components contribute to a novel hybrid brain-computer system, i.e., ratbots, exhibit superior learning abilities in a maze learning task, even when their vision and whisker sensation were blocked. We anticipate that our study will encourage other researchers to investigate combinations of various rule operations and other artificial intelligence algorithms with the learning and memory processes of organic brains to develop more powerful cyborg intelligence systems. Our results potentially have profound implications for a variety of applications in intelligent systems and neural rehabilitation. PMID:27619326

  5. The Relative Effectiveness of Computer-Based and Traditional Resources for Education in Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khot, Zaid; Quinlan, Kaitlyn; Norman, Geoffrey R.; Wainman, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing use of computer-based resources to teach anatomy, although no study has compared computer-based learning to traditional. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of three formats of anatomy learning: (1) a virtual reality (VR) computer-based module, (2) a static computer-based module providing Key Views (KV), (3) a plastic…

  6. A machine-learning approach for computation of fractional flow reserve from coronary computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Itu, Lucian; Rapaka, Saikiran; Passerini, Tiziano; Georgescu, Bogdan; Schwemmer, Chris; Schoebinger, Max; Flohr, Thomas; Sharma, Puneet; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2016-07-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a functional index quantifying the severity of coronary artery lesions and is clinically obtained using an invasive, catheter-based measurement. Recently, physics-based models have shown great promise in being able to noninvasively estimate FFR from patient-specific anatomical information, e.g., obtained from computed tomography scans of the heart and the coronary arteries. However, these models have high computational demand, limiting their clinical adoption. In this paper, we present a machine-learning-based model for predicting FFR as an alternative to physics-based approaches. The model is trained on a large database of synthetically generated coronary anatomies, where the target values are computed using the physics-based model. The trained model predicts FFR at each point along the centerline of the coronary tree, and its performance was assessed by comparing the predictions against physics-based computations and against invasively measured FFR for 87 patients and 125 lesions in total. Correlation between machine-learning and physics-based predictions was excellent (0.9994, P < 0.001), and no systematic bias was found in Bland-Altman analysis: mean difference was -0.00081 ± 0.0039. Invasive FFR ≤ 0.80 was found in 38 lesions out of 125 and was predicted by the machine-learning algorithm with a sensitivity of 81.6%, a specificity of 83.9%, and an accuracy of 83.2%. The correlation was 0.729 (P < 0.001). Compared with the physics-based computation, average execution time was reduced by more than 80 times, leading to near real-time assessment of FFR. Average execution time went down from 196.3 ± 78.5 s for the CFD model to ∼2.4 ± 0.44 s for the machine-learning model on a workstation with 3.4-GHz Intel i7 8-core processor.

  7. Professors' and students' perceptions and experiences of computational simulations as learning tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magana de Leon, Alejandra De Jesus

    experiences in terms of content, formative assessment and pedagogy. These three studies capture the complexity of learning environments that adopt computational simulations as learning tools in graduate engineering education. The results of these studies have implications in the areas of engineering and science education, simulation-based learning environments development, and instructional design.

  8. Pen-based computers: Computers without keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conklin, Cheryl L.

    1994-01-01

    The National Space Transportation System (NSTS) is comprised of many diverse and highly complex systems incorporating the latest technologies. Data collection associated with ground processing of the various Space Shuttle system elements is extremely challenging due to the many separate processing locations where data is generated. This presents a significant problem when the timely collection, transfer, collation, and storage of data is required. This paper describes how new technology, referred to as Pen-Based computers, is being used to transform the data collection process at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Pen-Based computers have streamlined procedures, increased data accuracy, and now provide more complete information than previous methods. The end results is the elimination of Shuttle processing delays associated with data deficiencies.

  9. Interpreting concept learning in cognitive informatics and granular computing.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yiyu

    2009-08-01

    Cognitive informatics and granular computing are two emerging fields of study concerning information and knowledge processing. A central notion to this processing is information and knowledge granularity. Concepts, as the basic units of thought underlying human intelligence and communication, may play a fundamental role when integrating the results from the two fields in terms of information and knowledge coding, representation, communication, and processing. While cognitive informatics focuses on information processing in the abstract, in machines, and in the brain, granular computing models such processing at multiple levels of granularity. In this paper, we examine a conceptual framework for concept learning from the viewpoints of cognitive informatics and granular computing. Within the framework, we interpret concept learning based on a layered model of knowledge discovery.

  10. Agent-Based Learning Environments as a Research Tool for Investigating Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Amy L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses intelligent learning environments for computer-based learning, such as agent-based learning environments, and their advantages over human-based instruction. Considers the effects of multiple agents; agents and research design; the use of Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively (MIMIC) for instructional design for…

  11. Ant-based computing.

    PubMed

    Michael, Loizos

    2009-01-01

    A biologically and physically plausible model for ants and pheromones is proposed. It is argued that the mechanisms described in this model are sufficiently powerful to reproduce the necessary components of universal computation. The claim is supported by illustrating the feasibility of designing arbitrary logic circuits, showing that the interactions of ants and pheromones lead to the expected behavior, and presenting computer simulation results to verify the circuits' working. The conclusions of this study can be taken as evidence that coherent deterministic and centralized computation can emerge from the collective behavior of simple distributed Markovian processes such as those followed by biological ants, but also, more generally, by artificial agents with limited computational and communication abilities. PMID:19239348

  12. Paper-Based Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Faculty have a great deal of control over their lectures, lecture notes, and slides. This article discusses a coming wave of recording devices and other classroom technologies--this time wielded by the students--which will test this control and force serious conversations about how to best help students learn, what it means to own an idea, and…

  13. Evaluation of Manual Spelling, Observational and Incidental Learning Using Computer-Based Instruction with a Tablet PC, Large Screen Projection, and a Forward Chaining Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purrazzella, Kimberly; Mechling, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    The study employed a multiple probe design to investigate the effects of computer-based instruction (CBI) and a forward chaining procedure to teach manual spelling of words to three young adults with moderate intellectual disability in a small group arrangement. The computer-based program included a tablet PC whereby students wrote words directly…

  14. Learning with interactive computer graphics in the undergraduate neuroscience classroom.

    PubMed

    Pani, John R; Chariker, Julia H; Naaz, Farah; Mattingly, William; Roberts, Joshua; Sephton, Sandra E

    2014-10-01

    Instruction of neuroanatomy depends on graphical representation and extended self-study. As a consequence, computer-based learning environments that incorporate interactive graphics should facilitate instruction in this area. The present study evaluated such a system in the undergraduate neuroscience classroom. The system used the method of adaptive exploration, in which exploration in a high fidelity graphical environment is integrated with immediate testing and feedback in repeated cycles of learning. The results of this study were that students considered the graphical learning environment to be superior to typical classroom materials used for learning neuroanatomy. Students managed the frequency and duration of study, test, and feedback in an efficient and adaptive manner. For example, the number of tests taken before reaching a minimum test performance of 90 % correct closely approximated the values seen in more regimented experimental studies. There was a wide range of student opinion regarding the choice between a simpler and a more graphically compelling program for learning sectional anatomy. Course outcomes were predicted by individual differences in the use of the software that reflected general work habits of the students, such as the amount of time committed to testing. The results of this introduction into the classroom are highly encouraging for development of computer-based instruction in biomedical disciplines.

  15. Choosing Learning Methods Suitable for Teaching and Learning in Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Estelle; Breed, Marnus; Hauman, Ilette; Homann, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to determine which teaching methods students in Computer Science and Information Systems prefer. There are in total 5 different paradigms (behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, design-based and humanism) with 32 models between them. Each model is unique and states different learning methods. Recommendations are made on methods that…

  16. Programming Pluralism: Using Learning Analytics to Detect Patterns in the Learning of Computer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blikstein, Paulo; Worsley, Marcelo; Piech, Chris; Sahami, Mehran; Cooper, Steven; Koller, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    New high-frequency, automated data collection and analysis algorithms could offer new insights into complex learning processes, especially for tasks in which students have opportunities to generate unique open-ended artifacts such as computer programs. These approaches should be particularly useful because the need for scalable project-based and…

  17. Dimension Reduction via Unsupervised Learning Yields Significant Computational Improvements for Support Vector Machine Based Protein Family Classification.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2009-02-26

    Reducing the dimension of vectors used in training support vector machines (SVMs) results in a proportional speedup in training time. For large-scale problems this can make the difference between tractable and intractable training tasks. However, it is critical that classifiers trained on reduced datasets perform as reliably as their counterparts trained on high-dimensional data. We assessed principal component analysis (PCA) and sequential project pursuit (SPP) as dimension reduction strategies in the biology application of classifying proteins into well-defined functional ‘families’ (SVM-based protein family classification) by their impact on run-time, sensitivity and selectivity. Homology vectors of 4352 elements were reduced to approximately 2% of the original data size without significantly affecting accuracy using PCA and SPP, while leading to approximately a 28-fold speedup in run-time.

  18. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Diversity in Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, Glenn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning languages that uses computers and other technologies to present, reinforce, and assess material to be learned, or to create environments where teachers and learners can interact with one another and the outside world. This book provides a much-needed overview of the…

  19. Scaling Critical Zone analysis tasks from desktop to the cloud utilizing contemporary distributed computing and data management approaches: A case study for project based learning of Cyberinfrastructure concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swetnam, T. L.; Pelletier, J. D.; Merchant, N.; Callahan, N.; Lyons, E.

    2015-12-01

    Earth science is making rapid advances through effective utilization of large-scale data repositories such as aerial LiDAR and access to NSF-funded cyberinfrastructures (e.g. the OpenTopography.org data portal, iPlant Collaborative, and XSEDE). Scaling analysis tasks that are traditionally developed using desktops, laptops or computing clusters to effectively leverage national and regional scale cyberinfrastructure pose unique challenges and barriers to adoption. To address some of these challenges in Fall 2014 an 'Applied Cyberinfrastructure Concepts' a project-based learning course (ISTA 420/520) at the University of Arizona focused on developing scalable models of 'Effective Energy and Mass Transfer' (EEMT, MJ m-2 yr-1) for use by the NSF Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) project. EEMT is a quantitative measure of the flux of available energy to the critical zone, and its computation involves inputs that have broad applicability (e.g. solar insolation). The course comprised of 25 students with varying level of computational skills and with no prior domain background in the geosciences, collaborated with domain experts to develop the scalable workflow. The original workflow relying on open-source QGIS platform on a laptop was scaled to effectively utilize cloud environments (Openstack), UA Campus HPC systems, iRODS, and other XSEDE and OSG resources. The project utilizes public data, e.g. DEMs produced by OpenTopography.org and climate data from Daymet, which are processed using GDAL, GRASS and SAGA and the Makeflow and Work-queue task management software packages. Students were placed into collaborative groups to develop the separate aspects of the project. They were allowed to change teams, alter workflows, and design and develop novel code. The students were able to identify all necessary dependencies, recompile source onto the target execution platforms, and demonstrate a functional workflow, which was further improved upon by one of the group leaders over

  20. Teaching and Learning with Computers! A Method for American Indian Bilingual Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth

    Computer instruction can offer particular benefits to the Indian child. Computer use emphasizes the visual facets of learning, teaches language based skills needed for higher education and careers, and provides types of instruction proven effective with Indian children, such as private self-testing and cooperative learning. The Hupa, Yurok, Karuk,…

  1. Time and Learning Efficiency in Internet-Based Learning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, David A.; Levinson, Anthony J.; Garside, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Authors have claimed that Internet-based instruction promotes greater learning efficiency than non-computer methods. Objectives Determine, through a systematic synthesis of evidence in health professions education, how Internet-based instruction compares with non-computer instruction in time spent learning, and what features of Internet-based…

  2. LEO: A Learning Environment Organizer to Support Computer-Mediated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, John W.; Canas, Alberto J.

    2003-01-01

    This article contains a description of a network-based Learning Environment Organizer entitled LEO, which takes its impetus from the Assimilation Theory of meaningful learning. LEO represents a new approach to computer-mediated augmentation of face-to-face, or hybrid courses, and a different approach to distance learning course delivery. LEO…

  3. Learning theory and knowledge structures in computer-aided instruction.

    PubMed

    Jelovsek, F R; Catanzarite, V A; Price, R D; Stull, R E

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer-aided instructional (CAI) systems suffers from a lack of a cohesive theory of learning--how do students acquire and store knowledge? From studies of computer systems that learn and tutor, we can infer generic activities that appear to be integral parts of the learning process, such as aggregation, clustering, characterization, and storage for later retrieval. Learning is faster and more efficient if the goal of a task is made explicit. Hints should be given with the correct timing in relation to an objective so that students can advance in their own problem-solving strategies with the prerequisites in mind. The general form of a rule should usually be taught first, followed by exceptions and special instances. We review theories of learning associated with CAI that illustrate the classification of different types of knowledge. Rule-based (if-then) knowledge forms are represented in these theories, as are declarative and causal knowledge structures. Extracting the common themes from different classifications of knowledge may help us create better CAI.

  4. The Learning Effects of Computer Simulations in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutten, Nico; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; van der Veen, Jan T.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the (quasi)experimental research of the past decade on the learning effects of computer simulations in science education. The focus is on two questions: how use of computer simulations can enhance traditional education, and how computer simulations are best used in order to improve learning processes and outcomes. We report on…

  5. RASCAL: A Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John Christopher

    Both the background of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems in general and the requirements of a computer-aided learning system which would be a reasonable assistant to a teacher are discussed. RASCAL (Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning) is a first attempt at defining a CAI system which would individualize the learning…

  6. A Competency-Based Guided-Learning Algorithm Applied on Adaptively Guiding E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Wei-Chih; Li, Cheng-Hsiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm called competency-based guided-learning algorithm (CBGLA), which can be applied on adaptively guiding e-learning. Computational process analysis and mathematical derivation of competency-based learning (CBL) were used to develop the CBGLA. The proposed algorithm could generate an effective adaptively guiding…

  7. Pygmalion in Media-Based Learning: Effects of Quality Expectancies on Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fries, Stefan; Horz, Holger; Haimerl, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Two studies investigated how quality expectations affect students' outcomes of media-based learning. Experiment 1 (N=62) demonstrated that students expecting a high-end computer-based training programme learned most, whereas students expecting a programme of ambiguous quality learned least and students having no expectations performed in between.…

  8. A Computer Learning Center for Environmental Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustard, John F.

    2000-01-01

    In the fall of 1998, MacMillan Hall opened at Brown University to students. In MacMillan Hall was the new Computer Learning Center, since named the EarthLab which was outfitted with high-end workstations and peripherals primarily focused on the use of remotely sensed and other spatial data in the environmental sciences. The NASA grant we received as part of the "Centers of Excellence in Applications of Remote Sensing to Regional and Global Integrated Environmental Assessments" was the primary source of funds to outfit this learning and research center. Since opening, we have expanded the range of learning and research opportunities and integrated a cross-campus network of disciplines who have come together to learn and use spatial data of all kinds. The EarthLab also forms a core of undergraduate, graduate, and faculty research on environmental problems that draw upon the unique perspective of remotely sensed data. Over the last two years, the Earthlab has been a center for research on the environmental impact of water resource use in and regions, impact of the green revolution on forest cover in India, the design of forest preserves in Vietnam, and detailed assessments of the utility of thermal and hyperspectral data for water quality analysis. It has also been used extensively for local environmental activities, in particular studies on the impact of lead on the health of urban children in Rhode Island. Finally, the EarthLab has also served as a key educational and analysis center for activities related to the Brown University Affiliated Research Center that is devoted to transferring university research to the private sector.

  9. CyberPsychological Computation on Social Community of Ubiquitous Learning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Genghui; Huang, Shuang; Sun, Xuemin; Hu, Feng; Hu, Hongzhi; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Under the modern network environment, ubiquitous learning has been a popular way for people to study knowledge, exchange ideas, and share skills in the cyberspace. Existing research findings indicate that the learners' initiative and community cohesion play vital roles in the social communities of ubiquitous learning, and therefore how to stimulate the learners' interest and participation willingness so as to improve their enjoyable experiences in the learning process should be the primary consideration on this issue. This paper aims to explore an effective method to monitor the learners' psychological reactions based on their behavioral features in cyberspace and therefore provide useful references for adjusting the strategies in the learning process. In doing so, this paper firstly analyzes the psychological assessment of the learners' situations as well as their typical behavioral patterns and then discusses the relationship between the learners' psychological reactions and their observable features in cyberspace. Finally, this paper puts forward a CyberPsychological computation method to estimate the learners' psychological states online. Considering the diversity of learners' habitual behaviors in the reactions to their psychological changes, a BP-GA neural network is proposed for the computation based on their personalized behavioral patterns. PMID:26557846

  10. CyberPsychological Computation on Social Community of Ubiquitous Learning

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Genghui; Huang, Shuang; Sun, Xuemin; Hu, Feng; Hu, Hongzhi; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Under the modern network environment, ubiquitous learning has been a popular way for people to study knowledge, exchange ideas, and share skills in the cyberspace. Existing research findings indicate that the learners' initiative and community cohesion play vital roles in the social communities of ubiquitous learning, and therefore how to stimulate the learners' interest and participation willingness so as to improve their enjoyable experiences in the learning process should be the primary consideration on this issue. This paper aims to explore an effective method to monitor the learners' psychological reactions based on their behavioral features in cyberspace and therefore provide useful references for adjusting the strategies in the learning process. In doing so, this paper firstly analyzes the psychological assessment of the learners' situations as well as their typical behavioral patterns and then discusses the relationship between the learners' psychological reactions and their observable features in cyberspace. Finally, this paper puts forward a CyberPsychological computation method to estimate the learners' psychological states online. Considering the diversity of learners' habitual behaviors in the reactions to their psychological changes, a BP-GA neural network is proposed for the computation based on their personalized behavioral patterns. PMID:26557846

  11. CyberPsychological Computation on Social Community of Ubiquitous Learning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Genghui; Huang, Shuang; Sun, Xuemin; Hu, Feng; Hu, Hongzhi; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Under the modern network environment, ubiquitous learning has been a popular way for people to study knowledge, exchange ideas, and share skills in the cyberspace. Existing research findings indicate that the learners' initiative and community cohesion play vital roles in the social communities of ubiquitous learning, and therefore how to stimulate the learners' interest and participation willingness so as to improve their enjoyable experiences in the learning process should be the primary consideration on this issue. This paper aims to explore an effective method to monitor the learners' psychological reactions based on their behavioral features in cyberspace and therefore provide useful references for adjusting the strategies in the learning process. In doing so, this paper firstly analyzes the psychological assessment of the learners' situations as well as their typical behavioral patterns and then discusses the relationship between the learners' psychological reactions and their observable features in cyberspace. Finally, this paper puts forward a CyberPsychological computation method to estimate the learners' psychological states online. Considering the diversity of learners' habitual behaviors in the reactions to their psychological changes, a BP-GA neural network is proposed for the computation based on their personalized behavioral patterns.

  12. Less interclass disturbance learning for unsupervised neural computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lurng-Kuo; Ligomenides, Panos A.

    1991-11-01

    A number of training algorithms for neural networks are based on the 'competition' learning method. This is regarded as an adaptive process for tuning neural networks to specific features of input. The responses from the neural network, then, tend to become localized. However, a shortcoming of this model is that some neural units can remain inactive. Since a neural unit never learns unless it wins, it is possible that some of the neural units are always outperformed by others, and therefore never learn. This paper presents a new unsupervised learning algorithm, less-interclass-disturbance learning (LID), which deals with the limitations of the simple competitive neural network. The main idea of the method is that it reinforces the competing neurons in such a way as to prevent the weights from 'fooling around.' A new compound similarity metric is introduced in this algorithm to reduce the interclass disturbance during the training process. The behavior of this algorithm was investigated through computer simulations. It is shown that LID learning is quite effective.

  13. Reducing the computational footprint for real-time BCPNN learning

    PubMed Central

    Vogginger, Bernhard; Schüffny, René; Lansner, Anders; Cederström, Love; Partzsch, Johannes; Höppner, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of synaptic plasticity in neural simulation or neuromorphic hardware is usually very resource-intensive, often requiring a compromise between efficiency and flexibility. A versatile, but computationally-expensive plasticity mechanism is provided by the Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network (BCPNN) paradigm. Building upon Bayesian statistics, and having clear links to biological plasticity processes, the BCPNN learning rule has been applied in many fields, ranging from data classification, associative memory, reward-based learning, probabilistic inference to cortical attractor memory networks. In the spike-based version of this learning rule the pre-, postsynaptic and coincident activity is traced in three low-pass-filtering stages, requiring a total of eight state variables, whose dynamics are typically simulated with the fixed step size Euler method. We derive analytic solutions allowing an efficient event-driven implementation of this learning rule. Further speedup is achieved by first rewriting the model which reduces the number of basic arithmetic operations per update to one half, and second by using look-up tables for the frequently calculated exponential decay. Ultimately, in a typical use case, the simulation using our approach is more than one order of magnitude faster than with the fixed step size Euler method. Aiming for a small memory footprint per BCPNN synapse, we also evaluate the use of fixed-point numbers for the state variables, and assess the number of bits required to achieve same or better accuracy than with the conventional explicit Euler method. All of this will allow a real-time simulation of a reduced cortex model based on BCPNN in high performance computing. More important, with the analytic solution at hand and due to the reduced memory bandwidth, the learning rule can be efficiently implemented in dedicated or existing digital neuromorphic hardware. PMID:25657618

  14. Identification of Learning Processes by Means of Computer Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Birgitte Holm

    1993-01-01

    Describes a development project for the use of computer graphics and video in connection with an inservice training course for primary education teachers in Denmark. Topics addressed include research approaches to computers; computer graphics in learning processes; activities relating to computer graphics; the role of the teacher; and student…

  15. Learning To Use Computers for Future Communication Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurme, Pertti

    A study examined how to teach computer skills to future professionals in communications. The context of the study was the communications department in a mid-sized Finnish university. Data was collected on computer use and attitudes to computers and computer-mediated communication by means of surveys and learning journals during the Communications…

  16. Computer Attitudes and Learning Performance: Issues for Management Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Hlavka, Angela

    This paper focuses on the relationship between trainees' attitudes and learning performance in computer courses. Based on the assumption that university graduates must be computer literate before entering the workforce, a study was conducted to examine how attitudes held before attending a computer course differed on the basis of gender, intention…

  17. A System Computational Model of Implicit Emotional Learning

    PubMed Central

    Puviani, Luca; Rama, Sidita

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the experimental study of emotional learning is commonly based on classical conditioning paradigms and models, which have been thoroughly investigated in the last century. Unluckily, models based on classical conditioning are unable to explain or predict important psychophysiological phenomena, such as the failure of the extinction of emotional responses in certain circumstances (for instance, those observed in evaluative conditioning, in post-traumatic stress disorders and in panic attacks). In this manuscript, starting from the experimental results available from the literature, a computational model of implicit emotional learning based both on prediction errors computation and on statistical inference is developed. The model quantitatively predicts (a) the occurrence of evaluative conditioning, (b) the dynamics and the resistance-to-extinction of the traumatic emotional responses, (c) the mathematical relation between classical conditioning and unconditioned stimulus revaluation. Moreover, we discuss how the derived computational model can lead to the development of new animal models for resistant-to-extinction emotional reactions and novel methodologies of emotions modulation. PMID:27378898

  18. A System Computational Model of Implicit Emotional Learning.

    PubMed

    Puviani, Luca; Rama, Sidita

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the experimental study of emotional learning is commonly based on classical conditioning paradigms and models, which have been thoroughly investigated in the last century. Unluckily, models based on classical conditioning are unable to explain or predict important psychophysiological phenomena, such as the failure of the extinction of emotional responses in certain circumstances (for instance, those observed in evaluative conditioning, in post-traumatic stress disorders and in panic attacks). In this manuscript, starting from the experimental results available from the literature, a computational model of implicit emotional learning based both on prediction errors computation and on statistical inference is developed. The model quantitatively predicts (a) the occurrence of evaluative conditioning, (b) the dynamics and the resistance-to-extinction of the traumatic emotional responses, (c) the mathematical relation between classical conditioning and unconditioned stimulus revaluation. Moreover, we discuss how the derived computational model can lead to the development of new animal models for resistant-to-extinction emotional reactions and novel methodologies of emotions modulation. PMID:27378898

  19. Understanding and Predicting Student Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Game-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Jennifer L.; Shores, Lucy R.; Mott, Bradford W.; Lester, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulated learning behaviors such as goal setting and monitoring have been found to be crucial to students' success in computer-based learning environments. Consequently, understanding students' self-regulated learning behavior has been the subject of increasing attention. Unfortunately, monitoring these behaviors in real-time has…

  20. Learning Histories in Simulation-Based Teaching: The Effects on Self-Learning and Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parush, A.; Hamm, H.; Shtub, A.

    2002-01-01

    Reports results of a controlled experiment to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of a learning process that takes place in a dynamic computer-based simulation, done with and without recording and accessing the history of the learning process. Discusses findings with respect to the self-learning process and using simulators in electronic…

  1. How Effective Is Instructional Support for Learning with Computer Simulations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhardt, Marc; Urhahne, Detlef; Conrad, Olaf; Harms, Ute

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effects of two different instructional interventions as support for scientific discovery learning using computer simulations. In two well-known categories of difficulty, data interpretation and self-regulation, instructional interventions for learning with computer simulations on the topic "ecosystem water" were developed…

  2. Proactive Guidance in Computer-Assisted Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    A discussion of computer-assisted language learning focuses on management of individual learning processes. As distinct from a reference package, a computer-assisted teaching program has to assure that the student acquires and retains the complete information in the most efficient way, provide accurate and useful material, and pique the student's…

  3. The Contribution of Visualization to Learning Computer Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yehezkel, Cecile; Ben-Ari, Mordechai; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a visualization environment and associated learning activities designed to improve learning of computer architecture. The environment, EasyCPU, displays a model of the components of a computer and the dynamic processes involved in program execution. We present the results of a research program that analysed the contribution of…

  4. The Role of Errors in Learning Computer Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin H.

    2007-01-01

    Little research has been done examining the role of errors in learning computer software. It is argued, though, that understanding the errors that people make while learning new software is important to improving instruction. The purpose of the current study was to (a) develop a meaningful and practical system for classifying computer software…

  5. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Tim, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning in Higher Education" provides a resource for researchers and practitioners in the area of computer-supported collaborative learning (also known as CSCL); particularly those working within a tertiary education environment. It includes articles of relevance to those interested in both theory and practice in…

  6. Work-Based Learning: Learning To Work; Working To Learn; Learning To Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strumpf, Lori; Mains, Kristine

    This document describes a work-based learning approach designed to integrate work and learning at the workplace and thereby help young people develop the skills required for changing workplaces. The following considerations in designing work-based programs are discussed: the trend toward high performance workplaces and changes in the way work is…

  7. E-Learning Activity-Based Material Recommendation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng-jung; Shih, Bai-jiun

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Computer based systems have great potential for delivering learning material. However, problems are encountered, such as: difficulty of Learning resource sharing, high redundancy of learning material, and deficiency of the course brief. In order to solve these problems, this paper aims to propose an automatic inquiring system for learning…

  8. A New Design Approach to Game-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2012-01-01

    This paper puts forward a new design perspective for game-based learning. The general idea is to abandon the long sought-after dream of designing a closed learning system, where students in both primary and secondary school could learn--without the interference of teachers--whatever subject they wanted while sitting in front of a computer. This…

  9. The Computational Development of Reinforcement Learning during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Palminteri, Stefano; Coricelli, Giorgio; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of life characterised by changes in learning and decision-making. Learning and decision-making do not rely on a unitary system, but instead require the coordination of different cognitive processes that can be mathematically formalised as dissociable computational modules. Here, we aimed to trace the developmental time-course of the computational modules responsible for learning from reward or punishment, and learning from counterfactual feedback. Adolescents and adults carried out a novel reinforcement learning paradigm in which participants learned the association between cues and probabilistic outcomes, where the outcomes differed in valence (reward versus punishment) and feedback was either partial or complete (either the outcome of the chosen option only, or the outcomes of both the chosen and unchosen option, were displayed). Computational strategies changed during development: whereas adolescents’ behaviour was better explained by a basic reinforcement learning algorithm, adults’ behaviour integrated increasingly complex computational features, namely a counterfactual learning module (enabling enhanced performance in the presence of complete feedback) and a value contextualisation module (enabling symmetrical reward and punishment learning). Unlike adults, adolescent performance did not benefit from counterfactual (complete) feedback. In addition, while adults learned symmetrically from both reward and punishment, adolescents learned from reward but were less likely to learn from punishment. This tendency to rely on rewards and not to consider alternative consequences of actions might contribute to our understanding of decision-making in adolescence. PMID:27322574

  10. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  11. The Computational Development of Reinforcement Learning during Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Palminteri, Stefano; Kilford, Emma J; Coricelli, Giorgio; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence is a period of life characterised by changes in learning and decision-making. Learning and decision-making do not rely on a unitary system, but instead require the coordination of different cognitive processes that can be mathematically formalised as dissociable computational modules. Here, we aimed to trace the developmental time-course of the computational modules responsible for learning from reward or punishment, and learning from counterfactual feedback. Adolescents and adults carried out a novel reinforcement learning paradigm in which participants learned the association between cues and probabilistic outcomes, where the outcomes differed in valence (reward versus punishment) and feedback was either partial or complete (either the outcome of the chosen option only, or the outcomes of both the chosen and unchosen option, were displayed). Computational strategies changed during development: whereas adolescents' behaviour was better explained by a basic reinforcement learning algorithm, adults' behaviour integrated increasingly complex computational features, namely a counterfactual learning module (enabling enhanced performance in the presence of complete feedback) and a value contextualisation module (enabling symmetrical reward and punishment learning). Unlike adults, adolescent performance did not benefit from counterfactual (complete) feedback. In addition, while adults learned symmetrically from both reward and punishment, adolescents learned from reward but were less likely to learn from punishment. This tendency to rely on rewards and not to consider alternative consequences of actions might contribute to our understanding of decision-making in adolescence.

  12. The Computational Development of Reinforcement Learning during Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Palminteri, Stefano; Kilford, Emma J; Coricelli, Giorgio; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence is a period of life characterised by changes in learning and decision-making. Learning and decision-making do not rely on a unitary system, but instead require the coordination of different cognitive processes that can be mathematically formalised as dissociable computational modules. Here, we aimed to trace the developmental time-course of the computational modules responsible for learning from reward or punishment, and learning from counterfactual feedback. Adolescents and adults carried out a novel reinforcement learning paradigm in which participants learned the association between cues and probabilistic outcomes, where the outcomes differed in valence (reward versus punishment) and feedback was either partial or complete (either the outcome of the chosen option only, or the outcomes of both the chosen and unchosen option, were displayed). Computational strategies changed during development: whereas adolescents' behaviour was better explained by a basic reinforcement learning algorithm, adults' behaviour integrated increasingly complex computational features, namely a counterfactual learning module (enabling enhanced performance in the presence of complete feedback) and a value contextualisation module (enabling symmetrical reward and punishment learning). Unlike adults, adolescent performance did not benefit from counterfactual (complete) feedback. In addition, while adults learned symmetrically from both reward and punishment, adolescents learned from reward but were less likely to learn from punishment. This tendency to rely on rewards and not to consider alternative consequences of actions might contribute to our understanding of decision-making in adolescence. PMID:27322574

  13. Setting the New Standard with Mobile Computing in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Yuhsun Edward; Mills, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Mobile learning represents exciting new frontiers in education and pedagogy. With the features of "wearable" computing and multimedia content delivery via mobile technologies, mobile learning becomes feasible and offers new benefits to instructors and learners. How do mobile technologies influence our teaching and learning in traditional…

  14. Measures of Writing Development in Learning Environments Using Cooperative Learning (CL) and Computer Mediated Communication (CMC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Natan, Irit; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel

    The computer-mediated communication (CMC) learning environment focuses on children's interaction with the computers and their mastery of the technology as potential for learning. Peer interaction mainly in cooperative and collaborative learning environments (CL) focus on the contribution of peers to literacy and writing development. A study…

  15. Confusion and Complex Learning during Interactions with Computer Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Blair; D'Mello, Sidney; Graesser, Art

    2012-01-01

    Folk wisdom holds that being confused is detrimental to learning. However, research on emotions and learning suggest a somewhat more complex relationship between confusion and learning outcomes. In fact, it has been proposed that impasses that trigger states of cognitive disequilibrium and confusion can create opportunities for deep learning of…

  16. Interactive Computer-Assisted Instruction in Acid-Base Physiology for Mobile Computer Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmuir, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    In this project, the traditional lecture hall presentation of acid-base physiology in the first-year medical school curriculum was replaced by interactive, computer-assisted instruction designed primarily for the iPad and other mobile computer platforms. Three learning modules were developed, each with ~20 screens of information, on the subjects…

  17. Software Application for Computer Aided Vocabulary Learning in a Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essam, Rasha

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the effect of computer-aided vocabulary learning software called "ArabCAVL" on students' vocabulary acquisition. It was hypothesized that students who use the ArabCAVL software in blended learning environment will surpass students who use traditional vocabulary learning strategies in face-to-face learning environment even…

  18. Students' Personality, Attitude, and Learning Style as Predictors of Performance in an Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Course Using Computer-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevin, Richard C.; Liberty, Paul G., Jr.

    Students enrolled in an organic chemistry course were given a diagnostic inventory according to the SCRAPE model. Information was obtained on 11 motivational personality variable and three attitudinal variables for students in both computer-based instruction and regular instruction sections. Descriptive statistics were obtained on each instrument…

  19. Applying Learning Design to Work-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miao, Yongwu; Hoppe, Heinz Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Learning design is currently slanted to reflect a course-based approach to learning. This article explores whether the concept of learning design could be applied to support the informal aspects of work-based learning (WBL). It also discusses the characteristics of WBL and presents a WBL-specific learning design that highlights the key features…

  20. Learning Consequences of Mobile-Computing Technologies: Differential Impacts on Integrative Learning and Skill-Focused Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumi, Richard; Reychav, Iris; Sabherwal, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Many educational institutions are integrating mobile-computing technologies (MCT) into the classroom to improve learning outcomes. There is also a growing interest in research to understand how MCT influence learning outcomes. The diversity of results in prior research indicates that computer-mediated learning has different effects on various…

  1. Computer Use by School Teachers in Teaching-Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhalla, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries have a responsibility not merely to provide computers for schools, but also to foster a habit of infusing a variety of ways in which computers can be integrated in teaching-learning amongst the end users of these tools. Earlier researches lacked a systematic study of the manner and the extent of computer-use by teachers. The…

  2. Research Issues in Computer-Assisted Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, S. Kim

    This review of the research on concerns associated with the use of computers in school learning environments focuses primarily on issues related to the impact of computer technology on equity, especially the reasons for differential use of computers by boys and girls and the effects of economic disparities among schools and students; differences…

  3. Designing for deeper learning in a blended computer science course for middle school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Shuchi; Pea, Roy; Cooper, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The focus of this research was to create and test an introductory computer science course for middle school. Titled "Foundations for Advancing Computational Thinking" (FACT), the course aims to prepare and motivate middle school learners for future engagement with algorithmic problem solving. FACT was also piloted as a seven-week course on Stanford's OpenEdX MOOC platform for blended in-class learning. Unique aspects of FACT include balanced pedagogical designs that address the cognitive, interpersonal, and intrapersonal aspects of "deeper learning"; a focus on pedagogical strategies for mediating and assessing for transfer from block-based to text-based programming; curricular materials for remedying misperceptions of computing; and "systems of assessments" (including formative and summative quizzes and tests, directed as well as open-ended programming assignments, and a transfer test) to get a comprehensive picture of students' deeper computational learning. Empirical investigations, accomplished over two iterations of a design-based research effort with students (aged 11-14 years) in a public school, sought to examine student understanding of algorithmic constructs, and how well students transferred this learning from Scratch to text-based languages. Changes in student perceptions of computing as a discipline were measured. Results and mixed-method analyses revealed that students in both studies (1) achieved substantial learning gains in algorithmic thinking skills, (2) were able to transfer their learning from Scratch to a text-based programming context, and (3) achieved significant growth toward a more mature understanding of computing as a discipline. Factor analyses of prior computing experience, multivariate regression analyses, and qualitative analyses of student projects and artifact-based interviews were conducted to better understand the factors affecting learning outcomes. Prior computing experiences (as measured by a pretest) and math ability were

  4. The Impact of Instructional Elements in Computer-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Florence; Klein, James D.; Sullivan, Howard

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of several elements of instruction (objectives, information, practice, examples and review) when they were combined in a systematic manner. College students enrolled in a computer literacy course used one of six different versions of a computer-based lesson delivered on the web to learn about input, processing,…

  5. Developing Educational Computer Animation Based on Human Personality Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Sajid; Ziatdinov, Rushan; Sozcu, Omer Faruk; Griffiths, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Computer animation in the past decade has become one of the most noticeable features of technology-based learning environments. By its definition, it refers to simulated motion pictures showing movement of drawn objects, and is often defined as the art in movement. Its educational application known as educational computer animation is considered…

  6. Development of Computer-Based Resources for Textile Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Teresa; Thomas, Andrew; Bailey, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Describes the production of computer-based resources for students of textiles and engineering in the United Kingdom. Highlights include funding by the Teaching and Learning Technology Programme (TLTP), courseware author/subject expert interaction, usage test and evaluation, authoring software, graphics, computer-aided design simulation, self-test…

  7. Brain-based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Ruth Palombo

    2000-01-01

    Discusses brain research and how new imaging technologies allow scientists to explore how human brains process memory, emotion, attention, patterning, motivation, and context. Explains how brain research is being used to revise learning theories. (JOW)

  8. Computer-Based Career Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mau, Wei-Cheng

    The possible utilities and limitations of computer-assisted career guidance systems (CACG) have been widely discussed although the effectiveness of CACG has not been systematically considered. This paper investigates the effectiveness of a theory-based CACG program, integrating Sequential Elimination and Expected Utility strategies. Three types of…

  9. Computer Based Virtual Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kenneth F.; Hosticka, Alice; Schriver, Martha; Bedell, Jackie

    This paper discusses computer based virtual field trips that use technologies commonly found in public schools in the United States. The discussion focuses on the advantages of both using and creating these field trips for an instructional situation. A virtual field trip to Cumberland Island National Seashore, St. Marys, Georgia is used as a point…

  10. Does Artificial Tutoring Foster Inquiry Based Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmoelz, Alexander; Swertz, Christian; Forstner, Alexandra; Barberi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This contribution looks at the Intelligent Tutoring Interface for Technology Enhanced Learning, which integrates multistage-learning and inquiry-based learning in an adaptive e-learning system. Based on a common pedagogical ontology, adaptive e-learning systems can be enabled to recommend learning objects and activities, which follow inquiry-based…

  11. Using Wikis as a Support and Assessment Tool in Collaborative Digital Game-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samur, Yavuz

    2011-01-01

    In computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments, there are many researches done on collaborative learning activities; however, in game-based learning environments, more research and literature on collaborative learning activities are required. Actually, both game-based learning environments and wikis enable us to use new chances…

  12. Problem Based Learning: Mystery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohland, Mark A.

    This guide features a problem-based learning (PBL) unit specifically designed for student-centered learning of new and meaningful content on diseases. Students grapple with a complex and changing problem that requires higher level thinking skills in an environment in which students work both individually and in collaboration with others. Includes…

  13. Information Processing Models and Computer Aids for Human Performance. Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalikow, Daniel N.; Rollins, Ann M.

    The task is to carry out the final development of a computer-based system for automated instruction of the new speech sounds of second languages, and to field-test this system for two language pairs: English speakers learning Mandarin Chinese, and Spanish speakers learning English. This report describes the first evaluation experiment of the Mark…

  14. Using Computer Simulations in Inductive Learning Strategies with Children in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieber, Lloyd P.; Kini, Asit

    1995-01-01

    Examines effects of deductive versus inductive learning strategies on performance, comprehension monitoring, and response confidence, using combinations of computer-based tutorials and simulations of Newton's laws of motion. Participants were 353 fifth graders. Deductive learning was defined as the tutorial combined with the structured or…

  15. Learning second language vocabulary: neural dissociation of situation-based learning and text-based learning.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-04-01

    Second language (L2) acquisition necessitates learning and retrieving new words in different modes. In this study, we attempted to investigate the cortical representation of an L2 vocabulary acquired in different learning modes and in cross-modal transfer between learning and retrieval. Healthy participants learned new L2 words either by written translations (text-based learning) or in real-life situations (situation-based learning). Brain activity was then measured during subsequent retrieval of these words. The right supramarginal gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus were involved in situation-based learning and text-based learning, respectively, whereas the left inferior frontal gyrus was activated when learners used L2 knowledge in a mode different from the learning mode. Our findings indicate that the brain regions that mediate L2 memory differ according to how L2 words are learned and used.

  16. Project-Based Learning: Teachers Learning and Using High-Tech to Preserve Cajun Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yixin

    2002-01-01

    Using project-based learning pedagogy in EdTc 658 Advances in Educational Technology, I have trained inservice teachers in Southwestern Louisiana with an advanced computer multimedia program called Director[R] (Macromedia, Inc.) [1]. The content of this course focused on modeling the project-based learning pedagogy and researching Acadian's…

  17. Scaffolding Problem-Based Learning with CSCL Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jingyan; Lajoie, Susanne P.; Wiseman, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Small-group medical problem-based learning (PBL) was a pioneering form of collaborative learning at the university level. It has traditionally been delivered in face-to-face text-based format. With the advancement of computer technology and progress in CSCL, educational researchers are now exploring how to design digitally-implemented scaffolding…

  18. Technology Integration Applied to Project-Based Learning in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ChanLin, Lih-Juan

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study which observed students' (aged 10-11) use of technology during project-based learning activities in science. As part of the overall process of project-based learning, students used computer technology as a tool for collecting information, organising it and presenting it to their peers. Students conducted…

  19. Spatial Learning and Computer Simulations in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Robb; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Interactive simulations are entering mainstream science education. Their effects on cognition and learning are often framed by the legacy of information processing, which emphasized amodal problem solving and conceptual organization. In contrast, this paper reviews simulations from the vantage of research on perception and spatial learning,…

  20. Detecting Soft Errors in Stencil based Computations

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, V.; Gopalkrishnan, G.; Bronevetsky, G.

    2015-05-06

    Given the growing emphasis on system resilience, it is important to develop software-level error detectors that help trap hardware-level faults with reasonable accuracy while minimizing false alarms as well as the performance overhead introduced. We present a technique that approaches this idea by taking stencil computations as our target, and synthesizing detectors based on machine learning. In particular, we employ linear regression to generate computationally inexpensive models which form the basis for error detection. Our technique has been incorporated into a new open-source library called SORREL. In addition to reporting encouraging experimental results, we demonstrate techniques that help reduce the size of training data. We also discuss the efficacy of various detectors synthesized, as well as our future plans.

  1. The Development of a Robot-Based Learning Companion: A User-Centered Design Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Yi-Zeng; Su, Mu-Chun; Chen, Sherry Y.; Chen, Gow-Dong

    2015-01-01

    A computer-vision-based method is widely employed to support the development of a variety of applications. In this vein, this study uses a computer-vision-based method to develop a playful learning system, which is a robot-based learning companion named RobotTell. Unlike existing playful learning systems, a user-centered design (UCD) approach is…

  2. Computer-Mediated Materials for Chinese Character Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Gao, Liwei

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four sets of computer-mediated materials for Chinese character learning. These include the following: Write Chinese, Chinese Characters Primer, Animated Chinese Characters, and USC Chinese Character Page. (Author/VWL)

  3. Using Computer Technology To Foster Learning for Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Melle, Elaine; Tomalty, Lewis

    2000-01-01

    Describes how computer technology, specifically the use of a multimedia CD-ROM, was integrated into a microbiology curriculum as part of the transition from focusing on facts to fostering learning for understanding. (Contains 30 references.) (Author/YDS)

  4. Stochastic learning in oxide binary synaptic device for neuromorphic computing

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shimeng; Gao, Bin; Fang, Zheng; Yu, Hongyu; Kang, Jinfeng; Wong, H.-S. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design. PMID:24198752

  5. Efficient reinforcement learning: computational theories, neuroscience and robotics.

    PubMed

    Kawato, Mitsuo; Samejima, Kazuyuki

    2007-04-01

    Reinforcement learning algorithms have provided some of the most influential computational theories for behavioral learning that depends on reward and penalty. After briefly reviewing supporting experimental data, this paper tackles three difficult theoretical issues that remain to be explored. First, plain reinforcement learning is much too slow to be considered a plausible brain model. Second, although the temporal-difference error has an important role both in theory and in experiments, how to compute it remains an enigma. Third, function of all brain areas, including the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem and basal ganglia, seems to necessitate a new computational framework. Computational studies that emphasize meta-parameters, hierarchy, modularity and supervised learning to resolve these issues are reviewed here, together with the related experimental data.

  6. Network-based stochastic semisupervised learning.

    PubMed

    Silva, Thiago Christiano; Zhao, Liang

    2012-03-01

    Semisupervised learning is a machine learning approach that is able to employ both labeled and unlabeled samples in the training process. In this paper, we propose a semisupervised data classification model based on a combined random-preferential walk of particles in a network (graph) constructed from the input dataset. The particles of the same class cooperate among themselves, while the particles of different classes compete with each other to propagate class labels to the whole network. A rigorous model definition is provided via a nonlinear stochastic dynamical system and a mathematical analysis of its behavior is carried out. A numerical validation presented in this paper confirms the theoretical predictions. An interesting feature brought by the competitive-cooperative mechanism is that the proposed model can achieve good classification rates while exhibiting low computational complexity order in comparison to other network-based semisupervised algorithms. Computer simulations conducted on synthetic and real-world datasets reveal the effectiveness of the model.

  7. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2015-01-27

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  8. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2014-12-30

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  9. Trainee Teachers' e-Learning Experiences of Computer Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Pam

    2009-01-01

    Pam Wright highlights the role of technology in providing situated learning opportunities for preservice teachers to explore the role commercial computer games may have in primary education. In a study designed to assess the effectiveness of an online unit on gaming incorporated into a course on learning technologies, Wright found that thoughtful…

  10. Toward Effective Group Formation in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Hamid; Kardan, Ahmad A.

    2016-01-01

    Group formation task as a starting point for computer-supported collaborative learning plays a key role in achieving pedagogical goals. Various approaches have been reported in the literature to address this problem, but none have offered an optimal solution. In this research, an online learning environment was modeled as a weighted undirected…

  11. A "Service-Learning Approach" to Teaching Computer Graphics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzel, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The author taught a computer graphics course through a service-learning framework to undergraduate and graduate students in the spring of 2003 at Florida State University (FSU). The students in this course participated in learning a software program along with youths from a neighboring, low-income, primarily African-American community. Together,…

  12. Working Together: Computers and People with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers ways in which people with learning disabilities can benefit from both mainstream and specialized computer hardware and software. First, definitions are provided of terminology, including terms such as dysgraphia, dyscalculia, dyspraxia, non-verbal learning disorder, and dyslexia. Discussion of the role of assistive…

  13. The Hyper Apuntes Interactive Learning Environment for Computer Programming Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommaruga, Lorenzo; Catenazzi, Nadia

    1998-01-01

    Describes the "Hyper Apuntes" interactive learning environment, used as a didactic support to a computer programming course taught at the University Carlos III of Madrid, Spain. The system allows students to study the material and see examples, edit, compile and run programs, and evaluate their learning degree. It is installed on a Web server,…

  14. Optimizing Computer Assisted Instruction By Applying Principles of Learning Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thomas O.

    The development of learning theory and its application to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are described. Among the early theoretical constructs thought to be important are E. L. Thorndike's concept of learning connectisms, Neal Miller's theory of motivation, and B. F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. Early devices incorporating those…

  15. TurtleGraph: A Computer Supported Cooperative Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jehng, Jihn-Chang J.; And Others

    This paper discusses a computerized learning environment called TurtleGraph that is designed and developed to support collaborative problem solving. Within the learning environment, learners are requested to write computer programs to generate geometric figures. The instructional focus of the system is to enhance the learner's List Processor…

  16. Mental Models and Transfer of Learning in Computer Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Yu-Fen; Alessi, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study investigating the effects of conceptual models (computer graphics and animation) on learning and transfer of code evaluation and generation skills of novice programmers; changes in declarative knowledge during skill acquisition; relationships between the quality of subjects' mental models and performance in skill learning and…

  17. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: From Vision to Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Learning a second language is a challenging endeavor, and, for decades now, proponents of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) have declared that help is on the horizon. As documented not only in the "CALICO Journal" over its 25-year history but also in other scholarly venues, research has demonstrated the value of CALL. Nevertheless,…

  18. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Bin; Xing, Minjie; Wang, Yuping; Sun, Mingyu; Xiang, Catherine H.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances highlights new research and an original framework that brings together foreign language teaching, experiments and testing practices that utilize the most recent and widely used e-learning resources. This comprehensive collection of research will offer linguistic…

  19. Supporting Students' Learning in the Domain of Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasparinatou, Alexandra; Grigoriadou, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that students with low knowledge understand and learn better from more cohesive texts, whereas high-knowledge students have been shown to learn better from texts of lower cohesion. This study examines whether high-knowledge readers in computer science benefit from a text of low cohesion. Undergraduate students (n = 65)…

  20. Using Cooperative Learning in a Middle School Computer Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Dwight C.

    The use of cooperative learning in a middle school computer laboratory was studied. Cooperative learning helps develop oral and group skills in middle school students as it allows them to socialize in an arena that does not always condone socializing. In this study, 4 heterogeneous groups were formed from 52 students, with male and female partners…