Sample records for computer vision syndrome

  1. Understanding and preventing computer vision syndrome.

    PubMed

    Loh, Ky; Redd, Sc

    2008-01-01

    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.

  2. Computer vision syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Blehm, Clayton; Vishnu, Seema; Khattak, Ashbala; Mitra, Shrabanee; Yee, Richard W

    2005-01-01

    As computers become part of our everyday life, more and more people are experiencing a variety of ocular symptoms related to computer use. These include eyestrain, tired eyes, irritation, redness, blurred vision, and double vision, collectively referred to as computer vision syndrome. This article describes both the characteristics and treatment modalities that are available at this time. Computer vision syndrome symptoms may be the cause of ocular (ocular-surface abnormalities or accommodative spasms) and/or extraocular (ergonomic) etiologies. However, the major contributor to computer vision syndrome symptoms by far appears to be dry eye. The visual effects of various display characteristics such as lighting, glare, display quality, refresh rates, and radiation are also discussed. Treatment requires a multidirectional approach combining ocular therapy with adjustment of the workstation. Proper lighting, anti-glare filters, ergonomic positioning of computer monitor and regular work breaks may help improve visual comfort. Lubricating eye drops and special computer glasses help relieve ocular surface-related symptoms. More work needs to be done to specifically define the processes that cause computer vision syndrome and to develop and improve effective treatments that successfully address these causes.

  3. Computer Vision Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Susan A

    2017-07-01

    With the increased use of electronic devices with visual displays, computer vision syndrome is becoming a major public health issue. Improving the visual status of workers using computers results in greater productivity in the workplace and improved visual comfort.

  4. Computer vision syndrome (CVS) - Thermographic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llamosa-Rincón, L. E.; Jaime-Díaz, J. M.; Ruiz-Cardona, D. F.

    2017-01-01

    The use of computers has reported an exponential growth in the last decades, the possibility of carrying out several tasks for both professional and leisure purposes has contributed to the great acceptance by the users. The consequences and impact of uninterrupted tasks with computers screens or displays on the visual health, have grabbed researcher’s attention. When spending long periods of time in front of a computer screen, human eyes are subjected to great efforts, which in turn triggers a set of symptoms known as Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS). Most common of them are: blurred vision, visual fatigue and Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) due to unappropriate lubrication of ocular surface when blinking decreases. An experimental protocol was de-signed and implemented to perform thermographic studies on healthy human eyes during exposure to dis-plays of computers, with the main purpose of comparing the existing differences in temperature variations of healthy ocular surfaces.

  5. Eyesight quality and Computer Vision Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bogdănici, Camelia Margareta; Săndulache, Diana Elena; Nechita, Corina Andreea

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effects that gadgets have on eyesight quality. A prospective observational study was conducted from January to July 2016, on 60 people who were divided into two groups: Group 1 - 30 middle school pupils with a mean age of 11.9 ± 1.86 and Group 2 - 30 patients evaluated in the Ophthalmology Clinic, "Sf. Spiridon" Hospital, Iași, with a mean age of 21.36 ± 7.16 years. The clinical parameters observed were the following: visual acuity (VA), objective refraction, binocular vision (BV), fusional amplitude (FA), Schirmer's test. A questionnaire was also distributed, which contained 8 questions that highlighted the gadget's impact on the eyesight. The use of different gadgets, such as computer, laptops, mobile phones or other displays become part of our everyday life and people experience a variety of ocular symptoms or vision problems related to these. Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) represents a group of visual and extraocular symptoms associated with sustained use of visual display terminals. Headache, blurred vision, and ocular congestion are the most frequent manifestations determined by the long time use of gadgets. Mobile phones and laptops are the most frequently used gadgets. People who use gadgets for a long time have a sustained effort for accommodation. A small amount of refractive errors (especially myopic shift) was objectively recorded by various studies on near work. Dry eye syndrome could also be identified, and an improvement of visual comfort could be observed after the instillation of artificial tears drops. Computer Vision Syndrome is still under-diagnosed, and people should be made aware of the bad effects the prolonged use of gadgets has on eyesight.

  6. [Meibomian gland disfunction in computer vision syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pimenidi, M K; Polunin, G S; Safonova, T N

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews ethiology and pathogenesis of dry eye syndrome due to meibomian gland disfunction (MDG). It is showed that blink rate influences meibomian gland functioning and computer vision syndrome development. Current diagnosis and treatment options of MDG are presented.

  7. Eyesight quality and Computer Vision Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bogdănici, Camelia Margareta; Săndulache, Diana Elena; Nechita, Corina Andreea

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effects that gadgets have on eyesight quality. A prospective observational study was conducted from January to July 2016, on 60 people who were divided into two groups: Group 1 – 30 middle school pupils with a mean age of 11.9 ± 1.86 and Group 2 – 30 patients evaluated in the Ophthalmology Clinic, “Sf. Spiridon” Hospital, Iași, with a mean age of 21.36 ± 7.16 years. The clinical parameters observed were the following: visual acuity (VA), objective refraction, binocular vision (BV), fusional amplitude (FA), Schirmer’s test. A questionnaire was also distributed, which contained 8 questions that highlighted the gadget’s impact on the eyesight. The use of different gadgets, such as computer, laptops, mobile phones or other displays become part of our everyday life and people experience a variety of ocular symptoms or vision problems related to these. Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) represents a group of visual and extraocular symptoms associated with sustained use of visual display terminals. Headache, blurred vision, and ocular congestion are the most frequent manifestations determined by the long time use of gadgets. Mobile phones and laptops are the most frequently used gadgets. People who use gadgets for a long time have a sustained effort for accommodation. A small amount of refractive errors (especially myopic shift) was objectively recorded by various studies on near work. Dry eye syndrome could also be identified, and an improvement of visual comfort could be observed after the instillation of artificial tears drops. Computer Vision Syndrome is still under-diagnosed, and people should be made aware of the bad effects the prolonged use of gadgets has on eyesight. PMID:29450383

  8. [Ophthalmologist and "computer vision syndrome"].

    PubMed

    Barar, A; Apatachioaie, Ioana Daniela; Apatachioaie, C; Marceanu-Brasov, L

    2007-01-01

    The authors had tried to collect the data available on the Internet about a subject that we consider as being totally ignored in the Romanian scientific literature and unexpectedly insufficiently treated in the specialized ophthalmologic literature. Known in the specialty literature under the generic name of "Computer vision syndrome", it is defined by the American Optometric Association as a complex of eye and vision problems related to the activities which stress the near vision and which are experienced in relation, or during, the use of the computer. During the consultations we hear frequent complaints of eye-strain - asthenopia, headaches, blurred distance and/or near vision, dry and irritated eyes, slow refocusing, neck and backache, photophobia, sensation of diplopia, light sensitivity, and double vision, but because of the lack of information, we overlooked them too easily, without going thoroughly into the real motives. In most of the developed countries, there are recommendations issued by renowned medical associations with regard to the definition, the diagnosis, and the methods for the prevention, treatment and periodical control of the symptoms found in computer users, in conjunction with an extremely detailed ergonomic legislation. We found out that these problems incite a much too low interest in our country. We would like to rouse the interest of our ophthalmologist colleagues in the understanding and the recognition of these symptoms and in their treatment, or at least their improvement, through specialized measures or through the cooperation with our specialist occupational medicine colleagues.

  9. Computer vision syndrome: A review.

    PubMed

    Gowrisankaran, Sowjanya; Sheedy, James E

    2015-01-01

    Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is a collection of symptoms related to prolonged work at a computer display. This article reviews the current knowledge about the symptoms, related factors and treatment modalities for CVS. Relevant literature on CVS published during the past 65 years was analyzed. Symptoms reported by computer users are classified into internal ocular symptoms (strain and ache), external ocular symptoms (dryness, irritation, burning), visual symptoms (blur, double vision) and musculoskeletal symptoms (neck and shoulder pain). The major factors associated with CVS are either environmental (improper lighting, display position and viewing distance) and/or dependent on the user's visual abilities (uncorrected refractive error, oculomotor disorders and tear film abnormalities). Although the factors associated with CVS have been identified the physiological mechanisms that underlie CVS are not completely understood. Additionally, advances in technology have led to the increased use of hand-held devices, which might impose somewhat different visual challenges compared to desktop displays. Further research is required to better understand the physiological mechanisms underlying CVS and symptoms associated with the use of hand-held and stereoscopic displays.

  10. Computer Vision Syndrome: Implications for the Occupational Health Nurse.

    PubMed

    Lurati, Ann Regina

    2018-02-01

    Computers and other digital devices are commonly used both in the workplace and during leisure time. Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is a new health-related condition that negatively affects workers. This article reviews the pathology of and interventions for CVS with implications for the occupational health nurse.

  11. Effect of contact lens use on Computer Vision Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tauste, Ana; Ronda, Elena; Molina, María-José; Seguí, Mar

    2016-03-01

    To analyse the relationship between Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) in computer workers and contact lens use, according to lens materials. Cross-sectional study. The study included 426 civil-service office workers, of whom 22% were contact lens wearers. Workers completed the Computer Vision Syndrome Questionnaire (CVS-Q) and provided information on their contact lenses and exposure to video display terminals (VDT) at work. CVS was defined as a CVS-Q score of 6 or more. The covariates were age and sex. Logistic regression was used to calculate the association (crude and adjusted for age and sex) between CVS and individual and work-related factors, and between CVS and contact lens type. Contact lens wearers are more likely to suffer CVS than non-lens wearers, with a prevalence of 65% vs 50%. Workers who wear contact lenses and are exposed to the computer for more than 6 h day(-1) are more likely to suffer CVS than non-lens wearers working at the computer for the same amount of time (aOR = 4.85; 95% CI, 1.25-18.80; p = 0.02). Regular contact lens use increases CVS after 6 h of computer work. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  12. Computer and visual display terminals (VDT) vision syndrome (CVDTS).

    PubMed

    Parihar, J K S; Jain, Vaibhav Kumar; Chaturvedi, Piyush; Kaushik, Jaya; Jain, Gunjan; Parihar, Ashwini K S

    2016-07-01

    Computer and visual display terminals have become an essential part of modern lifestyle. The use of these devices has made our life simple in household work as well as in offices. However the prolonged use of these devices is not without any complication. Computer and visual display terminals syndrome is a constellation of symptoms ocular as well as extraocular associated with prolonged use of visual display terminals. This syndrome is gaining importance in this modern era because of the widespread use of technologies in day-to-day life. It is associated with asthenopic symptoms, visual blurring, dry eyes, musculoskeletal symptoms such as neck pain, back pain, shoulder pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, psychosocial factors, venous thromboembolism, shoulder tendonitis, and elbow epicondylitis. Proper identification of symptoms and causative factors are necessary for the accurate diagnosis and management. This article focuses on the various aspects of the computer vision display terminals syndrome described in the previous literature. Further research is needed for the better understanding of the complex pathophysiology and management.

  13. Computer vision syndrome-A common cause of unexplained visual symptoms in the modern era.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Sunil; Varghese, Ashley; Dhar-Munshi, Sushma

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the evidence and available literature on the clinical, pathogenetic, prognostic and therapeutic aspects of Computer vision syndrome. Information was collected from Medline, Embase & National Library of Medicine over the last 30 years up to March 2016. The bibliographies of relevant articles were searched for additional references. Patients with Computer vision syndrome present to a variety of different specialists, including General Practitioners, Neurologists, Stroke physicians and Ophthalmologists. While the condition is common, there is a poor awareness in the public and among health professionals. Recognising this condition in the clinic or in emergency situations like the TIA clinic is crucial. The implications are potentially huge in view of the extensive and widespread use of computers and visual display units. Greater public awareness of Computer vision syndrome and education of health professionals is vital. Preventive strategies should form part of work place ergonomics routinely. Prompt and correct recognition is important to allow management and avoid unnecessary treatments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Comparative randomised active drug controlled clinical trial of a herbal eye drop in computer vision syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pranab Kr; Bairagi, Debasis; Roy, Sudipta; Majumder, Nilay Kr; Paul, Ratish Ch; Bagchi, Sunil Ch

    2005-07-01

    A comparative double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of a herbal eye drop (itone) was conducted to find out its efficacy and safety in 120 patients with computer vision syndrome. Patients using computers for more than 3 hours continuously per day having symptoms of watering, redness, asthenia, irritation, foreign body sensation and signs of conjunctival hyperaemia, corneal filaments and mucus were studied. One hundred and twenty patients were randomly given either placebo, tears substitute (tears plus) or itone in identical vials with specific code number and were instructed to put one drop four times daily for 6 weeks. Subjective and objective assessments were done at bi-weekly intervals. In computer vision syndrome both subjective and objective improvements were noticed with itone drops. Itone drop was found significantly better than placebo (p<0.01) and almost identical results were observed with tears plus (difference was not statistically significant). Itone is considered to be a useful drug in computer vision syndrome.

  15. Computer vision syndrome: a study of the knowledge, attitudes and practices in Indian ophthalmologists.

    PubMed

    Bali, Jatinder; Navin, Neeraj; Thakur, Bali Renu

    2007-01-01

    To study the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards computer vision syndrome prevalent in Indian ophthalmologists and to assess whether 'computer use by practitioners' had any bearing on the knowledge and practices in computer vision syndrome (CVS). A random KAP survey was carried out on 300 Indian ophthalmologists using a 34-point spot-questionnaire in January 2005. All the doctors who responded were aware of CVS. The chief presenting symptoms were eyestrain (97.8%), headache (82.1%), tiredness and burning sensation (79.1%), watering (66.4%) and redness (61.2%). Ophthalmologists using computers reported that focusing from distance to near and vice versa (P =0.006, chi2 test), blurred vision at a distance (P =0.016, chi2 test) and blepharospasm (P =0.026, chi2 test) formed part of the syndrome. The main mode of treatment used was tear substitutes. Half of ophthalmologists (50.7%) were not prescribing any spectacles. They did not have any preference for any special type of glasses (68.7%) or spectral filters. Computer-users were more likely to prescribe sedatives/anxiolytics (P = 0.04, chi2 test), spectacles (P = 0.02, chi2 test) and conscious frequent blinking (P = 0.003, chi2 test) than the non-computer-users. All respondents were aware of CVS. Confusion regarding treatment guidelines was observed in both groups. Computer-using ophthalmologists were more informed of symptoms and diagnostic signs but were misinformed about treatment modalities.

  16. Computer vision syndrome: a review of ocular causes and potential treatments.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is the combination of eye and vision problems associated with the use of computers. In modern western society the use of computers for both vocational and avocational activities is almost universal. However, CVS may have a significant impact not only on visual comfort but also occupational productivity since between 64% and 90% of computer users experience visual symptoms which may include eyestrain, headaches, ocular discomfort, dry eye, diplopia and blurred vision either at near or when looking into the distance after prolonged computer use. This paper reviews the principal ocular causes for this condition, namely oculomotor anomalies and dry eye. Accommodation and vergence responses to electronic screens appear to be similar to those found when viewing printed materials, whereas the prevalence of dry eye symptoms is greater during computer operation. The latter is probably due to a decrease in blink rate and blink amplitude, as well as increased corneal exposure resulting from the monitor frequently being positioned in primary gaze. However, the efficacy of proposed treatments to reduce symptoms of CVS is unproven. A better understanding of the physiology underlying CVS is critical to allow more accurate diagnosis and treatment. This will enable practitioners to optimize visual comfort and efficiency during computer operation. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  17. Factors leading to the computer vision syndrome: an issue at the contemporary workplace.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Juan C; García, Maribel; Buxó, Carmen; Izquierdo, Natalio J

    2007-01-01

    Vision and eye related problems are common among computer users, and have been collectively called the Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS). An observational study in order to identify the risk factors leading to the CVS was done. Twenty-eight participants answered a validated questionnaire, and had their workstations examined. The questionnaire evaluated personal, environmental, ergonomic factors, and physiologic response of computer users. The distance from the eye to the computers' monitor (A), the computers' monitor height (B), and visual axis height (C) were measured. The difference between B and C was calculated and labeled as D. Angles of gaze to the computer monitor were calculated using the formula: angle=tan-1(D/A). Angles were divided into two groups: participants with angles of gaze ranging from 0 degree to 13.9 degrees were included in Group 1; and participants gazing at angles larger than 14 degrees were included in Group 2. Statistical analysis of the evaluated variables was made. Computer users in both groups used more tear supplements (as part of the syndrome) than expected. This association was statistically significant (p < 0.10). Participants in Group 1 reported more pain than participants in Group 2. Associations between the CVS and other personal or ergonomic variables were not statistically significant. Our findings show that the most important factor leading to the syndrome is the angle of gaze at the computer monitor. Pain in computer users is diminished when gazing downwards at angles of 14 degrees or more. The CVS remains an under estimated and poorly understood issue at the workplace. The general public, health professionals, the government, and private industries need to be educated about the CVS.

  18. Factors leading to the Computer Vision Syndrome: an issue at the contemporary workplace.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Juan C; García, Maribel; Buxó, Carmen; Izquierdo, Natalio J

    2004-01-01

    Vision and eye related problems are common among computer users, and have been collectively called the Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS). An observational study in order to identify the risk factors leading to the CVS was done. Twenty-eight participants answered a validated questionnaire, and had their workstations examined. The questionnaire evaluated personal, environmental, ergonomic factors, and physiologic response of computer users. The distance from the eye to the computers' monitor (A), the computers' monitor height (B), and visual axis height (C) were measured. The difference between B and C was calculated and labeled as D. Angles of gaze to the computer monitor were calculated using the formula: angle=tan(-1)(D/ A). Angles were divided into two groups: participants with angles of gaze ranging from 0 degrees to 13.9 degrees were included in Group 1; and participants gazing at angles larger than 14 degrees were included in Group 2. Statistical analysis of the evaluated variables was made. Computer users in both groups used more tear supplements (as part of the syndrome) than expected. This association was statistically significant (p<0.10). Participants in Group 1 reported more pain than participants in Group 2. Associations between the CVS and other personal or ergonomic variables were not statistically significant. Our findings show that most important factor leading to the syndrome is the angle of gaze at the computer monitor. Pain in computer users is diminished when gazing downwards at angles of 14 degrees or more. The CVS remains an under estimated and poorly understood issue at the workplace. The general public, health professionals, the government, and private industries need to be educated about the CVS.

  19. Comparative randomised controlled clinical trial of a herbal eye drop with artificial tear and placebo in computer vision syndrome.

    PubMed

    Biswas, N R; Nainiwal, S K; Das, G K; Langan, U; Dadeya, S C; Mongre, P K; Ravi, A K; Baidya, P

    2003-03-01

    A comparative randomised double masked multicentric clinical trial has been conducted to find out the efficacy and safety of a herbal eye drop preparation, itone eye drops with artificial tear and placebo in 120 patients with computer vision syndrome. Patients using computer for at least 2 hours continuosly per day having symptoms of irritation, foreign body sensation, watering, redness, headache, eyeache and signs of conjunctival congestion, mucous/debris, corneal filaments, corneal staining or lacrimal lake were included in this study. Every patient was instructed to put two drops of either herbal drugs or placebo or artificial tear in the eyes regularly four times for 6 weeks. Objective and subjective findings were recorded at bi-weekly intervals up to six weeks. Side-effects, if any, were also noted. In computer vision syndrome the herbal eye drop preparation was found significantly better than artificial tear (p < 0.01). No side-effects were noted by any of the drugs. Both subjective and objective improvements were observed in itone treated cases. So, itone can be considered as a useful drug in computer vision syndrome.

  20. A study of computer-related upper limb discomfort and computer vision syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sen, A; Richardson, Stanley

    2007-12-01

    Personal computers are one of the commonest office tools in Malaysia today. Their usage, even for three hours per day, leads to a health risk of developing Occupational Overuse Syndrome (OOS), Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS), low back pain, tension headaches and psychosocial stress. The study was conducted to investigate how a multiethnic society in Malaysia is coping with these problems that are increasing at a phenomenal rate in the west. This study investigated computer usage, awareness of ergonomic modifications of computer furniture and peripherals, symptoms of CVS and risk of developing OOS. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of 136 computer users was conducted on a sample population of university students and office staff. A 'Modified Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) for office work' technique was used for evaluation of OOS. The prevalence of CVS was surveyed incorporating a 10-point scoring system for each of its various symptoms. It was found that many were using standard keyboard and mouse without any ergonomic modifications. Around 50% of those with some low back pain did not have an adjustable backrest. Many users had higher RULA scores of the wrist and neck suggesting increased risk of developing OOS, which needed further intervention. Many (64%) were using refractive corrections and still had high scores of CVS commonly including eye fatigue, headache and burning sensation. The increase of CVS scores (suggesting more subjective symptoms) correlated with increase in computer usage spells. It was concluded that further onsite studies are needed, to follow up this survey to decrease the risks of developing CVS and OOS amongst young computer users.

  1. Computer vision syndrome in presbyopia and beginning presbyopia: effects of spectacle lens type.

    PubMed

    Jaschinski, Wolfgang; König, Mirjam; Mekontso, Tiofil M; Ohlendorf, Arne; Welscher, Monique

    2015-05-01

    This office field study investigated the effects of different types of spectacle lenses habitually worn by computer users with presbyopia and in the beginning stages of presbyopia. Computer vision syndrome was assessed through reported complaints and ergonomic conditions. A questionnaire regarding the type of habitually worn near-vision lenses at the workplace, visual conditions and the levels of different types of complaints was administered to 175 participants aged 35 years and older (mean ± SD: 52.0 ± 6.7 years). Statistical factor analysis identified five specific aspects of the complaints. Workplace conditions were analysed based on photographs taken in typical working conditions. In the subgroup of 25 users between the ages of 36 and 57 years (mean 44 ± 5 years), who wore distance-vision lenses and performed more demanding occupational tasks, the reported extents of 'ocular strain', 'musculoskeletal strain' and 'headache' increased with the daily duration of computer work and explained up to 44 per cent of the variance (rs = 0.66). In the other subgroups, this effect was smaller, while in the complete sample (n = 175), this correlation was approximately rs = 0.2. The subgroup of 85 general-purpose progressive lens users (mean age 54 years) adopted head inclinations that were approximately seven degrees more elevated than those of the subgroups with single vision lenses. The present questionnaire was able to assess the complaints of computer users depending on the type of spectacle lenses worn. A missing near-vision addition among participants in the early stages of presbyopia was identified as a risk factor for complaints among those with longer daily durations of demanding computer work. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  2. Computer vision syndrome and ergonomic practices among undergraduate university students.

    PubMed

    Mowatt, Lizette; Gordon, Carron; Santosh, Arvind Babu Rajendra; Jones, Thaon

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) and ergonomic practices among students in the Faculty of Medical Sciences at The University of the West Indies (UWI), Jamaica. A cross-sectional study was done with a self-administered questionnaire. Four hundred and nine students participated; 78% were females. The mean age was 21.6 years. Neck pain (75.1%), eye strain (67%), shoulder pain (65.5%) and eye burn (61.9%) were the most common CVS symptoms. Dry eyes (26.2%), double vision (28.9%) and blurred vision (51.6%) were the least commonly experienced symptoms. Eye burning (P = .001), eye strain (P = .041) and neck pain (P = .023) were significantly related to level of viewing. Moderate eye burning (55.1%) and double vision (56%) occurred in those who used handheld devices (P = .001 and .007, respectively). Moderate blurred vision was reported in 52% who looked down at the device compared with 14.8% who held it at an angle. Severe eye strain occurred in 63% of those who looked down at a device compared with 21% who kept the device at eye level. Shoulder pain was not related to pattern of use. Ocular symptoms and neck pain were less likely if the device was held just below eye level. There is a high prevalence of Symptoms of CVS amongst university students which could be reduced, in particular neck pain and eye strain and burning, with improved ergonomic practices. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Computer Vision Syndrome and Associated Factors Among Medical and Engineering Students in Chennai

    PubMed Central

    Logaraj, M; Madhupriya, V; Hegde, SK

    2014-01-01

    Background: Almost all institutions, colleges, universities and homes today were using computer regularly. Very little research has been carried out on Indian users especially among college students the effects of computer use on the eye and vision related problems. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) among medical and engineering students and the factors associated with the same. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical and engineering college students of a University situated in the suburban area of Chennai. Students who used computer in the month preceding the date of study were included in the study. The participants were surveyed using pre-tested structured questionnaire. Results: Among engineering students, the prevalence of CVS was found to be 81.9% (176/215) while among medical students; it was found to be 78.6% (158/201). A significantly higher proportion of engineering students 40.9% (88/215) used computers for 4-6 h/day as compared to medical students 10% (20/201) (P < 0.001). The reported symptoms of CVS were higher among engineering students compared with medical students. Students who used computer for 4-6 h were at significantly higher risk of developing redness (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-3.1,P = 0.04), burning sensation (OR = 2.1,95% CI = 1.3-3.1, P < 0.01) and dry eyes (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-2.9, P = 0.02) compared to those who used computer for less than 4 h. Significant correlation was found between increased hours of computer use and the symptoms redness, burning sensation, blurred vision and dry eyes. Conclusion: The present study revealed that more than three-fourth of the students complained of any one of the symptoms of CVS while working on the computer. PMID:24761234

  4. Computer vision syndrome and associated factors among medical and engineering students in chennai.

    PubMed

    Logaraj, M; Madhupriya, V; Hegde, Sk

    2014-03-01

    Almost all institutions, colleges, universities and homes today were using computer regularly. Very little research has been carried out on Indian users especially among college students the effects of computer use on the eye and vision related problems. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) among medical and engineering students and the factors associated with the same. A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical and engineering college students of a University situated in the suburban area of Chennai. Students who used computer in the month preceding the date of study were included in the study. The participants were surveyed using pre-tested structured questionnaire. Among engineering students, the prevalence of CVS was found to be 81.9% (176/215) while among medical students; it was found to be 78.6% (158/201). A significantly higher proportion of engineering students 40.9% (88/215) used computers for 4-6 h/day as compared to medical students 10% (20/201) (P < 0.001). The reported symptoms of CVS were higher among engineering students compared with medical students. Students who used computer for 4-6 h were at significantly higher risk of developing redness (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-3.1,P = 0.04), burning sensation (OR = 2.1,95% CI = 1.3-3.1, P < 0.01) and dry eyes (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-2.9, P = 0.02) compared to those who used computer for less than 4 h. Significant correlation was found between increased hours of computer use and the symptoms redness, burning sensation, blurred vision and dry eyes. The present study revealed that more than three-fourth of the students complained of any one of the symptoms of CVS while working on the computer.

  5. Clinical efficacy of Ayurvedic management in computer vision syndrome: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Kartar Singh; Ahuja, Deepak Kumar; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Improper use of sense organs, violating the moral code of conduct, and the effect of the time are the three basic causative factors behind all the health problems. Computer, the knowledge bank of modern life, has emerged as a profession causing vision-related discomfort, ocular fatigue, and systemic effects. Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) is the new nomenclature to the visual, ocular, and systemic symptoms arising due to the long time and improper working on the computer and is emerging as a pandemic in the 21(st) century. On critical analysis of the symptoms of CVS on Tridoshika theory of Ayurveda, as per the road map given by Acharya Charaka, it seems to be a Vata-Pittaja ocular cum systemic disease which needs systemic as well as topical treatment approach. Shatavaryaadi Churna (orally), Go-Ghrita Netra Tarpana (topically), and counseling regarding proper working conditions on computer were tried in 30 patients of CVS. In group I, where oral and local treatment was given, significant improvement in all the symptoms of CVS was observed, whereas in groups II and III, local treatment and counseling regarding proper working conditions, respectively, were given and showed insignificant results. The study verified the hypothesis that CVS in Ayurvedic perspective is a Vata-Pittaja disease affecting mainly eyes and body as a whole and needs a systemic intervention rather than topical ocular medication only.

  6. Clinical efficacy of Ayurvedic management in computer vision syndrome: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Kartar Singh; Ahuja, Deepak Kumar; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Improper use of sense organs, violating the moral code of conduct, and the effect of the time are the three basic causative factors behind all the health problems. Computer, the knowledge bank of modern life, has emerged as a profession causing vision-related discomfort, ocular fatigue, and systemic effects. Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) is the new nomenclature to the visual, ocular, and systemic symptoms arising due to the long time and improper working on the computer and is emerging as a pandemic in the 21st century. On critical analysis of the symptoms of CVS on Tridoshika theory of Ayurveda, as per the road map given by Acharya Charaka, it seems to be a Vata–Pittaja ocular cum systemic disease which needs systemic as well as topical treatment approach. Shatavaryaadi Churna (orally), Go-Ghrita Netra Tarpana (topically), and counseling regarding proper working conditions on computer were tried in 30 patients of CVS. In group I, where oral and local treatment was given, significant improvement in all the symptoms of CVS was observed, whereas in groups II and III, local treatment and counseling regarding proper working conditions, respectively, were given and showed insignificant results. The study verified the hypothesis that CVS in Ayurvedic perspective is a Vata–Pittaja disease affecting mainly eyes and body as a whole and needs a systemic intervention rather than topical ocular medication only. PMID:23723647

  7. Blink rate, incomplete blinks and computer vision syndrome.

    PubMed

    Portello, Joan K; Rosenfield, Mark; Chu, Christina A

    2013-05-01

    Computer vision syndrome (CVS), a highly prevalent condition, is frequently associated with dry eye disorders. Furthermore, a reduced blink rate has been observed during computer use. The present study examined whether post task ocular and visual symptoms are associated with either a decreased blink rate or a higher prevalence of incomplete blinks. An additional trial tested whether increasing the blink rate would reduce CVS symptoms. Subjects (N = 21) were required to perform a continuous 15-minute reading task on a desktop computer at a viewing distance of 50 cm. Subjects were videotaped during the task to determine their blink rate and amplitude. Immediately after the task, subjects completed a questionnaire regarding ocular symptoms experienced during the trial. In a second session, the blink rate was increased by means of an audible tone that sounded every 4 seconds, with subjects being instructed to blink on hearing the tone. The mean blink rate during the task without the audible tone was 11.6 blinks per minute (SD, 7.84). The percentage of blinks deemed incomplete for each subject ranged from 0.9 to 56.5%, with a mean of 16.1% (SD, 15.7). A significant positive correlation was observed between the total symptom score and the percentage of incomplete blinks during the task (p = 0.002). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was noted between the blink score and symptoms (p = 0.035). Increasing the mean blink rate to 23.5 blinks per minute by means of the audible tone did not produce a significant change in the symptom score. Whereas CVS symptoms are associated with a reduced blink rate, the completeness of the blink may be equally significant. Because instructing a patient to increase his or her blink rate may be ineffective or impractical, actions to achieve complete corneal coverage during blinking may be more helpful in alleviating symptoms during computer operation.

  8. Oral omega-3 fatty acids treatment in computer vision syndrome related dry eye.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi; Phogat, Hemant; Kaur, Avinash; Kumar, Manjushri

    2015-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of dietary consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FAs) on dry eye symptoms, Schirmer test, tear film break up time (TBUT) and conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) in patients with computer vision syndrome. Interventional, randomized, double blind, multi-centric study. Four hundred and seventy eight symptomatic patients using computers for more than 3h per day for minimum 1 year were randomized into two groups: 220 patients received two capsules of omega-3 fatty acids each containing 180mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 120mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) daily (O3FA group) and 236 patients received two capsules of a placebo containing olive oil daily for 3 months (placebo group). The primary outcome measure was improvement in dry eye symptoms and secondary outcome measures were improvement in Nelson grade and an increase in Schirmer and TBUT scores at 3 months. In the placebo group, before dietary intervention, the mean symptom score, Schirmer, TBUT and CIC scores were 7.5±2, 19.9±4.7mm, 11.5±2s and 1±0.9 respectively, and 3 months later were 6.8±2.2, 20.5±4.7mm, 12±2.2s and 0.9±0.9 respectively. In the O3FA group, these values were 8.0±2.6, 20.1±4.2mm, 11.7±1.6s and 1.2±0.8 before dietary intervention and 3.9±2.2, 21.4±4mm, 15±1.7s, 0.5±0.6 after 3 months of intervention, respectively. This study demonstrates the beneficial effect of orally administered O3FAs in alleviating dry eye symptoms, decreasing tear evaporation rate and improving Nelson grade in patients suffering from computer vision syndrome related dry eye. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A clinical study on "Computer vision syndrome" and its management with Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha.

    PubMed

    Gangamma, M P; Poonam; Rajagopala, Manjusha

    2010-04-01

    American Optometric Association (AOA) defines computer vision syndrome (CVS) as "Complex of eye and vision problems related to near work, which are experienced during or related to computer use". Most studies indicate that Video Display Terminal (VDT) operators report more eye related problems than non-VDT office workers. The causes for the inefficiencies and the visual symptoms are a combination of individual visual problems and poor office ergonomics. In this clinical study on "CVS", 151 patients were registered, out of whom 141 completed the treatment. In Group A, 45 patients had been prescribed Triphala eye drops; in Group B, 53 patients had been prescribed the Triphala eye drops and SaptamritaLauha tablets internally, and in Group C, 43 patients had been prescribed the placebo eye drops and placebo tablets. In total, marked improvement was observed in 48.89, 54.71 and 06.98% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively.

  10. Computational approaches to vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Vision is examined in terms of a computational process, and the competence, structure, and control of computer vision systems are analyzed. Theoretical and experimental data on the formation of a computer vision system are discussed. Consideration is given to early vision, the recovery of intrinsic surface characteristics, higher levels of interpretation, and system integration and control. A computational visual processing model is proposed and its architecture and operation are described. Examples of state-of-the-art vision systems, which include some of the levels of representation and processing mechanisms, are presented.

  11. Computer vision syndrome: a study of knowledge and practices in university students.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S C; Low, C K; Lim, Y P; Low, L L; Mardina, F; Nursaleha, M P

    2013-01-01

    Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is a condition in which a person experiences one or more of eye symptoms as a result of prolonged working on a computer. To determine the prevalence of CVS symptoms, knowledge and practices of computer use in students studying in different universities in Malaysia, and to evaluate the association of various factors in computer use with the occurrence of symptoms. In a cross sectional, questionnaire survey study, data was collected in college students regarding the demography, use of spectacles, duration of daily continuous use of computer, symptoms of CVS, preventive measures taken to reduce the symptoms, use of radiation filter on the computer screen, and lighting in the room. A total of 795 students, aged between 18 and 25 years, from five universities in Malaysia were surveyed. The prevalence of symptoms of CVS (one or more) was found to be 89.9%; the most disturbing symptom was headache (19.7%) followed by eye strain (16.4%). Students who used computer for more than 2 hours per day experienced significantly more symptoms of CVS (p=0.0001). Looking at far objects in-between the work was significantly (p=0.0008) associated with less frequency of CVS symptoms. The use of radiation filter on the screen (p=0.6777) did not help in reducing the CVS symptoms. Ninety percent of university students in Malaysia experienced symptoms related to CVS, which was seen more often in those who used computer for more than 2 hours continuously per day. © NEPjOPH.

  12. (Computer) Vision without Sight

    PubMed Central

    Manduchi, Roberto; Coughlan, James

    2012-01-01

    Computer vision holds great promise for helping persons with blindness or visual impairments (VI) to interpret and explore the visual world. To this end, it is worthwhile to assess the situation critically by understanding the actual needs of the VI population and which of these needs might be addressed by computer vision. This article reviews the types of assistive technology application areas that have already been developed for VI, and the possible roles that computer vision can play in facilitating these applications. We discuss how appropriate user interfaces are designed to translate the output of computer vision algorithms into information that the user can quickly and safely act upon, and how system-level characteristics affect the overall usability of an assistive technology. Finally, we conclude by highlighting a few novel and intriguing areas of application of computer vision to assistive technology. PMID:22815563

  13. Benchmarking neuromorphic vision: lessons learnt from computer vision

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cheston; Lallee, Stephane; Orchard, Garrick

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic Vision sensors have improved greatly since the first silicon retina was presented almost three decades ago. They have recently matured to the point where they are commercially available and can be operated by laymen. However, despite improved availability of sensors, there remains a lack of good datasets, while algorithms for processing spike-based visual data are still in their infancy. On the other hand, frame-based computer vision algorithms are far more mature, thanks in part to widely accepted datasets which allow direct comparison between algorithms and encourage competition. We are presented with a unique opportunity to shape the development of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges by leveraging what has been learnt from the use of datasets in frame-based computer vision. Taking advantage of this opportunity, in this paper we review the role that benchmarks and challenges have played in the advancement of frame-based computer vision, and suggest guidelines for the creation of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges. We also discuss the unique challenges faced when benchmarking Neuromorphic Vision algorithms, particularly when attempting to provide direct comparison with frame-based computer vision. PMID:26528120

  14. Computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gennery, D.; Cunningham, R.; Saund, E.; High, J.; Ruoff, C.

    1981-01-01

    The field of computer vision is surveyed and assessed, key research issues are identified, and possibilities for a future vision system are discussed. The problems of descriptions of two and three dimensional worlds are discussed. The representation of such features as texture, edges, curves, and corners are detailed. Recognition methods are described in which cross correlation coefficients are maximized or numerical values for a set of features are measured. Object tracking is discussed in terms of the robust matching algorithms that must be devised. Stereo vision, camera control and calibration, and the hardware and systems architecture are discussed.

  15. Vision Deficits in Adults with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Silverman, Wayne; Gordon, James; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Oley, Nancy; Abramov, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Background In individuals with Down syndrome virtually all structures of the eye have some abnormality which likely diminishes vision. We examined basic vision functions in adults with Down syndrome. Materials and Methods Participants completed a battery of psychophysical tests which probed a comprehensive array of visual functions. The performance of adults with Down syndrome was compared to younger and older adults without intellectual disability. Results Adults with Down syndrome had significant vision deficits; reduced sensitivity across spatial frequencies and temporal modulation rates, reduced stereopsis, impaired vernier acuity, and anomalies in colour discrimination. The pattern of deficits observed was similar to those seen by researchers examining adults with Alzheimer’s disease. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a common mechanism may be responsible for the pattern of deficits observed, possibly the presence of Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology in the visual association cortex. We also showed that individuals with mild to moderate intellectual disability are capable of participating in studies employing state-of-the-art psychophysical procedures. This has wider implications in terms of their ability to participate in research that use similar techniques. PMID:23784802

  16. [Comparison study between biological vision and computer vision].

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Yuan, X G; Yang, C X; Liu, Z Q; Wang, R

    2001-08-01

    The development and bearing of biology vision in structure and mechanism were discussed, especially on the aspects including anatomical structure of biological vision, tentative classification of reception field, parallel processing of visual information, feedback and conformity effect of visual cortical, and so on. The new advance in the field was introduced through the study of the morphology of biological vision. Besides, comparison between biological vision and computer vision was made, and their similarities and differences were pointed out.

  17. Reinforcement learning in computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, A. V.; Burnaev, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, machine learning has become one of the basic technologies used in solving various computer vision tasks such as feature detection, image segmentation, object recognition and tracking. In many applications, various complex systems such as robots are equipped with visual sensors from which they learn state of surrounding environment by solving corresponding computer vision tasks. Solutions of these tasks are used for making decisions about possible future actions. It is not surprising that when solving computer vision tasks we should take into account special aspects of their subsequent application in model-based predictive control. Reinforcement learning is one of modern machine learning technologies in which learning is carried out through interaction with the environment. In recent years, Reinforcement learning has been used both for solving such applied tasks as processing and analysis of visual information, and for solving specific computer vision problems such as filtering, extracting image features, localizing objects in scenes, and many others. The paper describes shortly the Reinforcement learning technology and its use for solving computer vision problems.

  18. Progress in computer vision.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, A. K.; Dorai, C.

    Computer vision has emerged as a challenging and important area of research, both as an engineering and a scientific discipline. The growing importance of computer vision is evident from the fact that it was identified as one of the "Grand Challenges" and also from its prominent role in the National Information Infrastructure. While the design of a general-purpose vision system continues to be elusive machine vision systems are being used successfully in specific application elusive, machine vision systems are being used successfully in specific application domains. Building a practical vision system requires a careful selection of appropriate sensors, extraction and integration of information from available cues in the sensed data, and evaluation of system robustness and performance. The authors discuss and demonstrate advantages of (1) multi-sensor fusion, (2) combination of features and classifiers, (3) integration of visual modules, and (IV) admissibility and goal-directed evaluation of vision algorithms. The requirements of several prominent real world applications such as biometry, document image analysis, image and video database retrieval, and automatic object model construction offer exciting problems and new opportunities to design and evaluate vision algorithms.

  19. Quaternions in computer vision and robotics

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pervin, E.; Webb, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Computer vision and robotics suffer from not having good tools for manipulating three-dimensional objects. Vectors, coordinate geometry, and trigonometry all have deficiencies. Quaternions can be used to solve many of these problems. Many properties of quaternions that are relevant to computer vision and robotics are developed. Examples are given showing how quaternions can be used to simplify derivations in computer vision and robotics.

  20. Computer vision syndrome prevalence, knowledge and associated factors among Saudi Arabia University Students: Is it a serious problem?

    PubMed

    Al Rashidi, Sultan H; Alhumaidan, H

    2017-01-01

    Computers and other visual display devices are now an essential part of our daily life. With the increased use, a very large population is experiencing sundry ocular symptoms globally such as dry eyes, eye strain, irritation, and redness of the eyes to name a few. Collectively, all such computer related symptoms are usually referred to as computer vision syndrome (CVS). The current study aims to define the prevalence, knowledge in community, pathophysiology, factors associated, and prevention of CVS. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Qassim University College of Medicine during a period of 1 year from January 2015 to January 2016 using a questionnaire to collect relevant data including demographics and various variables to be studied. 634 students were inducted from a public sector University of Qassim, Saudi Arabia, regardless of their age and gender. The data were then statistically analyzed on SPSS version 22, and the descriptive data were expressed as percentages, mode, and median using graphs where needed. A total of 634 students with a mean age of 21. 40, Std 1.997 and Range 7 (18-25) were included as study subjects with a male predominance (77.28%). Of the total patients, majority (459, 72%) presented with acute symptoms while remaining had chronic problems. A clear-cut majority was carrying the symptoms for <5 days and >1 month. The statistical analysis revealed serious symptoms in the majority of study subjects especially those who are permanent users of a computer for long hours. Continuous use of computers for long hours is found to have severe problems of vision especially in those who are using computers and similar devices for a long duration.

  1. Computer vision syndrome prevalence, knowledge and associated factors among Saudi Arabia University Students: Is it a serious problem?

    PubMed Central

    Al Rashidi, Sultan H.; Alhumaidan, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Computers and other visual display devices are now an essential part of our daily life. With the increased use, a very large population is experiencing sundry ocular symptoms globally such as dry eyes, eye strain, irritation, and redness of the eyes to name a few. Collectively, all such computer related symptoms are usually referred to as computer vision syndrome (CVS). The current study aims to define the prevalence, knowledge in community, pathophysiology, factors associated, and prevention of CVS. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Qassim University College of Medicine during a period of 1 year from January 2015 to January 2016 using a questionnaire to collect relevant data including demographics and various variables to be studied. 634 students were inducted from a public sector University of Qassim, Saudi Arabia, regardless of their age and gender. The data were then statistically analyzed on SPSS version 22, and the descriptive data were expressed as percentages, mode, and median using graphs where needed. Results: A total of 634 students with a mean age of 21. 40, Std 1.997 and Range 7 (18-25) were included as study subjects with a male predominance (77.28%). Of the total patients, majority (459, 72%) presented with acute symptoms while remaining had chronic problems. A clear-cut majority was carrying the symptoms for <5 days and >1 month. The statistical analysis revealed serious symptoms in the majority of study subjects especially those who are permanent users of a computer for long hours. Conclusion: Continuous use of computers for long hours is found to have severe problems of vision especially in those who are using computers and similar devices for a long duration. PMID:29114189

  2. A computer vision for animal ecology.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Ben G

    2018-05-01

    A central goal of animal ecology is to observe species in the natural world. The cost and challenge of data collection often limit the breadth and scope of ecological study. Ecologists often use image capture to bolster data collection in time and space. However, the ability to process these images remains a bottleneck. Computer vision can greatly increase the efficiency, repeatability and accuracy of image review. Computer vision uses image features, such as colour, shape and texture to infer image content. I provide a brief primer on ecological computer vision to outline its goals, tools and applications to animal ecology. I reviewed 187 existing applications of computer vision and divided articles into ecological description, counting and identity tasks. I discuss recommendations for enhancing the collaboration between ecologists and computer scientists and highlight areas for future growth of automated image analysis. © 2017 The Author. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  3. An overview of computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of computer vision is provided. Image understanding and scene analysis are emphasized, and pertinent aspects of pattern recognition are treated. The basic approach to computer vision systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the current existing systems and state-of-the-art issues and research requirements, who is doing it and who is funding it, and future trends and expectations are reviewed.

  4. A reliable and valid questionnaire was developed to measure computer vision syndrome at the workplace.

    PubMed

    Seguí, María del Mar; Cabrero-García, Julio; Crespo, Ana; Verdú, José; Ronda, Elena

    2015-06-01

    To design and validate a questionnaire to measure visual symptoms related to exposure to computers in the workplace. Our computer vision syndrome questionnaire (CVS-Q) was based on a literature review and validated through discussion with experts and performance of a pretest, pilot test, and retest. Content validity was evaluated by occupational health, optometry, and ophthalmology experts. Rasch analysis was used in the psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire. Criterion validity was determined by calculating the sensitivity and specificity, receiver operator characteristic curve, and cutoff point. Test-retest repeatability was tested using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and concordance by Cohen's kappa (κ). The CVS-Q was developed with wide consensus among experts and was well accepted by the target group. It assesses the frequency and intensity of 16 symptoms using a single rating scale (symptom severity) that fits the Rasch rating scale model well. The questionnaire has sensitivity and specificity over 70% and achieved good test-retest repeatability both for the scores obtained [ICC = 0.802; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.673, 0.884] and CVS classification (κ = 0.612; 95% CI: 0.384, 0.839). The CVS-Q has acceptable psychometric properties, making it a valid and reliable tool to control the visual health of computer workers, and can potentially be used in clinical trials and outcome research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Computer vision in the poultry industry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Computer vision is becoming increasingly important in the poultry industry due to increasing use and speed of automation in processing operations. Growing awareness of food safety concerns has helped add food safety inspection to the list of tasks that automated computer vision can assist. Researc...

  6. Parallel computer vision

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Uhr, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book is written by research scientists involved in the development of massively parallel, but hierarchically structured, algorithms, architectures, and programs for image processing, pattern recognition, and computer vision. The book gives an integrated picture of the programs and algorithms that are being developed, and also of the multi-computer hardware architectures for which these systems are designed.

  7. Computer vision in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Danuser, Gaudenz

    2011-11-23

    Computer vision refers to the theory and implementation of artificial systems that extract information from images to understand their content. Although computers are widely used by cell biologists for visualization and measurement, interpretation of image content, i.e., the selection of events worth observing and the definition of what they mean in terms of cellular mechanisms, is mostly left to human intuition. This Essay attempts to outline roles computer vision may play and should play in image-based studies of cellular life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Screening for Vision Problems, Including Usher's Syndrome, among Hearing Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillman, Robyn D.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A screening program for vision problems and Usher's Syndrome (a common cause of deaf-blindness) among 210 hearing-impaired students found 44 percent had significant vision problems and 1 percent had Usher's Syndrome. The program involved an interagency network of school, health care, and support personnel and utilized a dilated ophathalmological…

  9. Binocular Vision in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Godts, Daisy; Moorkens, Greta; Mathysen, Danny G P

    2016-01-01

    To compare binocular vision measurements between Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) patients and healthy controls. Forty-one CFS patients referred by the Reference Centre for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome of the Antwerp University Hospital and forty-one healthy volunteers, matched for age and gender, underwent a complete orthoptic examination. Data of visual acuity, eye position, fusion amplitude, stereopsis, ocular motility, convergence, and accommodation were compared between both groups. Patients with CFS showed highly significant smaller fusion amplitudes (P < 0.001), reduced convergence capacity (P < 0.001), and a smaller accommodation range (P < 0.001) compared to the control group. In patients with CFS binocular vision, convergence and accommodation should be routinely examined. CFS patients will benefit from reading glasses either with or without prism correction in an earlier stage compared to their healthy peers. Convergence exercises may be beneficial for CFS patients, despite the fact that they might be very tiring. Further research will be necessary to draw conclusions about the efficacy of treatment, especially regarding convergence exercises. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study evaluating binocular vision in CFS patients. © 2016 Board of regents of the University of Wisconsin System, American Orthoptic Journal, Volume 66, 2016, ISSN 0065-955X, E-ISSN 1553-4448.

  10. Heterogeneous compute in computer vision: OpenCL in OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparakis, Harris

    2014-02-01

    We explore the relevance of Heterogeneous System Architecture (HSA) in Computer Vision, both as a long term vision, and as a near term emerging reality via the recently ratified OpenCL 2.0 Khronos standard. After a brief review of OpenCL 1.2 and 2.0, including HSA features such as Shared Virtual Memory (SVM) and platform atomics, we identify what genres of Computer Vision workloads stand to benefit by leveraging those features, and we suggest a new mental framework that replaces GPU compute with hybrid HSA APU compute. As a case in point, we discuss, in some detail, popular object recognition algorithms (part-based models), emphasizing the interplay and concurrent collaboration between the GPU and CPU. We conclude by describing how OpenCL has been incorporated in OpenCV, a popular open source computer vision library, emphasizing recent work on the Transparent API, to appear in OpenCV 3.0, which unifies the native CPU and OpenCL execution paths under a single API, allowing the same code to execute either on CPU or on a OpenCL enabled device, without even recompiling.

  11. Biological Basis For Computer Vision: Some Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Madan M.

    1990-03-01

    Using biology as a basis for the development of sensors, devices and computer vision systems is a challenge to systems and vision scientists. It is also a field of promising research for engineering applications. Biological sensory systems, such as vision, touch and hearing, sense different physical phenomena from our environment, yet they possess some common mathematical functions. These mathematical functions are cast into the neural layers which are distributed throughout our sensory regions, sensory information transmission channels and in the cortex, the centre of perception. In this paper, we are concerned with the study of the biological vision system and the emulation of some of its mathematical functions, both retinal and visual cortex, for the development of a robust computer vision system. This field of research is not only intriguing, but offers a great challenge to systems scientists in the development of functional algorithms. These functional algorithms can be generalized for further studies in such fields as signal processing, control systems and image processing. Our studies are heavily dependent on the the use of fuzzy - neural layers and generalized receptive fields. Building blocks of such neural layers and receptive fields may lead to the design of better sensors and better computer vision systems. It is hoped that these studies will lead to the development of better artificial vision systems with various applications to vision prosthesis for the blind, robotic vision, medical imaging, medical sensors, industrial automation, remote sensing, space stations and ocean exploration.

  12. Deep Learning for Computer Vision: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Doulamis, Nikolaos; Doulamis, Anastasios; Protopapadakis, Eftychios

    2018-01-01

    Over the last years deep learning methods have been shown to outperform previous state-of-the-art machine learning techniques in several fields, with computer vision being one of the most prominent cases. This review paper provides a brief overview of some of the most significant deep learning schemes used in computer vision problems, that is, Convolutional Neural Networks, Deep Boltzmann Machines and Deep Belief Networks, and Stacked Denoising Autoencoders. A brief account of their history, structure, advantages, and limitations is given, followed by a description of their applications in various computer vision tasks, such as object detection, face recognition, action and activity recognition, and human pose estimation. Finally, a brief overview is given of future directions in designing deep learning schemes for computer vision problems and the challenges involved therein. PMID:29487619

  13. Computer vision syndrome among computer office workers in a developing country: an evaluation of prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, P; Wathurapatha, W S; Perera, Y S; Lamabadusuriya, D A; Kulatunga, S; Jayawardana, N; Katulanda, P

    2016-03-09

    Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is a group of visual symptoms experienced in relation to the use of computers. Nearly 60 million people suffer from CVS globally, resulting in reduced productivity at work and reduced quality of life of the computer worker. The present study aims to describe the prevalence of CVS and its associated factors among a nationally-representative sample of Sri Lankan computer workers. Two thousand five hundred computer office workers were invited for the study from all nine provinces of Sri Lanka between May and December 2009. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data, symptoms of CVS and its associated factors. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed in all patients with 'presence of CVS' as the dichotomous dependent variable and age, gender, duration of occupation, daily computer usage, pre-existing eye disease, not using a visual display terminal (VDT) filter, adjusting brightness of screen, use of contact lenses, angle of gaze and ergonomic practices knowledge as the continuous/dichotomous independent variables. A similar binary logistic regression analysis was performed in all patients with 'severity of CVS' as the dichotomous dependent variable and other continuous/dichotomous independent variables. Sample size was 2210 (response rate-88.4%). Mean age was 30.8 ± 8.1 years and 50.8% of the sample were males. The 1-year prevalence of CVS in the study population was 67.4%. Female gender (OR: 1.28), duration of occupation (OR: 1.07), daily computer usage (1.10), pre-existing eye disease (OR: 4.49), not using a VDT filter (OR: 1.02), use of contact lenses (OR: 3.21) and ergonomics practices knowledge (OR: 1.24) all were associated with significantly presence of CVS. The duration of occupation (OR: 1.04) and presence of pre-existing eye disease (OR: 1.54) were significantly associated with the presence of 'severe CVS'. Sri Lankan computer workers had a high prevalence of CVS. Female gender

  14. Computer vision camera with embedded FPGA processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecerf, Antoine; Ouellet, Denis; Arias-Estrada, Miguel

    2000-03-01

    Traditional computer vision is based on a camera-computer system in which the image understanding algorithms are embedded in the computer. To circumvent the computational load of vision algorithms, low-level processing and imaging hardware can be integrated in a single compact module where a dedicated architecture is implemented. This paper presents a Computer Vision Camera based on an open architecture implemented in an FPGA. The system is targeted to real-time computer vision tasks where low level processing and feature extraction tasks can be implemented in the FPGA device. The camera integrates a CMOS image sensor, an FPGA device, two memory banks, and an embedded PC for communication and control tasks. The FPGA device is a medium size one equivalent to 25,000 logic gates. The device is connected to two high speed memory banks, an IS interface, and an imager interface. The camera can be accessed for architecture programming, data transfer, and control through an Ethernet link from a remote computer. A hardware architecture can be defined in a Hardware Description Language (like VHDL), simulated and synthesized into digital structures that can be programmed into the FPGA and tested on the camera. The architecture of a classical multi-scale edge detection algorithm based on a Laplacian of Gaussian convolution has been developed to show the capabilities of the system.

  15. Dry eye syndrome among computer users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajta, Aurora; Turkoanje, Daniela; Malaescu, Iosif; Marin, Catalin-Nicolae; Koos, Marie-Jeanne; Jelicic, Biljana; Milutinovic, Vuk

    2015-12-01

    Dry eye syndrome is characterized by eye irritation due to changes of the tear film. Symptoms include itching, foreign body sensations, mucous discharge and transitory vision blurring. Less occurring symptoms include photophobia and eye tiredness. Aim of the work was to determine the quality of the tear film and ocular dryness potential risk in persons who spend more than 8 hours using computers and possible correlations between severity of symptoms (dry eyes symptoms anamnesis) and clinical signs assessed by: Schirmer test I, TBUT (Tears break-up time), TFT (Tear ferning test). The results show that subjects using computer have significantly shorter TBUT (less than 5 s for 56 % of subjects and less than 10 s for 37 % of subjects), TFT type II/III in 50 % of subjects and type III 31% of subjects was found when compared to computer non users (TFT type I and II was present in 85,71% of subjects). Visual display terminal use, more than 8 hours daily, has been identified as a significant risk factor for dry eye. It's been advised to all persons who spend substantial time using computers to use artificial tears drops in order to minimize the symptoms of dry eyes syndrome and prevents serious complications.

  16. Neural Networks for Computer Vision: A Framework for Specifications of a General Purpose Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, Josef; Mesrobian, Edmond; Gungner, David J.

    1989-03-01

    The development of autonomous land vehicles (ALV) capable of operating in an unconstrained environment has proven to be a formidable research effort. The unpredictability of events in such an environment calls for the design of a robust perceptual system, an impossible task requiring the programming of a system bases on the expectation of future, unconstrained events. Hence, the need for a "general purpose" machine vision system that is capable of perceiving and understanding images in an unconstrained environment in real-time. The research undertaken at the UCLA Machine Perception Laboratory addresses this need by focusing on two specific issues: 1) the long term goals for machine vision research as a joint effort between the neurosciences and computer science; and 2) a framework for evaluating progress in machine vision. In the past, vision research has been carried out independently within different fields including neurosciences, psychology, computer science, and electrical engineering. Our interdisciplinary approach to vision research is based on the rigorous combination of computational neuroscience, as derived from neurophysiology and neuropsychology, with computer science and electrical engineering. The primary motivation behind our approach is that the human visual system is the only existing example of a "general purpose" vision system and using a neurally based computing substrate, it can complete all necessary visual tasks in real-time.

  17. Job-shop scheduling applied to computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian y Zuniga, Jose M.; Torres-Medina, Fernando; Aracil, Rafael; Reinoso, Oscar; Jimenez, Luis M.; Garcia, David

    1997-09-01

    This paper presents a method for minimizing the total elapsed time spent by n tasks running on m differents processors working in parallel. The developed algorithm not only minimizes the total elapsed time but also reduces the idle time and waiting time of in-process tasks. This condition is very important in some applications of computer vision in which the time to finish the total process is particularly critical -- quality control in industrial inspection, real- time computer vision, guided robots. The scheduling algorithm is based on the use of two matrices, obtained from the precedence relationships between tasks, and the data obtained from the two matrices. The developed scheduling algorithm has been tested in one application of quality control using computer vision. The results obtained have been satisfactory in the application of different image processing algorithms.

  18. On the performances of computer vision algorithms on mobile platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiato, S.; Farinella, G. M.; Messina, E.; Puglisi, G.; Ravì, D.; Capra, A.; Tomaselli, V.

    2012-01-01

    Computer Vision enables mobile devices to extract the meaning of the observed scene from the information acquired with the onboard sensor cameras. Nowadays, there is a growing interest in Computer Vision algorithms able to work on mobile platform (e.g., phone camera, point-and-shot-camera, etc.). Indeed, bringing Computer Vision capabilities on mobile devices open new opportunities in different application contexts. The implementation of vision algorithms on mobile devices is still a challenging task since these devices have poor image sensors and optics as well as limited processing power. In this paper we have considered different algorithms covering classic Computer Vision tasks: keypoint extraction, face detection, image segmentation. Several tests have been done to compare the performances of the involved mobile platforms: Nokia N900, LG Optimus One, Samsung Galaxy SII.

  19. Head Injury and the Post-Trauma Vision Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padula, William V.; Shapiro, Jannie B.

    1993-01-01

    This article considers the visual rehabilitation of patients recovering from traumatic brain injuries. Characteristics, symptoms, and associated neuromotor difficulties of posttrauma vision syndrome are listed, as are common posture and gait adaptations. A neuro-optometric rehabilitative and orientation/mobility evaluation is recommended, as is…

  20. Impact of computer use on children's vision.

    PubMed

    Kozeis, N

    2009-10-01

    Today, millions of children use computers on a daily basis. Extensive viewing of the computer screen can lead to eye discomfort, fatigue, blurred vision and headaches, dry eyes and other symptoms of eyestrain. These symptoms may be caused by poor lighting, glare, an improper work station set-up, vision problems of which the person was not previously aware, or a combination of these factors. Children can experience many of the same symptoms related to computer use as adults. However, some unique aspects of how children use computers may make them more susceptible than adults to the development of these problems. In this study, the most common eye symptoms related to computer use in childhood, the possible causes and ways to avoid them are reviewed.

  1. Computational Vision: A Critical Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Optic News, 15:9-25, 1989. [8] H. B . Barlow and R. W. Levick . The mechanism of directional selectivity in the rabbit’s retina. J. Physiol., 173:477...comparison, other formulations, e.g., [64], used 16 @V A \\E(t=t2) (a) \\ E(t-tl) ( b ) Figure 7: An illustration of the aperture problem. Left: a bar E is...Ballard and C. M. Brown. Computer Vision. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1982. [7] D. H. Ballard, R. C. Nelson, and B . Yamauchi. Animate vision

  2. Machine Learning, deep learning and optimization in computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canu, Stéphane

    2017-03-01

    As quoted in the Large Scale Computer Vision Systems NIPS workshop, computer vision is a mature field with a long tradition of research, but recent advances in machine learning, deep learning, representation learning and optimization have provided models with new capabilities to better understand visual content. The presentation will go through these new developments in machine learning covering basic motivations, ideas, models and optimization in deep learning for computer vision, identifying challenges and opportunities. It will focus on issues related with large scale learning that is: high dimensional features, large variety of visual classes, and large number of examples.

  3. Chapter 11. Quality evaluation of apple by computer vision

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, and there is a critical need for enhanced computer vision technology for quality assessment of apples. This chapter gives a comprehensive review on recent advances in various computer vision techniques for detecting surface and internal defects ...

  4. Quality grading of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) by computer vision.

    PubMed

    Misimi, E; Erikson, U; Skavhaug, A

    2008-06-01

    In this study, we present a promising method of computer vision-based quality grading of whole Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Using computer vision, it was possible to differentiate among different quality grades of Atlantic salmon based on the external geometrical information contained in the fish images. Initially, before the image acquisition, the fish were subjectively graded and labeled into grading classes by a qualified human inspector in the processing plant. Prior to classification, the salmon images were segmented into binary images, and then feature extraction was performed on the geometrical parameters of the fish from the grading classes. The classification algorithm was a threshold-based classifier, which was designed using linear discriminant analysis. The performance of the classifier was tested by using the leave-one-out cross-validation method, and the classification results showed a good agreement between the classification done by human inspectors and by the computer vision. The computer vision-based method classified correctly 90% of the salmon from the data set as compared with the classification by human inspector. Overall, it was shown that computer vision can be used as a powerful tool to grade Atlantic salmon into quality grades in a fast and nondestructive manner by a relatively simple classifier algorithm. The low cost of implementation of today's advanced computer vision solutions makes this method feasible for industrial purposes in fish plants as it can replace manual labor, on which grading tasks still rely.

  5. 3-D Signal Processing in a Computer Vision System

    Treesearch

    Dongping Zhu; Richard W. Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of 3-dimensional image filtering in a computer vision system that would locate and identify internal structural failure. In particular, a 2-dimensional adaptive filter proposed by Unser has been extended to 3-dimension. In conjunction with segmentation and labeling, the new filter has been used in the computer vision system to...

  6. Enhanced computer vision with Microsoft Kinect sensor: a review.

    PubMed

    Han, Jungong; Shao, Ling; Xu, Dong; Shotton, Jamie

    2013-10-01

    With the invention of the low-cost Microsoft Kinect sensor, high-resolution depth and visual (RGB) sensing has become available for widespread use. The complementary nature of the depth and visual information provided by the Kinect sensor opens up new opportunities to solve fundamental problems in computer vision. This paper presents a comprehensive review of recent Kinect-based computer vision algorithms and applications. The reviewed approaches are classified according to the type of vision problems that can be addressed or enhanced by means of the Kinect sensor. The covered topics include preprocessing, object tracking and recognition, human activity analysis, hand gesture analysis, and indoor 3-D mapping. For each category of methods, we outline their main algorithmic contributions and summarize their advantages/differences compared to their RGB counterparts. Finally, we give an overview of the challenges in this field and future research trends. This paper is expected to serve as a tutorial and source of references for Kinect-based computer vision researchers.

  7. Tracking by Identification Using Computer Vision and Radio

    PubMed Central

    Mandeljc, Rok; Kovačič, Stanislav; Kristan, Matej; Perš, Janez

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel system for detection, localization and tracking of multiple people, which fuses a multi-view computer vision approach with a radio-based localization system. The proposed fusion combines the best of both worlds, excellent computer-vision-based localization, and strong identity information provided by the radio system, and is therefore able to perform tracking by identification, which makes it impervious to propagated identity switches. We present comprehensive methodology for evaluation of systems that perform person localization in world coordinate system and use it to evaluate the proposed system as well as its components. Experimental results on a challenging indoor dataset, which involves multiple people walking around a realistically cluttered room, confirm that proposed fusion of both systems significantly outperforms its individual components. Compared to the radio-based system, it achieves better localization results, while at the same time it successfully prevents propagation of identity switches that occur in pure computer-vision-based tracking. PMID:23262485

  8. Deep hierarchies in the primate visual cortex: what can we learn for computer vision?

    PubMed

    Krüger, Norbert; Janssen, Peter; Kalkan, Sinan; Lappe, Markus; Leonardis, Ales; Piater, Justus; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Antonio J; Wiskott, Laurenz

    2013-08-01

    Computational modeling of the primate visual system yields insights of potential relevance to some of the challenges that computer vision is facing, such as object recognition and categorization, motion detection and activity recognition, or vision-based navigation and manipulation. This paper reviews some functional principles and structures that are generally thought to underlie the primate visual cortex, and attempts to extract biological principles that could further advance computer vision research. Organized for a computer vision audience, we present functional principles of the processing hierarchies present in the primate visual system considering recent discoveries in neurophysiology. The hierarchical processing in the primate visual system is characterized by a sequence of different levels of processing (on the order of 10) that constitute a deep hierarchy in contrast to the flat vision architectures predominantly used in today's mainstream computer vision. We hope that the functional description of the deep hierarchies realized in the primate visual system provides valuable insights for the design of computer vision algorithms, fostering increasingly productive interaction between biological and computer vision research.

  9. Perceptual organization in computer vision - A review and a proposal for a classificatory structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkar, Sudeep; Boyer, Kim L.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of perceptual organization in biological vision, and its necessity in advanced computer vision systems, arises from the characteristic that perception, the extraction of meaning from sensory input, is an intelligent process. This is particularly so for high order organisms and, analogically, for more sophisticated computational models. The role of perceptual organization in computer vision systems is explored. This is done from four vantage points. First, a brief history of perceptual organization research in both humans and computer vision is offered. Next, a classificatory structure in which to cast perceptual organization research to clarify both the nomenclature and the relationships among the many contributions is proposed. Thirdly, the perceptual organization work in computer vision in the context of this classificatory structure is reviewed. Finally, the array of computational techniques applied to perceptual organization problems in computer vision is surveyed.

  10. A multidisciplinary approach to solving computer related vision problems.

    PubMed

    Long, Jennifer; Helland, Magne

    2012-09-01

    This paper proposes a multidisciplinary approach to solving computer related vision issues by including optometry as a part of the problem-solving team. Computer workstation design is increasing in complexity. There are at least ten different professions who contribute to workstation design or who provide advice to improve worker comfort, safety and efficiency. Optometrists have a role identifying and solving computer-related vision issues and in prescribing appropriate optical devices. However, it is possible that advice given by optometrists to improve visual comfort may conflict with other requirements and demands within the workplace. A multidisciplinary approach has been advocated for solving computer related vision issues. There are opportunities for optometrists to collaborate with ergonomists, who coordinate information from physical, cognitive and organisational disciplines to enact holistic solutions to problems. This paper proposes a model of collaboration and examples of successful partnerships at a number of professional levels including individual relationships between optometrists and ergonomists when they have mutual clients/patients, in undergraduate and postgraduate education and in research. There is also scope for dialogue between optometry and ergonomics professional associations. A multidisciplinary approach offers the opportunity to solve vision related computer issues in a cohesive, rather than fragmented way. Further exploration is required to understand the barriers to these professional relationships. © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  11. Machine learning and computer vision approaches for phenotypic profiling

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Quaid

    2017-01-01

    With recent advances in high-throughput, automated microscopy, there has been an increased demand for effective computational strategies to analyze large-scale, image-based data. To this end, computer vision approaches have been applied to cell segmentation and feature extraction, whereas machine-learning approaches have been developed to aid in phenotypic classification and clustering of data acquired from biological images. Here, we provide an overview of the commonly used computer vision and machine-learning methods for generating and categorizing phenotypic profiles, highlighting the general biological utility of each approach. PMID:27940887

  12. Machine learning and computer vision approaches for phenotypic profiling.

    PubMed

    Grys, Ben T; Lo, Dara S; Sahin, Nil; Kraus, Oren Z; Morris, Quaid; Boone, Charles; Andrews, Brenda J

    2017-01-02

    With recent advances in high-throughput, automated microscopy, there has been an increased demand for effective computational strategies to analyze large-scale, image-based data. To this end, computer vision approaches have been applied to cell segmentation and feature extraction, whereas machine-learning approaches have been developed to aid in phenotypic classification and clustering of data acquired from biological images. Here, we provide an overview of the commonly used computer vision and machine-learning methods for generating and categorizing phenotypic profiles, highlighting the general biological utility of each approach. © 2017 Grys et al.

  13. Computer vision cracks the leaf code

    PubMed Central

    Wilf, Peter; Zhang, Shengping; Chikkerur, Sharat; Little, Stefan A.; Wing, Scott L.; Serre, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the extremely variable, complex shape and venation characters of angiosperm leaves is one of the most challenging problems in botany. Machine learning offers opportunities to analyze large numbers of specimens, to discover novel leaf features of angiosperm clades that may have phylogenetic significance, and to use those characters to classify unknowns. Previous computer vision approaches have primarily focused on leaf identification at the species level. It remains an open question whether learning and classification are possible among major evolutionary groups such as families and orders, which usually contain hundreds to thousands of species each and exhibit many times the foliar variation of individual species. Here, we tested whether a computer vision algorithm could use a database of 7,597 leaf images from 2,001 genera to learn features of botanical families and orders, then classify novel images. The images are of cleared leaves, specimens that are chemically bleached, then stained to reveal venation. Machine learning was used to learn a codebook of visual elements representing leaf shape and venation patterns. The resulting automated system learned to classify images into families and orders with a success rate many times greater than chance. Of direct botanical interest, the responses of diagnostic features can be visualized on leaf images as heat maps, which are likely to prompt recognition and evolutionary interpretation of a wealth of novel morphological characters. With assistance from computer vision, leaves are poised to make numerous new contributions to systematic and paleobotanical studies. PMID:26951664

  14. Computer Vision Techniques for Transcatheter Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Feng; Roach, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive transcatheter technologies have demonstrated substantial promise for the diagnosis and the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. For example, transcatheter aortic valve implantation is an alternative to aortic valve replacement for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis, and transcatheter atrial fibrillation ablation is widely used for the treatment and the cure of atrial fibrillation. In addition, catheter-based intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography imaging of coronary arteries provides important information about the coronary lumen, wall, and plaque characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of these cross-sectional image data will be beneficial to the evaluation and the treatment of coronary artery diseases such as atherosclerosis. In all the phases (preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative) during the transcatheter intervention procedure, computer vision techniques (e.g., image segmentation and motion tracking) have been largely applied in the field to accomplish tasks like annulus measurement, valve selection, catheter placement control, and vessel centerline extraction. This provides beneficial guidance for the clinicians in surgical planning, disease diagnosis, and treatment assessment. In this paper, we present a systematical review on these state-of-the-art methods. We aim to give a comprehensive overview for researchers in the area of computer vision on the subject of transcatheter intervention. Research in medical computing is multi-disciplinary due to its nature, and hence, it is important to understand the application domain, clinical background, and imaging modality, so that methods and quantitative measurements derived from analyzing the imaging data are appropriate and meaningful. We thus provide an overview on the background information of the transcatheter intervention procedures, as well as a review of the computer vision techniques and methodologies applied in this area. PMID:27170893

  15. Computer Vision Assisted Virtual Reality Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W.

    1999-01-01

    A computer vision assisted semi-automatic virtual reality (VR) calibration technology has been developed that can accurately match a virtual environment of graphically simulated three-dimensional (3-D) models to the video images of the real task environment.

  16. Computational models of human vision with applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Perceptual problems in aeronautics were studied. The mechanism by which color constancy is achieved in human vision was examined. A computable algorithm was developed to model the arrangement of retinal cones in spatial vision. The spatial frequency spectra are similar to the spectra of actual cone mosaics. The Hartley transform as a tool of image processing was evaluated and it is suggested that it could be used in signal processing applications, GR image processing.

  17. An Enduring Dialogue between Computational and Empirical Vision.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Conde, Susana; Macknik, Stephen L; Heeger, David J

    2018-04-01

    In the late 1970s, key discoveries in neurophysiology, psychophysics, computer vision, and image processing had reached a tipping point that would shape visual science for decades to come. David Marr and Ellen Hildreth's 'Theory of edge detection', published in 1980, set out to integrate the newly available wealth of data from behavioral, physiological, and computational approaches in a unifying theory. Although their work had wide and enduring ramifications, their most important contribution may have been to consolidate the foundations of the ongoing dialogue between theoretical and empirical vision science. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Possible Computer Vision Systems and Automated or Computer-Aided Edging and Trimming

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses research which is underway to help our industry reduce costs, increase product volume and value recovery, and market more accurately graded and described products. The research is part of a team effort to help the hardwood sawmill industry automate with computer vision systems, and computer-aided or computer controlled processing. This paper...

  19. Remote sensing of vegetation structure using computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandois, Jonathan P.

    High-spatial resolution measurements of vegetation structure are needed for improving understanding of ecosystem carbon, water and nutrient dynamics, the response of ecosystems to a changing climate, and for biodiversity mapping and conservation, among many research areas. Our ability to make such measurements has been greatly enhanced by continuing developments in remote sensing technology---allowing researchers the ability to measure numerous forest traits at varying spatial and temporal scales and over large spatial extents with minimal to no field work, which is costly for large spatial areas or logistically difficult in some locations. Despite these advances, there remain several research challenges related to the methods by which three-dimensional (3D) and spectral datasets are joined (remote sensing fusion) and the availability and portability of systems for frequent data collections at small scale sampling locations. Recent advances in the areas of computer vision structure from motion (SFM) and consumer unmanned aerial systems (UAS) offer the potential to address these challenges by enabling repeatable measurements of vegetation structural and spectral traits at the scale of individual trees. However, the potential advances offered by computer vision remote sensing also present unique challenges and questions that need to be addressed before this approach can be used to improve understanding of forest ecosystems. For computer vision remote sensing to be a valuable tool for studying forests, bounding information about the characteristics of the data produced by the system will help researchers understand and interpret results in the context of the forest being studied and of other remote sensing techniques. This research advances understanding of how forest canopy and tree 3D structure and color are accurately measured by a relatively low-cost and portable computer vision personal remote sensing system: 'Ecosynth'. Recommendations are made for optimal

  20. Blue Vision (Cyanopsia) Associated With TURP Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Fox, William C; Moon, Richard E

    2018-05-29

    There have been many complications associated with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), known as TURP syndrome. Of the various irrigation fluids used for TURP, glycine irrigant has been historically popular given its relatively low cost. It is also a nonconductive solution and only slightly hypoosmolar, reducing the risk of burn injury or significant hemolysis. However, there have been many case reports of central nervous system toxicity such as transient blindness and encephalopathy related to glycine toxicity. Here, we report blue vision (cyanopsia), which has never been reported as a symptom of TURP syndrome.

  1. Comparison of progressive addition lenses for general purpose and for computer vision: an office field study.

    PubMed

    Jaschinski, Wolfgang; König, Mirjam; Mekontso, Tiofil M; Ohlendorf, Arne; Welscher, Monique

    2015-05-01

    Two types of progressive addition lenses (PALs) were compared in an office field study: 1. General purpose PALs with continuous clear vision between infinity and near reading distances and 2. Computer vision PALs with a wider zone of clear vision at the monitor and in near vision but no clear distance vision. Twenty-three presbyopic participants wore each type of lens for two weeks in a double-masked four-week quasi-experimental procedure that included an adaptation phase (Weeks 1 and 2) and a test phase (Weeks 3 and 4). Questionnaires on visual and musculoskeletal conditions as well as preferences regarding the type of lenses were administered. After eight more weeks of free use of the spectacles, the preferences were assessed again. The ergonomic conditions were analysed from photographs. Head inclination when looking at the monitor was significantly lower by 2.3 degrees with the computer vision PALs than with the general purpose PALs. Vision at the monitor was judged significantly better with computer PALs, while distance vision was judged better with general purpose PALs; however, the reported advantage of computer vision PALs differed in extent between participants. Accordingly, 61 per cent of the participants preferred the computer vision PALs, when asked without information about lens design. After full information about lens characteristics and additional eight weeks of free spectacle use, 44 per cent preferred the computer vision PALs. On average, computer vision PALs were rated significantly better with respect to vision at the monitor during the experimental part of the study. In the final forced-choice ratings, approximately half of the participants preferred either the computer vision PAL or the general purpose PAL. Individual factors seem to play a role in this preference and in the rated advantage of computer vision PALs. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  2. AstroCV: Astronomy computer vision library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Roberto E.; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Hernández, Cristian A.

    2018-04-01

    AstroCV processes and analyzes big astronomical datasets, and is intended to provide a community repository of high performance Python and C++ algorithms used for image processing and computer vision. The library offers methods for object recognition, segmentation and classification, with emphasis in the automatic detection and classification of galaxies.

  3. Computer vision for foreign body detection and removal in the food industry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Computer vision inspection systems are often used for quality control, product grading, defect detection and other product evaluation issues. This chapter focuses on the use of computer vision inspection systems that detect foreign bodies and remove them from the product stream. Specifically, we wi...

  4. Surpassing Humans and Computers with JellyBean: Crowd-Vision-Hybrid Counting Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Akash Das; Jain, Ayush; Nandi, Arnab; Parameswaran, Aditya; Widom, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    Counting objects is a fundamental image processisng primitive, and has many scientific, health, surveillance, security, and military applications. Existing supervised computer vision techniques typically require large quantities of labeled training data, and even with that, fail to return accurate results in all but the most stylized settings. Using vanilla crowd-sourcing, on the other hand, can lead to significant errors, especially on images with many objects. In this paper, we present our JellyBean suite of algorithms, that combines the best of crowds and computer vision to count objects in images, and uses judicious decomposition of images to greatly improve accuracy at low cost. Our algorithms have several desirable properties: (i) they are theoretically optimal or near-optimal , in that they ask as few questions as possible to humans (under certain intuitively reasonable assumptions that we justify in our paper experimentally); (ii) they operate under stand-alone or hybrid modes, in that they can either work independent of computer vision algorithms, or work in concert with them, depending on whether the computer vision techniques are available or useful for the given setting; (iii) they perform very well in practice, returning accurate counts on images that no individual worker or computer vision algorithm can count correctly, while not incurring a high cost.

  5. Parallel Algorithms for Computer Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    NA86-1, Thinking Machines Corporation, Cambridge, MA, December 1986. [43] J. Little, G. Blelloch, and T. Cass. How to program the connection machine for... to program the connection machine for computer vision. In Proc. Workshop on Comp. Architecture for Pattern Analysis and Machine Intell., 1987. [92] J...In Proceedings of SPIE Conf. on Advances in Intelligent Robotics Systems, Bellingham, VA, 1987. SPIE. [91] J. Little, G. Blelloch, and T. Cass. How

  6. Review On Applications Of Neural Network To Computer Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Nasrabadi, Nasser M.

    1989-03-01

    Neural network models have many potential applications to computer vision due to their parallel structures, learnability, implicit representation of domain knowledge, fault tolerance, and ability of handling statistical data. This paper demonstrates the basic principles, typical models and their applications in this field. Variety of neural models, such as associative memory, multilayer back-propagation perceptron, self-stabilized adaptive resonance network, hierarchical structured neocognitron, high order correlator, network with gating control and other models, can be applied to visual signal recognition, reinforcement, recall, stereo vision, motion, object tracking and other vision processes. Most of the algorithms have been simulated on com-puters. Some have been implemented with special hardware. Some systems use features, such as edges and profiles, of images as the data form for input. Other systems use raw data as input signals to the networks. We will present some novel ideas contained in these approaches and provide a comparison of these methods. Some unsolved problems are mentioned, such as extracting the intrinsic properties of the input information, integrating those low level functions to a high-level cognitive system, achieving invariances and other problems. Perspectives of applications of some human vision models and neural network models are analyzed.

  7. Experiences Using an Open Source Software Library to Teach Computer Vision Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazorla, Miguel; Viejo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Machine vision is an important subject in computer science and engineering degrees. For laboratory experimentation, it is desirable to have a complete and easy-to-use tool. In this work we present a Java library, oriented to teaching computer vision. We have designed and built the library from the scratch with emphasis on readability and…

  8. Risk factors for computer visual syndrome (CVS) among operators of two call centers in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sa, Eduardo Costa; Ferreira Junior, Mario; Rocha, Lys Esther

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate work conditions, to estimate the prevalence and to describe risk factors associated with Computer Vision Syndrome among two call centers' operators in São Paulo (n = 476). The methods include a quantitative cross-sectional observational study and an ergonomic work analysis, using work observation, interviews and questionnaires. The case definition was the presence of one or more specific ocular symptoms answered as always, often or sometimes. The multiple logistic regression model, were created using the stepwise forward likelihood method and remained the variables with levels below 5% (p < 0.05). The operators were mainly female and young (from 15 to 24 years old). The call center was opened 24 hours and the operators weekly hours were 36 hours with break time from 21 to 35 minutes per day. The symptoms reported were eye fatigue (73.9%), "weight" in the eyes (68.2%), "burning" eyes (54.6%), tearing (43.9%) and weakening of vision (43.5%). The prevalence of Computer Vision Syndrome was 54.6%. Associations verified were: being female (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 4.1), lack of recognition at work (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8), organization of work in call center (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7) and high demand at work (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.3). The organization and psychosocial factors at work should be included in prevention programs of visual syndrome among call centers' operators.

  9. Smartphone, tablet computer and e-reader use by people with vision impairment.

    PubMed

    Crossland, Michael D; Silva, Rui S; Macedo, Antonio F

    2014-09-01

    Consumer electronic devices such as smartphones, tablet computers, and e-book readers have become far more widely used in recent years. Many of these devices contain accessibility features such as large print and speech. Anecdotal experience suggests people with vision impairment frequently make use of these systems. Here we survey people with self-identified vision impairment to determine their use of this equipment. An internet-based survey was advertised to people with vision impairment by word of mouth, social media, and online. Respondents were asked demographic information, what devices they owned, what they used these devices for, and what accessibility features they used. One hundred and thirty-two complete responses were received. Twenty-six percent of the sample reported that they had no vision and the remainder reported they had low vision. One hundred and seven people (81%) reported using a smartphone. Those with no vision were as likely to use a smartphone or tablet as those with low vision. Speech was found useful by 59% of smartphone users. Fifty-one percent of smartphone owners used the camera and screen as a magnifier. Forty-eight percent of the sample used a tablet computer, and 17% used an e-book reader. The most frequently cited reason for not using these devices included cost and lack of interest. Smartphones, tablet computers, and e-book readers can be used by people with vision impairment. Speech is used by people with low vision as well as those with no vision. Many of our (self-selected) group used their smartphone camera and screen as a magnifier, and others used the camera flash as a spotlight. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The College of Optometrists.

  10. Visual Turing test for computer vision systems

    PubMed Central

    Geman, Donald; Geman, Stuart; Hallonquist, Neil; Younes, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Today, computer vision systems are tested by their accuracy in detecting and localizing instances of objects. As an alternative, and motivated by the ability of humans to provide far richer descriptions and even tell a story about an image, we construct a “visual Turing test”: an operator-assisted device that produces a stochastic sequence of binary questions from a given test image. The query engine proposes a question; the operator either provides the correct answer or rejects the question as ambiguous; the engine proposes the next question (“just-in-time truthing”). The test is then administered to the computer-vision system, one question at a time. After the system’s answer is recorded, the system is provided the correct answer and the next question. Parsing is trivial and deterministic; the system being tested requires no natural language processing. The query engine employs statistical constraints, learned from a training set, to produce questions with essentially unpredictable answers—the answer to a question, given the history of questions and their correct answers, is nearly equally likely to be positive or negative. In this sense, the test is only about vision. The system is designed to produce streams of questions that follow natural story lines, from the instantiation of a unique object, through an exploration of its properties, and on to its relationships with other uniquely instantiated objects. PMID:25755262

  11. Quality Parameters of Six Cultivars of Blueberry Using Computer Vision

    PubMed Central

    Celis Cofré, Daniela; Silva, Patricia; Enrione, Javier; Osorio, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Background. Blueberries are considered an important source of health benefits. This work studied six blueberry cultivars: “Duke,” “Brigitta”, “Elliott”, “Centurion”, “Star,” and “Jewel”, measuring quality parameters such as °Brix, pH, moisture content using standard techniques and shape, color, and fungal presence obtained by computer vision. The storage conditions were time (0–21 days), temperature (4 and 15°C), and relative humidity (75 and 90%). Results. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were detected between fresh cultivars in pH, °Brix, shape, and color. However, the main parameters which changed depending on storage conditions, increasing at higher temperature, were color (from blue to red) and fungal presence (from 0 to 15%), both detected using computer vision, which is important to determine a shelf life of 14 days for all cultivars. Similar behavior during storage was obtained for all cultivars. Conclusion. Computer vision proved to be a reliable and simple method to objectively determine blueberry decay during storage that can be used as an alternative approach to currently used subjective measurements. PMID:26904598

  12. Integrating Mobile Robotics and Vision with Undergraduate Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cielniak, G.; Bellotto, N.; Duckett, T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of robotics education into an undergraduate Computer Science curriculum. The proposed approach delivers mobile robotics as well as covering the closely related field of Computer Vision and is directly linked to the research conducted at the authors' institution. The paper describes the most relevant details of…

  13. Low computation vision-based navigation for a Martian rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Andrew S.; Brooks, Rodney A.

    1994-01-01

    Construction and design details of the Mobot Vision System, a small, self-contained, mobile vision system, are presented. This system uses the view from the top of a small, roving, robotic vehicle to supply data that is processed in real-time to safely navigate the surface of Mars. A simple, low-computation algorithm for constructing a 3-D navigational map of the Martian environment to be used by the rover is discussed.

  14. Development of a Wireless Computer Vision Instrument to Detect Biotic Stress in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Joaquin J.; O'Shaughnessy, Susan A.; Evett, Steven R.; Rush, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of crop abiotic and biotic stress is important for optimal irrigation management. While spectral reflectance and infrared thermometry provide a means to quantify crop stress remotely, these measurements can be cumbersome. Computer vision offers an inexpensive way to remotely detect crop stress independent of vegetation cover. This paper presents a technique using computer vision to detect disease stress in wheat. Digital images of differentially stressed wheat were segmented into soil and vegetation pixels using expectation maximization (EM). In the first season, the algorithm to segment vegetation from soil and distinguish between healthy and stressed wheat was developed and tested using digital images taken in the field and later processed on a desktop computer. In the second season, a wireless camera with near real-time computer vision capabilities was tested in conjunction with the conventional camera and desktop computer. For wheat irrigated at different levels and inoculated with wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), vegetation hue determined by the EM algorithm showed significant effects from irrigation level and infection. Unstressed wheat had a higher hue (118.32) than stressed wheat (111.34). In the second season, the hue and cover measured by the wireless computer vision sensor showed significant effects from infection (p = 0.0014), as did the conventional camera (p < 0.0001). Vegetation hue obtained through a wireless computer vision system in this study is a viable option for determining biotic crop stress in irrigation scheduling. Such a low-cost system could be suitable for use in the field in automated irrigation scheduling applications. PMID:25251410

  15. Non-Boolean computing with nanomagnets for computer vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanja, Sanjukta; Karunaratne, D. K.; Panchumarthy, Ravi; Rajaram, Srinath; Sarkar, Sudeep

    2016-02-01

    The field of nanomagnetism has recently attracted tremendous attention as it can potentially deliver low-power, high-speed and dense non-volatile memories. It is now possible to engineer the size, shape, spacing, orientation and composition of sub-100 nm magnetic structures. This has spurred the exploration of nanomagnets for unconventional computing paradigms. Here, we harness the energy-minimization nature of nanomagnetic systems to solve the quadratic optimization problems that arise in computer vision applications, which are computationally expensive. By exploiting the magnetization states of nanomagnetic disks as state representations of a vortex and single domain, we develop a magnetic Hamiltonian and implement it in a magnetic system that can identify the salient features of a given image with more than 85% true positive rate. These results show the potential of this alternative computing method to develop a magnetic coprocessor that might solve complex problems in fewer clock cycles than traditional processors.

  16. Lumber Grading With A Computer Vision System

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    Over the past few years significant progress has been made in developing a computer vision system for locating and identifying defects on surfaced hardwood lumber. Unfortunately, until September of 1988 little research had gone into developing methods for analyzing rough lumber. This task is arguably more complex than the analysis of surfaced lumber. The prime...

  17. Multiscale Methods, Parallel Computation, and Neural Networks for Real-Time Computer Vision.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiti, Roberto

    1990-01-01

    This thesis presents new algorithms for low and intermediate level computer vision. The guiding ideas in the presented approach are those of hierarchical and adaptive processing, concurrent computation, and supervised learning. Processing of the visual data at different resolutions is used not only to reduce the amount of computation necessary to reach the fixed point, but also to produce a more accurate estimation of the desired parameters. The presented adaptive multiple scale technique is applied to the problem of motion field estimation. Different parts of the image are analyzed at a resolution that is chosen in order to minimize the error in the coefficients of the differential equations to be solved. Tests with video-acquired images show that velocity estimation is more accurate over a wide range of motion with respect to the homogeneous scheme. In some cases introduction of explicit discontinuities coupled to the continuous variables can be used to avoid propagation of visual information from areas corresponding to objects with different physical and/or kinematic properties. The human visual system uses concurrent computation in order to process the vast amount of visual data in "real -time." Although with different technological constraints, parallel computation can be used efficiently for computer vision. All the presented algorithms have been implemented on medium grain distributed memory multicomputers with a speed-up approximately proportional to the number of processors used. A simple two-dimensional domain decomposition assigns regions of the multiresolution pyramid to the different processors. The inter-processor communication needed during the solution process is proportional to the linear dimension of the assigned domain, so that efficiency is close to 100% if a large region is assigned to each processor. Finally, learning algorithms are shown to be a viable technique to engineer computer vision systems for different applications starting from

  18. Visions for Literacy: Parents' Aspirations for Reading in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricci, Leila; Osipova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Although children with Down syndrome (DS) can learn to read, few studies have explored parental perspectives on the reading development of this group of children. This article, written by Leila Ricci and Anna Osipova, from California State University, explores visions and expectations regarding reading held by parents of children with Down…

  19. Computer vision-based sorting of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets according to their color level.

    PubMed

    Misimi, E; Mathiassen, J R; Erikson, U

    2007-01-01

    Computer vision method was used to evaluate the color of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets. Computer vision-based sorting of fillets according to their color was studied on 2 separate groups of salmon fillets. The images of fillets were captured using a digital camera of high resolution. Images of salmon fillets were then segmented in the regions of interest and analyzed in red, green, and blue (RGB) and CIE Lightness, redness, and yellowness (Lab) color spaces, and classified according to the Roche color card industrial standard. Comparisons of fillet color between visual evaluations were made by a panel of human inspectors, according to the Roche SalmoFan lineal standard, and the color scores generated from computer vision algorithm showed that there were no significant differences between the methods. Overall, computer vision can be used as a powerful tool to sort fillets by color in a fast and nondestructive manner. The low cost of implementing computer vision solutions creates the potential to replace manual labor in fish processing plants with automation.

  20. Remote media vision-based computer input device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabnia, Hamid R.; Chen, Ching-Yi

    1991-11-01

    In this paper, we introduce a vision-based computer input device which has been built at the University of Georgia. The user of this system gives commands to the computer without touching any physical device. The system receives input through a CCD camera; it is PC- based and is built on top of the DOS operating system. The major components of the input device are: a monitor, an image capturing board, a CCD camera, and some software (developed by use). These are interfaced with a standard PC running under the DOS operating system.

  1. Hypertext-based computer vision teaching packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. David

    1994-10-01

    The World Wide Web Initiative has provided a means for providing hypertext and multimedia based information across the whole INTERNET. Many applications have been developed on such http servers. At Cardiff we have developed a http hypertext based multimedia server, the Cardiff Information Server, using the widely available Mosaic system. The server provides a variety of information ranging from the provision of teaching modules, on- line documentation, timetables for departmental activities to more light hearted hobby interests. One important and novel development to the server has been the development of courseware facilities. This ranges from the provision of on-line lecture notes, exercises and their solutions to more interactive teaching packages. A variety of disciplines have benefitted notably Computer Vision, and Image Processing but also C programming, X Windows, Computer Graphics and Parallel Computing. This paper will address the issues of the implementation of the Computer Vision and Image Processing packages, the advantages gained from using a hypertext based system and also will relate practical experiences of using the packages in a class environment. The paper addresses issues of how best to provide information in such a hypertext based system and how interactive image processing packages can be developed and integrated into courseware. The suite of tools developed facilitates a flexible and powerful courseware package that has proved popular in the classroom and over the Internet. The paper will also detail many future developments we see possible. One of the key points raised in the paper is that Mosaic's hypertext language (html) is extremely powerful and yet relatively straightforward to use. It is also possible to link in Unix calls so that programs and shells can be executed. This provides a powerful suite of utilities that can be exploited to develop many packages.

  2. Computer vision in roadway transportation systems: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loce, Robert P.; Bernal, Edgar A.; Wu, Wencheng; Bala, Raja

    2013-10-01

    There is a worldwide effort to apply 21st century intelligence to evolving our transportation networks. The goals of smart transportation networks are quite noble and manifold, including safety, efficiency, law enforcement, energy conservation, and emission reduction. Computer vision is playing a key role in this transportation evolution. Video imaging scientists are providing intelligent sensing and processing technologies for a wide variety of applications and services. There are many interesting technical challenges including imaging under a variety of environmental and illumination conditions, data overload, recognition and tracking of objects at high speed, distributed network sensing and processing, energy sources, as well as legal concerns. This paper presents a survey of computer vision techniques related to three key problems in the transportation domain: safety, efficiency, and security and law enforcement. A broad review of the literature is complemented by detailed treatment of a few selected algorithms and systems that the authors believe represent the state-of-the-art.

  3. Python and computer vision

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Doak, J. E.; Prasad, Lakshman

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of Python in a computer vision (CV) project. We begin by providing background information on the specific approach to CV employed by the project. This includes a brief discussion of Constrained Delaunay Triangulation (CDT), the Chordal Axis Transform (CAT), shape feature extraction and syntactic characterization, and normalization of strings representing objects. (The terms 'object' and 'blob' are used interchangeably, both referring to an entity extracted from an image.) The rest of the paper focuses on the use of Python in three critical areas: (1) interactions with a MySQL database, (2) rapid prototyping of algorithms, andmore » (3) gluing together all components of the project including existing C and C++ modules. For (l), we provide a schema definition and discuss how the various tables interact to represent objects in the database as tree structures. (2) focuses on an algorithm to create a hierarchical representation of an object, given its string representation, and an algorithm to match unknown objects against objects in a database. And finally, (3) discusses the use of Boost Python to interact with the pre-existing C and C++ code that creates the CDTs and CATS, performs shape feature extraction and syntactic characterization, and normalizes object strings. The paper concludes with a vision of the future use of Python for the CV project.« less

  4. Computer vision-based classification of hand grip variations in neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Zariffa, José; Steeves, John D

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of hand function is such that most existing upper limb rehabilitation robotic devices use only simplified hand interfaces. This is in contrast to the importance of the hand in regaining function after neurological injury. Computer vision technology has been used to identify hand posture in the field of Human Computer Interaction, but this approach has not been translated to the rehabilitation context. We describe a computer vision-based classifier that can be used to discriminate rehabilitation-relevant hand postures, and could be integrated into a virtual reality-based upper limb rehabilitation system. The proposed system was tested on a set of video recordings from able-bodied individuals performing cylindrical grasps, lateral key grips, and tip-to-tip pinches. The overall classification success rate was 91.2%, and was above 98% for 6 out of the 10 subjects. © 2011 IEEE

  5. Computer-Aided Methodology for Syndromic Strabismus Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sousa de Almeida, João Dallyson; Silva, Aristófanes Corrêa; Teixeira, Jorge Antonio Meireles; Paiva, Anselmo Cardoso; Gattass, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Strabismus is a pathology that affects approximately 4 % of the population, causing aesthetic problems reversible at any age and irreversible sensory alterations that modify the vision mechanism. The Hirschberg test is one type of examination for detecting this pathology. Computer-aided detection/diagnosis is being used with relative success to aid health professionals. Nevertheless, the routine use of high-tech devices for aiding ophthalmological diagnosis and therapy is not a reality within the subspecialty of strabismus. Thus, this work presents a methodology to aid in diagnosis of syndromic strabismus through digital imaging. Two hundred images belonging to 40 patients previously diagnosed by an specialist were tested. The method was demonstrated to be 88 % accurate in esotropias identification (ET), 100 % for exotropias (XT), 80.33 % for hypertropias (HT), and 83.33 % for hypotropias (HoT). The overall average error was 5.6Δ and 3.83Δ for horizontal and vertical deviations, respectively, against the measures presented by the specialist.

  6. Monitoring system of multiple fire fighting based on computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinlong; Wang, Li; Gao, Xiaorong; Wang, Zeyong; Zhao, Quanke

    2010-10-01

    With the high demand of fire control in spacious buildings, computer vision is playing a more and more important role. This paper presents a new monitoring system of multiple fire fighting based on computer vision and color detection. This system can adjust to the fire position and then extinguish the fire by itself. In this paper, the system structure, working principle, fire orientation, hydrant's angle adjusting and system calibration are described in detail; also the design of relevant hardware and software is introduced. At the same time, the principle and process of color detection and image processing are given as well. The system runs well in the test, and it has high reliability, low cost, and easy nodeexpanding, which has a bright prospect of application and popularization.

  7. Measuring exertion time, duty cycle and hand activity level for industrial tasks using computer vision.

    PubMed

    Akkas, Oguz; Lee, Cheng Hsien; Hu, Yu Hen; Harris Adamson, Carisa; Rempel, David; Radwin, Robert G

    2017-12-01

    Two computer vision algorithms were developed to automatically estimate exertion time, duty cycle (DC) and hand activity level (HAL) from videos of workers performing 50 industrial tasks. The average DC difference between manual frame-by-frame analysis and the computer vision DC was -5.8% for the Decision Tree (DT) algorithm, and 1.4% for the Feature Vector Training (FVT) algorithm. The average HAL difference was 0.5 for the DT algorithm and 0.3 for the FVT algorithm. A sensitivity analysis, conducted to examine the influence that deviations in DC have on HAL, found it remained unaffected when DC error was less than 5%. Thus, a DC error less than 10% will impact HAL less than 0.5 HAL, which is negligible. Automatic computer vision HAL estimates were therefore comparable to manual frame-by-frame estimates. Practitioner Summary: Computer vision was used to automatically estimate exertion time, duty cycle and hand activity level from videos of workers performing industrial tasks.

  8. CFD Vision 2030 Study: A Path to Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slotnick, Jeffrey; Khodadoust, Abdollah; Alonso, Juan; Darmofal, David; Gropp, William; Lurie, Elizabeth; Mavriplis, Dimitri

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study to address the long range, strategic planning required by NASA's Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (RCA) program in the area of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), including future software and hardware requirements for High Performance Computing (HPC). Specifically, the "Vision 2030" CFD study is to provide a knowledge-based forecast of the future computational capabilities required for turbulent, transitional, and reacting flow simulations across a broad Mach number regime, and to lay the foundation for the development of a future framework and/or environment where physics-based, accurate predictions of complex turbulent flows, including flow separation, can be accomplished routinely and efficiently in cooperation with other physics-based simulations to enable multi-physics analysis and design. Specific technical requirements from the aerospace industrial and scientific communities were obtained to determine critical capability gaps, anticipated technical challenges, and impediments to achieving the target CFD capability in 2030. A preliminary development plan and roadmap were created to help focus investments in technology development to help achieve the CFD vision in 2030.

  9. Computer vision uncovers predictors of physical urban change.

    PubMed

    Naik, Nikhil; Kominers, Scott Duke; Raskar, Ramesh; Glaeser, Edward L; Hidalgo, César A

    2017-07-18

    Which neighborhoods experience physical improvements? In this paper, we introduce a computer vision method to measure changes in the physical appearances of neighborhoods from time-series street-level imagery. We connect changes in the physical appearance of five US cities with economic and demographic data and find three factors that predict neighborhood improvement. First, neighborhoods that are densely populated by college-educated adults are more likely to experience physical improvements-an observation that is compatible with the economic literature linking human capital and local success. Second, neighborhoods with better initial appearances experience, on average, larger positive improvements-an observation that is consistent with "tipping" theories of urban change. Third, neighborhood improvement correlates positively with physical proximity to the central business district and to other physically attractive neighborhoods-an observation that is consistent with the "invasion" theories of urban sociology. Together, our results provide support for three classical theories of urban change and illustrate the value of using computer vision methods and street-level imagery to understand the physical dynamics of cities.

  10. Computer vision uncovers predictors of physical urban change

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Nikhil; Kominers, Scott Duke; Raskar, Ramesh; Glaeser, Edward L.; Hidalgo, César A.

    2017-01-01

    Which neighborhoods experience physical improvements? In this paper, we introduce a computer vision method to measure changes in the physical appearances of neighborhoods from time-series street-level imagery. We connect changes in the physical appearance of five US cities with economic and demographic data and find three factors that predict neighborhood improvement. First, neighborhoods that are densely populated by college-educated adults are more likely to experience physical improvements—an observation that is compatible with the economic literature linking human capital and local success. Second, neighborhoods with better initial appearances experience, on average, larger positive improvements—an observation that is consistent with “tipping” theories of urban change. Third, neighborhood improvement correlates positively with physical proximity to the central business district and to other physically attractive neighborhoods—an observation that is consistent with the “invasion” theories of urban sociology. Together, our results provide support for three classical theories of urban change and illustrate the value of using computer vision methods and street-level imagery to understand the physical dynamics of cities. PMID:28684401

  11. Using parallel evolutionary development for a biologically-inspired computer vision system for mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cameron H G; Barrett, Steven F; Pack, Daniel J

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new approach to attacking the problem of robust computer vision for mobile robots. The overall strategy is to mimic the biological evolution of animal vision systems. Our basic imaging sensor is based upon the eye of the common house fly, Musca domestica. The computational algorithms are a mix of traditional image processing, subspace techniques, and multilayer neural networks.

  12. Retinal detachment in hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome: Color vision abnormality as the first and predominant manifestation.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Hiroyuki; Makino, Shinji; Takahashi, Hironori; Sorita, Mari; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2015-11-01

    Serous retinal detachment is sometimes caused by hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and its associated conditions, in which the predominant eye symptoms are blurred vision, distorted vision, and reduced visual acuity. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of a puerperal woman with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome in whom color vision abnormality was the first and predominant manifestation of serous retinal detachment. At 32 weeks of gestation, the 34-year-old Japanese woman underwent cesarean section due to HELLP syndrome. She complained of color vision abnormality on day 1 post-partum and ophthalmological examination revealed serous retinal detachment of both eyes. The visual acuity was preserved. With supportive therapy, her color vision abnormality gradually ameliorated and retinal detachment completely resolved on day 34 post-partum without any sequelae. Obstetricians should be aware that color vision abnormality can be the first and predominant symptom of HELLP-related serous retinal detachment. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Computer vision based nacre thickness measurement of Tahitian pearls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loesdau, Martin; Chabrier, Sébastien; Gabillon, Alban

    2017-03-01

    The Tahitian Pearl is the most valuable export product of French Polynesia contributing with over 61 million Euros to more than 50% of the total export income. To maintain its excellent reputation on the international market, an obligatory quality control for every pearl deemed for exportation has been established by the local government. One of the controlled quality parameters is the pearls nacre thickness. The evaluation is currently done manually by experts that are visually analyzing X-ray images of the pearls. In this article, a computer vision based approach to automate this procedure is presented. Even though computer vision based approaches for pearl nacre thickness measurement exist in the literature, the very specific features of the Tahitian pearl, namely the large shape variety and the occurrence of cavities, have so far not been considered. The presented work closes the. Our method consists of segmenting the pearl from X-ray images with a model-based approach, segmenting the pearls nucleus with an own developed heuristic circle detection and segmenting possible cavities with region growing. Out of the obtained boundaries, the 2-dimensional nacre thickness profile can be calculated. A certainty measurement to consider imaging and segmentation imprecisions is included in the procedure. The proposed algorithms are tested on 298 manually evaluated Tahitian pearls, showing that it is generally possible to automatically evaluate the nacre thickness of Tahitian pearls with computer vision. Furthermore the results show that the automatic measurement is more precise and faster than the manual one.

  14. Identifying local structural states in atomic imaging by computer vision

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Laanait, Nouamane; Ziatdinov, Maxim; He, Qian

    The availability of atomically resolved imaging modalities enables an unprecedented view into the local structural states of materials, which manifest themselves by deviations from the fundamental assumptions of periodicity and symmetry. Consequently, approaches that aim to extract these local structural states from atomic imaging data with minimal assumptions regarding the average crystallographic configuration of a material are indispensable to advances in structural and chemical investigations of materials. Here, we present an approach to identify and classify local structural states that is rooted in computer vision. This approach introduces a definition of a structural state that is composed of both localmore » and non-local information extracted from atomically resolved images, and is wholly untethered from the familiar concepts of symmetry and periodicity. Instead, this approach relies on computer vision techniques such as feature detection, and concepts such as scale-invariance. We present the fundamental aspects of local structural state extraction and classification by application to simulated scanning transmission electron microscopy images, and analyze the robustness of this approach in the presence of common instrumental factors such as noise, limited spatial resolution, and weak contrast. Finally, we apply this computer vision-based approach for the unsupervised detection and classification of local structural states in an experimental electron micrograph of a complex oxides interface, and a scanning tunneling micrograph of a defect engineered multilayer graphene surface.« less

  15. Identifying local structural states in atomic imaging by computer vision

    DOE PAGES

    Laanait, Nouamane; Ziatdinov, Maxim; He, Qian; ...

    2016-11-02

    The availability of atomically resolved imaging modalities enables an unprecedented view into the local structural states of materials, which manifest themselves by deviations from the fundamental assumptions of periodicity and symmetry. Consequently, approaches that aim to extract these local structural states from atomic imaging data with minimal assumptions regarding the average crystallographic configuration of a material are indispensable to advances in structural and chemical investigations of materials. Here, we present an approach to identify and classify local structural states that is rooted in computer vision. This approach introduces a definition of a structural state that is composed of both localmore » and non-local information extracted from atomically resolved images, and is wholly untethered from the familiar concepts of symmetry and periodicity. Instead, this approach relies on computer vision techniques such as feature detection, and concepts such as scale-invariance. We present the fundamental aspects of local structural state extraction and classification by application to simulated scanning transmission electron microscopy images, and analyze the robustness of this approach in the presence of common instrumental factors such as noise, limited spatial resolution, and weak contrast. Finally, we apply this computer vision-based approach for the unsupervised detection and classification of local structural states in an experimental electron micrograph of a complex oxides interface, and a scanning tunneling micrograph of a defect engineered multilayer graphene surface.« less

  16. Computer Vision Systems for Hardwood Logs and Lumber

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; Tai-Hoon Cho; D. Zhu; R. Conners

    1991-01-01

    Computer vision systems being developed at Virginia Tech University with the support and cooperation from the U.S. Forest Service are presented. Researchers at Michigan State University, West Virginia University, and Mississippi State University are also members of the research team working on various parts of this research. Our goals are to help U.S. hardwood...

  17. Comparing visual representations across human fMRI and computational vision

    PubMed Central

    Leeds, Daniel D.; Seibert, Darren A.; Pyles, John A.; Tarr, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Feedforward visual object perception recruits a cortical network that is assumed to be hierarchical, progressing from basic visual features to complete object representations. However, the nature of the intermediate features related to this transformation remains poorly understood. Here, we explore how well different computer vision recognition models account for neural object encoding across the human cortical visual pathway as measured using fMRI. These neural data, collected during the viewing of 60 images of real-world objects, were analyzed with a searchlight procedure as in Kriegeskorte, Goebel, and Bandettini (2006): Within each searchlight sphere, the obtained patterns of neural activity for all 60 objects were compared to model responses for each computer recognition algorithm using representational dissimilarity analysis (Kriegeskorte et al., 2008). Although each of the computer vision methods significantly accounted for some of the neural data, among the different models, the scale invariant feature transform (Lowe, 2004), encoding local visual properties gathered from “interest points,” was best able to accurately and consistently account for stimulus representations within the ventral pathway. More generally, when present, significance was observed in regions of the ventral-temporal cortex associated with intermediate-level object perception. Differences in model effectiveness and the neural location of significant matches may be attributable to the fact that each model implements a different featural basis for representing objects (e.g., more holistic or more parts-based). Overall, we conclude that well-known computer vision recognition systems may serve as viable proxies for theories of intermediate visual object representation. PMID:24273227

  18. A large-scale solar dynamics observatory image dataset for computer vision applications.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Ahmet; Banda, Juan M; Angryk, Rafal A

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics Space Agency (NASA) Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission has given us unprecedented insight into the Sun's activity. By capturing approximately 70,000 images a day, this mission has created one of the richest and biggest repositories of solar image data available to mankind. With such massive amounts of information, researchers have been able to produce great advances in detecting solar events. In this resource, we compile SDO solar data into a single repository in order to provide the computer vision community with a standardized and curated large-scale dataset of several hundred thousand solar events found on high resolution solar images. This publicly available resource, along with the generation source code, will accelerate computer vision research on NASA's solar image data by reducing the amount of time spent performing data acquisition and curation from the multiple sources we have compiled. By improving the quality of the data with thorough curation, we anticipate a wider adoption and interest from the computer vision to the solar physics community.

  19. Computer Vision Photogrammetry for Underwater Archaeological Site Recording in a Low-Visibility Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Damme, T.

    2015-04-01

    Computer Vision Photogrammetry allows archaeologists to accurately record underwater sites in three dimensions using simple twodimensional picture or video sequences, automatically processed in dedicated software. In this article, I share my experience in working with one such software package, namely PhotoScan, to record a Dutch shipwreck site. In order to demonstrate the method's reliability and flexibility, the site in question is reconstructed from simple GoPro footage, captured in low-visibility conditions. Based on the results of this case study, Computer Vision Photogrammetry compares very favourably to manual recording methods both in recording efficiency, and in the quality of the final results. In a final section, the significance of Computer Vision Photogrammetry is then assessed from a historical perspective, by placing the current research in the wider context of about half a century of successful use of Analytical and later Digital photogrammetry in the field of underwater archaeology. I conclude that while photogrammetry has been used in our discipline for several decades now, for various reasons the method was only ever used by a relatively small percentage of projects. This is likely to change in the near future since, compared to the `traditional' photogrammetry approaches employed in the past, today Computer Vision Photogrammetry is easier to use, more reliable and more affordable than ever before, while at the same time producing more accurate and more detailed three-dimensional results.

  20. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  1. Head pose estimation in computer vision: a survey.

    PubMed

    Murphy-Chutorian, Erik; Trivedi, Mohan Manubhai

    2009-04-01

    The capacity to estimate the head pose of another person is a common human ability that presents a unique challenge for computer vision systems. Compared to face detection and recognition, which have been the primary foci of face-related vision research, identity-invariant head pose estimation has fewer rigorously evaluated systems or generic solutions. In this paper, we discuss the inherent difficulties in head pose estimation and present an organized survey describing the evolution of the field. Our discussion focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of each approach and spans 90 of the most innovative and characteristic papers that have been published on this topic. We compare these systems by focusing on their ability to estimate coarse and fine head pose, highlighting approaches that are well suited for unconstrained environments.

  2. Application of the SP theory of intelligence to the understanding of natural vision and the development of computer vision.

    PubMed

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2014-01-01

    The SP theory of intelligence aims to simplify and integrate concepts in computing and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. This article is about how the SP theory may, with advantage, be applied to the understanding of natural vision and the development of computer vision. Potential benefits include an overall simplification of concepts in a universal framework for knowledge and seamless integration of vision with other sensory modalities and other aspects of intelligence. Low level perceptual features such as edges or corners may be identified by the extraction of redundancy in uniform areas in the manner of the run-length encoding technique for information compression. The concept of multiple alignment in the SP theory may be applied to the recognition of objects, and to scene analysis, with a hierarchy of parts and sub-parts, at multiple levels of abstraction, and with family-resemblance or polythetic categories. The theory has potential for the unsupervised learning of visual objects and classes of objects, and suggests how coherent concepts may be derived from fragments. As in natural vision, both recognition and learning in the SP system are robust in the face of errors of omission, commission and substitution. The theory suggests how, via vision, we may piece together a knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of objects and of our environment, it provides an account of how we may see things that are not objectively present in an image, how we may recognise something despite variations in the size of its retinal image, and how raster graphics and vector graphics may be unified. And it has things to say about the phenomena of lightness constancy and colour constancy, the role of context in recognition, ambiguities in visual perception, and the integration of vision with other senses and other aspects of intelligence.

  3. Computer vision challenges and technologies for agile manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molley, Perry A.

    1996-02-01

    applicable to commercial production processes and applications. Computer vision will play a critical role in the new agile production environment for automation of processes such as inspection, assembly, welding, material dispensing and other process control tasks. Although there are many academic and commercial solutions that have been developed, none have had widespread adoption considering the huge potential number of applications that could benefit from this technology. The reason for this slow adoption is that the advantages of computer vision for automation can be a double-edged sword. The benefits can be lost if the vision system requires an inordinate amount of time for reprogramming by a skilled operator to account for different parts, changes in lighting conditions, background clutter, changes in optics, etc. Commercially available solutions typically require an operator to manually program the vision system with features used for the recognition. In a recent survey, we asked a number of commercial manufacturers and machine vision companies the question, 'What prevents machine vision systems from being more useful in factories?' The number one (and unanimous) response was that vision systems require too much skill to set up and program to be cost effective.

  4. Survey of computer vision-based natural disaster warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, ByoungChul; Kwak, Sooyeong

    2012-07-01

    With the rapid development of information technology, natural disaster prevention is growing as a new research field dealing with surveillance systems. To forecast and prevent the damage caused by natural disasters, the development of systems to analyze natural disasters using remote sensing geographic information systems (GIS), and vision sensors has been receiving widespread interest over the last decade. This paper provides an up-to-date review of five different types of natural disasters and their corresponding warning systems using computer vision and pattern recognition techniques such as wildfire smoke and flame detection, water level detection for flood prevention, coastal zone monitoring, and landslide detection. Finally, we conclude with some thoughts about future research directions.

  5. Predicting pork loin intramuscular fat using computer vision system.

    PubMed

    Liu, J-H; Sun, X; Young, J M; Bachmeier, L A; Newman, D J

    2018-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of computer vision system to predict pork intramuscular fat percentage (IMF%). Center-cut loin samples (n = 85) were trimmed of subcutaneous fat and connective tissue. Images were acquired and pixels were segregated to estimate image IMF% and 18 image color features for each image. Subjective IMF% was determined by a trained grader. Ether extract IMF% was calculated using ether extract method. Image color features and image IMF% were used as predictors for stepwise regression and support vector machine models. Results showed that subjective IMF% had a correlation of 0.81 with ether extract IMF% while the image IMF% had a 0.66 correlation with ether extract IMF%. Accuracy rates for regression models were 0.63 for stepwise and 0.75 for support vector machine. Although subjective IMF% has shown to have better prediction, results from computer vision system demonstrates the potential of being used as a tool in predicting pork IMF% in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The diagnostic performance of expert dermoscopists vs a computer-vision system on small-diameter melanomas.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Robert J; Gutkowicz-Krusin, Dina; Farber, Michele J; Warycha, Melanie; Schneider-Kels, Lori; Papastathis, Nicole; Mihm, Martin C; Googe, Paul; King, Roy; Prieto, Victor G; Kopf, Alfred W; Polsky, David; Rabinovitz, Harold; Oliviero, Margaret; Cognetta, Armand; Rigel, Darrell S; Marghoob, Ashfaq; Rivers, Jason; Johr, Robert; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Tsao, Hensin

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the performance of dermoscopists in diagnosing small pigmented skin lesions (diameter computer-vision system. Blinded comparison study. Dermatologic hospital-based clinics and private practice offices. Patients From a computerized skin imaging database of 990 small (computed and then compared with the results of the computer-vision system. Dermoscopists were able to correctly identify small melanomas with an average diagnostic sensitivity of 39% and a specificity of 82% and recommended small melanomas for biopsy with a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 49%, with only fair interobserver agreement (kappa = 0.31 for diagnosis and 0.34 for biopsy). In comparison, in recommending biopsy to rule out melanoma, the computer-vision system achieved 98% sensitivity and 44% specificity. Differentiation of small melanomas from small benign pigmented lesions challenges even expert physicians. Computer-vision systems can facilitate early detection of small melanomas and may limit the number of biopsies to rule out melanoma performed on benign lesions.

  7. Computer vision-based analysis of foods: a non-destructive colour measurement tool to monitor quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Gökmen, Vural

    2014-05-01

    Computer vision-based image analysis has been widely used in food industry to monitor food quality. It allows low-cost and non-contact measurements of colour to be performed. In this paper, two computer vision-based image analysis approaches are discussed to extract mean colour or featured colour information from the digital images of foods. These types of information may be of particular importance as colour indicates certain chemical changes or physical properties in foods. As exemplified here, the mean CIE a* value or browning ratio determined by means of computer vision-based image analysis algorithms can be correlated with acrylamide content of potato chips or cookies. Or, porosity index as an important physical property of breadcrumb can be calculated easily. In this respect, computer vision-based image analysis provides a useful tool for automatic inspection of food products in a manufacturing line, and it can be actively involved in the decision-making process where rapid quality/safety evaluation is needed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Video Game Vision Syndrome: A New Clinical Picture in Children?

    PubMed

    Rechichi, Caterina; De Mojà, Gilda; Aragona, Pasquale

    2017-11-01

    To examine a possible relationship between exposure to video games/electronic screens and visual issues in children between 3 and 10 years of age. An observational, cross-sectional study of a population of children using video games was employed. All patients between 3 and 10 years of age were recruited at an outpatient unit accredited by the Italian Regional Health Service. Three hundred twenty children (159 boys and 161 girls; mean age = 6.9 ± 2 years) were observed. Ophthalmological examination included assessment of stereoscopic vision on Lang-Stereotests I and II (LANG-STEREOTEST AG, Küsnacht, Switzerland) and identification of the dominant eye using the Dolman method. Furthermore, a questionnaire was used to record asthenopic symptoms and daily exposure to video games and electronic screens. Two groups of children were examined according to the average amount of time spent playing video games daily: children who played video games for less than 30 minutes per day and not every day (control group) and children who played video games for 30 minutes or more every day (video game group). Both groups were then divided into two subgroups: children using other types of electronic screens (eg, televisions, computers, tablets, and smartphones) for less than 3 hours daily (low electronic use subgroup) and children using other types of electronic screens for 3 hours or more per day (high electronic use subgroup). Asthenopia (especially headache, eyelid tic, transient diplopia, and dizziness), absence of fine stereopsis, and refractive errors were statistically more frequent (mainly in the dominant eye) in children in the video game group. These symptoms were frequent and peculiar in the video game group and might be part of a video game vision syndrome that has not been defined yet. It is important to recognize these signs as possible functional disorders to avoid erroneous diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017

  9. Computer vision for microscopy diagnosis of malaria.

    PubMed

    Tek, F Boray; Dempster, Andrew G; Kale, Izzet

    2009-07-13

    This paper reviews computer vision and image analysis studies aiming at automated diagnosis or screening of malaria infection in microscope images of thin blood film smears. Existing works interpret the diagnosis problem differently or propose partial solutions to the problem. A critique of these works is furnished. In addition, a general pattern recognition framework to perform diagnosis, which includes image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, and pattern classification components, is described. The open problems are addressed and a perspective of the future work for realization of automated microscopy diagnosis of malaria is provided.

  10. A computer vision-based approach for structural displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yunfeng

    2010-04-01

    Along with the incessant advancement in optics, electronics and computer technologies during the last three decades, commercial digital video cameras have experienced a remarkable evolution, and can now be employed to measure complex motions of objects with sufficient accuracy, which render great assistance to structural displacement measurement in civil engineering. This paper proposes a computer vision-based approach for dynamic measurement of structures. One digital camera is used to capture image sequences of planar targets mounted on vibrating structures. The mathematical relationship between image plane and real space is established based on computer vision theory. Then, the structural dynamic displacement at the target locations can be quantified using point reconstruction rules. Compared with other tradition displacement measurement methods using sensors, such as accelerometers, linear-variable-differential-transducers (LVDTs) and global position system (GPS), the proposed approach gives the main advantages of great flexibility, a non-contact working mode and ease of increasing measurement points. To validate, four tests of sinusoidal motion of a point, free vibration of a cantilever beam, wind tunnel test of a cross-section bridge model, and field test of bridge displacement measurement, are performed. Results show that the proposed approach can attain excellent accuracy compared with the analytical ones or the measurements using conventional transducers, and proves to deliver an innovative and low cost solution to structural displacement measurement.

  11. Investigation of safety analysis methods using computer vision techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi, Mohammad Shokrolah; Morris, Brendan Tran

    2017-09-01

    This work investigates safety analysis methods using computer vision techniques. The vision-based tracking system is developed to provide the trajectory of road users including vehicles and pedestrians. Safety analysis methods are developed to estimate time to collision (TTC) and postencroachment time (PET) that are two important safety measurements. Corresponding algorithms are presented and their advantages and drawbacks are shown through their success in capturing the conflict events in real time. The performance of the tracking system is evaluated first, and probability density estimation of TTC and PET are shown for 1-h monitoring of a Las Vegas intersection. Finally, an idea of an intersection safety map is introduced, and TTC values of two different intersections are estimated for 1 day from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.

  12. Color vision abnormality as the sole manifestation of posterior reversible encephalopathy due to post-partum HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hironori; Matsubara, Teppei; Makino, Shinji; Horie, Kenji; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2017-03-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is associated with several symptoms; of those, visual acuity loss, light oversensitivity (photophobia), and light flashes (photopsia) are known as PRES-related eye symptoms. We report a post-partum woman with PRES associated with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome (HELLP), in whom color vision abnormality (achromatopsia) was the sole manifestation. Cesarean section was performed at 28 weeks due to headache, epigastralgia, and severe hypertension. HELLP became evident after delivery. On post-partum day 1, she complained of achromatopsia, stating: "all things look brownish-gray". Ophthalmologic examination was normal, but brain magnetic resonance imaging showed occipital lobe lesions, indicative of PRES, and, interestingly, also color vision center (area V4) lesions, suggesting that the achromatopsia had been caused by brain damage. It may be prudent to question HELLP patients concerning achromatopsia. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Computer vision for general purpose visual inspection: a fuzzy logic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. H.

    In automatic visual industrial inspection, computer vision systems have been widely used. Such systems are often application specific, and therefore require domain knowledge in order to have a successful implementation. Since visual inspection can be viewed as a decision making process, it is argued that the integration of fuzzy logic analysis and computer vision systems provides a practical approach to general purpose visual inspection applications. This paper describes the development of an integrated fuzzy-rule-based automatic visual inspection system. Domain knowledge about a particular application is represented as a set of fuzzy rules. From the status of predefined fuzzy variables, the set of fuzzy rules are defuzzified to give the inspection results. A practical application where IC marks (often in the forms of English characters and a company logo) inspection is demonstrated, which shows a more consistent result as compared to a conventional thresholding method.

  14. Rationale, Design and Implementation of a Computer Vision-Based Interactive E-Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Richard Y. D.; Jin, Jesse S.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a schematic application of computer vision technologies to e-learning that is synchronous, peer-to-peer-based, and supports an instructor's interaction with non-computer teaching equipments. The article first discusses the importance of these focused e-learning areas, where the properties include accurate bidirectional…

  15. Color vision testing with a computer graphics system: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Arden, G; Gündüz, K; Perry, S

    1988-06-01

    We report a method for computer enhancement of color vision tests. In our graphics system 256 colors are selected from a much larger range and displayed on a screen divided into 768 x 288 pixels. Eight-bit digital-to-analogue converters drive a high quality monitor with separate inputs to the red, green, and blue amplifiers and calibrated gun chromaticities. The graphics are controlled by a PASCAL program written for a personal computer, which calculates the values of the red, green, and blue signals and specifies them in Commité Internationale d'Eclairage X, Y, and Z fundamentals, so changes in chrominance occur without changes in luminance. The system for measuring color contrast thresholds with gratings is more than adequate in normal observers. In patients with mild retinal damage in whom other tests of visual function are normal, this method of testing color vision shows specific increases in contrast thresholds along tritan color-confusion lines. By the time the Hardy-Rand-Rittler and Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue tests disclose abnormalities, gross defects in color contrast threshold can be seen with our system.

  16. Local spatial frequency analysis for computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krumm, John; Shafer, Steven A.

    1990-01-01

    A sense of vision is a prerequisite for a robot to function in an unstructured environment. However, real-world scenes contain many interacting phenomena that lead to complex images which are difficult to interpret automatically. Typical computer vision research proceeds by analyzing various effects in isolation (e.g., shading, texture, stereo, defocus), usually on images devoid of realistic complicating factors. This leads to specialized algorithms which fail on real-world images. Part of this failure is due to the dichotomy of useful representations for these phenomena. Some effects are best described in the spatial domain, while others are more naturally expressed in frequency. In order to resolve this dichotomy, we present the combined space/frequency representation which, for each point in an image, shows the spatial frequencies at that point. Within this common representation, we develop a set of simple, natural theories describing phenomena such as texture, shape, aliasing and lens parameters. We show these theories lead to algorithms for shape from texture and for dealiasing image data. The space/frequency representation should be a key aid in untangling the complex interaction of phenomena in images, allowing automatic understanding of real-world scenes.

  17. Computer Vision and Machine Learning for Autonomous Characterization of AM Powder Feedstocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCost, Brian L.; Jain, Harshvardhan; Rollett, Anthony D.; Holm, Elizabeth A.

    2017-03-01

    By applying computer vision and machine learning methods, we develop a system to characterize powder feedstock materials for metal additive manufacturing (AM). Feature detection and description algorithms are applied to create a microstructural scale image representation that can be used to cluster, compare, and analyze powder micrographs. When applied to eight commercial feedstock powders, the system classifies powder images into the correct material systems with greater than 95% accuracy. The system also identifies both representative and atypical powder images. These results suggest the possibility of measuring variations in powders as a function of processing history, relating microstructural features of powders to properties relevant to their performance in AM processes, and defining objective material standards based on visual images. A significant advantage of the computer vision approach is that it is autonomous, objective, and repeatable.

  18. Can computational goals inform theories of vision?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barton L

    2015-04-01

    One of the most lasting contributions of Marr's posthumous book is his articulation of the different "levels of analysis" that are needed to understand vision. Although a variety of work has examined how these different levels are related, there is comparatively little examination of the assumptions on which his proposed levels rest, or the plausibility of the approach Marr articulated given those assumptions. Marr placed particular significance on computational level theory, which specifies the "goal" of a computation, its appropriateness for solving a particular problem, and the logic by which it can be carried out. The structure of computational level theory is inherently teleological: What the brain does is described in terms of its purpose. I argue that computational level theory, and the reverse-engineering approach it inspires, requires understanding the historical trajectory that gave rise to functional capacities that can be meaningfully attributed with some sense of purpose or goal, that is, a reconstruction of the fitness function on which natural selection acted in shaping our visual abilities. I argue that this reconstruction is required to distinguish abilities shaped by natural selection-"natural tasks" -from evolutionary "by-products" (spandrels, co-optations, and exaptations), rather than merely demonstrating that computational goals can be embedded in a Bayesian model that renders a particular behavior or process rational. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Selective cultivation and rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus by computer vision.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Yin, Yongguang; Zhang, Chaonan

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we developed a selective growth medium and a more rapid detection method based on computer vision for selective isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus from foods. The selective medium consisted of tryptic soy broth basal medium, 3 inhibitors (NaCl, K2 TeO3 , and phenethyl alcohol), and 2 accelerators (sodium pyruvate and glycine). After 4 h of selective cultivation, bacterial detection was accomplished using computer vision. The total analysis time was 5 h. Compared to the Baird-Parker plate count method, which requires 4 to 5 d, this new detection method offers great time savings. Moreover, our novel method had a correlation coefficient of greater than 0.998 when compared with the Baird-Parker plate count method. The detection range for S. aureus was 10 to 10(7) CFU/mL. Our new, rapid detection method for microorganisms in foods has great potential for routine food safety control and microbiological detection applications. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Foreword to the theme issue on geospatial computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, Jan Dirk; Tuia, Devis; Yang, Michael; Mallet, Clement

    2018-06-01

    Geospatial Computer Vision has become one of the most prevalent emerging fields of investigation in Earth Observation in the last few years. In this theme issue, we aim at showcasing a number of works at the interface between remote sensing, photogrammetry, image processing, computer vision and machine learning. In light of recent sensor developments - both from the ground as from above - an unprecedented (and ever growing) quantity of geospatial data is available for tackling challenging and urgent tasks such as environmental monitoring (deforestation, carbon sequestration, climate change mitigation), disaster management, autonomous driving or the monitoring of conflicts. The new bottleneck for serving these applications is the extraction of relevant information from such large amounts of multimodal data. This includes sources, stemming from multiple sensors, that exhibit distinct physical nature of heterogeneous quality, spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions. They are as diverse as multi-/hyperspectral satellite sensors, color cameras on drones, laser scanning devices, existing open land-cover geodatabases and social media. Such core data processing is mandatory so as to generate semantic land-cover maps, accurate detection and trajectories of objects of interest, as well as by-products of superior added-value: georeferenced data, images with enhanced geometric and radiometric qualities, or Digital Surface and Elevation Models.

  1. Stereo Vision Inside Tire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-21

    using the Open Computer Vision ( OpenCV ) libraries [6] for computer vision and the Qt library [7] for the user interface. The software has the...depth. The software application calibrates the cameras using the plane based calibration model from the OpenCV calib3D module and allows the...6] OpenCV . 2015. OpenCV Open Source Computer Vision. [Online]. Available at: opencv.org [Accessed]: 09/01/2015. [7] Qt. 2015. Qt Project home

  2. Forensic Odontology: Automatic Identification of Persons Comparing Antemortem and Postmortem Panoramic Radiographs Using Computer Vision.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Andreas; Güttler, Felix; Wendt, Sebastian; Schenkl, Sebastian; Hubig, Michael; Wagner, Rebecca; Mall, Gita; Teichgräber, Ulf

    2018-06-18

     In forensic odontology the comparison between antemortem and postmortem panoramic radiographs (PRs) is a reliable method for person identification. The purpose of this study was to improve and automate identification of unknown people by comparison between antemortem and postmortem PR using computer vision.  The study includes 43 467 PRs from 24 545 patients (46 % females/54 % males). All PRs were filtered and evaluated with Matlab R2014b including the toolboxes image processing and computer vision system. The matching process used the SURF feature to find the corresponding points between two PRs (unknown person and database entry) out of the whole database.  From 40 randomly selected persons, 34 persons (85 %) could be reliably identified by corresponding PR matching points between an already existing scan in the database and the most recent PR. The systematic matching yielded a maximum of 259 points for a successful identification between two different PRs of the same person and a maximum of 12 corresponding matching points for other non-identical persons in the database. Hence 12 matching points are the threshold for reliable assignment.  Operating with an automatic PR system and computer vision could be a successful and reliable tool for identification purposes. The applied method distinguishes itself by virtue of its fast and reliable identification of persons by PR. This Identification method is suitable even if dental characteristics were removed or added in the past. The system seems to be robust for large amounts of data.   · Computer vision allows an automated antemortem and postmortem comparison of panoramic radiographs (PRs) for person identification.. · The present method is able to find identical matching partners among huge datasets (big data) in a short computing time.. · The identification method is suitable even if dental characteristics were removed or added.. · Heinrich A, Güttler F, Wendt S et al. Forensic Odontology

  3. Object extraction in photogrammetric computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Helmut

    This paper discusses state and promising directions of automated object extraction in photogrammetric computer vision considering also practical aspects arising for digital photogrammetric workstations (DPW). A review of the state of the art shows that there are only few practically successful systems on the market. Therefore, important issues for a practical success of automated object extraction are identified. A sound and most important powerful theoretical background is the basis. Here, we particularly point to statistical modeling. Testing makes clear which of the approaches are suited best and how useful they are for praxis. A key for commercial success of a practical system is efficient user interaction. As the means for data acquisition are changing, new promising application areas such as extremely detailed three-dimensional (3D) urban models for virtual television or mission rehearsal evolve.

  4. A programmable computational image sensor for high-speed vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Shi, Cong; Long, Xitian; Wu, Nanjian

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we present a programmable computational image sensor for high-speed vision. This computational image sensor contains four main blocks: an image pixel array, a massively parallel processing element (PE) array, a row processor (RP) array and a RISC core. The pixel-parallel PE is responsible for transferring, storing and processing image raw data in a SIMD fashion with its own programming language. The RPs are one dimensional array of simplified RISC cores, it can carry out complex arithmetic and logic operations. The PE array and RP array can finish great amount of computation with few instruction cycles and therefore satisfy the low- and middle-level high-speed image processing requirement. The RISC core controls the whole system operation and finishes some high-level image processing algorithms. We utilize a simplified AHB bus as the system bus to connect our major components. Programming language and corresponding tool chain for this computational image sensor are also developed.

  5. Sjogren's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms. Symptoms The two main symptoms of Sjogren's syndrome are: Dry eyes. Your eyes might burn, itch or feel gritty — ... mouth is dry. Yeast infections. People with Sjogren's syndrome are much ... Vision problems. Dry eyes can lead to light sensitivity, blurred vision and ...

  6. Development of the method of aggregation to determine the current storage area using computer vision and radiofrequency identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafiev, A.; Orlov, A.; Privezencev, D.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the development of technology and software for the construction of positioning and control systems in industrial plants based on aggregation to determine the current storage area using computer vision and radiofrequency identification. It describes the developed of the project of hardware for industrial products positioning system in the territory of a plant on the basis of radio-frequency grid. It describes the development of the project of hardware for industrial products positioning system in the plant on the basis of computer vision methods. It describes the development of the method of aggregation to determine the current storage area using computer vision and radiofrequency identification. Experimental studies in laboratory and production conditions have been conducted and described in the article.

  7. Optogenetics and computer vision for Caenorhabditis elegans neuroscience and other biophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifer, Andrew Michael

    2011-07-01

    This work presents optogenetics and real-time computer vision techniques to non-invasively manipulate and monitor neural activity with high spatiotemporal resolution in awake behaving Caenorhabditis elegans. These methods were employed to dissect the nematode's mechanosensory and motor circuits and to elucidate the neural control of wave propagation during forward locomotion. Additionally, similar computer vision methods were used to automatically detect and decode fluorescing DNA origami nanobarcodes, a new class of fluorescent reporter constructs. An optogenetic instrument capable of real-time light delivery with high spatiotemporal resolution to specified targets in freely moving C. elegans, the first such instrument of its kind, was developed. The instrument was used to probe the nematode's mechanosensory circuit, demonstrating that stimulation of a single mechanosensory neuron suffices to induce reversals. The instrument was also used to probe the motor circuit, demonstrating that inhibition of regions of cholinergic motor neurons blocks undulatory wave propagation and that muscle contractions can persist even without inputs from the motor neurons. The motor circuit was further probed using optogenetics and microfluidic techniques. Undulatory wave propagation during forward locomotion was observed to depend on stretch-sensitive signaling mediated by cholinergic motor neurons. Specifically, posterior body segments are compelled, through stretch-sensitive feedback, to bend in the same direction as anterior segments. This is the first explicit demonstration of such feedback and serves as a foundation for understanding motor circuits in other organisms. A real-time tracking system was developed to record intracellular calcium transients in single neurons while simultaneously monitoring macroscopic behavior of freely moving C. elegans. This was used to study the worm's stereotyped reversal behavior, the omega turn. Calcium transients corresponding to temporal

  8. Impact of dry eye syndrome on vision-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Miljanović, Biljana; Dana, Reza; Sullivan, David A; Schaumberg, Debra A

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of dry eye syndrome (DES) on vision-associated quality of life. Cross-sectional study. We identified 450 participants in the Women's Health Study (WHS) and 240 participants in the Physicians' Health Study (PHS) and sent a supplementary questionnaire asking how much their everyday activities were limited by symptoms of dry eye and to what degree problems with their eyes limited them in reading, driving, working at the computer, their professional activity, and watching television. By design, one-third of study subjects had clinically diagnosed DES or severe symptoms and two-thirds did not. We used logistic regression to examine relationships of DES with reported problems with everyday activities in each cohort and pooled estimates using meta-analysis methods. Of the participants invited, 85% completed the supplementary questionnaire, including 135 WHS and 55 PHS participants with DES, and 250 WHS and 149 PHS participants without DES. Controlling for age, diabetes, hypertension, and other factors, those with DES were more likely to report problems with reading ([odds ratio] OR = 3.64, 95% [confidence interval] CI 2.45 to 5.40, P < .0001); carrying out professional work (OR = 3.49, 95% CI 1.72 to 7.09, P= 0.001); using a computer (OR = 3.37, 95% CI 2.11 to 5.38, P < .0001); watching television (OR = 2.84, 95% CI 1.05 to 7.74, P = .04); driving during the day (OR = 2.80, 95% CI 1.58 to 4.96, P < .0001); and driving at night (OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.28, P < .0001). DES is associated with a measurable adverse impact on several common and important tasks of daily living, further implicating this condition as an important public health problem deserving increased attention and resources.

  9. Computer graphics testbed to simulate and test vision systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Research activity has shifted from computer graphics and vision systems to the broader scope of applying concepts of artificial intelligence to robotics. Specifically, the research is directed toward developing Artificial Neural Networks, Expert Systems, and Laser Imaging Techniques for Autonomous Space Robots.

  10. From Image Analysis to Computer Vision: Motives, Methods, and Milestones.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    images. Initially, work on digital image analysis dealt with specific classes of images such as text, photomicrographs, nuclear particle tracks, and aerial...photographs; but by the 1960’s, general algorithms and paradigms for image analysis began to be formulated. When the artificial intelligence...scene, but eventually from image sequences obtained by a moving camera; at this stage, image analysis had become scene analysis or computer vision

  11. Vision-related problems among the workers engaged in jewellery manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Salve, Urmi Ravindra

    2015-01-01

    American Optometric Association defines Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) as "complex of eye and vision problems related to near work which are experienced during or related to computer use." This happens when visual demand of the tasks exceeds the visual ability of the users. Even though problems were initially attributed to computer-related activities subsequently similar problems are also reported while carrying any near point task. Jewellery manufacturing activities involves precision designs, setting the tiny metals and stones which requires high visual attention and mental concentration and are often near point task. It is therefore expected that the workers engaged in jewellery manufacturing may also experience symptoms like CVS. Keeping the above in mind, this study was taken up (1) To identify the prevalence of symptoms like CVS among the workers of the jewellery manufacturing and compare the same with the workers working at computer workstation and (2) To ascertain whether such symptoms have any permanent vision-related problems. Case control study. The study was carried out in Zaveri Bazaar region and at an IT-enabled organization in Mumbai. The study involved the identification of symptoms of CVS using a questionnaire of Eye Strain Journal, opthalmological check-ups and measurement of Spontaneous Eye Blink rate. The data obtained from the jewellery manufacturing was compared with the data of the subjects engaged in computer work and with the data available in the literature. A comparative inferential statistics was used. Results showed that visual demands of the task carried out in jewellery manufacturing were much higher than that of carried out in computer-related work.

  12. Computer Vision System For Locating And Identifying Defects In Hardwood Lumber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conners, Richard W.; Ng, Chong T.; Cho, Tai-Hoon; McMillin, Charles W.

    1989-03-01

    This paper describes research aimed at developing an automatic cutup system for use in the rough mills of the hardwood furniture and fixture industry. In particular, this paper describes attempts to create the vision system that will power this automatic cutup system. There are a number of factors that make the development of such a vision system a challenge. First there is the innate variability of the wood material itself. No two species look exactly the same, in fact, they can have a significant visual difference in appearance among species. Yet a truly robust vision system must be able to handle a variety of such species, preferably with no operator intervention required when changing from one species to another. Secondly, there is a good deal of variability in the definition of what constitutes a removable defect. The hardwood furniture and fixture industry is diverse in the nature of the products that it makes. The products range from hardwood flooring to fancy hardwood furniture, from simple mill work to kitchen cabinets. Thus depending on the manufacturer, the product, and the quality of the product the nature of what constitutes a removable defect can and does vary. The vision system must be such that it can be tailored to meet each of these unique needs, preferably without any additional program modifications. This paper will describe the vision system that has been developed. It will assess the current system capabilities, and it will discuss the directions for future research. It will be argued that artificial intelligence methods provide a natural mechanism for attacking this computer vision application.

  13. Capsule endoscope localization based on computer vision technique.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Hu, Chao; Cai, Wentao; Meng, Max Q H

    2009-01-01

    To build a new type of wireless capsule endoscope with interactive gastrointestinal tract examination, a localization and orientation system is needed for tracking 3D location and 3D orientation of the capsule movement. The magnetic localization and orientation method produces only 5 DOF, but misses the information of rotation angle along capsule's main axis. In this paper, we presented a complementary orientation approach for the capsule endoscope, and the 3D rotation can be determined by applying computer vision technique on the captured endoscopic images. The experimental results show that the complementary orientation method has good accuracy and high feasibility.

  14. Topographic Mapping of Residual Vision by Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeben, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Many persons with low vision have diseases that damage the retina only in selected areas, which can lead to scotomas (blind spots) in perception. The most frequent of these diseases is age-related macular degeneration (AMD), in which foveal vision is often impaired by a central scotoma that impairs vision of fine detail and causes problems with…

  15. Pyramidal neurovision architecture for vision machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Madan M.; Knopf, George K.

    1993-08-01

    The vision system employed by an intelligent robot must be active; active in the sense that it must be capable of selectively acquiring the minimal amount of relevant information for a given task. An efficient active vision system architecture that is based loosely upon the parallel-hierarchical (pyramidal) structure of the biological visual pathway is presented in this paper. Although the computational architecture of the proposed pyramidal neuro-vision system is far less sophisticated than the architecture of the biological visual pathway, it does retain some essential features such as the converging multilayered structure of its biological counterpart. In terms of visual information processing, the neuro-vision system is constructed from a hierarchy of several interactive computational levels, whereupon each level contains one or more nonlinear parallel processors. Computationally efficient vision machines can be developed by utilizing both the parallel and serial information processing techniques within the pyramidal computing architecture. A computer simulation of a pyramidal vision system for active scene surveillance is presented.

  16. Convolutional Deep Belief Networks for Single-Cell/Object Tracking in Computational Biology and Computer Vision.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Bineng; Pan, Shengnan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Tian; Du, Jixiang; Chen, Duansheng; Cao, Liujuan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose deep architecture to dynamically learn the most discriminative features from data for both single-cell and object tracking in computational biology and computer vision. Firstly, the discriminative features are automatically learned via a convolutional deep belief network (CDBN). Secondly, we design a simple yet effective method to transfer features learned from CDBNs on the source tasks for generic purpose to the object tracking tasks using only limited amount of training data. Finally, to alleviate the tracker drifting problem caused by model updating, we jointly consider three different types of positive samples. Extensive experiments validate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Convolutional Deep Belief Networks for Single-Cell/Object Tracking in Computational Biology and Computer Vision

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shengnan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Tian; Du, Jixiang; Chen, Duansheng; Cao, Liujuan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose deep architecture to dynamically learn the most discriminative features from data for both single-cell and object tracking in computational biology and computer vision. Firstly, the discriminative features are automatically learned via a convolutional deep belief network (CDBN). Secondly, we design a simple yet effective method to transfer features learned from CDBNs on the source tasks for generic purpose to the object tracking tasks using only limited amount of training data. Finally, to alleviate the tracker drifting problem caused by model updating, we jointly consider three different types of positive samples. Extensive experiments validate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:27847827

  18. MER-DIMES : a planetary landing application of computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Yang; Johnson, Andrew; Matthies, Larry

    2005-01-01

    During the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) landings, the Descent Image Motion Estimation System (DIMES) was used for horizontal velocity estimation. The DIMES algorithm combines measurements from a descent camera, a radar altimeter and an inertial measurement unit. To deal with large changes in scale and orientation between descent images, the algorithm uses altitude and attitude measurements to rectify image data to level ground plane. Feature selection and tracking is employed in the rectified data to compute the horizontal motion between images. Differences of motion estimates are then compared to inertial measurements to verify correct feature tracking. DIMES combines sensor data from multiple sources in a novel way to create a low-cost, robust and computationally efficient velocity estimation solution, and DIMES is the first use of computer vision to control a spacecraft during planetary landing. In this paper, the detailed implementation of the DIMES algorithm and the results from the two landings on Mars are presented.

  19. Using advanced computer vision algorithms on small mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogut, G.; Birchmore, F.; Biagtan Pacis, E.; Everett, H. R.

    2006-05-01

    The Technology Transfer project employs a spiral development process to enhance the functionality and autonomy of mobile robot systems in the Joint Robotics Program (JRP) Robotic Systems Pool by converging existing component technologies onto a transition platform for optimization. An example of this approach is the implementation of advanced computer vision algorithms on small mobile robots. We demonstrate the implementation and testing of the following two algorithms useful on mobile robots: 1) object classification using a boosted Cascade of classifiers trained with the Adaboost training algorithm, and 2) human presence detection from a moving platform. Object classification is performed with an Adaboost training system developed at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Computer Vision Lab. This classification algorithm has been used to successfully detect the license plates of automobiles in motion in real-time. While working towards a solution to increase the robustness of this system to perform generic object recognition, this paper demonstrates an extension to this application by detecting soda cans in a cluttered indoor environment. The human presence detection from a moving platform system uses a data fusion algorithm which combines results from a scanning laser and a thermal imager. The system is able to detect the presence of humans while both the humans and the robot are moving simultaneously. In both systems, the two aforementioned algorithms were implemented on embedded hardware and optimized for use in real-time. Test results are shown for a variety of environments.

  20. Vision 20/20: Automation and advanced computing in clinical radiation oncology

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Moore, Kevin L., E-mail: kevinmoore@ucsd.edu; Moiseenko, Vitali; Kagadis, George C.

    This Vision 20/20 paper considers what computational advances are likely to be implemented in clinical radiation oncology in the coming years and how the adoption of these changes might alter the practice of radiotherapy. Four main areas of likely advancement are explored: cloud computing, aggregate data analyses, parallel computation, and automation. As these developments promise both new opportunities and new risks to clinicians and patients alike, the potential benefits are weighed against the hazards associated with each advance, with special considerations regarding patient safety under new computational platforms and methodologies. While the concerns of patient safety are legitimate, the authorsmore » contend that progress toward next-generation clinical informatics systems will bring about extremely valuable developments in quality improvement initiatives, clinical efficiency, outcomes analyses, data sharing, and adaptive radiotherapy.« less

  1. Vision 20/20: Automation and advanced computing in clinical radiation oncology

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Moore, Kevin L., E-mail: kevinmoore@ucsd.edu; Moiseenko, Vitali; Kagadis, George C.

    2014-01-15

    This Vision 20/20 paper considers what computational advances are likely to be implemented in clinical radiation oncology in the coming years and how the adoption of these changes might alter the practice of radiotherapy. Four main areas of likely advancement are explored: cloud computing, aggregate data analyses, parallel computation, and automation. As these developments promise both new opportunities and new risks to clinicians and patients alike, the potential benefits are weighed against the hazards associated with each advance, with special considerations regarding patient safety under new computational platforms and methodologies. While the concerns of patient safety are legitimate, the authorsmore » contend that progress toward next-generation clinical informatics systems will bring about extremely valuable developments in quality improvement initiatives, clinical efficiency, outcomes analyses, data sharing, and adaptive radiotherapy.« less

  2. Vision 20/20: Automation and advanced computing in clinical radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kevin L; Kagadis, George C; McNutt, Todd R; Moiseenko, Vitali; Mutic, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    This Vision 20/20 paper considers what computational advances are likely to be implemented in clinical radiation oncology in the coming years and how the adoption of these changes might alter the practice of radiotherapy. Four main areas of likely advancement are explored: cloud computing, aggregate data analyses, parallel computation, and automation. As these developments promise both new opportunities and new risks to clinicians and patients alike, the potential benefits are weighed against the hazards associated with each advance, with special considerations regarding patient safety under new computational platforms and methodologies. While the concerns of patient safety are legitimate, the authors contend that progress toward next-generation clinical informatics systems will bring about extremely valuable developments in quality improvement initiatives, clinical efficiency, outcomes analyses, data sharing, and adaptive radiotherapy.

  3. Color Vision Deficiency and Functional Disorders Among Israeli Male Adolescents Between 2007 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Berger, Assaf; Findler, Michael; Maymon, Dror; Korach, Tzfanya; Yativ, Oshrat Fono; Gronovich, Yoav; Hassidim, Ayal

    2016-09-01

    Color vision deficiency has been associated with educational difficulties among male children, as well as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We examined the association of color vision deficiency with functional conditions, including ADHD, irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis and somatoform disorders, in a large population of male adolescents. We included all Israeli male adolescents that underwent medical and cognitive examinations during conscription between the years 2007 and 2013. The prevalence of ADHD, irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis, and somatoform disorders among color vision deficiency patients was compared to a control group. The study included 305 964 males aging 17 ± 0.6, of which 7584 (2.5%) had color vision deficiency. Using a multivariable analysis, the probability for irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis, and somatoform disorders among color vision deficiency patients was increased by 1.41, 1.94, and 3.87, respectively (P < .05). No significant association was found between ADHD and color vision deficiency. Color vision abnormalities are associated with functional disorders in male adolescents, including irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis, and somatoform disorders. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Dynamic Vision for Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-27

    unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this project was to develop analytical and computational tools to make vision a Viable sensor for...vision.ucla. edu July 27, 2006 Abstract The goal of this project was to develop analytical and computational tools to make vision a viable sensor for the ... sensors . We have proposed the framework of stereoscopic segmentation where multiple images of the same obejcts were jointly processed to extract geometry

  5. Computer Vision for High-Throughput Quantitative Phenotyping: A Case Study of Grapevine Downy Mildew Sporulation and Leaf Trichomes.

    PubMed

    Divilov, Konstantin; Wiesner-Hanks, Tyr; Barba, Paola; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Reisch, Bruce I

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative phenotyping of downy mildew sporulation is frequently used in plant breeding and genetic studies, as well as in studies focused on pathogen biology such as chemical efficacy trials. In these scenarios, phenotyping a large number of genotypes or treatments can be advantageous but is often limited by time and cost. We present a novel computational pipeline dedicated to estimating the percent area of downy mildew sporulation from images of inoculated grapevine leaf discs in a manner that is time and cost efficient. The pipeline was tested on images from leaf disc assay experiments involving two F 1 grapevine families, one that had glabrous leaves (Vitis rupestris B38 × 'Horizon' [RH]) and another that had leaf trichomes (Horizon × V. cinerea B9 [HC]). Correlations between computer vision and manual visual ratings reached 0.89 in the RH family and 0.43 in the HC family. Additionally, we were able to use the computer vision system prior to sporulation to measure the percent leaf trichome area. We estimate that an experienced rater scoring sporulation would spend at least 90% less time using the computer vision system compared with the manual visual method. This will allow more treatments to be phenotyped in order to better understand the genetic architecture of downy mildew resistance and of leaf trichome density. We anticipate that this computer vision system will find applications in other pathosystems or traits where responses can be imaged with sufficient contrast from the background.

  6. Tactile and bone-conduction auditory brain computer interface for vision and hearing impaired users.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Tomasz M; Mori, Hiromu

    2015-04-15

    The paper presents a report on the recently developed BCI alternative for users suffering from impaired vision (lack of focus or eye-movements) or from the so-called "ear-blocking-syndrome" (limited hearing). We report on our recent studies of the extents to which vibrotactile stimuli delivered to the head of a user can serve as a platform for a brain computer interface (BCI) paradigm. In the proposed tactile and bone-conduction auditory BCI novel multiple head positions are used to evoke combined somatosensory and auditory (via the bone conduction effect) P300 brain responses, in order to define a multimodal tactile and bone-conduction auditory brain computer interface (tbcaBCI). In order to further remove EEG interferences and to improve P300 response classification synchrosqueezing transform (SST) is applied. SST outperforms the classical time-frequency analysis methods of the non-linear and non-stationary signals such as EEG. The proposed method is also computationally more effective comparing to the empirical mode decomposition. The SST filtering allows for online EEG preprocessing application which is essential in the case of BCI. Experimental results with healthy BCI-naive users performing online tbcaBCI, validate the paradigm, while the feasibility of the concept is illuminated through information transfer rate case studies. We present a comparison of the proposed SST-based preprocessing method, combined with a logistic regression (LR) classifier, together with classical preprocessing and LDA-based classification BCI techniques. The proposed tbcaBCI paradigm together with data-driven preprocessing methods are a step forward in robust BCI applications research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Computational Unification: a Vision for Connecting Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, R. M.; Kingrey, O. J.

    2002-12-01

    Computational Unification of science, once only a vision, is becoming a reality. This technology is based upon a scientifically defensible, general solution for Earth Science data management and processing. The computational unification of science offers a real opportunity to foster inter and intra-discipline cooperation, and the end of 're-inventing the wheel'. As we move forward using computers as tools, it is past time to move from computationally isolating, "one-off" or discipline-specific solutions into a unified framework where research can be more easily shared, especially with researchers in other disciplines. The author will discuss how distributed meta-data, distributed processing and distributed data objects are structured to constitute a working interdisciplinary system, including how these resources lead to scientific defensibility through known lineage of all data products. Illustration of how scientific processes are encapsulated and executed illuminates how previously written processes and functions are integrated into the system efficiently and with minimal effort. Meta-data basics will illustrate how intricate relationships may easily be represented and used to good advantage. Retrieval techniques will be discussed including trade-offs of using meta-data versus embedded data, how the two may be integrated, and how simplifying assumptions may or may not help. This system is based upon the experience of the Sequoia 2000 and BigSur research projects at the University of California, Berkeley, whose goals were to find an alternative to the Hughes EOS-DIS system and is presently offered by Science Tools corporation, of which the author is a principal.

  8. Container-code recognition system based on computer vision and deep neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Tianjian; Jiang, Li; Liang, Xiaoyao

    2018-04-01

    Automatic container-code recognition system becomes a crucial requirement for ship transportation industry in recent years. In this paper, an automatic container-code recognition system based on computer vision and deep neural networks is proposed. The system consists of two modules, detection module and recognition module. The detection module applies both algorithms based on computer vision and neural networks, and generates a better detection result through combination to avoid the drawbacks of the two methods. The combined detection results are also collected for online training of the neural networks. The recognition module exploits both character segmentation and end-to-end recognition, and outputs the recognition result which passes the verification. When the recognition module generates false recognition, the result will be corrected and collected for online training of the end-to-end recognition sub-module. By combining several algorithms, the system is able to deal with more situations, and the online training mechanism can improve the performance of the neural networks at runtime. The proposed system is able to achieve 93% of overall recognition accuracy.

  9. Applications of Computer Vision for Assessing Quality of Agri-food Products: A Review of Recent Research Advances.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ji; Sun, Da-Wen; Qu, Jia-Huan; Liu, Dan; Pu, Hongbin; Gao, Wen-Hong; Zeng, Xin-An

    2016-01-01

    With consumer concerns increasing over food quality and safety, the food industry has begun to pay much more attention to the development of rapid and reliable food-evaluation systems over the years. As a result, there is a great need for manufacturers and retailers to operate effective real-time assessments for food quality and safety during food production and processing. Computer vision, comprising a nondestructive assessment approach, has the aptitude to estimate the characteristics of food products with its advantages of fast speed, ease of use, and minimal sample preparation. Specifically, computer vision systems are feasible for classifying food products into specific grades, detecting defects, and estimating properties such as color, shape, size, surface defects, and contamination. Therefore, in order to track the latest research developments of this technology in the agri-food industry, this review aims to present the fundamentals and instrumentation of computer vision systems with details of applications in quality assessment of agri-food products from 2007 to 2013 and also discuss its future trends in combination with spectroscopy.

  10. Iris features-based heart disease diagnosis by computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguchu, Benedictor A.; Li, Li

    2017-07-01

    The study takes advantage of several new breakthroughs in computer vision technology to develop a new mid-irisbiomedical platform that processes iris image for early detection of heart-disease. Guaranteeing early detection of heart disease provides a possibility of having non-surgical treatment as suggested by biomedical researchers and associated institutions. However, our observation discovered that, a clinical practicable solution which could be both sensible and specific for early detection is still lacking. Due to this, the rate of majority vulnerable to death is highly increasing. The delayed diagnostic procedures, inefficiency, and complications of available methods are the other reasons for this catastrophe. Therefore, this research proposes the novel IFB (Iris Features Based) method for diagnosis of premature, and early stage heart disease. The method incorporates computer vision and iridology to obtain a robust, non-contact, nonradioactive, and cost-effective diagnostic tool. The method analyzes abnormal inherent weakness in tissues, change in color and patterns, of a specific region of iris that responds to impulses of heart organ as per Bernard Jensen-iris Chart. The changes in iris infer the presence of degenerative abnormalities in heart organ. These changes are precisely detected and analyzed by IFB method that includes, tensor-based-gradient(TBG), multi orientations gabor filters(GF), textural oriented features(TOF), and speed-up robust features(SURF). Kernel and Multi class oriented support vector machines classifiers are used for classifying normal and pathological iris features. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method, not only has better diagnostic performance, but also provides an insight for early detection of other diseases.

  11. A Logical Basis In The Layered Computer Vision Systems Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejwani, Y. J.

    1986-03-01

    In this paper a four layer computer vision system model is described. The model uses a finite memory scratch pad. In this model planar objects are defined as predicates. Predicates are relations on a k-tuple. The k-tuple consists of primitive points and relationship between primitive points. The relationship between points can be of the direct type or the indirect type. Entities are goals which are satisfied by a set of clauses. The grammar used to construct these clauses is examined.

  12. Implementation of Automatic Focusing Algorithms for a Computer Vision System with Camera Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-15

    obtainable from real data, rather than relying on a stock database. Often, computer vision and image processing algorithms become subconsciously tuned to...two coils on the same mount structure. Since it was not possible to reprogram the binary system, we turned to the POPEYE system for both its grey

  13. Computer graphics testbed to simulate and test vision systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, John B.; Wu, Chris K.; Lin, Y. H.

    1991-01-01

    A system was developed for displaying computer graphics images of space objects and the use of the system was demonstrated as a testbed for evaluating vision systems for space applications. In order to evaluate vision systems, it is desirable to be able to control all factors involved in creating the images used for processing by the vision system. Considerable time and expense is involved in building accurate physical models of space objects. Also, precise location of the model relative to the viewer and accurate location of the light source require additional effort. As part of this project, graphics models of space objects such as the Solarmax satellite are created that the user can control the light direction and the relative position of the object and the viewer. The work is also aimed at providing control of hue, shading, noise and shadows for use in demonstrating and testing imaging processing techniques. The simulated camera data can provide XYZ coordinates, pitch, yaw, and roll for the models. A physical model is also being used to provide comparison of camera images with the graphics images.

  14. Integral Images: Efficient Algorithms for Their Computation and Storage in Resource-Constrained Embedded Vision Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ehsan, Shoaib; Clark, Adrian F.; ur Rehman, Naveed; McDonald-Maier, Klaus D.

    2015-01-01

    The integral image, an intermediate image representation, has found extensive use in multi-scale local feature detection algorithms, such as Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF), allowing fast computation of rectangular features at constant speed, independent of filter size. For resource-constrained real-time embedded vision systems, computation and storage of integral image presents several design challenges due to strict timing and hardware limitations. Although calculation of the integral image only consists of simple addition operations, the total number of operations is large owing to the generally large size of image data. Recursive equations allow substantial decrease in the number of operations but require calculation in a serial fashion. This paper presents two new hardware algorithms that are based on the decomposition of these recursive equations, allowing calculation of up to four integral image values in a row-parallel way without significantly increasing the number of operations. An efficient design strategy is also proposed for a parallel integral image computation unit to reduce the size of the required internal memory (nearly 35% for common HD video). Addressing the storage problem of integral image in embedded vision systems, the paper presents two algorithms which allow substantial decrease (at least 44.44%) in the memory requirements. Finally, the paper provides a case study that highlights the utility of the proposed architectures in embedded vision systems. PMID:26184211

  15. Integral Images: Efficient Algorithms for Their Computation and Storage in Resource-Constrained Embedded Vision Systems.

    PubMed

    Ehsan, Shoaib; Clark, Adrian F; Naveed ur Rehman; McDonald-Maier, Klaus D

    2015-07-10

    The integral image, an intermediate image representation, has found extensive use in multi-scale local feature detection algorithms, such as Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF), allowing fast computation of rectangular features at constant speed, independent of filter size. For resource-constrained real-time embedded vision systems, computation and storage of integral image presents several design challenges due to strict timing and hardware limitations. Although calculation of the integral image only consists of simple addition operations, the total number of operations is large owing to the generally large size of image data. Recursive equations allow substantial decrease in the number of operations but require calculation in a serial fashion. This paper presents two new hardware algorithms that are based on the decomposition of these recursive equations, allowing calculation of up to four integral image values in a row-parallel way without significantly increasing the number of operations. An efficient design strategy is also proposed for a parallel integral image computation unit to reduce the size of the required internal memory (nearly 35% for common HD video). Addressing the storage problem of integral image in embedded vision systems, the paper presents two algorithms which allow substantial decrease (at least 44.44%) in the memory requirements. Finally, the paper provides a case study that highlights the utility of the proposed architectures in embedded vision systems.

  16. State-Estimation Algorithm Based on Computer Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David; Brugarolas, Paul

    2007-01-01

    An algorithm and software to implement the algorithm are being developed as means to estimate the state (that is, the position and velocity) of an autonomous vehicle, relative to a visible nearby target object, to provide guidance for maneuvering the vehicle. In the original intended application, the autonomous vehicle would be a spacecraft and the nearby object would be a small astronomical body (typically, a comet or asteroid) to be explored by the spacecraft. The algorithm could also be used on Earth in analogous applications -- for example, for guiding underwater robots near such objects of interest as sunken ships, mineral deposits, or submerged mines. It is assumed that the robot would be equipped with a vision system that would include one or more electronic cameras, image-digitizing circuitry, and an imagedata- processing computer that would generate feature-recognition data products.

  17. Computer-Vision-Assisted Palm Rehabilitation With Supervised Learning.

    PubMed

    Vamsikrishna, K M; Dogra, Debi Prosad; Desarkar, Maunendra Sankar

    2016-05-01

    Physical rehabilitation supported by the computer-assisted-interface is gaining popularity among health-care fraternity. In this paper, we have proposed a computer-vision-assisted contactless methodology to facilitate palm and finger rehabilitation. Leap motion controller has been interfaced with a computing device to record parameters describing 3-D movements of the palm of a user undergoing rehabilitation. We have proposed an interface using Unity3D development platform. Our interface is capable of analyzing intermediate steps of rehabilitation without the help of an expert, and it can provide online feedback to the user. Isolated gestures are classified using linear discriminant analysis (DA) and support vector machines (SVM). Finally, a set of discrete hidden Markov models (HMM) have been used to classify gesture sequence performed during rehabilitation. Experimental validation using a large number of samples collected from healthy volunteers reveals that DA and SVM perform similarly while applied on isolated gesture recognition. We have compared the results of HMM-based sequence classification with CRF-based techniques. Our results confirm that both HMM and CRF perform quite similarly when tested on gesture sequences. The proposed system can be used for home-based palm or finger rehabilitation in the absence of experts.

  18. The Pixhawk Open-Source Computer Vision Framework for Mavs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, L.; Tanskanen, P.; Fraundorfer, F.; Pollefeys, M.

    2011-09-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and micro air vehicles (MAV) are already intensively used in geodetic applications. State of the art autonomous systems are however geared towards the application area in safe and obstacle-free altitudes greater than 30 meters. Applications at lower altitudes still require a human pilot. A new application field will be the reconstruction of structures and buildings, including the facades and roofs, with semi-autonomous MAVs. Ongoing research in the MAV robotics field is focusing on enabling this system class to operate at lower altitudes in proximity to nearby obstacles and humans. PIXHAWK is an open source and open hardware toolkit for this purpose. The quadrotor design is optimized for onboard computer vision and can connect up to four cameras to its onboard computer. The validity of the system design is shown with a fully autonomous capture flight along a building.

  19. Virtual Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzopoulos, Demetri; Qureshi, Faisal Z.

    Computer vision and sensor networks researchers are increasingly motivated to investigate complex multi-camera sensing and control issues that arise in the automatic visual surveillance of extensive, highly populated public spaces such as airports and train stations. However, they often encounter serious impediments to deploying and experimenting with large-scale physical camera networks in such real-world environments. We propose an alternative approach called "Virtual Vision", which facilitates this type of research through the virtual reality simulation of populated urban spaces, camera sensor networks, and computer vision on commodity computers. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by developing two highly automated surveillance systems comprising passive and active pan/tilt/zoom cameras that are deployed in a virtual train station environment populated by autonomous, lifelike virtual pedestrians. The easily reconfigurable virtual cameras distributed in this environment generate synthetic video feeds that emulate those acquired by real surveillance cameras monitoring public spaces. The novel multi-camera control strategies that we describe enable the cameras to collaborate in persistently observing pedestrians of interest and in acquiring close-up videos of pedestrians in designated areas.

  20. TU-FG-201-04: Computer Vision in Autonomous Quality Assurance of Linear Accelerators

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yu, H; Jenkins, C; Yu, S

    Purpose: Routine quality assurance (QA) of linear accelerators represents a critical and costly element of a radiation oncology center. Recently, a system was developed to autonomously perform routine quality assurance on linear accelerators. The purpose of this work is to extend this system and contribute computer vision techniques for obtaining quantitative measurements for a monthly multi-leaf collimator (MLC) QA test specified by TG-142, namely leaf position accuracy, and demonstrate extensibility for additional routines. Methods: Grayscale images of a picket fence delivery on a radioluminescent phosphor coated phantom are captured using a CMOS camera. Collected images are processed to correct formore » camera distortions, rotation and alignment, reduce noise, and enhance contrast. The location of each MLC leaf is determined through logistic fitting and a priori modeling based on knowledge of the delivered beams. Using the data collected and the criteria from TG-142, a decision is made on whether or not the leaf position accuracy of the MLC passes or fails. Results: The locations of all MLC leaf edges are found for three different picket fence images in a picket fence routine to 0.1mm/1pixel precision. The program to correct for image alignment and determination of leaf positions requires a runtime of 21– 25 seconds for a single picket, and 44 – 46 seconds for a group of three pickets on a standard workstation CPU, 2.2 GHz Intel Core i7. Conclusion: MLC leaf edges were successfully found using techniques in computer vision. With the addition of computer vision techniques to the previously described autonomous QA system, the system is able to quickly perform complete QA routines with minimal human contribution.« less

  1. Integrating computation into the undergraduate curriculum: A vision and guidelines for future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chonacky, Norman; Winch, David

    2008-04-01

    There is substantial evidence of a need to make computation an integral part of the undergraduate physics curriculum. This need is consistent with data from surveys in both the academy and the workplace, and has been reinforced by two years of exploratory efforts by a group of physics faculty for whom computation is a special interest. We have examined past and current efforts at reform and a variety of strategic, organizational, and institutional issues involved in any attempt to broadly transform existing practice. We propose a set of guidelines for development based on this past work and discuss our vision of computationally integrated physics.

  2. Computing Optic Flow with ArduEye Vision Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    processing algorithm that can be applied to the flight control of other robotic platforms. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Optical flow, ArduEye, vision based ...2 Figure 2. ArduEye vision chip on Stonyman breakout board connected to Arduino Mega (8) (left) and the Stonyman vision chips (7...robotic platforms. There is a significant need for small, light , less power-hungry sensors and sensory data processing algorithms in order to control the

  3. Computer vision research with new imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Guangqi; Liu, Fei; Sun, Zhenan

    2015-12-01

    Light field imaging is capable of capturing dense multi-view 2D images in one snapshot, which record both intensity values and directions of rays simultaneously. As an emerging 3D device, the light field camera has been widely used in digital refocusing, depth estimation, stereoscopic display, etc. Traditional multi-view stereo (MVS) methods only perform well on strongly texture surfaces, but the depth map contains numerous holes and large ambiguities on textureless or low-textured regions. In this paper, we exploit the light field imaging technology on 3D face modeling in computer vision. Based on a 3D morphable model, we estimate the pose parameters from facial feature points. Then the depth map is estimated through the epipolar plane images (EPIs) method. At last, the high quality 3D face model is exactly recovered via the fusing strategy. We evaluate the effectiveness and robustness on face images captured by a light field camera with different poses.

  4. On computer vision in wireless sensor networks.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Berry, Nina M.; Ko, Teresa H.

    Wireless sensor networks allow detailed sensing of otherwise unknown and inaccessible environments. While it would be beneficial to include cameras in a wireless sensor network because images are so rich in information, the power cost of transmitting an image across the wireless network can dramatically shorten the lifespan of the sensor nodes. This paper describe a new paradigm for the incorporation of imaging into wireless networks. Rather than focusing on transmitting images across the network, we show how an image can be processed locally for key features using simple detectors. Contrasted with traditional event detection systems that trigger an imagemore » capture, this enables a new class of sensors which uses a low power imaging sensor to detect a variety of visual cues. Sharing these features among relevant nodes cues specific actions to better provide information about the environment. We report on various existing techniques developed for traditional computer vision research which can aid in this work.« less

  5. Development of a body motion interactive system with a weight voting mechanism and computer vision technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Tse; Shei, Hung-Jung; Lay, Yun-Long; Chiu, Chuang-Chien

    2012-09-01

    This study develops a body motion interactive system with computer vision technology. This application combines interactive games, art performing, and exercise training system. Multiple image processing and computer vision technologies are used in this study. The system can calculate the characteristics of an object color, and then perform color segmentation. When there is a wrong action judgment, the system will avoid the error with a weight voting mechanism, which can set the condition score and weight value for the action judgment, and choose the best action judgment from the weight voting mechanism. Finally, this study estimated the reliability of the system in order to make improvements. The results showed that, this method has good effect on accuracy and stability during operations of the human-machine interface of the sports training system.

  6. Using Computer Vision Techniques to Locate Objects in an Image

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Sujata Kakarla J. Wakeley A. S. Maida Snf DTIC SL7CTE0 ;r’!•,,/ )N ATMT~~c.N T" A TICIINICAL REPORT " SR 10 •: 1"R! _ IrIi) The Pennsylvania State...University APPLIED RESEARCH LABORATORY P. 0. Box 30 State College, PA 16804 USING COMPUTER VISION TECHNIQUES TO LOCATE OBJECTS IN AN IMAGE by Sujata Kakarla J...in an Image 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Sujata Kakarla, J. Wakelev, A. S. Maida 𔃽a TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF REPORT (Y ar, Month, Day) 5

  7. Performance of computer vision in vivo flow cytometry with low fluorescence contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Stacey; Li, Siyuan; Niedre, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Detection and enumeration of circulating cells in the bloodstream of small animals are important in many areas of preclinical biomedical research, including cancer metastasis, immunology, and reproductive medicine. Optical in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) represents a class of technologies that allow noninvasive and continuous enumeration of circulating cells without drawing blood samples. We recently developed a technique termed computer vision in vivo flow cytometry (CV-IVFC) that uses a high-sensitivity fluorescence camera and an automated computer vision algorithm to interrogate relatively large circulating blood volumes in the ear of a mouse. We detected circulating cells at concentrations as low as 20 cells/mL. In the present work, we characterized the performance of CV-IVFC with low-contrast imaging conditions with (1) weak cell fluorescent labeling using cell-simulating fluorescent microspheres with varying brightness and (2) high background tissue autofluorescence by varying autofluorescence properties of optical phantoms. Our analysis indicates that CV-IVFC can robustly track and enumerate circulating cells with at least 50% sensitivity even in conditions with two orders of magnitude degraded contrast than our previous in vivo work. These results support the significant potential utility of CV-IVFC in a wide range of in vivo biological models.

  8. Performance of computer vision in vivo flow cytometry with low fluorescence contrast

    PubMed Central

    Markovic, Stacey; Li, Siyuan; Niedre, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Detection and enumeration of circulating cells in the bloodstream of small animals are important in many areas of preclinical biomedical research, including cancer metastasis, immunology, and reproductive medicine. Optical in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) represents a class of technologies that allow noninvasive and continuous enumeration of circulating cells without drawing blood samples. We recently developed a technique termed computer vision in vivo flow cytometry (CV-IVFC) that uses a high-sensitivity fluorescence camera and an automated computer vision algorithm to interrogate relatively large circulating blood volumes in the ear of a mouse. We detected circulating cells at concentrations as low as 20  cells/mL. In the present work, we characterized the performance of CV-IVFC with low-contrast imaging conditions with (1) weak cell fluorescent labeling using cell-simulating fluorescent microspheres with varying brightness and (2) high background tissue autofluorescence by varying autofluorescence properties of optical phantoms. Our analysis indicates that CV-IVFC can robustly track and enumerate circulating cells with at least 50% sensitivity even in conditions with two orders of magnitude degraded contrast than our previous in vivo work. These results support the significant potential utility of CV-IVFC in a wide range of in vivo biological models. PMID:25822954

  9. A Respiratory Movement Monitoring System Using Fiber-Grating Vision Sensor for Diagnosing Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Yasuhiro; Sato, Jun-Ya; Nakajima, Masato

    2005-01-01

    A non-restrictive and non-contact respiratory movement monitoring system that finds the boundary between chest and abdomen automatically and detects the vertical movement of each part of the body separately is proposed. The system uses a fiber-grating vision sensor technique and the boundary position detection is carried out by calculating the centers of gravity of upward moving and downward moving sampling points, respectively. In the experiment to evaluate the ability to detect the respiratory movement signals of each part and to discriminate between obstructive and central apneas, detected signals of the two parts and their total clearly showed the peculiarities of obstructive and central apnea. The cross talk between the two categories classified automatically according to several rules that reflect the peculiarities was ≤ 15%. This result is sufficient for discriminating central sleep apnea syndrome from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and indicates that the system is promising as screening equipment. Society of Japan

  10. Computer vision for driver assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handmann, Uwe; Kalinke, Thomas; Tzomakas, Christos; Werner, Martin; von Seelen, Werner

    1998-07-01

    Systems for automated image analysis are useful for a variety of tasks and their importance is still increasing due to technological advances and an increase of social acceptance. Especially in the field of driver assistance systems the progress in science has reached a level of high performance. Fully or partly autonomously guided vehicles, particularly for road-based traffic, pose high demands on the development of reliable algorithms due to the conditions imposed by natural environments. At the Institut fur Neuroinformatik, methods for analyzing driving relevant scenes by computer vision are developed in cooperation with several partners from the automobile industry. We introduce a system which extracts the important information from an image taken by a CCD camera installed at the rear view mirror in a car. The approach consists of a sequential and a parallel sensor and information processing. Three main tasks namely the initial segmentation (object detection), the object tracking and the object classification are realized by integration in the sequential branch and by fusion in the parallel branch. The main gain of this approach is given by the integrative coupling of different algorithms providing partly redundant information.

  11. A method of non-contact reading code based on computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunsen; Zong, Xiaoyu; Guo, Bingxuan

    2018-03-01

    With the purpose of guarantee the computer information exchange security between internal and external network (trusted network and un-trusted network), A non-contact Reading code method based on machine vision has been proposed. Which is different from the existing network physical isolation method. By using the computer monitors, camera and other equipment. Deal with the information which will be on exchanged, Include image coding ,Generate the standard image , Display and get the actual image , Calculate homography matrix, Image distort correction and decoding in calibration, To achieve the computer information security, Non-contact, One-way transmission between the internal and external network , The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by experiments on real computer text data, The speed of data transfer can be achieved 24kb/s. The experiment shows that this algorithm has the characteristics of high security, fast velocity and less loss of information. Which can meet the daily needs of the confidentiality department to update the data effectively and reliably, Solved the difficulty of computer information exchange between Secret network and non-secret network, With distinctive originality, practicability, and practical research value.

  12. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  13. Computer vision techniques for rotorcraft low-altitude flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Cheng, Victor H. L.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of research that applies techniques from computer vision to automation of rotorcraft navigation. The effort emphasizes the development of a methodology for detecting the ranges to obstacles in the region of interest based on the maximum utilization of passive sensors. The range map derived from the obstacle detection approach can be used as obstacle data for the obstacle avoidance in an automataic guidance system and as advisory display to the pilot. The lack of suitable flight imagery data, however, presents a problem in the verification of concepts for obstacle detection. This problem is being addressed by the development of an adequate flight database and by preprocessing of currently available flight imagery. Some comments are made on future work and how research in this area relates to the guidance of other autonomous vehicles.

  14. Usher Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Usher syndrome is an inherited disease that causes serious hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, an eye disorder that causes ... and vision. There are three types of Usher syndrome: People with type I are deaf from birth ...

  15. Online Graph Completion: Multivariate Signal Recovery in Computer Vision.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Hwa; Jalal, Mona; Hwang, Seongjae; Johnson, Sterling C; Singh, Vikas

    2017-07-01

    The adoption of "human-in-the-loop" paradigms in computer vision and machine learning is leading to various applications where the actual data acquisition (e.g., human supervision) and the underlying inference algorithms are closely interwined. While classical work in active learning provides effective solutions when the learning module involves classification and regression tasks, many practical issues such as partially observed measurements, financial constraints and even additional distributional or structural aspects of the data typically fall outside the scope of this treatment. For instance, with sequential acquisition of partial measurements of data that manifest as a matrix (or tensor), novel strategies for completion (or collaborative filtering) of the remaining entries have only been studied recently. Motivated by vision problems where we seek to annotate a large dataset of images via a crowdsourced platform or alternatively, complement results from a state-of-the-art object detector using human feedback, we study the "completion" problem defined on graphs, where requests for additional measurements must be made sequentially. We design the optimization model in the Fourier domain of the graph describing how ideas based on adaptive submodularity provide algorithms that work well in practice. On a large set of images collected from Imgur, we see promising results on images that are otherwise difficult to categorize. We also show applications to an experimental design problem in neuroimaging.

  16. Enhanced flyby science with onboard computer vision: Tracking and surface feature detection at small bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Thomas J.; Thompson, David R.; Bue, Brian D.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Chien, Steve A.; Gharibian, Dero; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2015-10-01

    Spacecraft autonomy is crucial to increase the science return of optical remote sensing observations at distant primitive bodies. To date, most small bodies exploration has involved short timescale flybys that execute prescripted data collection sequences. Light time delay means that the spacecraft must operate completely autonomously without direct control from the ground, but in most cases the physical properties and morphologies of prospective targets are unknown before the flyby. Surface features of interest are highly localized, and successful observations must account for geometry and illumination constraints. Under these circumstances onboard computer vision can improve science yield by responding immediately to collected imagery. It can reacquire bad data or identify features of opportunity for additional targeted measurements. We present a comprehensive framework for onboard computer vision for flyby missions at small bodies. We introduce novel algorithms for target tracking, target segmentation, surface feature detection, and anomaly detection. The performance and generalization power are evaluated in detail using expert annotations on data sets from previous encounters with primitive bodies.

  17. Dynamic programming and graph algorithms in computer vision.

    PubMed

    Felzenszwalb, Pedro F; Zabih, Ramin

    2011-04-01

    Optimization is a powerful paradigm for expressing and solving problems in a wide range of areas, and has been successfully applied to many vision problems. Discrete optimization techniques are especially interesting since, by carefully exploiting problem structure, they often provide nontrivial guarantees concerning solution quality. In this paper, we review dynamic programming and graph algorithms, and discuss representative examples of how these discrete optimization techniques have been applied to some classical vision problems. We focus on the low-level vision problem of stereo, the mid-level problem of interactive object segmentation, and the high-level problem of model-based recognition.

  18. Computer vision applications for coronagraphic optical alignment and image processing.

    PubMed

    Savransky, Dmitry; Thomas, Sandrine J; Poyneer, Lisa A; Macintosh, Bruce A

    2013-05-10

    Modern coronagraphic systems require very precise alignment between optical components and can benefit greatly from automated image processing. We discuss three techniques commonly employed in the fields of computer vision and image analysis as applied to the Gemini Planet Imager, a new facility instrument for the Gemini South Observatory. We describe how feature extraction and clustering methods can be used to aid in automated system alignment tasks, and also present a search algorithm for finding regular features in science images used for calibration and data processing. Along with discussions of each technique, we present our specific implementation and show results of each one in operation.

  19. Operational Assessment of Color Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-20

    evaluated in this study. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Color vision, aviation, cone contrast test, Colour Assessment & Diagnosis , color Dx, OBVA 16. SECURITY...symbologies are frequently used to aid or direct critical activities such as aircraft landing approaches or railroad right-of-way designations...computer-generated display systems have facilitated the development of computer-based, automated tests of color vision [14,15]. The United Kingdom’s

  20. Dynamic Programming and Graph Algorithms in Computer Vision*

    PubMed Central

    Felzenszwalb, Pedro F.; Zabih, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Optimization is a powerful paradigm for expressing and solving problems in a wide range of areas, and has been successfully applied to many vision problems. Discrete optimization techniques are especially interesting, since by carefully exploiting problem structure they often provide non-trivial guarantees concerning solution quality. In this paper we briefly review dynamic programming and graph algorithms, and discuss representative examples of how these discrete optimization techniques have been applied to some classical vision problems. We focus on the low-level vision problem of stereo; the mid-level problem of interactive object segmentation; and the high-level problem of model-based recognition. PMID:20660950

  1. Strategic Computing Computer Vision: Taking Image Understanding To The Next Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, R. L., Jr.

    1987-06-01

    The overall objective of the Strategic Computing (SC) Program of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is to develop and demonstrate a new generation of machine intelligence technology which can form the basis for more capable military systems in the future and also maintain a position of world leadership for the US in computer technology. Begun in 1983, SC represents a focused research strategy for accelerating the evolution of new technology and its rapid prototyping in realistic military contexts. Among the very ambitious demonstration prototypes being developed within the SC Program are: 1) the Pilot's Associate which will aid the pilot in route planning, aerial target prioritization, evasion of missile threats, and aircraft emergency safety procedures during flight; 2) two battle management projects one for the for the Army, which is just getting started, called the AirLand Battle Management program (ALBM) which will use knowledge-based systems technology to assist in the generation and evaluation of tactical options and plans at the Corps level; 3) the other more established program for the Navy is the Fleet Command Center Battle Management Program (FCCBIVIP) at Pearl Harbor. The FCCBMP is employing knowledge-based systems and natural language technology in a evolutionary testbed situated in an operational command center to demonstrate and evaluate intelligent decision-aids which can assist in the evaluation of fleet readiness and explore alternatives during contingencies; and 4) the Autonomous Land Vehicle (ALV) which integrates in a major robotic testbed the technologies for dynamic image understanding, knowledge-based route planning with replanning during execution, hosted on new advanced parallel architectures. The goal of the Strategic Computing computer vision technology base (SCVision) is to develop generic technology that will enable the construction of complete, robust, high performance image understanding systems to support a wide

  2. Brain-computer interaction research at the Computer Vision and Multimedia Laboratory, University of Geneva.

    PubMed

    Pun, Thierry; Alecu, Teodor Iulian; Chanel, Guillaume; Kronegg, Julien; Voloshynovskiy, Sviatoslav

    2006-06-01

    This paper describes the work being conducted in the domain of brain-computer interaction (BCI) at the Multimodal Interaction Group, Computer Vision and Multimedia Laboratory, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. The application focus of this work is on multimodal interaction rather than on rehabilitation, that is how to augment classical interaction by means of physiological measurements. Three main research topics are addressed. The first one concerns the more general problem of brain source activity recognition from EEGs. In contrast with classical deterministic approaches, we studied iterative robust stochastic based reconstruction procedures modeling source and noise statistics, to overcome known limitations of current techniques. We also developed procedures for optimal electroencephalogram (EEG) sensor system design in terms of placement and number of electrodes. The second topic is the study of BCI protocols and performance from an information-theoretic point of view. Various information rate measurements have been compared for assessing BCI abilities. The third research topic concerns the use of EEG and other physiological signals for assessing a user's emotional status.

  3. Development and characteristics of children with Usher syndrome and CHARGE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-09-01

    Individuals with Usher syndrome or CHARGE syndrome are faced with a number of difficulties concerning hearing, vision, balance, and language development. The aim of the study is to describe the developmental characteristics of children with Usher syndrome and CHARGE syndrome, respectively. Data about the developmental characteristics of 26 children with Usher syndrome and 17 children with CHARGE syndrome was obtained. Associations between deafblindness (dual sensory loss), motor development (age of walking), language abilities, and intellectual outcome of these children were explored for each group independently. Both groups of children face a number of difficulties associated with vision, hearing, language, balance and intellectual outcome. Intellectual disability and/or language delay was found among 42% of the children with Usher syndrome and among 82% of the children with CHARGE syndrome. Intellectual disability was associated with language delay and age of walking for both groups. Even though Usher and CHARGE are two different genetic syndromes, both groups are challenged with a number of similar developmental delays. Clinicians need to be aware of several developmental issues in order to offer adequate support to children with Usher or CHARGE syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of tests of accommodation for computer users.

    PubMed

    Kolker, David; Hutchinson, Robert; Nilsen, Erik

    2002-04-01

    With the increased use of computers in the workplace and at home, optometrists are finding more patients presenting with symptoms of Computer Vision Syndrome. Among these symptomatic individuals, research supports that accommodative disorders are the most common vision finding. A prepresbyopic group (N= 30) and a presbyopic group (N = 30) were selected from a private practice. Assignment to a group was determined by age, accommodative amplitude, and near visual acuity with their distance prescription. Each subject was given a thorough vision and ocular health examination, then administered several nearpoint tests of accommodation at a computer working distance. All the tests produced similar results in the presbyopic group. For the prepresbyopic group, the tests yielded very different results. To effectively treat symptomatic VDT users, optometrists must assess the accommodative system along with the binocular and refractive status. For presbyopic patients, all nearpoint tests studied will yield virtually the same result. However, the method of testing accommodation, as well as the test stimulus presented, will yield significantly different responses for prepresbyopic patients. Previous research indicates that a majority of patients prefer the higher plus prescription yielded by the Gaussian image test.

  5. Identification of Cichlid Fishes from Lake Malawi Using Computer Vision

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Deokjin; Kwan, Ye-seul; Song, Jongwoo; Pinho, Catarina; Hey, Jody; Won, Yong-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background The explosively radiating evolution of cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi has yielded an amazing number of haplochromine species estimated as many as 500 to 800 with a surprising degree of diversity not only in color and stripe pattern but also in the shape of jaw and body among them. As these morphological diversities have been a central subject of adaptive speciation and taxonomic classification, such high diversity could serve as a foundation for automation of species identification of cichlids. Methodology/Principal Finding Here we demonstrate a method for automatic classification of the Lake Malawi cichlids based on computer vision and geometric morphometrics. For this end we developed a pipeline that integrates multiple image processing tools to automatically extract informative features of color and stripe patterns from a large set of photographic images of wild cichlids. The extracted information was evaluated by statistical classifiers Support Vector Machine and Random Forests. Both classifiers performed better when body shape information was added to the feature of color and stripe. Besides the coloration and stripe pattern, body shape variables boosted the accuracy of classification by about 10%. The programs were able to classify 594 live cichlid individuals belonging to 12 different classes (species and sexes) with an average accuracy of 78%, contrasting to a mere 42% success rate by human eyes. The variables that contributed most to the accuracy were body height and the hue of the most frequent color. Conclusions Computer vision showed a notable performance in extracting information from the color and stripe patterns of Lake Malawi cichlids although the information was not enough for errorless species identification. Our results indicate that there appears an unavoidable difficulty in automatic species identification of cichlid fishes, which may arise from short divergence times and gene flow between closely related species. PMID:24204918

  6. A fast technique for computing syndromes of BCH and RS codes. [deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.; Miller, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    A combination of the Chinese Remainder Theorem and Winograd's algorithm is used to compute transforms of odd length over GF(2 to the m power). Such transforms are used to compute the syndromes needed for decoding CBH and RS codes. The present scheme requires substantially fewer multiplications and additions than the conventional method of computing the syndromes directly.

  7. Reconfigurable vision system for real-time applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Huitzil, Cesar; Arias-Estrada, Miguel

    2002-03-01

    Recently, a growing community of researchers has used reconfigurable systems to solve computationally intensive problems. Reconfigurability provides optimized processors for systems on chip designs, and makes easy to import technology to a new system through reusable modules. The main objective of this work is the investigation of a reconfigurable computer system targeted for computer vision and real-time applications. The system is intended to circumvent the inherent computational load of most window-based computer vision algorithms. It aims to build a system for such tasks by providing an FPGA-based hardware architecture for task specific vision applications with enough processing power, using the minimum amount of hardware resources as possible, and a mechanism for building systems using this architecture. Regarding the software part of the system, a library of pre-designed and general-purpose modules that implement common window-based computer vision operations is being investigated. A common generic interface is established for these modules in order to define hardware/software components. These components can be interconnected to develop more complex applications, providing an efficient mechanism for transferring image and result data among modules. Some preliminary results are presented and discussed.

  8. Computer Vision in the Temples of Karnak: Past, Present & Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournadre, V.; Labarta, C.; Megard, P.; Garric, A.; Saubestre, E.; Durand, B.

    2017-05-01

    CFEETK, the French-Egyptian Center for the Study of the Temples of Karnak, is celebrating this year the 50th anniversary of its foundation. As a multicultural and transdisciplinary research center, it has always been a playground for testing emerging technologies applied to various fields. The raise of automatic computer vision algorithms is an interesting topic, as it allows nonexperts to provide high value results. This article presents the evolution in measurement experiments in the past 50 years, and it describes how cameras are used today. Ultimately, it aims to set the trends of the upcoming projects and it discusses how image processing could contribute further to the study and the conservation of the cultural heritage.

  9. Fuzzy classification for strawberry diseases-infection using machine vision and soft-computing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altıparmak, Hamit; Al Shahadat, Mohamad; Kiani, Ehsan; Dimililer, Kamil

    2018-04-01

    Robotic agriculture requires smart and doable techniques to substitute the human intelligence with machine intelligence. Strawberry is one of the important Mediterranean product and its productivity enhancement requires modern and machine-based methods. Whereas a human identifies the disease infected leaves by his eye, the machine should also be capable of vision-based disease identification. The objective of this paper is to practically verify the applicability of a new computer-vision method for discrimination between the healthy and disease infected strawberry leaves which does not require neural network or time consuming trainings. The proposed method was tested under outdoor lighting condition using a regular DLSR camera without any particular lens. Since the type and infection degree of disease is approximated a human brain a fuzzy decision maker classifies the leaves over the images captured on-site having the same properties of human vision. Optimizing the fuzzy parameters for a typical strawberry production area at a summer mid-day in Cyprus produced 96% accuracy for segmented iron deficiency and 93% accuracy for segmented using a typical human instant classification approximation as the benchmark holding higher accuracy than a human eye identifier. The fuzzy-base classifier provides approximate result for decision making on the leaf status as if it is healthy or not.

  10. Computer Vision Malaria Diagnostic Systems-Progress and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Joseph Joel; Houri-Yafin, Arnon; Salpeter, Seth J

    2017-01-01

    Accurate malaria diagnosis is critical to prevent malaria fatalities, curb overuse of antimalarial drugs, and promote appropriate management of other causes of fever. While several diagnostic tests exist, the need for a rapid and highly accurate malaria assay remains. Microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests are the main diagnostic modalities available, yet they can demonstrate poor performance and accuracy. Automated microscopy platforms have the potential to significantly improve and standardize malaria diagnosis. Based on image recognition and machine learning algorithms, these systems maintain the benefits of light microscopy and provide improvements such as quicker scanning time, greater scanning area, and increased consistency brought by automation. While these applications have been in development for over a decade, recently several commercial platforms have emerged. In this review, we discuss the most advanced computer vision malaria diagnostic technologies and investigate several of their features which are central to field use. Additionally, we discuss the technological and policy barriers to implementing these technologies in low-resource settings world-wide.

  11. Analog "neuronal" networks in early vision.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, C; Marroquin, J; Yuille, A

    1986-01-01

    Many problems in early vision can be formulated in terms of minimizing a cost function. Examples are shape from shading, edge detection, motion analysis, structure from motion, and surface interpolation. As shown by Poggio and Koch [Poggio, T. & Koch, C. (1985) Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 226, 303-323], quadratic variational problems, an important subset of early vision tasks, can be "solved" by linear, analog electrical, or chemical networks. However, in the presence of discontinuities, the cost function is nonquadratic, raising the question of designing efficient algorithms for computing the optimal solution. Recently, Hopfield and Tank [Hopfield, J. J. & Tank, D. W. (1985) Biol. Cybern. 52, 141-152] have shown that networks of nonlinear analog "neurons" can be effective in computing the solution of optimization problems. We show how these networks can be generalized to solve the nonconvex energy functionals of early vision. We illustrate this approach by implementing a specific analog network, solving the problem of reconstructing a smooth surface from sparse data while preserving its discontinuities. These results suggest a novel computational strategy for solving early vision problems in both biological and real-time artificial vision systems. PMID:3459172

  12. Computer vision system for egg volume prediction using backpropagation neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siswantoro, J.; Hilman, M. Y.; Widiasri, M.

    2017-11-01

    Volume is one of considered aspects in egg sorting process. A rapid and accurate volume measurement method is needed to develop an egg sorting system. Computer vision system (CVS) provides a promising solution for volume measurement problem. Artificial neural network (ANN) has been used to predict the volume of egg in several CVSs. However, volume prediction from ANN could have less accuracy due to inappropriate input features or inappropriate ANN structure. This paper proposes a CVS for predicting the volume of egg using ANN. The CVS acquired an image of egg from top view and then processed the image to extract its 1D and 2 D size features. The features were used as input for ANN in predicting the volume of egg. The experiment results show that the proposed CSV can predict the volume of egg with a good accuracy and less computation time.

  13. Machine vision for real time orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision for automation and robotic operation of Space Station era systems has the potential for increasing the efficiency of orbital servicing, repair, assembly and docking tasks. A machine vision research project is described in which a TV camera is used for inputing visual data to a computer so that image processing may be achieved for real time control of these orbital operations. A technique has resulted from this research which reduces computer memory requirements and greatly increases typical computational speed such that it has the potential for development into a real time orbital machine vision system. This technique is called AI BOSS (Analysis of Images by Box Scan and Syntax).

  14. Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, L.J.; Kramer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    A synthetic vision system is an aircraft cockpit display technology that presents the visual environment external to the aircraft using computer-generated imagery in a manner analogous to how it would appear to the pilot if forward visibility were not restricted. The purpose of this chapter is to review the state of synthetic vision systems, and discuss selected human factors issues that should be considered when designing such displays.

  15. Screening athletes with Down syndrome for ocular disease.

    PubMed

    Gutstein, Walter; Sinclair, Stephen H; North, Rachel V; Bekiroglu, N

    2010-02-01

    Persons with Down syndrome are well known to have a high prevalence of vision and eye health problems, many of which are undetected or untreated primarily because of infrequent ocular examinations. Public screening programs, directed toward the pediatric population, have become more popular and commonly use letter or symbol charts. This study compares 2 vision screening methods, the Lea Symbol chart and a newly developed interactive computer program, the Vimetrics Central Vision Analyzer (CVA), in their ability to identify ocular disease in the Down syndrome population. Athletes with Down syndrome participating in the European Special Olympics underwent an ocular screening including history, auto-refraction, colour vision assessment, stereopsis assessment, motility assessment, pupil reactivity, and tonometry testing, as well as anterior segment and fundus examinations to evaluate for ocular disease. Visual acuity was tested with the Lea chart and CVA to evaluate these as screening tests for detecting ocular disease as well as significant, uncorrected refractive errors. Among the 91 athletes that presented to the screening, 79 (158 eyes) were sufficiently cooperative for the examination to be completed. Mean age was 26 years +/-10.8 SD. Significant, uncorrected refractive errors (>/=1.00 spherical equivalent) were detected in 28 (18%) eyes and ocular pathology in 51 (32%) eyes. The Lea chart sensitivity and specificity were 43% and 74%, respectively, for detecting ocular pathology and 58% and 100% for detecting uncorrected refractive errors. The CVA sensitivity and specificity were 70% and 86% for detecting pathology and 71% and 100% for detecting uncorrected refractive errors. This study confirmed the findings of prior studies in identifying a significant presence of uncorrected refractive errors and ocular pathology in the Down syndrome population. Screening with the Lea symbol chart found borderline sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the test to be used

  16. Computer Vision for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, P. C. H.; Attrill, G. D. R.; Davey, A. R.; Engell, A.; Farid, S.; Grigis, P. C.; Kasper, J.; Korreck, K.; Saar, S. H.; Savcheva, A.; Su, Y.; Testa, P.; Wills-Davey, M.; Bernasconi, P. N.; Raouafi, N.-E.; Delouille, V. A.; Hochedez, J. F.; Cirtain, J. W.; Deforest, C. E.; Angryk, R. A.; de Moortel, I.; Wiegelmann, T.; Georgoulis, M. K.; McAteer, R. T. J.; Timmons, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    In Fall 2008 NASA selected a large international consortium to produce a comprehensive automated feature-recognition system for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The SDO data that we consider are all of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) images plus surface magnetic-field images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). We produce robust, very efficient, professionally coded software modules that can keep up with the SDO data stream and detect, trace, and analyze numerous phenomena, including flares, sigmoids, filaments, coronal dimmings, polarity inversion lines, sunspots, X-ray bright points, active regions, coronal holes, EIT waves, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), coronal oscillations, and jets. We also track the emergence and evolution of magnetic elements down to the smallest detectable features and will provide at least four full-disk, nonlinear, force-free magnetic field extrapolations per day. The detection of CMEs and filaments is accomplished with Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/ Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) and ground-based Hα data, respectively. A completely new software element is a trainable feature-detection module based on a generalized image-classification algorithm. Such a trainable module can be used to find features that have not yet been discovered (as, for example, sigmoids were in the pre- Yohkoh era). Our codes will produce entries in the Heliophysics Events Knowledgebase (HEK) as well as produce complete catalogs for results that are too numerous for inclusion in the HEK, such as the X-ray bright-point metadata. This will permit users to locate data on individual events as well as carry out statistical studies on large numbers of events, using the interface provided by the Virtual Solar Observatory. The operations concept for our computer vision system is that the data will be analyzed in near real time as soon as they arrive at the SDO Joint Science Operations Center and have undergone basic

  17. Overview of sports vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.

    2003-03-01

    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  18. A comparison of symptoms after viewing text on a computer screen and hardcopy.

    PubMed

    Chu, Christina; Rosenfield, Mark; Portello, Joan K; Benzoni, Jaclyn A; Collier, Juanita D

    2011-01-01

    Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is a complex of eye and vision problems experienced during or related to computer use. Ocular symptoms may include asthenopia, accommodative and vergence difficulties and dry eye. CVS occurs in up to 90% of computer workers, and given the almost universal use of these devices, it is important to identify whether these symptoms are specific to computer operation, or are simply a manifestation of performing a sustained near-vision task. This study compared ocular symptoms immediately following a sustained near task. 30 young, visually-normal subjects read text aloud either from a desktop computer screen or a printed hardcopy page at a viewing distance of 50 cm for a continuous 20 min period. Identical text was used in the two sessions, which was matched for size and contrast. Target viewing angle and luminance were similar for the two conditions. Immediately following completion of the reading task, subjects completed a written questionnaire asking about their level of ocular discomfort during the task. When comparing the computer and hardcopy conditions, significant differences in median symptom scores were reported with regard to blurred vision during the task (t = 147.0; p = 0.03) and the mean symptom score (t = 102.5; p = 0.04). In both cases, symptoms were higher during computer use. Symptoms following sustained computer use were significantly worse than those reported after hard copy fixation under similar viewing conditions. A better understanding of the physiology underlying CVS is critical to allow more accurate diagnosis and treatment. This will allow practitioners to optimize visual comfort and efficiency during computer operation.

  19. Computer vision and soft computing for automatic skull-face overlay in craniofacial superimposition.

    PubMed

    Campomanes-Álvarez, B Rosario; Ibáñez, O; Navarro, F; Alemán, I; Botella, M; Damas, S; Cordón, O

    2014-12-01

    Craniofacial superimposition can provide evidence to support that some human skeletal remains belong or not to a missing person. It involves the process of overlaying a skull with a number of ante mortem images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence. Within the craniofacial superimposition process, the skull-face overlay stage just focuses on achieving the best possible overlay of the skull and a single ante mortem image of the suspect. Although craniofacial superimposition has been in use for over a century, skull-face overlay is still applied by means of a trial-and-error approach without an automatic method. Practitioners finish the process once they consider that a good enough overlay has been attained. Hence, skull-face overlay is a very challenging, subjective, error prone, and time consuming part of the whole process. Though the numerical assessment of the method quality has not been achieved yet, computer vision and soft computing arise as powerful tools to automate it, dramatically reducing the time taken by the expert and obtaining an unbiased overlay result. In this manuscript, we justify and analyze the use of these techniques to properly model the skull-face overlay problem. We also present the automatic technical procedure we have developed using these computational methods and show the four overlays obtained in two craniofacial superimposition cases. This automatic procedure can be thus considered as a tool to aid forensic anthropologists to develop the skull-face overlay, automating and avoiding subjectivity of the most tedious task within craniofacial superimposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Method of mobile robot indoor navigation by artificial landmarks with use of computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glibin, E. S.; Shevtsov, A. A.; Enik, O. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article describes an algorithm of the mobile robot indoor navigation based on the use of visual odometry. The results of the experiment identifying calculation errors in the distance traveled on a slip are presented. It is shown that the use of computer vision allows one to correct erroneous coordinates of the robot with the help of artificial landmarks. The control system utilizing the proposed method has been realized on the basis of Arduino Mego 2560 controller and a single-board computer Raspberry Pi 3. The results of the experiment on the mobile robot navigation with the use of this control system are presented.

  1. Objective definition of rosette shape variation using a combined computer vision and data mining approach.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Anyela; Papadopoulou, Dimitra; Spyropoulou, Zoi; Vlachonasios, Konstantinos; Doonan, John H; Gay, Alan P

    2014-01-01

    Computer-vision based measurements of phenotypic variation have implications for crop improvement and food security because they are intrinsically objective. It should be possible therefore to use such approaches to select robust genotypes. However, plants are morphologically complex and identification of meaningful traits from automatically acquired image data is not straightforward. Bespoke algorithms can be designed to capture and/or quantitate specific features but this approach is inflexible and is not generally applicable to a wide range of traits. In this paper, we have used industry-standard computer vision techniques to extract a wide range of features from images of genetically diverse Arabidopsis rosettes growing under non-stimulated conditions, and then used statistical analysis to identify those features that provide good discrimination between ecotypes. This analysis indicates that almost all the observed shape variation can be described by 5 principal components. We describe an easily implemented pipeline including image segmentation, feature extraction and statistical analysis. This pipeline provides a cost-effective and inherently scalable method to parameterise and analyse variation in rosette shape. The acquisition of images does not require any specialised equipment and the computer routines for image processing and data analysis have been implemented using open source software. Source code for data analysis is written using the R package. The equations to calculate image descriptors have been also provided.

  2. Vision-Based UAV Flight Control and Obstacle Avoidance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    denoted it by Vb = (Vb1, Vb2 , Vb3). Fig. 2 shows the block diagram of the proposed vision-based motion analysis and obstacle avoidance system. We denote...structure analysis often involve computation- intensive computer vision tasks, such as feature extraction and geometric modeling. Computation-intensive...First, we extract a set of features from each block. 2) Second, we compute the distance between these two sets of features. In conventional motion

  3. Report: Unsupervised identification of malaria parasites using computer vision.

    PubMed

    Khan, Najeed Ahmed; Pervaz, Hassan; Latif, Arsalan; Musharaff, Ayesha

    2017-01-01

    Malaria in human is a serious and fatal tropical disease. This disease results from Anopheles mosquitoes that are infected by Plasmodium species. The clinical diagnosis of malaria based on the history, symptoms and clinical findings must always be confirmed by laboratory diagnosis. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria involves identification of malaria parasite or its antigen / products in the blood of the patient. Manual diagnosis of malaria parasite by the pathologists has proven to become cumbersome. Therefore, there is a need of automatic, efficient and accurate identification of malaria parasite. In this paper, we proposed a computer vision based approach to identify the malaria parasite from light microscopy images. This research deals with the challenges involved in the automatic detection of malaria parasite tissues. Our proposed method is based on the pixel-based approach. We used K-means clustering (unsupervised approach) for the segmentation to identify malaria parasite tissues.

  4. Computer Vision-Based Structural Displacement Measurement Robust to Light-Induced Image Degradation for In-Service Bridges

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junhwa; Lee, Kyoung-Chan; Cho, Soojin

    2017-01-01

    The displacement responses of a civil engineering structure can provide important information regarding structural behaviors that help in assessing safety and serviceability. A displacement measurement using conventional devices, such as the linear variable differential transformer (LVDT), is challenging owing to issues related to inconvenient sensor installation that often requires additional temporary structures. A promising alternative is offered by computer vision, which typically provides a low-cost and non-contact displacement measurement that converts the movement of an object, mostly an attached marker, in the captured images into structural displacement. However, there is limited research on addressing light-induced measurement error caused by the inevitable sunlight in field-testing conditions. This study presents a computer vision-based displacement measurement approach tailored to a field-testing environment with enhanced robustness to strong sunlight. An image-processing algorithm with an adaptive region-of-interest (ROI) is proposed to reliably determine a marker’s location even when the marker is indistinct due to unfavorable light. The performance of the proposed system is experimentally validated in both laboratory-scale and field experiments. PMID:29019950

  5. Analysis of coherent dynamical processes through computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, M. J. Philipp

    2016-11-01

    Visualizations of turbulent boundary layers show an abundance of characteristic arc-shaped structures whose apparent similarity suggests a common origin in a coherent dynamical process. While the structures have been likened to the hairpin vortices observed in the late stages of transitional flow, a consistent description of the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Detailed studies are complicated by the chaotic nature of turbulence which modulates each manifestation of the process and which renders the isolation of individual structures a challenging task. The present study applies methods from the field of computer vision to capture the time evolution of turbulent flow features and explore the associated physical mechanisms. The algorithm uses morphological operations to condense the structure of the turbulent flow field into a graph described by nodes and links. The low-dimensional geometric information is stored in a database and allows the identification and analysis of equivalent dynamical processes across multiple scales. The framework is not limited to turbulent boundary layers and can also be applied to different types of flows as well as problems from other fields of science.

  6. Case Report: Use of Sports and Performance Vision Training to Benefit a Low-vision Patient's Function.

    PubMed

    Laby, Daniel M

    2018-05-17

    Despite our inability to attenuate the course of many ocular diseases that can ultimately lead to loss or significantly decreased visual function, this report describes a potential technique to aid such patients in maximizing the use of the vision that remains. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of utilizing sports vision training to improve objective and subjective visuomotor function in a low-vision patient. A 37-year-old woman with Usher syndrome presented with reduced central visual acuity and visual field. Although we were unable to reverse the damage resulting from her diagnosis, we were able to improve the use of the remaining vision. A 27 to 31% improvement in hand-eye coordination was achieved along with a 41% improvement in object tracking and visual concentration. Most importantly, following the 14-week training period, there was also a subjective improvement in the patient's appreciation of her visual ability. The sports vision literature cites many examples in which sports vision training is useful in improving visuomotor and on-field performance. We hypothesized that these techniques may be used to aid not only athletes but also patients with low vision. Despite suffering from reduced acuity and a limited visual field, these patients often still have a significant amount of vision ability that can be used to guide motor actions. Using techniques to increase the efficient use of this remaining vision may reduce the impact of the reduced visual function and aid in activities of daily living.

  7. Parallel Architectures and Parallel Algorithms for Integrated Vision Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhary, Alok Nidhi

    1989-01-01

    Computer vision is regarded as one of the most complex and computationally intensive problems. An integrated vision system (IVS) is a system that uses vision algorithms from all levels of processing to perform for a high level application (e.g., object recognition). An IVS normally involves algorithms from low level, intermediate level, and high level vision. Designing parallel architectures for vision systems is of tremendous interest to researchers. Several issues are addressed in parallel architectures and parallel algorithms for integrated vision systems.

  8. The neuroscience of vision-based grasping: a functional review for computational modeling and bio-inspired robotics.

    PubMed

    Chinellato, Eris; Del Pobil, Angel P

    2009-06-01

    The topic of vision-based grasping is being widely studied in humans and in other primates using various techniques and with different goals. The fundamental related findings are reviewed in this paper, with the aim of providing researchers from different fields, including intelligent robotics and neural computation, a comprehensive but accessible view on the subject. A detailed description of the principal sensorimotor processes and the brain areas involved is provided following a functional perspective, in order to make this survey especially useful for computational modeling and bio-inspired robotic applications.

  9. The Use of Computer Vision Algorithms for Automatic Orientation of Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, Jakub Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents analysis of the orientation of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data. In the proposed data processing methodology, point clouds are considered as panoramic images enriched by the depth map. Computer vision (CV) algorithms are used for orientation, which are applied for testing the correctness of the detection of tie points and time of computations, and for assessing difficulties in their implementation. The BRISK, FASRT, MSER, SIFT, SURF, ASIFT and CenSurE algorithms are used to search for key-points. The source data are point clouds acquired using a Z+F 5006h terrestrial laser scanner on the ruins of Iłża Castle, Poland. Algorithms allowing combination of the photogrammetric and CV approaches are also presented.

  10. Computer vision-based method for classification of wheat grains using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Sabanci, Kadir; Kayabasi, Ahmet; Toktas, Abdurrahim

    2017-06-01

    A simplified computer vision-based application using artificial neural network (ANN) depending on multilayer perceptron (MLP) for accurately classifying wheat grains into bread or durum is presented. The images of 100 bread and 100 durum wheat grains are taken via a high-resolution camera and subjected to pre-processing. The main visual features of four dimensions, three colors and five textures are acquired using image-processing techniques (IPTs). A total of 21 visual features are reproduced from the 12 main features to diversify the input population for training and testing the ANN model. The data sets of visual features are considered as input parameters of the ANN model. The ANN with four different input data subsets is modelled to classify the wheat grains into bread or durum. The ANN model is trained with 180 grains and its accuracy tested with 20 grains from a total of 200 wheat grains. Seven input parameters that are most effective on the classifying results are determined using the correlation-based CfsSubsetEval algorithm to simplify the ANN model. The results of the ANN model are compared in terms of accuracy rate. The best result is achieved with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 9.8 × 10 -6 by the simplified ANN model. This shows that the proposed classifier based on computer vision can be successfully exploited to automatically classify a variety of grains. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. The vertical monitor position for presbyopic computer users with progressive lenses: how to reach clear vision and comfortable head posture.

    PubMed

    Weidling, Patrick; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    When presbyopic employees are wearing general-purpose progressive lenses, they have clear vision only with a lower gaze inclination to the computer monitor, given the head assumes a comfortable inclination. Therefore, in the present intervention field study the monitor position was lowered, also with the aim to reduce musculoskeletal symptoms. A comparison group comprised users of lenses that do not restrict the field of clear vision. The lower monitor positions led the participants to lower their head inclination, which was linearly associated with a significant reduction in musculoskeletal symptoms. However, for progressive lenses a lower head inclination means a lower zone of clear vision, so that clear vision of the complete monitor was not achieved, rather the monitor should have been placed even lower. The procedures of this study may be useful for optimising the individual monitor position depending on the comfortable head and gaze inclination and the vertical zone of clear vision of progressive lenses. For users of general-purpose progressive lenses, it is suggested that low monitor positions allow for clear vision at the monitor and for a physiologically favourable head inclination. Employees may improve their workplace using a flyer providing ergonomic-optometric information.

  12. Novel computer vision analysis of nasal shape in children with unilateral cleft lip.

    PubMed

    Mercan, Ezgi; Morrison, Clinton S; Stuhaug, Erik; Shapiro, Linda G; Tse, Raymond W

    2018-01-01

    Optimization of treatment of the unilateral cleft lip nasal deformity (uCLND) is hampered by lack of objective means to assess initial severity and changes produced by treatment and growth. The purpose of this study was to develop automated 3D image analysis specific to the uCLND; assess the correlation of these measures to esthetic appraisal; measure changes that occur with treatment and differences amongst cleft types. Dorsum Deviation, Tip-Alar Volume Ratio, Alar-Cheek Definition, and Columellar Angle were assessed using computer-vision techniques. Subjects included infants before and after primary cleft lip repair (N = 50) and children aged 8-10 years with previous cleft lip (N = 50). Two expert surgeons ranked subjects according to esthetic nose appearance. Computer-based measurements strongly correlated with rankings of infants pre-repair (r = 0.8, 0.75, 0.41 and 0.54 for Dorsum Deviation, Tip-Alar Volume Ratio, Alar-Cheek Definition, and Columellar Angle, p < 0.01) while all measurements except Alar-Cheek Definition correlated moderately with rankings of older children post-repair (r ∼ 0.35, p < 0.01). Measurements were worse with greater severity of cleft type but improved following initial repair. Abnormal Dorsum Deviation and Columellar Angle persisted after surgery and were more severe with greater cleft type. Four fully-automated measures were developed that are clinically relevant, agree with expert evaluations and can be followed through initial surgery and in older children. Computer vision analysis techniques can quantify the nasal deformity at different stages, offering efficient and standardized tools for large studies and data-driven conclusions. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Computational Modeling and Treatment Identification in the Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Drusbosky, Leylah M; Cogle, Christopher R

    2017-10-01

    This review discusses the need for computational modeling in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and early test results. As our evolving understanding of MDS reveals a molecularly complicated disease, the need for sophisticated computer analytics is required to keep track of the number and complex interplay among the molecular abnormalities. Computational modeling and digital drug simulations using whole exome sequencing data input have produced early results showing high accuracy in predicting treatment response to standard of care drugs. Furthermore, the computational MDS models serve as clinically relevant MDS cell lines for pre-clinical assays of investigational agents. MDS is an ideal disease for computational modeling and digital drug simulations. Current research is focused on establishing the prediction value of computational modeling. Future research will test the clinical advantage of computer-informed therapy in MDS.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: renal coloboma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye ( the retina ). The vision problems caused by these abnormalities can vary depending ... visual problems, while others may have severely impaired vision. Less common features of renal coloboma syndrome include ...

  15. Evolutionary replacement of UV vision by violet vision in fish.

    PubMed

    Tada, Takashi; Altun, Ahmet; Yokoyama, Shozo

    2009-10-13

    The vertebrate ancestor possessed ultraviolet (UV) vision and many species have retained it during evolution. Many other species switched to violet vision and, then again, some avian species switched back to UV vision. These UV and violet vision are mediated by short wavelength-sensitive (SWS1) pigments that absorb light maximally (lambda(max)) at approximately 360 and 390-440 nm, respectively. It is not well understood why and how these functional changes have occurred. Here, we cloned the pigment of scabbardfish (Lepidopus fitchi) with a lambda(max) of 423 nm, an example of violet-sensitive SWS1 pigment in fish. Mutagenesis experiments and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) computations show that the violet-sensitivity was achieved by the deletion of Phe-86 that converted the unprotonated Schiff base-linked 11-cis-retinal to a protonated form. The finding of a violet-sensitive SWS1 pigment in scabbardfish suggests that many other fish also have orthologous violet pigments. The isolation and comparison of such violet and UV pigments in fish living in different ecological habitats will open an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate not only the molecular basis of phenotypic adaptations, but also the genetics of UV and violet vision.

  16. Design of an optimum computer vision-based automatic abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) grading algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donggil; Lee, Kyounghoon; Kim, Seonghun; Yang, Yongsu

    2015-04-01

    An automatic abalone grading algorithm that estimates abalone weights on the basis of computer vision using 2D images is developed and tested. The algorithm overcomes the problems experienced by conventional abalone grading methods that utilize manual sorting and mechanical automatic grading. To design an optimal algorithm, a regression formula and R(2) value were investigated by performing a regression analysis for each of total length, body width, thickness, view area, and actual volume against abalone weights. The R(2) value between the actual volume and abalone weight was 0.999, showing a relatively high correlation. As a result, to easily estimate the actual volumes of abalones based on computer vision, the volumes were calculated under the assumption that abalone shapes are half-oblate ellipsoids, and a regression formula was derived to estimate the volumes of abalones through linear regression analysis between the calculated and actual volumes. The final automatic abalone grading algorithm is designed using the abalone volume estimation regression formula derived from test results, and the actual volumes and abalone weights regression formula. In the range of abalones weighting from 16.51 to 128.01 g, the results of evaluation of the performance of algorithm via cross-validation indicate root mean square and worst-case prediction errors of are 2.8 and ±8 g, respectively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. On-line determination of pork color and intramuscular fat by computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yi-Tao; Fan, Yu-Xia; Wu, Xue-Qian; Xie, Li-juan; Cheng, Fang

    2010-04-01

    In this study, the application potential of computer vision in on-line determination of CIE L*a*b* and content of intramuscular fat (IMF) of pork was evaluated. Images of pork chop from 211 pig carcasses were captured while samples were on a conveyor belt at the speed of 0.25 m•s-1 to simulate the on-line environment. CIE L*a*b* and IMF content were measured with colorimeter and chemical extractor as reference. The KSW algorithm combined with region selection was employed in eliminating the surrounding fat of longissimus dorsi muscle (MLD). RGB values of the pork were counted and five methods were applied for transforming RGB values to CIE L*a*b* values. The region growing algorithm with multiple seed points was applied to mask out the IMF pixels within the intensity corrected images. The performances of the proposed algorithms were verified by comparing the measured reference values and the quality characteristics obtained by image processing. MLD region of six samples could not be identified using the KSW algorithm. Intensity nonuniformity of pork surface in the image can be eliminated efficiently, and IMF region of three corrected images failed to be extracted. Given considerable variety of color and complexity of the pork surface, CIE L*, a* and b* color of MLD could be predicted with correlation coefficients of 0.84, 0.54 and 0.47 respectively, and IMF content could be determined with a correlation coefficient more than 0.70. The study demonstrated that it is feasible to evaluate CIE L*a*b* values and IMF content on-line using computer vision.

  18. The gaming of concussions: a unique intervention in postconcussion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lynch, James M; Anderson, Megan; Benton, Brooke; Green, Sue Stanley

    2015-03-01

    To present the case of 2 adolescent high school student-athletes who developed postconcussion syndrome with protracted and limiting visual complaints that markedly affected academic, social, and athletic activity for a year after the onset of symptoms. Both had significant improvement soon after a unique intervention was administered. A 14-year-old female soccer and softball player sustained 2 concussions in the same week. She had persistent symptoms for a year that affected her grades and precluded athletic participation. A 15-year-old male football player sustained a concussion during an altercation with 2 other male adolescents. He continued to have symptoms 1 year later, with a marked decrease in academic performance and restriction from athletics. Both adolescents reported blurry vision, photophobia, and associated headache as significant components of the postconcussion syndrome. Concussion, postconcussion syndrome, skull fracture, subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma, second-impact syndrome, and visually sensitive migraine. Both patients were advised to obtain computer gaming glasses to use throughout the day. The female patient was diligent in her use of the glasses, with marked lessening of symptoms. The male patient was less accepting of the glasses but did report lessening of symptoms when using the glasses. We hypothesized that postconcussion syndrome with marked visual complaints would respond to and improve with decreased stimulation of the visual system. This was attempted with the addition of computer gaming glasses. Both adolescent athletes responded well to the filtering of visual stimuli by off-the-shelf computer gaming glasses. Postconcussion syndrome is a persistent condition with a myriad of symptoms. Two young athletes developed postconcussion syndrome with prominent visual symptoms that lasted a year. The addition of computer gaming glasses markedly lessened symptoms in both patients.

  19. The Gaming of Concussions: A Unique Intervention in Postconcussion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, James M.; Anderson, Megan; Benton, Brooke; Green, Sue Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present the case of 2 adolescent high school student-athletes who developed postconcussion syndrome with protracted and limiting visual complaints that markedly affected academic, social, and athletic activity for a year after the onset of symptoms. Both had significant improvement soon after a unique intervention was administered. Background: A 14-year-old female soccer and softball player sustained 2 concussions in the same week. She had persistent symptoms for a year that affected her grades and precluded athletic participation. A 15-year-old male football player sustained a concussion during an altercation with 2 other male adolescents. He continued to have symptoms 1 year later, with a marked decrease in academic performance and restriction from athletics. Both adolescents reported blurry vision, photophobia, and associated headache as significant components of the postconcussion syndrome. Differential Diagnosis: Concussion, postconcussion syndrome, skull fracture, subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma, second-impact syndrome, and visually sensitive migraine. Treatment: Both patients were advised to obtain computer gaming glasses to use throughout the day. The female patient was diligent in her use of the glasses, with marked lessening of symptoms. The male patient was less accepting of the glasses but did report lessening of symptoms when using the glasses. Uniqueness: We hypothesized that postconcussion syndrome with marked visual complaints would respond to and improve with decreased stimulation of the visual system. This was attempted with the addition of computer gaming glasses. Both adolescent athletes responded well to the filtering of visual stimuli by off-the-shelf computer gaming glasses. Conclusions: Postconcussion syndrome is a persistent condition with a myriad of symptoms. Two young athletes developed postconcussion syndrome with prominent visual symptoms that lasted a year. The addition of computer gaming glasses markedly lessened

  20. Marking parts to aid robot vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, J. W.; Barker, L. K.

    1981-01-01

    The premarking of parts for subsequent identification by a robot vision system appears to be beneficial as an aid in the automation of certain tasks such as construction in space. A simple, color coded marking system is presented which allows a computer vision system to locate an object, calculate its orientation, and determine its identity. Such a system has the potential to operate accurately, and because the computer shape analysis problem has been simplified, it has the ability to operate in real time.

  1. Riemann tensor of motion vision revisited.

    PubMed

    Brill, M

    2001-07-02

    This note shows that the Riemann-space interpretation of motion vision developed by Barth and Watson is neither necessary for their results, nor sufficient to handle an intrinsic coordinate problem. Recasting the Barth-Watson framework as a classical velocity-solver (as in computer vision) solves these problems.

  2. Reading Digital with Low Vision

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.

    2017-01-01

    Reading difficulty is a major consequence of vision loss for more than four million Americans with low vision. Difficulty in accessing print imposes obstacles to education, employment, social interaction and recreation. In recent years, research in vision science has made major strides in understanding the impact of low vision on reading, and the dependence of reading performance on text properties. The ongoing transition to the production and distribution of digital documents brings about new opportunities for people with visual impairment. Digital documents on computers and mobile devices permit customization of print size, spacing, font style, contrast polarity and page layout to optimize reading displays for people with low vision. As a result, we now have unprecedented opportunities to adapt text format to meet the needs of visually impaired readers. PMID:29242668

  3. Dirt detection on brown eggs by means of color computer vision.

    PubMed

    Mertens, K; De Ketelaere, B; Kamers, B; Bamelis, F R; Kemps, B J; Verhoelst, E M; De Baerdemaeker, J G; Decuypere, E M

    2005-10-01

    In the last 20 yr, different methods for detecting defects in eggs were developed. Until now, no satisfying technique existed to sort and quantify dirt on eggshells. The work presented here focuses on the design of an off-line computer vision system to differentiate and quantify the presence of different dirt stains on brown eggs: dark (feces), white (uric acid), blood, and yolk stains. A system that provides uniform light exposure around the egg was designed. In this uniform light, pictures of dirty and clean eggs were taken, stored, and analyzed. The classification was based on a few standard logical operators, allowing for a quick implementation in an online set-up. In an experiment, 100 clean and 100 dirty eggs were used to validate the classification algorithm. The designed vision system showed an accuracy of 99% for the detection of dirt stains. Two percent of the clean eggs had a light-colored eggshell and were subsequently mistaken for showing large white stains. The accuracy of differentiation of the different kinds of dirt stains was 91%. Of the eggs with dark stains, 10.81% were mistaken for having bloodstains, and 33.33% of eggs with bloodstains were mistaken for having dark stains. The developed system is possibly a first step toward an on line dirt evaluation technique for brown eggs.

  4. Computer use and vision-related problems among university students in ajman, United arab emirate.

    PubMed

    Shantakumari, N; Eldeeb, R; Sreedharan, J; Gopal, K

    2014-03-01

    The extensive use of computers as medium of teaching and learning in universities necessitates introspection into the extent of computer related health disorders among student population. This study was undertaken to assess the pattern of computer usage and related visual problems, among University students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates. A total of 500 Students studying in Gulf Medical University, Ajman and Ajman University of Science and Technology were recruited into this study. Demographic characteristics, pattern of usage of computers and associated visual symptoms were recorded in a validated self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of the observed differences between the variables. The level of statistical significance was at P < 0.05. The crude odds ratio (OR) was determined using simple binary logistic regression and adjusted OR was calculated using the multiple logistic regression. The mean age of participants was 20.4 (3.2) years. The analysis of racial data reveals that 50% (236/471) students were from Middle East, 32% (151/471) from other parts of Asia, 11% (52/471) from Africa, 4% (19/471) from America and 3% (14/471) from Europe. The most common visual problems reported among computer users were headache - 53.3% (251/471), burning sensation in the eyes - 54.8% (258/471) and tired eyes - 48% (226/471). Female students were found to be at a higher risk. Nearly 72% of students reported frequent interruption of computer work. Headache caused interruption of work in 43.85% (110/168) of the students while tired eyes caused interruption of work in 43.5% (98/168) of the students. When the screen was viewed at distance more than 50 cm, the prevalence of headaches decreased by 38% (50-100 cm - OR: 0.62, 95% of the confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.92). Prevalence of tired eyes increased by 89% when screen filters were not used (OR: 1.894, 95% CI: 1.065-3.368). High prevalence of vision related problems was noted

  5. Computer Use and Vision-Related Problems Among University Students In Ajman, United Arab Emirate

    PubMed Central

    Shantakumari, N; Eldeeb, R; Sreedharan, J; Gopal, K

    2014-01-01

    .065-3.368). Conclusion: High prevalence of vision related problems was noted among university students. Sustained periods of close screen work without screen filters were found to be associated with occurrence of the symptoms and increased interruptions of work of the students. There is a need to increase the ergonomic awareness among students and corrective measures need to be implemented to reduce the impact of computer related vision problems. PMID:24761249

  6. Research on an autonomous vision-guided helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amidi, Omead; Mesaki, Yuji; Kanade, Takeo

    1994-01-01

    Integration of computer vision with on-board sensors to autonomously fly helicopters was researched. The key components developed were custom designed vision processing hardware and an indoor testbed. The custom designed hardware provided flexible integration of on-board sensors with real-time image processing resulting in a significant improvement in vision-based state estimation. The indoor testbed provided convenient calibrated experimentation in constructing real autonomous systems.

  7. Colour calibration of a laboratory computer vision system for quality evaluation of pre-sliced hams.

    PubMed

    Valous, Nektarios A; Mendoza, Fernando; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Due to the high variability and complex colour distribution in meats and meat products, the colour signal calibration of any computer vision system used for colour quality evaluations, represents an essential condition for objective and consistent analyses. This paper compares two methods for CIE colour characterization using a computer vision system (CVS) based on digital photography; namely the polynomial transform procedure and the transform proposed by the sRGB standard. Also, it presents a procedure for evaluating the colour appearance and presence of pores and fat-connective tissue on pre-sliced hams made from pork, turkey and chicken. Our results showed high precision, in colour matching, for device characterization when the polynomial transform was used to match the CIE tristimulus values in comparison with the sRGB standard approach as indicated by their ΔE(ab)(∗) values. The [3×20] polynomial transfer matrix yielded a modelling accuracy averaging below 2.2 ΔE(ab)(∗) units. Using the sRGB transform, high variability was appreciated among the computed ΔE(ab)(∗) (8.8±4.2). The calibrated laboratory CVS, implemented with a low-cost digital camera, exhibited reproducible colour signals in a wide range of colours capable of pinpointing regions-of-interest and allowed the extraction of quantitative information from the overall ham slice surface with high accuracy. The extracted colour and morphological features showed potential for characterizing the appearance of ham slice surfaces. CVS is a tool that can objectively specify colour and appearance properties of non-uniformly coloured commercial ham slices.

  8. Mapping Agricultural Fields in Sub-Saharan Africa with a Computer Vision Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debats, S. R.; Luo, D.; Estes, L. D.; Fuchs, T.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is an important focus for food security research, because it is experiencing unprecedented population growth, agricultural activities are largely dominated by smallholder production, and the region is already home to 25% of the world's undernourished. One of the greatest challenges to monitoring and improving food security in this region is obtaining an accurate accounting of the spatial distribution of agriculture. Households are the primary units of agricultural production in smallholder communities and typically rely on small fields of less than 2 hectares. Field sizes are directly related to household crop productivity, management choices, and adoption of new technologies. As population and agriculture expand, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the distribution of field sizes as well as how agricultural communities are spatially embedded in the landscape. In addition, household surveys, a common tool for tracking agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa, would greatly benefit from spatially explicit accounting of fields. Current gridded land cover data sets do not provide information on individual agricultural fields or the distribution of field sizes. Therefore, we employ cutting edge approaches from the field of computer vision to map fields across Sub-Saharan Africa, including semantic segmentation, discriminative classifiers, and automatic feature selection. Our approach aims to not only improve the binary classification accuracy of cropland, but also to isolate distinct fields, thereby capturing crucial information on size and geometry. Our research focuses on the development of descriptive features across scales to increase the accuracy and geographic range of our computer vision algorithm. Relevant data sets include high-resolution remote sensing imagery and Landsat (30-m) multi-spectral imagery. Training data for field boundaries is derived from hand-digitized data sets as well as crowdsourcing.

  9. Research on three-dimensional reconstruction method based on binocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinlin; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Minjun

    2018-03-01

    As the hot and difficult issue in computer vision, binocular stereo vision is an important form of computer vision,which has a broad application prospects in many computer vision fields,such as aerial mapping,vision navigation,motion analysis and industrial inspection etc.In this paper, a research is done into binocular stereo camera calibration, image feature extraction and stereo matching. In the binocular stereo camera calibration module, the internal parameters of a single camera are obtained by using the checkerboard lattice of zhang zhengyou the field of image feature extraction and stereo matching, adopted the SURF operator in the local feature operator and the SGBM algorithm in the global matching algorithm are used respectively, and the performance are compared. After completed the feature points matching, we can build the corresponding between matching points and the 3D object points using the camera parameters which are calibrated, which means the 3D information.

  10. Insect vision as model for machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, D.; Sobey, Peter J.

    1992-11-01

    The neural architecture, neurophysiology and behavioral abilities of insect vision are described, and compared with that of mammals. Insects have a hardwired neural architecture of highly differentiated neurons, quite different from the cerebral cortex, yet their behavioral abilities are in important respects similar to those of mammals. These observations challenge the view that the key to the power of biological neural computation is distributed processing by a plastic, highly interconnected, network of individually undifferentiated and unreliable neurons that has been a dominant picture of biological computation since Pitts and McCulloch's seminal work in the 1940's.

  11. The Event Detection and the Apparent Velocity Estimation Based on Computer Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimojo, M.

    2012-08-01

    The high spatial and time resolution data obtained by the telescopes aboard Hinode revealed the new interesting dynamics in solar atmosphere. In order to detect such events and estimate the velocity of dynamics automatically, we examined the estimation methods of the optical flow based on the OpenCV that is the computer vision library. We applied the methods to the prominence eruption observed by NoRH, and the polar X-ray jet observed by XRT. As a result, it is clear that the methods work well for solar images if the images are optimized for the methods. It indicates that the optical flow estimation methods in the OpenCV library are very useful to analyze the solar phenomena.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Lenz microphthalmia syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyeballs that are abnormally small ( microphthalmia ) or absent (anophthalmia), leading to vision loss or blindness. Other eye ... Lenz dysplasia Lenz syndrome MAA MCOPS1 microphthalmia or anophthalmos with associated anomalies microphthalmia, syndromic 1 Related Information ...

  13. Toothguide Trainer tests with color vision deficiency simulation monitor.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Judit; Varsányi, Balázs; Fejérdy, Pál; Hermann, Péter; Jakstat, Holger A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether simulated severe red and green color vision deficiency (CVD) influenced color matching results and to investigate whether training with Toothguide Trainer (TT) computer program enabled better color matching results. A total of 31 color normal dental students participated in the study. Every participant had to pass the Ishihara Test. Participants with a red/green color vision deficiency were excluded. A lecture on tooth color matching was given, and individual training with TT was performed. To measure the individual tooth color matching results in normal and color deficient display modes, the TT final exam was displayed on a calibrated monitor that served as a hardware-based method of simulating protanopy and deuteranopy. Data from the TT final exams were collected in normal and in severe red and green CVD-simulating monitor display modes. Color difference values for each participant in each display mode were computed (∑ΔE(ab)(*)), and the respective means and standard deviations were calculated. The Student's t-test was used in statistical evaluation. Participants made larger ΔE(ab)(*) errors in severe color vision deficient display modes than in the normal monitor mode. TT tests showed significant (p<0.05) difference in the tooth color matching results of severe green color vision deficiency simulation mode compared to normal vision mode. Students' shade matching results were significantly better after training (p=0.009). Computer-simulated severe color vision deficiency mode resulted in significantly worse color matching quality compared to normal color vision mode. Toothguide Trainer computer program improved color matching results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The use of interactive computer vision and robot hand controllers for enhancing manufacturing safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Jacobus, Charles J.; Peurach, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Brian T.

    1994-01-01

    Current available robotic systems provide limited support for CAD-based model-driven visualization, sensing algorithm development and integration, and automated graphical planning systems. This paper describes ongoing work which provides the functionality necessary to apply advanced robotics to automated manufacturing and assembly operations. An interface has been built which incorporates 6-DOF tactile manipulation, displays for three dimensional graphical models, and automated tracking functions which depend on automated machine vision. A set of tools for single and multiple focal plane sensor image processing and understanding has been demonstrated which utilizes object recognition models. The resulting tool will enable sensing and planning from computationally simple graphical objects. A synergistic interplay between human and operator vision is created from programmable feedback received from the controller. This approach can be used as the basis for implementing enhanced safety in automated robotics manufacturing, assembly, repair and inspection tasks in both ground and space applications. Thus, an interactive capability has been developed to match the modeled environment to the real task environment for safe and predictable task execution.

  15. The use of interactive computer vision and robot hand controllers for enhancing manufacturing safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Jacobus, Charles J.; Peurach, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Brian T.

    1994-02-01

    Current available robotic systems provide limited support for CAD-based model-driven visualization, sensing algorithm development and integration, and automated graphical planning systems. This paper describes ongoing work which provides the functionality necessary to apply advanced robotics to automated manufacturing and assembly operations. An interface has been built which incorporates 6-DOF tactile manipulation, displays for three dimensional graphical models, and automated tracking functions which depend on automated machine vision. A set of tools for single and multiple focal plane sensor image processing and understanding has been demonstrated which utilizes object recognition models. The resulting tool will enable sensing and planning from computationally simple graphical objects. A synergistic interplay between human and operator vision is created from programmable feedback received from the controller. This approach can be used as the basis for implementing enhanced safety in automated robotics manufacturing, assembly, repair and inspection tasks in both ground and space applications. Thus, an interactive capability has been developed to match the modeled environment to the real task environment for safe and predictable task execution.

  16. Isolation of the ocular surface to treat dysfunctional tear syndrome associated with computer use.

    PubMed

    Yee, Richard W; Sperling, Harry G; Kattek, Ashballa; Paukert, Martin T; Dawson, Kevin; Garcia, Marcie; Hilsenbeck, Susan

    2007-10-01

    Dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS) associated with computer use is characterized by mild irritation, itching, redness, and intermittent tearing after extended staring. It frequently involves foreign body or sandy sensation, blurring of vision, and fatigue, worsening especially at the end of the day. We undertook a study to determine the effectiveness of periocular isolation using microenvironment glasses (MEGS) alone and in combination with artificial tears in alleviating the symptoms and signs of dry eye related to computer use. At the same time, we evaluated the relative ability of a battery of clinical tests for dry eye to distinguish dry eyes from normal eyes in heavy computer users. Forty adult subjects who used computers 3 hours or more per day were divided into dry eye sufferers and controls based on their scores on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). Baseline scores were recorded and ocular surface assessments were made. On four subsequent visits, the subjects played a computer game for 30 minutes in a controlled environment, during which one of four treatment conditions were applied, in random order, to each subject: 1) no treatment, 2) artificial tears, 3) MEGS, and 4) artificial tears combined with MEGS. Immediately after each session, subjects were tested on: a subjective comfort questionnaire, tear breakup time (TBUT), fluorescein staining, lissamine green staining, and conjunctival injection. In this study, a significant correlation was found between cumulative lifetime computer use and ocular surface disorder, as measured by the standardized OSDI index. The experimental and control subjects were significantly different (P<0.05) in the meibomian gland assessment and TBUT; they were consistently different in fluorescein and lissamine green staining, but with P>0.05. Isolation of the ocular surface alone produced significant improvements in comfort scores and TBUT and a consistent trend of improvement in fluorescein staining and lissamine green

  17. Near real-time stereo vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles H. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The apparatus for a near real-time stereo vision system for use with a robotic vehicle is described. The system is comprised of two cameras mounted on three-axis rotation platforms, image-processing boards, a CPU, and specialized stereo vision algorithms. Bandpass-filtered image pyramids are computed, stereo matching is performed by least-squares correlation, and confidence ranges are estimated by means of Bayes' theorem. In particular, Laplacian image pyramids are built and disparity maps are produced from the 60 x 64 level of the pyramids at rates of up to 2 seconds per image pair. The first autonomous cross-country robotic traverses (of up to 100 meters) have been achieved using the stereo vision system of the present invention with all computing done onboard the vehicle. The overall approach disclosed herein provides a unifying paradigm for practical domain-independent stereo ranging.

  18. Aircraft cockpit vision: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir, J.; Singh, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the field of vision of a pilot seated in an aircraft. Given the position and orientation of the aircraft, along with the geometrical configuration of its windows, and the location of an object, the model determines whether the object would be within the pilot's external vision envelope provided by the aircraft's windows. The computer program using this model was implemented and is described.

  19. What Is Low Vision?

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnifying reading glasses or loupes for seeing the computer screen , sheet music, or for sewing telescopic glasses ... for the Blind services. The Low Vision Pilot Project The American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) has ...

  20. Traffic light detection and intersection crossing using mobile computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewei, Lynne; Lagali, Christopher

    2017-05-01

    The solution for Intersection Detection and Crossing to support the development of blindBike an assisted biking system for the visually impaired is discussed. Traffic light detection and intersection crossing are key needs in the task of biking. These problems are tackled through the use of mobile computer vision, in the form of a mobile application on an Android phone. This research builds on previous Traffic Light detection algorithms with a focus on efficiency and compatibility on a resource-limited platform. Light detection is achieved through blob detection algorithms utilizing training data to detect patterns of Red, Green and Yellow in complex real world scenarios where multiple lights may be present. Also, issues of obscurity and scale are addressed. Safe Intersection crossing in blindBike is also discussed. This module takes a conservative "assistive" technology approach. To achieve this blindBike use's not only the Android device but, an external bike cadence Bluetooth/Ant enabled sensor. Real world testing results are given and future work is discussed.

  1. m-BIRCH: an online clustering approach for computer vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madan, Siddharth K.; Dana, Kristin J.

    2015-03-01

    We adapt a classic online clustering algorithm called Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using Hierarchies (BIRCH), to incrementally cluster large datasets of features commonly used in multimedia and computer vision. We call the adapted version modified-BIRCH (m-BIRCH). The algorithm uses only a fraction of the dataset memory to perform clustering, and updates the clustering decisions when new data comes in. Modifications made in m-BIRCH enable data driven parameter selection and effectively handle varying density regions in the feature space. Data driven parameter selection automatically controls the level of coarseness of the data summarization. Effective handling of varying density regions is necessary to well represent the different density regions in data summarization. We use m-BIRCH to cluster 840K color SIFT descriptors, and 60K outlier corrupted grayscale patches. We use the algorithm to cluster datasets consisting of challenging non-convex clustering patterns. Our implementation of the algorithm provides an useful clustering tool and is made publicly available.

  2. The Charles Bonnet syndrome: a review of recent research.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Barry W

    2006-06-01

    The Charles Bonnet syndrome is a disorder of visual hallucinations typically occurring in older persons with vision impairment or deafferentation of the visual cortex. This review cites recent studies on Charles Bonnet syndrome and discusses treatment options. The numbers of affected persons will increase with aging of the population, making recognition and treatment important components of ophthalmologic care. The etiology of the Charles Bonnet syndrome is varied; most often it involves direct damage to the visual system (e.g. age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma) but it may also result from cerebral pathology interrupting connections between the eye and the occipital cortex. Case reports of different management approaches demonstrate the range of treatment options. This review suggests that the Charles Bonnet syndrome will affect an increasingly large number of older persons as the population ages and the occurrence of vision and cerebral disorders increases. Clinical trials of antipsychotic and other medications, as well as low-vision rehabilitation, are necessary to establish valid treatments for this disorder.

  3. Database Integrity Monitoring for Synthetic Vision Systems Using Machine Vision and SHADE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Eric G.; Young, Steven D.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to increase situational awareness, the aviation industry is investigating technologies that allow pilots to visualize what is outside of the aircraft during periods of low-visibility. One of these technologies, referred to as Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS), provides the pilot with real-time computer-generated images of obstacles, terrain features, runways, and other aircraft regardless of weather conditions. To help ensure the integrity of such systems, methods of verifying the accuracy of synthetically-derived display elements using onboard remote sensing technologies are under investigation. One such method is based on a shadow detection and extraction (SHADE) algorithm that transforms computer-generated digital elevation data into a reference domain that enables direct comparison with radar measurements. This paper describes machine vision techniques for making this comparison and discusses preliminary results from application to actual flight data.

  4. Aquatic Toxic Analysis by Monitoring Fish Behavior Using Computer Vision: A Recent Progress

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Longwen; Liu, Zuoyi

    2018-01-01

    Video tracking based biological early warning system achieved a great progress with advanced computer vision and machine learning methods. Ability of video tracking of multiple biological organisms has been largely improved in recent years. Video based behavioral monitoring has become a common tool for acquiring quantified behavioral data for aquatic risk assessment. Investigation of behavioral responses under chemical and environmental stress has been boosted by rapidly developed machine learning and artificial intelligence. In this paper, we introduce the fundamental of video tracking and present the pioneer works in precise tracking of a group of individuals in 2D and 3D space. Technical and practical issues suffered in video tracking are explained. Subsequently, the toxic analysis based on fish behavioral data is summarized. Frequently used computational methods and machine learning are explained with their applications in aquatic toxicity detection and abnormal pattern analysis. Finally, advantages of recent developed deep learning approach in toxic prediction are presented. PMID:29849612

  5. Evaluation of the Waggoner Computerized Color Vision Test.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jason S; Self, Eriko; Vanston, John E; Nguyen, Andrew L; Crognale, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Clinical color vision evaluation has been based primarily on the same set of tests for the past several decades. Recently, computer-based color vision tests have been devised, and these have several advantages but are still not widely used. In this study, we evaluated the Waggoner Computerized Color Vision Test (CCVT), which was developed for widespread use with common computer systems. A sample of subjects with (n = 59) and without (n = 361) color vision deficiency (CVD) were tested on the CCVT, the anomaloscope, the Richmond HRR (Hardy-Rand-Rittler) (4th edition), and the Ishihara test. The CCVT was administered in two ways: (1) on a computer monitor using its default settings and (2) on one standardized to a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 6500 K. Twenty-four subjects with CVD performed the CCVT both ways. Sensitivity, specificity, and correct classification rates were determined. The screening performance of the CCVT was good (95% sensitivity, 100% specificity). The CCVT classified subjects as deutan or protan in agreement with anomaloscopy 89% of the time. It generally classified subjects as having a more severe defect compared with other tests. Results from 18 of the 24 subjects with CVD tested under both default and calibrated CCT conditions were the same, whereas the results from 6 subjects had better agreement with other test results when the CCT was set. The Waggoner CCVT is an adequate color vision screening test with several advantages and appears to provide a fairly accurate diagnosis of deficiency type. Used in conjunction with other color vision tests, it may be a useful addition to a color vision test battery.

  6. Charles Bonnet syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Schadlu, Anita P; Schadlu, Ramin; Shepherd, J Banks

    2009-05-01

    The aging of the population and the resultant increase in the number of patients with low vision due to age-related macular degeneration and other ocular diseases necessitate an increase in awareness of the Charles Bonnet syndrome among ophthalmic care providers. The clinical features of Charles Bonnet syndrome have been described by several different authors as formed visual hallucinations due to disturbances of the visual system in patients who are otherwise mentally normal. Theories regarding the causes underlying the Charles Bonnet syndrome are multifaceted and offer insight into the function of the visual system. The incidence of the Charles Bonnet syndrome varies among different population groups, but is underdiagnosed in most settings. Recent case reports of treatment options involve varied pharmacologic interventions, but visual improvement and patient reassurance remain the mainstays of treatment. As Charles Bonnet syndrome becomes more prevalent as the population ages, all physicians who care for low vision or elderly patients should be aware of its clinical characteristics and treatment options. Understanding of this syndrome by caregivers will lead to decreased anxiety among the patients who experience it. Further exploration of treatment options will be necessary in the future.

  7. Anton-Babinski syndrome in an old patient: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiann-Jy; Chang, Hsin-Feng; Hsu, Yung-Chu; Chen, Dem-Lion

    2015-03-01

    Anton-Babinski syndrome is a rare disease featuring bilateral cortical blindness and anosognosia with visual confabulation, but without dementia or any memory impairment. It has a unique neuropsychiatric presentation and should be highly suspected in those with odd visual loss and imaging evidence of occipital lobe injury. In the case discussed herein, a 90-year-old man presented with bilateral blindness, obvious anosognosia, and vivid visual confabulation, which he had had for 3 days. Brain computed tomography demonstrated recent hypodense infarctions at the bilateral occipital lobes. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with Anton-Babinski syndrome. Because of his age and the thrombolytic therapy during the golden 3 hours after ischemic stroke, the patient received aspirin therapy rather than tissue plasminogen activator or warfarin. He gradually realized he was blind during the following week, but died of pneumonia 1 month later. In the literature, it is difficult to establish awareness of blindness in patients with Anton-Babinski syndrome, but optimistically, in one report, a patient was aware of blindness within 2 weeks, without vision improvement. Our case illustrates that elderly patients with Anton-Babinski syndrome can partially recover and that 1 week is the shortest time for the establishment of awareness of blindness for sufferers without vision improvement. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  8. A computer vision-based system for monitoring Vojta therapy.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Hassan; Helsper, Julien; Farid, Muhammad Shahid; Grzegorzek, Marcin

    2018-05-01

    A neurological illness is t he disorder in human nervous system that can result in various diseases including the motor disabilities. Neurological disorders may affect the motor neurons, which are associated with skeletal muscles and control the body movement. Consequently, they introduce some diseases in the human e.g. cerebral palsy, spinal scoliosis, peripheral paralysis of arms/legs, hip joint dysplasia and various myopathies. Vojta therapy is considered a useful technique to treat the motor disabilities. In Vojta therapy, a specific stimulation is given to the patient's body to perform certain reflexive pattern movements which the patient is unable to perform in a normal manner. The repetition of stimulation ultimately brings forth the previously blocked connections between the spinal cord and the brain. After few therapy sessions, the patient can perform these movements without external stimulation. In this paper, we propose a computer vision-based system to monitor the correct movements of the patient during the therapy treatment using the RGBD data. The proposed framework works in three steps. In the first step, patient's body is automatically detected and segmented and two novel techniques are proposed for this purpose. In the second step, a multi-dimensional feature vector is computed to define various movements of patient's body during the therapy. In the final step, a multi-class support vector machine is used to classify these movements. The experimental evaluation carried out on the large captured dataset shows that the proposed system is highly useful in monitoring the patient's body movements during Vojta therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Color Vision Losses in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zachi, Elaine C.; Costa, Thiago L.; Barboni, Mirella T. S.; Costa, Marcelo F.; Bonci, Daniela M. O.; Ventura, Dora F.

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by impairments in social/communication abilities and restricted behaviors. The present study aims to examine color vision discrimination in ASD children and adolescents without intellectual disability. The participants were also subdivided in order to compare color vision thresholds of autistic participants and those who achieved diagnostic criteria for Asperger Syndrome (AS). Nine subjects with autism, 11 participants with AS and 36 typically developing children and adolescents participated in the study. Color vision was assessed by the Cambridge Color Test (CCT). The Trivector protocol was administered to determine color discrimination thresholds along the protan, deutan, and tritan color confusion lines. Data from ASD participants were compared to tolerance limits for 90% of the population with 90% probability obtained from controls thresholds. Of the 20 ASD individuals examined, 6 (30%) showed color vision losses. Elevated color discrimination thresholds were found in 3/9 participants with autism and in 3/11 AS participants. Diffuse and tritan deficits were found. Mechanisms for chromatic losses may be either at the retinal level and/or reflect reduced cortical integration. PMID:28713324

  10. An Integrated Soft Computing Approach to Hughes Syndrome Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, João; Rosário Martins, M; Vicente, Henrique; Grañeda, José M; Caldeira, Filomena; Gusmão, Rodrigo; Neves, João; Neves, José

    2017-03-01

    The AntiPhospholipid Syndrome (APS) is an acquired autoimmune disorder induced by high levels of antiphospholipid antibodies that cause arterial and veins thrombosis, as well as pregnancy-related complications and morbidity, as clinical manifestations. This autoimmune hypercoagulable state, usually known as Hughes syndrome, has severe consequences for the patients, being one of the main causes of thrombotic disorders and death. Therefore, it is required to be preventive; being aware of how probable is to have that kind of syndrome. Despite the updated of antiphospholipid syndrome classification, the diagnosis remains difficult to establish. Additional research on clinically relevant antibodies and standardization of their quantification are required in order to improve the antiphospholipid syndrome risk assessment. Thus, this work will focus on the development of a diagnosis decision support system in terms of a formal agenda built on a Logic Programming approach to knowledge representation and reasoning, complemented with a computational framework based on Artificial Neural Networks. The proposed model allows for improving the diagnosis, classifying properly the patients that really presented this pathology (sensitivity higher than 85%), as well as classifying the absence of APS (specificity close to 95%).

  11. Harnessing vision for computation.

    PubMed

    Changizi, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Might it be possible to harness the visual system to carry out artificial computations, somewhat akin to how DNA has been harnessed to carry out computation? I provide the beginnings of a research programme attempting to do this. In particular, new techniques are described for building 'visual circuits' (or 'visual software') using wire, NOT, OR, and AND gates in a visual 6modality such that our visual system acts as 'visual hardware' computing the circuit, and generating a resultant perception which is the output.

  12. Illumination-based synchronization of high-speed vision sensors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lei; Kagami, Shingo; Hashimoto, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    To acquire images of dynamic scenes from multiple points of view simultaneously, the acquisition time of vision sensors should be synchronized. This paper describes an illumination-based synchronization method derived from the phase-locked loop (PLL) algorithm. Incident light to a vision sensor from an intensity-modulated illumination source serves as the reference signal for synchronization. Analog and digital computation within the vision sensor forms a PLL to regulate the output signal, which corresponds to the vision frame timing, to be synchronized with the reference. Simulated and experimental results show that a 1,000 Hz frame rate vision sensor was successfully synchronized with 32 μs jitters.

  13. Selection of Norway spruce somatic embryos by computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamalainen, Jari J.; Jokinen, Kari J.

    1993-05-01

    A computer vision system was developed for the classification of plant somatic embryos. The embryos are in a Petri dish that is transferred with constant speed and they are recognized as they pass a line scan camera. A classification algorithm needs to be installed for every plant species. This paper describes an algorithm for the recognition of Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos. A short review of conifer micropropagation by somatic embryogenesis is also given. The recognition algorithm is based on features calculated from the boundary of the object. Only part of the boundary corresponding to the developing cotyledons (2 - 15) and the straight sides of the embryo are used for recognition. An index of the length of the cotyledons describes the developmental stage of the embryo. The testing set for classifier performance consisted of 118 embryos and 478 nonembryos. With the classification tolerances chosen 69% of the objects classified as embryos by a human classifier were selected and 31$% rejected. Less than 1% of the nonembryos were classified as embryos. The basic features developed can probably be easily adapted for the recognition of other conifer somatic embryos.

  14. Seminar on Usher's Syndrome: Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester School for the Deaf, NY.

    Summarized are the presentation of M. Vernon and the Comments of primary panelists from a seminar on Usher's Syndrome, a genetic disease involving congenital deafness and progressive loss of vision due to retinitis pigmentosa. The following topics are addressed: genetics today, nature of Usher's Syndrome, symptoms, prevalence, lay diagnosis for…

  15. Use of 3D vision for fine robot motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokshin, Anatole; Litwin, Todd

    1989-01-01

    An integration of 3-D vision systems with robot manipulators will allow robots to operate in a poorly structured environment by visually locating targets and obstacles. However, by using computer vision for objects acquisition makes the problem of overall system calibration even more difficult. Indeed, in a CAD based manipulation a control architecture has to find an accurate mapping between the 3-D Euclidean work space and a robot configuration space (joint angles). If a stereo vision is involved, then one needs to map a pair of 2-D video images directly into the robot configuration space. Neural Network approach aside, a common solution to this problem is to calibrate vision and manipulator independently, and then tie them via common mapping into the task space. In other words, both vision and robot refer to some common Absolute Euclidean Coordinate Frame via their individual mappings. This approach has two major difficulties. First a vision system has to be calibrated over the total work space. And second, the absolute frame, which is usually quite arbitrary, has to be the same with a high degree of precision for both robot and vision subsystem calibrations. The use of computer vision to allow robust fine motion manipulation in a poorly structured world which is currently in progress is described along with the preliminary results and encountered problems.

  16. The semantic web and computer vision: old AI meets new AI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundy, J. L.; Dong, Y.; Gilliam, A.; Wagner, R.

    2018-04-01

    There has been vast process in linking semantic information across the billions of web pages through the use of ontologies encoded in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF). A prime example is the Wikipedia where the knowledge contained in its more than four million pages is encoded in an ontological database called DBPedia http://wiki.dbpedia.org/. Web-based query tools can retrieve semantic information from DBPedia encoded in interlinked ontologies that can be accessed using natural language. This paper will show how this vast context can be used to automate the process of querying images and other geospatial data in support of report changes in structures and activities. Computer vision algorithms are selected and provided with context based on natural language requests for monitoring and analysis. The resulting reports provide semantically linked observations from images and 3D surface models.

  17. Quantification of color vision using a tablet display.

    PubMed

    Chacon, Alicia; Rabin, Jeff; Yu, Dennis; Johnston, Shawn; Bradshaw, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Accurate color vision is essential for optimal performance in aviation and space environments using nonredundant color coding to convey critical information. Most color tests detect color vision deficiency (CVD) but fail to diagnose type or severity of CVD, which are important to link performance to occupational demands. The computer-based Cone Contrast Test (CCT) diagnoses type and severity of CVD. It is displayed on a netbook computer for clinical application, but a more portable version may prove useful for deployments, space and aviation cockpits, as well as accident and sports medicine settings. Our purpose was to determine if the CCT can be conducted on a tablet display (Windows 8, Microsoft, Seattle, WA) using touch-screen response input. The CCT presents colored letters visible only to red (R), green (G), and blue (B) sensitive retinal cones to determine the lowest R, G, and B cone contrast visible to the observer. The CCT was measured in 16 color vision normals (CVN) and 16 CVDs using the standard netbook computer and a Windows 8 tablet display calibrated to produce equal color contrasts. Both displays showed 100% specificity for confirming CVN and 100% sensitivity for detecting CVD. In CVNs there was no difference between scores on netbook vs. tablet displays. G cone CVDs showed slightly lower G cone CCT scores on the tablet. CVD can be diagnosed with a tablet display. Ease-of-use, portability, and complete computer capabilities make tablets ideal for multiple settings, including aviation, space, military deployments, accidents and rescue missions, and sports vision. Chacon A, Rabin J, Yu D, Johnston S, Bradshaw T. Quantification of color vision using a tablet display.

  18. An architecture for real-time vision processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Chiun-Hong

    1994-01-01

    To study the feasibility of developing an architecture for real time vision processing, a task queue server and parallel algorithms for two vision operations were designed and implemented on an i860-based Mercury Computing System 860VS array processor. The proposed architecture treats each vision function as a task or set of tasks which may be recursively divided into subtasks and processed by multiple processors coordinated by a task queue server accessible by all processors. Each idle processor subsequently fetches a task and associated data from the task queue server for processing and posts the result to shared memory for later use. Load balancing can be carried out within the processing system without the requirement for a centralized controller. The author concludes that real time vision processing cannot be achieved without both sequential and parallel vision algorithms and a good parallel vision architecture.

  19. Automated egg grading system using computer vision: Investigation on weight measure versus shape parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Ahmad Fakhri Ab; Suhaila Sabarudin, Siti; Majeed, Anwar P. P. Abdul; Ghani, Ahmad Shahrizan Abdul

    2018-04-01

    Chicken egg is a source of food of high demand by humans. Human operators cannot work perfectly and continuously when conducting egg grading. Instead of an egg grading system using weight measure, an automatic system for egg grading using computer vision (using egg shape parameter) can be used to improve the productivity of egg grading. However, early hypothesis has indicated that more number of egg classes will change when using egg shape parameter compared with using weight measure. This paper presents the comparison of egg classification by the two above-mentioned methods. Firstly, 120 images of chicken eggs of various grades (A–D) produced in Malaysia are captured. Then, the egg images are processed using image pre-processing techniques, such as image cropping, smoothing and segmentation. Thereafter, eight egg shape features, including area, major axis length, minor axis length, volume, diameter and perimeter, are extracted. Lastly, feature selection (information gain ratio) and feature extraction (principal component analysis) are performed using k-nearest neighbour classifier in the classification process. Two methods, namely, supervised learning (using weight measure as graded by egg supplier) and unsupervised learning (using egg shape parameters as graded by ourselves), are conducted to execute the experiment. Clustering results reveal many changes in egg classes after performing shape-based grading. On average, the best recognition results using shape-based grading label is 94.16% while using weight-based label is 44.17%. As conclusion, automated egg grading system using computer vision is better by implementing shape-based features since it uses image meanwhile the weight parameter is more suitable by using weight grading system.

  20. Former food products safety: microbiological quality and computer vision evaluation of packaging remnants contamination.

    PubMed

    Tretola, M; Di Rosa, A R; Tirloni, E; Ottoboni, M; Giromini, C; Leone, F; Bernardi, C E M; Dell'Orto, V; Chiofalo, V; Pinotti, L

    2017-08-01

    The use of alternative feed ingredients in farm animal's diets can be an interesting choice from several standpoints, including safety. In this respect, this study investigated the safety features of selected former food products (FFPs) intended for animal nutrition produced in the framework of the IZS PLV 06/14 RC project by an FFP processing plant. Six FFP samples, both mash and pelleted, were analysed for the enumeration of total viable count (TVC) (ISO 4833), Enterobacteriaceae (ISO 21528-1), Escherichia coli (ISO 16649-1), coagulase-positive Staphylococci (CPS) (ISO 6888), presumptive Bacillus cereus and its spores (ISO 7932), sulphite-reducing Clostridia (ISO 7937), yeasts and moulds (ISO 21527-1), and the presence in 25 g of Salmonella spp. (ISO 6579). On the same samples, the presence of undesired ingredients, which can be identified as remnants of packaging materials, was evaluated by two different methods: stereomicroscopy according to published methods; and stereomicroscopy coupled with a computer vision system (IRIS Visual Analyzer VA400). All FFPs analysed were safe from a microbiological point of view. TVC was limited and Salmonella was always absent. When remnants of packaging materials were considered, the contamination level was below 0.08% (w/w). Of note, packaging remnants were found mainly from the 1-mm sieve mesh fractions. Finally, the innovative computer vision system demonstrated the possibility of rapid detection for the presence of packaging remnants in FFPs when combined with a stereomicroscope. In conclusion, the FFPs analysed in the present study can be considered safe, even though some improvements in FFP processing in the feeding plant can be useful in further reducing their microbial loads and impurity.

  1. Military Vision Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    accomplishments emanating from this research . • 3 novel computer-based tasks have been developed that measure visual distortions • These tests are based...10-1-0392 TITLE: Military Vision Research Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Darlene Dartt...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Schepens Eye Research

  2. Real-Time Evaluation of Breast Self-Examination Using Computer Vision

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Eman; Dadios, Elmer P.; Gan Lim, Laurence A.; Cabatuan, Melvin K.; Naguib, Raouf N. G.; Avila, Jose Maria C.; Oikonomou, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide and breast self-examination (BSE) is considered as the most cost-effective approach for early breast cancer detection. The general objective of this paper is to design and develop a computer vision algorithm to evaluate the BSE performance in real-time. The first stage of the algorithm presents a method for detecting and tracking the nipples in frames while a woman performs BSE; the second stage presents a method for localizing the breast region and blocks of pixels related to palpation of the breast, and the third stage focuses on detecting the palpated blocks in the breast region. The palpated blocks are highlighted at the time of BSE performance. In a correct BSE performance, all blocks must be palpated, checked, and highlighted, respectively. If any abnormality, such as masses, is detected, then this must be reported to a doctor to confirm the presence of this abnormality and proceed to perform other confirmatory tests. The experimental results have shown that the BSE evaluation algorithm presented in this paper provides robust performance. PMID:25435860

  3. Real-time evaluation of breast self-examination using computer vision.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Eman; Dadios, Elmer P; Gan Lim, Laurence A; Cabatuan, Melvin K; Naguib, Raouf N G; Avila, Jose Maria C; Oikonomou, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide and breast self-examination (BSE) is considered as the most cost-effective approach for early breast cancer detection. The general objective of this paper is to design and develop a computer vision algorithm to evaluate the BSE performance in real-time. The first stage of the algorithm presents a method for detecting and tracking the nipples in frames while a woman performs BSE; the second stage presents a method for localizing the breast region and blocks of pixels related to palpation of the breast, and the third stage focuses on detecting the palpated blocks in the breast region. The palpated blocks are highlighted at the time of BSE performance. In a correct BSE performance, all blocks must be palpated, checked, and highlighted, respectively. If any abnormality, such as masses, is detected, then this must be reported to a doctor to confirm the presence of this abnormality and proceed to perform other confirmatory tests. The experimental results have shown that the BSE evaluation algorithm presented in this paper provides robust performance.

  4. Image model: new perspective for image processing and computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziou, Djemel; Allili, Madjid

    2004-05-01

    We propose a new image model in which the image support and image quantities are modeled using algebraic topology concepts. The image support is viewed as a collection of chains encoding combination of pixels grouped by dimension and linking different dimensions with the boundary operators. Image quantities are encoded using the notion of cochain which associates values for pixels of given dimension that can be scalar, vector, or tensor depending on the problem that is considered. This allows obtaining algebraic equations directly from the physical laws. The coboundary and codual operators, which are generic operations on cochains allow to formulate the classical differential operators as applied for field functions and differential forms in both global and local forms. This image model makes the association between the image support and the image quantities explicit which results in several advantages: it allows the derivation of efficient algorithms that operate in any dimension and the unification of mathematics and physics to solve classical problems in image processing and computer vision. We show the effectiveness of this model by considering the isotropic diffusion.

  5. Development of embedded real-time and high-speed vision platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Zhenxing; Dong, Yimin; Yang, Hua

    2015-12-01

    Currently, high-speed vision platforms are widely used in many applications, such as robotics and automation industry. However, a personal computer (PC) whose over-large size is not suitable and applicable in compact systems is an indispensable component for human-computer interaction in traditional high-speed vision platforms. Therefore, this paper develops an embedded real-time and high-speed vision platform, ER-HVP Vision which is able to work completely out of PC. In this new platform, an embedded CPU-based board is designed as substitution for PC and a DSP and FPGA board is developed for implementing image parallel algorithms in FPGA and image sequential algorithms in DSP. Hence, the capability of ER-HVP Vision with size of 320mm x 250mm x 87mm can be presented in more compact condition. Experimental results are also given to indicate that the real-time detection and counting of the moving target at a frame rate of 200 fps at 512 x 512 pixels under the operation of this newly developed vision platform are feasible.

  6. Factors influencing hand/eye synchronicity in the computer age.

    PubMed

    Grant, A H

    1992-09-01

    In using a computer, the relation of vision to hand/finger actuated keyboard usage in performing fine motor-coordinated functions is influenced by the physical location, size, and collective placement of the keys. Traditional nonprehensile flat/rectangular keyboard applications usually require a high and nearly constant level of visual attention. Biometrically shaped keyboards would allow for prehensile hand-posturing, thus affording better tactile familiarity with the keys, requiring less intense and less constant level of visual attention to the task, and providing a greater measure of freedom from having to visualize the key(s). Workpace and related physiological changes, aging, onset of monocularization (intermittent lapsing of binocularity for near vision) that accompanies presbyopia, tool colors, and background contrast are factors affecting constancy of visual attention to task performance. Capitas extension, excessive excyclotorsion, and repetitive strain injuries (such as carpal tunnel syndrome) are common and debilitating concomitants to computer usage. These problems can be remedied by improved keyboard design. The salutary role of mnemonics in minimizing visual dependency is discussed.

  7. Integrated Imaging and Vision Techniques for Industrial Inspection: A Special Issue on Machine Vision and Applications

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liu, Zheng; Ukida, H.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2010-06-05

    Imaging- and vision-based techniques play an important role in industrial inspection. The sophistication of the techniques assures high- quality performance of the manufacturing process through precise positioning, online monitoring, and real-time classification. Advanced systems incorporating multiple imaging and/or vision modalities provide robust solutions to complex situations and problems in industrial applications. A diverse range of industries, including aerospace, automotive, electronics, pharmaceutical, biomedical, semiconductor, and food/beverage, etc., have benefited from recent advances in multi-modal imaging, data fusion, and computer vision technologies. Many of the open problems in this context are in the general area of image analysis methodologies (preferably in anmore » automated fashion). This editorial article introduces a special issue of this journal highlighting recent advances and demonstrating the successful applications of integrated imaging and vision technologies in industrial inspection.« less

  8. Quality Control by Artificial Vision

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lam, Edmond Y.; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Niel, Kurt S.

    2010-01-01

    Computational technology has fundamentally changed many aspects of our lives. One clear evidence is the development of artificial-vision systems, which have effectively automated many manual tasks ranging from quality inspection to quantitative assessment. In many cases, these machine-vision systems are even preferred over manual ones due to their repeatability and high precision. Such advantages come from significant research efforts in advancing sensor technology, illumination, computational hardware, and image-processing algorithms. Similar to the Special Section on Quality Control by Artificial Vision published two years ago in Volume 17, Issue 3 of the Journal of Electronic Imaging, the present one invited papersmore » relevant to fundamental technology improvements to foster quality control by artificial vision, and fine-tuned the technology for specific applications. We aim to balance both theoretical and applied work pertinent to this special section theme. Consequently, we have seven high-quality papers resulting from the stringent peer-reviewing process in place at the Journal of Electronic Imaging. Some of the papers contain extended treatment of the authors work presented at the SPIE Image Processing: Machine Vision Applications conference and the International Conference on Quality Control by Artificial Vision. On the broad application side, Liu et al. propose an unsupervised texture image segmentation scheme. Using a multilayer data condensation spectral clustering algorithm together with wavelet transform, they demonstrate the effectiveness of their approach on both texture and synthetic aperture radar images. A problem related to image segmentation is image extraction. For this, O'Leary et al. investigate the theory of polynomial moments and show how these moments can be compared to classical filters. They also show how to use the discrete polynomial-basis functions for the extraction of 3-D embossed digits, demonstrating superiority over Fourier

  9. Knowledge-based vision and simple visual machines.

    PubMed Central

    Cliff, D; Noble, J

    1997-01-01

    The vast majority of work in machine vision emphasizes the representation of perceived objects and events: it is these internal representations that incorporate the 'knowledge' in knowledge-based vision or form the 'models' in model-based vision. In this paper, we discuss simple machine vision systems developed by artificial evolution rather than traditional engineering design techniques, and note that the task of identifying internal representations within such systems is made difficult by the lack of an operational definition of representation at the causal mechanistic level. Consequently, we question the nature and indeed the existence of representations posited to be used within natural vision systems (i.e. animals). We conclude that representations argued for on a priori grounds by external observers of a particular vision system may well be illusory, and are at best place-holders for yet-to-be-identified causal mechanistic interactions. That is, applying the knowledge-based vision approach in the understanding of evolved systems (machines or animals) may well lead to theories and models that are internally consistent, computationally plausible, and entirely wrong. PMID:9304684

  10. A computer vision system for diagnosing scoliosis using moiré images.

    PubMed

    Batouche, M; Benlamri, R; Kholladi, M K

    1996-07-01

    For young people, scoliosis deformities are an evolving process which must be detected and treated as early as possible. The moiré technique is simple, inexpensive, not aggressive and especially convenient for detecting spinal deformations. Doctors make their diagnosis by analysing the symmetry of fringes obtained by such techniques. In this paper, we present a computer vision system for help diagnosing spinal deformations using noisy moiré images of the human back. The approach adopted in this paper consists of extracting fringe contours from moiré images, then localizing some anatomical features (the spinal column, lumbar hollow and shoulder blades) which are crucial for 3D surface generation carried out using Mota's relaxation operator. Finally, rules furnished by doctors are used to derive the kind of spinal deformation and to yield the diagnosis. The proposed system has been tested on a set of noisy moiré images, and the experimental result have shown its robustness and reliability for the recognition of most scoliosis deformities.

  11. Beyond the computer-based patient record: re-engineering with a vision.

    PubMed

    Genn, B; Geukers, L

    1995-01-01

    In order to achieve real benefit from the potential offered by a Computer-Based Patient Record, the capabilities of the technology must be applied along with true re-engineering of healthcare delivery processes. University Hospital recognizes this and is using systems implementation projects, such as the catalyst, for transforming the way we care for our patients. Integration is fundamental to the success of these initiatives and this must be explicitly planned against an organized systems architecture whose standards are market-driven. University Hospital also recognizes that Community Health Information Networks will offer improved quality of patient care at a reduced overall cost to the system. All of these implementation factors are considered up front as the hospital makes its initial decisions on to how to computerize its patient records. This improves our chances for success and will provide a consistent vision to guide the hospital's development of new and better patient care.

  12. [Functional disorders of vision and their prophylaxis in professionals using PC].

    PubMed

    Bol'shakova, V A

    2004-01-01

    With ophthalmologic examination of professionals using PC, the author specified functional disorders of vision. A syndrome diagnosed could be assigned to asthenopia. Complex of preventive measures could decrease frequency of asthenopic signs among PC operators and managing staffers.

  13. Machine Vision For Industrial Control:The Unsung Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkman, Gerald A.; Murray, Lawrence A.; Cooper, James E.

    1984-05-01

    Vision modules have primarily been developed to relieve those pressures newly brought into existence by Inspection (QUALITY) and Robotic (PRODUCTIVITY) mandates. Industrial Control pressure stems on the other hand from the older first industrial revolution mandate of throughput. Satisfying such pressure calls for speed in both imaging and decision making. Vision companies have, however, put speed on a backburner or ignore it entirely because most modules are computer/software based which limits their speed potential. Increasingly, the keynote being struck at machine vision seminars is that "Visual and Computational Speed Must Be Increased and Dramatically!" There are modular hardwired-logic systems that are fast but, all too often, they are not very bright. Such units: Measure the fill factor of bottles as they spin by, Read labels on cans, Count stacked plastic cups or Monitor the width of parts streaming past the camera. Many are only a bit more complex than a photodetector. Once in place, most of these units are incapable of simple upgrading to a new task and are Vision's analog to the robot industry's pick and place (RIA TYPE E) robot. Vision thus finds itself amidst the same quandries that once beset the Robot Industry of America when it tried to define a robot, excluded dumb ones, and was left with only slow machines whose unit volume potential is shatteringly low. This paper develops an approach to meeting the need of a vision system that cuts a swath into the terra incognita of intelligent, high-speed vision processing. Main attention is directed to vision for industrial control. Some presently untapped vision application areas that will be serviced include: Electronics, Food, Sports, Pharmaceuticals, Machine Tools and Arc Welding.

  14. Computer vision for automatic inspection of agricultural produce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molto, Enrique; Blasco, Jose; Benlloch, Jose V.

    1999-01-01

    Fruit and vegetables suffer different manipulations from the field to the final consumer. These are basically oriented towards the cleaning and selection of the product in homogeneous categories. For this reason, several research projects, aimed at fast, adequate produce sorting and quality control are currently under development around the world. Moreover, it is possible to find manual and semi- automatic commercial system capable of reasonably performing these tasks.However, in many cases, their accuracy is incompatible with current European market demands, which are constantly increasing. IVIA, the Valencian Research Institute of Agriculture, located in Spain, has been involved in several European projects related with machine vision for real-time inspection of various agricultural produces. This paper will focus on the work related with two products that have different requirements: fruit and olives. In the case of fruit, the Institute has developed a vision system capable of providing assessment of the external quality of single fruit to a robot that also receives information from other senors. The system use four different views of each fruit and has been tested on peaches, apples and citrus. Processing time of each image is under 500 ms using a conventional PC. The system provides information about primary and secondary color, blemishes and their extension, and stem presence and position, which allows further automatic orientation of the fruit in the final box using a robotic manipulator. Work carried out in olives was devoted to fast sorting of olives for consumption at table. A prototype has been developed to demonstrate the feasibility of a machine vision system capable of automatically sorting 2500 kg/h olives using low-cost conventional hardware.

  15. Computer vision-based technologies and commercial best practices for the advancement of the motion imagery tradecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Marja; Capel, David; Srinivasan, James

    2014-06-01

    Motion imagery capabilities within the Department of Defense/Intelligence Community (DoD/IC) have advanced significantly over the last decade, attempting to meet continuously growing data collection, video processing and analytical demands in operationally challenging environments. The motion imagery tradecraft has evolved accordingly, enabling teams of analysts to effectively exploit data and generate intelligence reports across multiple phases in structured Full Motion Video (FMV) Processing Exploitation and Dissemination (PED) cells. Yet now the operational requirements are drastically changing. The exponential growth in motion imagery data continues, but to this the community adds multi-INT data, interoperability with existing and emerging systems, expanded data access, nontraditional users, collaboration, automation, and support for ad hoc configurations beyond the current FMV PED cells. To break from the legacy system lifecycle, we look towards a technology application and commercial adoption model course which will meet these future Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) challenges. In this paper, we explore the application of cutting edge computer vision technology to meet existing FMV PED shortfalls and address future capability gaps. For example, real-time georegistration services developed from computer-vision-based feature tracking, multiple-view geometry, and statistical methods allow the fusion of motion imagery with other georeferenced information sources - providing unparalleled situational awareness. We then describe how these motion imagery capabilities may be readily deployed in a dynamically integrated analytical environment; employing an extensible framework, leveraging scalable enterprise-wide infrastructure and following commercial best practices.

  16. Down Syndrome: A Current Perspective. Bulletin 1762.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    This informational document is intended to help answer questions commonly asked by families, professionals, and the general public concerning Down Syndrome. Medical problems associated with Down Syndrome include heart conditions, upper respiratory disorders, ear infections and hearing loss, vision/eye problems, cervical problems, and…

  17. A new computer-based Farnsworth Munsell 100-hue test for evaluation of color vision.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Supriyo; Parmar, Twinkle; Dada, Tanuj; Vanathi, Murugesan; Sharma, Sourabh

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate a computer-based Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) 100-hue test and compare it with a manual FM 100-hue test in normal and congenital color-deficient individuals. Fifty color defective subjects and 200 normal subjects with a best-corrected visual acuity ≥ 6/12 were compared using a standard manual FM 100-hue test and a computer-based FM 100-hue test under standard operating conditions as recommended by the manufacturer after initial trial testing. Parameters evaluated were total error scores (TES), type of defect and testing time. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the test scores. Cohen's kappa was used to assess agreement of color defect classification between the two tests. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the optimal cut-off score for the computer-based FM 100-hue test. The mean time was 16 ± 1.5 (range 6-20) min for the manual FM 100-hue test and 7.4 ± 1.4 (range 5-13) min for the computer-based FM 100-hue test, thus reducing testing time to <50 % (p < 0.05). For grading color discrimination, Pearson's correlation coefficient for TES between the two tests was 0.91 (p < 0.001). For color defect classification, Cohen's agreement coefficient was 0.98 (p < 0.01). The computer-based FM 100-hue is an effective and rapid method for detecting, classifying and grading color vision anomalies.

  18. A new color vision test to differentiate congenital and acquired color vision defects.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Joo; Park, Kyu Hyung; Hwang, Jeong-Min; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the efficacy of a novel computer-controlled color test for the differentiation of congenital and acquired color vision deficiency. Observational cross-sectional study. Thirty-one patients with congenital color vision deficiency and 134 patients with acquired color vision deficiency with a Snellen visual acuity better than 20/30 underwent an ophthalmologic examination including the Ishihara color test, Hardy-Rand-Rittler test, Nagel anomaloscopy, and the Seohan computerized hue test between June, 2003, and January, 2004. To investigate the type of color vision defect, a graph of the Seohan computerized hue test was divided into 4 quadrants and error scores in each quadrant were summated. The ratio between the sums of error scores of quadrants I and III (Q1+Q3) and those of quadrants II and IV (Q2+Q4) was calculated. Error scores and ratio in quadrant analysis of the Seohan computerized hue test. The Seohan computerized hue test showed that the sum of Q2+Q4 was significantly higher than the sum of Q1+Q3 in congenital color vision deficiency (P<0.01, paired t test) and that the sum of Q2+Q4 was significantly lower than the sum of Q1+Q3 in acquired color vision deficiency (P<0.01, paired t test). In terms of discriminating congenital and acquired color vision deficiency, the ratio in quadrant analysis had 93.3% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity with a reference value of 1.5 by the Seohan computerized hue test (95% confidence interval). The quadrant analysis and ratio of (Q2+Q4)/(Q1+Q3) using the Seohan computerized hue test effectively differentiated congenital and acquired color vision deficiency.

  19. SU-C-209-06: Improving X-Ray Imaging with Computer Vision and Augmented Reality

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    MacDougall, R.D.; Scherrer, B; Don, S

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of using a computer vision algorithm and augmented reality interface to reduce repeat rates and improve consistency of image quality and patient exposure in general radiography. Methods: A prototype device, designed for use with commercially available hardware (Microsoft Kinect 2.0) capable of depth sensing and high resolution/frame rate video, was mounted to the x-ray tube housing as part of a Philips DigitalDiagnost digital radiography room. Depth data and video was streamed to a Windows 10 PC. Proprietary software created an augmented reality interface where overlays displayed selectable information projected over real-time video of the patient.more » The information displayed prior to and during x-ray acquisition included: recognition and position of ordered body part, position of image receptor, thickness of anatomy, location of AEC cells, collimated x-ray field, degree of patient motion and suggested x-ray technique. Pre-clinical data was collected in a volunteer study to validate patient thickness measurements and x-ray images were not acquired. Results: Proprietary software correctly identified ordered body part, measured patient motion, and calculated thickness of anatomy. Pre-clinical data demonstrated accuracy and precision of body part thickness measurement when compared with other methods (e.g. laser measurement tool). Thickness measurements provided the basis for developing a database of thickness-based technique charts that can be automatically displayed to the technologist. Conclusion: The utilization of computer vision and commercial hardware to create an augmented reality view of the patient and imaging equipment has the potential to drastically improve the quality and safety of x-ray imaging by reducing repeats and optimizing technique based on patient thickness. Society of Pediatric Radiology Pilot Grant; Washington University Bear Cub Fund.« less

  20. Advantages of computer cameras over video cameras/frame grabbers for high-speed vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Gaylord G.; Walker, Jo N.

    1997-09-01

    Cameras designed to work specifically with computers can have certain advantages in comparison to the use of cameras loosely defined as 'video' cameras. In recent years the camera type distinctions have become somewhat blurred, with a great presence of 'digital cameras' aimed more at the home markets. This latter category is not considered here. The term 'computer camera' herein is intended to mean one which has low level computer (and software) control of the CCD clocking. These can often be used to satisfy some of the more demanding machine vision tasks, and in some cases with a higher rate of measurements than video cameras. Several of these specific applications are described here, including some which use recently designed CCDs which offer good combinations of parameters such as noise, speed, and resolution. Among the considerations for the choice of camera type in any given application would be such effects as 'pixel jitter,' and 'anti-aliasing.' Some of these effects may only be relevant if there is a mismatch between the number of pixels per line in the camera CCD and the number of analog to digital (A/D) sampling points along a video scan line. For the computer camera case these numbers are guaranteed to match, which alleviates some measurement inaccuracies and leads to higher effective resolution.

  1. Design And Implementation Of Integrated Vision-Based Robotic Workcells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Reports have been sparse on large-scale, intelligent integration of complete robotic systems for automating the microelectronics industry. This paper describes the application of state-of-the-art computer-vision technology for manufacturing of miniaturized electronic components. The concepts of FMS - Flexible Manufacturing Systems, work cells, and work stations and their control hierarchy are illustrated in this paper. Several computer-controlled work cells used in the production of thin-film magnetic heads are described. These cells use vision for in-process control of head-fixture alignment and real-time inspection of production parameters. The vision sensor and other optoelectronic sensors, coupled with transport mechanisms such as steppers, x-y-z tables, and robots, have created complete sensorimotor systems. These systems greatly increase the manufacturing throughput as well as the quality of the final product. This paper uses these automated work cells as examples to exemplify the underlying design philosophy and principles in the fabrication of vision-based robotic systems.

  2. Mycotic Pseudoaneurysm of Internal Carotid Artery Secondary to Lemierre's Syndrome, How to Do It.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, Filippo; Barillà, David; Pipitò, Narayana; Derone, Graziana; Cutrupi, Andrea; Barillà, Chiara

    2017-10-01

    We report the case of a patient with internal carotid artery (ICA) mycotic pseudoaneurysm secondary to Lemierre's syndrome, urgently treated. A 75-year-old man presented to E.R. with a left swelling lesion of the neck and complaining left visions lost since that morning, fever, hypotension, and dyspnea. Since 15 days before developing symptoms, he had sore throat and odynophagia treated with a broad coverage of antibiotic therapy for presumed streptococcal pharyngitis. Preoperative computed tomography angiography images revealed a circular lesion, involving the common carotid artery, carotid bulb, and the proximal part of the internal and external carotid arteries. A pseudoaneurysm of the ICA was detected, and the jugular vein was compressed. A Cormier carotid vein graft bypass was performed. Lemierre's syndrome is a rare syndrome, but it is rarer the carotid artery pseudoaneurysm secondary to Lemierre's syndrome. Surgical treatment is safe and durable in patients with severe infection involving the neck. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Supporting Real-Time Computer Vision Workloads using OpenVX on Multicore+GPU Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    a registered trademark of the NVIDIA Corporation . Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection...from NVIDIA , we adapted an alpha- version of an NVIDIA OpenVX implementation called VisionWorks® [3] to run atop PGMRT (a graph-based mid- dleware...time support to an OpenVX implementation by NVIDIA called VisionWorks. Our modifications were applied to an alpha-version of VisionWorks. This alpha

  4. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000426.htm Dry eye syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or ... Symptoms may include: Blurred vision Burning, itching, ...

  5. Feasibility Study of a Vision-Based Landing System for Unmanned Fixed-Wing Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security 7 no. 3: 112–117. Accessed April 7, 2017. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article /pii...the feasibility of applying computer vision techniques and visual feedback in the control loop for an autonomous system. This thesis examines the...integration into an autonomous aircraft control system. 14. SUBJECT TERMS autonomous systems, auto-land, computer vision, image processing

  6. Smart vision chips: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Christof

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents four working analog VLSI vision chips: (1) time-derivative retina, (2) zero-crossing chip, (3) resistive fuse, and (4) figure-ground chip; work in progress on computing motion and neuromorphic systems; and conceptual and practical lessons learned.

  7. Declining vision: saved by a tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Hett, Kirsty L; Chutter, Lily J; Hassan, Mohamed; Okosieme, Onyebuchi E

    2013-10-07

    A 37-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a history of headaches, blurred vision and declining visual acuity. She had a history of obstructive sleep apnoea associated with Treacher Collins syndrome, a rare congenital disorder characterised by craniofacial deformities and obstruction of the upper airways. On funduscopy we noted bilateral papilloedema and retinal haemorrhages. A CT scan of the brain excluded a space occupying lesion and contrast-enhanced CT did not show evidence of venous sinus thrombosis. The cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure on lumbar puncture was normal. We made a diagnosis of visual loss and papilloedema secondary to chronic CO2 retention from obstructive sleep apnoea. Her vision and headaches improved remarkably following a permanent tracheostomy. This case highlights the association between obstructive sleep apnoea and papilloedema and shows that the associated visual loss can ultimately be restored with a tracheostomy.

  8. Visualizing stressful aspects of repetitive motion tasks and opportunities for ergonomic improvements using computer vision.

    PubMed

    Greene, Runyu L; Azari, David P; Hu, Yu Hen; Radwin, Robert G

    2017-11-01

    Patterns of physical stress exposure are often difficult to measure, and the metrics of variation and techniques for identifying them is underdeveloped in the practice of occupational ergonomics. Computer vision has previously been used for evaluating repetitive motion tasks for hand activity level (HAL) utilizing conventional 2D videos. The approach was made practical by relaxing the need for high precision, and by adopting a semi-automatic approach for measuring spatiotemporal characteristics of the repetitive task. In this paper, a new method for visualizing task factors, using this computer vision approach, is demonstrated. After videos are made, the analyst selects a region of interest on the hand to track and the hand location and its associated kinematics are measured for every frame. The visualization method spatially deconstructs and displays the frequency, speed and duty cycle components of tasks that are part of the threshold limit value for hand activity for the purpose of identifying patterns of exposure associated with the specific job factors, as well as for suggesting task improvements. The localized variables are plotted as a heat map superimposed over the video, and displayed in the context of the task being performed. Based on the intensity of the specific variables used to calculate HAL, we can determine which task factors most contribute to HAL, and readily identify those work elements in the task that contribute more to increased risk for an injury. Work simulations and actual industrial examples are described. This method should help practitioners more readily measure and interpret temporal exposure patterns and identify potential task improvements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The Effect of the Usage of Computer-Based Assistive Devices on the Functioning and Quality of Life of Individuals Who Are Blind or Have Low Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosner, Yotam; Perlman, Amotz

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The Israel Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services subsidizes computer-based assistive devices for individuals with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) to assist these individuals in their interactions with computers and thus to enhance their independence and quality of life. The aim of this…

  10. Identification of double-yolked duck egg using computer vision.

    PubMed

    Ma, Long; Sun, Ke; Tu, Kang; Pan, Leiqing; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The double-yolked (DY) egg is quite popular in some Asian countries because it is considered as a sign of good luck, however, the double yolk is one of the reasons why these eggs fail to hatch. The usage of automatic methods for identifying DY eggs can increase the efficiency in the poultry industry by decreasing egg loss during incubation or improving sale proceeds. In this study, two methods for DY duck egg identification were developed by using computer vision technology. Transmittance images of DY and single-yolked (SY) duck eggs were acquired by a CCD camera to identify them according to their shape features. The Fisher's linear discriminant (FLD) model equipped with a set of normalized Fourier descriptors (NFDs) extracted from the acquired images and the convolutional neural network (CNN) model using primary preprocessed images were built to recognize duck egg yolk types. The classification accuracies of the FLD model for SY and DY eggs were 100% and 93.2% respectively, while the classification accuracies of the CNN model for SY and DY eggs were 98% and 98.8% respectively. The CNN-based algorithm took about 0.12 s to recognize one sample image, which was slightly faster than the FLD-based (about 0.20 s). Finally, this work compared two classification methods and provided the better method for DY egg identification.

  11. Identification of double-yolked duck egg using computer vision

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Long; Sun, Ke; Tu, Kang; Pan, Leiqing; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The double-yolked (DY) egg is quite popular in some Asian countries because it is considered as a sign of good luck, however, the double yolk is one of the reasons why these eggs fail to hatch. The usage of automatic methods for identifying DY eggs can increase the efficiency in the poultry industry by decreasing egg loss during incubation or improving sale proceeds. In this study, two methods for DY duck egg identification were developed by using computer vision technology. Transmittance images of DY and single-yolked (SY) duck eggs were acquired by a CCD camera to identify them according to their shape features. The Fisher’s linear discriminant (FLD) model equipped with a set of normalized Fourier descriptors (NFDs) extracted from the acquired images and the convolutional neural network (CNN) model using primary preprocessed images were built to recognize duck egg yolk types. The classification accuracies of the FLD model for SY and DY eggs were 100% and 93.2% respectively, while the classification accuracies of the CNN model for SY and DY eggs were 98% and 98.8% respectively. The CNN-based algorithm took about 0.12 s to recognize one sample image, which was slightly faster than the FLD-based (about 0.20 s). Finally, this work compared two classification methods and provided the better method for DY egg identification. PMID:29267387

  12. A computer vision based candidate for functional balance test.

    PubMed

    Nalci, Alican; Khodamoradi, Alireza; Balkan, Ozgur; Nahab, Fatta; Garudadri, Harinath

    2015-08-01

    Balance in humans is a motor skill based on complex multimodal sensing, processing and control. Ability to maintain balance in activities of daily living (ADL) is compromised due to aging, diseases, injuries and environmental factors. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate of the costs of falls among older adults was $34 billion in 2013 and is expected to reach $54.9 billion in 2020. In this paper, we present a brief review of balance impairments followed by subjective and objective tools currently used in clinical settings for human balance assessment. We propose a novel computer vision (CV) based approach as a candidate for functional balance test. The test will take less than a minute to administer and expected to be objective, repeatable and highly discriminative in quantifying ability to maintain posture and balance. We present an informal study with preliminary data from 10 healthy volunteers, and compare performance with a balance assessment system called BTrackS Balance Assessment Board. Our results show high degree of correlation with BTrackS. The proposed system promises to be a good candidate for objective functional balance tests and warrants further investigations to assess validity in clinical settings, including acute care, long term care and assisted living care facilities. Our long term goals include non-intrusive approaches to assess balance competence during ADL in independent living environments.

  13. Recent developments in computer vision-based analytical chemistry: A tutorial review.

    PubMed

    Capitán-Vallvey, Luis Fermín; López-Ruiz, Nuria; Martínez-Olmos, Antonio; Erenas, Miguel M; Palma, Alberto J

    2015-10-29

    Chemical analysis based on colour changes recorded with imaging devices is gaining increasing interest. This is due to its several significant advantages, such as simplicity of use, and the fact that it is easily combinable with portable and widely distributed imaging devices, resulting in friendly analytical procedures in many areas that demand out-of-lab applications for in situ and real-time monitoring. This tutorial review covers computer vision-based analytical (CVAC) procedures and systems from 2005 to 2015, a period of time when 87.5% of the papers on this topic were published. The background regarding colour spaces and recent analytical system architectures of interest in analytical chemistry is presented in the form of a tutorial. Moreover, issues regarding images, such as the influence of illuminants, and the most relevant techniques for processing and analysing digital images are addressed. Some of the most relevant applications are then detailed, highlighting their main characteristics. Finally, our opinion about future perspectives is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Information theory analysis of sensor-array imaging systems for computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.; Self, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    Information theory is used to assess the performance of sensor-array imaging systems, with emphasis on the performance obtained with image-plane signal processing. By electronically controlling the spatial response of the imaging system, as suggested by the mechanism of human vision, it is possible to trade-off edge enhancement for sensitivity, increase dynamic range, and reduce data transmission. Computational results show that: signal information density varies little with large variations in the statistical properties of random radiance fields; most information (generally about 85 to 95 percent) is contained in the signal intensity transitions rather than levels; and performance is optimized when the OTF of the imaging system is nearly limited to the sampling passband to minimize aliasing at the cost of blurring, and the SNR is very high to permit the retrieval of small spatial detail from the extensively blurred signal. Shading the lens aperture transmittance to increase depth of field and using a regular hexagonal sensor-array instead of square lattice to decrease sensitivity to edge orientation also improves the signal information density up to about 30 percent at high SNRs.

  15. A single VLSI chip for computing syndromes in the (225, 223) Reed-Solomon decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, I. S.; Truong, T. K.; Shao, H. M.; Deutsch, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    A description of a single VLSI chip for computing syndromes in the (255, 223) Reed-Solomon decoder is presented. The architecture that leads to this single VLSI chip design makes use of the dual basis multiplication algorithm. The same architecture can be applied to design VLSI chips to compute various kinds of number theoretic transforms.

  16. Atoms of recognition in human and computer vision.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Shimon; Assif, Liav; Fetaya, Ethan; Harari, Daniel

    2016-03-08

    Discovering the visual features and representations used by the brain to recognize objects is a central problem in the study of vision. Recently, neural network models of visual object recognition, including biological and deep network models, have shown remarkable progress and have begun to rival human performance in some challenging tasks. These models are trained on image examples and learn to extract features and representations and to use them for categorization. It remains unclear, however, whether the representations and learning processes discovered by current models are similar to those used by the human visual system. Here we show, by introducing and using minimal recognizable images, that the human visual system uses features and processes that are not used by current models and that are critical for recognition. We found by psychophysical studies that at the level of minimal recognizable images a minute change in the image can have a drastic effect on recognition, thus identifying features that are critical for the task. Simulations then showed that current models cannot explain this sensitivity to precise feature configurations and, more generally, do not learn to recognize minimal images at a human level. The role of the features shown here is revealed uniquely at the minimal level, where the contribution of each feature is essential. A full understanding of the learning and use of such features will extend our understanding of visual recognition and its cortical mechanisms and will enhance the capacity of computational models to learn from visual experience and to deal with recognition and detailed image interpretation.

  17. Knowledge-based machine vision systems for space station automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranganath, Heggere S.; Chipman, Laure J.

    1989-01-01

    Computer vision techniques which have the potential for use on the space station and related applications are assessed. A knowledge-based vision system (expert vision system) and the development of a demonstration system for it are described. This system implements some of the capabilities that would be necessary in a machine vision system for the robot arm of the laboratory module in the space station. A Perceptics 9200e image processor, on a host VAXstation, was used to develop the demonstration system. In order to use realistic test images, photographs of actual space shuttle simulator panels were used. The system's capabilities of scene identification and scene matching are discussed.

  18. Detection and Tracking of Moving Objects with Real-Time Onboard Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erokhin, D. Y.; Feldman, A. B.; Korepanov, S. E.

    2017-05-01

    Detection of moving objects in video sequence received from moving video sensor is a one of the most important problem in computer vision. The main purpose of this work is developing set of algorithms, which can detect and track moving objects in real time computer vision system. This set includes three main parts: the algorithm for estimation and compensation of geometric transformations of images, an algorithm for detection of moving objects, an algorithm to tracking of the detected objects and prediction their position. The results can be claimed to create onboard vision systems of aircraft, including those relating to small and unmanned aircraft.

  19. A dental vision system for accurate 3D tooth modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Alemzadeh, K

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an active vision system based reverse engineering approach to extract the three-dimensional (3D) geometric information from dental teeth and transfer this information into Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacture (CAD/CAM) systems to improve the accuracy of 3D teeth models and at the same time improve the quality of the construction units to help patient care. The vision system involves the development of a dental vision rig, edge detection, boundary tracing and fast & accurate 3D modeling from a sequence of sliced silhouettes of physical models. The rig is designed using engineering design methods such as a concept selection matrix and weighted objectives evaluation chart. Reconstruction results and accuracy evaluation are presented on digitizing different teeth models.

  20. BILATERAL SEROUS MACULAR DETACHMENT IN A PATIENT WITH NEPHROTIC SYNDROME.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Ayse D; Yaylali, Sevil A; Yavuz, Sara; Simsek, İlke B

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report a case of a woman with nephrotic syndrome who presented with blurred vision because of bilateral serous macular detachment. Case report and literature review. A 55-year-old woman with a history of essential hypertension, diabetes, and nephrotic syndrome was presented with blurred vision in both eyes. Her fluorescein angiography revealed dye leakage in the early and subretinal pooling in the late phases, and optical coherence tomography scans confirmed the presence of subretinal fluid in the subfovel area. In nephrotic syndrome cases especially with accompaniment of high blood pressure, fluid accumulation in the retina layer may occur. Serous macular detachment must be kept in mind when treating these patients.

  1. Simulated Prosthetic Vision: The Benefits of Computer-Based Object Recognition and Localization.

    PubMed

    Macé, Marc J-M; Guivarch, Valérian; Denis, Grégoire; Jouffrais, Christophe

    2015-07-01

    Clinical trials with blind patients implanted with a visual neuroprosthesis showed that even the simplest tasks were difficult to perform with the limited vision restored with current implants. Simulated prosthetic vision (SPV) is a powerful tool to investigate the putative functions of the upcoming generations of visual neuroprostheses. Recent studies based on SPV showed that several generations of implants will be required before usable vision is restored. However, none of these studies relied on advanced image processing. High-level image processing could significantly reduce the amount of information required to perform visual tasks and help restore visuomotor behaviors, even with current low-resolution implants. In this study, we simulated a prosthetic vision device based on object localization in the scene. We evaluated the usability of this device for object recognition, localization, and reaching. We showed that a very low number of electrodes (e.g., nine) are sufficient to restore visually guided reaching movements with fair timing (10 s) and high accuracy. In addition, performance, both in terms of accuracy and speed, was comparable with 9 and 100 electrodes. Extraction of high level information (object recognition and localization) from video images could drastically enhance the usability of current visual neuroprosthesis. We suggest that this method-that is, localization of targets of interest in the scene-may restore various visuomotor behaviors. This method could prove functional on current low-resolution implants. The main limitation resides in the reliability of the vision algorithms, which are improving rapidly. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Vision-related quality of life and psychological status in Chinese women with Sjogren's syndrome dry eye: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqiu; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Alice; Zhao, Naiqing; Gong, Lan

    2016-12-12

    Sjogren's syndrome dry eye (SSDE) mainly affects middle-aged women and can negatively affect women's psychological and social functioning. However, little is known about the correlation between vision-related quality of life (VR-QoL) and psychological status for women with SSDE. We therefore examined VR-QoL and psychological status in two groups of Chinese women: an SSDE group and a non-SSDE group. We also explored the associations between VR-QoL scores, sociodemographic measures, ophthalmologic parameters, and psychological status in women with SSDE. The case-control study recruited 30 female outpatients with SSDE and 30 without SSDE from the Eye and Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) Hospital of Fudan University. Demographic and ophthalmologic data were collected from all participants. Ophthalmologic examinations included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test. Data collected using the National Eye Institute's Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) survey instruments were analyzed to identify potential differences in VR-QoL between the SSDE group and the non-SSDE group. We also used the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and Self-Rating Depression Scales (SAS and SDS) to determine psychological status in both groups. The SSDE group scored significantly lower than the non-SSDE group on the NEI-VFQ subscales of general health, general vision, and long-distance vision activities (all p < 0.05). The SSDE group achieved a significantly higher ocular symptoms score compared with the control group (p = 0.0256). The SAS and SDS scores of the SSDE group were significantly higher than the non-SSDE group (p = 0.0072 and 0.0162, respectively). The prevalence of anxiety and depression in the SSDE group was significantly higher than the non-SSDE group (p = 0.0240 and 0.0200, respectively). Nine of twelve NEI-VFQ subscales were negatively correlated with SAS

  3. Deep Neural Networks: A New Framework for Modeling Biological Vision and Brain Information Processing.

    PubMed

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-11-24

    Recent advances in neural network modeling have enabled major strides in computer vision and other artificial intelligence applications. Human-level visual recognition abilities are coming within reach of artificial systems. Artificial neural networks are inspired by the brain, and their computations could be implemented in biological neurons. Convolutional feedforward networks, which now dominate computer vision, take further inspiration from the architecture of the primate visual hierarchy. However, the current models are designed with engineering goals, not to model brain computations. Nevertheless, initial studies comparing internal representations between these models and primate brains find surprisingly similar representational spaces. With human-level performance no longer out of reach, we are entering an exciting new era, in which we will be able to build biologically faithful feedforward and recurrent computational models of how biological brains perform high-level feats of intelligence, including vision.

  4. Bird Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Bird Vision system is a multicamera photogrammerty software application that runs on a Microsoft Windows XP platform and was developed at Kennedy Space Center by ASRC Aerospace. This software system collects data about the locations of birds within a volume centered on the Space Shuttle and transmits it in real time to the laptop computer of a test director in the Launch Control Center (LCC) Firing Room.

  5. The role of vision processing in prosthetic vision.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nick; He, Xuming; McCarthy, Chris; Horne, Lachlan; Kim, Junae; Scott, Adele; Lieby, Paulette

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic vision provides vision which is reduced in resolution and dynamic range compared to normal human vision. This comes about both due to residual damage to the visual system from the condition that caused vision loss, and due to limitations of current technology. However, even with limitations, prosthetic vision may still be able to support functional performance which is sufficient for tasks which are key to restoring independent living and quality of life. Here vision processing can play a key role, ensuring that information which is critical to the performance of key tasks is available within the capability of the available prosthetic vision. In this paper, we frame vision processing for prosthetic vision, highlight some key areas which present problems in terms of quality of life, and present examples where vision processing can help achieve better outcomes.

  6. Three-Dimensional Images For Robot Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, William D.

    1983-12-01

    Robots are attracting increased attention in the industrial productivity crisis. As one significant approach for this nation to maintain technological leadership, the need for robot vision has become critical. The "blind" robot, while occupying an economical niche at present is severely limited and job specific, being only one step up from the numerical controlled machines. To successfully satisfy robot vision requirements a three dimensional representation of a real scene must be provided. Several image acquistion techniques are discussed with more emphasis on the laser radar type instruments. The autonomous vehicle is also discussed as a robot form, and the requirements for these applications are considered. The total computer vision system requirement is reviewed with some discussion of the major techniques in the literature for three dimensional scene analysis.

  7. Optimized feature-detection for on-board vision-based surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gond, Laetitia; Monnin, David; Schneider, Armin

    2012-06-01

    The detection and matching of robust features in images is an important step in many computer vision applications. In this paper, the importance of the keypoint detection algorithms and their inherent parameters in the particular context of an image-based change detection system for IED detection is studied. Through extensive application-oriented experiments, we draw an evaluation and comparison of the most popular feature detectors proposed by the computer vision community. We analyze how to automatically adjust these algorithms to changing imaging conditions and suggest improvements in order to achieve more exibility and robustness in their practical implementation.

  8. A Computer Vision Approach to Identify Einstein Rings and Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chien-Hsiu

    2017-03-01

    Einstein rings are rare gems of strong lensing phenomena; the ring images can be used to probe the underlying lens gravitational potential at every position angles, tightly constraining the lens mass profile. In addition, the magnified images also enable us to probe high-z galaxies with enhanced resolution and signal-to-noise ratios. However, only a handful of Einstein rings have been reported, either from serendipitous discoveries or or visual inspections of hundred thousands of massive galaxies or galaxy clusters. In the era of large sky surveys, an automated approach to identify ring pattern in the big data to come is in high demand. Here, we present an Einstein ring recognition approach based on computer vision techniques. The workhorse is the circle Hough transform that recognise circular patterns or arcs in the images. We propose a two-tier approach by first pre-selecting massive galaxies associated with multiple blue objects as possible lens, than use Hough transform to identify circular pattern. As a proof-of-concept, we apply our approach to SDSS, with a high completeness, albeit with low purity. We also apply our approach to other lenses in DES, HSC-SSP, and UltraVISTA survey, illustrating the versatility of our approach.

  9. Automated surface inspection for steel products using computer vision approach.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jiaqi; Shentu, Lifeng; Hu, Jikang; Li, Mian

    2017-01-10

    Surface inspection is a critical step in ensuring the product quality in the steel-making industry. In order to relieve inspectors of laborious work and improve the consistency of inspection, much effort has been dedicated to the automated inspection using computer vision approaches over the past decades. However, due to non-uniform illumination conditions and similarity between the surface textures and defects, the present methods are usually applicable to very specific cases. In this paper a new framework for surface inspection has been proposed to overcome these limitations. By investigating the image formation process, a quantitative model characterizing the impact of illumination on the image quality is developed, based on which the non-uniform brightness in the image can be effectively removed. Then a simple classifier is designed to identify the defects among the surface textures. The significance of this approach lies in its robustness to illumination changes and wide applicability to different inspection scenarios. The proposed approach has been successfully applied to the real-time surface inspection of round billets in real manufacturing. Implemented on a conventional industrial PC, the algorithm can proceed at 12.5 frames per second with the successful detection rate being over 90% for turned and skinned billets.

  10. Image segmentation for enhancing symbol recognition in prosthetic vision.

    PubMed

    Horne, Lachlan; Barnes, Nick; McCarthy, Chris; He, Xuming

    2012-01-01

    Current and near-term implantable prosthetic vision systems offer the potential to restore some visual function, but suffer from poor resolution and dynamic range of induced phosphenes. This can make it difficult for users of prosthetic vision systems to identify symbolic information (such as signs) except in controlled conditions. Using image segmentation techniques from computer vision, we show it is possible to improve the clarity of such symbolic information for users of prosthetic vision implants in uncontrolled conditions. We use image segmentation to automatically divide a natural image into regions, and using a fixation point controlled by the user, select a region to phosphenize. This technique improves the apparent contrast and clarity of symbolic information over traditional phosphenization approaches.

  11. Hearing impairment caused by mutations in two different genes responsible for nonsyndromic and syndromic hearing loss within a single family.

    PubMed

    Niepokój, Katarzyna; Rygiel, Agnieszka M; Jurczak, Piotr; Kujko, Aleksandra A; Śniegórska, Dominika; Sawicka, Justyna; Grabarczyk, Alicja; Bal, Jerzy; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna

    2018-02-01

    Usher syndrome is rare genetic disorder impairing two human senses, hearing and vision, with the characteristic late onset of vision loss. This syndrome is divided into three types. In all cases, the vision loss is postlingual, while loss of hearing is usually prelingual. The vestibular functions may also be disturbed in Usher type 1 and sometimes in type 3. Vestibular areflexia is helpful in making a proper diagnosis of the syndrome, but, often, the syndrome is misdiagnosed as a nonsyndromic hearing loss. Here, we present a Polish family with hearing loss, which was clinically classified as nonsyndromic. After excluding mutations in the DFNB1 locus, we implemented the next-generation sequencing method and revealed that hearing loss was syndromic and mutations in the USH2A gene indicate Usher syndrome. This research highlights the importance of molecular analysis in establishing a clinical diagnosis of congenital hearing loss.

  12. Vision Based Autonomous Robotic Control for Advanced Inspection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    The advanced inspection system is an autonomous control and analysis system that improves the inspection and remediation operations for ground and surface systems. It uses optical imaging technology with intelligent computer vision algorithms to analyze physical features of the real-world environment to make decisions and learn from experience. The advanced inspection system plans to control a robotic manipulator arm, an unmanned ground vehicle and cameras remotely, automatically and autonomously. There are many computer vision, image processing and machine learning techniques available as open source for using vision as a sensory feedback in decision-making and autonomous robotic movement. My responsibilities for the advanced inspection system are to create a software architecture that integrates and provides a framework for all the different subsystem components; identify open-source algorithms and techniques; and integrate robot hardware.

  13. A method of detection to the grinding wheel layer thickness based on computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yuchen; Fu, Luhua; Yang, Dujuan; Wang, Lei; Liu, Changjie; Wang, Zhong

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposed a method of detection to the grinding wheel layer thickness based on computer vision. A camera is used to capture images of grinding wheel layer on the whole circle. Forward lighting and back lighting are used to enables a clear image to be acquired. Image processing is then executed on the images captured, which consists of image preprocessing, binarization and subpixel subdivision. The aim of binarization is to help the location of a chord and the corresponding ring width. After subpixel subdivision, the thickness of the grinding layer can be calculated finally. Compared with methods usually used to detect grinding wheel wear, method in this paper can directly and quickly get the information of thickness. Also, the eccentric error and the error of pixel equivalent are discussed in this paper.

  14. [Brain-computer interfaces, Locked-In syndrome, and disorders of consciousness].

    PubMed

    Lesenfants, Damien; Chatelle, Camille; Laureys, Steven; Noirhomme, Quentin

    2015-10-01

    Detecting signs of consciousness in patients with severe brain injury constitutes a real challenge for clinicians. The current gold standard in clinical diagnosis is the behavioral scale relying on motor abilities, which are often impaired or nonexistent in these patients. In this context, brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) could offer a potential complementary tool to detect signs of consciousness whilst bypassing the usual motor pathway. In addition to complementing behavioral assessments and potentially reducing error rate, BCIs could also serve as a communication tool for paralyzed but conscious patients, e.g., suffering from Locked-In Syndrome. In this paper, we report on recent work conducted by the Coma Science Group on BCI technology, aiming to optimize diagnosis and communication in patients with disorders of consciousness and Locked-In syndrome. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  15. Prevalence and geographical distribution of Usher syndrome in Germany.

    PubMed

    Spandau, Ulrich H M; Rohrschneider, Klaus

    2002-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of Usher syndrome in Heidelberg and Mannheim and to map its geographical distribution in Germany. Usher syndrome patients were ascertained through the databases of the Low Vision Department at the University of Heidelberg, and of the patient support group Pro Retina. Ophthalmic and audiologic examinations and medical records were used to classify patients into one of the subtypes. The database of the University of Heidelberg contains 247 Usher syndrome patients, 63 with Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) and 184 with Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2). The USH1:USH2 ratio in the Heidelberg database was 1:3. The Pro Retina database includes 248 Usher syndrome patients, 21 with USH1 and 227 with USH2. The total number of Usher syndrome patients was 424, with 75 USH1 and 349 USH2 patients; 71 patients were in both databases. The prevalence of Usher syndrome in Heidelberg and suburbs was calculated to be 6.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. There seems to be a homogeneous distribution in Germany for both subtypes. Knowledge of the high prevalence of Usher syndrome, with up to 5,000 patients in Germany, should lead to increased awareness and timely diagnosis by ophthalmologists and otologists. It should also ensure that these patients receive good support through hearing and vision aids.

  16. Lipid Vesicle Shape Analysis from Populations Using Light Video Microscopy and Computer Vision

    PubMed Central

    Zupanc, Jernej; Drašler, Barbara; Boljte, Sabina; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Iglič, Aleš; Erdogmus, Deniz; Drobne, Damjana

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for giant lipid vesicle shape analysis that combines manually guided large-scale video microscopy and computer vision algorithms to enable analyzing vesicle populations. The method retains the benefits of light microscopy and enables non-destructive analysis of vesicles from suspensions containing up to several thousands of lipid vesicles (1–50 µm in diameter). For each sample, image analysis was employed to extract data on vesicle quantity and size distributions of their projected diameters and isoperimetric quotients (measure of contour roundness). This process enables a comparison of samples from the same population over time, or the comparison of a treated population to a control. Although vesicles in suspensions are heterogeneous in sizes and shapes and have distinctively non-homogeneous distribution throughout the suspension, this method allows for the capture and analysis of repeatable vesicle samples that are representative of the population inspected. PMID:25426933

  17. Machine Learning and Computer Vision System for Phenotype Data Acquisition and Analysis in Plants.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Pedro J; Pérez, Fernando; Weiss, Julia; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2016-05-05

    Phenomics is a technology-driven approach with promising future to obtain unbiased data of biological systems. Image acquisition is relatively simple. However data handling and analysis are not as developed compared to the sampling capacities. We present a system based on machine learning (ML) algorithms and computer vision intended to solve the automatic phenotype data analysis in plant material. We developed a growth-chamber able to accommodate species of various sizes. Night image acquisition requires near infrared lightning. For the ML process, we tested three different algorithms: k-nearest neighbour (kNN), Naive Bayes Classifier (NBC), and Support Vector Machine. Each ML algorithm was executed with different kernel functions and they were trained with raw data and two types of data normalisation. Different metrics were computed to determine the optimal configuration of the machine learning algorithms. We obtained a performance of 99.31% in kNN for RGB images and a 99.34% in SVM for NIR. Our results show that ML techniques can speed up phenomic data analysis. Furthermore, both RGB and NIR images can be segmented successfully but may require different ML algorithms for segmentation.

  18. Case report of a patient with 'one-and-a-half plus syndrome: nine syndrome'.

    PubMed

    Uthman, Muhammad; Kamran, Mehreen

    2018-01-01

    This case talks about 'One-and-a-half plus syndrome', a clinical syndrome affecting binocular vision and facial nerve. One-and-a-half plus syndrome is a less known clinical syndrome which constitutes of a conjugate horizontal gaze palsy in one direction and an internuclear ophthalmoplegia in the other direction. Despite the known association between ischemia, autoimmune disorders, multiple sclerosis, with mono neuritis multiplex resulting in extra ocular movement disorder, one-and-a-half plus syndrome is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of eye ball movement disorders, as many clinicians are not able to diagnose such a case as ' the eyes don't see what the mind doesn't know'. Our report aims to raise awareness about connective tissue disorders presenting as neuro-ophthalmological syndrome, as early recognition can accelerate diagnosis and decrease the morbidity.

  19. Intelligent Vision On The SM9O Mini-Computer Basis And Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawryszkiw, J.

    1985-02-01

    Distinction has to be made between image processing and vision Image processing finds its roots in the strong tradition of linear signal processing and promotes geometrical transform techniques, such as fi I tering , compression, and restoration. Its purpose is to transform an image for a human observer to easily extract from that image information significant for him. For example edges after a gradient operator, or a specific direction after a directional filtering operation. Image processing consists in fact in a set of local or global space-time transforms. The interpretation of the final image is done by the human observer. The purpose of vision is to extract the semantic content of the image. The machine can then understand that content, and run a process of decision, which turns into an action. Thus, intel I i gent vision depends on - Image processing - Pattern recognition - Artificial intel I igence

  20. Proteus: a reconfigurable computational network for computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haralick, Robert M.; Somani, Arun K.; Wittenbrink, Craig M.; Johnson, Robert; Cooper, Kenneth; Shapiro, Linda G.; Phillips, Ihsin T.; Hwang, Jenq N.; Cheung, William; Yao, Yung H.; Chen, Chung-Ho; Yang, Larry; Daugherty, Brian; Lorbeski, Bob; Loving, Kent; Miller, Tom; Parkins, Larye; Soos, Steven L.

    1992-04-01

    The Proteus architecture is a highly parallel MIMD, multiple instruction, multiple-data machine, optimized for large granularity tasks such as machine vision and image processing The system can achieve 20 Giga-flops (80 Giga-flops peak). It accepts data via multiple serial links at a rate of up to 640 megabytes/second. The system employs a hierarchical reconfigurable interconnection network with the highest level being a circuit switched Enhanced Hypercube serial interconnection network for internal data transfers. The system is designed to use 256 to 1,024 RISC processors. The processors use one megabyte external Read/Write Allocating Caches for reduced multiprocessor contention. The system detects, locates, and replaces faulty subsystems using redundant hardware to facilitate fault tolerance. The parallelism is directly controllable through an advanced software system for partitioning, scheduling, and development. System software includes a translator for the INSIGHT language, a parallel debugger, low and high level simulators, and a message passing system for all control needs. Image processing application software includes a variety of point operators neighborhood, operators, convolution, and the mathematical morphology operations of binary and gray scale dilation, erosion, opening, and closing.

  1. High accuracy position method based on computer vision and error analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shihao; Shi, Zhongke

    2003-09-01

    The study of high accuracy position system is becoming the hotspot in the field of autocontrol. And positioning is one of the most researched tasks in vision system. So we decide to solve the object locating by using the image processing method. This paper describes a new method of high accuracy positioning method through vision system. In the proposed method, an edge-detection filter is designed for a certain running condition. Here, the filter contains two mainly parts: one is image-processing module, this module is to implement edge detection, it contains of multi-level threshold self-adapting segmentation, edge-detection and edge filter; the other one is object-locating module, it is to point out the location of each object in high accurate, and it is made up of medium-filtering and curve-fitting. This paper gives some analysis error for the method to prove the feasibility of vision in position detecting. Finally, to verify the availability of the method, an example of positioning worktable, which is using the proposed method, is given at the end of the paper. Results show that the method can accurately detect the position of measured object and identify object attitude.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Mainzer-Saldino syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common rod-cone dystrophy is called retinitis pigmentosa , and the vision problems in Mainzer-Saldino syndrome ... deposits of pigment in the retina from which retinitis pigmentosa gets its name are often not found in ...

  3. Psychoanatomical substrates of Bálint's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, M; Vecera, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: From a series of glimpses, we perceive a seamless and richly detailed visual world. Cerebral damage, however, can destroy this illusion. In the case of Bálint's syndrome, the visual world is perceived erratically, as a series of single objects. The goal of this review is to explore a range of psychological and anatomical explanations for this striking visual disorder and to propose new directions for interpreting the findings in Bálint's syndrome and related cerebral disorders of visual processing. Methods: Bálint's syndrome is reviewed in the light of current concepts and methodologies of vision research. Results: The syndrome affects visual perception (causing simultanagnosia/visual disorientation) and visual control of eye and hand movement (causing ocular apraxia and optic ataxia). Although it has been generally construed as a biparietal syndrome causing an inability to see more than one object at a time, other lesions and mechanisms are also possible. Key syndrome components are dissociable and comprise a range of disturbances that overlap the hemineglect syndrome. Inouye's observations in similar cases, beginning in 1900, antedated Bálint's initial report. Because Bálint's syndrome is not common and is difficult to assess with standard clinical tools, the literature is dominated by case reports and confounded by case selection bias, non-uniform application of operational definitions, inadequate study of basic vision, poor lesion localisation, and failure to distinguish between deficits in the acute and chronic phases of recovery. Conclusions: Studies of Bálint's syndrome have provided unique evidence on neural substrates for attention, perception, and visuomotor control. Future studies should address possible underlying psychoanatomical mechanisms at "bottom up" and "top down" levels, and should specifically consider visual working memory and attention (including object based attention) as well as systems for identification of object

  4. Computer vision-based automated peak picking applied to protein NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Klukowski, Piotr; Walczak, Michal J; Gonczarek, Adam; Boudet, Julien; Wider, Gerhard

    2015-09-15

    A detailed analysis of multidimensional NMR spectra of macromolecules requires the identification of individual resonances (peaks). This task can be tedious and time-consuming and often requires support by experienced users. Automated peak picking algorithms were introduced more than 25 years ago, but there are still major deficiencies/flaws that often prevent complete and error free peak picking of biological macromolecule spectra. The major challenges of automated peak picking algorithms is both the distinction of artifacts from real peaks particularly from those with irregular shapes and also picking peaks in spectral regions with overlapping resonances which are very hard to resolve by existing computer algorithms. In both of these cases a visual inspection approach could be more effective than a 'blind' algorithm. We present a novel approach using computer vision (CV) methodology which could be better adapted to the problem of peak recognition. After suitable 'training' we successfully applied the CV algorithm to spectra of medium-sized soluble proteins up to molecular weights of 26 kDa and to a 130 kDa complex of a tetrameric membrane protein in detergent micelles. Our CV approach outperforms commonly used programs. With suitable training datasets the application of the presented method can be extended to automated peak picking in multidimensional spectra of nucleic acids or carbohydrates and adapted to solid-state NMR spectra. CV-Peak Picker is available upon request from the authors. gsw@mol.biol.ethz.ch; michal.walczak@mol.biol.ethz.ch; adam.gonczarek@pwr.edu.pl Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Late onset seizures, hemiparesis and blindness in hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bennett, B; Booth, T; Quan, A

    2003-03-01

    Neurologic complications of hemolytic uremic syndrome, including seizures, usually occur early during the acute phase of the illness. We report a3-year-old girl with classic diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome who developed late onset seizures, hemiparesis and transient blindness on the 17th hospital day, at which time her recovery was characterized by improvement in her blood pressure, serum electrolytes, renal function, hematocrit and platelet count. A CT and MR revealed brainstem and posterior parietal and occipital infarct/edema. The association of these radiologic findings within the posterior distribution along with visual loss and seizures are unique to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Within 7 days, she regained motor function and vision and had no further seizure activity. At 6 months follow-up, physical examination revealed normal motor function and vision and a repeat MR showed near resolution of the previous findings with minimal occipital lobe gliosis. This case report describes the uncommon finding of late onset seizures occurring during the recovery phase of hemolytic uremic syndrome with MR findings consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

  6. Counseling Students Who Have Usher Syndrome. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lago-Avery, Patricia, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    Usher Syndrome is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by congenital hearing loss and gradually developing retinitis pigmentosa leading to the loss of vision. Approximately 27,000 people in the United States have some form of Usher Syndrome. Most of these individuals have either Type I (11,000) or Type II (16,000). Type I Usher…

  7. Audible vision for the blind and visually impaired in indoor open spaces.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Audible Vision, a system that can help blind and visually impaired users navigate in large indoor open spaces. The system uses computer vision to estimate the location and orientation of the user, and enables the user to perceive his/her relative position to a landmark through 3D audio. Testing shows that Audible Vision can work reliably in real-life ever-changing environment crowded with people.

  8. Evaluating focused ion beam patterning for position-controlled nanowire growth using computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosberg, A. B.; Myklebost, S.; Ren, D.; Weman, H.; Fimland, B. O.; van Helvoort, A. T. J.

    2017-09-01

    To efficiently evaluate the novel approach of focused ion beam (FIB) direct patterning of substrates for nanowire growth, a reference matrix of hole arrays has been used to study the effect of ion fluence and hole diameter on nanowire growth. Self-catalyzed GaAsSb nanowires were grown using molecular beam epitaxy and studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To ensure an objective analysis, SEM images were analyzed with computer vision to automatically identify nanowires and characterize each array. It is shown that FIB milling parameters can be used to control the nanowire growth. Lower ion fluence and smaller diameter holes result in a higher yield (up to 83%) of single vertical nanowires, while higher fluence and hole diameter exhibit a regime of multiple nanowires. The catalyst size distribution and placement uniformity of vertical nanowires is best for low-value parameter combinations, indicating how to improve the FIB parameters for positioned-controlled nanowire growth.

  9. Computer vision techniques for rotorcraft low altitude flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar

    1990-01-01

    Rotorcraft operating in high-threat environments fly close to the earth's surface to utilize surrounding terrain, vegetation, or manmade objects to minimize the risk of being detected by an enemy. Increasing levels of concealment are achieved by adopting different tactics during low-altitude flight. Rotorcraft employ three tactics during low-altitude flight: low-level, contour, and nap-of-the-earth (NOE). The key feature distinguishing the NOE mode from the other two modes is that the whole rotorcraft, including the main rotor, is below tree-top whenever possible. This leads to the use of lateral maneuvers for avoiding obstacles, which in fact constitutes the means for concealment. The piloting of the rotorcraft is at best a very demanding task and the pilot will need help from onboard automation tools in order to devote more time to mission-related activities. The development of an automation tool which has the potential to detect obstacles in the rotorcraft flight path, warn the crew, and interact with the guidance system to avoid detected obstacles, presents challenging problems. Research is described which applies techniques from computer vision to automation of rotorcraft navigtion. The effort emphasizes the development of a methodology for detecting the ranges to obstacles in the region of interest based on the maximum utilization of passive sensors. The range map derived from the obstacle-detection approach can be used as obstacle data for the obstacle avoidance in an automatic guidance system and as advisory display to the pilot. The lack of suitable flight imagery data presents a problem in the verification of concepts for obstacle detection. This problem is being addressed by the development of an adequate flight database and by preprocessing of currently available flight imagery. The presentation concludes with some comments on future work and how research in this area relates to the guidance of other autonomous vehicles.

  10. Computer EEG-monitoring of laserotherapy effects in patients with asteno-depressive syndrome.

    PubMed

    Omelchenko, V P; Baranchook, I S; Dmitriev, M N

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays the low-intensive laserotherapy is shown to be an effective and non-hazardous method of asteno-depressive syndrome treatment. The differences of EEG-reactions to laser influences have been revealed in patients of different age groups. And the close negative correlation between the therapy effect, on the one hand, and the patient's age and the disease duration, on the other hand, has been shown. No significant changes of the patient's state or integrative EEG-indices have been evoked by a placebo application. The results showed the advantages of the low-intensive laserotherapy in asteno-depressive syndrome treatment and confirmed the significance of computer EEG-monitoring for prediction, control and correction of the state of the patient.

  11. Medical informatics and telemedicine: A vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemmer, Terry P.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of medical informatics is to improve care. This requires the commitment and harmonious collaboration between the computer scientists and clinicians and an integrated database. The vision described is how medical information systems are going to impact the way medical care is delivered in the future.

  12. On-Chip Imaging of Schistosoma haematobium Eggs in Urine for Diagnosis by Computer Vision

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Ewert; Grote, Anne; Varjo, Sami; Linder, Nina; Lebbad, Marianne; Lundin, Mikael; Diwan, Vinod; Hannuksela, Jari; Lundin, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Background Microscopy, being relatively easy to perform at low cost, is the universal diagnostic method for detection of most globally important parasitic infections. As quality control is hard to maintain, misdiagnosis is common, which affects both estimates of parasite burdens and patient care. Novel techniques for high-resolution imaging and image transfer over data networks may offer solutions to these problems through provision of education, quality assurance and diagnostics. Imaging can be done directly on image sensor chips, a technique possible to exploit commercially for the development of inexpensive “mini-microscopes”. Images can be transferred for analysis both visually and by computer vision both at point-of-care and at remote locations. Methods/Principal Findings Here we describe imaging of helminth eggs using mini-microscopes constructed from webcams and mobile phone cameras. The results show that an inexpensive webcam, stripped off its optics to allow direct application of the test sample on the exposed surface of the sensor, yields images of Schistosoma haematobium eggs, which can be identified visually. Using a highly specific image pattern recognition algorithm, 4 out of 5 eggs observed visually could be identified. Conclusions/Significance As proof of concept we show that an inexpensive imaging device, such as a webcam, may be easily modified into a microscope, for the detection of helminth eggs based on on-chip imaging. Furthermore, algorithms for helminth egg detection by machine vision can be generated for automated diagnostics. The results can be exploited for constructing simple imaging devices for low-cost diagnostics of urogenital schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical infectious diseases. PMID:24340107

  13. Understanding of and applications for robot vision guidance at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shawaga, Lawrence M.

    1988-01-01

    The primary thrust of robotics at KSC is for the servicing of Space Shuttle remote umbilical docking functions. In order for this to occur, robots performing servicing operations must be capable of tracking a swaying Orbiter in Six Degrees of Freedom (6-DOF). Currently, in NASA KSC's Robotic Applications Development Laboratory (RADL), an ASEA IRB-90 industrial robot is being equipped with a real-time computer vision (hardware and software) system to allow it to track a simulated Orbiter interface (target) in 6-DOF. The real-time computer vision system effectively becomes the eyes for the lab robot, guiding it through a closed loop visual feedback system to move with the simulated Orbiter interface. This paper will address an understanding of this vision guidance system and how it will be applied to remote umbilical servicing at KSC. In addition, other current and future applications will be addressed.

  14. A computer vision system for the recognition of trees in aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinz, Axel J.

    1991-01-01

    Increasing problems of forest damage in Central Europe set the demand for an appropriate forest damage assessment tool. The Vision Expert System (VES) is presented which is capable of finding trees in color infrared aerial photographs. Concept and architecture of VES are discussed briefly. The system is applied to a multisource test data set. The processing of this multisource data set leads to a multiple interpretation result for one scene. An integration of these results will provide a better scene description by the vision system. This is achieved by an implementation of Steven's correlation algorithm.

  15. Three-camera stereo vision for intelligent transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergendahl, Jason; Masaki, Ichiro; Horn, Berthold K. P.

    1997-02-01

    A major obstacle in the application of stereo vision to intelligent transportation system is high computational cost. In this paper, a PC based three-camera stereo vision system constructed with off-the-shelf components is described. The system serves as a tool for developing and testing robust algorithms which approach real-time performance. We present an edge based, subpixel stereo algorithm which is adapted to permit accurate distance measurements to objects in the field of view using a compact camera assembly. Once computed, the 3D scene information may be directly applied to a number of in-vehicle applications, such as adaptive cruise control, obstacle detection, and lane tracking. Moreover, since the largest computational costs is incurred in generating the 3D scene information, multiple applications that leverage this information can be implemented in a single system with minimal cost. On-road applications, such as vehicle counting and incident detection, are also possible. Preliminary in-vehicle road trial results are presented.

  16. Smartphones as image processing systems for prosthetic vision.

    PubMed

    Zapf, Marc P; Matteucci, Paul B; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of implants for prosthetic vision has been demonstrated by research and commercial organizations. In most devices, an essential forerunner to the internal stimulation circuit is an external electronics solution for capturing, processing and relaying image information as well as extracting useful features from the scene surrounding the patient. The capabilities and multitude of image processing algorithms that can be performed by the device in real-time plays a major part in the final quality of the prosthetic vision. It is therefore optimal to use powerful hardware yet to avoid bulky, straining solutions. Recent publications have reported of portable single-board computers fast enough for computationally intensive image processing. Following the rapid evolution of commercial, ultra-portable ARM (Advanced RISC machine) mobile devices, the authors investigated the feasibility of modern smartphones running complex face detection as external processing devices for vision implants. The role of dedicated graphics processors in speeding up computation was evaluated while performing a demanding noise reduction algorithm (image denoising). The time required for face detection was found to decrease by 95% from 2.5 year old to recent devices. In denoising, graphics acceleration played a major role, speeding up denoising by a factor of 18. These results demonstrate that the technology has matured sufficiently to be considered as a valid external electronics platform for visual prosthetic research.

  17. The loss and recovery of vertebrate vision examined in microplates.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Robert J; Clift, Danielle E; Ojo, Oladele; Colwill, Ruth M; Creton, Robbert

    2017-01-01

    Regenerative medicine offers potentially ground-breaking treatments of blindness and low vision. However, as new methodologies are developed, a critical question will need to be addressed: how do we monitor in vivo for functional success? In the present study, we developed novel behavioral assays to examine vision in a vertebrate model system. In the assays, zebrafish larvae are imaged in multiwell or multilane plates while various red, green, blue, yellow or cyan objects are presented to the larvae on a computer screen. The assays were used to examine a loss of vision at 4 or 5 days post-fertilization and a gradual recovery of vision in subsequent days. The developed assays are the first to measure the loss and recovery of vertebrate vision in microplates and provide an efficient platform to evaluate novel treatments of visual impairment.

  18. Ideas for Teaching Vision and Visioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quijada, Maria Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    In teaching leadership, a key element to include should be a discussion about vision: what it is, how to communicate it, and how to ensure that it is effective and shared. This article describes a series of exercises that rely on videos to illustrate different aspects of vision and visioning, both in the positive and in the negative. The article…

  19. Fusion of Multiple Sensing Modalities for Machine Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-31

    Modeling of Non-Homogeneous 3-D Objects for Thermal and Visual Image Synthesis," Pattern Recognition, in press. U [11] Nair, Dinesh , and J. K. Aggarwal...20th AIPR Workshop: Computer Vision--Meeting the Challenges, McLean, Virginia, October 1991. Nair, Dinesh , and J. K. Aggarwal, "An Object Recognition...Computer Engineering August 1992 Sunil Gupta Ph.D. Student Mohan Kumar M.S. Student Sandeep Kumar M.S. Student Xavier Lebegue Ph.D., Computer

  20. Computer use and carpal tunnel syndrome: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiri, Rahman; Falah-Hassani, Kobra

    2015-02-15

    Studies have reported contradictory results on the role of keyboard or mouse use in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This meta-analysis aimed to assess whether computer use causes CTS. Literature searches were conducted in several databases until May 2014. Twelve studies qualified for a random-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. In a meta-analysis of six studies (N=4964) that compared computer workers with the general population or other occupational populations, computer/typewriter use (pooled odds ratio (OR)=0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58-0.90), computer/typewriter use ≥1 vs. <1h/day (OR=0.63, 95% CI 0.38-1.04) and computer/typewriter use ≥4 vs. <4h/day (OR=0.68, 95% CI 0.54-0.87) were inversely associated with CTS. Conversely, in a meta-analysis of six studies (N=5202) conducted among office workers, CTS was positively associated with computer/typewriter use (pooled OR=1.34, 95% CI 1.08-1.65), mouse use (OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.43-2.61), frequent computer use (OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.15-3.09), frequent mouse use (OR=1.84, 95% CI 1.18-2.87) and with years of computer work (OR=1.92, 95% CI 1.17-3.17 for long vs. short). There was no evidence of publication bias for both types of studies. Studies that compared computer workers with the general population or several occupational groups did not control their estimates for occupational risk factors. Thus, office workers with no or little computer use are a more appropriate comparison group than the general population or several occupational groups. This meta-analysis suggests that excessive computer use, particularly mouse usage might be a minor occupational risk factor for CTS. Further prospective studies among office workers with objectively assessed keyboard and mouse use, and CTS symptoms or signs confirmed by a nerve conduction study are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. VibroCV: a computer vision-based vibroarthrography platform with possible application to Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Andrew D; Prahalad, Sampath; Inan, Omer T

    2016-08-01

    Vibroarthrography, a method for interpreting the sounds emitted by a knee during movement, has been studied for several joint disorders since 1902. However, to our knowledge, the usefulness of this method for management of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) has not been investigated. To study joint sounds as a possible new biomarker for pediatric cases of JIA we designed and built VibroCV, a platform to capture vibroarthrograms from four accelerometers; electromyograms (EMG) and inertial measurements from four wireless EMG modules; and joint angles from two Sony Eye cameras and six light-emitting diodes with commercially-available off-the-shelf parts and computer vision via OpenCV. This article explains the design of this turn-key platform in detail, and provides a sample recording captured from a pediatric subject.

  2. Doubtful descent, dilemma and diagnosis: a case of Kallmann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, P P; Chowdhury, S R; Mandal, S K; Bandyopadhyay, D

    2007-03-01

    A 16-year-old boy with a diagnosis of bilateral cryptorchidism was referred for preoperative evaluation. He had diminished hearing and difficulty in vision since birth, with inattentiveness, poor school performance and delayed milestones. He was previously operated on for cleft lip. General survey revealed bilateral short fourth metacarpals and an operative scar mark over the left nostril and upper lip. He had a micropenis, small soft testes with anosmia, and sensory-motor deafness. The hormonal assay was consistent with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and computed tomography cisternography revealed almost hypoplastic olfactory bulb with an ill-defined olfactory tract and sulci, supporting the clinical diagnosis of Kallmann syndrome.

  3. Merged Vision and GPS Control of a Semi-Autonomous, Small Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    This final report documents the activities performed during the research period from April 1, 1996 to September 30, 1997. It contains three papers: Carrier Phase GPS and Computer Vision for Control of an Autonomous Helicopter; A Contestant in the 1997 International Aerospace Robotics Laboratory Stanford University; and Combined CDGPS and Vision-Based Control of a Small Autonomous Helicopter.

  4. Pigmentary maculopathy in a patient with Wolfram syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dhalla, Mandeep S; Desai, Uday R; Zuckerbrod, Daniel S

    2006-02-01

    We describe a rare association of pigmentary maculopathy with Wolfram syndrome not previously reported in the literature. A 12-year-old boy presented to the retina service with a diagnosis of Wolfram syndrome and a history of poor central vision. The patient was found to have bilateral atrophic pigmentary maculopathy that was confirmed with fluorescein angiography. Wolfram syndrome may present with a pigmentary maculopathy and this rare finding may assist the clinician in making appropriate genetic referral when this diagnosis is suspected.

  5. Computer Vision Syndrome for Non-Native Speaking Students: What Are the Problems with Online Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Min-chen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the online reading performances and the level of visual fatigue from the perspectives of non-native speaking students (NNSs). Reading on a computer screen is more visually more demanding than reading printed text. Online reading requires frequent saccadic eye movements and imposes continuous focusing and alignment demand.…

  6. Surveillance of Vision and Ocular Disorders in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephen, Elma; Dickson, Jennifer; Kindley, A. David; Scott, Christopher C.; Charleton, Patricia M.

    2007-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome have a high prevalence of ocular disorders. The UK Down's Syndrome Medical Interest Group (DSMIG) guidelines for ophthalmic screening were locally implemented into a protocol that included neonatal eye examination by an opthalmologist and a comprehensive ophthalmological examination (cycloplegic refraction,…

  7. Vision-based navigation in a dynamic environment for virtual human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Sun, Ji-Zhou; Zhang, Jia-Wan; Li, Ming-Chu

    2004-06-01

    Intelligent virtual human is widely required in computer games, ergonomics software, virtual environment and so on. We present a vision-based behavior modeling method to realize smart navigation in a dynamic environment. This behavior model can be divided into three modules: vision, global planning and local planning. Vision is the only channel for smart virtual actor to get information from the outside world. Then, the global and local planning module use A* and D* algorithm to find a way for virtual human in a dynamic environment. Finally, the experiments on our test platform (Smart Human System) verify the feasibility of this behavior model.

  8. Counseling Students Who Have Usher Syndrome. NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lago-Avery, Patricia, Comp.

    2001-01-01

    Usher Syndrome is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by congenital hearing loss and gradually developing retinitis pigmentosa leading to the loss of vision. Approximately 25,000 people in the United States have some form of Usher Syndrome. Most of these individuals have either Type I (10,000) or Type II (15,000). Type I Usher…

  9. Evaluation of cardiovascular anomalies in patients with asymptomatic turner syndrome using multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Hee; Jung, Ji Mi; Song, Min Seob; Choi, Seok jin; Chung, Woo Yeong

    2013-08-01

    Turner syndrome is well known to be associated with significant cardiovascular abnormalities. This paper studied the incidence of cardiovascular abnormalities in asymptomatic adolescent patients with Turner syndrome using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) instead of echocardiography. Twenty subjects diagnosed with Turner syndrome who had no cardiac symptoms were included. Blood pressure and electrocardiography (ECG) was checked. Cardiovascular abnormalities were checked by MDCT. According to the ECG results, 11 had a prolonged QTc interval, 5 had a posterior fascicular block, 3 had a ventricular conduction disorder. MDCT revealed vascular abnormalities in 13 patients (65%). Three patients had an aberrant right subclavian artery, 2 had dilatation of left subclavian artery, and others had an aortic root dilatation, aortic diverticulum, and abnormal left vertebral artery. As for venous abnormalities, 3 patients had partial anomalous pulmonary venous return and 2 had a persistent left superior vena cava. This study found cardiovascular abnormalities in 65% of asymptomatic Turner syndrome patients using MDCT. Even though, there are no cardiac symptoms in Turner syndrome patients, a complete evaluation of the heart with echocardiography or MDCT at transition period to adults must be performed.

  10. Remote-controlled vision-guided mobile robot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ande, Raymond; Samu, Tayib; Hall, Ernest L.

    1997-09-01

    Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) have many potential applications in manufacturing, medicine, space and defense. The purpose of this paper is to describe exploratory research on the design of the remote controlled emergency stop and vision systems for an autonomous mobile robot. The remote control provides human supervision and emergency stop capabilities for the autonomous vehicle. The vision guidance provides automatic operation. A mobile robot test-bed has been constructed using a golf cart base. The mobile robot (Bearcat) was built for the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems (AUVS) 1997 competition. The mobile robot has full speed control with guidance provided by a vision system and an obstacle avoidance system using ultrasonic sensors systems. Vision guidance is accomplished using two CCD cameras with zoom lenses. The vision data is processed by a high speed tracking device, communicating with the computer the X, Y coordinates of blobs along the lane markers. The system also has three emergency stop switches and a remote controlled emergency stop switch that can disable the traction motor and set the brake. Testing of these systems has been done in the lab as well as on an outside test track with positive results that show that at five mph the vehicle can follow a line and at the same time avoid obstacles.

  11. Local spatio-temporal analysis in vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, Wilson S.; Bovik, Alan; Cormack, Lawrence; Ghosh, Joydeep; Gildeen, David

    1994-07-01

    The aims of this project are the following: (1) develop a physiologically and psychophysically based model of low-level human visual processing (a key component of which are local frequency coding mechanisms); (2) develop image models and image-processing methods based upon local frequency coding; (3) develop algorithms for performing certain complex visual tasks based upon local frequency representations, (4) develop models of human performance in certain complex tasks based upon our understanding of low-level processing; and (5) develop a computational testbed for implementing, evaluating and visualizing the proposed models and algorithms, using a massively parallel computer. Progress has been substantial on all aims. The highlights include the following: (1) completion of a number of psychophysical and physiological experiments revealing new, systematic and exciting properties of the primate (human and monkey) visual system; (2) further development of image models that can accurately represent the local frequency structure in complex images; (3) near completion in the construction of the Texas Active Vision Testbed; (4) development and testing of several new computer vision algorithms dealing with shape-from-texture, shape-from-stereo, and depth-from-focus; (5) implementation and evaluation of several new models of human visual performance; and (6) evaluation, purchase and installation of a MasPar parallel computer.

  12. AI And Early Vision - Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1989-08-01

    A quarter of a century ago I introduced two paradigms into psychology which in the intervening years have had a direct impact on the psychobiology of early vision and an indirect one on artificial intelligence (AI or machine vision). The first, the computer-generated random-dot stereogram (RDS) paradigm (Julesz, 1960) at its very inception posed a strategic question both for AI and neurophysiology. The finding that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis) is possible without the many enigmatic cues of monocular form recognition - as assumed previously - demonstrated that stereopsis with its basic problem of finding matches between corresponding random aggregates of dots in the left and right visual fields became ripe for modeling. Indeed, the binocular matching problem of stereopsis opened up an entire field of study, eventually leading to the computational models of David Marr (1982) and his coworkers. The fusion of RDS had an even greater impact on neurophysiologists - including Hubel and Wiesel (1962) - who realized that stereopsis must occur at an early stage, and can be studied easier than form perception. This insight recently culminated in the studies by Gian Poggio (1984) who found binocular-disparity - tuned neurons in the input stage to the visual cortex (layer IVB in V1) in the monkey that were selectively triggered by dynamic RDS. Thus the first paradigm led to a strategic insight: that with stereoscopic vision there is no camouflage, and as such was advantageous for our primate ancestors to evolve the cortical machinery of stereoscopic vision to capture camouflaged prey (insects) at a standstill. Amazingly, although stereopsis evolved relatively late in primates, it captured the very input stages of the visual cortex. (For a detailed review, see Julesz, 1986a)

  13. Computational thinking and thinking about computing

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Jeannette M.

    2008-01-01

    Computational thinking will influence everyone in every field of endeavour. This vision poses a new educational challenge for our society, especially for our children. In thinking about computing, we need to be attuned to the three drivers of our field: science, technology and society. Accelerating technological advances and monumental societal demands force us to revisit the most basic scientific questions of computing. PMID:18672462

  14. Microscope self-calibration based on micro laser line imaging and soft computing algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apolinar Muñoz Rodríguez, J.

    2018-06-01

    A technique to perform microscope self-calibration via micro laser line and soft computing algorithms is presented. In this technique, the microscope vision parameters are computed by means of soft computing algorithms based on laser line projection. To implement the self-calibration, a microscope vision system is constructed by means of a CCD camera and a 38 μm laser line. From this arrangement, the microscope vision parameters are represented via Bezier approximation networks, which are accomplished through the laser line position. In this procedure, a genetic algorithm determines the microscope vision parameters by means of laser line imaging. Also, the approximation networks compute the three-dimensional vision by means of the laser line position. Additionally, the soft computing algorithms re-calibrate the vision parameters when the microscope vision system is modified during the vision task. The proposed self-calibration improves accuracy of the traditional microscope calibration, which is accomplished via external references to the microscope system. The capability of the self-calibration based on soft computing algorithms is determined by means of the calibration accuracy and the micro-scale measurement error. This contribution is corroborated by an evaluation based on the accuracy of the traditional microscope calibration.

  15. The software for automatic creation of the formal grammars used by speech recognition, computer vision, editable text conversion systems, and some new functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardava, Irakli; Tadyszak, Krzysztof; Gulua, Nana; Jurga, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    For more flexibility of environmental perception by artificial intelligence it is needed to exist the supporting software modules, which will be able to automate the creation of specific language syntax and to make a further analysis for relevant decisions based on semantic functions. According of our proposed approach, of which implementation it is possible to create the couples of formal rules of given sentences (in case of natural languages) or statements (in case of special languages) by helping of computer vision, speech recognition or editable text conversion system for further automatic improvement. In other words, we have developed an approach, by which it can be achieved to significantly improve the training process automation of artificial intelligence, which as a result will give us a higher level of self-developing skills independently from us (from users). At the base of our approach we have developed a software demo version, which includes the algorithm and software code for the entire above mentioned component's implementation (computer vision, speech recognition and editable text conversion system). The program has the ability to work in a multi - stream mode and simultaneously create a syntax based on receiving information from several sources.

  16. 2020 Vision Project Summary

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gordon, K.W.; Scott, K.P.

    2000-11-01

    Since the 2020 Vision project began in 1996, students from participating schools have completed and submitted a variety of scenarios describing potential world and regional conditions in the year 2020 and their possible effect on US national security. This report summarizes the students' views and describes trends observed over the course of the 2020 Vision project's five years. It also highlights the main organizational features of the project. An analysis of thematic trends among the scenarios showed interesting shifts in students' thinking, particularly in their views of computer technology, US relations with China, and globalization. In 1996, most students perceivedmore » computer technology as highly beneficial to society, but as the year 2000 approached, this technology was viewed with fear and suspicion, even personified as a malicious, uncontrollable being. Yet, after New Year's passed with little disruption, students generally again perceived computer technology as beneficial. Also in 1996, students tended to see US relations with China as potentially positive, with economic interaction proving favorable to both countries. By 2000, this view had transformed into a perception of China emerging as the US' main rival and ''enemy'' in the global geopolitical realm. Regarding globalization, students in the first two years of the project tended to perceive world events as dependent on US action. However, by the end of the project, they saw the US as having little control over world events and therefore, we Americans would need to cooperate and compromise with other nations in order to maintain our own well-being.« less

  17. Camera calibration method of binocular stereo vision based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wanzhen; Dong, Xiaona

    2015-10-01

    Camera calibration, an important part of the binocular stereo vision research, is the essential foundation of 3D reconstruction of the spatial object. In this paper, the camera calibration method based on OpenCV (open source computer vision library) is submitted to make the process better as a result of obtaining higher precision and efficiency. First, the camera model in OpenCV and an algorithm of camera calibration are presented, especially considering the influence of camera lens radial distortion and decentering distortion. Then, camera calibration procedure is designed to compute those parameters of camera and calculate calibration errors. High-accurate profile extraction algorithm and a checkboard with 48 corners have also been used in this part. Finally, results of calibration program are presented, demonstrating the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach. The results can reach the requirement of robot binocular stereo vision.

  18. Vision Based Localization in Urban Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McHenry, Michael; Cheng, Yang; Matthies, Larry

    2005-01-01

    As part of DARPA's MARS2020 program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a vision-based system for localization in urban environments that requires neither GPS nor active sensors. System hardware consists of a pair of small FireWire cameras and a standard Pentium-based computer. The inputs to the software system consist of: 1) a crude grid-based map describing the positions of buildings, 2) an initial estimate of robot location and 3) the video streams produced by each camera. At each step during the traverse the system: captures new image data, finds image features hypothesized to lie on the outside of a building, computes the range to those features, determines an estimate of the robot's motion since the previous step and combines that data with the map to update a probabilistic representation of the robot's location. This probabilistic representation allows the system to simultaneously represent multiple possible locations, For our testing, we have derived the a priori map manually using non-orthorectified overhead imagery, although this process could be automated. The software system consists of two primary components. The first is the vision system which uses binocular stereo ranging together with a set of heuristics to identify features likely to be part of building exteriors and to compute an estimate of the robot's motion since the previous step. The resulting visual features and the associated range measurements are software component, a particle-filter based localization system. This system uses the map and the then fed to the second primary most recent results from the vision system to update the estimate of the robot's location. This report summarizes the design of both the hardware and software and will include the results of applying the system to the global localization of a robot over an approximately half-kilometer traverse across JPL'S Pasadena campus.

  19. A computer-vision-based rotating speed estimation method for motor bearing fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxian; Guo, Jie; Lu, Siliang; Shen, Changqing; He, Qingbo

    2017-06-01

    Diagnosis of motor bearing faults under variable speed is a problem. In this study, a new computer-vision-based order tracking method is proposed to address this problem. First, a video recorded by a high-speed camera is analyzed with the speeded-up robust feature extraction and matching algorithm to obtain the instantaneous rotating speed (IRS) of the motor. Subsequently, an audio signal recorded by a microphone is equi-angle resampled for order tracking in accordance with the IRS curve, through which the frequency-domain signal is transferred to an angular-domain one. The envelope order spectrum is then calculated to determine the fault characteristic order, and finally the bearing fault pattern is determined. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method are verified with two brushless direct-current motor test rigs, in which two defective bearings and a healthy bearing are tested separately. This study provides a new noninvasive measurement approach that simultaneously avoids the installation of a tachometer and overcomes the disadvantages of tacholess order tracking methods for motor bearing fault diagnosis under variable speed.

  20. Measuring vigilance decrement using computer vision assisted eye tracking in dynamic naturalistic environments.

    PubMed

    Bodala, Indu P; Abbasi, Nida I; Yu Sun; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Al-Nashash, Hasan; Thakor, Nitish V

    2017-07-01

    Eye tracking offers a practical solution for monitoring cognitive performance in real world tasks. However, eye tracking in dynamic environments is difficult due to high spatial and temporal variation of stimuli, needing further and thorough investigation. In this paper, we study the possibility of developing a novel computer vision assisted eye tracking analysis by using fixations. Eye movement data is obtained from a long duration naturalistic driving experiment. Source invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm was implemented using VLFeat toolbox to identify multiple areas of interest (AOIs). A new measure called `fixation score' was defined to understand the dynamics of fixation position between the target AOI and the non target AOIs. Fixation score is maximum when the subjects focus on the target AOI and diminishes when they gaze at the non-target AOIs. Statistically significant negative correlation was found between fixation score and reaction time data (r =-0.2253 and p<;0.05). This implies that with vigilance decrement, the fixation score decreases due to visual attention shifting away from the target objects resulting in an increase in the reaction time.

  1. The Use of Visual Feedback during Signing: Evidence from Signers with Impaired Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmorey, Karen; Korpics, Franco; Petronio, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The role of visual feedback during the production of American Sign Language was investigated by comparing the size of signing space during conversations and narrative monologues for normally sighted signers, signers with tunnel vision due to Usher syndrome, and functionally blind signers. The interlocutor for all groups was a normally sighted deaf…

  2. Vision-guided gripping of a cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicewarner, Keith E.; Kelley, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    The motivation for vision-guided servoing is taken from tasks in automated or telerobotic space assembly and construction. Vision-guided servoing requires the ability to perform rapid pose estimates and provide predictive feature tracking. Monocular information from a gripper-mounted camera is used to servo the gripper to grasp a cylinder. The procedure is divided into recognition and servo phases. The recognition stage verifies the presence of a cylinder in the camera field of view. Then an initial pose estimate is computed and uncluttered scan regions are selected. The servo phase processes only the selected scan regions of the image. Given the knowledge, from the recognition phase, that there is a cylinder in the image and knowing the radius of the cylinder, 4 of the 6 pose parameters can be estimated with minimal computation. The relative motion of the cylinder is obtained by using the current pose and prior pose estimates. The motion information is then used to generate a predictive feature-based trajectory for the path of the gripper.

  3. Prediction of pork loin quality using online computer vision system and artificial intelligence model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Young, Jennifer; Liu, Jeng-Hung; Newman, David

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a computer vision system (CVS) for objective measurement of pork loin under industry speed requirement. Color images of pork loin samples were acquired using a CVS. Subjective color and marbling scores were determined according to the National Pork Board standards by a trained evaluator. Instrument color measurement and crude fat percentage were used as control measurements. Image features (18 color features; 1 marbling feature; 88 texture features) were extracted from whole pork loin color images. Artificial intelligence prediction model (support vector machine) was established for pork color and marbling quality grades. The results showed that CVS with support vector machine modeling reached the highest prediction accuracy of 92.5% for measured pork color score and 75.0% for measured pork marbling score. This research shows that the proposed artificial intelligence prediction model with CVS can provide an effective tool for predicting color and marbling in the pork industry at online speeds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pigmentary glaucoma accompanied by Usher syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koucheki, Behrooz; Jalali, Kamran Hodjat

    2012-08-01

    To report a case of pigmentary glaucoma (PG) accompanied by Usher syndrome. Case report. The results were presented after standard ocular examination, visual field test, anterior segment and fundus photography, electroretinography, and otolaryngology consultation were conducted. Typical retinitis pigmentosa, flat electroretinography, congenital sensorineural hearing loss, high intraocular pressure, Krukenberg spindle, iris concavity, radial iris transillumination defect, severe pigment deposition on the trabecular meshwork, and glaucomatous optic nerve damage were indicative of PG accompanied by Usher syndrome. In some rare cases, PG may coexist with Usher syndrome. Common findings of Usher syndrome, including night blindness, impaired vision, visual field defects, and retinal changes may distract the clinician from considering the diagnosis of glaucoma. Such association should be borne in mind to make a timely diagnosis and treatment possible.

  5. Use of radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of navicular syndrome in the horse.

    PubMed

    Widmer, W R; Buckwalter, K A; Fessler, J F; Hill, M A; VanSickle, D C; Ivancevich, S

    2000-01-01

    Radiographic evaluation of navicular syndrome is problematic because of its inconsistent correlation with clinical signs. Scintigraphy often yields false positive and false negative results and diagnostic ultrasound is of limited value. Therefore, we assessed the use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in a horse with clinical and radiographic signs of navicular syndrome. Cadaver specimens were examined with spiral computed tomographic and high-field magnetic resonance scanners and images were correlated with pathologic findings. Radiographic changes consisted of bony remodeling, which included altered synovial fossae, increased medullary opacity, cyst formation and shape change. These osseous changes were more striking and more numerous on computed tomographic and magnetic resonance images. They were most clearly defined with computed tomography. Many osseous changes seen with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were not radiographically evident. Histologically confirmed soft tissue alterations of the deep digital flexor tendon, impar ligament and marrow were identified with magnetic resonance imaging, but not with conventional radiography. Because of their multiplanar capability and tomographic nature, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging surpass conventional radiography for navicular imaging, facilitating earlier, more accurate diagnosis. Current advances in imaging technology should make these imaging modalities available to equine practitioners in the future.

  6. Wearable Improved Vision System for Color Vision Deficiency Correction

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Daniel; Di Perna, Luigi; Sanniti Di Baja, Gabriella; De Nino, Maurizio; Rossi, Settimio; Testa, Francesco; Simonelli, Francesca; Frucci, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Color vision deficiency (CVD) is an extremely frequent vision impairment that compromises the ability to recognize colors. In order to improve color vision in a subject with CVD, we designed and developed a wearable improved vision system based on an augmented reality device. The system was validated in a clinical pilot study on 24 subjects with CVD (18 males and 6 females, aged 37.4 ± 14.2 years). The primary outcome was the improvement in the Ishihara Vision Test score with the correction proposed by our system. The Ishihara test score significantly improved (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$p = 0.03$ \\end{document}) from 5.8 ± 3.0 without correction to 14.8 ± 5.0 with correction. Almost all patients showed an improvement in color vision, as shown by the increased test scores. Moreover, with our system, 12 subjects (50%) passed the vision color test as normal vision subjects. The development and preliminary validation of the proposed platform confirm that a wearable augmented-reality device could be an effective aid to improve color vision in subjects with CVD. PMID:28507827

  7. Robotic space simulation integration of vision algorithms into an orbital operations simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bochsler, Daniel C.

    1987-01-01

    In order to successfully plan and analyze future space activities, computer-based simulations of activities in low earth orbit will be required to model and integrate vision and robotic operations with vehicle dynamics and proximity operations procedures. The orbital operations simulation (OOS) is configured and enhanced as a testbed for robotic space operations. Vision integration algorithms are being developed in three areas: preprocessing, recognition, and attitude/attitude rates. The vision program (Rice University) was modified for use in the OOS. Systems integration testing is now in progress.

  8. Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bhambhani, Vikas; Muenke, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a common genetic disorder that causes multiple congenital abnormalities and a large number of potential health conditions. Most affected individuals have characteristic facial features that evolve with age; a broad, webbed neck; increased bleeding tendency; and a high incidence of congenital heart disease, failure to thrive, short stature, feeding difficulties, sternal deformity, renal malformation, pubertal delay, cryptorchidism, developmental or behavioral problems, vision problems, hearing loss, and lymphedema. Familial recurrence is consistent with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, but most cases are due to de novo mutations. Diagnosis can be made on the basis of clinical features, but may be missed in mildly affected patients. Molecular genetic testing can confirm diagnosis in 70% of cases and has important implications for genetic counseling and management. Most patients with Noonan syndrome are intellectually normal as adults, but some may require multidisciplinary evaluation and regular follow-up care. Age-based Noonan syndrome-specific growth charts and treatment guidelines are available.

  9. Ocular surface involvements in ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David P; Chandler, John W; McCulley, James P

    2015-06-01

    To present the ocular manifestation of 2 cases of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome, a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome caused by a single point mutation of the p63 gene that controls epidermal development and homeostasis and to present treatment options. Patient 1 presented with mild signs and symptoms of dry eye and limbal stem cell deficiency with retention of 20/30 vision. Patient 2 presented with severe signs and symptoms of limbal stem cell deficiency with diffuse corneal scarring and counting fingers vision. This second patient's course was complicated by allergic conjunctivitis and advanced steroid-induced glaucoma. The cause of visual loss in ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome appears to be multifactorial and likely includes inflammation of the ocular surface, tear film abnormalities, eyelid abnormalities, and limbal stem cell deficiency. Treatment modalities including lubrication, contact lenses, and limbal stem cell transplantation are reviewed. The ophthalmic conditions seen in ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome frequently lead to vision loss. Early correct diagnosis and appropriate therapy are paramount because p63 gene mutations have a critical role in maintaining the integrity of the ocular surface in the setting of limbal stem cell deficiency, especially if there are other ocular surface insults such as lid disease, meibomian gland dysfunction and toxicity from topical medications. Patients should be monitored at regular, frequent intervals; and particular attention should be taken to avoid adverse secondary effects of these conditions and medications. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A malaria diagnostic tool based on computer vision screening and visualization of Plasmodium falciparum candidate areas in digitized blood smears.

    PubMed

    Linder, Nina; Turkki, Riku; Walliander, Margarita; Mårtensson, Andreas; Diwan, Vinod; Rahtu, Esa; Pietikäinen, Matti; Lundin, Mikael; Lundin, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria, however, manual evaluation of blood films is highly dependent on skilled personnel in a time-consuming, error-prone and repetitive process. In this study we propose a method using computer vision detection and visualization of only the diagnostically most relevant sample regions in digitized blood smears. Giemsa-stained thin blood films with P. falciparum ring-stage trophozoites (n = 27) and uninfected controls (n = 20) were digitally scanned with an oil immersion objective (0.1 µm/pixel) to capture approximately 50,000 erythrocytes per sample. Parasite candidate regions were identified based on color and object size, followed by extraction of image features (local binary patterns, local contrast and Scale-invariant feature transform descriptors) used as input to a support vector machine classifier. The classifier was trained on digital slides from ten patients and validated on six samples. The diagnostic accuracy was tested on 31 samples (19 infected and 12 controls). From each digitized area of a blood smear, a panel with the 128 most probable parasite candidate regions was generated. Two expert microscopists were asked to visually inspect the panel on a tablet computer and to judge whether the patient was infected with P. falciparum. The method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 100% as well as 90% and 100% for the two readers respectively using the diagnostic tool. Parasitemia was separately calculated by the automated system and the correlation coefficient between manual and automated parasitemia counts was 0.97. We developed a decision support system for detecting malaria parasites using a computer vision algorithm combined with visualization of sample areas with the highest probability of malaria infection. The system provides a novel method for blood smear screening with a significantly reduced need for visual examination and has a potential to increase the

  11. Recent advances in the development and transfer of machine vision technologies for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defigueiredo, Rui J. P.; Pendleton, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Recent work concerned with real-time machine vision is briefly reviewed. This work includes methodologies and techniques for optimal illumination, shape-from-shading of general (non-Lambertian) 3D surfaces, laser vision devices and technology, high level vision, sensor fusion, real-time computing, artificial neural network design and use, and motion estimation. Two new methods that are currently being developed for object recognition in clutter and for 3D attitude tracking based on line correspondence are discussed.

  12. Unilateral glaucoma in Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism).

    PubMed

    Yen, M T; Gedde, S J; Flynn, J T

    2000-12-01

    To report a patient with unilateral glaucoma associated with Sotos syndrome. Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism) is a disorder of growth and development with characteristic facial changes and normal endocrine function. Ocular manifestations may also include megalocornea, iris hypoplasia, cataracts, megalophthalmos, strabismus, nystagmus, and retinal dystrophy. Case report. A 50 year-old man with the clinical features of Sotos syndrome presented with complaints of decreased vision in the left eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed bilateral megalocornea, megalophthalmos, iris hypoplasia and transillumination defects, cataracts, and unilateral glaucoma. Intraocular pressure was lowered, and visual field loss was stabilized with topical medications. Sotos syndrome patients should be examined routinely to allow for early detection and treatment of potential ocular problems, including glaucoma.

  13. The use of computer vision in an intelligent environment to support aging-in-place, safety, and independence in the home.

    PubMed

    Mihailidis, Alex; Carmichael, Brent; Boger, Jennifer

    2004-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of computer vision in pervasive healthcare systems, specifically in the design of a sensing agent for an intelligent environment that assists older adults with dementia during an activity of daily living. An overview of the techniques applied in this particular example is provided, along with results from preliminary trials completed using the new sensing agent. A discussion of the results obtained to date is presented, including technical and social issues that remain for the advancement and acceptance of this type of technology within pervasive healthcare.

  14. Identifying the computational requirements of an integrated top-down-bottom-up model for overt visual attention within an active vision system.

    PubMed

    McBride, Sebastian; Huelse, Martin; Lee, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Computational visual attention systems have been constructed in order for robots and other devices to detect and locate regions of interest in their visual world. Such systems often attempt to take account of what is known of the human visual system and employ concepts, such as 'active vision', to gain various perceived advantages. However, despite the potential for gaining insights from such experiments, the computational requirements for visual attention processing are often not clearly presented from a biological perspective. This was the primary objective of this study, attained through two specific phases of investigation: 1) conceptual modeling of a top-down-bottom-up framework through critical analysis of the psychophysical and neurophysiological literature, 2) implementation and validation of the model into robotic hardware (as a representative of an active vision system). Seven computational requirements were identified: 1) transformation of retinotopic to egocentric mappings, 2) spatial memory for the purposes of medium-term inhibition of return, 3) synchronization of 'where' and 'what' information from the two visual streams, 4) convergence of top-down and bottom-up information to a centralized point of information processing, 5) a threshold function to elicit saccade action, 6) a function to represent task relevance as a ratio of excitation and inhibition, and 7) derivation of excitation and inhibition values from object-associated feature classes. The model provides further insight into the nature of data representation and transfer between brain regions associated with the vertebrate 'active' visual attention system. In particular, the model lends strong support to the functional role of the lateral intraparietal region of the brain as a primary area of information consolidation that directs putative action through the use of a 'priority map'.

  15. F-18 FDG PET/CT in 26 patients with SAPHO syndrome: a new vision of clinical and bone scintigraphy correlation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaochuan; Li, Chen; Cao, Yihan; Shi, Ximin; Li, Li; Zhang, Weihong; Wu, Xia; Wu, Nan; Jing, Hongli; Zhang, Wen

    2018-05-22

    Whole-body bone scintigraphy (WBBS) and MRI are widely used in assessment of patients with synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome. However, the value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) in SAPHO syndrome was unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the manifestation of SAPHO syndrome on 18 F-FDG PET/CT and explore its relationship with clinical symptoms and WBBS. Twenty-six patients who suffered from SAPHO syndrome and had undergone whole-body 18 F-FDG PET/CT were recruited in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2004 to 2016. Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings were recorded for all patients. Imaging data on 18F-FDG PET/CT and WBBS were collected and analyzed retrospectively. All the 26 patients (20 females and 6 males) exhibited skeletal abnormalities on 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Multiple skeletal lesions affecting the anterior chest wall or spine with low to moderate 18 F-FDG uptake and coexistence of osteolysis and osteosclerosis presented as the typical features of SAPHO syndrome. Sixteen (61.5%) patients had abnormal 18 F-FDG uptake outside the osteoarticular system. PET scan had moderate to substantial agreement with CT and WBBS in revealing lesions in the anterior chest wall and axial skeleton. Nonetheless, the correlation between increased 18 F-FDG uptake and clinical symptoms was weak. SAPHO syndrome exhibits characteristic features on 18 F-FDG PET/CT. It showed comparable capacity in revealing skeletal lesions with bone scintigraphy.

  16. Vector disparity sensor with vergence control for active vision systems.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Francisco; Diaz, Javier; Gibaldi, Agostino; Sabatini, Silvio P; Ros, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for computing vector disparity for active vision systems as used on robotics applications. The control of the vergence angle of a binocular system allows us to efficiently explore dynamic environments, but requires a generalization of the disparity computation with respect to a static camera setup, where the disparity is strictly 1-D after the image rectification. The interaction between vision and motor control allows us to develop an active sensor that achieves high accuracy of the disparity computation around the fixation point, and fast reaction time for the vergence control. In this contribution, we address the development of a real-time architecture for vector disparity computation using an FPGA device. We implement the disparity unit and the control module for vergence, version, and tilt to determine the fixation point. In addition, two on-chip different alternatives for the vector disparity engines are discussed based on the luminance (gradient-based) and phase information of the binocular images. The multiscale versions of these engines are able to estimate the vector disparity up to 32 fps on VGA resolution images with very good accuracy as shown using benchmark sequences with known ground-truth. The performances in terms of frame-rate, resource utilization, and accuracy of the presented approaches are discussed. On the basis of these results, our study indicates that the gradient-based approach leads to the best trade-off choice for the integration with the active vision system.

  17. Vector Disparity Sensor with Vergence Control for Active Vision Systems

    PubMed Central

    Barranco, Francisco; Diaz, Javier; Gibaldi, Agostino; Sabatini, Silvio P.; Ros, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for computing vector disparity for active vision systems as used on robotics applications. The control of the vergence angle of a binocular system allows us to efficiently explore dynamic environments, but requires a generalization of the disparity computation with respect to a static camera setup, where the disparity is strictly 1-D after the image rectification. The interaction between vision and motor control allows us to develop an active sensor that achieves high accuracy of the disparity computation around the fixation point, and fast reaction time for the vergence control. In this contribution, we address the development of a real-time architecture for vector disparity computation using an FPGA device. We implement the disparity unit and the control module for vergence, version, and tilt to determine the fixation point. In addition, two on-chip different alternatives for the vector disparity engines are discussed based on the luminance (gradient-based) and phase information of the binocular images. The multiscale versions of these engines are able to estimate the vector disparity up to 32 fps on VGA resolution images with very good accuracy as shown using benchmark sequences with known ground-truth. The performances in terms of frame-rate, resource utilization, and accuracy of the presented approaches are discussed. On the basis of these results, our study indicates that the gradient-based approach leads to the best trade-off choice for the integration with the active vision system. PMID:22438737

  18. Protyping machine vision software on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karantalis, George; Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1998-10-01

    Interactive image processing is a proven technique for analyzing industrial vision applications and building prototype systems. Several of the previous implementations have used dedicated hardware to perform the image processing, with a top layer of software providing a convenient user interface. More recently, self-contained software packages have been devised and these run on a standard computer. The advent of the Java programming language has made it possible to write platform-independent software, operating over the Internet, or a company-wide Intranet. Thus, there arises the possibility of designing at least some shop-floor inspection/control systems, without the vision engineer ever entering the factories where they will be used. It successful, this project will have a major impact on the productivity of vision systems designers.

  19. Are Medications Involved in Vision and Intracranial Pressure Changes Seen in Spaceflight?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, V. E.

    2015-01-01

    Some crewmembers have experienced changes in their vision after long-duration spaceflight on the ISS. These impairments include visual performance decrements, development of cotton-wool spots or choroidal folds, optic-disc edema, optic nerve sheath distention, and/or posterior globe flattening with varying degrees of severity and permanence. These changes are now used to define the visual impairment/intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. It is known that many medications can have side effects that are similar to VIIP symptoms. Some medications raise blood pressure, which can affect intracranial pressure. Many medications that act in the central nervous system can affect intracranial pressures and/or vision. About 40% of the medications in the ISS kit are known to cause side effects involving changes in blood pressure, intracranial pressure and/or vision. For this reason, we have begun an investigation of the potential relationship between ISS medications and their risk of causing or exacerbating VIIP-like symptoms.

  20. Final Report for Geometric Observers and Particle Filtering for Controlled Active Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-15

    code) 15-12-2016 Final Report 01Sep06 - 09May11 Final Report for Geometric Observers & Particle Filtering for Controlled Active Vision 49414-NS.1Allen...Observers and Particle Filtering for Controlled Active Vision by Allen R. Tannenbaum School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia Institute of...7 2.2.4 Conformal Area Minimizing Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.3 Particle Filters

  1. Anxiety and Charles Bonnet Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geueke, Anna; Morley, Michael G.; Morley, Katharine; Lorch, Alice; Jackson, MaryLou; Lambrou, Angeliki; Wenberg, June; Oteng-Amoako, Afua

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Some persons with Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) suffer significant anxiety because of their visual hallucinations, while others do not. The aim of the study presented here was to compare levels of anxiety in persons with low vision with and without CBS. Methods: This retrospective study compared the level of anxiety in 31 persons…

  2. Concurrent Acute Retinal Necrosis in a Patient With Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, A P; Srinivasan, Renuka

    2016-11-01

    To report a rare case of concurrent acute retinal necrosis in a patient with iridocorneal endothelial syndrome (ICE). Case report. A 42-year-old woman showed acute diminution of vision in the right eye. Her fundus examination revealed features of acute retinal necrosis. She had also experienced gradual diminution of vision in her left eye for 5 years. The examination of her left eye revealed corneal edema with mild corectopia and increased intraocular pressure with abnormal endothelium on specular microscopy pointing to a diagnosis of ICE. This is a rare case where concurrent acute retinal necrosis and ICE syndrome are present in the same patient, possibly pointing to a common viral etiology causing both entities.

  3. Grounding Our Vision: Brain Research and Strategic Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Mike

    2011-01-01

    While recognizing the value of "vision," it could be argued that vision alone--at least in schools--is not enough to rally the financial and emotional support required to translate an idea into reality. A compelling vision needs to reflect substantive, research-based knowledge if it is to spark the kind of strategic thinking and insight…

  4. Television, computer and portable display device use by people with central vision impairment

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Russell L; Satgunam, PremNandhini

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To survey the viewing experience (e.g. hours watched, difficulty) and viewing metrics (e.g. distance viewed, display size) for television (TV), computers and portable visual display devices for normally-sighted (NS) and visually impaired participants. This information may guide visual rehabilitation. Methods Survey was administered either in person or in a telephone interview on 223 participants of whom 104 had low vision (LV, worse than 6/18, age 22 to 90y, 54 males), and 94 were NS (visual acuity 6/9 or better, age 20 to 86y, 50 males). Depending on their situation, NS participants answered up to 38 questions and LV participants answered up to a further 10 questions. Results Many LV participants reported at least “some” difficulty watching TV (71/103), reported at least “often” having difficulty with computer displays (40/76) and extreme difficulty watching videos on handheld devices (11/16). The average daily TV viewing was slightly, but not significantly, higher for the LV participants (3.6h) than the NS (3.0h). Only 18% of LV participants used visual aids (all optical) to watch TV. Most LV participants obtained effective magnification from a reduced viewing distance for both TV and computer display. Younger LV participants also used a larger display when compared to older LV participants to obtain increased magnification. About half of the TV viewing time occurred in the absence of a companion for both the LV and the NS participants. The mean number of TVs at home reported by LV participants (2.2) was slightly but not significantly (p=0.09) higher than NS participants (2.0). LV participants were equally likely to have a computer but were significantly (p=0.004) less likely to access the internet (73/104) compared to NS participants (82/94). Most LV participants expressed an interest in image enhancing technology for TV viewing (67/104) and for computer use (50/74), if they used a computer. Conclusion In this study, both NS and LV participants

  5. Efficacy of vision restoration therapy after optic neuritis (VISION study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schinzel, Johann; Schwarzlose, Lina; Dietze, Holger; Bartusch, Karolina; Weiss, Susanne; Ohlraun, Stephanie; Paul, Friedemann; Dörr, Jan

    2012-06-28

    Optic neuritis is a frequent manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Visual deficits range from a minor impairment of visual functions through to complete loss of vision. Although many patients recover almost completely, roughly 35% of patients remain visually impaired for years, and therapeutic options for those patients hardly exist. Vision restoration therapy is a software-based visual training program that has been shown to improve visual deficits after pre- and postchiasmatic injury. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate whether residual visual deficits after past or recent optic neuritis can be reduced by means of vision restoration therapy. A randomized, controlled, patient- and observer-blinded clinical pilot study (VISION study) was designed to evaluate the efficacy of vision restoration therapy in optic neuritis patients. Eighty patients with a residual visual deficit after optic neuritis (visual acuity ≤0.7 and/or scotoma) will be stratified according to the time of optic neuritis onset (manifestation more than 12 months ago (40 patients, fixed deficit) versus manifestation 2 to 6 months ago (40 patients, recent optic neuritis)), and randomized into vision restoration therapy arm or saccadic training arm (control intervention). Patients will be instructed to complete a computer-based visual training for approximately 30 minutes each day for a period of 6 months. Patients and evaluators remain blinded to the treatment allocation throughout the study. All endpoints will be analyzed and P-values < 0.05 will be considered statistically significant. The primary outcome parameter will be the expansion of the visual field after 3 and 6 months of treatment as determined by static visual field perimetry and high resolution perimetry. Secondary outcome variables will include visual acuity at both low and high contrast, glare contrast sensitivity, visually evoked potentials, optical coherence tomography and other functional tests of the visual system, alertness

  6. Effect of povidone 2% preservative-free eyedrops on contact lens wearers with computer visual syndrome: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Michel; Maissa, Cecile; Pouliquen, Pascale; Delval, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    To show that the use of povidone 2% preservative-free lubricating eyedrops reduces computer visual syndrome in contact lens wearers and to identify the best eyedrop instillation protocols. The test product was FILMABAK a CE-marked nonpreserved lubricant, povidone 2% delivered by the ABAK system. Three dispensing modalities were evaluated during contact lens wear and computer use: hourly instillation, symptom-related instillation, and patient's own instillation. During sustained computer use, a decrease in symptoms associated with the use of povidone 2% was statistically and clinically significant. However, the symptoms were not fully eliminated by the use of the test eyedrop. The three instillation routines achieved similar beneficial effects. No significant changes in ocular tissue response were observed, and the staining recorded after sustained computer use remained low. The use of povidone 2% preservative-free lubricating eyedrops under any of the three instillation modalities tested was also associated with a slight improvement in dynamic visual acuity. The use of povidone 2% preservative-free eyedrops was associated with an improvement in symptoms during sustained computer use. Any of the three instillation modalities decreased symptoms of ocular tiredness, dryness, and difficulty of focus; maintained an unchanged corneal surface; and improved dynamic visual acuity. Therefore, the most patient-friendly modality (patient's own instillation modality from symptom onset) could be recommended to contact lens wearers with computer visual syndrome.

  7. A computer vision framework for finger-tapping evaluation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, Taha; Nyholm, Dag; Westin, Jerker; Dougherty, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The rapid finger-tapping test (RFT) is an important method for clinical evaluation of movement disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). In clinical practice, the naked-eye evaluation of RFT results in a coarse judgment of symptom scores. We introduce a novel computer-vision (CV) method for quantification of tapping symptoms through motion analysis of index-fingers. The method is unique as it utilizes facial features to calibrate tapping amplitude for normalization of distance variation between the camera and subject. The study involved 387 video footages of RFT recorded from 13 patients diagnosed with advanced PD. Tapping performance in these videos was rated by two clinicians between the symptom severity levels ('0: normal' to '3: severe') using the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale motor examination of finger-tapping (UPDRS-FT). Another set of recordings in this study consisted of 84 videos of RFT recorded from 6 healthy controls. These videos were processed by a CV algorithm that tracks the index-finger motion between the video-frames to produce a tapping time-series. Different features were computed from this time series to estimate speed, amplitude, rhythm and fatigue in tapping. The features were trained in a support vector machine (1) to categorize the patient group between UPDRS-FT symptom severity levels, and (2) to discriminate between PD patients and healthy controls. A new representative feature of tapping rhythm, 'cross-correlation between the normalized peaks' showed strong Guttman correlation (μ2=-0.80) with the clinical ratings. The classification of tapping features using the support vector machine classifier and 10-fold cross validation categorized the patient samples between UPDRS-FT levels with an accuracy of 88%. The same classification scheme discriminated between RFT samples of healthy controls and PD patients with an accuracy of 95%. The work supports the feasibility of the approach, which is presumed suitable for PD monitoring

  8. Bilateral uveitis and Usher syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Benson, Matthew D; MacDonald, Ian M

    2015-03-15

    Usher syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous condition and represents the most common cause of inherited combined vision and hearing loss. Deficits manifest as sensorineural hearing loss that typically develops at a young age and retinitis pigmentosa that can lead to peripheral vision loss and night blindness. As a result, this syndrome can have a significant impact on a patient's quality of life. Previous studies have described an association between Usher syndrome and Fuchs' heterochromic iridocyclitis, a form of non-granulomatous uveitis that generally presents in a unilateral manner. We present a rare finding of bilateral uveitis and, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of granulomatous uveitis as a feature in a patient with Usher syndrome. A 45-year-old Caucasian woman with a known history of retinitis pigmentosa presented to our clinic with suspected Usher syndrome, given her report of long-standing hearing loss. Aside from a mild loss in visual acuity, our patient was otherwise asymptomatic. Visual field testing, audiology and electroretinography findings supported the diagnosis of Usher syndrome. With slit lamp examination she was found to have bilateral keratic precipitates, with large, greasy-white, mutton-fat keratic precipitates on the endothelial surface of her left eye. A thorough work-up that included blood tests and imaging was negative for an alternative cause of her uveitis. We present a rare finding of bilateral uveitis and what we believe to be the first reported instance of mutton-fat keratic precipitates and granulomatous uveitis as a feature in a patient with Usher syndrome. By identifying atypical presentations of the disease, we hope to contribute to the range of ophthalmic conditions that may be seen in association with Usher syndrome.

  9. A Vision-Based Motion Sensor for Undergraduate Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salumbides, Edcel John; Maristela, Joyce; Uy, Alfredson; Karremans, Kees

    2002-01-01

    Introduces an alternative method to determine the mechanics of a moving object that uses computer vision algorithms with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera as a recording device. Presents two experiments, pendulum motion and terminal velocity, to compare results of the alternative and conventional methods. (YDS)

  10. Making a vision document tangible using "vision-tactics-metrics" tables.

    PubMed

    Drury, Ivo; Slomski, Carol

    2006-01-01

    We describe a method of making a vision document tangible by attaching specific tactics and metrics to the key elements of the vision. We report on the development and early use of a "vision-tactics-metrics" table in a department of surgery. Use of the table centered the vision in the daily life of the department and its faculty, and facilitated cultural change.

  11. Application of machine vision to pup loaf bread evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayas, Inna Y.; Chung, O. K.

    1996-12-01

    Intrinsic end-use quality of hard winter wheat breeding lines is routinely evaluated at the USDA, ARS, USGMRL, Hard Winter Wheat Quality Laboratory. Experimental baking test of pup loaves is the ultimate test for evaluating hard wheat quality. Computer vision was applied to developing an objective methodology for bread quality evaluation for the 1994 and 1995 crop wheat breeding line samples. Computer extracted features for bread crumb grain were studied, using subimages (32 by 32 pixel) and features computed for the slices with different threshold settings. A subsampling grid was located with respect to the axis of symmetry of a slice to provide identical topological subimage information. Different ranking techniques were applied to the databases. Statistical analysis was run on the database with digital image and breadmaking features. Several ranking algorithms and data visualization techniques were employed to create a sensitive scale for porosity patterns of bread crumb. There were significant linear correlations between machine vision extracted features and breadmaking parameters. Crumb grain scores by human experts were correlated more highly with some image features than with breadmaking parameters.

  12. Computer vision applied to herbarium specimens of German trees: testing the future utility of the millions of herbarium specimen images for automated identification.

    PubMed

    Unger, Jakob; Merhof, Dorit; Renner, Susanne

    2016-11-16

    Global Plants, a collaborative between JSTOR and some 300 herbaria, now contains about 2.48 million high-resolution images of plant specimens, a number that continues to grow, and collections that are digitizing their specimens at high resolution are allocating considerable recourses to the maintenance of computer hardware (e.g., servers) and to acquiring digital storage space. We here apply machine learning, specifically the training of a Support-Vector-Machine, to classify specimen images into categories, ideally at the species level, using the 26 most common tree species in Germany as a test case. We designed an analysis pipeline and classification system consisting of segmentation, normalization, feature extraction, and classification steps and evaluated the system in two test sets, one with 26 species, the other with 17, in each case using 10 images per species of plants collected between 1820 and 1995, which simulates the empirical situation that most named species are represented in herbaria and databases, such as JSTOR, by few specimens. We achieved 73.21% accuracy of species assignments in the larger test set, and 84.88% in the smaller test set. The results of this first application of a computer vision algorithm trained on images of herbarium specimens shows that despite the problem of overlapping leaves, leaf-architectural features can be used to categorize specimens to species with good accuracy. Computer vision is poised to play a significant role in future rapid identification at least for frequently collected genera or species in the European flora.

  13. Applications of wavelets in interferometry and artificial vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalona Z., Rafael A.

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we present a different point of view of phase measurements performed in interferometry, image processing and intelligent vision using Wavelet Transform. In standard and white-light interferometry, the phase function is retrieved by using phase-shifting, Fourier-Transform, cosinus-inversion and other known algorithms. Our novel technique presented here is faster, robust and shows excellent accuracy in phase determinations. Finally, in our second application, fringes are no more generate by some light interaction but result from the observation of adapted strip set patterns directly printed on the target of interest. The moving target is simply observed by a conventional vision system and usual phase computation algorithms are adapted to an image processing by wavelet transform, in order to sense target position and displacements with a high accuracy. In general, we have determined that wavelet transform presents properties of robustness, relative speed of calculus and very high accuracy in phase computations.

  14. CT Image Sequence Analysis for Object Recognition - A Rule-Based 3-D Computer Vision System

    Treesearch

    Dongping Zhu; Richard W. Conners; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Research is now underway to create a vision system for hardwood log inspection using a knowledge-based approach. In this paper, we present a rule-based, 3-D vision system for locating and identifying wood defects using topological, geometric, and statistical attributes. A number of different features can be derived from the 3-D input scenes. These features and evidence...

  15. Ocular toxicity and functional vision recovery in a patient treated with hydroxychloroquine.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hurtado, Francisco Jorge; Sáez-Moreno, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Ferrer, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 64-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's syndrome, treated during 48 months with hydroxychloroquine that was removed after an ophthalmological evaluation showed bilateral vision loss associated with paracentral scotoma in the visual field, fundoscopic macular pigmentary changes, and severely impaired central multifocal electrorretinogram (mfERG). Twelve months after treatment withdrawal, visual acuity and central mfERG had surprisingly improved. This is an unusual case of functional recovery after treatment withdrawal. We consider that central mfERG is a more sensitive test than pattern electrorretinogram in the detection of retinal toxicity and functional vision recovery after hydroxychloroquine treatment cessation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Communication in the Early Stage of Language Development in Children with CHARGE Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltokorpi, Sini; Huttunen, Kerttu

    2008-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is characterized by multiple physical abnormalities, and impaired vision and hearing. In this pilot study, communication in the early stage of language development in three one- to eight-year-old children with CHARGE syndrome was explored using video recorded free-play interaction sessions and a parental questionnaire. The children…

  17. [Computer eyeglasses--aspects of a confusing topic].

    PubMed

    Huber-Spitzy, V; Janeba, E

    1997-01-01

    With the coming into force of the new Austrian Employee Protection Act the issue of the so called "computer glasses" will also gain added importance in our country. Such glasses have been defined as vision aids to be exclusively used for the work on computer monitors and include single-vision glasses solely intended for reading computer screen, glasses with bifocal lenses for reading computer screen and hard-copy documents as well as those with varifocal lenses featuring a thickened central section. There is still a considerable controversy among those concerned as to who will bear the costs for such glasses--most likely it will be the employer. Prescription of such vision aids will be exclusively restricted to ophthalmologists, based on a thorough ophthalmological examination under adequate consideration of the specific working environment and the workplace requirements of the individual employee concerned.

  18. Influence of Socially Used Drugs on Vision and Vision Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-07-31

    AD-A012 909 INFLUENCE OF SOCIALLY USED DRUGS ON VISION AND VISION PERFORMANCE OPTICAL SCIENCES GROUP PREPARED FOR ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND...AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE July 11, 1974 U.S. Army Medical Research and D mvelopmenteommand 13. NUMBER OF PAGES Washington, D.C. 203114 14...nreeeoary and identily by block number) vision vision performance alcohol marijuana tetrahydrocannabinol 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverae aide It

  19. Clinical Tests of Ultra-Low Vision Used to Evaluate Rudimentary Visual Perceptions Enabled by the BrainPort Vision Device.

    PubMed

    Nau, Amy; Bach, Michael; Fisher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated whether existing ultra-low vision tests are suitable for measuring outcomes using sensory substitution. The BrainPort is a vision assist device coupling a live video feed with an electrotactile tongue display, allowing a user to gain information about their surroundings. We enrolled 30 adult subjects (age range 22-74) divided into two groups. Our blind group included 24 subjects ( n = 16 males and n = 8 females, average age 50) with light perception or worse vision. Our control group consisted of six subjects ( n = 3 males, n = 3 females, average age 43) with healthy ocular status. All subjects performed 11 computer-based psychophysical tests from three programs: Basic Assessment of Light Motion, Basic Assessment of Grating Acuity, and the Freiburg Vision Test as well as a modified Tangent Screen. Assessments were performed at baseline and again using the BrainPort after 15 hours of training. Most tests could be used with the BrainPort. Mean success scores increased for all of our tests except contrast sensitivity. Increases were statistically significant for tests of light perception (8.27 ± 3.95 SE), time resolution (61.4% ± 3.14 SE), light localization (44.57% ± 3.58 SE), grating orientation (70.27% ± 4.64 SE), and white Tumbling E on a black background (2.49 logMAR ± 0.39 SE). Motion tests were limited by BrainPort resolution. Tactile-based sensory substitution devices are amenable to psychophysical assessments of vision, even though traditional visual pathways are circumvented. This study is one of many that will need to be undertaken to achieve a common outcomes infrastructure for the field of artificial vision.

  20. Lamotrigine-induced tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis-atypical Cogan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kolomeyer, Anton M; Kodati, Shyam

    2015-12-01

    To report a case of lamotrigine-induced tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU)-atypical Cogan syndrome. Case report. A 16-year-old boy with traumatic brain injury and seizures presented to the emergency department with facial swelling, rash, and back pain several days after increasing lamotrigine dose secondary to a breakthrough seizure. Creatinine, urine β2 microglobulin, and eosinophils were elevated. Antinuclear antibodies, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and complement were normal. Renal biopsy showed acute granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis. Lamotrigine was discontinued, intravenous steroids were initiated, and the patient was discharged on Ativan and prednisone. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with bilateral anterior uveitis (vision 20/30 bilaterally) and started on prednisolone and cyclopentolate. Two months later, he developed a branch retinal artery occlusion in the right eye (vision 20/70) and bilateral ocular hypertension for which timolol-brimonidine and dorzolamide were added. Neuroimaging and hypercoagulability workup was unremarkable. Vision and intraocular pressure improved, while uveitis remained recalcitrant. Several months later, the patient developed central serous retinopathy in the right eye (vision 20/30). Prednisone was stopped but restarted due to methotrexate intolerance. A month later, he reported dizziness and was diagnosed with severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed foci of perivascular, subcortical, and cochlear enhancement. Transtympanic Decadron injections and infliximab infusions were initiated. At the final visit, vision remained at 20/30 with trace anterior chamber reaction bilaterally while on timolol-brimonidine, dorzolamide, and prednisolone. An idiosyncratic drug reaction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of TINU-atypical Cogan syndrome.

  1. Rickettsial retinitis: acute unilateral vision loss with cystoid macular edema and stellate maculopathy.

    PubMed

    Gerwin, Brett; Read, Russell W; Taylor, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    To report on the presentation and treatment of a patient with infectious posterior segment uveitis because of infection with Rickettsia rickettsii. Interventional case report. We conducted a retrospective chart review of a 39-year-old man who presented with a history of acute vision loss in his right eye over a 6-day period. Vision at presentation in the involved eye was 2/200, with mild conjunctival injection, trace anterior chamber cell, moderate vitritis, localized retinitis and retinal hemorrhages, and severe macular edema. The left eye had 20/20 vision and was normal on examination. History was notable for a tick bite followed by high fevers, 1 month before presentation, at which time his family physician diagnosed mononucleosis syndrome with low platelets. A serum Rickettsia rickettsii test was positive. He was treated with oral doxycycline followed by corticosteroids. Vision gradually improved to 20/20 with minimal residual metamorphopsia. Only ten cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever-related uveitis have been reported. The current case is unique because of the delayed onset of ophthalmic complications after the tick bite, its unilateral nature, dramatic improvement in acuity after treatment, and lack of associated rash.

  2. Colour, vision and coevolution in avian brood parasitism.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Hauber, Mark E

    2017-07-05

    The coevolutionary interactions between avian brood parasites and their hosts provide a powerful system for investigating the diversity of animal coloration. Specifically, reciprocal selection pressure applied by hosts and brood parasites can give rise to novel forms and functions of animal coloration, which largely differ from those that arise when selection is imposed by predators or mates. In the study of animal colours, avian brood parasite-host dynamics therefore invite special consideration. Rapid advances across disciplines have paved the way for an integrative study of colour and vision in brood parasite-host systems. We now know that visually driven host defences and host life history have selected for a suite of phenotypic adaptations in parasites, including mimicry, crypsis and supernormal stimuli. This sometimes leads to vision-based host counter-adaptations and increased parasite trickery. Here, we review vision-based adaptations that arise in parasite-host interactions, emphasizing that these adaptations can be visual/sensory, cognitive or phenotypic in nature. We highlight recent breakthroughs in chemistry, genomics, neuroscience and computer vision, and we conclude by identifying important future directions. Moving forward, it will be essential to identify the genetic and neural bases of adaptation and to compare vision-based adaptations to those arising in other sensory modalities.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Non-destructive analysis of sensory traits of dry-cured loins by MRI-computer vision techniques and data mining.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Daniel; Antequera, Teresa; Caro, Andrés; Ávila, María Del Mar; G Rodríguez, Pablo; Perez-Palacios, Trinidad

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with computer vision techniques have been proposed as an alternative or complementary technique to determine the quality parameters of food in a non-destructive way. The aim of this work was to analyze the sensory attributes of dry-cured loins using this technique. For that, different MRI acquisition sequences (spin echo, gradient echo and turbo 3D), algorithms for MRI analysis (GLCM, NGLDM, GLRLM and GLCM-NGLDM-GLRLM) and predictive data mining techniques (multiple linear regression and isotonic regression) were tested. The correlation coefficient (R) and mean absolute error (MAE) were used to validate the prediction results. The combination of spin echo, GLCM and isotonic regression produced the most accurate results. In addition, the MRI data from dry-cured loins seems to be more suitable than the data from fresh loins. The application of predictive data mining techniques on computational texture features from the MRI data of loins enables the determination of the sensory traits of dry-cured loins in a non-destructive way. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The Effect of a Monocular Helmet-Mounted Display on Aircrew Health: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Apache AH Mk 1 Pilots -(Vision and Handedness)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-19

    reported by U.S. Army aviators using NVG for night flights (Glick and Moser, 1974). It was initially, and incorrectly, called “brown eye syndrome ...112 FREQUENCY Never Rarely Occasionally Often Eye irritation Eye pain Blurred vision Dry eye ... Eye pain Blurred vision Dry eye Light sensitivity j. Since your last contact lens review, did you experience any of the following

  5. Synthetic Vision Displays for Planetary and Lunar Lander Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Williams, Steven P.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Norman, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Aviation research has demonstrated that Synthetic Vision (SV) technology can substantially enhance situation awareness, reduce pilot workload, improve aviation safety, and promote flight path control precision. SV, and related flight deck technologies are currently being extended for application in planetary exploration vehicles. SV, in particular, holds significant potential for many planetary missions since the SV presentation provides a computer-generated view for the flight crew of the terrain and other significant environmental characteristics independent of the outside visibility conditions, window locations, or vehicle attributes. SV allows unconstrained control of the computer-generated scene lighting, terrain coloring, and virtual camera angles which may provide invaluable visual cues to pilots/astronauts, not available from other vision technologies. In addition, important vehicle state information may be conformally displayed on the view such as forward and down velocities, altitude, and fuel remaining to enhance trajectory control and vehicle system status. The paper accompanies a conference demonstration that introduced a prototype NASA Synthetic Vision system for lunar lander spacecraft. The paper will describe technical challenges and potential solutions to SV applications for the lunar landing mission, including the requirements for high-resolution lunar terrain maps, accurate positioning and orientation, and lunar cockpit display concepts to support projected mission challenges.

  6. Colour vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, M P

    2010-05-01

    Colour vision deficiency is one of the commonest disorders of vision and can be divided into congenital and acquired forms. Congenital colour vision deficiency affects as many as 8% of males and 0.5% of females--the difference in prevalence reflects the fact that the commonest forms of congenital colour vision deficiency are inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Until relatively recently, our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of colour vision deficiency largely rested on behavioural data; however, modern molecular genetic techniques have helped to elucidate its mechanisms. The current management of congenital colour vision deficiency lies chiefly in appropriate counselling (including career counselling). Although visual aids may be of benefit to those with colour vision deficiency when performing certain tasks, the evidence suggests that they do not enable wearers to obtain normal colour discrimination. In the future, gene therapy remains a possibility, with animal models demonstrating amelioration following treatment.

  7. Data Fusion for a Vision-Radiological System: a Statistical Calibration Algorithm

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Enqvist, Andreas; Koppal, Sanjeev; Riley, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    Presented here is a fusion system based on simple, low-cost computer vision and radiological sensors for tracking of multiple objects and identifying potential radiological materials being transported or shipped. The main focus of this work is the development of calibration algorithms for characterizing the fused sensor system as a single entity. There is an apparent need for correcting for a scene deviation from the basic inverse distance-squared law governing the detection rates even when evaluating system calibration algorithms. In particular, the computer vision system enables a map of distance-dependence of the sources being tracked, to which the time-dependent radiological datamore » can be incorporated by means of data fusion of the two sensors' output data. (authors)« less

  8. AN INVESTIGATION OF VISION PROBLEMS AND THE VISION CARE SYSTEM IN RURAL CHINA.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yunli; Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Shi, Yaojiang; Ma, Xiaochen; Congdon, Nathan; Zhou, Zhongqiang; Boswell, Matthew; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the prevalence of vision problems and the accessibility to and quality of vision care in rural China. We obtained data from 4 sources: 1) the National Rural Vision Care Survey; 2) the Private Optometrists Survey; 3) the County Hospital Eye Care Survey; and 4) the Rural School Vision Care Survey. The data from each of the surveys were collected by the authors during 2012. Thirty-three percent of the rural population surveyed self-reported vision problems. Twenty-two percent of subjects surveyed had ever had a vision exam. Among those who self-reported having vision problems, 34% did not wear eyeglasses. Fifty-four percent of those with vision problems who had eyeglasses did not have a vision exam prior to receiving glasses. However, having a vision exam did not always guarantee access to quality vision care. Four channels of vision care service were assessed. The school vision examination program did not increase the usage rate of eyeglasses. Each county-hospital was staffed with three eye-doctors having one year of education beyond high school, serving more than 400,000 residents. Private optometrists often had low levels of education and professional certification. In conclusion, our findings shows that the vision care system in rural China is inadequate and ineffective in meeting the needs of the rural population sampled.

  9. [Rare ocular manifestation with suspect alport syndrome].

    PubMed

    Krejčířová, I; Varadyová, B; Doležel, Z; Autrata, R; Matúšová, J; Gregorová, E

    2014-06-01

    The authors mention a case report of a 13 year old girl with renal disease, who visited the outpatient Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology, University Hospital Brno with subjective complaints on decreased vision of both eyes. Ophthalmologic examination showed physiological foveolar reflex on fundus and very discrete changes of the retinal pigment epithelium in macula, the fundus periphery was without pathology. OCT images showed bilateral atrophy of central macula and changes at the level of the photoreceptors. The authors describe a rare ocular manifestation of macular atrophy with suspect Alport syndrome, which strengthened the suspicion of this disease. The authors also mention other possible ocular manifestations of Alport syndrome and compare the findings with the up to date international references. Key words: Alport syndrome, X heterozygot Alport syndrome, macular atrophy, lentikonus.

  10. What is stereoscopic vision good for?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Jenny C. A.

    2015-03-01

    Stereo vision is a resource-intensive process. Nevertheless, it has evolved in many animals including mammals, birds, amphibians and insects. It must therefore convey significant fitness benefits. It is often assumed that the main benefit is improved accuracy of depth judgments, but camouflage breaking may be as important, particularly in predatory animals. In humans, for the last 150 years, stereo vision has been turned to a new use: helping us reproduce visual reality for artistic purposes. By recreating the different views of a scene seen by the two eyes, stereo achieves unprecedented levels of realism. However, it also has some unexpected effects on viewer experience. The disruption of established mechanisms for interpreting pictures may be one reason why some viewers find stereoscopic content disturbing. Stereo vision also has uses in ophthalmology. Clinical stereoacuity tests are used in the management of conditions such as strabismus and amblyopia as well as vision screening. Stereoacuity can reveal the effectiveness of therapy and even predict long-term outcomes post surgery. Yet current clinical stereo tests fall far short of the accuracy and precision achievable in the lab. At Newcastle University, we are exploiting the recent availability of autostereo 3D tablet computers to design a clinical stereotest app in the form of a game suitable for young children. Our goal is to enable quick, accurate and precise stereoacuity measures which will enable clinicians to obtain better outcomes for children with visual disorders.

  11. Progressive Susac syndrome with bilateral visual loss and disability.

    PubMed

    Entezari, Morteza; Karimi, Saeed; Feizi, Mohammadali

    2016-09-01

    Susac syndrome (SS) is a rare retinal-cochlear-cerebral disease with an unclear etiology. A 35-year-old man presented with sudden painless vision loss in the right eye and 2 months later in the left eye with hemiparesis, behavioral changes, and hearing loss. Ophthalmic examinations revealed multiple branch retinal artery occlusions (BRAOs) in both eyes. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed inflammatory changes with multiple "punched-out" lesions in the corpus callosum which confirmed the diagnosis of SS. Despite intravenous and oral corticosteroid therapy, the disease progressed with the development of new BRAOs, low vision in both eyes, and disability. Prompt diagnosis and early treatment may save the vision and even patient's life.

  12. [Corneal lesions in Kindler syndrome: a case report].

    PubMed

    Chéour, M; Mazlout, H; Ben Jalel, W; Brour, J; Baroudi, B; Kraiem, A

    2012-01-01

    Kindler syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis belonging to the class of bullous poikiloderma. Corneal lesions are rare. We report a case of ocular lesions in this syndrome. We report the case of a 57-year-old patient followed since childhood in dermatology with the diagnosis of Kindler syndrome. He presented to the ophthalmology department with decreased vision. Ophthalmologic examination showed symblepharon, ectropion in both eyes, and corneal deformation. The role played by the abnormal protein in epithelial integrity suggests that ocular and more particularly corneal involvement is not rare in Kindler syndrome. In fact, it is less known by ophthalmologists and dermatologists are not aware of the ophthalmologic manifestations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Machine vision system for inspecting characteristics of hybrid rice seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang; Ying, Yibin

    2004-03-01

    Obtaining clear images advantaged of improving the classification accuracy involves many factors, light source, lens extender and background were discussed in this paper. The analysis of rice seed reflectance curves showed that the wavelength of light source for discrimination of the diseased seeds from normal rice seeds in the monochromic image recognition mode was about 815nm for jinyou402 and shanyou10. To determine optimizing conditions for acquiring digital images of rice seed using a computer vision system, an adjustable color machine vision system was developed. The machine vision system with 20mm to 25mm lens extender produce close-up images which made it easy to object recognition of characteristics in hybrid rice seeds. White background was proved to be better than black background for inspecting rice seeds infected by disease and using the algorithms based on shape. Experimental results indicated good classification for most of the characteristics with the machine vision system. The same algorithm yielded better results in optimizing condition for quality inspection of rice seed. Specifically, the image processing can correct for details such as fine fissure with the machine vision system.

  14. An Rx for 20/20 Vision: Vision Planning and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisman, Gerald J.; Holliday, Clifford R.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the Dallas Independent School District's decision to adopt an integrated technology infrastructure and the importance of vision planning for long term goals. Outlines the vision planning process: first draft; environmental projection; restatement of vision in terms of market projections, anticipated customer needs, suspected competitor…

  15. Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

  16. Measurement of meat color using a computer vision system.

    PubMed

    Girolami, Antonio; Napolitano, Fabio; Faraone, Daniela; Braghieri, Ada

    2013-01-01

    The limits of the colorimeter and a technique of image analysis in evaluating the color of beef, pork, and chicken were investigated. The Minolta CR-400 colorimeter and a computer vision system (CVS) were employed to measure colorimetric characteristics. To evaluate the chromatic fidelity of the image of the sample displayed on the monitor, a similarity test was carried out using a trained panel. The panelists found the digital images of the samples visualized on the monitor very similar to the actual ones (P<0.001). During the first similarity test the panelists observed at the same time both the actual meat sample and the sample image on the monitor in order to evaluate the similarity between them (test A). Moreover, the panelists were asked to evaluate the similarity between two colors, both generated by the software Adobe Photoshop CS3 one using the L, a and b values read by the colorimeter and the other obtained using the CVS (test B); which of the two colors was more similar to the sample visualized on the monitor was also assessed (test C). The panelists found the digital images very similar to the actual samples (P<0.001). As to the similarity (test B) between the CVS- and colorimeter-based colors the panelists found significant differences between them (P<0.001). Test C showed that the color of the sample on the monitor was more similar to the CVS generated color than to the colorimeter generated color. The differences between the values of the L, a, b, hue angle and chroma obtained with the CVS and the colorimeter were statistically significant (P<0.05-0.001). These results showed that the colorimeter did not generate coordinates corresponding to the true color of meat. Instead, the CVS method seemed to give valid measurements that reproduced a color very similar to the real one. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Usher's Syndrome Adolescent: Programming Implications for School Administrators, Teachers, and Residential Advisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Wanda M.; Hicks, Doin E.

    1981-01-01

    The article examines educational programing implications for adolescents with Usher's syndrome, a condition of congenital deafness accompanied by progressive loss of vision through retinitis pigmentosa. (DB)

  18. New Visions of Reality: Multimedia and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambron, Sueann

    1986-01-01

    Multimedia is a powerful tool that will change both the way we look at knowledge and our vision of reality, as well as our educational system and the business world. Multimedia as used here refers to the innovation of mixing text, audio, and video through the use of a computer. Not only will there be new products emerging from multimedia uses, but…

  19. Vision-based algorithms for near-host object detection and multilane sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenue, Surender K.

    1995-01-01

    Vision-based sensing can be used for lane sensing, adaptive cruise control, collision warning, and driver performance monitoring functions of intelligent vehicles. Current computer vision algorithms are not robust for handling multiple vehicles in highway scenarios. Several new algorithms are proposed for multi-lane sensing, near-host object detection, vehicle cut-in situations, and specifying regions of interest for object tracking. These algorithms were tested successfully on more than 6000 images taken from real-highway scenes under different daytime lighting conditions.

  20. Color vision test

    MedlinePlus

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  1. The effects of induced oblique astigmatism on symptoms and reading performance while viewing a computer screen.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Mark; Hue, Jennifer E; Huang, Rae R; Bababekova, Yuliya

    2012-03-01

    Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is a complex of eye and vision problems related to computer use which has been reported in up to 90% of computer users. Ocular symptoms may include asthenopia, accommodative and vergence difficulties and dry eye. Previous studies have reported that uncorrected astigmatism may have a significant impact on symptoms of CVS. However, its effect on task performance is unclear. This study recorded symptoms after a 10 min period of reading from a computer monitor either through the habitual distance refractive correction or with a supplementary -1.00 or -2.00D oblique cylinder added over these lenses in 12 young, visually-normal subjects. Additionally, the distance correction condition was repeated to assess the repeatability of the symptom questionnaire. Subjects' reading speed and accuracy were monitored during the course of the 10 min trial. There was no significant difference in reading rate or the number of errors between the three astigmatic conditions. However, a significant change in symptoms was reported with the median total symptom scores for the 0, 1 and 2D astigmatic conditions being 2.0, 6.5 and 40.0, respectively (p < 0.0001). Further, the repeatability coefficient of the total symptom score following the repeated zero astigmatism condition was ± 13.46. The presence of induced astigmatism produced a significant increase in post-task symptoms but did not affect reading rate or the number of reading errors. The correction of small astigmatic refractive errors may be important in optimizing patient comfort during computer operation. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  2. Usher's Syndrome: The Personal, Social, and Emotional Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The special issue presents a collection of 10 studies presented at a major workshop on Usher's Syndrome (a condition of congenital deafness accompanied by progressive loss of vision) which was sponsored by the South Central Regional Center for Deaf-blind Children in Dallas, Texas, September, 1977. (IM)

  3. Low Cost Night Vision System for Intruder Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Liang S.; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; R, Dhinesh; Sak, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    The growth in production of Android devices has resulted in greater functionalities as well as lower costs. This has made previously more expensive systems such as night vision affordable for more businesses and end users. We designed and implemented robust and low cost night vision systems based on red-green-blue (RGB) colour histogram for a static camera as well as a camera on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), using OpenCV library on Intel compatible notebook computers, running Ubuntu Linux operating system, with less than 8GB of RAM. They were tested against human intruders under low light conditions (indoor, outdoor, night time) and were shown to have successfully detected the intruders.

  4. Vision based techniques for rotorcraft low altitude flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Suorsa, Ray; Smith, Philip

    1991-01-01

    An overview of research in obstacle detection at NASA Ames Research Center is presented. The research applies techniques from computer vision to automation of rotorcraft navigation. The development of a methodology for detecting the range to obstacles based on the maximum utilization of passive sensors is emphasized. The development of a flight and image data base for verification of vision-based algorithms, and a passive ranging methodology tailored to the needs of helicopter flight are discussed. Preliminary results indicate that it is possible to obtain adequate range estimates except at regions close to the FOE. Closer to the FOE, the error in range increases since the magnitude of the disparity gets smaller, resulting in a low SNR.

  5. Hyperperfusion syndrome after trapping with high-flow bypass for a giant paraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Mohri, Masanao; Ichinose, Toshiya; Uchiyama, Naoyuki; Misaki, Kouichi; Nambu, Iku; Takabatake, Yasushi; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2018-04-21

    Hyperperfusion syndrome associated with aneurysm surgery is rare. The occurrence of the syndrome after trapping with high-flow bypass has not been described previously. Herein, we present a case of the syndrome occurring after trapping with high-flow bypass of an unruptured giant paraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm. The patient was a 68-year-old woman with progressive loss of vision in her left eye. After a diagnosis of a left giant ICA aneurysm, she underwent successful trapping with high-flow bypass. No new neurological deficits were observed after surgery. Computed tomography (CT) on the same day and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the next day revealed no hemorrhage or infarction. The patient had a headache and transit motor aphasia on postoperative day (POD) 8. Arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance perfusion image on the same day and single photon emission CT scan on POD 10 demonstrated hyperperfusion in the left cerebral cortex. The symptoms gradually improved over a week and she had no new neurological deficits when discharged from hospital. This report suggests that, although rare, hyperperfusion syndrome after trapping with high-flow bypass should be considered in giant aneurysmal patients if they present with headache and neurological deficits in a delayed period. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Sensor fusion and computer vision for context-aware control of a multi degree-of-freedom prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Marko; Dosen, Strahinja; Popovic, Dejan; Graimann, Bernhard; Farina, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Myoelectric activity volitionally generated by the user is often used for controlling hand prostheses in order to replicate the synergistic actions of muscles in healthy humans during grasping. Muscle synergies in healthy humans are based on the integration of visual perception, heuristics and proprioception. Here, we demonstrate how sensor fusion that combines artificial vision and proprioceptive information with the high-level processing characteristics of biological systems can be effectively used in transradial prosthesis control. We developed a novel context- and user-aware prosthesis (CASP) controller integrating computer vision and inertial sensing with myoelectric activity in order to achieve semi-autonomous and reactive control of a prosthetic hand. The presented method semi-automatically provides simultaneous and proportional control of multiple degrees-of-freedom (DOFs), thus decreasing overall physical effort while retaining full user control. The system was compared against the major commercial state-of-the art myoelectric control system in ten able-bodied and one amputee subject. All subjects used transradial prosthesis with an active wrist to grasp objects typically associated with activities of daily living. The CASP significantly outperformed the myoelectric interface when controlling all of the prosthesis DOF. However, when tested with less complex prosthetic system (smaller number of DOF), the CASP was slower but resulted with reaching motions that contained less compensatory movements. Another important finding is that the CASP system required minimal user adaptation and training. The CASP constitutes a substantial improvement for the control of multi-DOF prostheses. The application of the CASP will have a significant impact when translated to real-life scenarious, particularly with respect to improving the usability and acceptance of highly complex systems (e.g., full prosthetic arms) by amputees.

  7. Deep learning-based artificial vision for grasp classification in myoelectric hands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazaei, Ghazal; Alameer, Ali; Degenaar, Patrick; Morgan, Graham; Nazarpour, Kianoush

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Computer vision-based assistive technology solutions can revolutionise the quality of care for people with sensorimotor disorders. The goal of this work was to enable trans-radial amputees to use a simple, yet efficient, computer vision system to grasp and move common household objects with a two-channel myoelectric prosthetic hand. Approach. We developed a deep learning-based artificial vision system to augment the grasp functionality of a commercial prosthesis. Our main conceptual novelty is that we classify objects with regards to the grasp pattern without explicitly identifying them or measuring their dimensions. A convolutional neural network (CNN) structure was trained with images of over 500 graspable objects. For each object, 72 images, at {{5}\\circ} intervals, were available. Objects were categorised into four grasp classes, namely: pinch, tripod, palmar wrist neutral and palmar wrist pronated. The CNN setting was first tuned and tested offline and then in realtime with objects or object views that were not included in the training set. Main results. The classification accuracy in the offline tests reached 85 % for the seen and 75 % for the novel objects; reflecting the generalisability of grasp classification. We then implemented the proposed framework in realtime on a standard laptop computer and achieved an overall score of 84 % in classifying a set of novel as well as seen but randomly-rotated objects. Finally, the system was tested with two trans-radial amputee volunteers controlling an i-limb UltraTM prosthetic hand and a motion controlTM prosthetic wrist; augmented with a webcam. After training, subjects successfully picked up and moved the target objects with an overall success of up to 88 % . In addition, we show that with training, subjects’ performance improved in terms of time required to accomplish a block of 24 trials despite a decreasing level of visual feedback. Significance. The proposed design constitutes a substantial

  8. [Etiological factors for developing carpal tunnel syndrome in people who work with computers].

    PubMed

    Lewańska, Magdalena; Wagrowska-Koski, Ewa; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most frequent mononeuropathy of upper extremities. From the early 1990's it has been suggested that intensive work with computers can result in CTS development, however, this relationship has not as yet been proved. The aim of the study was to evaluate occupational and non-occupational risk factors for developing CTS in the population of computer-users. The study group comprised 60 patients (58 women and 2 men; mean age: 53.8 +/- 6.35 years) working with computers and suspected of occupational CTS. A survey as well as both median and ulnar nerve conduction examination (NCS) were performed in all the subjects. The patients worked with use of computer for 6.43 +/- 1.71 h per day. The mean latency between the beginning of employment and the occurrence of first CTS symptoms was 12.09 +/- 5.94 years. All patients met the clinical and electrophysiological diagnostic criteria of CTS. In the majority of patients etiological factors for developing CTS were non-occupational: obesity, hypothyroidism, oophorectomy, past hysterectomy, hormonal replacement therapy or oral contraceptives, recent menopause, diabetes, tendovaginitis. In 7 computer-users etiological factors were not identified. The results of our study show that CTS is usually generated by different causes not related with using computers at work.

  9. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Purnajyoti; McLean, Christopher

    2011-06-14

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome and medial tibial stress syndrome are uncommon conditions that affect long-distance runners or players involved in team sports that require extensive running. We report 2 cases of bilateral chronic exertional compartment syndrome, with medial tibial stress syndrome in identical twins diagnosed with the use of a Kodiag monitor (B. Braun Medical, Sheffield, United Kingdom) fulfilling the modified diagnostic criteria for chronic exertional compartment syndrome as described by Pedowitz et al, which includes: (1) pre-exercise compartment pressure level >15 mm Hg; (2) 1 minute post-exercise pressure >30 mm Hg; and (3) 5 minutes post-exercise pressure >20 mm Hg in the presence of clinical features. Both patients were treated with bilateral anterior fasciotomies through minimal incision and deep posterior fasciotomies with tibial periosteal stripping performed through longer anteromedial incisions under direct vision followed by intensive physiotherapy resulting in complete symptomatic recovery. The etiology of chronic exertional compartment syndrome is not fully understood, but it is postulated abnormal increases in intramuscular pressure during exercise impair local perfusion, causing ischemic muscle pain. No familial predisposition has been reported to date. However, some authors have found that no significant difference exists in the relative perfusion, in patients, diagnosed with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Magnetic resonance images of affected compartments have indicated that the pain is not due to ischemia, but rather from a disproportionate oxygen supply versus demand. We believe this is the first report of chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins, raising the question of whether there is a genetic predisposition to the causation of these conditions. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. [Case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome caused by Fisher syndrome].

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Katsunori; Ando, Tetsuo; Kawakami, Osamu

    2018-01-26

    This report presents a case of a 71-year-old woman with Fisher syndrome who had posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) before the initiation of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment. She had symptoms of common cold 2 weeks before the onset of PRES. On the day of the onset, she began to stagger while walking. On day 2, she developed hypertension, vision impairment, and limb weakness and was admitted to the hospital. On day 3, she was provided steroid pulse therapy. On day 4, she developed convulsions and right imperfection single paralysis and was transferred to the our hospital. During the transfer, the patient was conscious. Her blood pressure was high at 198/107 mmHg. She had mild weakness in her limbs and face, light perception in both eyes, dilation of both pupils, total external ophthalmoplegia, no tendon reflexes, and limb and trunk ataxia. We diagnosed PRES because of the high signal intensities observed on T 2 -weighted MRI on both sides of the parietal and occipital lobes. We also diagnosed Fisher syndrome because of a positive anti-GQ1b immunoglobulin G antibody test and albuminocytologic dissociation in the cerebrospinal fluid. PRES showed prompt improvement with antihypertensive therapy, whereas Fisher syndrome slowly improved over a course of 2 months. This case is the first report of PRES without IVIg suggesting that Fisher syndrome induces hypertension and causes PRES.

  11. Blindness and vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye ( chemical burns or sports injuries) Diabetes Glaucoma Macular degeneration The type of partial vision loss may differ, ... tunnel vision and missing areas of vision With macular degeneration, the side vision is normal but the central ...

  12. Robot Vision Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  13. Computational gestalts and perception thresholds.

    PubMed

    Desolneux, Agnès; Moisan, Lionel; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    In 1923, Max Wertheimer proposed a research programme and method in visual perception. He conjectured the existence of a small set of geometric grouping laws governing the perceptual synthesis of phenomenal objects, or "gestalt" from the atomic retina input. In this paper, we review this set of geometric grouping laws, using the works of Metzger, Kanizsa and their schools. In continuation, we explain why the Gestalt theory research programme can be translated into a Computer Vision programme. This translation is not straightforward, since Gestalt theory never addressed two fundamental matters: image sampling and image information measurements. Using these advances, we shall show that gestalt grouping laws can be translated into quantitative laws allowing the automatic computation of gestalts in digital images. From the psychophysical viewpoint, a main issue is raised: the computer vision gestalt detection methods deliver predictable perception thresholds. Thus, we are set in a position where we can build artificial images and check whether some kind of agreement can be found between the computationally predicted thresholds and the psychophysical ones. We describe and discuss two preliminary sets of experiments, where we compared the gestalt detection performance of several subjects with the predictable detection curve. In our opinion, the results of this experimental comparison support the idea of a much more systematic interaction between computational predictions in Computer Vision and psychophysical experiments.

  14. Differences in children and adolescents' ability of reporting two CVS-related visual problems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liang; Yan, Zheng; Ye, Tiantian; Lu, Fan; Xu, Peng; Chen, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether children and adolescents can correctly report dry eyes and blurred distance vision, two visual problems associated with computer vision syndrome. Participants are 913 children and adolescents aged 6-17. They were asked to report their visual problems, including dry eyes and blurred distance vision, and received an eye examination, including tear film break-up time (TFBUT) and visual acuity (VA). Inconsistency was found between participants' reports of dry eyes and TFBUT results among all 913 participants as well as for all of four subgroups. In contrast, consistency was found between participants' reports of blurred distance vision and VA results among 873 participants who had never worn glasses as well as for the four subgroups. It was concluded that children and adolescents are unable to report dry eyes correctly; however, they are able to report blurred distance vision correctly. Three practical implications of the findings were discussed. Little is known about children's ability to report their visual problems, an issue critical to diagnosis and treatment of children's computer vision syndrome. This study compared children's self-reports and clinic examination results and found children can correctly report blurred distance vision but not dry eyes.

  15. An Operationally Based Vision Assessment Simulator for Domes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archdeacon, John; Gaska, James; Timoner, Samson

    2012-01-01

    The Operational Based Vision Assessment (OBVA) simulator was designed and built by NASA and the United States Air Force (USAF) to provide the Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine (USAFSAM) with a scientific testing laboratory to study human vision and testing standards in an operationally relevant environment. This paper describes the general design objectives and implementation characteristics of the simulator visual system being created to meet these requirements. A key design objective for the OBVA research simulator is to develop a real-time computer image generator (IG) and display subsystem that can display and update at 120 frame s per second (design target), or at a minimum, 60 frames per second, with minimal transport delay using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology. There are three key parts of the OBVA simulator that are described in this paper: i) the real-time computer image generator, ii) the various COTS technology used to construct the simulator, and iii) the spherical dome display and real-time distortion correction subsystem. We describe the various issues, possible COTS solutions, and remaining problem areas identified by NASA and the USAF while designing and building the simulator for future vision research. We also describe the critically important relationship of the physical display components including distortion correction for the dome consistent with an objective of minimizing latency in the system. The performance of the automatic calibration system used in the dome is also described. Various recommendations for possible future implementations shall also be discussed.

  16. Vision impairment and major causes of vision loss impacts on vision-specific functioning independent of socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Peggy P C; Zheng, Yingfeng; Wong, Tien Y; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2013-02-01

    To quantify the eye disease-specific impact of unilateral and bilateral vision impairment (VI) on vision-specific functioning (VF). The Singapore Indian Eye population-based study. Ethnic Indians older than 40 years of age living in Singapore. Participants underwent standardized ophthalmic assessments for VI and blindness, defined using presenting visual acuity (United States definition). Sociodemographic data were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. Rasch analysis was used to validate the Visual Function Index 11 and to determine its psychometric properties. The major causes of VI (i.e., cataract, refractive error, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy [DR], and glaucoma) were determined by ophthalmologists on examination. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of VI on the overall VF Rasch score. Vision-specific functioning. Three thousand three hundred ninety-six persons were analyzed. Participants with VI had a systematic reduction in VF score compared with those with normal vision in both eyes, ranging from -11.2% normal vision in one eye and low vision in the other eye (95% confidence interval [CI], -12.2% to -10.3%; P<0.001), to -12.7% blindness in one eye and normal vision in the other eye (CI, -15.1% to -10.4%; P<0.001), to -19.4% low vision in both eyes (CI, -20.8% to -18.1%; P<0.001), to -52.9% blindness in one eye and low vision in other eye (CI, -55.3% to -50.4%; P<0.001), to -77.2% blindness in both eyes (CI, -82.4% to 72.0%; P<0.001). The impact of VI on VF score varied across different major causes of vision loss, regardless of socioeconomic factors. Vision impairment attributed to cataract in one or both eyes had a significant decrease in VF score by 17.7% and 22.3%, respectively, compared with those with normal vision in both eyes (P<0.001). The impact of unilateral and bilateral VI on VF score was greater in participants with glaucoma (32.2% in unilateral cases and 35.9% in bilateral

  17. Association of achondroplasia with Down syndrome: difficulty in prenatal diagnosis by sonographic and 3-D helical computed tomographic analyses.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Akimune; Murotsuki, Jun; Kamimura, Miki; Kimura, Masato; Saito-Hakoda, Akiko; Kanno, Junko; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Kure, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Ikuma

    2015-05-01

    Achondroplasia and Down syndrome are relatively common conditions individually. But co-occurrence of both conditions in the same patient is rare and there have been no reports of fetal analysis of this condition by prenatal sonographic and three-dimensional (3-D) helical computed tomography (CT). Prenatal sonographic findings seen in persons with Down syndrome, such as a thickened nuchal fold, cardiac defects, and echogenic bowel were not found in the patient. A prenatal 3-D helical CT revealed a large head with frontal bossing, metaphyseal flaring of the long bones, and small iliac wings, which suggested achondroplasia. In a case with combination of achondroplasia and Down syndrome, it may be difficult to diagnose the co-occurrence prenatally without typical markers of Down syndrome. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  18. How to assess vision.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Janet

    2016-09-21

    Rationale and key points An objective assessment of the patient's vision is important to assess variation from 'normal' vision in acute and community settings, to establish a baseline before examination and treatment in the emergency department, and to assess any changes during ophthalmic outpatient appointments. » Vision is one of the essential senses that permits people to make sense of the world. » Visual assessment does not only involve measuring central visual acuity, it also involves assessing the consequences of reduced vision. » Assessment of vision in children is crucial to identify issues that might affect vision and visual development, and to optimise lifelong vision. » Untreatable loss of vision is not an inevitable consequence of ageing. » Timely and repeated assessment of vision over life can reduce the incidence of falls, prevent injury and optimise independence. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update you practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article might change your practice when assessing people holistically. 2. How you could use this article to educate your colleagues in the assessment of vision.

  19. Computer face-matching technology using two-dimensional photographs accurately matches the facial gestalt of unrelated individuals with the same syndromic form of intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Dudding-Byth, Tracy; Baxter, Anne; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hackett, Anna; O'Donnell, Sheridan; White, Susan M; Attia, John; Brunner, Han; de Vries, Bert; Koolen, David; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Ratwatte, Seshika; Riveros, Carlos; Brain, Steve; Lovell, Brian C

    2017-12-19

    Massively parallel genetic sequencing allows rapid testing of known intellectual disability (ID) genes. However, the discovery of novel syndromic ID genes requires molecular confirmation in at least a second or a cluster of individuals with an overlapping phenotype or similar facial gestalt. Using computer face-matching technology we report an automated approach to matching the faces of non-identical individuals with the same genetic syndrome within a database of 3681 images [1600 images of one of 10 genetic syndrome subgroups together with 2081 control images]. Using the leave-one-out method, two research questions were specified: 1) Using two-dimensional (2D) photographs of individuals with one of 10 genetic syndromes within a database of images, did the technology correctly identify more than expected by chance: i) a top match? ii) at least one match within the top five matches? or iii) at least one in the top 10 with an individual from the same syndrome subgroup? 2) Was there concordance between correct technology-based matches and whether two out of three clinical geneticists would have considered the diagnosis based on the image alone? The computer face-matching technology correctly identifies a top match, at least one correct match in the top five and at least one in the top 10 more than expected by chance (P < 0.00001). There was low agreement between the technology and clinicians, with higher accuracy of the technology when results were discordant (P < 0.01) for all syndromes except Kabuki syndrome. Although the accuracy of the computer face-matching technology was tested on images of individuals with known syndromic forms of intellectual disability, the results of this pilot study illustrate the potential utility of face-matching technology within deep phenotyping platforms to facilitate the interpretation of DNA sequencing data for individuals who remain undiagnosed despite testing the known developmental disorder genes.

  20. Assistive technology for children and young people with low vision.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Rachel; Barker, Lucy; Rubin, Gary; Dahlmann-Noor, Annegret

    2015-06-18

    Recent technological developments, such as the near universal spread of mobile phones and portable computers and improvements in the accessibility features of these devices, give children and young people with low vision greater independent access to information. Some electronic technologies, such as closed circuit TV, are well established low vision aids and newer versions, such as electronic readers or off-the shelf tablet computers, may offer similar functionalities with easier portability and at lower cost. To assess the effect of electronic assistive technologies on reading, educational outcomes and quality of life in children and young people with low vision. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2014), the Health Technology Assessment Programme (HTA) (www.hta.ac.uk/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 30 October 2014. We intended to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs in this review. We planned to include trials involving children between the ages of 5 and 16 years with low vision as defined by, or equivalent to, the WHO 1992 definition of low vision. We planned to include studies that explore the use of assistive technologies (ATs). These could include all types of closed circuit television/electronic vision enhancement systems (CCTV/EVES), computer technology including tablet computers and adaptive technologies such as screen readers, screen magnification and

  1. Colour vision abnormality as the only manifestation of normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Asensio-Sánchez, V M; Martín-Prieto, A

    2018-01-01

    The case is presented of a 73-year-old male patient who referred to having black and white vision. Computed tomography showed normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Magnetic resonance imaging was not performed because the patient refused to undergo further examinations. Achromatopsia may be the first or only NPH symptom. It may be prudent to ask patients with NPH regarding colour vision. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Many people are familiar with the popular science fiction series Star Trek: The Next Generation, a show featuring a blind character named Geordi La Forge, whose visor-like glasses enable him to see. What many people do not know is that a product very similar to Geordi's glasses is available to assist people with vision conditions, and a NASA engineer's expertise contributed to its development. The JORDY(trademark) (Joint Optical Reflective Display) device, designed and manufactured by a privately-held medical device company known as Enhanced Vision, enables people with low vision to read, write, and watch television. Low vision, which includes macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, describes eyesight that is 20/70 or worse, and cannot be fully corrected with conventional glasses.

  3. Mathematical leadership vision.

    PubMed

    Hamburger, Y A

    2000-11-01

    This article is an analysis of a new type of leadership vision, the kind of vision that is becoming increasingly pervasive among leaders in the modern world. This vision appears to offer a new horizon, whereas, in fact it delivers to its target audience a finely tuned version of the already existing ambitions and aspirations of the target audience. The leader, with advisors, has examined the target audience and has used the results of extensive research and statistical methods concerning the group to form a picture of its members' lifestyles and values. On the basis of this information, the leader has built a "vision." The vision is intended to create an impression of a charismatic and transformational leader when, in fact, it is merely a response. The systemic, arithmetic, and statistical methods employed in this operation have led to the coining of the terms mathematical leader and mathematical vision.

  4. Development of a Configurable Growth Chamber with a Computer Vision System to Study Circadian Rhythm in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Pedro J.; Fernández, Carlos; Weiss, Julia; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Plant development is the result of an endogenous morphogenetic program that integrates environmental signals. The so-called circadian clock is a set of genes that integrates environmental inputs into an internal pacing system that gates growth and other outputs. Study of circadian growth responses requires high sampling rates to detect changes in growth and avoid aliasing. We have developed a flexible configurable growth chamber comprising a computer vision system that allows sampling rates ranging between one image per 30 s to hours/days. The vision system has a controlled illumination system, which allows the user to set up different configurations. The illumination system used emits a combination of wavelengths ensuring the optimal growth of species under analysis. In order to obtain high contrast of captured images, the capture system is composed of two CCD cameras, for day and night periods. Depending on the sample type, a flexible image processing software calculates different parameters based on geometric calculations. As a proof of concept we tested the system in three different plant tissues, growth of petunia- and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) flowers and of cladodes from the cactus Opuntia ficus-indica. We found that petunia flowers grow at a steady pace and display a strong growth increase in the early morning, whereas Opuntia cladode growth turned out not to follow a circadian growth pattern under the growth conditions imposed. Furthermore we were able to identify a decoupling of increase in area and length indicating that two independent growth processes are responsible for the final size and shape of the cladode. PMID:23202214

  5. Robot Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutro, L. L.; Lerman, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The operation of a system is described that is built both to model the vision of primate animals, including man, and serve as a pre-prototype of possible object recognition system. It was employed in a series of experiments to determine the practicability of matching left and right images of a scene to determine the range and form of objects. The experiments started with computer generated random-dot stereograms as inputs and progressed through random square stereograms to a real scene. The major problems were the elimination of spurious matches, between the left and right views, and the interpretation of ambiguous regions, on the left side of an object that can be viewed only by the left camera, and on the right side of an object that can be viewed only by the right camera.

  6. Visions of Vision: An Exploratory Study of the Role College and University Presidents Play in Developing Institutional Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWade, Jessica C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research explores how college and university presidents engage in the process of developing formal institutional vision. The inquiry identifies roles presidents play in vision development, which is often undertaken as part of strategic-planning initiatives. Two constructs of leadership and institutional vision are used to examine…

  7. Light Vision Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  8. Information Weighted Consensus for Distributed Estimation in Vision Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamal, Ahmed Tashrif

    2013-01-01

    Due to their high fault-tolerance, ease of installation and scalability to large networks, distributed algorithms have recently gained immense popularity in the sensor networks community, especially in computer vision. Multi-target tracking in a camera network is one of the fundamental problems in this domain. Distributed estimation algorithms…

  9. Differentiation of Ecuadorian National and CCN-51 cocoa beans and their mixtures by computer vision.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Juan C; Amores, Freddy M; Solórzano, Eddyn G; Rodríguez, Gladys A; La Mantia, Alessandro; Blasi, Paolo; Loor, Rey G

    2018-05-01

    Ecuador exports two major types of cocoa beans, the highly regarded and lucrative National, known for its fine aroma, and the CCN-51 clone type, used in bulk for mass chocolate products. In order to discourage exportation of National cocoa adulterated with CCN-51, a fast and objective methodology for distinguishing between the two types of cocoa beans is needed. This study reports a methodology based on computer vision, which makes it possible to recognize these beans and determine the percentage of their mixture. The methodology was challenged with 336 samples of National cocoa and 127 of CCN-51. By excluding the samples with a low fermentation level and white beans, the model discriminated with a precision higher than 98%. The model was also able to identify and quantify adulterations in 75 export batches of National cocoa and separate out poorly fermented beans. A scientifically reliable methodology able to discriminate between Ecuadorian National and CCN-51 cocoa beans and their mixtures was successfully developed. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. System of error detection in the manufacture of garments using artificial vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J. J.; Aguila, A.; Partida, E.; Martinez, C. L.; Morales, O.; Tejeida, R.

    2017-12-01

    A computer vision system is implemented to detect errors in the cutting stage within the manufacturing process of garments in the textile industry. It provides solution to errors within the process that cannot be easily detected by any employee, in addition to significantly increase the speed of quality review. In the textile industry as in many others, quality control is required in manufactured products and this has been carried out manually by means of visual inspection by employees over the years. For this reason, the objective of this project is to design a quality control system using computer vision to identify errors in the cutting stage within the garment manufacturing process to increase the productivity of textile processes by reducing costs.

  11. Comparison of different strategies in prenatal screening for Down's syndrome: cost effectiveness analysis of computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Gekas, Jean; Gagné, Geneviève; Bujold, Emmanuel; Douillard, Daniel; Forest, Jean-Claude; Reinharz, Daniel; Rousseau, François

    2009-02-13

    To assess and compare the cost effectiveness of three different strategies for prenatal screening for Down's syndrome (integrated test, sequential screening, and contingent screenings) and to determine the most useful cut-off values for risk. Computer simulations to study integrated, sequential, and contingent screening strategies with various cut-offs leading to 19 potential screening algorithms. The computer simulation was populated with data from the Serum Urine and Ultrasound Screening Study (SURUSS), real unit costs for healthcare interventions, and a population of 110 948 pregnancies from the province of Québec for the year 2001. Cost effectiveness ratios, incremental cost effectiveness ratios, and screening options' outcomes. The contingent screening strategy dominated all other screening options: it had the best cost effectiveness ratio ($C26,833 per case of Down's syndrome) with fewer procedure related euploid miscarriages and unnecessary terminations (respectively, 6 and 16 per 100,000 pregnancies). It also outperformed serum screening at the second trimester. In terms of the incremental cost effectiveness ratio, contingent screening was still dominant: compared with screening based on maternal age alone, the savings were $C30,963 per additional birth with Down's syndrome averted. Contingent screening was the only screening strategy that offered early reassurance to the majority of women (77.81%) in first trimester and minimised costs by limiting retesting during the second trimester (21.05%). For the contingent and sequential screening strategies, the choice of cut-off value for risk in the first trimester test significantly affected the cost effectiveness ratios (respectively, from $C26,833 to $C37,260 and from $C35,215 to $C45,314 per case of Down's syndrome), the number of procedure related euploid miscarriages (from 6 to 46 and from 6 to 45 per 100,000 pregnancies), and the number of unnecessary terminations (from 16 to 26 and from 16 to 25 per 100

  12. Future Automated Rough Mills Hinge on Vision Systems

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1996-01-01

    The backbone behind major changes to present and future rough mills in dimension, furniture, cabinet or millwork facilities will be computer vision systems. Because of the wide variety of products and the quality of parts produced, the scanning systems and rough mills will vary greatly. The scanners will vary in type. For many complicated applications, multiple scanner...

  13. Static and dynamic postural control in low-vision and normal-vision adults.

    PubMed

    Tomomitsu, Mônica S V; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Morimoto, Eurica; Bobbio, Tatiana G; Greve, Julia M D

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of reduced visual information on postural control by comparing low-vision and normal-vision adults in static and dynamic conditions. Twenty-five low-vision subjects and twenty-five normal sighted adults were evaluated for static and dynamic balance using four protocols: 1) the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance on firm and foam surfaces with eyes opened and closed; 2) Unilateral Stance with eyes opened and closed; 3) Tandem Walk; and 4) Step Up/Over. The results showed that the low-vision group presented greater body sway compared with the normal vision during balance on a foam surface (p≤0.001), the Unilateral Stance test for both limbs (p≤0.001), and the Tandem Walk test. The low-vision group showed greater step width (p≤0.001) and slower gait speed (p≤0.004). In the Step Up/Over task, low-vision participants were more cautious in stepping up (right p≤0.005 and left p≤0.009) and in executing the movement (p≤0.001). These findings suggest that visual feedback is crucial for determining balance, especially for dynamic tasks and on foam surfaces. Low-vision individuals had worse postural stability than normal-vision adults in terms of dynamic tests and balance on foam surfaces.

  14. Vision 2030. A Vision for the U.S. Concrete Industry

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    none,

    2001-01-01

    On September 27, 2000, the concrete industry's Strategic Development Council hosted a Concrete Vision Workshop in Chicago, Illinois. Meeting participants included over 50 concrete, cement, and other allied industry chief executive officers, presidents, vice-presidents, laboratory and industry research managers, and government representatives. Participants discussed the state of the concrete industry 30 years ago, the state of the current industry, and their vision for the United States concrete industry in 2030. Moreover, they identified specific goals to achieve the industry's Vision 2030. This document, Vision 2030, is the product of that workshop and the comments received after a broad industry review.

  15. The potential of computer vision, optical backscattering parameters and artificial neural network modelling in monitoring the shrinkage of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) during drying.

    PubMed

    Onwude, Daniel I; Hashim, Norhashila; Abdan, Khalina; Janius, Rimfiel; Chen, Guangnan

    2018-03-01

    Drying is a method used to preserve agricultural crops. During the drying of products with high moisture content, structural changes in shape, volume, area, density and porosity occur. These changes could affect the final quality of dried product and also the effective design of drying equipment. Therefore, this study investigated a novel approach in monitoring and predicting the shrinkage of sweet potato during drying. Drying experiments were conducted at temperatures of 50-70 °C and samples thicknesses of 2-6 mm. The volume and surface area obtained from camera vision, and the perimeter and illuminated area from backscattered optical images were analysed and used to evaluate the shrinkage of sweet potato during drying. The relationship between dimensionless moisture content and shrinkage of sweet potato in terms of volume, surface area, perimeter and illuminated area was found to be linearly correlated. The results also demonstrated that the shrinkage of sweet potato based on computer vision and backscattered optical parameters is affected by the product thickness, drying temperature and drying time. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network with input layer containing three cells, two hidden layers (18 neurons), and five cells for output layer, was used to develop a model that can monitor, control and predict the shrinkage parameters and moisture content of sweet potato slices under different drying conditions. The developed ANN model satisfactorily predicted the shrinkage and dimensionless moisture content of sweet potato with correlation coefficient greater than 0.95. Combined computer vision, laser light backscattering imaging and artificial neural network can be used as a non-destructive, rapid and easily adaptable technique for in-line monitoring, predicting and controlling the shrinkage and moisture changes of food and agricultural crops during drying. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. SailSpy: a vision system for yacht sail shape measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Olof J.; Power, P. Wayne; Bowman, Chris C.; Palmer, G. Terry; Clist, Roger S.

    1992-11-01

    SailSpy is a real-time vision system which we have developed for automatically measuring sail shapes and masthead rotation on racing yachts. Versions have been used by the New Zealand team in two America's Cup challenges in 1988 and 1992. SailSpy uses four miniature video cameras mounted at the top of the mast to provide views of the headsail and mainsail on either tack. The cameras are connected to the SailSpy computer below deck using lightweight cables mounted inside the mast. Images received from the cameras are automatically analyzed by the SailSpy computer, and sail shape and mast rotation parameters are calculated. The sail shape parameters are calculated by recognizing sail markers (ellipses) that have been attached to the sails, and the mast rotation parameters by recognizing deck markers painted on the deck. This paper describes the SailSpy system and some of the vision algorithms used.

  17. The Use of Visual Feedback During Signing: Evidence From Signers With Impaired Vision

    PubMed Central

    Korpics, Franco; Petronio, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The role of visual feedback during the production of American Sign Language was investigated by comparing the size of signing space during conversations and narrative monologues for normally sighted signers, signers with tunnel vision due to Usher syndrome, and functionally blind signers. The interlocutor for all groups was a normally sighted deaf person. Signers with tunnel vision produced a greater proportion of signs near the face than blind and normally sighted signers, who did not differ from each other. Both groups of visually impaired signers produced signs within a smaller signing space for conversations than for monologues, but we hypothesize that they did so for different reasons. Signers with tunnel vision may align their signing space with that of their interlocutor. In contrast, blind signers may enhance proprioceptive feedback by producing signs within an enlarged signing space for monologues, which do not require switching between tactile and visual signing. Overall, we hypothesize that signers use visual feedback to phonetically calibrate the dimensions of signing space, rather than to monitor language output. PMID:18495656

  18. The use of visual feedback during signing: evidence from signers with impaired vision.

    PubMed

    Emmorey, Karen; Korpics, Franco; Petronio, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The role of visual feedback during the production of American Sign Language was investigated by comparing the size of signing space during conversations and narrative monologues for normally sighted signers, signers with tunnel vision due to Usher syndrome, and functionally blind signers. The interlocutor for all groups was a normally sighted deaf person. Signers with tunnel vision produced a greater proportion of signs near the face than blind and normally sighted signers, who did not differ from each other. Both groups of visually impaired signers produced signs within a smaller signing space for conversations than for monologues, but we hypothesize that they did so for different reasons. Signers with tunnel vision may align their signing space with that of their interlocutor. In contrast, blind signers may enhance proprioceptive feedback by producing signs within an enlarged signing space for monologues, which do not require switching between tactile and visual signing. Overall, we hypothesize that signers use visual feedback to phonetically calibrate the dimensions of signing space, rather than to monitor language output.

  19. Craniofacial and dental malformations in Costello syndrome: A detailed evaluation using multi-detector row computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masashi; Ohashi, Hirofumi

    2013-06-01

    Costello syndrome is a rare multiple congenital anomaly syndrome caused by heterozygous germline HRAS mutations, which is characterized by intellectual disability, growth retardation, distinctive facies, loose skin, cardiomyopathy and a preposition to malignancies. Although teeth abnormalities have been encountered in nearly two-thirds of the patients in literature, the evaluation tended to be limited to the extent which can be obtained from physical examination. We investigated detailed craniofacial, oral and dental findings in four patients with Costello syndrome. In this study, images reconstructed by multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) were used as substitutes for dental cast study and panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiograph studies to evaluate dental arches, tooth size, relationships between craniofacial and dental structures, and hypodontia. All four patients showed true/relative macrocephaly with facial bone hypoplasia and gingival hypertrophy. Occlusal attrition, malocclusion, small dental arches, microdontia, and convex face were noted in three patients. In addition, one patient showed dental caries, conic tooth and gingivitis, and another patient showed hypodontia. Our study suggests that craniofacial and dental abnormalities are common in Costello syndrome patients and comprehensive dental care should be provided from early infancy. To our knowledge, this is the first study of thorough craniofacial and dental evaluation by using MDCT in Costello syndrome. MDCT is a useful tool for precise evaluation of craniofacial and oral manifestations in patients with congenital anomaly/intellectual disability syndromes. © 2012 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2012 Japanese Teratology Society.

  20. Müller cells separate between wavelengths to improve day vision with minimal effect upon night vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labin, Amichai M.; Safuri, Shadi K.; Ribak, Erez N.; Perlman, Ido

    2014-07-01

    Vision starts with the absorption of light by the retinal photoreceptors—cones and rods. However, due to the ‘inverted’ structure of the retina, the incident light must propagate through reflecting and scattering cellular layers before reaching the photoreceptors. It has been recently suggested that Müller cells function as optical fibres in the retina, transferring light illuminating the retinal surface onto the cone photoreceptors. Here we show that Müller cells are wavelength-dependent wave-guides, concentrating the green-red part of the visible spectrum onto cones and allowing the blue-purple part to leak onto nearby rods. This phenomenon is observed in the isolated retina and explained by a computational model, for the guinea pig and the human parafoveal retina. Therefore, light propagation by Müller cells through the retina can be considered as an integral part of the first step in the visual process, increasing photon absorption by cones while minimally affecting rod-mediated vision.

  1. Somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the evaluation of opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prathamesh; Lele, Vikram

    2013-04-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia (OMA) syndrome is the most common paraneoplastic neurological syndrome of childhood, associated with occult neuroblastoma in 20%-50% of all cases. OMA is the initial presentation of neuroblastoma in 1%-3% of children. Conventional radiological imaging approaches include chest radiography and abdominal computed tomography (CT). Nuclear medicine techniques, in form of (123)I/(131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy have been incorporated in various diagnostic algorithms for evaluation of OMA. We describe use of somatostatin receptor PET/CT with (68)Gallium- DOTA-DPhe(1), Tyr(3)-octreotate (DOTATATE) in diagnosis of neuroblastoma in two cases of OMA.

  2. 77 FR 16890 - Eighteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Visions Systems/Synthetic Vision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Visions Systems/Synthetic Vision Systems (EFVS/SVS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation... 213, Enhanced Flight Visions Systems/Synthetic Vision Systems (EFVS/SVS). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing... Flight Visions Systems/Synthetic Vision Systems (EFVS/SVS). DATES: The meeting will be held April 17-19...

  3. 77 FR 56254 - Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision Systems/Synthetic Vision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision Systems/Synthetic Vision Systems (EFVS/SVS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation... 213, Enhanced Flight Vision Systems/Synthetic Vision Systems (EFVS/SVS). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing... Flight Vision Systems/Synthetic Vision Systems (EFVS/SVS). DATES: The meeting will be held October 2-4...

  4. Uveitis-Glaucoma-Hyphaema Syndrome. General review.

    PubMed

    Zemba, Mihail; Camburu, Georgiana

    2017-01-01

    Uveitis-Glaucoma-Hyphaema Syndrome (UGH syndrome, or "Ellingson" Syndrome) is a rare condition caused by the mechanical trauma of an intraocular lens malpositioned over adjacent structures (iris, ciliary body, iridocorneal angle), leading to a spectrum of iris transillumination defects, microhyphaemas and pigmentary dispersion, concomitant with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). UGH Syndrome can also be characterized by chronic inflammation, secondary iris neovascularization, cystoid macular edema (CME). The fundamental step in the pathogenesis of UGH syndrome appears to arise from repetitive mechanical iris trauma by a malpositioned or subluxed IOL. These patients have uncomplicated cataract implants and return for episodes of blurry vision weeks to months after surgery. This may be accompanied by pain, photophobia, erythropsia, anterior uveitis, hyphaema along with raised intraocular pressure. A careful history and examination, as well as appropriate investigations can confirm the diagnostic. Treatment options are IOL Explantation exchange, topical and systemic medication, and cyclophotocoagulation, the placement of a Capsular Tension Ring to redistribute zonular tension and Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) Therapy.

  5. Progress in building a cognitive vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, D. Paul; Lyons, Damian; Yue, Hong

    2016-05-01

    We are building a cognitive vision system for mobile robots that works in a manner similar to the human vision system, using saccadic, vergence and pursuit movements to extract information from visual input. At each fixation, the system builds a 3D model of a small region, combining information about distance, shape, texture and motion to create a local dynamic spatial model. These local 3D models are composed to create an overall 3D model of the robot and its environment. This approach turns the computer vision problem into a search problem whose goal is the acquisition of sufficient spatial understanding for the robot to succeed at its tasks. The research hypothesis of this work is that the movements of the robot's cameras are only those that are necessary to build a sufficiently accurate world model for the robot's current goals. For example, if the goal is to navigate through a room, the model needs to contain any obstacles that would be encountered, giving their approximate positions and sizes. Other information does not need to be rendered into the virtual world, so this approach trades model accuracy for speed.

  6. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Surveillance of vision and ocular disorders in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Elma; Dickson, Jennifer; Kindley, A David; Scott, Christopher C; Charleton, Patricia M

    2007-07-01

    Children with Down syndrome have a high prevalence of ocular disorders. The UK Down's Syndrome Medical Interest Group (DSMIG) guidelines for ophthalmic screening were locally implemented into a protocol that included neonatal eye examination by an ophthalmologist and a comprehensive ophthalmological examination (cycloplegic refraction, ophthalmoscopy, and orthoptic assessment) by at least the age of 3 years, followed by preschool follow-up as indicated. We audited retrospectively surveillance for ocular disorders before and after the DSMIG-based guidelines were locally adopted in 1995. Results were compared for children born before and after the implementation of screening guidelines. A total of 81 children (43 females, 38 males) with Down syndrome were identified. After the DSMIG protocol, 34/36 children received a full ophthalmological examination in the neonatal period, compared with 9/27 children before 1995 (p<0.001). Neonatal screening resulted in the detection of cataracts in three infants. Mean age of first comprehensive ophthalmic screening outside the neonatal period was similar in the two groups (1y 6mo before guidelines vs 1y 9mo after), as were the proportion of children receiving preschool eye checks (27/30 before; 17/18 after). Overall, 65.7% children were screened in accordance with the guidelines, improving to 100% in recent years. At school age, 43% of the study population had significant refractive errors, with 27% having hypermetropia and astigmatism. Earlier prescription of glasses for refractive errors was seen (mean age 5y 6mo before guidelines; 3y 6mo after; p<0.001). Prevalence of other ocular disorders included strabismus (34/72, 47%), nasolacrimal duct obstruction (26/73, 35.6%), cataracts (5/64, 7.8%), and nystagmus (12/72, 16%). Establishment of the DSMIG-based local protocol has streamlined ocular surveillance. It is anticipated that this will improve developmental and functional outcomes in Down syndrome.

  8. Design Through Analysis (DTA) roadmap vision.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Blacker, Teddy Dean; Adams, Charles R.; Hoffman, Edward L.

    2004-10-01

    The Design through Analysis Realization Team (DART) will provide analysts with a complete toolset that reduces the time to create, generate, analyze, and manage the data generated in a computational analysis. The toolset will be both easy to learn and easy to use. The DART Roadmap Vision provides for progressive improvements that will reduce the Design through Analysis (DTA) cycle time by 90-percent over a three-year period while improving both the quality and accountability of the analyses.

  9. Stevens-Johnson syndrome in childhood.

    PubMed

    Blanco, N; Gutiérrez, B; Valls, I; Puertas, D; Martín, C; Rivera, M; Hernández, Á; Torrelo, A

    2017-05-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are two serious immune diseases within the context of bullous mucocutaneous syndrome. These have varying degrees of involvement of the skin and usually at least two mucous membranes. Three clinical cases are presented, two of them with significant ophthalmological sequelae, who had received drug treatment as a possible trigger, and another milder clinical case caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The ophthalmologist plays a crucial role in the outcome and eye care of the patient in order to try to avoid the appearance of sequelae and subsequent loss of vision. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. NETRA: A parallel architecture for integrated vision systems. 1: Architecture and organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhary, Alok N.; Patel, Janak H.; Ahuja, Narendra

    1989-01-01

    Computer vision is regarded as one of the most complex and computationally intensive problems. An integrated vision system (IVS) is considered to be a system that uses vision algorithms from all levels of processing for a high level application (such as object recognition). A model of computation is presented for parallel processing for an IVS. Using the model, desired features and capabilities of a parallel architecture suitable for IVSs are derived. Then a multiprocessor architecture (called NETRA) is presented. This architecture is highly flexible without the use of complex interconnection schemes. The topology of NETRA is recursively defined and hence is easily scalable from small to large systems. Homogeneity of NETRA permits fault tolerance and graceful degradation under faults. It is a recursively defined tree-type hierarchical architecture where each of the leaf nodes consists of a cluster of processors connected with a programmable crossbar with selective broadcast capability to provide for desired flexibility. A qualitative evaluation of NETRA is presented. Then general schemes are described to map parallel algorithms onto NETRA. Algorithms are classified according to their communication requirements for parallel processing. An extensive analysis of inter-cluster communication strategies in NETRA is presented, and parameters affecting performance of parallel algorithms when mapped on NETRA are discussed. Finally, a methodology to evaluate performance of algorithms on NETRA is described.

  11. Four Frames Suffice. A Provisionary Model of Vision and Space,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    0 * / Justifi ati AvailabilitY Codes 1. Introduction This paper is an attempt to specify’ a computationally and scientifically plausible model of how...abstract neural compuiting unit and a variety of construtions built of these units and their properties. All of this is part of the connectionist...chosen are inlerided to elucidate the nia’or scientific problems in intermediate level vision and would not be the best choice or a practical computer

  12. Evaluating the Effects of Dimensionality in Advanced Avionic Display Concepts for Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Amy L.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Wickens, Christopher D.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic vision systems provide an in-cockpit view of terrain and other hazards via a computer-generated display representation. Two experiments examined several display concepts for synthetic vision and evaluated how such displays modulate pilot performance. Experiment 1 (24 general aviation pilots) compared three navigational display (ND) concepts: 2D coplanar, 3D, and split-screen. Experiment 2 (12 commercial airline pilots) evaluated baseline 'blue sky/brown ground' or synthetic vision-enabled primary flight displays (PFDs) and three ND concepts: 2D coplanar with and without synthetic vision and a dynamic multi-mode rotatable exocentric format. In general, the results pointed to an overall advantage for a split-screen format, whether it be stand-alone (Experiment 1) or available via rotatable viewpoints (Experiment 2). Furthermore, Experiment 2 revealed benefits associated with utilizing synthetic vision in both the PFD and ND representations and the value of combined ego- and exocentric presentations.

  13. Sotos syndrome: An interesting disorder with gigantism.

    PubMed

    Nalini, A; Biswas, Arundhati

    2008-07-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old boy diagnosed to have Sotos syndrome, with rare association of bilateral primary optic atrophy and epilepsy. He presented with accelerated linear growth, facial gestalt, distinctive facial features, seizures and progressive diminution of vision in both eyes. He had features of gigantism from early childhood. An MRI showed that brain and endocrine functions were normal. This case is of interest, as we have to be aware of this not so rare disorder. In addition to the classic features, there were two unusual associations with Sotos syndrome in the patient.

  14. Sotos syndrome: An interesting disorder with gigantism

    PubMed Central

    Nalini, A.; Biswas, Arundhati

    2008-01-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old boy diagnosed to have Sotos syndrome, with rare association of bilateral primary optic atrophy and epilepsy. He presented with accelerated linear growth, facial gestalt, distinctive facial features, seizures and progressive diminution of vision in both eyes. He had features of gigantism from early childhood. An MRI showed that brain and endocrine functions were normal. This case is of interest, as we have to be aware of this not so rare disorder. In addition to the classic features, there were two unusual associations with Sotos syndrome in the patient. PMID:19893668

  15. Collective Computation of Neural Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-15

    Sciences, Beijing ABSTRACT Computational neuroscience is a new branch of neuroscience originating from current research on the theory of computer...scientists working in artificial intelligence engineering and neuroscience . The paper introduces the collective computational properties of model neural...vision research. On this basis, the authors analyzed the significance of the Hopfield model. Key phrases: Computational Neuroscience , Neural Network, Model

  16. Two patients with TAFRO syndrome exhibiting strikingly similar anterior mediastinal lesions with predominantly fat attenuation on chest computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Yoko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yasuo, Masanori; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Tateishi, Kazunari; Ushiki, Atsuhito; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Asaka, Shiho; Sano, Kenji; Takayama, Hiroshi; Imamura, Hiroshi; Hanaoka, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    We herein report on two middle-aged men with TAFRO (thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis or renal failure, and organomegaly) syndrome, a unique clinicopathological variant of multicentric Castleman׳s disease recently proposed in Japan. Strikingly similar anterior mediastinal fat swellings with soft tissue density were observed in the patients on chest computed tomography. In TAFRO syndrome, bilateral pleural effusion and slight lymph node swelling are common in the thoracic region; however, anterior mediastinal lesions have not been previously observed. Although the mechanisms of anterior mediastinal lesions have not been defined, these lesions seem to have a close relationship with TAFRO syndrome. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends and developments in industrial machine vision: 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niel, Kurt; Heinzl, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    When following current advancements and implementations in the field of machine vision there seems to be no borders for future developments: Calculating power constantly increases, and new ideas are spreading and previously challenging approaches are introduced in to mass market. Within the past decades these advances have had dramatic impacts on our lives. Consumer electronics, e.g. computers or telephones, which once occupied large volumes, now fit in the palm of a hand. To note just a few examples e.g. face recognition was adopted by the consumer market, 3D capturing became cheap, due to the huge community SW-coding got easier using sophisticated development platforms. However, still there is a remaining gap between consumer and industrial applications. While the first ones have to be entertaining, the second have to be reliable. Recent studies (e.g. VDMA [1], Germany) show a moderately increasing market for machine vision in industry. Asking industry regarding their needs the main challenges for industrial machine vision are simple usage and reliability for the process, quick support, full automation, self/easy adjustment at changing process parameters, "forget it in the line". Furthermore a big challenge is to support quality control: Nowadays the operator has to accurately define the tested features for checking the probes. There is an upcoming development also to let automated machine vision applications find out essential parameters in a more abstract level (top down). In this work we focus on three current and future topics for industrial machine vision: Metrology supporting automation, quality control (inline/atline/offline) as well as visualization and analysis of datasets with steadily growing sizes. Finally the general trend of the pixel orientated towards object orientated evaluation is addressed. We do not directly address the field of robotics taking advances from machine vision. This is actually a fast changing area which is worth an own

  18. The World Water Vision: From Developing a Vision to Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, S.; Cosgrove, W.; Rijsberman, F.; Strzepek, K.; Strzepek, K.

    2001-05-01

    The World Water Vision exercise was initiated by the World Water Commission under the auspices of the World Water Council. The goal of the World Water Vision project was to develop a widely shared vision on the actions required to achieve a common set of water-related goals and the necessary commitment to carry out these actions. The Vision should be participatory in nature, including input from both developed and developing regions, with a special focus on the needs of the poor, women, youth, children and the environment. Three overall objectives were to: (i)raise awareness of water issues among both the general population and decision-makers so as to foster the necessary political will and leadership to tackle the problems seriously and systematically; (ii) develop a vision of water management for 2025 that is shared by water sector specialists as well as international, national and regional decision-makers in government, the private sector and civil society; and (iii) provide input to a Framework for Action to be elaborated by the Global Water Partnership, with steps to go from vision to action, including recommendations to funding agencies for investment priorities. This exercise was characterized by the principles of: (i) a participatory approach with extensive consultation; (ii) Innovative thinking; (iii) central analysis to assure integration and co-ordination; and (iv) emphasis on communication with groups outside the water sector. The primary activities included, developing global water scenarios that fed into regional consultations and sectoral consultations as water for food, water for people - water supply and sanitation, and water and environment. These consultations formulated the regional and sectoral visions that were synthesized to form the World Water Vision. The findings from this exercise were reported and debated at the Second World Water Forum and the Ministerial Conference held in The Hague, The Netherlands during April 2000. This paper

  19. Sensor fusion and computer vision for context-aware control of a multi degree-of-freedom prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Marko; Dosen, Strahinja; Popovic, Dejan; Graimann, Bernhard; Farina, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Myoelectric activity volitionally generated by the user is often used for controlling hand prostheses in order to replicate the synergistic actions of muscles in healthy humans during grasping. Muscle synergies in healthy humans are based on the integration of visual perception, heuristics and proprioception. Here, we demonstrate how sensor fusion that combines artificial vision and proprioceptive information with the high-level processing characteristics of biological systems can be effectively used in transradial prosthesis control. Approach. We developed a novel context- and user-aware prosthesis (CASP) controller integrating computer vision and inertial sensing with myoelectric activity in order to achieve semi-autonomous and reactive control of a prosthetic hand. The presented method semi-automatically provides simultaneous and proportional control of multiple degrees-of-freedom (DOFs), thus decreasing overall physical effort while retaining full user control. The system was compared against the major commercial state-of-the art myoelectric control system in ten able-bodied and one amputee subject. All subjects used transradial prosthesis with an active wrist to grasp objects typically associated with activities of daily living. Main results. The CASP significantly outperformed the myoelectric interface when controlling all of the prosthesis DOF. However, when tested with less complex prosthetic system (smaller number of DOF), the CASP was slower but resulted with reaching motions that contained less compensatory movements. Another important finding is that the CASP system required minimal user adaptation and training. Significance. The CASP constitutes a substantial improvement for the control of multi-DOF prostheses. The application of the CASP will have a significant impact when translated to real-life scenarious, particularly with respect to improving the usability and acceptance of highly complex systems (e.g., full prosthetic arms) by amputees.

  20. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography in fetal alcohol syndrome: a case report and study implications.

    PubMed

    Codreanu, Ion; Yang, JiGang; Zhuang, Hongming

    2012-12-01

    The indications of brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in fetal alcohol syndrome are not clearly defined, even though the condition is recognized as one of the most common causes of mental retardation. This article reports a case of a 9-year-old adopted girl with developmental delay, mildly dysmorphic facial features, and behavioral and cognitive abnormalities. Extensive investigations including genetic studies and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed no abnormalities, and a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome was considered since official diagnostic criteria were met. A brain SPECT was requested and showed severely decreased tracer activity in the thalami, basal ganglia, and temporal lobes on both sides, the overall findings being consistent with the established diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome. With increasing availability of functional brain imaging, the study indications and possible ethical implications in suspected prenatal alcohol exposure or even before adoption need further consideration. In this patient, SPECT was the only test to yield positive results.