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Sample records for computer-aided diagnostic system

  1. Computer-Aided Diagnostic System For Mass Survey Chest Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Yoshizumi; Kinoshita, Yasuhiro; Emori, Yasufumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi

    1988-06-01

    In order to support screening of chest radiographs on mass survey, a computer-aided diagnostic system that automatically detects abnormality of candidate images using a digital image analysis technique has been developed. Extracting boundary lines of lung fields and examining their shapes allowed various kind of abnormalities to be detected. Correction and expansion were facilitated by describing the system control, image analysis control and judgement of abnormality in the rule type programing language. In the experiments using typical samples of student's radiograms, good results were obtained for the detection of abnormal shape of lung field, cardiac hypertrophy and scoliosis. As for the detection of diaphragmatic abnormality, relatively good results were obtained but further improvements will be necessary.

  2. A computer-aided diagnostic system for kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Jahantigh, Farzad Firouzi; Malmir, Behnam; Avilaq, Behzad Aslani

    2017-01-01

    Background Disease diagnosis is complicated since patients may demonstrate similar symptoms but physician may diagnose different diseases. There are a few number of investigations aimed to create a fuzzy expert system, as a computer aided system for disease diagnosis. Methods In this research, a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in a kidney clinic in Tehran, Iran in 2012. Medical diagnosis fuzzy rules applied, and a set of symptoms related to the set of considered diseases defined. The input case to be diagnosed defined by assigning a fuzzy value to each symptom and then three physicians asked about each suspected diseases. Then comments of those three physicians summarized for each disease. The fuzzy inference applied to obtain a decision fuzzy set for each disease, and crisp decision values attained to determine the certainty of existence for each disease. Results Results indicated that, in the diagnosis of seven cases of kidney disease by examining 21 indicators using fuzzy expert system, kidney stone disease with 63% certainty was the most probable, renal tubular was at the lowest level with 15%, and other kidney diseases were at the other levels. The most remarkable finding of this study was that results of kidney disease diagnosis (e.g., kidney stone) via fuzzy expert system were fully compatible with those of kidney physicians. Conclusion The proposed fuzzy expert system is a valid, reliable, and flexible instrument to diagnose several typical input cases. The developed system decreases the effort of initial physical checking and manual feeding of input symptoms. PMID:28392995

  3. Computer Aided Diagnostic Support System for Skin Cancer: A Review of Techniques and Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Ammara; Al-Jumaily, Adel Ali

    2013-01-01

    Image-based computer aided diagnosis systems have significant potential for screening and early detection of malignant melanoma. We review the state of the art in these systems and examine current practices, problems, and prospects of image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and selection, and classification of dermoscopic images. This paper reports statistics and results from the most important implementations reported to date. We compared the performance of several classifiers specifically developed for skin lesion diagnosis and discussed the corresponding findings. Whenever available, indication of various conditions that affect the technique's performance is reported. We suggest a framework for comparative assessment of skin cancer diagnostic models and review the results based on these models. The deficiencies in some of the existing studies are highlighted and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:24575126

  4. Computer-aided diagnostic system for breast cancer by detecting microcalcifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chul S.; Kim, Jong K.; Park, Hyun Wook

    1998-06-01

    X-ray mammography is an important diagnostic imaging modality for early detection of breast cancer. The early detection of the breast cancer can reduce the mortality of middle-aged women, especially in the developed country. Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) technologies have been developed to assist radiologists to detect breast cancer in early stage. This paper presents a KCAD (KAIST Computer-Aided Diagnosis) system for detection of breast cancer, which consists of personal computer, high resolution X-ray film scanner, high-resolution display and application softwares. There are three algorithms implemented in the application softwares. The first algorithm is the enhancement of the digitized X-ray mammograms based on the gradient operation. The second algorithm is to detect the clustered microcalcifications based on the statistical texture analysis, which is called surrounding region dependence method (SRDM). The SRDM matrix is computed for each ROI, which has 128 by 128 pixels. The SRDM matrix characterizes the small and high-density regions in mammograms, which can be recognized as microcalcifications. Four textural features are computed from the SRDM matrix. Using these features, the neural network classifies the regions as normal or microcalcification region. The third algorithm is the classification of the clustered microcalcifications as malignant or benign based on the shape analysis. The microcalcifications are segmented using SRDM. Four shape features are extracted from each microcalcification and five representatives are computed for each shape feature. Twenty-one shape-based values containing the number of microcalcifications are used to classify the region as malignant or benign. These algorithms are verified by real experiments.

  5. Computer-aided diagnostic system for diffuse liver diseases with ultrasonography by neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, K.; Fukushima, M.; Kubota, K.; Hisa, N.

    1998-12-01

    The aim of the study is to establish a computer-aided diagnostic system for diffuse liver diseases such as chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and liver cirrhosis (LC). The authors introduced an artificial neural network in the classification of these diseases. In this system the neural network was trained by feature parameters extracted from B-mode ultrasonic images of normal liver (NL), CAH and LC. For input data the authors used six parameters calculated by a region of interest (ROI) and a parameter calculated by five ROIs in each image. They were variance of pixel values, coefficient of variation, annular Fourier power spectrum, longitudinal Fourier power spectrum which were calculated for the ROI, and variation of the means of the five ROIs. In addition, the authors used two more parameters calculated from a co-occurrence matrix of pixel values in the ROI. The results showed that the neural network classifier was 83.8% in sensitivity for LC, 90.0% in sensitivity for CAH and 93.6% in specificity, and the system was considered to be helpful for clinical and educational use.

  6. Ischemic Stroke Detection System with a Computer-Aided Diagnostic Ability Using an Unsupervised Feature Perception Enhancement Method

    PubMed Central

    Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Wu, Ming-Chi; Chin, Chiun-Li; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Ming-Sian; Chang, Hao-Yan

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ischemic stroke detection system with a computer-aided diagnostic ability using a four-step unsupervised feature perception enhancement method. In the first step, known as preprocessing, we use a cubic curve contrast enhancement method to enhance image contrast. In the second step, we use a series of methods to extract the brain tissue image area identified during preprocessing. To detect abnormal regions in the brain images, we propose using an unsupervised region growing algorithm to segment the brain tissue area. The brain is centered on a horizontal line and the white matter of the brain's inner ring is split into eight regions. In the third step, we use a coinciding regional location method to find the hybrid area of locations where a stroke may have occurred in each cerebral hemisphere. Finally, we make corrections and mark the stroke area with red color. In the experiment, we tested the system on 90 computed tomography (CT) images from 26 patients, and, with the assistance of two radiologists, we proved that our proposed system has computer-aided diagnostic capabilities. Our results show an increased stroke diagnosis sensitivity of 83% in comparison to 31% when radiologists use conventional diagnostic images. PMID:25610453

  7. Ischemic stroke detection system with a computer-aided diagnostic ability using an unsupervised feature perception enhancement method.

    PubMed

    Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Wu, Ming-Chi; Chin, Chiun-Li; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Ming-Sian; Chang, Hao-Yan

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ischemic stroke detection system with a computer-aided diagnostic ability using a four-step unsupervised feature perception enhancement method. In the first step, known as preprocessing, we use a cubic curve contrast enhancement method to enhance image contrast. In the second step, we use a series of methods to extract the brain tissue image area identified during preprocessing. To detect abnormal regions in the brain images, we propose using an unsupervised region growing algorithm to segment the brain tissue area. The brain is centered on a horizontal line and the white matter of the brain's inner ring is split into eight regions. In the third step, we use a coinciding regional location method to find the hybrid area of locations where a stroke may have occurred in each cerebral hemisphere. Finally, we make corrections and mark the stroke area with red color. In the experiment, we tested the system on 90 computed tomography (CT) images from 26 patients, and, with the assistance of two radiologists, we proved that our proposed system has computer-aided diagnostic capabilities. Our results show an increased stroke diagnosis sensitivity of 83% in comparison to 31% when radiologists use conventional diagnostic images.

  8. Dynamic MRI-based computer aided diagnostic systems for early detection of kidney transplant rejection: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostapha, Mahmoud; Khalifa, Fahmi; Alansary, Amir; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Early detection of renal transplant rejection is important to implement appropriate medical and immune therapy in patients with transplanted kidneys. In literature, a large number of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems using different image modalities, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide imaging, have been proposed for early detection of kidney diseases. A typical CAD system for kidney diagnosis consists of a set of processing steps including: motion correction, segmentation of the kidney and/or its internal structures (e.g., cortex, medulla), construction of agent kinetic curves, functional parameter estimation, diagnosis, and assessment of the kidney status. In this paper, we survey the current state-of-the-art CAD systems that have been developed for kidney disease diagnosis using dynamic MRI. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in developing efficient, fast and reliable CAD systems for the early detection of kidney diseases.

  9. Automated antinuclear immunofluorescence antibody screening: a comparative study of six computer-aided diagnostic systems.

    PubMed

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Antico, Antonio; Platzgummer, Stefan; Tonutti, Elio; Bassetti, Danila; Pesente, Fiorenza; Tozzoli, Renato; Tampoia, Marilina; Villalta, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    , whereas among nuclear patterns those with a low level of fluorescence (i.e., multiple nuclear dots, midbody, nuclear rim) were sometimes missed. The intensity values of the light signal of various instruments showed a good correlation with the titer obtained by manual reading (Spearman's rho between 0.672 and 0.839; P<0.0001 for all the systems). Imprecision ranged from 1.99% to 25.2% and, for all the systems, it was lower than that obtained by the manual IIF test (39.1%). The accuracy of pattern recognition, which is for now restricted to the most typical patterns (homogeneous, speckled, nucleolar, centromere, multiple nuclear dots and cytoplasmic) was limited, ranging from 52% to 79%. This study, which is the first to compare the diagnostic accuracy of six systems for automated ANA-IIF reading on the same series of sera, showed that all systems are able to perform very well the task for which they were created. Indeed, cumulative automatic discrimination between positive and negative samples had 95% accuracy. All the manufacturers are actively continuing the development of new and more sophisticated software for a better definition in automatic recognition of patterns and light signal conversion in end-point titer. In the future, this may avert the need for serum dilution for titration, which will be a great advantage in economic terms and time-saving. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Design of an enhanced fuzzy k-nearest neighbor classifier based computer aided diagnostic system for thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Da-You; Chen, Hui-Ling; Yang, Bo; Lv, Xin-En; Li, Li-Na; Liu, Jie

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present an enhanced fuzzy k-nearest neighbor (FKNN) classifier based computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for thyroid disease. The neighborhood size k and the fuzzy strength parameter m in FKNN classifier are adaptively specified by the particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach. The adaptive control parameters including time-varying acceleration coefficients (TVAC) and time-varying inertia weight (TVIW) are employed to efficiently control the local and global search ability of PSO algorithm. In addition, we have validated the effectiveness of the principle component analysis (PCA) in constructing a more discriminative subspace for classification. The effectiveness of the resultant CAD system, termed as PCA-PSO-FKNN, has been rigorously evaluated against the thyroid disease dataset, which is commonly used among researchers who use machine learning methods for thyroid disease diagnosis. Compared to the existing methods in previous studies, the proposed system has achieved the highest classification accuracy reported so far via 10-fold cross-validation (CV) analysis, with the mean accuracy of 98.82% and with the maximum accuracy of 99.09%. Promisingly, the proposed CAD system might serve as a new candidate of powerful tools for diagnosing thyroid disease with excellent performance.

  11. Microcalcification detection based on wavelet domain hidden Markov tree model: Study for inclusion to computer aided diagnostic prompting system

    SciTech Connect

    Regentova, Emma; Zhang Lei; Zheng Jun; Veni, Gopalkrishna

    2007-06-15

    In this paper we investigate the performance of statistical modeling of digital mammograms by means of wavelet domain hidden Markov trees for its inclusion to a computer-aided diagnostic prompting system. The system is designed for detecting clusters of microcalcifications. Their further discrimination as benign or malignant is to be done by radiologists. The model is used for segmenting images based on the maximum likelihood classifier enhanced by the weighting technique. Further classification incorporates spatial filtering for a single microcalcification (MC) and microcalcification cluster (MCC) detection. Contrast filtering applied for the digital database for screening mammography (DDSM) dataset prior to spatial filtering greatly improves the classification accuracy. For all MC clusters of 40 mammograms from the mini-MIAS database of Mammographic Image Analysis Society, 92.5%-100% of true positive cases can be detected under 2-3 false positives per image. For 150 cases of DDSM cases, the designed system is capable to detect up to 98% of true positives under 3.3% of false positive cases.

  12. Computer-aided diagnostic system for detection of Hashimoto thyroiditis on ultrasound images from a Polish population.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Sree, S Vinitha; Krishnan, M Muthu Rama; Molinari, Filippo; Zieleźnik, Witold; Bardales, Ricardo H; Witkowska, Agnieszka; Suri, Jasjit S

    2014-02-01

    Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) techniques aid physicians in better diagnosis of diseases by extracting objective and accurate diagnostic information from medical data. Hashimoto thyroiditis is the most common type of inflammation of the thyroid gland. The inflammation changes the structure of the thyroid tissue, and these changes are reflected as echogenic changes on ultrasound images. In this work, we propose a novel CAD system (a class of systems called ThyroScan) that extracts textural features from a thyroid sonogram and uses them to aid in the detection of Hashimoto thyroiditis. In this paradigm, we extracted grayscale features based on stationary wavelet transform from 232 normal and 294 Hashimoto thyroiditis-affected thyroid ultrasound images obtained from a Polish population. Significant features were selected using a Student t test. The resulting feature vectors were used to build and evaluate the following 4 classifiers using a 10-fold stratified cross-validation technique: support vector machine, decision tree, fuzzy classifier, and K-nearest neighbor. Using 7 significant features that characterized the textural changes in the images, the fuzzy classifier had the highest classification accuracy of 84.6%, sensitivity of 82.8%, specificity of 87.0%, and a positive predictive value of 88.9%. The proposed ThyroScan CAD system uses novel features to noninvasively detect the presence of Hashimoto thyroiditis on ultrasound images. Compared to manual interpretations of ultrasound images, the CAD system offers a more objective interpretation of the nature of the thyroid. The preliminary results presented in this work indicate the possibility of using such a CAD system in a clinical setting after evaluating it with larger databases in multicenter clinical trials.

  13. Computer-aided system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  14. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  15. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  16. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-12-16

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  17. A rule based computer aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1986-01-01

    A Computer Aided Design (CAD) system is presented which supports the iterative process of design, the dimensional continuity between mating parts, and the hierarchical structure of the parts in their assembled configuration. Prolog, an interactive logic programming language, is used to represent and interpret the data base. The solid geometry representing the parts is defined in parameterized form using the swept volume method. The system is demonstrated with a design of a spring piston.

  18. CAVES - Computer-Aided Vehicle Embarkation System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    14. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES It. KEY WORDS (Continue on rewer@* olde it necessary and identify by block number) Pallet loading Vehicle loading Cutting...loading problem. A computer-aided vehicle embarkation system (CAVES) is developed to assist embarkation personnel to load vehicles on board a ship. Caves...load vehicles on board a ship. CAVES provides the Embarkation Officer the flexibility and portability needed to make real time decisions about vehicle

  19. Computer aided system engineering for space construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racheli, Ugo

    1989-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation covers the following topics. Construction activities envisioned for the assembly of large platforms in space (as well as interplanetary spacecraft and bases on extraterrestrial surfaces) require computational tools that exceed the capability of conventional construction management programs. The Center for Space Construction is investigating the requirements for new computational tools and, at the same time, suggesting the expansion of graduate and undergraduate curricula to include proficiency in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) though design courses and individual or team projects in advanced space systems design. In the center's research, special emphasis is placed on problems of constructability and of the interruptability of planned activity sequences to be carried out by crews operating under hostile environmental conditions. The departure point for the planned work is the acquisition of the MCAE I-DEAS software, developed by the Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC), and its expansion to the level of capability denoted by the acronym IDEAS**2 currently used for configuration maintenance on Space Station Freedom. In addition to improving proficiency in the use of I-DEAS and IDEAS**2, it is contemplated that new software modules will be developed to expand the architecture of IDEAS**2. Such modules will deal with those analyses that require the integration of a space platform's configuration with a breakdown of planned construction activities and with a failure modes analysis to support computer aided system engineering (CASE) applied to space construction.

  20. RASCAL: A Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John Christopher

    Both the background of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems in general and the requirements of a computer-aided learning system which would be a reasonable assistant to a teacher are discussed. RASCAL (Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning) is a first attempt at defining a CAI system which would individualize the learning…

  1. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  2. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  3. PLAID- A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    PLAID is a three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) system which enables the user to interactively construct, manipulate, and display sets of highly complex geometric models. PLAID was initially developed by NASA to assist in the design of Space Shuttle crewstation panels, and the detection of payload object collisions. It has evolved into a more general program for convenient use in many engineering applications. Special effort was made to incorporate CAD techniques and features which minimize the users workload in designing and managing PLAID models. PLAID consists of three major modules: the Primitive Object Generator (BUILD), the Composite Object Generator (COG), and the DISPLAY Processor. The BUILD module provides a means of constructing simple geometric objects called primitives. The primitives are created from polygons which are defined either explicitly by vertex coordinates, or graphically by use of terminal crosshairs or a digitizer. Solid objects are constructed by combining, rotating, or translating the polygons. Corner rounding, hole punching, milling, and contouring are special features available in BUILD. The COG module hierarchically organizes and manipulates primitives and other previously defined COG objects to form complex assemblies. The composite object is constructed by applying transformations to simpler objects. The transformations which can be applied are scalings, rotations, and translations. These transformations may be defined explicitly or defined graphically using the interactive COG commands. The DISPLAY module enables the user to view COG assemblies from arbitrary viewpoints (inside or outside the object) both in wireframe and hidden line renderings. The PLAID projection of a three-dimensional object can be either orthographic or with perspective. A conflict analysis option enables detection of spatial conflicts or collisions. DISPLAY provides camera functions to simulate a view of the model through different lenses. Other

  4. PLAID- A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    PLAID is a three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) system which enables the user to interactively construct, manipulate, and display sets of highly complex geometric models. PLAID was initially developed by NASA to assist in the design of Space Shuttle crewstation panels, and the detection of payload object collisions. It has evolved into a more general program for convenient use in many engineering applications. Special effort was made to incorporate CAD techniques and features which minimize the users workload in designing and managing PLAID models. PLAID consists of three major modules: the Primitive Object Generator (BUILD), the Composite Object Generator (COG), and the DISPLAY Processor. The BUILD module provides a means of constructing simple geometric objects called primitives. The primitives are created from polygons which are defined either explicitly by vertex coordinates, or graphically by use of terminal crosshairs or a digitizer. Solid objects are constructed by combining, rotating, or translating the polygons. Corner rounding, hole punching, milling, and contouring are special features available in BUILD. The COG module hierarchically organizes and manipulates primitives and other previously defined COG objects to form complex assemblies. The composite object is constructed by applying transformations to simpler objects. The transformations which can be applied are scalings, rotations, and translations. These transformations may be defined explicitly or defined graphically using the interactive COG commands. The DISPLAY module enables the user to view COG assemblies from arbitrary viewpoints (inside or outside the object) both in wireframe and hidden line renderings. The PLAID projection of a three-dimensional object can be either orthographic or with perspective. A conflict analysis option enables detection of spatial conflicts or collisions. DISPLAY provides camera functions to simulate a view of the model through different lenses. Other

  5. Computer-aided selection of diagnostic tests in jaundiced patients.

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Marc Girardin, M F; Le Minor, M; Alperovitch, A; Roudot-Thoraval, F; Metreau, J M; Dhumeaux, D

    1985-01-01

    A model has been developed for ordering diagnostic tests in jaundiced patients. The system proceeds in two steps: (i) diagnostic hypotheses are calculated for each patient from the results of physical examination and routine biological investigations; (ii) given these hypotheses, the most efficient test (out of 22) for reaching the final diagnosis is selected using four criteria: diagnostic value, risk, financial cost, and time in obtaining the result. This model was tested in 62 patients. In 43 of them (69%), the selected test was sufficient for reaching a diagnostic accuracy of 100%. In this group of patients, a mean of 3.7 (range 1-6) tests per patient was ordered by physicians. In the 19 remaining patients, the selected test was not sufficient for the final diagnosis, thus requiring a multiple choice process. It is suggested that such a system could help physicians to improve the care of patients by more efficient ordering of diagnostic tests. PMID:3896962

  6. Toward Computer-Aided Affective Learning Systems: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moridis, C. N.; Economides, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to provide an overview of the various components of "computer aided affective learning systems." The research is classified into 3 main scientific areas that are integral parts of the development of these kinds of systems. The three main scientific areas are: i) emotions and their connection to learning; ii) affect…

  7. EUROPattern Suite technology for computer-aided immunofluorescence microscopy in autoantibody diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Krause, C; Ens, K; Fechner, K; Voigt, J; Fraune, J; Rohwäder, E; Hahn, M; Danckwardt, M; Feirer, C; Barth, E; Martinetz, T; Stöcker, W

    2015-04-01

    Antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) are highly informative biomarkers in autoimmune diagnostics. The increasing demand for effective test systems, however, has led to the development of a confusingly large variety of different platforms. One of them, the indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), is regarded as the common gold standard for ANA screening, as described in a position statement by the American College of Rheumatology in 2009. Technological solutions have been developed aimed at standardization and automation of IIF to overcome methodological limitations and subjective bias in IIF interpretation. In this review, we present the EUROPattern Suite, a system for computer-aided immunofluorescence microscopy (CAIFM) including automated acquisition of digital images and evaluation of IIF results. The system was originally designed for ANA diagnostics on human epithelial cells, but its applications have been extended with the latest system update version 1.5 to the analysis of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and anti-dsDNA antibodies.

  8. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-05-03

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This system is defined as a Commercial-Off the-Shelf computer dispatching system providing both text and graphical display information while interfacing with the diverse reporting system within the Hanford Facility. This system also provided expansion capabilities to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center and provides back-up capabilities for the Plutonium Processing Facility.

  9. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-09-27

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This document outlines the negotiated requirements as agreed to by GTE Northwest during technical contract discussions. This system defines a commercial off-the-shelf computer dispatching system providing both test and graphic display information while interfacing with diverse alarm reporting system within the Hanford Site. This system provided expansion capability to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center. The system also provided back-up capability for the Plutonium Processing Facility (PFP).

  10. Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction: A Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Novak, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Presents an evaluation of a computer-aided personalized system of instruction program in two undergraduate psychology courses. The computer presented short essay tests and arranged for students who had completed various assignments satisfactorily to help evaluate other students' mastery of those assignments. Student response generally was…

  11. Computer-aided Instructional System for Transmission Line Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, Erwin A.; Roth, Charles H., Jr.

    A computer-aided instructional system has been developed which utilizes dynamic computer-controlled graphic displays and which requires student interaction with a computer simulation in an instructional mode. A numerical scheme has been developed for digital simulation of a uniform, distortionless transmission line with resistive terminations and…

  12. Computer-aided pattern classification system for dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Qaisar; Celebi, M Emre; Fondón, Irene

    2012-08-01

    Computer-aided pattern classification of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions is one of the most important tasks for clinical diagnosis. To differentiate between benign and malignant lesions, the extraction of color, architectural order, symmetry of pattern and homogeneity (CASH) is a challenging task. In this article, a novel pattern classification system (PCS) based on the clinical CASH rule is presented to classify among six classes of patterns. The PCS system consists of the following five steps: transformation to the CIE L*a*b* color space, pre-processing to enhance the tumor region and removal of hairs, tumor-area segmentation, color and texture feature extraction, and finally, classification based on a multiclass support vector machine. The PCS system is tested on a total of 180 dermoscopic images. To test the performance of the PCS diagnostic classifier, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) is utilized. The proposed classifier achieved a sensitivity of 91.64%, specificity of 94.14%, and AUC of 0.948. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed pattern classifier is highly accurate and classify between benign and malignant lesions into some extend. The PCS method is fully automatic and can accurately detect different patterns from dermoscopy images using color and texture properties. Additional pattern features can be included to investigate the impact of pattern classification based on the CASH rule. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Space systems computer-aided design technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) system is described, together with planned capability increases in the IDEAS system. The system's disciplines consist of interactive graphics and interactive computing. A single user at an interactive terminal can create, design, analyze, and conduct parametric studies of earth-orbiting satellites, which represents a timely and cost-effective method during the conceptual design phase where various missions and spacecraft options require evaluation. Spacecraft concepts evaluated include microwave radiometer satellites, communication satellite systems, solar-powered lasers, power platforms, and orbiting space stations.

  14. Computer-aided protective system (CAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method of improving the security of materials in transit is described. The system provides a continuously monitored position location system for the transport vehicle, an internal computer-based geographic delimiter that makes continuous comparisons of actual positions with the preplanned routing and schedule, and a tamper detection/reaction system. The position comparison is utilized to institute preprogrammed reactive measures if the carrier is taken off course or schedule, penetrated, or otherwise interfered with. The geographic locater could be an independent internal platform or an external signal-dependent system utilizing GPS, Loran or similar source of geographic information; a small (micro) computer could provide adequate memory and computational capacity; the insurance of integrity of the system indicates the need for a tamper-proof container and built-in intrusion sensors. A variant of the system could provide real-time transmission of the vehicle position and condition to a central control point for; such transmission could be encrypted to preclude spoofing.

  15. Integrated computer-aided retinal photocoagulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Oberg, Erik D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Cain, Clarence P.; Jerath, Maya R.; Rylander, Henry G., III; Welch, Ashley J.

    1996-05-01

    Successful retinal tracking subsystem testing results in vivo on rhesus monkeys using an argon continuous wave laser and an ultra-short pulse laser are presented. Progress on developing an integrated robotic retinal laser surgery system is also presented. Several interesting areas of study have developed: (1) 'doughnut' shaped lesions that occur under certain combinations of laser power, spot size, and irradiation time complicating measurements of central lesion reflectance, (2) the optimal retinal field of view to achieve simultaneous tracking and lesion parameter control, and (3) a fully digital versus a hybrid analog/digital tracker using confocal reflectometry integrated system implementation. These areas are investigated in detail in this paper. The hybrid system warrants a separate presentation and appears in another paper at this conference.

  16. Computer-Aided Fabrication System Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-30

    of IC Manufacturing Data," August 18, 1988. Mike worked on our CAFE project this past spring and is now at TI on his VI-A internship company assignment...and Scheduling, Paris, France, July 5, 1988. X. Bai, "A Hierarchical Scheduling and Planning Framework for Manufacturing Systems," CIM- IC Workshop...Stage Process-Step Model Valid?," CIM- IC Workshop, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, August 4-5, 1988. E. M. Sachs, "Equipment Modeling Using Smart

  17. Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital Screening Mammography with and without Computer-aided Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Constance D.; Wellman, Robert D.; Buist, Diana S.M.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Miglioretti, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    .1/1000 women screened with and without computer-aided detection). Computer-aided detection did not improve intra-radiologist performance. Sensitivity was significantly decreased for mammograms interpreted with versus without computer-aided detection in the subset of radiologists who interpreted both with and without computer-aided detection (OR 0.53, 95%CI=0.29–0.97). Conclusions and Relevance CAD does not improve diagnostic accuracy of mammography and may result in missed cancers. These results suggest that insurers pay more for computer-aided detection with no established benefit to women. PMID:26414882

  18. Computer-aided tutor of power electronic systems CATPELS

    SciTech Connect

    Rajagopalan, V.; Brillon, D.; Yao, Z.; Neacsu, D.O.; Doumbia, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    This paper outlines the major requirements and concepts of a computer-aided learning aid for power electronic systems and gives the characteristics of a prototype of an expert system named CATPELS. The open architecture of the run-time version of the CATPELS software provides not only the basic information for beginners and all the required tools for specialists but also permits a user (an instructor or a researcher) to expand the capabilities to customize his/her specific requirements.

  19. The NASA computer aided design and test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, J. M.; Juergensen, K.

    1973-01-01

    A family of computer programs facilitating the design, layout, evaluation, and testing of digital electronic circuitry is described. CADAT (computer aided design and test system) is intended for use by NASA and its contractors and is aimed predominantly at providing cost effective microelectronic subsystems based on custom designed metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) large scale integrated circuits (LSIC's). CADAT software can be easily adopted by installations with a wide variety of computer hardware configurations. Its structure permits ease of update to more powerful component programs and to newly emerging LSIC technologies. The components of the CADAT system are described stressing the interaction of programs rather than detail of coding or algorithms. The CADAT system provides computer aids to derive and document the design intent, includes powerful automatic layout software, permits detailed geometry checks and performance simulation based on mask data, and furnishes test pattern sequences for hardware testing.

  20. A Learning Health Care System Using Computer-Aided Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James J

    2017-01-01

    Physicians intuitively apply pattern recognition when evaluating a patient. Rational diagnosis making requires that clinical patterns be put in the context of disease prior probability, yet physicians often exhibit flawed probabilistic reasoning. Difficulties in making a diagnosis are reflected in the high rates of deadly and costly diagnostic errors. Introduced 6 decades ago, computerized diagnosis support systems are still not widely used by internists. These systems cannot efficiently recognize patterns and are unable to consider the base rate of potential diagnoses. We review the limitations of current computer-aided diagnosis support systems. We then portray future diagnosis support systems and provide a conceptual framework for their development. We argue for capturing physician knowledge using a novel knowledge representation model of the clinical picture. This model (based on structured patient presentation patterns) holds not only symptoms and signs but also their temporal and semantic interrelations. We call for the collection of crowdsourced, automatically deidentified, structured patient patterns as means to support distributed knowledge accumulation and maintenance. In this approach, each structured patient pattern adds to a self-growing and -maintaining knowledge base, sharing the experience of physicians worldwide. Besides supporting diagnosis by relating the symptoms and signs with the final diagnosis recorded, the collective pattern map can also provide disease base-rate estimates and real-time surveillance for early detection of outbreaks. We explain how health care in resource-limited settings can benefit from using this approach and how it can be applied to provide feedback-rich medical education for both students and practitioners. PMID:28274905

  1. A Learning Health Care System Using Computer-Aided Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cahan, Amos; Cimino, James J

    2017-03-08

    Physicians intuitively apply pattern recognition when evaluating a patient. Rational diagnosis making requires that clinical patterns be put in the context of disease prior probability, yet physicians often exhibit flawed probabilistic reasoning. Difficulties in making a diagnosis are reflected in the high rates of deadly and costly diagnostic errors. Introduced 6 decades ago, computerized diagnosis support systems are still not widely used by internists. These systems cannot efficiently recognize patterns and are unable to consider the base rate of potential diagnoses. We review the limitations of current computer-aided diagnosis support systems. We then portray future diagnosis support systems and provide a conceptual framework for their development. We argue for capturing physician knowledge using a novel knowledge representation model of the clinical picture. This model (based on structured patient presentation patterns) holds not only symptoms and signs but also their temporal and semantic interrelations. We call for the collection of crowdsourced, automatically deidentified, structured patient patterns as means to support distributed knowledge accumulation and maintenance. In this approach, each structured patient pattern adds to a self-growing and -maintaining knowledge base, sharing the experience of physicians worldwide. Besides supporting diagnosis by relating the symptoms and signs with the final diagnosis recorded, the collective pattern map can also provide disease base-rate estimates and real-time surveillance for early detection of outbreaks. We explain how health care in resource-limited settings can benefit from using this approach and how it can be applied to provide feedback-rich medical education for both students and practitioners.

  2. A Computer Aided Statistical Covariance Program for Missile System Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-01

    ENGINEERING RESEARCH OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY A COMPUTER AIDED STATISTICAL COVARIANCE PROGRAM FOR MISSILE SYSTEM ANALYSI. TO D JN2 U. S. Army Missile...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Office of Engineering Rsch, Oklahoma State Univ Agiculture...ANALYSIS by James R. Rowland and V. M. Gupta School of Electrical Engineering V Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Office of Engineering

  3. A Dynamic Scheduler for a Computer Aided Prototyping System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    9 D . OVERVIEW ......................................... .... 10 II. BACKGROUND AND DEVELOPMENT OF SCHEDULING ALGO- R IT H M S ...4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) S MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) NPS52-88-019 6a. NAME OF PERrORMING ORGANIZATION 6b OFFICE...DYNAMIC SCHEDULER FOR A COMPUTER AIDED PROTOTYPING SYSTEM (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR( S ) EATON, Susan L., LUQI 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 114

  4. Computer-Aided Final Design Cost Estimating System Overview.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    laboratory _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ /1— COMPUTER-AIDED FINAL DESIGN • COST ESTIMATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW © by...PROJECT . TASKAAEA~~ WORK UNIT NUMBERSCONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY ~~~~~~~~~ .• . — P.O. Box 4005 ~~ 4A7627~ %T4fldt11 Champa ign , IL 61820...Construction Division (FA), U.S. Army Construction Engineering Re- search Laboratory (CERL), Champaign , IL. The Principal Investigator was Mr. Michael

  5. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2008-03-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The function to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and security improvement of medical information.

  6. Computer-aided radio dispatch system streamlines operations

    SciTech Connect

    Meck, G.L.

    1985-10-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided radio dispatch system (CARDS) used by The East Ohio Gas Company to help improve customer satisfaction and the already high level of performance in customer service operations. East Ohio decided to develop its own system after establishing certain criteria. The heart of the Cards unit is the DEC microcomputer LSI-11 where data is transmitted between it and the dispatch centers at 1,200 baud. The large number of job functions that the system helps fulfill are discussed in this paper.

  7. Computer-aided auscultation learning system for nursing technique instruction.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chun-Ju; Chen, Yen-Ting; Hu, Ling-Chen; Chuang, Chih-Chieh; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Tsai, Ming-Shih

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary auscultation is a physical assessment skill learned by nursing students for examining the respiratory system. Generally, a sound simulator equipped mannequin is used to group teach auscultation techniques via classroom demonstration. However, nursing students cannot readily duplicate this learning environment for self-study. The advancement of electronic and digital signal processing technologies facilitates simulating this learning environment. This study aims to develop a computer-aided auscultation learning system for assisting teachers and nursing students in auscultation teaching and learning. This system provides teachers with signal recording and processing of lung sounds and immediate playback of lung sounds for students. A graphical user interface allows teachers to control the measuring device, draw lung sound waveforms, highlight lung sound segments of interest, and include descriptive text. Effects on learning lung sound auscultation were evaluated for verifying the feasibility of the system. Fifteen nursing students voluntarily participated in the repeated experiment. The results of a paired t test showed that auscultative abilities of the students were significantly improved by using the computer-aided auscultation learning system.

  8. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  9. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  10. Computer-aided X-ray holographic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Morita, H.; Ando, K.; Sasaki, K.

    1981-07-01

    A computer-aided X-ray holographic imaging method is proposed. In this system a three-dimensional image of an object is reconstructed by extracting the hologram, which corresponds to the complete coherence, from the intensity signals obtained under temporally and spatially partial coherent illumination of the object. This method requires neither a priori information about the object's structures nor placement of a pointlike target near the object to obtain the reference waves. The coherence function is detected differentially from intensities of infinitesimal intervals on the hemispherical hologram plane so that it does not suffer from the short temporal coherence length of available X-ray sources. Two deconvolution processings to compensate the effects of the spatially and temporally partial coherency of the waves are also adopted. Principle, design conditions, and a few numerical results are given.

  11. A handheld computer-aided diagnosis system and simulated analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Mingjian; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Brent; Su, Kening; Louie, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on cellphone and distributed cluster. One of the bottlenecks in building a CAD system for clinical practice is the storage and process of mass pathology samples freely among different devices, and normal pattern matching algorithm on large scale image set is very time consuming. Distributed computation on cluster has demonstrated the ability to relieve this bottleneck. We develop a system enabling the user to compare the mass image to a dataset with feature table by sending datasets to Generic Data Handler Module in Hadoop, where the pattern recognition is undertaken for the detection of skin diseases. A single and combination retrieval algorithm to data pipeline base on Map Reduce framework is used in our system in order to make optimal choice between recognition accuracy and system cost. The profile of lesion area is drawn by doctors manually on the screen, and then uploads this pattern to the server. In our evaluation experiment, an accuracy of 75% diagnosis hit rate is obtained by testing 100 patients with skin illness. Our system has the potential help in building a novel medical image dataset by collecting large amounts of gold standard during medical diagnosis. Once the project is online, the participants are free to join and eventually an abundant sample dataset will soon be gathered enough for learning. These results demonstrate our technology is very promising and expected to be used in clinical practice.

  12. Computer-aided diagnostics of screening mammography using content-based image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deserno, Thomas M.; Soiron, Michael; de Oliveira, Júlia E. E.; de A. Araújo, Arnaldo

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of death among women in occidental countries. In the last years, screening mammography has been established worldwide for early detection of breast cancer, and computer-aided diagnostics (CAD) is being developed to assist physicians reading mammograms. A promising method for CAD is content-based image retrieval (CBIR). Recently, we have developed a classification scheme of suspicious tissue pattern based on the support vector machine (SVM). In this paper, we continue moving towards automatic CAD of screening mammography. The experiments are based on in total 10,509 radiographs that have been collected from different sources. From this, 3,375 images are provided with one and 430 radiographs with more than one chain code annotation of cancerous regions. In different experiments, this data is divided into 12 and 20 classes, distinguishing between four categories of tissue density, three categories of pathology and in the 20 class problem two categories of different types of lesions. Balancing the number of images in each class yields 233 and 45 images remaining in each of the 12 and 20 classes, respectively. Using a two-dimensional principal component analysis, features are extracted from small patches of 128 x 128 pixels and classified by means of a SVM. Overall, the accuracy of the raw classification was 61.6 % and 52.1 % for the 12 and the 20 class problem, respectively. The confusion matrices are assessed for detailed analysis. Furthermore, an implementation of a SVM-based CBIR system for CADx in screening mammography is presented. In conclusion, with a smarter patch extraction, the CBIR approach might reach precision rates that are helpful for the physicians. This, however, needs more comprehensive evaluation on clinical data.

  13. eWorkbook: A Computer Aided Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costagliola, Gennaro; Ferrucci, Filomena; Fuccella, Vittorio; Oliveto, Rocco

    2007-01-01

    Computer aided assessment (CAA) tools are more and more widely adopted in academic environments mixed to other assessment means. In this article, we present a CAA Web application, named eWorkbook, which can be used for evaluating learner's knowledge by creating (the tutor) and taking (the learner) on-line tests based on multiple choice, multiple…

  14. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  15. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system.

    PubMed

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T = 62.6 ± 65.2 μm ; MC = 60.4 ± 38.4 μm; PMC = 58.1 ± 38.0 μm, and RI = 89.8 ± 62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T = 71.5%, RI = 49.2%, MC = 69.6%, and PMC = 71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T = 8.5%, RI = 0%, MC = 0.8%, and PMC = 3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  16. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Junyi Mart, Christopher; Bayouth, John

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  17. Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital Screening Mammography With and Without Computer-Aided Detection.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Constance D; Wellman, Robert D; Buist, Diana S M; Kerlikowske, Karla; Tosteson, Anna N A; Miglioretti, Diana L

    2015-11-01

    interpreted both with and without CAD (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.29-0.97). Computer-aided detection does not improve diagnostic accuracy of mammography. These results suggest that insurers pay more for CAD with no established benefit to women.

  18. Analysis of Integrating Computer-Aided Dispatch Information with the Multi-Agency Situational Awareness System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-26

    approaches of integrating Computer Aided Dispatch systems with the MASAS. The technical integration focused on Kelowna’s FDM Computer Aided Dispatch system...Kelowna, the CAD system is provided by FDM Software Inc. The project had two main goals: 1. Test the interoperability between the Kelowna CAD...NFIRS standard to the EMS taxonomy used in MASAS. A technical interface was developed between the Kelowna CAD System, FDM and MASAS. Its key

  19. Computer-aided diagnosis expert system for cerebrovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Wang, Zhijun; Sy, Chrisopher; Liu, Xiaokun; Qian, Jinwu; Zheng, Jia; Dong, Zhiqiang; Cao, Limei; Geng, Xiang; Xu, Shuye; Liu, Xueyuan

    2014-05-01

    To establish an expert diagnosis system for cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) and assess accuracy of the diagnosis system. An expert diagnosis system for CVDs was established and evaluated using actual clinical cases. An expert diagnosis system for CVDs was established and tested in 319 clinical patients. Diagnosis accordance was obtained in 307 patients (the diagnosis accordance rate was 96.2%). Involved were 223, 7, 23, 54 and 12 patients with cerebral thrombosis, cerebral embolism, transient ischemic attack, cerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, respectively; and diagnosis accordance was obtained in 219 (98.2%), 6 (85.7%), 23 (100%), 48 (88.9%) and 11 (91.7%), respectively. Overall, the case analysis results support and demonstrate the diagnostic reasoning accuracy of the expert diagnosis system for CVDs. With the expert diagnosis system, medical experts' diagnosis of CVDs can be effectively mimicked and auxiliary diagnosis of CVDs has been preliminarily realized, laying a foundation for increasing the diagnostic accuracy of clinical diagnoses as it pertains to CVDs.

  20. The Development of a Design Database for the Computer Aided Prototyping System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL * Monterey, California AD-A245 786 1I I1 11 , 11 ,l DTIC R E.LECTE FEB 121992D THESIS 0 THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DESIGN ...ELEMENT NO. I NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DESIGN DATABASE FOR THE COMPUTER AIDED PROTOTYPING...and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Design Database, Engineering Database, Object Oriented Database,Computer Aided Prototyping System

  1. Computer-aided diagnosis for diagnostically challenging breast lesions in DCE-MRI based on image registration and integration of morphologic and dynamic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retter, Felix; Plant, Claudia; Burgeth, Bernhard; Botella, Guillermo; Schlossbauer, Thomas; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

    2013-12-01

    Diagnostically challenging lesions comprise both foci (small lesions) and non-mass-like enhancing lesions and pose a challenge to current computer-aided diagnosis systems. Motion-based artifacts lead in dynamic contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance to diagnostic misinterpretation; therefore, motion compensation represents an important prerequisite to automatic lesion detection and diagnosis. In addition, the extraction of pertinent kinetic and morphologic features as lesion descriptors is an equally important task. In the present paper, we evaluate the performance of a computer-aided diagnosis system consisting of motion correction, lesion segmentation, and feature extraction and classification. We develop a new feature extractor, the radial Krawtchouk moment, which guarantees rotation invariance. Many novel feature extraction techniques are proposed and tested in conjunction with lesion detection. Our simulation results have shown that motion compensation combined with Minkowski functionals and Bayesian classifier can improve lesion detection and classification.

  2. Computer-Aided Diagnostic (CAD) Scheme by Use of Contralateral Subtraction Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Harakawa, Tetsumi

    We developed a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for detection of subtle image findings of acute cerebral infarction in brain computed tomography (CT) by using a contralateral subtraction technique. In our computerized scheme, the lateral inclination of image was first corrected automatically by rotating and shifting. The contralateral subtraction image was then derived by subtraction of reversed image from original image. Initial candidates for acute cerebral infarctions were identified using the multiple-thresholding and image filtering techniques. As the 1st step for removing false positive candidates, fourteen image features were extracted in each of the initial candidates. Halfway candidates were detected by applying the rule-based test with these image features. At the 2nd step, five image features were extracted using the overlapping scale with halfway candidates in interest slice and upper/lower slice image. Finally, acute cerebral infarction candidates were detected by applying the rule-based test with five image features. The sensitivity in the detection for 74 training cases was 97.4% with 3.7 false positives per image. The performance of CAD scheme for 44 testing cases had an approximate result to training cases. Our CAD scheme using the contralateral subtraction technique can reveal suspected image findings of acute cerebral infarctions in CT images.

  3. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2007-03-01

    Multislice CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multislice CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. Moreover, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by using a lung cancer screening algorithm built into mobile helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening done in the region without the hospital. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system.

  4. Computer-aided intelligent system for diagnosing pediatric asthma.

    PubMed

    Zolnoori, Maryam; Fazel Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein; Moin, Mostafa; Heidarnezhad, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2012-04-01

    Asthma is a lung chronic inflammatory disorder estimated between 1.4% and 27.1% in different area of the world. Result of various studies show that asthma is usually underdiagnosed especially in developing countries, because of limitations on access to medical specialists and laboratory facilities. In this paper, we report on the development and evaluation of a novel patient-based fuzzy system that promotes the diagnosis method of asthma. The design of this application addresses five critical issues included: 1) modular representation of asthma diagnostic variables regard to patients' perception of the disease, 2) algorithmic approaches conducting inference of diagnosing based on patient's response to questions, 4) front-end mechanism for capturing data from patient, 5) output for both patient and physician regard to asthma possibility. for the system output score (0-10) the efficacy of this system calculated in the study sample included 139 asthmatic patients and 139 non-asthmatic patients (age range 6-18) reinforce the sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 100% for cut off value 0.7.

  5. Computer-aided diagnosis of diagnostically challenging lesions in breast MRI: a comparison between a radiomics and a feature-selective approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Lobbes, Marc; Houben, Ivo; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Wengert, Georg; Burgeth, Bernhard; Meyer-Bäse, Uwe; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Meyer-Baese, Anke

    2016-05-01

    Diagnostically challenging lesions pose a challenge both for the radiological reading and also for current CAD systems. They are not well-defined in both morphology (geometric shape) and kinetics (temporal enhancement) and pose a problem to lesion detection and classification. Their strong phenotypic differences can be visualized by MRI. Radiomics represents a novel approach to achieve a detailed quantification of the tumour phenotypes by analyzing a large number of image descriptors. In this paper, we apply a quantitative radiomics approach based on shape, texture and kinetics tumor features and evaluate it in comparison to a reduced-order feature approach in a computer-aided diagnosis system applied to diagnostically challenging lesions.

  6. Study on computer-aided alignment method of reflective zoom systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jide; Chang, Jun; Xie, Guijuan; Zhang, Ke

    2015-08-01

    Computer-aided alignment is an effective method to improve the imaging quality of high-precision, complex, and off-axis optical systems. However, how to determine the misalignment quickly, exactly and constantly is essential to the technology of computer-aided alignment. Owing to the varying optical characteristics of a zoom system, sensitivity matrices are used in the alignment rather than a single matrix. Thus, the processing of sensitivity matrices is important for the computer-aided alignment of the reflective zoom system. So, the total least squares is proposed in order to solve the problems of the numerical instability and the result inaccuracy which result from the solution of the least squares method directly. Finally, the simulant calculation is processed using the numerical analysis model established in the essay. The results demonstrate that the computation method is rational and effective.

  7. Automatic computer aided analysis algorithms and system for adrenal tumors on CT images.

    PubMed

    Chai, Hanchao; Guo, Yi; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Guohui

    2017-08-04

    The adrenal tumor will disturb the secreting function of adrenocortical cells, leading to many diseases. Different kinds of adrenal tumors require different therapeutic schedules. In the practical diagnosis, it highly relies on the doctor's experience to judge the tumor type by reading the hundreds of CT images. This paper proposed an automatic computer aided analysis method for adrenal tumors detection and classification. It consisted of the automatic segmentation algorithms, the feature extraction and the classification algorithms. These algorithms were then integrated into a system and conducted on the graphic interface by using MATLAB Graphic user interface (GUI). The accuracy of the automatic computer aided segmentation and classification reached 90% on 436 CT images. The experiments proved the stability and reliability of this automatic computer aided analytic system.

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and telemedicine network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. To overcome these problems, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The functions to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. We can share the screen of Web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with workstation. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and

  9. A Multidisciplinary Research Team Approach to Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD) System Selection. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Ken; And Others

    A multidisciplinary research team was assembled to review existing computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems for the purpose of enabling staff in the Design Drafting Department at Linn Technical College (Missouri) to select the best system out of the many CAD systems in existence. During the initial stage of the evaluation project, researchers…

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multi-helical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2006-03-01

    Multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system. The results of this study indicate that our computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and safety of medical information.

  11. Utilization of computer-aided detection system in diagnosing unilateral maxillary sinusitis on panoramic radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Yasufumi; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Miwa; Fukuda, Motoki; Nozawa, Michihito; Ariji, Eiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: It is unclear whether computer-aided detection (CAD) systems for panoramic radiography can help inexperienced dentists to diagnose maxillary sinusitis. The aim of this study was to clarify whether a CAD system for panoramic radiography can contribute to improved diagnostic performance for maxillary sinusitis by inexperienced dentists. Methods: The panoramic radiographs of 49 patients with maxillary sinusitis and 49 patients with healthy sinuses were evaluated in this study. The diagnostic performance of the CAD system was determined. 12 inexperienced dentists and 4 expert oral and maxillofacial radiologists observed the total of 98 panoramic radiographs and judged the presence or absence of maxillary sinusitis, under conditions with and without the support of the CAD system. The receiver operating characteristic curves of the two groups were compared. Results: The CAD system provided sensitivity of 77.6%, specificity of 69.4% and accuracy of 73.5%. The diagnostic performance of the inexperienced dentists increased with the support of the CAD system. When the inexperienced dentists diagnosed maxillary sinusitis with CAD support, the area under the curve (AUC) was significantly higher than that without CAD support. When the focus was only on panoramic radiographs in which CAD support led to a correct diagnosis, the AUC of the inexperienced dentists increased to an equivalent level to that of the experienced radiologists. Conclusions: The CAD system supported the inexperienced dentists in diagnosing maxillary sinusitis on the panoramic radiographs. If the accuracy of the CAD system can be increased, the benefits of CAD support will be further enhanced. PMID:26837670

  12. Experience gained at ZAO Ural Turbine Works with the use of computer-aided design systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortenko, V. V.; Valamin, A. E.; Shanturov, D. N.; Sokolov, E. V.; Toibich, S. V.; Glushchenko, A. N.

    2008-08-01

    The results of work accomplished in the field of computer-aided design at ZAO Ural Turbine Works (UTZ) are presented. A concept is described following which the tasks for a specialist’s workstations being developed at the UTZ are solved. Results from solution of problems with the use of modern numerical simulation computer programs for analyzing gas dynamic processes, casting, welding, and strength of complex structures are given. An example is given to show efficient use of a computer-aided design system for shifting an enterprise to a modern level of automation.

  13. Functional Specifications for Computer Aided Training Systems Development and Management (CATSDM) Support Functions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John; And Others

    This report provides a description of a Computer Aided Training System Development and Management (CATSDM) environment based on state-of-the-art hardware and software technology, and including recommendations for off the shelf systems to be utilized as a starting point in addressing the particular systematic training and instruction design and…

  14. Persons with Alzheimer's Disease Make Phone Calls Independently Using a Computer-Aided Telephone System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Cassano, Germana; Cordiano, Noemi; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G.; Oliva, Doretta

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed whether four patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease could make independent phone calls via a computer-aided telephone system. The study was carried out according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. All participants started with baseline during which the telephone system was not available,…

  15. Persons with Alzheimer's Disease Make Phone Calls Independently Using a Computer-Aided Telephone System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Cassano, Germana; Cordiano, Noemi; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G.; Oliva, Doretta

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed whether four patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease could make independent phone calls via a computer-aided telephone system. The study was carried out according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. All participants started with baseline during which the telephone system was not available,…

  16. Computer-aided DSM-IV-diagnostics – acceptance, use and perceived usefulness in relation to users' learning styles

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Lars G; Fors, Uno GH

    2005-01-01

    Background CDSS (computerized decision support system) for medical diagnostics have been studied for long. This study was undertaken to investigate how different preferences of Learning Styles (LS) of psychiatrists might affect acceptance, use and perceived usefulness of a CDSS for diagnostics in psychiatry. Methods 49 psychiatrists (specialists and non-specialists) from 3 different clinics volunteered to participate in this study and to use the CDSS to diagnose a paper-based case (based on a real patient). LS, attitudes to CDSS and complementary data were obtained via questionnaires and interviews. To facilitate the study, a special version of the CDSS was created, which automatically could log interaction details. Results The LS preferences (according to Kolb) of the 49 physicians turned out as follows: 37% were Assimilating, 31% Converging, 27% Accommodating and 6% Diverging. The CDSS under study seemed to favor psychiatrists with abstract conceptualization information perceiving mode (Assimilating and Converging learning styles). A correlation between learning styles preferences and computer skill was found. Positive attitude to computer-aided diagnostics and learning styles preferences was also found to correlate. Using the CDSS, the specialists produced only 1 correct diagnosis and the non-specialists 2 correct diagnoses (median values) as compared to the three predetermined correct diagnoses of the actual case. Only 10% had all three diagnoses correct, 41 % two correct, 47 % one correct and 2 % had no correct diagnose at all. Conclusion Our results indicate that the use of CDSS does not guarantee correct diagnosis and that LS might influence the results. Future research should focus on the possibility to create systems open to individuals with different LS preferences and possibility to create CDSS adapted to the level of expertise of the user. PMID:15638940

  17. Computer-aided DSM-IV-diagnostics - acceptance, use and perceived usefulness in relation to users' learning styles.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Lars G; Fors, Uno G H

    2005-01-07

    CDSS (computerized decision support system) for medical diagnostics have been studied for long. This study was undertaken to investigate how different preferences of Learning Styles (LS) of psychiatrists might affect acceptance, use and perceived usefulness of a CDSS for diagnostics in psychiatry. 49 psychiatrists (specialists and non-specialists) from 3 different clinics volunteered to participate in this study and to use the CDSS to diagnose a paper-based case (based on a real patient). LS, attitudes to CDSS and complementary data were obtained via questionnaires and interviews. To facilitate the study, a special version of the CDSS was created, which automatically could log interaction details. The LS preferences (according to Kolb) of the 49 physicians turned out as follows: 37% were Assimilating, 31% Converging, 27% Accommodating and 6% Diverging. The CDSS under study seemed to favor psychiatrists with abstract conceptualization information perceiving mode (Assimilating and Converging learning styles).A correlation between learning styles preferences and computer skill was found. Positive attitude to computer-aided diagnostics and learning styles preferences was also found to correlate. Using the CDSS, the specialists produced only 1 correct diagnosis and the non-specialists 2 correct diagnoses (median values) as compared to the three predetermined correct diagnoses of the actual case. Only 10% had all three diagnoses correct, 41 % two correct, 47 % one correct and 2 % had no correct diagnose at all. Our results indicate that the use of CDSS does not guarantee correct diagnosis and that LS might influence the results. Future research should focus on the possibility to create systems open to individuals with different LS preferences and possibility to create CDSS adapted to the level of expertise of the user.

  18. Computer-aided diagnostic approach of dermoscopy images acquiring relevant features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillejos-Fernández, H.; Franco-Arcega, A.; López-Ortega, O.

    2016-09-01

    In skin cancer detection, automated analysis of borders, colors, and structures of a lesion relies upon an accurate segmentation process and it is an important first step in any Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system. However, irregular and disperse lesion borders, low contrast, artifacts in images and variety of colors within the interest region make the problem difficult. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach of automatic classification which considers specific lesion features. First, for the selection of lesion skin we employ the segmentation algorithm W-FCM.1 Then, in the feature extraction stage we consider several aspects: the area of the lesion, which is calculated by correlating axes and we calculate the specific the value of asymmetry in both axes. For color analysis we employ an ensemble of clusterers including K-Means, Fuzzy K-Means and Kohonep maps, all of which estimate the presence of one or more colors defined in ABCD rule and the values for each of the segmented colors. Another aspect to consider is the type of structures that appear in the lesion Those are defined by using the ell-known GLCM method. During the classification stage we compare several methods in order to define if the lesion is benign or malignant. An important contribution of the current approach in segmentation-classification problem resides in the use of information from all color channels together, as well as the measure of each color in the lesion and the axes correlation. The segmentation and classification measures have been performed using sensibility, specificity, accuracy and AUC metric over a set of dermoscopy images from ISDIS data set

  19. Clinical application of a novel computer-aided detection system based on three-dimensional CT images on pulmonary nodule.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jian-Ye; Ye, Hai-Hong; Yang, Shi-Xiong; Jin, Ren-Chao; Huang, Qi-Liang; Wei, Yong-Chu; Huang, Si-Guang; Wang, Bin-Qiang; Ye, Jia-Zhou; Qin, Jian-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical application effects of a novel computer-aided detection (CAD) system based on three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) images on pulmonary nodule. 98 cases with pulmonary nodule (PN) in our hospital from Jun, 2009 to Jun, 2013 were analysed in this study. All cases underwent PN detection both by the simple spiral CT scan and by the computer-aided system based on 3D CT images, respectively. Postoperative pathological results were considered as the "gold standard", for both two checking methods, the diagnostic accuracies for determining benign and malignant PN were calculated. Under simple spiral CT scan method, 63 cases is malignant, including 50 true positive cases and 13 false positive cases from the "gold standard"; 35 cases is benign, 16 true negative case and 19 false negative cases, the Sensitivity 1 (Se1)=0.725, Specificity1 (Sp1)=0.448, Agreement rate1 (Kappa 1)=0.673, J1 (Youden's index 1)=0.173, LR(+)1=1.616, LR(-)1=0.499. Kappa 1=0.673 between the 0.4 and 0.75, has a moderate consistency. Underwent computer-aided detection (CAD) based on 3D CT method, 67cases is malignant, including 62 true positive cases and 7 false positive cases; 31 cases is benign, 24 true negative case and 7 false negative cases, Sensitivity 2 (Se2)=0.899, Specificity2 (Sp2)=0.828, Agreement rate (Kappa 2)=0.877, J2 (Youden's index 2)=0.727, LR(+)2=5.212, LR(-)2=0.123. Kappa 2=0.877 >0.75, has a good consistency. Computer-aided PN detecting system based on 3D CT images has better clinical application value, and can help doctor carry out early diagnosis of lung disease (such as cancer, etc.) through CT images.

  20. Computer-aided decision support systems for endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract: a review.

    PubMed

    Liedlgruber, Michael; Uhl, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Today, medical endoscopy is a widely used procedure to inspect the inner cavities of the human body. The advent of endoscopic imaging techniques-allowing the acquisition of images or videos-created the possibility for the development of the whole new branch of computer-aided decision support systems. Such systems aim at helping physicians to identify possibly malignant abnormalities more accurately. At the beginning of this paper, we give a brief introduction to the history of endoscopy, followed by introducing the main types of endoscopes which emerged so far (flexible endoscope, wireless capsule endoscope, and confocal laser endomicroscope). We then give a brief introduction to computer-aided decision support systems specifically targeted at endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract. Then we present general facts and figures concerning computer-aided decision support systems and summarize work specifically targeted at computer-aided decision support in the gastrointestinal tract. This summary is followed by a discussion of some common issues concerning the approaches reviewed and suggestions of possible ways to resolve them.

  1. The design of a space optical system using computer-aided engineeringtechniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, G. R.; Brillhart, R. D.; Louie, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    Using computer-aided engineering tools and techniques for the design of a space optical system, from preliminary design through testing of hardware, provided an excellent means for compressing project schedules. The three principal steps in the process were (1) solids modeling, (2) structural analysis, and (3) design test.

  2. Implementation and Evaluation of Computer-Aided Mandarin Phonemes Training System for Hearing-Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long

    2005-01-01

    A computer-aided Mandarin phonemes training (CAMPT) system was developed and evaluated for training hearing-impaired students in their pronunciation of Mandarin phonemes. Deaf or hearing-impaired people have difficulty hearing their own voice, hence most of them cannot learn how to speak. Phonemes are the basis for learning to read and speak in…

  3. Minnesota Computer Aided Library System (MCALS); University of Minnesota Subsystem Cost/Benefits Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourey, Eugene D., Comp.

    The Minnesota Computer Aided Library System (MCALS) provides a basis of unification for library service program development in Minnesota for eventual linkage to the national information network. A prototype plan for communications functions is illustrated. A cost/benefits analysis was made to show the cost/effectiveness potential for MCALS. System…

  4. Performance Measures in Courses Using Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, C. R.; Pear, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    Archived data from four courses taught with computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI)--an online, self-paced, instructional program--were used to explore the relationship between objectively rescored final exam grades, peer reviewing, and progress rate--i.e., the rate at which students completed unit tests. There was a strong…

  5. Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction for the Virtual Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinser, W.; Pear, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI) and its implementations for both on-campus and off-campus teaching at the University of Manitoba. Highlights include electronic mail, student reactions, the use of data that are saved throughout the course, and future possibilities. (Author/LRW)

  6. Implementation and Evaluation of Computer-Aided Mandarin Phonemes Training System for Hearing-Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long

    2005-01-01

    A computer-aided Mandarin phonemes training (CAMPT) system was developed and evaluated for training hearing-impaired students in their pronunciation of Mandarin phonemes. Deaf or hearing-impaired people have difficulty hearing their own voice, hence most of them cannot learn how to speak. Phonemes are the basis for learning to read and speak in…

  7. Possible Computer Vision Systems and Automated or Computer-Aided Edging and Trimming

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses research which is underway to help our industry reduce costs, increase product volume and value recovery, and market more accurately graded and described products. The research is part of a team effort to help the hardwood sawmill industry automate with computer vision systems, and computer-aided or computer controlled processing. This paper...

  8. A Computer-Aided Self-Testing System for Biological Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiblum, M. D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the production of a computer-aided, self-testing system for university students enrolled in a first-year course in biological psychology. Project aspects described include selection, acquisition and description of software; question banks and test structures; modes of use (computer or printed version); evaluation; and future plans. (11…

  9. Extending the Computer-Aided Software Evolution System (CASES) with Quality Function Deployment (QFD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    This thesis extends the Computer Aided Software Evolution System (CASES) with Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to enhance dependency traceability...type and degree) between software development artifacts. Embedding Quality Function Deployment (QFD) in the Relational Hypergraph Software Evolution ...to define and manage any software evolution process. These major contributions allow a software engineer to: (1) Input, modify, and analyze

  10. A Computer-Aided Self-Testing System for Biological Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiblum, M. D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the production of a computer-aided, self-testing system for university students enrolled in a first-year course in biological psychology. Project aspects described include selection, acquisition and description of software; question banks and test structures; modes of use (computer or printed version); evaluation; and future plans. (11…

  11. Expert systems - New approaches to computer-aided engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dym, C. L.

    This paper provides an overview of the burgeoning new field of expert (knowledge-based) systems. This survey is tutorial in nature, intended to convey the gestalt of such systems to engineers who are newly exposed to the field. The discussion includes definitions, basic concepts, expert system architecture, descriptions of some of the programming tools and environments with which knowledge-based systems can be built, and approaches to knowledge acquisition. Some currently extant expert systems are described en passant, including a few developed for engineering purposes. Comments follow on the engineering of knowledge, as both cultural and social processes. The paper closes with an assessment of the roles that expert systems can play in engineering analysis, design, planning, and education.

  12. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system for construction of spinal orthosis for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, M S

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spinal orthoses are commonly prescribed to patients with moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) for prevention of further curve deterioration. In conventional manufacturing method, plaster bandages are used to obtain the patient's body contour and then the plaster cast is rectified manually. With computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system, a series of automated processes from body scanning to digital rectification and milling of the positive model can be performed in a fast and accurate fashion. The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce the application of CAD/CAM system to the construction of spinal orthosis for patients with AIS. Based on evidence within the literature, CAD/CAM method can achieve similar clinical outcomes but with higher efficiency than the conventional fabrication method. Therefore, CAD/CAM method should be considered a substitute to the conventional method in fabrication of spinal orthoses for patients with AIS.

  13. Computer-aided-analysis of linear control system robustness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Ray, Laura R.

    1990-01-01

    Stochastic robustness is a simple technique used to estimate the stability and performance robustness of linear, time-invariant systems. The use of high-speed graphics workstations and control system design software in stochastic robustness analysis is discussed and demonstrated. It is shown that stochastic robustness makes good use of modern computational and graphic tools, and it is easily implemented using commercial control system design and analysis software.

  14. Web-Based Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Schnerch, Gabriel J.; Silva, Kathleen M.; Svenningsen, Louis; Lambert, Jody

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been a proliferation of Web-based course-management systems designed to facilitate postsecondary teaching (for example, WebCT, Blackboard, Desire2Learn, Moodle). In general, these systems provide analogs for delivering lectures, holding class discussions, giving quizzes and examinations (typically multiple…

  15. Computer aided design of jet engine test cell exhaust systems

    SciTech Connect

    Collings, D.

    1982-01-01

    A computerized design procedure that provides a multi-directional analysis of available data is a proven method of developing accurate cost models and performing system trade-offs. The application to the engineering of exhaust silencing systems for jet engine test cells is discused.

  16. Web-Based Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Schnerch, Gabriel J.; Silva, Kathleen M.; Svenningsen, Louis; Lambert, Jody

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been a proliferation of Web-based course-management systems designed to facilitate postsecondary teaching (for example, WebCT, Blackboard, Desire2Learn, Moodle). In general, these systems provide analogs for delivering lectures, holding class discussions, giving quizzes and examinations (typically multiple…

  17. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  18. Computer aided production planning - SWZ system of order verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenczyk, D.; Skolud, B.

    2015-11-01

    SWZ (System of order verification) is a computer implementation of the methodology that support fast decision making on the acceptability of a production order, which allows to determine not the best possible solution, but admissible solution that is possible to find in an acceptable time (feasible solution) and acceptable due to the existing constraints. The methodology uses the propagation of constraints techniques and reduced to test a sequence of arbitrarily selected conditions. Fulfilment of all the conditions (the conjunction) provides the ability to perform production orders. In the paper examples of the application of SWZ system comprising the steps of planning and control is presented. The obtained results allowing the determination of acceptable production flow in the system - determination of the manufacturing system parameters those that ensure execution of orders in time under the resource constraints. SWZ also allows to generate the dispatching rules as a sequence of processing operations for each production resource, performed periodically during the production flow in the system. Furthermore the example of SWZ and simulation system integration is shown. SWZ has been enhanced with a module generating files containing the script code of the system model using the internal language of simulation and visualization system.

  19. Computer-aided coordination and overcurrent protection for distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, L.M.

    1995-03-01

    Overcurrent protection and coordination studies for electrical distribution systems have become much easier to perform with the emergence of several commercially available software programs that run on a personal computer. These programs have built-in libraries of protective device time-current curves, damage curves for cable and transformers, and motor starting curves, thereby facilitating the design of a selectively coordinated protection system which is also well-protected. Additionally, design time when utilizing computers is far less than the previous method of tracing manufacturers` curves on transparent paper. Basic protection and coordination principles are presented in this paper along with several helpful suggestions for designing electrical protection systems. A step-by-step methodology is presented to illustrate the design concepts when using software for selecting and coordinating the protective devices in distribution systems.

  20. Computer-aided communication satellite system analysis and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagl, T. W.; Morgan, N. H.; Morley, R. E.; Singh, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of the various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. A satellite Telecommunication analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) for costing and sensitivity analysis work in application of communication satellites to educational development is given. The modifications made to STAMP include: extension of the six beam capability to eight; addition of generation of multiple beams from a single reflector system with an array of feeds; an improved system costing to reflect the time value of money, growth in earth terminal population with time, and to account for various measures of system reliability; inclusion of a model for scintillation at microwave frequencies in the communication link loss model; and, an updated technological environment.

  1. Computer aided differential diagnosis in emergency situations (CADDIES) system

    SciTech Connect

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-03-01

    This report presents an idea for a portable computerized differential diagnosis tool that could be utilized by a health care provider during an emergency situation. This radio frequency, networked, menu driven system would analyze various patient assessment parameters and make recommendations regarding possible diagnoses/treatment options outside the scope of suspicion of the health care provider. This system would serve as a repository for initial epidemiological data and assist the health care provider with spotting emerging trends.

  2. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1999-10-26

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  3. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  4. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2001-06-05

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  5. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, M.S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device. 27 figs.

  6. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.; Wang, Chunwei; Jevons, Luis C.; Bernhart, Derek H.; Lipshutz, Robert J.

    2004-05-11

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  7. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2003-08-19

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  8. CATIA - A computer aided design and manufacturing tridimensional system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, F.

    A properietary computer graphics-aided, three-dimensional interactive application (CATIA) design system is described. CATIA employs approximately 100 graphics displays, which are used by some 500 persons engaged in the definition of aircraft structures, structural strength analyses, the kinematic analysis of mobile elements, aerodynamic calculations, the choice of tooling in the machining of aircraft elements, and the programming of robotics. CATIA covers these diverse fields with a single data base. After a description of salient aspects of the system's hardware and software, graphics examples are given of the definition of curves, surfaces, complex volumes, and analytical tasks.

  9. Computer aided optimal design of compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, F. W.; Sharma, A.; Ragsdell, K. M.

    1980-07-01

    An automated procedure for the design of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems is presented. The procedure relies upon modern nonlinear programming algorithms, decomposition theory, and numerical models of the various system components. Two modern optimization methods are employed; BIAS, a Method of Multipliers code and OPT, a Generalized Reduced Gradient code. The procedure is demonstrated by the design of a CAES facility employing the Media, Illinois Galesville aquifer as the reservoir. The methods employed produced significant reduction in capital and operating cost, and in number of aquifer wells required.

  10. A Hypermedia Computer-Aided Parasitology Tutoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoropoulos, Georgios; Loumos, Vassili

    A hypermedia tutoring system for teaching parasitology to college students was developed using an object oriented software development tool, Knowledge Pro. The program was designed to meet four objectives: knowledge incorporation, tutoring, indexing of key words for Boolean search, and random generation of quiz questions with instant scoring. The…

  11. A computer-aided drug discovery system for chemistry teaching.

    PubMed

    Gledhill, Robert; Kent, Sarah; Hudson, Brian; Richards, W Graham; Essex, Jonathan W; Frey, Jeremy G

    2006-01-01

    The Schools Malaria Project (http://emalaria.soton.ac.uk/) brings together school students with university researchers in the hunt for a new antimalaria drug. The design challenge being offered to students is to use a distributed drug search and selection system to design potential antimalaria drugs. The system is accessed via a Web interface. This e-science project displays the results of the trials in an accessible manner, giving students an opportunity for discussion and debate both with peers and with the university contacts. The project has been implemented by using distributed computing techniques, spreading computer load over a network of machines that cross institutional boundaries, forming a grid. This provides access to greater computing power and allows a much more complex and detailed formulation of the drug design problem to be tackled for research, teaching, and learning.

  12. Graphical Input Methodology for Computer Aided Analysis of Control Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Control Data Corporation (CDC) CYBER series computer (Ref 4,8). It is designed to run as an INTERCOM job under the NOS/BE operating system (Ref 1,3,5,9...19147-3, Contract- 5- -7. Seattle, Washington, Boeing Areospace Company, 1979. 8. Control Data Corporation . Fortran Extended Version 4 Reference...Manual. Pub. No. 614978%0, Revsion D. Sunnyvale,-California: Publications and Graphics n Division, 1978. 9. Control Data Corporation . INTERCOM Version 4

  13. Intelligent Embedded Instruction for Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    8217 convenience and according to their individual learning preferences. This benefit is extremely valuable for adult professionals whose needs may be highly...solving problems. Adult designers tend to develop their own personal ways of using CAD software which can optimize a system’s use. This ability has been...average age for subjects with more than 1 year of computer experience was 34 whereas those with less than 2 months of experience averaged 41 years old

  14. An Interactive Computer Aiding System for Group Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    In addition, system evaluation studies will continue. The specific items of work for the next period include: (1) Operational testing of the color...Aid with other DDF decision aids; and (3) continuation of full scale experimental studies of the Group Decision Aid. The following specific tasks were...experimental studies are in progress at Perceptronics’ California office. The previously completed experimental hypotheses and the CACI-developed scenario

  15. Computer Aided Design for Linear Control State Variable System (SVS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    if last rank = size then Writeln(list,’The system is obseryable with index ’,Value2, .’) If (valuT2 >= size ) and ( lat rank < size), hen Writeln...gamma:aryls ) var A2,A3,A4,A5 :arls 1,j :in eger; tesi value,step :real; es value:=1.0e-08; stepT-1 for:=1 o size do %or i:= o size do be in FI-ii -1 0. A2f

  16. [PIV: a computer-aided portal image verification system].

    PubMed

    Fu, Weihua; Zhang, Hongzhi; Wu, Jing

    2002-12-01

    Portal image verification (PIV) is one of the key actions in QA procedure for sophisticated accurate radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a PIV software as a tool for improving the accuracy and visualization of portal field verification and computing field placement errors. PIV was developed in the visual C++ integrated environment under Windows 95 operating system. It can improve visualization by providing tools for image processing and multimode images display. Semi-automatic register methods make verification more accurate than view-box method. It can provide useful quantitative errors for regular fields. PIV is flexible and accurate. It is an effective tool for portal field verification.

  17. Development and assessment of a clinically viable system for breast ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruszauskas, Nicholas Peter

    The chances of surviving a breast cancer diagnosis as well as the effectiveness of any potential treatments increase significantly with early detection of the disease. As such, a considerable amount of research is being conducted to augment the breast cancer detection and diagnosis process. One such area of research involves the investigation and application of sophisticated computer algorithms to assist clinicians in detecting and diagnosing breast cancer on medical images (termed generally as "computer-aided diagnosis" or CAD). This study investigated a previously-developed breast ultrasound CAD system with the intent of translating it into a clinically-viable system. While past studies have demonstrated that breast ultrasound CAD may be a beneficial aid during the diagnosis of breast cancer on ultrasound, there are no investigations concerning its potential clinical translation and there are currently no commercially-available implementations of such systems. This study "bridges the gap" between the laboratory-developed system and the steps necessary for clinical implementation. A novel observer study was conducted that mimicked the clinical use of the breast ultrasound CAD system in order to assess the impact it had on the diagnostic performance of the user. Several robustness studies were also performed: the sonographic features used by the system were evaluated and the databases used for calibration and testing were characterized, the effect of the user's input was assessed by evaluating the performance of the system with variations in lesion identification and image selection, and the performance of the system on different patient populations was investigated by evaluating its performance on a database consisting solely of patients with Asian ethnicity. The analyses performed here indicate that the breast ultrasound CAD system under investigation is robust and demonstrates only minor variability when subjected to "real-world" use. All of these results are

  18. Evolution of facility layout requirements and CAD (computer-aided design) system development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M. )

    1990-06-01

    The overall configuration of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) including the infrastructure and land boundary requirements were developed using a computer-aided design (CAD) system. The evolution of the facility layout requirements and the use of the CAD system are discussed. The emphasis has been on minimizing the amount of input required and maximizing the speed by which the output may be obtained. The computer system used to store the data is also described.

  19. Noise studies of communication systems using the SYSTID computer aided analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tranter, W. H.; Dawson, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    SYSTID computer aided design is a simple program for simulating data systems and communication links. A trial of the efficiency of the method was carried out by simulating a linear analog communication system to determine its noise performance and by comparing the SYSTID result with the result arrived at by theoretical calculation. It is shown that the SYSTID program is readily applicable to the analysis of these types of systems.

  20. Impact of Computer-Aided Detection Systems on Radiologist Accuracy With Digital Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Elodia B.; Zhang, Zheng; Marques, Helga S.; Hendrick, R. Edward; Yaffe, Martin J.; Pisano, Etta D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of computer-aided detection (CAD) systems on the performance of radiologists with digital mammograms acquired during the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST). MATERIALS AND METHODS Only those DMIST cases with proven cancer status by biopsy or 1-year follow-up that had available digital images were included in this multireader, multicase ROC study. Two commercially available CAD systems for digital mammography were used: iCAD SecondLook, version 1.4; and R2 ImageChecker Cenova, version 1.0. Fourteen radiologists interpreted, without and with CAD, a set of 300 cases (150 cancer, 150 benign or normal) on the iCAD SecondLook system, and 15 radiologists interpreted a different set of 300 cases (150 cancer, 150 benign or normal) on the R2 ImageChecker Cenova system. RESULTS The average AUC was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.66–0.76) without and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.67–0.77) with the iCAD system (p = 0.07). Similarly, the average AUC was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.66–0.76) without and 0.72 (95% CI 0.67–0.77) with the R2 system (p = 0.08). Sensitivity and specificity differences without and with CAD for both systems also were not significant. CONCLUSION Radiologists in our studies rarely changed their diagnostic decisions after the addition of CAD. The application of CAD had no statistically significant effect on radiologist AUC, sensitivity, or specificity performance with digital mammograms from DMIST. PMID:25247960

  1. Computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scintigrams from Japanese patients: importance of training database.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Sjöstrand, Karl; Edenbrandt, Lars

    2012-10-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) software for bone scintigrams have recently been introduced as a clinical quality assurance tool. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two CAD systems, one based on a European and one on a Japanese training database, in a group of bone scans from Japanese patients. The two CAD software are trained to interpret bone scans using training databases consisting of bone scans with the desired interpretation, metastatic disease or not. One software was trained using 795 bone scans from European patients and the other with 904 bone scans from Japanese patients. The two CAD softwares were evaluated using the same group of 257 Japanese patients, who underwent bone scintigraphy because of suspected metastases of malignant tumors in 2009. The final diagnostic results made by clinicians were used as gold standard. The Japanese CAD software showed a higher specificity and accuracy compared to the European CAD software [81 vs. 57 % (p < 0.05) and 82 vs. 61 % (p < 0.05), respectively]. The sensitivity was 90 % for the Japanese CAD software and 83 % for the European CAD software (n.s). The CAD software trained with a Japanese database showed significantly higher performance than the corresponding CAD software trained with a European database for the analysis of bone scans from Japanese patients. These results could at least partly be caused by the physical differences between Japanese and European patients resulting in less influence of attenuation in Japanese patients and possible different judgement of count intensities of hot spots.

  2. Validation of a computer-aided diagnosis system for the automatic identification of carotid atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Lilla; Marino, Silvia; Bramanti, Placido; Sottile, Fabrizio

    2015-02-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis represents one of the most important causes of brain stroke. The degree of carotid stenosis is, up to now, considered one of the most important features for determining the risk of brain stroke. Ultrasound (US) is a non-invasive, relatively inexpensive, portable technique, which has an excellent temporal resolution. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has become one of the major research fields in medical and diagnostic imaging. We studied US images of 44 patients, 22 patients with and 22 without carotid artery stenosis, by using US examination and applying a CAD system, an automatic prototype software to detect carotid plaques. We obtained 287 regions: 60 were classified as plaques, with an average signal echogenicity of 244.1 ± 20.0 and 227 were classified as non-plaques, with an average signal echogenicity of 193.8 ± 38.6 compared with the opinion of an expert neurologist (golden test). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed a highly significant area under the ROC curve difference from 0.5 (null hypothesis) in the discrimination between plaques and non-plaques; the diagnostic accuracy was 89% (95% CI: 0.85-0.92), with an appropriate cut-off value of 236.8, sensitivity was 83% and specificity reached a value of 85%. The experimental results showed that the proposed method is feasible and has a good agreement with the expert neurologist. Without the need of any user-interaction, this method generates a detection out-put that may be useful in second opinion.

  3. Computer-aided diagnosis system for breast cancer using B-mode and color Doppler flow images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Cheng, Heng-Da; Huang, Jianhua; Zhang, Yingtao; Tang, Xianglong; Wang, Hong; Tian, Jiawei

    2012-04-01

    To improve the diagnostic accuracy of breast ultrasound classification, a novel computer-aided diagnosis system based on B-Mode ultrasound and color Doppler flow imaging is proposed. First, different feature extraction methods were used to obtain the texture and geometric features from B-Mode ultrasound images. In the color Doppler feature stage, both vascularity and hemodynamic features are studied by applying color distribution and periodograms analysis to Doppler signals. Finally, a support vector machine classifier with selected feature vectors is used to classify breast tumors into benign and malignant. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and areas under the ROC curves of the proposed system are 94.28%, 96.36%, 92.00%, 92.98%, 95.83%, and 0.9679, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed computer-aided diagnosis system can improve the true-positive and decrease the false-positive diagnostic rate, which is useful for reducing the unnecessary biopsy and death rate.

  4. Optimization of Breast Tomosynthesis Imaging Systems for Computer-Aided Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    08-1-0353 TITLE: Optimization of Breast Tomosynthesis Imaging Systems for Computer-Aided Detection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr...is digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), which produces images of slices through the breast using multiple projection view images from a limited angular...range [2, 3]. The goal of this research was to develop methodology for optimizing the acquisition parameters for tomosynthesis . This requires an

  5. Analysis of proctor marking accuracy in a computer-aided personalized system of instruction course.

    PubMed

    Martin, Toby L; Pear, Joseph J; Martin, Garry L

    2002-01-01

    In a computer-aided version of Keller's personalized system of instruction (CAPSI), students within a course were assigned by a computer to be proctors for tests. Archived data from a CAPSI-taught behavior modification course were analyzed to assess proctor accuracy in marking answers as correct or incorrect. Overall accuracy was increased by having each test marked independently by two proctors, and was higher on incorrect answers when the degree of incorrectness was larger.

  6. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jeong Hun; Kang, Tae-Yun; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-03-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multihelical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2004-04-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause, accounting for about 20% of all cancer deaths for males in Japan. Myocardial infarction is also known as a most fearful adult disease. Recently, multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for screening examination. This screening examination requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of multi-helical CT for mass screening. To overcome this problem, our group has developed a computer-aided diagnosis algorithm to automatically detect suspicious regions of lung cancer and coronary calcifications in chest CT images, so far. And in this time, our group has developed a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database. These consist in three. First, it is an image processing system to automatically detect suspicious bronchial regions, pulmonary artery regions, plumonary vein regions and myocardial infarction regions at high speed. Second, they are two 1600 x 1200 matrix black and white liquid crystal monitor. Third, it is a terminal of image storage. These are connected mutually on the network. This makes it much easier to read images, since the 3D image of suspicious regions and shadow of suspicious regions can be displayed simultaneously on two 1600 x 1200 matrix liquid crystal monitor. The experimental results indicate that a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system can be effectively used in clinical practice to increase the speed and accuracy of routine diagnosis.

  8. A computer-aided diagnosis system to detect pathologies in temporal subtraction images of chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looper, Jared; Harrison, Melanie; Armato, Samuel G.

    2016-03-01

    Radiologists often compare sequential radiographs to identify areas of pathologic change; however, this process is prone to error, as human anatomy can obscure the regions of change, causing the radiologists to overlook pathology. Temporal subtraction (TS) images can provide enhanced visualization of regions of change in sequential radiographs and allow radiologists to better detect areas of change in radiographs. Not all areas of change shown in TS images, however, are actual pathology. The purpose of this study was to create a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system that identifies which regions of change are caused by pathology and which are caused by misregistration of the radiographs used to create the TS image. The dataset used in this study contained 120 images with 74 pathologic regions on 54 images outlined by an experienced radiologist. High and low ("light" and "dark") gray-level candidate regions were extracted from the images using gray-level thresholding. Then, sampling techniques were used to address the class imbalance problem between "true" and "false" candidate regions. Next, the datasets of light candidate regions, dark candidate regions, and the combined set of light and dark candidate regions were used as training and testing data for classifiers by using five-fold cross validation. Of the classifiers tested (support vector machines, discriminant analyses, logistic regression, and k-nearest neighbors), the support vector machine on the combined candidates using synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) performed best with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.85, a sensitivity of 85%, and a specificity of 84%.

  9. Methods and software tools for computer-aided design of the spacecraft guidance, navigation and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somov, Yevgeny; Oparin, Gennady

    2017-01-01

    We shortly present results on development and employment of the software systems for computer-aided design of the spacecraft guidance. navigation and control systems - modeling, synthesis, nonlinear analysis, simulation and graphic mapping of dynamic processes.

  10. Biomedical Informatics for Computer-Aided Decision Support Systems: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Ashwin; Kon, Mark A.; Najarian, Kayvan

    2013-01-01

    The volumes of current patient data as well as their complexity make clinical decision making more challenging than ever for physicians and other care givers. This situation calls for the use of biomedical informatics methods to process data and form recommendations and/or predictions to assist such decision makers. The design, implementation, and use of biomedical informatics systems in the form of computer-aided decision support have become essential and widely used over the last two decades. This paper provides a brief review of such systems, their application protocols and methodologies, and the future challenges and directions they suggest. PMID:23431259

  11. Biomedical informatics for computer-aided decision support systems: a survey.

    PubMed

    Belle, Ashwin; Kon, Mark A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2013-01-01

    The volumes of current patient data as well as their complexity make clinical decision making more challenging than ever for physicians and other care givers. This situation calls for the use of biomedical informatics methods to process data and form recommendations and/or predictions to assist such decision makers. The design, implementation, and use of biomedical informatics systems in the form of computer-aided decision support have become essential and widely used over the last two decades. This paper provides a brief review of such systems, their application protocols and methodologies, and the future challenges and directions they suggest.

  12. IDEAS: A multidisciplinary computer-aided conceptual design system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    During the conceptual development of advanced aerospace vehicles, many compromises must be considered to balance economy and performance of the total system. Subsystem tradeoffs may need to be made in order to satisfy system-sensitive attributes. Due to the increasingly complex nature of aerospace systems, these trade studies have become more difficult and time-consuming to complete and involve interactions of ever-larger numbers of subsystems, components, and performance parameters. The current advances of computer-aided synthesis, modeling and analysis techniques have greatly helped in the evaluation of competing design concepts. Langley Research Center's Space Systems Division is currently engaged in trade studies for a variety of systems which include advanced ground-launched space transportation systems, space-based orbital transfer vehicles, large space antenna concepts and space stations. The need for engineering analysis tools to aid in the rapid synthesis and evaluation of spacecraft has led to the development of the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design system. The ADEAS system has been used to perform trade studies of competing technologies and requirements in order to pinpoint possible beneficial areas for research and development. IDEAS is presented as a multidisciplinary tool for the analysis of advanced space systems. Capabilities range from model generation and structural and thermal analysis to subsystem synthesis and performance analysis.

  13. IDEAS: A multidisciplinary computer-aided conceptual design system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    During the conceptual development of advanced aerospace vehicles, many compromises must be considered to balance economy and performance of the total system. Subsystem tradeoffs may need to be made in order to satisfy system-sensitive attributes. Due to the increasingly complex nature of aerospace systems, these trade studies have become more difficult and time-consuming to complete and involve interactions of ever-larger numbers of subsystems, components, and performance parameters. The current advances of computer-aided synthesis, modeling and analysis techniques have greatly helped in the evaluation of competing design concepts. Langley Research Center's Space Systems Division is currently engaged in trade studies for a variety of systems which include advanced ground-launched space transportation systems, space-based orbital transfer vehicles, large space antenna concepts and space stations. The need for engineering analysis tools to aid in the rapid synthesis and evaluation of spacecraft has led to the development of the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design system. The ADEAS system has been used to perform trade studies of competing technologies and requirements in order to pinpoint possible beneficial areas for research and development. IDEAS is presented as a multidisciplinary tool for the analysis of advanced space systems. Capabilities range from model generation and structural and thermal analysis to subsystem synthesis and performance analysis.

  14. Computer Aided Detection (CAD) Systems for Mammography and the Use of GRID in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauria, Adele

    It is well known that the most effective way to defeat breast cancer is early detection, as surgery and medical therapies are more efficient when the disease is diagnosed at an early stage. The principal diagnostic technique for breast cancer detection is X-ray mammography. Screening programs have been introduced in many European countries to invite women to have periodic radiological breast examinations. In such screenings, radiologists are often required to examine large numbers of mammograms with a double reading, that is, two radiologists examine the images independently and then compare their results. In this way an increment in sensitivity (the rate of correctly identified images with a lesion) of up to 15% is obtained.1,2 In most radiological centres, it is a rarity to find two radiologists to examine each report. In recent years different Computer Aided Detection (CAD) systems have been developed as a support to radiologists working in mammography: one may hope that the "second opinion" provided by CAD might represent a lower cost alternative to improve the diagnosis. At present, four CAD systems have obtained the FDA approval in the USA. † Studies3,4 show an increment in sensitivity when CAD systems are used. Freer and Ulissey in 2001 5 demonstrated that the use of a commercial CAD system (ImageChecker M1000, R2 Technology) increases the number of cancers detected up to 19.5% with little increment in recall rate. Ciatto et al.,5 in a study simulating a double reading with a commercial CAD system (SecondLook‡), showed a moderate increment in sensitivity while reducing specificity (the rate of correctly identified images without a lesion). Notwithstanding these optimistic results, there is an ongoing debate to define the advantages of the use of CAD as second reader: the main limits underlined, e.g., by Nishikawa6 are that retrospective studies are considered much too optimistic and that clinical studies must be performed to demonstrate a statistically

  15. Three-dimensional computer-aided design system for plant layout

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Yoshinaga, T.; Yoshida, M.

    1987-01-01

    A three-dimensional CAD system for plant layout of nuclear power plants has been developed, adopting the latest technologies of knowledge engineering, CAD/CAM, and interactive computer graphics. With this system, Hitachi is now able to plan plant layout more effectively, reduce design time and cost, and detect defective designs before actual construction problems occur. Hitachi is planning to enhance this three-dimensional CAD system to a plant total life computer-aided engineering (CAE) system. This system will include a construction CAE system, a test operation and in-service inspection control system, and a plant maintenance system. After completion of this system, Hitachi will be able to plan, monitor, and control all major aspects in the life of a nuclear power plant from the very first stage of the planning to its decommissioning.

  16. ACSYNT - A standards-based system for parametric, computer aided conceptual design of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaram, S.; Myklebust, A.; Gelhausen, P.

    1992-01-01

    A group of eight US aerospace companies together with several NASA and NAVY centers, led by NASA Ames Systems Analysis Branch, and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory agreed, through the assistance of Americal Technology Initiative, in 1990 to form the ACSYNT (Aircraft Synthesis) Institute. The Institute is supported by a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement to continue the research and development in computer aided conceptual design of aircraft initiated by NASA Ames Research Center and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory. The result of this collaboration, a feature-based, parametric computer aided aircraft conceptual design code called ACSYNT, is described. The code is based on analysis routines begun at NASA Ames in the early 1970's. ACSYNT's CAD system is based entirely on the ISO standard Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System and is graphics-device independent. The code includes a highly interactive graphical user interface, automatically generated Hermite and B-Spline surface models, and shaded image displays. Numerous features to enhance aircraft conceptual design are described.

  17. Accuracy evaluation of metal copings fabricated by computer-aided milling and direct metal laser sintering systems.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Kyoung; Lee, Wan-Sun; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2015-04-01

    To assess the marginal and internal gaps of the copings fabricated by computer-aided milling and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) systems in comparison to casting method. Ten metal copings were fabricated by casting, computer-aided milling, and DMLS. Seven mesiodistal and labiolingual positions were then measured, and each of these were divided into the categories; marginal gap (MG), cervical gap (CG), axial wall at internal gap (AG), and incisal edge at internal gap (IG). Evaluation was performed by a silicone replica technique. A digital microscope was used for measurement of silicone layer. Statistical analyses included one-way and repeated measure ANOVA to test the difference between the fabrication methods and categories of measured points (α=.05), respectively. The mean gap differed significantly with fabrication methods (P<.001). Casting produced the narrowest gap in each of the four measured positions, whereas CG, AG, and IG proved narrower in computer-aided milling than in DMLS. Thus, with the exception of MG, all positions exhibited a significant difference between computer-aided milling and DMLS (P<.05). Although the gap was found to vary with fabrication methods, the marginal and internal gaps of the copings fabricated by computer-aided milling and DMLS fell within the range of clinical acceptance (<120 µm). However, the statistically significant difference to conventional casting indicates that the gaps in computer-aided milling and DMLS fabricated restorations still need to be further reduced.

  18. Computer-aided design and distributed system technology development for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Ernest S.; Joshi, Suresh M.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed large space structures have many characteristics that make them difficult to analyze and control. They are highly flexible, with components mathematically modeled by partial differential equations or very large systems of ordinary differential equations. They have many resonant frequencies, typically low and closely spaced. Natural damping may be low and/or improperly modeled. Coupled with stringent operational requirements of orientation, shape control, and vibration suppression, and the inability to perform adequate ground testing, these characteristics present an unconventional identification and control design problem to the systems theorist. Some of the research underway within Langley's Spacecraft Control Branch, Guidance and Control Division aimed at developing theory and algorithms to treat large space structures systems identification and control problems is described. The research areas to be considered are computer-aided design algorithms, and systems identification and control of distributed systems.

  19. Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Alzheimer's Disease Using Different Discrete Transform Techniques.

    PubMed

    Dessouky, Mohamed M; Elrashidy, Mohamed A; Taha, Taha E; Abdelkader, Hatem M

    2016-05-01

    The different discrete transform techniques such as discrete cosine transform (DCT), discrete sine transform (DST), discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and mel-scale frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) are powerful feature extraction techniques. This article presents a proposed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for extracting the most effective and significant features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using these different discrete transform techniques and MFCC techniques. Linear support vector machine has been used as a classifier in this article. Experimental results conclude that the proposed CAD system using MFCC technique for AD recognition has a great improvement for the system performance with small number of significant extracted features, as compared with the CAD system based on DCT, DST, DWT, and the hybrid combination methods of the different transform techniques.

  20. The development of expertise using an intelligent computer-aided training system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Debra Steele

    1991-01-01

    An initial examination was conducted of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) developed for use in industry. The ITS, developed by NASA, simulated a satellite deployment task. More specifically, the PD (Payload Assist Module Deployment)/ICAT (Intelligent Computer Aided Training) System simulated a nominal Payload Assist Module (PAM) deployment. The development of expertise on this task was examined using three Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) candidates who has no previous experience with this task. The results indicated that performance improved rapidly until Trial 5, followed by more gradual improvements through Trial 12. The performance dimensions measured included performance speed, actions completed, errors, help required, and display fields checked. Suggestions for further refining the software and for deciding when to expose trainees to more difficult task scenarios are discussed. Further, the results provide an initial demonstration of the effectiveness of the PD/ICAT system in training the nominal PAM deployment task and indicate the potential benefits of using ITS's for training other FDO tasks.

  1. Java interface to a computer-aided diagnosis system for acute pulmonary embolism using PIOPED findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, Erik D.; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Gauger, Matthew; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.

    1999-05-01

    An interface to a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism (PE) from PIOPED radiographic findings was developed. The interface is based on Internet technology which is user-friendly and available on a broad range of computing platforms. It was designed to be used as a research tool and as a data collection tool, allowing researchers to observe the behavior of a CAD system and to collect radiographic findings on ventilation-perfusion lung scans and chest radiographs. The interface collects findings from physicians in the PIOPED reporting format, processes those findings and presents them as inputs to an artificial neural network (ANN) previously trained on findings from 1,064 patients from the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) study. The likelihood of PE predicted by the ANN and by the physician using the system is then saved for later analysis.

  2. Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan

    2013-06-01

    An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used.

  3. Harnessing Polypharmacology with Computer-Aided Drug Design and Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Wathieu, Henri; Issa, Naiem T; Byers, Stephen W; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan

    2016-01-01

    The ascent of polypharmacology in drug development has many implications for disease therapy, most notably in the efforts of drug discovery, drug repositioning, precision medicine and combination therapy. The single- target approach to drug development has encountered difficulties in predicting drugs that are both clinically efficacious and avoid toxicity. By contrast, polypharmacology offers the possibility of a controlled distribution of effects on a biological system. This review addresses possibilities and bottlenecks in the efficient computational application of polypharmacology. The two major areas we address are the discovery and prediction of multiple protein targets using the tools of computer-aided drug design, and the use of these protein targets in predicting therapeutic potential in the context of biological networks. The successful application of polypharmacology to systems biology and pharmacology has the potential to markedly accelerate the pace of development of novel therapies for multiple diseases, and has implications for the intellectual property landscape, likely requiring targeted changes in patent law.

  4. Adapting Logistics Models to a Microcomputer for Interface with Computer-Aided Design Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    the Apple computer (CAD-Apple System by T&W & ..... ..................- Systems) and the IBM-PC (MtcroCAD by Computer Aided Design, AutoCAD by Autodesk ...NDOSER 9 DOE 1 I C 122 CDOSE 11 SCAL 68 2 C 123 CFD 11 SCAL 69 2 C 124 POT 11 SCAL 70 1 C 125 DPT 11 SCAL 71 1 C 126 DRCT 4 RUIN 6 2 C 127 CTFS 11 SCAL 73...15) CYSS VS-b - 41) NOT USED -67) ND C - 16) FJ6 - 42) PTT -69) CD9E C VS-3 - 17) NN - 43) CAC2 69) CFD C - 19) NMMKW - 44) OSCY -70) POT C - 19

  5. Design and development of computer-aided chemical systems: representation and balance of inorganic chemical reactions

    PubMed

    Ruiz; Martinez-Pedrajas; Gomez-Nieto

    2000-05-01

    A model for the tracking of inorganic chemical reactions is proposed. Designed to acquire, process, and solve a great number of inorganic reactions, this model will hopefully contribute to the development of powerful computer-aided chemistry teaching systems for use within or without the environment of a virtual laboratory. Using full representation of an inorganic reaction to allow the extraction of chemical knowledge, incomplete reactions (where species are absent) may be completed by adding the necessary species, and reactions may be solved and balanced. Various types of reaction are classified, and a layer-based model is defined for the solution of different reaction types, establishing the basis for the construction of a system which, based on a wide set of production rules, is capable of solving an incomplete inorganic chemical reaction.

  6. Towards Building a Computer Aided Education System for Special Students Using Wearable Sensor Technologies.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Raja Majid; Lee, Hyo Jong

    2017-02-08

    Human computer interaction is a growing field in terms of helping people in their daily life to improve their living. Especially, people with some disability may need an interface which is more appropriate and compatible with their needs. Our research is focused on similar kinds of problems, such as students with some mental disorder or mood disruption problems. To improve their learning process, an intelligent emotion recognition system is essential which has an ability to recognize the current emotional state of the brain. Nowadays, in special schools, instructors are commonly use some conventional methods for managing special students for educational purposes. In this paper, we proposed a novel computer aided method for instructors at special schools where they can teach special students with the support of our system using wearable technologies.

  7. Towards Building a Computer Aided Education System for Special Students Using Wearable Sensor Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Mehmood, Raja Majid; Lee, Hyo Jong

    2017-01-01

    Human computer interaction is a growing field in terms of helping people in their daily life to improve their living. Especially, people with some disability may need an interface which is more appropriate and compatible with their needs. Our research is focused on similar kinds of problems, such as students with some mental disorder or mood disruption problems. To improve their learning process, an intelligent emotion recognition system is essential which has an ability to recognize the current emotional state of the brain. Nowadays, in special schools, instructors are commonly use some conventional methods for managing special students for educational purposes. In this paper, we proposed a novel computer aided method for instructors at special schools where they can teach special students with the support of our system using wearable technologies. PMID:28208734

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and teleradiology network system for chest diagnosis using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2010-03-01

    Diagnostic MDCT imaging requires a considerable number of images to be read. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. Because of such a background, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis. We also have developed the teleradiology network system by using web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. Our teleradiology network system can perform Web medical image conference in the medical institutions of a remote place using the web medical image conference system. We completed the basic proof experiment of the web medical image conference system with information security solution. We can share the screen of web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with the workstation that builds in some diagnostic assistance methods. Biometric face authentication used on site of teleradiology makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. Our Privacy and information security technology of information security solution ensures compliance with Japanese regulations. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new teleradiology network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis

  9. Large Advanced Space Systems (LASS) computer-aided design program additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The LSS preliminary and conceptual design requires extensive iteractive analysis because of the effects of structural, thermal, and control intercoupling. A computer aided design program that will permit integrating and interfacing of required large space system (LSS) analyses is discussed. The primary objective of this program is the implementation of modeling techniques and analysis algorithms that permit interactive design and tradeoff studies of LSS concepts. Eight software modules were added to the program. The existing rigid body controls module was modified to include solar pressure effects. The new model generator modules and appendage synthesizer module are integrated (interfaced) to permit interactive definition and generation of LSS concepts. The mass properties module permits interactive specification of discrete masses and their locations. The other modules permit interactive analysis of orbital transfer requirements, antenna primary beam n, and attitude control requirements.

  10. Towards a computer-aided diagnosis system for colon motility dysfunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glocker, Ben; Buhmann, Sonja; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Mussack, Thomas; Reiser, Maximilian; Navab, Nassir

    2007-03-01

    Colon motility disorders are a very common problem. A precise diagnosis with current methods is almost unachievable. This makes it extremely difficult for the clinical experts to decide for the right intervention such as colon resection. The use of cine MRI for visualizing the colon motility is a very promising technique. In addition, if image segmentation and qualitative motion analysis provide the necessary tools, it could provide the appropriate diagnostic solution. In this work we defined necessary steps in the image processing workflow to gain valuable measurements for a computer aided diagnosis of colon motility disorders. For each step, we developed methods to deal with the dynamic image data. There is need for compensating the breathing motion since no respiratory gating could be used. We segment the colon using a graph cuts approach in 2D and 3D for further analysis and visualization. The analysis of the large bowel motility is done by tracking the extension of the colon during a propagating peristaltic wave. The main objective of this work is to extract a motion model to define a clinical index that can be used in diagnosis of large bowel motility dysfunction. We aim at the classification and localization of such pathologies.

  11. An Intelligent Computer-aided Training System (CAT) for Diagnosing Adult Illiterates: Integrating NASA Technology into Workplace Literacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaden, David B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An important part of NASA's mission involves the secondary application of its technologies in the public and private sectors. One current application being developed is The Adult Literacy Evaluator, a simulation-based diagnostic tool designed to assess the operant literacy abilities of adults having difficulties in learning to read and write. Using Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) system technology in addition to speech recognition, closed-captioned television (CCTV), live video and other state-of-the-art graphics and storage capabilities, this project attempts to overcome the negative effects of adult literacy assessment by allowing the client to interact with an intelligent computer system which simulates real-life literacy activities and materials and which measures literacy performance in the actual context of its use. The specific objectives of the project are as follows: (1) to develop a simulation-based diagnostic tool to assess adults' prior knowledge about reading and writing processes in actual contexts of application; (2) to provide a profile of readers' strengths and weaknesses; and (3) to suggest instructional strategies and materials which can be used as a beginning point for remediation. In the first and development phase of the project, descriptions of literacy events and environments are being written and functional literacy documents analyzed for their components. From these descriptions, scripts are being generated which define the interaction between the student, an on-screen guide and the simulated literacy environment.

  12. Computer-Aided Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems (CAMAPPS), phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Lee, J.; Cho, B. H.; Lee, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    The large-signal behaviors of a regulator depend largely on the type of power circuit topology and control. Thus, for maximum flexibility, it is best to develop models for each functional block a independent modules. A regulator can then be configured by collecting appropriate pre-defined modules for each functional block. In order to complete the component model generation for a comprehensive spacecraft power system, the following modules were developed: solar array switching unit and control; shunt regulators; and battery discharger. The capability of each module is demonstrated using a simplified Direct Energy Transfer (DET) system. Large-signal behaviors of solar array power systems were analyzed. Stability of the solar array system operating points with a nonlinear load is analyzed. The state-plane analysis illustrates trajectories of the system operating point under various conditions. Stability and transient responses of the system operating near the solar array's maximum power point are also analyzed. The solar array system mode of operation is described using the DET spacecraft power system. The DET system is simulated for various operating conditions. Transfer of the software program CAMAPPS (Computer Aided Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems) to NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) was accomplished.

  13. Computer-aided detection of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Llobet, Rafael; Pérez-Cortés, Juan C; Toselli, Alejandro H; Juan, Alfons

    2007-07-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in men and is a major cause of mortality in developed countries. Detection of prostate carcinoma at an early stage is crucial for successful treatment. A method for the analysis of transrectal ultrasound images aimed at computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer is tested in this paper. First, two classifiers based on k-nearest neighbors and Hidden Markov models are compared. Second, the diagnostic capacity of our system is tested by means of a set of experiments where humans with varying degrees of experience classified a set of ultrasound images with and without the aid of the computer-aided system. The corpus used in this study was specifically acquired for this purpose. It consists of 4944 ultrasound images corresponding to 303 patients, and is publicly available for non-commercial use upon request. The best classification results achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 61.6%. However, the diagnostic capacity of an expert urologist using the computer-aided system improves only slightly compared with his/her capacity without the aid of the system. Despite the difficulty of this task, the obtained results indicate that discrimination between cancerous and non-cancerous tissue is possible to a certain degree. The computer-aided system helps an inexperienced user to make a better diagnosis, however it must be able to perform better in order to be useful in a real-world clinical context.

  14. Computer-aided diagnostic method for classification of Alzheimer's disease with atrophic image features on MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Yoshiura, Takashi; Kumazawa, Seiji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Koga, Hiroshi; Mihara, Futoshi; Honda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shuji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2008-03-01

    Our goal for this study was to attempt to develop a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) method for classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with atrophic image features derived from specific anatomical regions in three-dimensional (3-D) T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Specific regions related to the cerebral atrophy of AD were white matter and gray matter regions, and CSF regions in this study. Cerebral cortical gray matter regions were determined by extracting a brain and white matter regions based on a level set based method, whose speed function depended on gradient vectors in an original image and pixel values in grown regions. The CSF regions in cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles were extracted by wrapping the brain tightly with a zero level set determined from a level set function. Volumes of the specific regions and the cortical thickness were determined as atrophic image features. Average cortical thickness was calculated in 32 subregions, which were obtained by dividing each brain region. Finally, AD patients were classified by using a support vector machine, which was trained by the image features of AD and non-AD cases. We applied our CAD method to MR images of whole brains obtained from 29 clinically diagnosed AD cases and 25 non-AD cases. As a result, the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve obtained by our computerized method was 0.901 based on a leave-one-out test in identification of AD cases among 54 cases including 8 AD patients at early stages. The accuracy for discrimination between 29 AD patients and 25 non-AD subjects was 0.840, which was determined at the point where the sensitivity was the same as the specificity on the ROC curve. This result showed that our CAD method based on atrophic image features may be promising for detecting AD patients by using 3-D MR images.

  15. Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction: An Effective and Economical Method for Short- and Long-Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Kinsner, W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a computer program based on Keller's Personalized System of Instruction that has been used for on-campus and off-campus teaching by the University of Manitoba. Highlights include electronic mail, student attitudes and roles, costs, suggestions for future research, and examples from computer-aided personalized system of instruction…

  16. Effects of Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction in Developing Knowledge and Critical Thinking in Blended Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svenningsen, Louis; Pear, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess an online version of Keller's personalized system of instruction, called computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI), as part of a blended learning design with regard to course knowledge and critical thinking development. In Experiment 1, two lecture sections of an introduction to University…

  17. Image microarrays derived from tissue microarrays (IMA-TMA): New resource for computer-aided diagnostic algorithm development.

    PubMed

    Hipp, Jennifer A; Hipp, Jason D; Lim, Megan; Sharma, Gaurav; Smith, Lauren B; Hewitt, Stephen M; Balis, Ulysses G J

    2012-01-01

    Conventional tissue microarrays (TMAs) consist of cores of tissue inserted into a recipient paraffin block such that a tissue section on a single glass slide can contain numerous patient samples in a spatially structured pattern. Scanning TMAs into digital slides for subsequent analysis by computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) algorithms all offers the possibility of evaluating candidate algorithms against a near-complete repertoire of variable disease morphologies. This parallel interrogation approach simplifies the evaluation, validation, and comparison of such candidate algorithms. A recently developed digital tool, digital core (dCORE), and image microarray maker (iMAM) enables the capture of uniformly sized and resolution-matched images, with these representing key morphologic features and fields of view, aggregated into a single monolithic digital image file in an array format, which we define as an image microarray (IMA). We further define the TMA-IMA construct as IMA-based images derived from whole slide images of TMAs themselves. Here we describe the first combined use of the previously described dCORE and iMAM tools, toward the goal of generating a higher-order image construct, with multiple TMA cores from multiple distinct conventional TMAs assembled as a single digital image montage. This image construct served as the basis of the carrying out of a massively parallel image analysis exercise, based on the use of the previously described spatially invariant vector quantization (SIVQ) algorithm. Multicase, multifield TMA-IMAs of follicular lymphoma and follicular hyperplasia were separately rendered, using the aforementioned tools. Each of these two IMAs contained a distinct spectrum of morphologic heterogeneity with respect to both tingible body macrophage (TBM) appearance and apoptotic body morphology. SIVQ-based pattern matching, with ring vectors selected to screen for either tingible body macrophages or apoptotic bodies, was subsequently carried out on the

  18. Image microarrays derived from tissue microarrays (IMA-TMA): New resource for computer-aided diagnostic algorithm development

    PubMed Central

    Hipp, Jennifer A.; Hipp, Jason D.; Lim, Megan; Sharma, Gaurav; Smith, Lauren B.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Balis, Ulysses G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Conventional tissue microarrays (TMAs) consist of cores of tissue inserted into a recipient paraffin block such that a tissue section on a single glass slide can contain numerous patient samples in a spatially structured pattern. Scanning TMAs into digital slides for subsequent analysis by computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) algorithms all offers the possibility of evaluating candidate algorithms against a near-complete repertoire of variable disease morphologies. This parallel interrogation approach simplifies the evaluation, validation, and comparison of such candidate algorithms. A recently developed digital tool, digital core (dCORE), and image microarray maker (iMAM) enables the capture of uniformly sized and resolution-matched images, with these representing key morphologic features and fields of view, aggregated into a single monolithic digital image file in an array format, which we define as an image microarray (IMA). We further define the TMA-IMA construct as IMA-based images derived from whole slide images of TMAs themselves. Methods: Here we describe the first combined use of the previously described dCORE and iMAM tools, toward the goal of generating a higher-order image construct, with multiple TMA cores from multiple distinct conventional TMAs assembled as a single digital image montage. This image construct served as the basis of the carrying out of a massively parallel image analysis exercise, based on the use of the previously described spatially invariant vector quantization (SIVQ) algorithm. Results: Multicase, multifield TMA-IMAs of follicular lymphoma and follicular hyperplasia were separately rendered, using the aforementioned tools. Each of these two IMAs contained a distinct spectrum of morphologic heterogeneity with respect to both tingible body macrophage (TBM) appearance and apoptotic body morphology. SIVQ-based pattern matching, with ring vectors selected to screen for either tingible body macrophages or apoptotic bodies, was

  19. Computer-aided diagnosis system for coronary artery stenosis using a neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Horiba, Isao; Sugie, Noboru; Nanki, Michio

    2001-07-01

    We have developed a new computer-aided diagnosis system for coronary artery stenosis, which can learn medical doctors' clinical experiences and medical knowledge. In order to develop such a system, we have employed a multilayer neural network (NN). The NN has the capability to learn experts' experiences and knowledge. The proposed system consists of (a) automatic vessel tracking, (b) automatically extraction of the edges of the vessel, and (c) estimation of stenosis based on the NN. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed system, two experiments with the phantoms and clinical images were performed. The stenoses estimated by the proposed system agreed well with not only the stenoses based on the actual measurement of the phantoms but also those diagnosed by a medical specialist from coronary arteriograms. The experimental results have shown that the proposed system has the capability to learn medical doctors' clinical experiences and medical knowledge. The proposed system has been proved to be useful to aid to diagnose coronary artery stenosis.

  20. Computer-Aided Modelling and Analysis of PV Systems: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Koukouvaos, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Modern scientific advances have enabled remarkable efficacy for photovoltaic systems with regard to the exploitation of solar energy, boosting them into having a rapidly growing position among the systems developed for the production of renewable energy. However, in many cases the design, analysis, and control of photovoltaic systems are tasks which are quite complex and thus difficult to be carried out. In order to cope with this kind of problems, appropriate software tools have been developed either as standalone products or parts of general purpose software platforms used to model and simulate the generation, transmission, and distribution of solar energy. The utilization of this kind of software tools may be extremely helpful to the successful performance evaluation of energy systems with maximum accuracy and minimum cost in time and effort. The work presented in this paper aims on a first level at the performance analysis of various configurations of photovoltaic systems through computer-aided modelling. On a second level, it provides a comparative evaluation of the credibility of two of the most advanced graphical programming environments, namely, Simulink and LabVIEW, with regard to their application in photovoltaic systems. PMID:24772007

  1. Effect of a computer-aided diagnosis system on radiologists' performance in grading gliomas with MRI

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Kevin Li-Chun; Tsai, Ruei-Je; Teng, Yu-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    The effects of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on quantitative intensity features with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) were evaluated by examining radiologists' performance in grading gliomas. The acquired MRI database included 71 lower-grade gliomas and 34 glioblastomas. Quantitative image features were extracted from the tumor area and combined in a CAD system to generate a prediction model. The effect of the CAD system was evaluated in a two-stage procedure. First, a radiologist performed a conventional reading. A sequential second reading was determined with a malignancy estimation by the CAD system. Each MR image was regularly read by one radiologist out of a group of three radiologists. The CAD system achieved an accuracy of 87% (91/105), a sensitivity of 79% (27/34), a specificity of 90% (64/71), and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) of 0.89. In the evaluation, the radiologists’ Az values significantly improved from 0.81, 0.87, and 0.84 to 0.90, 0.90, and 0.88 with p = 0.0011, 0.0076, and 0.0167, respectively. Based on the MR image features, the proposed CAD system not only performed well in distinguishing glioblastomas from lower-grade gliomas but also provided suggestions about glioma grading to reinforce radiologists’ confidence rating. PMID:28158235

  2. Computer-aided modelling and analysis of PV systems: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Koukouvaos, Charalambos; Kandris, Dionisis; Samarakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Modern scientific advances have enabled remarkable efficacy for photovoltaic systems with regard to the exploitation of solar energy, boosting them into having a rapidly growing position among the systems developed for the production of renewable energy. However, in many cases the design, analysis, and control of photovoltaic systems are tasks which are quite complex and thus difficult to be carried out. In order to cope with this kind of problems, appropriate software tools have been developed either as standalone products or parts of general purpose software platforms used to model and simulate the generation, transmission, and distribution of solar energy. The utilization of this kind of software tools may be extremely helpful to the successful performance evaluation of energy systems with maximum accuracy and minimum cost in time and effort. The work presented in this paper aims on a first level at the performance analysis of various configurations of photovoltaic systems through computer-aided modelling. On a second level, it provides a comparative evaluation of the credibility of two of the most advanced graphical programming environments, namely, Simulink and LabVIEW, with regard to their application in photovoltaic systems.

  3. Effect of a computer-aided diagnosis system on radiologists' performance in grading gliomas with MRI.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Kevin Li-Chun; Tsai, Ruei-Je; Teng, Yu-Chuan; Lo, Chung-Ming

    2017-01-01

    The effects of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on quantitative intensity features with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) were evaluated by examining radiologists' performance in grading gliomas. The acquired MRI database included 71 lower-grade gliomas and 34 glioblastomas. Quantitative image features were extracted from the tumor area and combined in a CAD system to generate a prediction model. The effect of the CAD system was evaluated in a two-stage procedure. First, a radiologist performed a conventional reading. A sequential second reading was determined with a malignancy estimation by the CAD system. Each MR image was regularly read by one radiologist out of a group of three radiologists. The CAD system achieved an accuracy of 87% (91/105), a sensitivity of 79% (27/34), a specificity of 90% (64/71), and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) of 0.89. In the evaluation, the radiologists' Az values significantly improved from 0.81, 0.87, and 0.84 to 0.90, 0.90, and 0.88 with p = 0.0011, 0.0076, and 0.0167, respectively. Based on the MR image features, the proposed CAD system not only performed well in distinguishing glioblastomas from lower-grade gliomas but also provided suggestions about glioma grading to reinforce radiologists' confidence rating.

  4. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission waypoints that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system.

  5. Which supplementary imaging modality should be used for breast ultrasonography? Comparison of the diagnostic performance of elastography and computer-aided diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of grayscale ultrasonography (US), US elastography, and US computer-aided diagnosis (US-CAD) in the differential diagnosis of breast masses. Methods A total of 193 breast masses in 175 consecutive women (mean age, 46.4 years) from June to August 2015 were included. US and elastography images were obtained and recorded. A US-CAD system was applied to the grayscale sonograms, which were automatically analyzed and visualized in order to generate a final assessment. The final assessments of breast masses were based on the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories, while elasticity scores were assigned using a 5-point scoring system. The diagnostic performance of grayscale US, elastography, and US-CAD was calculated and compared. Results Of the 193 breast masses, 120 (62.2%) were benign and 73 (37.8%) were malignant. Breast masses had significantly higher rates of malignancy in BI-RADS categories 4c and 5, elastography patterns 4 and 5, and when the US-CAD assessment was possibly malignant (all P<0.001). Elastography had higher specificity (40.8%, P=0.042) than grayscale US. US-CAD showed the highest specificity (67.5%), positive predictive value (PPV) (61.4%), accuracy (74.1%), and area under the curve (AUC) (0.762, all P<0.05) among the three diagnostic tools. Conclusion US-CAD had higher values for specificity, PPV, accuracy, and AUC than grayscale US or elastography. Computer-based analysis based on the morphologic features of US may be very useful in improving the diagnostic performance of breast US. PMID:27764908

  6. Computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs in osteoporosis diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifin, Agus Zainal; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira; Nakamoto, Takashi; Ohtsuka, Masahiko; Tanimoto, Keiji

    2005-04-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are associated with substantial morbidity, increased medical cost and high mortality risk. Several equipments of bone assessment have been developed to identify individuals, especially postmenopausal women, with high risk of osteoporotic fracture; however, a large segment of women with low skeletal bone mineral density (BMD), namely women with high risk of osteoporotic fractures, cannot be identified sufficiently because osteoporosis is asymptomatic. Recent studies have been demonstrating that mandibular inferior cortical width manually measured on panoramic radiographs may be useful for the identification of women with low BMD. Automatic measurement of cortical width may enable us to identify a large number of asymptomatic women with low BMD. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs. Initially, oral radiologists determined the region of interest based on the position of mental foramen. Some enhancing image techniques were applied so as to measure the cortical width at the best point. Panoramic radiographs of 100 women who had BMD assessments of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were used to confirm the efficacy of our new system. Cortical width measured with our system was compared with skeletal BMD. There were significant correlation between cortical width measured with our system and skeletal BMD. These correlations were similar with those between cortical width manually measured by the dentist and skeletal BMD. Our results suggest that our new system may be useful for mass screening of osteoporosis.

  7. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  8. Generating natural language explanations in a computer-aided design system

    SciTech Connect

    Bienkowski, M.A.; Cullingford, R.E.; Krueger, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    CADHELP is a graphics-based computer-aided design system which contains detailed knowledge bases intended to support three different types of intelligent behavior: (1) the generation of natural-language explanations concerning the operation of the graphical features, for use by naive users; (2) an animated display coordinated with the explanation, simulating the feature's use; and (3) control of the operation of the CAD system itself, by interpretation of knowledge structures describing the system's operation. This final report is a detailed description of the knowledge-base summarization and generation methods developed for CADHELP, which are the basis for the three different sources of knowledge. The Explanation Mechanism devised for CADHELP describes the CAD commands CADHELP can execute using test and graphical animation. A unique feature of this system is that neither the text nor the animation are stored, but are generated from a representation of knowledge about how to use CADHELP. This representation, called a feature script, is a set of concepts linked by causal relations. Since the feature scripts developed were very detailed to enable the animator to work, a means of pruning the script to produce natural-sounding text was needed. A selector mechanism, called HELPCON, was developed to select concepts for expression from the feature scripts using rules on how to conduct an explanation. The concepts thus selected are generated as English sentences by another module called OGEN, which prunes a concept to express it in a concise form much as HELPCON does.

  9. Computer-aided design of control systems to meet many requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schy, A. A.; Adams, W. M., Jr.; Johnson, K. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for using nonlinear programing in the computer-aided design of airplane control systems. It is assumed that the quality of such systems depends on many criteria. These criteria are included in the constraints vector (instead of attempting to combine them into a single scalar criterion, as is usually done), and the design proceeds through a sequence of nonlinear programing solutions in which the designer varies the specification of sets of requirements levels. The method is applied to design of a lateral stability augmentation system (SAS) for a fighter airplane, in which the requirements vector is chosen from the official handling qualities specifications. Results are shown for several simple SAS configurations designed to obtain desirable handling qualities over all design flight conditions with minimum feedback gains. The choice of the final design for each case is not unique but depends on the designer's decision as to which achievable set of requirements levels represents the best for that system. Results indicate that it may be possible to design constant parameter SAS which can satisfy the most stringent handling qualities requirements for fighter airplanes in all flight conditions. The role of the designer as a decision maker, interacting with the computer program, is discussed. Advantages of this type of designer-computer interaction are emphasized. Desirable extensions of the method are indicated.

  10. Computer-Aided Diagnosis Systems for Lung Cancer: Challenges and Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    El-Baz, Ayman; Beache, Garth M.; Gimel'farb, Georgy; Suzuki, Kenji; Okada, Kazunori; Elnakib, Ahmed; Soliman, Ahmed; Abdollahi, Behnoush

    2013-01-01

    This paper overviews one of the most important, interesting, and challenging problems in oncology, the problem of lung cancer diagnosis. Developing an effective computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for lung cancer is of great clinical importance and can increase the patient's chance of survival. For this reason, CAD systems for lung cancer have been investigated in a huge number of research studies. A typical CAD system for lung cancer diagnosis is composed of four main processing steps: segmentation of the lung fields, detection of nodules inside the lung fields, segmentation of the detected nodules, and diagnosis of the nodules as benign or malignant. This paper overviews the current state-of-the-art techniques that have been developed to implement each of these CAD processing steps. For each technique, various aspects of technical issues, implemented methodologies, training and testing databases, and validation methods, as well as achieved performances, are described. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in each implementation step and outlines the strengths and drawbacks of the existing approaches for lung cancer CAD systems. PMID:23431282

  11. An improved automatic computer aided tube detection and labeling system on chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, Bharath; Brown, Matthew; Goldin, Jonathan; Cagnon, Christopher; Enzmann, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    Tubes like Endotracheal (ET) tube used to maintain patient's airway and the Nasogastric (NG) tube used to feed the patient and drain contents of the stomach are very commonly used in Intensive Care Units (ICU). The placement of these tubes is critical for their proper functioning and improper tube placement can even be fatal. Bedside chest radiographs are considered the quickest and safest method to check the placement of these tubes. Tertiary ICU's typically generate over 250 chest radiographs per day to confirm tube placement. This paper develops a new fully automatic prototype computer-aided detection (CAD) system for tube detection on bedside chest radiographs. The core of the CAD system is the randomized algorithm which selects tubes based on their average repeatability from seed points. The CAD algorithm is designed as a 5 stage process: Preprocessing (removing borders, histogram equalization, anisotropic filtering), Anatomy Segmentation (to identify neck, esophagus, abdomen ROI's), Seed Generation, Region Growing and Tube Selection. The preliminary evaluation was carried out on 64 cases. The prototype CAD system was able to detect ET tubes with a True Positive Rate of 0.93 and False Positive Rate of 0.02/image and NG tubes with a True Positive Rate of 0.84 and False Positive Rate of 0.02/image respectively. The results from the prototype system show that it is feasible to automatically detect both tubes on chest radiographs, with the potential to significantly speed the delivery of imaging services while maintaining high accuracy.

  12. Development of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-01-15

    Bone scintigraphy is the most frequent examination among various diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. It is a well-established imaging modality for the diagnosis of osseous metastasis and for monitoring osseous tumor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Although the sensitivity of bone scan examinations for detection of bone abnormalities has been considered to be relatively high, it is time consuming to identify multiple lesions such as bone metastases of prostate and breast cancers. In addition, it is very difficult to detect subtle interval changes between two successive abnormal bone scans, because of variations in patient conditions, the accumulation of radioisotopes during each examination, and the image quality of gamma cameras. Therefore, we developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans by use of a temporal subtraction image which was obtained with a nonlinear image-warping technique. We carried out 58 pairs of successive bone scans in which each scan included both posterior and anterior views. We determined 107 'gold-standard' interval changes among the 58 pairs based on the consensus of three radiologists. Our computerized scheme consisted of seven steps, i.e., initial image density normalization on each image, image matching for the paired images, temporal subtraction by use of the nonlinear image-warping technique, initial detection of interval changes by use of temporal-subtraction images, image feature extraction of candidates of interval changes, rule-based tests by use of 16 image features for removing some false positives, and display of the computer output for identified interval changes. One hundred seven gold standard interval changes included 71 hot lesions (uptake was increased compared with the previous scan, or there was new uptake in the current scan) and 36 cold lesions (uptake was decreased or disappeared) for anterior and posterior views. The

  13. High School Students' Written Argumentation Qualities with Problem-Based Computer-Aided Material (PBCAM) Designed about Human Endocrine System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vekli, Gülsah Sezen; Çimer, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated development of students' scientific argumentation levels in the applications made with Problem-Based Computer-Aided Material (PBCAM) designed about Human Endocrine System. The case study method was used: The study group was formed of 43 students in the 11th grade of the science high school in Rize. Human Endocrine System…

  14. A Computer-Aided Telephone System to Enable Five Persons with Alzheimer's Disease to Make Phone Calls Independently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Laporta, Dominga; Paparella, Adele; Caffo, Alessandro O.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a computer-aided telephone system to enable five patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease to make phone calls independently. The patients were divided into two groups and exposed to intervention according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across groups. All patients started with baseline in…

  15. A Computer-Aided Telephone System to Enable Five Persons with Alzheimer's Disease to Make Phone Calls Independently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Laporta, Dominga; Paparella, Adele; Caffo, Alessandro O.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a computer-aided telephone system to enable five patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease to make phone calls independently. The patients were divided into two groups and exposed to intervention according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across groups. All patients started with baseline in…

  16. Two Adults with Multiple Disabilities Use a Computer-Aided Telephone System to Make Phone Calls Independently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Alberti, Gloria; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a newly developed computer-aided telephone system with two participants (adults) who presented with blindness or severe visual impairment and motor or motor and intellectual disabilities. For each participant, the study was carried out according to an ABAB design, in which the A represented baseline phases and…

  17. Computer aided analysis of prostate histopathology images to support a refined Gleason grading system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jian; Sadimin, Evita; Foran, David J.; Qi, Xin

    2017-02-01

    The Gleason grading system used to render prostate cancer diagnosis has recently been updated to allow more accurate grade stratification and higher prognostic discrimination when compared to the traditional grading system. In spite of progress made in trying to standardize the grading process, there still remains approximately a 30% grading discrepancy between the score rendered by general pathologists and those provided by experts while reviewing needle biopsies for Gleason pattern 3 and 4, which accounts for more than 70% of daily prostate tis- sue slides at most institutions. We propose a new computational imaging method for Gleason pattern 3 and 4 classification, which better matches the newly established prostate cancer grading system. The computer- aided analysis method includes two phases. First, the boundary of each glandular region is automatically segmented using a deep convolutional neural network. Second, color, shape and texture features are extracted from superpixels corresponding to the outer and inner glandular regions and are subsequently forwarded to a random forest classifier to give a gradient score between 3 and 4 for each delineated glandular region. The F1 score for glandular segmentation is 0.8460 and the classification accuracy is 0.83+/-0.03.

  18. Web-based computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) system for bone age assessment (BAA) of children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Uyeda, Joshua; Tsao, Sinchai; Ma, Kevin; Vachon, Linda A.; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2008-03-01

    Bone age assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on a left hand and wrist radiograph. The most commonly used standard: Greulich and Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas was developed 50 years ago and exclusively based on Caucasian population. Moreover, inter- & intra-observer discrepancies using this method create a need of an objective and automatic BAA method. A digital hand atlas (DHA) has been collected with 1,400 hand images of normal children from Asian, African American, Caucasian and Hispanic descends. Based on DHA, a fully automatic, objective computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method was developed and it was adapted to specific population. To bring DHA and CAD method to the clinical environment as a useful tool in assisting radiologist to achieve higher accuracy in BAA, a web-based system with direct connection to a clinical site is designed as a novel clinical implementation approach for online and real time BAA. The core of the system, a CAD server receives the image from clinical site, processes it by the CAD method and finally, generates report. A web service publishes the results and radiologists at the clinical site can review it online within minutes. This prototype can be easily extended to multiple clinical sites and will provide the foundation for broader use of the CAD system for BAA.

  19. Computer-aided detection of breast masses on mammograms: performance improvement using a dual system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Petrick, Nicholas; Ge, Jun; Zhou, Chuan

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for breast masses on mammograms. In this study, our purpose was to improve the performance of our mass detection system by using a new dual system approach which combines a CAD system optimized with "average" masses with another CAD system optimized with subtle masses. The latter system is trained to provide high sensitivity in detecting subtle masses. For an unknown mammogram, the two systems are used in parallel to detect suspicious objects. A feed-forward backpropagation neural network trained to merge the scores of the two linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifiers from the two systems makes the final decision in differentiation of true masses from normal tissue. A data set of 86 patients containing 172 mammograms with biopsy-proven masses was partitioned into a training set and an independent test set. This data set is referred to as the average data set. A second data set of 214 prior mammograms was used for training the second CAD system for detection of subtle masses. When the single CAD system trained on the average data set was applied to the test set, the Az for false positive (FP) classification was 0.81 and the FP rates were 2.1, 1.5 and 1.3 FPs/image at the case-based sensitivities of 95%, 90% and 85%, respectively. With the dual CAD system, the Az was 0.85 and the FP rates were improved to 1.7, 1.2 and 0.8 FPs/image at the same case-based sensitivities. Our results indicate that the dual CAD system can improve the performance of mass detection on mammograms.

  20. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center have developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission way points that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system. AVRADA's NUH-60A STAR (Systems Testbed for Avionics Research) helicopter was specially modified, in house, for the flight evaluation of the CALAHF system. The near terrain trajectory generation algorithm runs on a multiprocessor flight computer. Global Positioning System (GPS) data are integrated with Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) data in the flight computer to provide a precise navigation solution. The near-terrain trajectory and the aircraft state information are passed to a Silicon Graphics computer to provide the graphical 'pilot centered' guidance, presented on a Honeywell Integrated Helmet And Display Sighting System (IHADSS). The system design, piloted simulation, and initial flight test results are presented.

  1. Computer aided diagnosis system for breast cancer based on color Doppler flow imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Cheng, H D; Huang, J H; Zhang, Y T; Tang, X L; Tian, J W; Wang, Y

    2012-12-01

    Color Doppler flow imaging takes a great value in diagnosing and classifying benign and malignant breast lesions. However, scanning of color Doppler sonography is operator-dependent and ineffective. In this paper, a novel breast classification system based on B-Mode ultrasound and color Doppler flow imaging is proposed. First, different feature extraction methods were used to obtain the texture and geometric features from B-Mode ultrasound images. In color Doppler feature extraction stage, several spectrum features are extracted by applying blood flow velocity analysis to Doppler signals. Moreover, a velocity coherent vector method is proposed based on color coherence vector, which is helpful for designing to the optimize detection of flow indices from different blood flow velocity fields automatically. Finally, a support vector machine classifier with selected feature vectors is used to classify breast tumors into benign and malignant. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed computer-aided diagnosis system is useful for reducing the unnecessary biopsy and death rate.

  2. Computer-aided detection systems to improve lung cancer early diagnosis: state-of-the-art and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traverso, A.; Lopez Torres, E.; Fantacci, M. E.; Cerello, P.

    2017-05-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer, because its early diagnosis is not good enough. In fact, the detection of pulmonary nodule, potential lung cancers, in Computed Tomography scans is a very challenging and time-consuming task for radiologists. To support radiologists, researchers have developed Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for the automated detection of pulmonary nodules in chest Computed Tomography scans. Despite the high level of technological developments and the proved benefits on the overall detection performance, the usage of Computer-Aided Diagnosis in clinical practice is far from being a common procedure. In this paper we investigate the causes underlying this discrepancy and present a solution to tackle it: the M5L WEB- and Cloud-based on-demand Computer-Aided Diagnosis. In addition, we prove how the combination of traditional imaging processing techniques with state-of-art advanced classification algorithms allows to build a system whose performance could be much larger than any Computer-Aided Diagnosis developed so far. This outcome opens the possibility to use the CAD as clinical decision support for radiologists.

  3. CATOS (Computer Aided Training/Observing System): Automating animal observation and training.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jinook; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2017-02-01

    In animal behavioral biology, an automated observing/training system may be useful for several reasons: (a) continuous observation of animals for documentation of specific, irregular events, (b) long-term intensive training of animals in preparation for behavioral experiments, (c) elimination of potential cues and biases induced by humans during training and testing. Here, we describe an open-source-based system named CATOS (Computer Aided Training/Observing System) developed for such situations. There are several notable features in this system. CATOS is flexible and low cost because it is based on free open-source software libraries, common hardware parts, and open-system electronics based on Arduino. Automated video condensation is applied, leading to significantly reduced video data storage compared to the total active hours of the system. A data-viewing utility program helps a user browse recorded data quickly and more efficiently. With these features, CATOS has the potential to be applied to many different animal species in various environments such as laboratories, zoos, or even private homes. Also, an animal's free access to the device without constraint, and a gamified learning process, enhance the animal's welfare and enriches their environment. As a proof of concept, the system was built and tested with two different species. Initially, the system was tested for approximately 10 months with a domesticated cat. The cat was successfully and fully automatically trained to discriminate three different spoken words. Then, in order to test the system's adaptability to other species and hardware components, we used it to train a laboratory rat for 3 weeks.

  4. Computer-aided detection system for lung cancer in computed tomography scans: Review and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The goal of this paper is to present a critical review of major Computer-Aided Detection systems (CADe) for lung cancer in order to identify challenges for future research. CADe systems must meet the following requirements: improve the performance of radiologists providing high sensitivity in the diagnosis, a low number of false positives (FP), have high processing speed, present high level of automation, low cost (of implementation, training, support and maintenance), the ability to detect different types and shapes of nodules, and software security assurance. Methods The relevant literature related to “CADe for lung cancer” was obtained from PubMed, IEEEXplore and Science Direct database. Articles published from 2009 to 2013, and some articles previously published, were used. A systemic analysis was made on these articles and the results were summarized. Discussion Based on literature search, it was observed that many if not all systems described in this survey have the potential to be important in clinical practice. However, no significant improvement was observed in sensitivity, number of false positives, level of automation and ability to detect different types and shapes of nodules in the studied period. Challenges were presented for future research. Conclusions Further research is needed to improve existing systems and propose new solutions. For this, we believe that collaborative efforts through the creation of open source software communities are necessary to develop a CADe system with all the requirements mentioned and with a short development cycle. In addition, future CADe systems should improve the level of automation, through integration with picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and the electronic record of the patient, decrease the number of false positives, measure the evolution of tumors, evaluate the evolution of the oncological treatment, and its possible prognosis. PMID:24713067

  5. A general-purpose development environment for intelligent computer-aided training systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savely, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    Space station training will be a major task, requiring the creation of large numbers of simulation-based training systems for crew, flight controllers, and ground-based support personnel. Given the long duration of space station missions and the large number of activities supported by the space station, the extension of space shuttle training methods to space station training may prove to be impractical. The application of artificial intelligence technology to simulation training can provide the ability to deliver individualized training to large numbers of personnel in a distributed workstation environment. The principal objective of this project is the creation of a software development environment which can be used to build intelligent training systems for procedural tasks associated with the operation of the space station. Current NASA Johnson Space Center projects and joint projects with other NASA operational centers will result in specific training systems for existing space shuttle crew, ground support personnel, and flight controller tasks. Concurrently with the creation of these systems, a general-purpose development environment for intelligent computer-aided training systems will be built. Such an environment would permit the rapid production, delivery, and evolution of training systems for space station crew, flight controllers, and other support personnel. The widespread use of such systems will serve to preserve task and training expertise, support the training of many personnel in a distributed manner, and ensure the uniformity and verifiability of training experiences. As a result, significant reductions in training costs can be realized while safety and the probability of mission success can be enhanced.

  6. Computer-Aided System Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) Programmer's Manual, Version 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    The Computer Aided System Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) Version 5.0 Programmer's Manual provides the programmer and user with information regarding the internal structure of the CASE/A 5.0 software system. CASE/A 5.0 is a trade study tool that provides modeling/simulation capabilities for analyzing environmental control and life support systems and active thermal control systems. CASE/A has been successfully used in studies such as the evaluation of carbon dioxide removal in the space station. CASE/A modeling provides a graphical and command-driven interface for the user. This interface allows the user to construct a model by placing equipment components in a graphical layout of the system hardware, then connect the components via flow streams and define their operating parameters. Once the equipment is placed, the simulation time and other control parameters can be set to run the simulation based on the model constructed. After completion of the simulation, graphical plots or text files can be obtained for evaluation of the simulation results over time. Additionally, users have the capability to control the simulation and extract information at various times in the simulation (e.g., control equipment operating parameters over the simulation time or extract plot data) by using "User Operations (OPS) Code." This OPS code is written in FORTRAN with a canned set of utility subroutines for performing common tasks. CASE/A version 5.0 software runs under the VAX VMS(Trademark) environment. It utilizes the Tektronics 4014(Trademark) graphics display system and the VTIOO(Trademark) text manipulation/display system.

  7. [Development of a computer-aided diagnosis system for the distinction between benign and malignant gastric lesions].

    PubMed

    Nagano, Nobumichi; Matsuo, Takami; Itoh, Takashi; Tomonari, Kenichiro; Shiraishi, Junji

    2012-01-01

    We proposed a method for a computer-aided diagnosis system that distinguishes between benign and malignant lesions in gastrointestinal digital radiography. To begin with, the level set method was applied in order to extract a tumor region from the image which was smoothed by the bilateral filter. Next, we selected four image features with the large SN ratio among various image features obtained from a tumor region using the Mahalanobis-Taguchi method, which has been employed mainly in quality engineering. The selected four image features-circularity, irregularity, size, and perimeter-were used as input data for the artificial neural network, which was employed for distinction between benign and malignant lesions. By using 43 regions of interest cropped from the 43 clinical cases, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of diagnostic accuracy for the classification obtained with this proposed method was 0.970, whereas the average AUC obtained with 7 human observers (3 radiologists and 4 radiological technologist) was 0.941.

  8. A computer aided diagnosis system for thyroid disease using extreme learning machine.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Na; Ouyang, Ji-Hong; Chen, Hui-Ling; Liu, Da-You

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present an effective and efficient computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on principle component analysis (PCA) and extreme learning machine (ELM) to assist the task of thyroid disease diagnosis. The CAD system is comprised of three stages. Focusing on dimension reduction, the first stage applies PCA to construct the most discriminative new feature set. After then, the system switches to the second stage whose target is model construction. ELM classifier is explored to train an optimal predictive model whose parameters are optimized. As we known, the number of hidden neurons has an important role in the performance of ELM, so we propose an experimental method to hunt for the optimal value. Finally, the obtained optimal ELM model proceeds to perform the thyroid disease diagnosis tasks using the most discriminative new feature set and the optimal parameters. The effectiveness of the resultant CAD system (PCA-ELM) has been rigorously estimated on a thyroid disease dataset which is taken from UCI machine learning repository. We compare it with other related methods in terms of their classification accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate that PCA-ELM outperforms other ones reported so far by 10-fold cross-validation method, with the mean accuracy of 97.73% and with the maximum accuracy of 98.1%. Besides, PCA-ELM performs much faster than support vector machines (SVM) based CAD system. Consequently, the proposed method PCA-ELM can be considered as a new powerful tools for diagnosing thyroid disease with excellent performance and less time.

  9. Modeling uncertainty in classification design of a computer-aided detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Rahil; Dehmeshki, Jamshid; Barman, Sarah; Mazinani, Mahdi; Qanadli, Salah

    2010-03-01

    A computerized image analysis technology suffers from imperfection, imprecision and vagueness of the input data and its propagation in all individual components of the technology including image enhancement, segmentation and pattern recognition. Furthermore, a Computerized Medical Image Analysis System (CMIAS) such as computer aided detection (CAD) technology deals with another source of uncertainty that is inherent in image-based practice of medicine. While there are several technology-oriented studies reported in developing CAD applications, no attempt has been made to address, model and integrate these types of uncertainty in the design of the system components, even though uncertainty issues directly affect the performance and its accuracy. In this paper, the main uncertainty paradigms associated with CAD technologies are addressed. The influence of the vagueness and imprecision in the classification of the CAD, as a second reader, on the validity of ROC analysis results is defined. In order to tackle the problem of uncertainty in the classification design of the CAD, two fuzzy methods are applied and evaluated for a lung nodule CAD application. Type-1 fuzzy logic system (T1FLS) and an extension of it, interval type-2 fuzzy logic system (IT2FLS) are employed as methods with high potential for managing uncertainty issues. The novelty of the proposed classification methods is to address and handle all sources of uncertainty associated with a CAD system. The results reveal that IT2FLS is superior to T1FLS for tackling all sources of uncertainty and significantly, the problem of inter and intra operator observer variability.

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis system based on fuzzy logic for breast cancer categorization.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Gisele Helena Barboni; Felipe, Joaquim Cezar

    2015-09-01

    Fuzzy logic can help reduce the difficulties faced by computational systems to represent and simulate the reasoning and the style adopted by radiologists in the process of medical image analysis. The study described in this paper consists of a new method that applies fuzzy logic concepts to improve the representation of features related to image description in order to make it semantically more consistent. Specifically, we have developed a computer-aided diagnosis tool for automatic BI-RADS categorization of breast lesions. The user provides parameters such as contour, shape and density and the system gives a suggestion about the BI-RADS classification. Initially, values of malignancy were defined for each image descriptor, according to the BI-RADS standard. When analyzing contour, for example, our method considers the matching of features and linguistic variables. Next, we created the fuzzy inference system. The generation of membership functions was carried out by the Fuzzy Omega algorithm, which is based on the statistical analysis of the dataset. This algorithm maps the distribution of different classes in a set. Images were analyzed by a group of physicians and the resulting evaluations were submitted to the Fuzzy Omega algorithm. The results were compared, achieving an accuracy of 76.67% for nodules and 83.34% for calcifications. The fit of definitions and linguistic rules to numerical models provided by our method can lead to a tighter connection between the specialist and the computer system, yielding more effective and reliable results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An interactive system for computer-aided diagnosis of breast masses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingwei; Li, Lihua; Liu, Wei; Xu, Weidong; Lederman, Dror; Zheng, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Although mammography is the only clinically accepted imaging modality for screening the general population to detect breast cancer, interpreting mammograms is difficult with lower sensitivity and specificity. To provide radiologists "a visual aid" in interpreting mammograms, we developed and tested an interactive system for computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) of mass-like cancers. Using this system, an observer can view CAD-cued mass regions depicted on one image and then query any suspicious regions (either cued or not cued by CAD). CAD scheme automatically segments the suspicious region or accepts manually defined region and computes a set of image features. Using content-based image retrieval (CBIR) algorithm, CAD searches for a set of reference images depicting "abnormalities" similar to the queried region. Based on image retrieval results and a decision algorithm, a classification score is assigned to the queried region. In this study, a reference database with 1,800 malignant mass regions and 1,800 benign and CAD-generated false-positive regions was used. A modified CBIR algorithm with a new function of stretching the attributes in the multi-dimensional space and decision scheme was optimized using a genetic algorithm. Using a leave-one-out testing method to classify suspicious mass regions, we compared the classification performance using two CBIR algorithms with either equally weighted or optimally stretched attributes. Using the modified CBIR algorithm, the area under receiver operating characteristic curve was significantly increased from 0.865 ± 0.006 to 0.897 ± 0.005 (p < 0.001). This study demonstrated the feasibility of developing an interactive CAD system with a large reference database and achieving improved performance.

  12. Lecturers' Perspectives on the Use of a Mathematics-Based Computer-Aided Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, Stephen J.; Robinson, Carol L.; Hernandez-Martinez, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Computer-aided assessment (CAA) has been used at a university with one of the largest mathematics and engineering undergraduate cohorts in the UK for more than ten years. Lecturers teaching mathematics to first year students were asked about their current use of CAA in a questionnaire and in interviews. This article presents the issues that these…

  13. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  14. A novel computer-aided detection system for pulmonary nodule identification in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hao; Li, Lihong; Wang, Huafeng; Zhang, Hao; Moore, William; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CADe) of pulmonary nodules from computer tomography (CT) scans is critical for assisting radiologists to identify lung lesions at an early stage. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for CADe of lung nodules using a two-stage vector quantization (VQ) scheme. The first-stage VQ aims to extract lung from the chest volume, while the second-stage VQ is designed to extract initial nodule candidates (INCs) within the lung volume. Then rule-based expert filtering is employed to prune obvious FPs from INCs, and the commonly-used support vector machine (SVM) classifier is adopted to further reduce the FPs. The proposed system was validated on 100 CT scans randomly selected from the 262 scans that have at least one juxta-pleural nodule annotation in the publicly available database - Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI). The two-stage VQ only missed 2 out of the 207 nodules at agreement level 1, and the INCs detection for each scan took about 30 seconds in average. Expert filtering reduced FPs more than 18 times, while maintaining a sensitivity of 93.24%. As it is trivial to distinguish INCs attached to pleural wall versus not on wall, we investigated the feasibility of training different SVM classifiers to further reduce FPs from these two kinds of INCs. Experiment results indicated that SVM classification over the entire set of INCs was in favor of, where the optimal operating of our CADe system achieved a sensitivity of 89.4% at a specificity of 86.8%.

  15. Clinical decision support systems and computer-aided diagnosis in otology.

    PubMed

    Goggin, Leigh S; Eikelboom, Robert H; Atlas, Marcus D

    2007-04-01

    We reviewed the progress of the implementation of expert diagnostic systems in the field of otology. We conducted a review of the literature at a research institute. The utilization of expert diagnostic systems in otology is very limited. Previous applications focused primarily upon the diagnosis of vertiginous disorders with the use of deterministic algorithms and, more recently, with adaptive algorithms such as neural networks. Expert systems provide greater diagnostic accuracy to physicians across a wide range of medical specialties. The success of such a system depends upon the strength of its reasoning algorithm, the validity of its knowledge base, and its ease of use. There have been no attempts to develop an adaptive expert system for the full range of otological conditions. Such a tool may be of great use to physicians as a diagnostic aid and educational resource, particularly for those located in isolated sites.

  16. Development of a Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Early Detection of Masses Using Retrospectively Detected Cancers on Prior Mammograms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    system (C) Development of image processing techniques for improvement of mass detection on prior mammograms ( D ) Continue to develop a two-view...increase the overall accuracy for detection of subtle early-stage breast cancers. 13 ( D ) Continuation of Development of a Two-view Information Fusion...Petrick, B. Sahiner, S. C. B. Lo, M. Freedman, D . Adler, J. Bailey, et al., "Sensitivity of noncommercial computer-aided detection system for

  17. Identification and red blood cell automated counting from blood smear images using computer-aided system.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Vasundhara; Kumar, Preetham

    2017-08-17

    Red blood cell count plays a vital role in identifying the overall health of the patient. Hospitals use the hemocytometer to count the blood cells. Conventional method of placing the smear under microscope and counting the cells manually lead to erroneous results, and medical laboratory technicians are put under stress. A computer-aided system will help to attain precise results in less amount of time. This research work proposes an image-processing technique for counting the number of red blood cells. It aims to examine and process the blood smear image, in order to support the counting of red blood cells and identify the number of normal and abnormal cells in the image automatically. K-medoids algorithm which is robust to external noise is used to extract the WBCs from the image. Granulometric analysis is used to separate the red blood cells from the white blood cells. The red blood cells obtained are counted using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. The radius range for the circle-drawing algorithm is estimated by computing the distance of the pixels from the boundary which automates the entire algorithm. A comparison is done between the counts obtained using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. Results of the work showed that circular Hough transform was more accurate in counting the red blood cells than the labeling algorithm as it was successful in identifying even the overlapping cells. The work also intends to compare the results of cell count done using the proposed methodology and manual approach. The work is designed to address all the drawbacks of the previous research work. The research work can be extended to extract various texture and shape features of abnormal cells identified so that diseases like anemia of inflammation and chronic disease can be detected at the earliest.

  18. A novel computer-aided lung nodule detection system for CT images.

    PubMed

    Tan, Maxine; Deklerck, Rudi; Jansen, Bart; Bister, Michel; Cornelis, Jan

    2011-10-01

    The paper presents a complete computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection of lung nodules in computed tomography images. A new mixed feature selection and classification methodology is applied for the first time on a difficult medical image analysis problem. The CAD system was trained and tested on images from the publicly available Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) on the National Cancer Institute website. The detection stage of the system consists of a nodule segmentation method based on nodule and vessel enhancement filters and a computed divergence feature to locate the centers of the nodule clusters. In the subsequent classification stage, invariant features, defined on a gauge coordinates system, are used to differentiate between real nodules and some forms of blood vessels that are easily generating false positive detections. The performance of the novel feature-selective classifier based on genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks (ANNs) is compared with that of two other established classifiers, namely, support vector machines (SVMs) and fixed-topology neural networks. A set of 235 randomly selected cases from the LIDC database was used to train the CAD system. The system has been tested on 125 independent cases from the LIDC database. The overall performance of the fixed-topology ANN classifier slightly exceeds that of the other classifiers, provided the number of internal ANN nodes is chosen well. Making educated guesses about the number of internal ANN nodes is not needed in the new feature-selective classifier, and therefore this classifier remains interesting due to its flexibility and adaptability to the complexity of the classification problem to be solved. Our fixed-topology ANN classifier with 11 hidden nodes reaches a detection sensitivity of 87.5% with an average of four false positives per scan, for nodules with diameter greater than or equal to 3 mm. Analysis of the false positive items reveals that a considerable

  19. A novel computer-aided lung nodule detection system for CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Maxine; Deklerck, Rudi; Jansen, Bart; Bister, Michel; Cornelis, Jan

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The paper presents a complete computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection of lung nodules in computed tomography images. A new mixed feature selection and classification methodology is applied for the first time on a difficult medical image analysis problem. Methods: The CAD system was trained and tested on images from the publicly available Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) on the National Cancer Institute website. The detection stage of the system consists of a nodule segmentation method based on nodule and vessel enhancement filters and a computed divergence feature to locate the centers of the nodule clusters. In the subsequent classification stage, invariant features, defined on a gauge coordinates system, are used to differentiate between real nodules and some forms of blood vessels that are easily generating false positive detections. The performance of the novel feature-selective classifier based on genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks (ANNs) is compared with that of two other established classifiers, namely, support vector machines (SVMs) and fixed-topology neural networks. A set of 235 randomly selected cases from the LIDC database was used to train the CAD system. The system has been tested on 125 independent cases from the LIDC database. Results: The overall performance of the fixed-topology ANN classifier slightly exceeds that of the other classifiers, provided the number of internal ANN nodes is chosen well. Making educated guesses about the number of internal ANN nodes is not needed in the new feature-selective classifier, and therefore this classifier remains interesting due to its flexibility and adaptability to the complexity of the classification problem to be solved. Our fixed-topology ANN classifier with 11 hidden nodes reaches a detection sensitivity of 87.5% with an average of four false positives per scan, for nodules with diameter greater than or equal to 3 mm. Analysis of the false positive items

  20. Evaluation of breast amorphous calcifications by a computer-aided detection system in full-field digital mammography

    PubMed Central

    Scaranelo, A M; Eiada, R; Bukhanov, K; Crystal, P

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a direct computer-aided detection (d-CAD) system integrated with full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in assessment of amorphous calcifications. Methods From 1438 consecutive stereotactic-guided biopsies, FFDM images with amorphous calcifications were selected for retrospective evaluation by d-CAD in 122 females (mean age, 56 years; range, 35–84 years). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and false-positive rate of the d-CAD system were calculated in the total group of 124 lesions and in the subgroups based on breast density, mammographic lesion distribution and extension. Logistic regression analysis was used to stratify the risk of malignancy by patient risk factors and age. Results The d-CAD marked all (36/36) breast cancers, 85% (11/13) of the high-risk lesions and 80% (60/75) of benign amorphous calcifications (p<0.01) correctly. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for the combined malignant and “high-risk” lesions was 96, 80 and 86%, respectively. The likelihood of malignancy was 29%. There was no significant difference between the marking of fatty or dense breasts (p>0.05); however, d-CAD marks showed differences for small (<7 mm) lesions (p=0.02) and clustered calcifications (p=0.03). The false-positive rate of d-CAD was 1.76 marks per full examination. Conclusion The d-CAD system correctly marked all biopsy-proven breast cancers and a large number of biopsy-proven high-risk lesions that presented as amorphous calcifications. Given our 29% likelihood of malignancy, imaging-guided biopsy appears to be a reasonable recommendation in cases of amorphous calcifications marked by d-CAD. PMID:22556404

  1. Evaluation of breast amorphous calcifications by a computer-aided detection system in full-field digital mammography.

    PubMed

    Scaranelo, A M; Eiada, R; Bukhanov, K; Crystal, P

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a direct computer-aided detection (d-CAD) system integrated with full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in assessment of amorphous calcifications. From 1438 consecutive stereotactic-guided biopsies, FFDM images with amorphous calcifications were selected for retrospective evaluation by d-CAD in 122 females (mean age, 56 years; range, 35-84 years). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and false-positive rate of the d-CAD system were calculated in the total group of 124 lesions and in the subgroups based on breast density, mammographic lesion distribution and extension. Logistic regression analysis was used to stratify the risk of malignancy by patient risk factors and age. The d-CAD marked all (36/36) breast cancers, 85% (11/13) of the high-risk lesions and 80% (60/75) of benign amorphous calcifications (p<0.01) correctly. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for the combined malignant and "high-risk" lesions was 96, 80 and 86%, respectively. The likelihood of malignancy was 29%. There was no significant difference between the marking of fatty or dense breasts (p>0.05); however, d-CAD marks showed differences for small (<7 mm) lesions (p=0.02) and clustered calcifications (p=0.03). The false-positive rate of d-CAD was 1.76 marks per full examination. The d-CAD system correctly marked all biopsy-proven breast cancers and a large number of biopsy-proven high-risk lesions that presented as amorphous calcifications. Given our 29% likelihood of malignancy, imaging-guided biopsy appears to be a reasonable recommendation in cases of amorphous calcifications marked by d-CAD.

  2. Addition of Coal Mining Regulations to the Computer-Aided Environmental Legislative Data System (CELDS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    Armyengineering Corps of Engineers research SPECIAL REPORTy1983’boratory Z ADDITION OF COAL MINING REGULATIONS TO THE COMPUTER-AIDED ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATIVE...AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK U.S. ARMY AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY CHAMPAIGN, IL 61820 11...an online, interactive database developed by the US. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL). CELDS indexes and abstracts

  3. Computer aided drug design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, A.

    2017-08-01

    Computer based method can help in discovery of leads and can potentially eliminate chemical synthesis and screening of many irrelevant compounds, and in this way, it save time as well as cost. Molecular modeling systems are powerful tools for building, visualizing, analyzing and storing models of complex molecular structure that can help to interpretate structure activity relationship. The use of various techniques of molecular mechanics and dynamics and software in Computer aided drug design along with statistics analysis is powerful tool for the medicinal chemistry to synthesis therapeutic and effective drugs with minimum side effect.

  4. Quality assurance and training procedures for computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems in clinical use.

    PubMed

    Huo, Zhimin; Summers, Ronald M; Paquerault, Sophie; Lo, Joseph; Hoffmeister, Jeffrey; Armato, Samuel G; Freedman, Matthew T; Lin, Jesse; Lo, Shih-Chung Ben; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Fryd, David; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) is increasingly used for decision support by clinicians for detection and interpretation of diseases. However, there are no quality assurance (QA) requirements for CAD in clinical use at present. QA of CAD is important so that end users can be made aware of changes in CAD performance both due to intentional or unintentional causes. In addition, end-user training is critical to prevent improper use of CAD, which could potentially result in lower overall clinical performance. Research on QA of CAD and user training are limited to date. The purpose of this paper is to bring attention to these issues, inform the readers of the opinions of the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) CAD subcommittee, and thus stimulate further discussion in the CAD community on these topics. The recommendations in this paper are intended to be work items for AAPM task groups that will be formed to address QA and user training issues on CAD in the future. The work items may serve as a framework for the discussion and eventual design of detailed QA and training procedures for physicists and users of CAD. Some of the recommendations are considered by the subcommittee to be reasonably easy and practical and can be implemented immediately by the end users; others are considered to be "best practice" approaches, which may require significant effort, additional tools, and proper training to implement. The eventual standardization of the requirements of QA procedures for CAD will have to be determined through consensus from members of the CAD community, and user training may require support of professional societies. It is expected that high-quality CAD and proper use of CAD could allow these systems to achieve their true potential, thus benefiting both the patients and the clinicians, and may bring about more widespread clinical use of CAD for many other diseases and applications. It is hoped that the awareness of the need

  5. Quality assurance and training procedures for computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems in clinical usea)

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Zhimin; Summers, Ronald M.; Paquerault, Sophie; Lo, Joseph; Hoffmeister, Jeffrey; Armato, Samuel G.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Lin, Jesse; Ben Lo, Shih-Chung; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Fryd, David; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) is increasingly used for decision support by clinicians for detection and interpretation of diseases. However, there are no quality assurance (QA) requirements for CAD in clinical use at present. QA of CAD is important so that end users can be made aware of changes in CAD performance both due to intentional or unintentional causes. In addition, end-user training is critical to prevent improper use of CAD, which could potentially result in lower overall clinical performance. Research on QA of CAD and user training are limited to date. The purpose of this paper is to bring attention to these issues, inform the readers of the opinions of the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) CAD subcommittee, and thus stimulate further discussion in the CAD community on these topics. The recommendations in this paper are intended to be work items for AAPM task groups that will be formed to address QA and user training issues on CAD in the future. The work items may serve as a framework for the discussion and eventual design of detailed QA and training procedures for physicists and users of CAD. Some of the recommendations are considered by the subcommittee to be reasonably easy and practical and can be implemented immediately by the end users; others are considered to be “best practice” approaches, which may require significant effort, additional tools, and proper training to implement. The eventual standardization of the requirements of QA procedures for CAD will have to be determined through consensus from members of the CAD community, and user training may require support of professional societies. It is expected that high-quality CAD and proper use of CAD could allow these systems to achieve their true potential, thus benefiting both the patients and the clinicians, and may bring about more widespread clinical use of CAD for many other diseases and applications. It is hoped that the awareness of the

  6. Evaluation of a Computer-aided Lung Auscultation System for Diagnosis of Bovine Respiratory Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Mang, A V; Buczinski, S; Booker, C W; Timsit, E

    2015-01-01

    A computer-aided lung auscultation (CALA) system was recently developed to diagnose bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlot cattle. To determine, in a case-control study, the level of agreement between CALA and veterinary lung auscultation and to evaluate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of CALA to diagnose BRD in feedlot cattle. A total of 561 Angus cross-steers (initial body weight = 246 ± 45 kg) were observed during the first 50 day after entry to a feedlot. Case-control study. Steers with visual signs of BRD identified by pen checkers were examined by a veterinarian, including lung auscultation using a conventional stethoscope and CALA that produced a lung score from 1 (normal) to 5 (chronic). For each steer examined for BRD, 1 apparently healthy steer was selected as control and similarly examined. Agreement between CALA and veterinary auscultation was assessed by kappa statistic. CALA's Se and Sp were estimated using Bayesian latent class analysis. Of the 561 steers, 35 were identified with visual signs of BRD and 35 were selected as controls. Comparison of veterinary auscultation and CALA (using a CALA score ≥2 as a cut off) revealed a substantial agreement (kappa = 0.77). Using latent class analysis, CALA had a relatively high Se (92.9%; 95% credible interval [CI] = 0.71-0.99) and Sp (89.6%; 95% CI = 0.64-0.99) for diagnosing BRD compared with pen checking. CALA had good diagnostic accuracy (albeit with a relatively wide CI). Its use in feedlots could increase the proportion of cattle accurately diagnosed with BRD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. NEXUS/NASCAD- NASA ENGINEERING EXTENDIBLE UNIFIED SOFTWARE SYSTEM WITH NASA COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L. R.

    1994-01-01

    NEXUS, the NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is a research set of computer programs designed to support the full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. This sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. NEXUS primarily addresses the process of prototype engineering, the task of getting a single or small number of copies of a product to work. Prototype engineering is a critical element of large scale industrial production. The time and cost needed to introduce a new product are heavily dependent on two factors: 1) how efficiently required product prototypes can be developed, and 2) how efficiently required production facilities, also a prototype engineering development, can be completed. NEXUS extendibility and unification are achieved by organizing the system as an arbitrarily large set of computer programs accessed in a common manner through a standard user interface. The NEXUS interface is a multipurpose interactive graphics interface called NASCAD (NASA Computer Aided Design). NASCAD can be used to build and display two and three-dimensional geometries, to annotate models with dimension lines, text strings, etc., and to store and retrieve design related information such as names, masses, and power requirements of components used in the design. From the user's standpoint, NASCAD allows the construction, viewing, modification, and other processing of data structures that represent the design. Four basic types of data structures are supported by NASCAD: 1) three-dimensional geometric models of the object being designed, 2) alphanumeric arrays to hold data ranging from numeric scalars to multidimensional arrays of numbers or characters, 3) tabular data sets that provide a relational data base capability, and 4) procedure definitions to combine groups of system commands or other user procedures to create more powerful functions. NASCAD has extensive abilities to

  8. Bridging the integration gap between imaging and information systems: a uniform data concept for content-based image retrieval in computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Welter, Petra; Riesmeier, Jörg; Fischer, Benedikt; Grouls, Christoph; Kuhl, Christiane; Deserno, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that content-based image retrieval (CBIR) can be extremely useful for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). However, CBIR has not been established in clinical practice yet. As a widely unattended gap of integration, a unified data concept for CBIR-based CAD results and reporting is lacking. Picture archiving and communication systems and the workflow of radiologists must be considered for successful data integration to be achieved. We suggest that CBIR systems applied to CAD should integrate their results in a picture archiving and communication systems environment such as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) structured reporting documents. A sample DICOM structured reporting template adaptable to CBIR and an appropriate integration scheme is presented. The proposed CBIR data concept may foster the promulgation of CBIR systems in clinical environments and, thereby, improve the diagnostic process.

  9. A hybrid fuzzy-neural system for computer-aided diagnosis of ultrasound kidney images using prominent features.

    PubMed

    Bommanna Raja, K; Madheswaran, M; Thyagarajah, K

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and implement a computer-aided decision support system for an automated diagnosis and classification of ultrasound kidney images. The proposed method distinguishes three kidney categories namely normal, medical renal diseases and cortical cyst. For the each pre-processed ultrasound kidney image, 36 features are extracted. Two types of decision support systems, optimized multi-layer back propagation network and hybrid fuzzy-neural system have been developed with these features for classifying the kidney categories. The performance of the hybrid fuzzy-neural system is compared with the optimized multi-layer back propagation network in terms of classification efficiency, training and testing time. The results obtained show that fuzzy-neural system provides higher classification efficiency with minimum training and testing time. It has also been found that instead of using all 36 features, ranking the features enhance classification efficiency. The outputs of the decision support systems are validated with medical expert to measure the actual efficiency. The overall discriminating capability of the systems is accessed with performance evaluation measure, f-score. It has been observed that the performance of fuzzy-neural system is superior compared to optimized multi-layer back propagation network. Such hybrid fuzzy-neural system with feature extraction algorithms and pre-processing scheme helps in developing computer-aided diagnosis system for ultrasound kidney images and can be used as a secondary observer in clinical decision making.

  10. An overview of the computer aided definition system for design definition at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore FY91 update

    SciTech Connect

    Koopmann, B.E.

    1991-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, is continuing to process the upgrading and enhancing its Computer Aided Definition System to incorporate new hardware capabilities and software functionality to meet our design definition mission. The original report, published in August 1988, detailed the current configuration and design concepts. Although many of the concepts are still valid, several new hardware capabilities are now available and significant software advances have been made since that report was published. This report describes the updated system configuration and revised concepts for the early 1990`s.

  11. An overview of the computer aided definition system for design definition at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore FY91 update

    SciTech Connect

    Koopmann, B.E.

    1991-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, is continuing to process the upgrading and enhancing its Computer Aided Definition System to incorporate new hardware capabilities and software functionality to meet our design definition mission. The original report, published in August 1988, detailed the current configuration and design concepts. Although many of the concepts are still valid, several new hardware capabilities are now available and significant software advances have been made since that report was published. This report describes the updated system configuration and revised concepts for the early 1990's.

  12. A computer-aided tracking and motion analysis with ultrasound (CAT & MAUS) system for the description of hip joint kinematics.

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Mellon, Stephen; Monk, Paul; Murray, David; Noble, J Alison

    2016-11-01

    Investigation of joint kinematics contributes to developing a better understanding of musculoskeletal conditions. However, the most commonly used optoelectronic motion analysis systems cannot determine the movements of underlying bone landmarks with high accuracy because of soft tissue artefacts. The aim of this paper was to present a computer-aided measurement system to track the underlying bone anatomy in a 3D global coordinate frame and describe hip joint kinematics of ten healthy volunteers during gait. We have developed a measurement tool with an image-based computer-aided post-processing pipeline for automatic bone segmentation in ultrasound (US) images and a globally optimal 3D surface-to-surface registration method to quantify hip joint movements. The segmentation algorithm exploits US intensity profiles, including information about the integrated backscattering, acoustic shadows, and local phase features. A global optimization method is applied based on the traditional iterative closest point registration algorithm, which is robust to initialization. The International Society of Biomechanics recommended joint kinematics descriptor has been adapted to calculate the joint kinematics. The developed system prototype has been validated with a ball-joint femoral phantom and tested in vivo with 10 volunteers. The maximum Euclidean distance error of the automatic bone segmentation is less than 2 pixels (approximately 0.2 mm). The maximum absolute rotation angle error is less than [Formula: see text]. This computer-aided tracking and motion analysis with ultrasound (CAT & MAUS) system shows the feasibility of describing hip joint kinematics for clinical investigation and diagnosis using an image-based solution.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of computer-aided detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in chest radiographs: a validation study from sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Breuninger, Marianne; van Ginneken, Bram; Philipsen, Rick H H M; Mhimbira, Francis; Hella, Jerry J; Lwilla, Fred; van den Hombergh, Jan; Ross, Amanda; Jugheli, Levan; Wagner, Dirk; Reither, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Chest radiography to diagnose and screen for pulmonary tuberculosis has limitations, especially due to inter-reader variability. Automating the interpretation has the potential to overcome this drawback and to deliver objective and reproducible results. The CAD4TB software is a computer-aided detection system that has shown promising preliminary findings. Evaluation studies in different settings are needed to assess diagnostic accuracy and practicability of use. CAD4TB was evaluated on chest radiographs of patients with symptoms suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis enrolled in two cohort studies in Tanzania. All patients were characterized by sputum smear microscopy and culture including subsequent antigen or molecular confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) to determine the reference standard. Chest radiographs were read by the software and two human readers, one expert reader and one clinical officer. The sensitivity and specificity of CAD4TB was depicted using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the area under the curve calculated and the performance of the software compared to the results of human readers. Of 861 study participants, 194 (23%) were culture-positive for M.tb. The area under the ROC curve of CAD4TB for the detection of culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was 0.84 (95% CI 0.80-0.88). CAD4TB was significantly more accurate for the discrimination of smear-positive cases against non TB patients than for smear-negative cases (p-value<0.01). It differentiated better between TB cases and non TB patients among HIV-negative compared to HIV-positive individuals (p<0.01). CAD4TB significantly outperformed the clinical officer, but did not reach the accuracy of the expert reader (p = 0.02), for a tuberculosis specific reading threshold. CAD4TB accurately distinguished between the chest radiographs of culture-positive TB cases and controls. Further studies on cost-effectiveness, operational and ethical aspects should determine its

  14. A Short Review of Chemical Reaction Database Systems, Computer-Aided Synthesis Design, Reaction Prediction and Synthetic Feasibility.

    PubMed

    Warr, Wendy A

    2014-06-01

    This article is the text for a pedagogical lecture to be given at the Strasbourg Summer School in Chemoinformatics in June 2104. It covers a very wide range of reaction topics including structure and reaction representation, reaction centers, atom-to-atom mapping, reaction retrieval systems, computer-aided synthesis design, retrosynthesis, reaction prediction and synthetic feasibility. In the time available the coverage of each topic can only be cursory; the main usefulness of this article to the research community is the extensive bibliography. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. NEXUS/NASCAD- NASA ENGINEERING EXTENDIBLE UNIFIED SOFTWARE SYSTEM WITH NASA COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L. R.

    1994-01-01

    NEXUS, the NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is a research set of computer programs designed to support the full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. This sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. NEXUS primarily addresses the process of prototype engineering, the task of getting a single or small number of copies of a product to work. Prototype engineering is a critical element of large scale industrial production. The time and cost needed to introduce a new product are heavily dependent on two factors: 1) how efficiently required product prototypes can be developed, and 2) how efficiently required production facilities, also a prototype engineering development, can be completed. NEXUS extendibility and unification are achieved by organizing the system as an arbitrarily large set of computer programs accessed in a common manner through a standard user interface. The NEXUS interface is a multipurpose interactive graphics interface called NASCAD (NASA Computer Aided Design). NASCAD can be used to build and display two and three-dimensional geometries, to annotate models with dimension lines, text strings, etc., and to store and retrieve design related information such as names, masses, and power requirements of components used in the design. From the user's standpoint, NASCAD allows the construction, viewing, modification, and other processing of data structures that represent the design. Four basic types of data structures are supported by NASCAD: 1) three-dimensional geometric models of the object being designed, 2) alphanumeric arrays to hold data ranging from numeric scalars to multidimensional arrays of numbers or characters, 3) tabular data sets that provide a relational data base capability, and 4) procedure definitions to combine groups of system commands or other user procedures to create more powerful functions. NASCAD has extensive abilities to

  16. NEXUS/NASCAD- NASA ENGINEERING EXTENDIBLE UNIFIED SOFTWARE SYSTEM WITH NASA COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L. R.

    1994-01-01

    NEXUS, the NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is a research set of computer programs designed to support the full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. This sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. NEXUS primarily addresses the process of prototype engineering, the task of getting a single or small number of copies of a product to work. Prototype engineering is a critical element of large scale industrial production. The time and cost needed to introduce a new product are heavily dependent on two factors: 1) how efficiently required product prototypes can be developed, and 2) how efficiently required production facilities, also a prototype engineering development, can be completed. NEXUS extendibility and unification are achieved by organizing the system as an arbitrarily large set of computer programs accessed in a common manner through a standard user interface. The NEXUS interface is a multipurpose interactive graphics interface called NASCAD (NASA Computer Aided Design). NASCAD can be used to build and display two and three-dimensional geometries, to annotate models with dimension lines, text strings, etc., and to store and retrieve design related information such as names, masses, and power requirements of components used in the design. From the user's standpoint, NASCAD allows the construction, viewing, modification, and other processing of data structures that represent the design. Four basic types of data structures are supported by NASCAD: 1) three-dimensional geometric models of the object being designed, 2) alphanumeric arrays to hold data ranging from numeric scalars to multidimensional arrays of numbers or characters, 3) tabular data sets that provide a relational data base capability, and 4) procedure definitions to combine groups of system commands or other user procedures to create more powerful functions. NASCAD has extensive abilities to

  17. Diagnostic spectroscopic and computer-aided evaluation of malignancy from UV/VIS spectra of clear pleural effusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevtić, Dubravka R.; Avramov Ivić, Milka L.; Reljin, Irini S.; Reljin, Branimir D.; Plavec, Goran I.; Petrović, Slobodan D.; Mijin, Dušan Ž.

    2014-06-01

    The automated, computer-aided method for differentiation and classification of malignant (M) from benign (B) cases, by analyzing the UV/VIS spectra of pleural effusions is described. It was shown that by two independent objective features, the maximum of Katz fractal dimension (KFDmax) and the area under normalized UV/VIS absorbance curve (Area), highly reliable M-B classification is possible. In the Area-KFDmax space M and B samples are linearly separable permitting thus the use of linear support vector machine as a classification tool. By analyzing 104 samples of UV/VIS spectra of pleural effusions (88 M and 16 B) collected from patients at the Clinic for Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis, Military Medical Academy in Belgrade, the accuracy of 95.45% for M cases and 100% for B cases are obtained by using the proposed method. It was shown that by applying some modifications, which are suggested in the paper, the accuracy of 100% for M cases can be reached.

  18. Computer-aided manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, E. J.

    1981-11-01

    The present status and near term applications of computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is discussed. Introduction of CAM is projected to speed medium range production, for products which are batch processed, and to help ease the shortage of skilled machinists. Primary technical problems are to increase the versatility of the systems, to automate maintenance, and to automate machine component assembly. The state of the art in flexible machining systems is reviewed and flow charts are provided for interfaces between the master control, the direct numerical control, and data entry units, to allow communication between the operator and the central minicomputer. A fully automated factory is expected to be built in the mid-1980's, and the development of a metamorphic machine, consisting of a number of modules that can assemble themselves on command into a variety of machine tools, in Japan is noted.

  19. Prostate focal peripheral zone lesions: characterization at multiparametric MR imaging--influence of a computer-aided diagnosis system.

    PubMed

    Niaf, Emilie; Lartizien, Carole; Bratan, Flavie; Roche, Laurent; Rabilloud, Muriel; Mège-Lechevallier, Florence; Rouvière, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    To assess the impact of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system in the characterization of focal prostate lesions at multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Formal institutional review board approval was not required. Thirty consecutive 1.5-T multiparametric MR imaging studies (with T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast material-enhanced imaging) obtained before radical prostatectomy in patients between September 2008 and February 2010 were reviewed. Twelve readers assessed the likelihood of malignancy of 88 predefined peripheral zone lesions by using a five-level (level, 0-4) subjective score (SS) in reading session 1. This was repeated 5 weeks later in reading session 2. The CAD results were then disclosed, and in reading session 3, the readers could amend the scores assigned during reading session 2. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) regression model and was quantified with the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Mean AUCs were significantly lower for less experienced (<1 year) readers (P < .02 for all sessions). Seven readers improved their performance between reading sessions 1 and 2, and 12 readers improved their performance between sessions 2 and 3. The mean AUCs for reading session 1 (83.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 77.9%, 88.0%) and reading session 2 (84.1%; 95% CI: 78.1%, 88.7%) were not significantly different (P = .76). Although the mean AUC for reading session 3 (87.2%; 95% CI: 81.0%, 92.0%) was higher than that for session 2, the difference was not significant (P = .08). For an SS positivity threshold of 3, the specificity of reading session 2 (79.0%; 95% CI: 71.1%, 86.4%) was not significantly different from that of session 1 (78.7%; 95% CI: 70.5%, 86.8%) but was significantly lower than that of session 3 (86.2%; 95% CI: 77.1%, 93.1%; P < .03). The sensitivity of reading session 2 (68.4%; 95% CI: 57.5%, 77.7%) was significantly higher than that of session 1 (64.0%; 95% CI: 52

  20. Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, S. J.; Stiffler, J. J.; Bryant, L. A.; Petersen, P. L.

    1986-01-01

    CARE III (Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation, Third Generation) helps estimate reliability of complex, redundant, fault-tolerant systems. Program specifically designed for evaluation of fault-tolerant avionics systems. However, CARE III general enough for use in evaluation of other systems as well.

  1. Robust computer-aided synthesis and optimization of linear multivariable control systems with varying plant dynamics via AUTOCON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefkowitz, C. P.; Tekawy, J. A.; Pujara, P. K.; Safonov, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    AUTOCON is an automated computer-aided design tool for the synthesis and optimization of linear multivariable control systems based upon user-defined control parameter optimization. Violations in stability and performance requirements are computed from constraints on Single Input/Single Output (SISO) open- and closed-loop transfer function frequency responses, and from constraints on the singular-value frequency responses of Multiple Input/Multiple Output (MIMO) transfer functions, for all critical plant variations. Optimum nonlinear programming algorithms are used in the search for local constrained solutions in which violations in stability and performance are caused either to vanish or be minimized for a proper selection of the control parameters. Classical control system stability and performance design can, in this way, be combined with modern multivariable robustness methods to offer general frequency response loop-shaping via a computer-aided design tool. Complete Nichols, Nyquist, Bode, singular-value Bode magnitude and transient response plots are produced, including user-defined boundary responses. AUTOCON is used to synthesize and optimize the lateral/directional flight control system for a typical high-performance aircraft.

  2. Assessing the performance of four different categories of histological criteria in brain tumours grading by means of a computer-aided diagnosis image analysis system.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulos, S; Konstandinou, C; Sidiropoulos, K; Ravazoula, P; Kalatzis, I; Asvestas, P; Cavouras, D; Glotsos, D

    2015-10-01

    Brain tumours are considered one of the most lethal and difficult to treat forms of cancer, with unknown aetiology and lack of any realistic screening. In this study, we examine, whether the combination of descriptive criteria, used by expert histopathologists in assessing histologic tissue samples, and quantitative image analysis features may improve the diagnostic accuracy of brain tumour grading. Data comprised 61 cases of brain cancers (astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, meningiomas) collected from the archives of the University Hospital of Patras, Greece. Incorporating physician's descriptive criteria and image analysis's quantitative features into a discriminant function, a computer-aided diagnosis system was designed for discriminating low-grade from high-grade brain tumours. Physician's descriptive features, when solely used in the system, proved of high discrimination accuracy (93.4%). When verbal descriptive features were combined with quantitative image analysis features in the system, discrimination accuracy improved to 98.4%. The generalization of the proposed system to unseen data converged to an overall prediction accuracy of 86.7% ± 5.4%. Considering that histological grading affects treatment selection and diagnostic errors may be notable in clinical practice, the utilization of the proposed system may safeguard against diagnostic misinterpretations in every day clinical practice. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  3. Computer Aided Drafting. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Michael A.

    This guide is intended for use in introducing students to the operation and applications of computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons: understanding CAD (CAD versus traditional manual drafting and care of software and hardware); using the components of a CAD system (primary and other input…

  4. The adult literacy evaluator: An intelligent computer-aided training system for diagnosing adult illiterates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaden, David B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An important part of NASA's mission involves the secondary application of its technologies in the public and private sectors. One current application being developed is The Adult Literacy Evaluator, a simulation-based diagnostic tool designed to assess the operant literacy abilities of adults having difficulties in learning to read and write. Using ICAT system technology in addition to speech recognition, closed-captioned television (CCTV), live video and other state-of-the art graphics and storage capabilities, this project attempts to overcome the negative effects of adult literacy assessment by allowing the client to interact with an intelligent computer system which simulates real-life literacy activities and materials and which measures literacy performance in the actual context of its use. The specific objectives of the project are as follows: (1) To develop a simulation-based diagnostic tool to assess adults' prior knowledge about reading and writing processes in actual contexts of application; (2) to provide a profile of readers' strengths and weaknesses; and (3) to suggest instructional strategies and materials which can be used as a beginning point for remediation. In the first and developmental phase of the project, descriptions of literacy events and environments are being written and functional literacy documents analyzed for their components. Examples of literacy events and situations being considered included interactions with environmental print (e.g., billboards, street signs, commercial marquees, storefront logos, etc.), functional literacy materials (e.g., newspapers, magazines, telephone books, bills, receipts, etc.) and employment related communication (i.e., job descriptions, application forms, technical manuals, memorandums, newsletters, etc.). Each of these situations and materials is being analyzed for its literacy requirements in terms of written display (i.e., knowledge of printed forms and conventions), meaning demands (i

  5. A computer-aided audit system for respiratory therapy consult evaluations: description of a method and early results.

    PubMed

    Kester, Lucy; Stoller, James K

    2013-05-01

    Use of respiratory therapist (RT)-guided protocols enhances allocation of respiratory care. In the context that optimal protocol use requires a system for auditing respiratory care plans to assure adherence to protocols and expertise of the RTs generating the care plan, a live audit system has been in longstanding use in our Respiratory Therapy Consult Service. Growth in the number of RT positions and the need to audit more frequently has prompted development of a new, computer-aided audit system. The number and results of audits using the old and new systems were compared (for the periods May 30, 2009 through May 30, 2011 and January 1, 2012 through May 30, 2012, respectively). In contrast to the original, live system requiring a patient visit by the auditor, the new system involves completion of a respiratory therapy care plan using patient information in the electronic medical record, both by the RT generating the care plan and the auditor. Completing audits in the new system also uses an electronic respiratory therapy management system. The degrees of concordance between the audited RT's care plans and the "gold standard" care plans using the old and new audit systems were similar. Use of the new system was associated with an almost doubling of the rate of audits (ie, 11 per month vs 6.1 per month). The new, computer-aided audit system increased capacity to audit more RTs performing RT-guided consults while preserving accuracy as an audit tool. Ensuring that RTs adhere to the audit process remains the challenge for the new system, and is the rate-limiting step.

  6. Two adults with multiple disabilities use a computer-aided telephone system to make phone calls independently.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; O'Reilly, Mark F; Singh, Nirbhay N; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Alberti, Gloria; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a newly developed computer-aided telephone system with two participants (adults) who presented with blindness or severe visual impairment and motor or motor and intellectual disabilities. For each participant, the study was carried out according to an ABAB design, in which the A represented baseline phases and the B represented intervention phases, during which the special telephone system was available. The system involved among others a net-book computer provided with specific software, a global system for mobile communication modem, and a microswitch. Both participants learned to use the system very rapidly and managed to make phone calls independently to a variety of partners such as family members, friends and staff personnel. The results were discussed in terms of the technology under investigation (its advantages, drawbacks, and need of improvement) and the social-communication impact it can make for persons with multiple disabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Issues in Expanding the Software Base Management System Supporting the Computer Aided Prototyping System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    and deficient in their stated requirements. The problem involves not only the high cost of software development, but also in the poor quality of...to improving software development productivity and quality [Ref. 4]. It also has the most potential in the short term to show tangible benefits in a...real-time embedded systems [Ref. 5]. This system differs in its approach from most other prototyping systems in its approach to software generation from

  8. Computer-aided x-ray imaging system design and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ciarcia, C.A.; Rupp, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    The use of x-ray imaging techniques, or radiography, as a diagnostic tool for scientific, industrial, and medical applications has increased appreciably in recent years. This increase is the result of new materials and state-of-the-art engineering techniques that have improved x-ray source design, shielding, and recording media. Radiography is now being used in many new applications where conventional optical photography traditionally has been limited or inappropriate. This new flexibility in x-ray imaging techniques has led to a broad latitude in the choice of radiographic system design that can be controlled to meet specific application needs. In many ways this design versatility is similar to that encountered when creating a specialized optical imaging system. Here image resolution and quality are optimized by undertaking analyses of geometrical parameters, ray-trace information, modulation transfer functions (MTFs), resolution grids, and image display or recording media, etc. This very flexibility in design, however, implies combining multiple components to create a complex system that contains many degrees of freedom. For conventional optical system design, this inherent complexity is overcome by using one of the computer design codes (for example, CODEV by Optical Research Associates). For the similar radiographic imaging problem, this paper discusses the x-ray image computer design code XRAD, which uses these same analysis techniques to optimize and predict the two-dimensional x-ray image of a three-dimensional object. 5 refs

  9. Neural network vector quantization improves the diagnostic quality of computer-aided diagnosis in dynamic breast MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismüller, Axel; Meyer-Baese, Anke; Leinsinger, Gerda L.; Lange, Oliver; Schlossbauer, Thomas; Reiser, Maximilian F.

    2007-03-01

    We quantitatively evaluate a novel neural network pattern recognition approach for characterization of diagnostically challenging breast lesions in contrast-enhanced dynamic breast MRI. Eighty-two women with 84 indeterminate mammographic lesions (BIRADS III-IV, 38/46 benign/malignant lesions confirmed by histopathology and follow-up, median lesion diameter 12mm) were examined by dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. The temporal signal dynamics results in an intensity time-series for each voxel represented by a 6-dimensional feature vector. These vectors were clustered by minimal-free-energy Vector Quantization (VQ), which identifies groups of pixels with similar enhancement kinetics as prototypical time-series, so-called codebook vectors. For comparison, conventional analysis based on lesion-specific averaged signal-intensity time-courses was performed according to a standardized semi-quantitative evaluation score. For quantitative assessment of diagnostic accuracy, areas under ROC curves (AUC) were computed for both VQ and standard classification methods. VQ increased the diagnostic accuracy for classification between benign and malignant lesions, as confirmed by quantitative ROC analysis: VQ results (AUC=0.760) clearly outperformed the conventional evaluation of lesion-specific averaged time-series (AUC=0.693). Thus, the diagnostic benefit of neural network VQ for MR mammography analysis is quantitatively documented by ROC evaluation in a large data base of diagnostically challenging small focal breast lesions. VQ outperforms the conventional method w.r.t. diagnostic accuracy.

  10. A web-based computer aided system for liver surgery planning: initial implementation on RayPlus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming; Yuan, Rong; Sun, Zhi; Li, Tianhong; Xie, Qingguo

    2016-03-01

    At present, computer aided systems for liver surgery design and risk evaluation are widely used in clinical all over the world. However, most systems are local applications that run on high-performance workstations, and the images have to processed offline. Compared with local applications, a web-based system is accessible anywhere and for a range of regardless of relative processing power or operating system. RayPlus (http://rayplus.life.hust.edu.cn), a B/S platform for medical image processing, was developed to give a jump start on web-based medical image processing. In this paper, we implement a computer aided system for liver surgery planning on the architecture of RayPlus. The system consists of a series of processing to CT images including filtering, segmentation, visualization and analyzing. Each processing is packaged into an executable program and runs on the server side. CT images in DICOM format are processed step by to interactive modeling on browser with zero-installation and server-side computing. The system supports users to semi-automatically segment the liver, intrahepatic vessel and tumor from the pre-processed images. Then, surface and volume models are built to analyze the vessel structure and the relative position between adjacent organs. The results show that the initial implementation meets satisfactorily its first-order objectives and provide an accurate 3D delineation of the liver anatomy. Vessel labeling and resection simulation are planned to add in the future. The system is available on Internet at the link mentioned above and an open username for testing is offered.

  11. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  12. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  13. Computer aided engineering analysis of automotive bumpers

    SciTech Connect

    Glance, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a description of a general purpose, computer-aided engineering design methodology which has been employed in the design of automotive bumper systems. A comparison of computer-aided analysis predictions with actual test data is presented. Two case histories of bumper system designs are discussed.

  14. Intelligent computer aided training systems in the real world: Making the technology accessible to the educational mainstream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent computer aided training systems hold great promise for the application of this technology to mainstream education and training. Yet, this technology, which holds such a vast potential impact for the future of education and training, has had little impact beyond the enclaves of government research labs. This is largely due to the inaccessibility of the technology to those individuals in whose hands it can have the greatest impact, teachers and educators. Simply throwing technology at an educator and expecting them to use it as an effective tool is not the answer. This paper provides a background into the use of technology as a training tool. MindLink, developed by HyperTech Systems, provides trainers with a powerful rule-based tool that can be integrated directly into a Windows application. By embedding expert systems technology it becomes more accessible and easier to master.

  15. The integration of automated knowledge acquisition with computer-aided software engineering for space shuttle expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modesitt, Kenneth L.

    1990-01-01

    A prediction was made that the terms expert systems and knowledge acquisition would begin to disappear over the next several years. This is not because they are falling into disuse; it is rather that practitioners are realizing that they are valuable adjuncts to software engineering, in terms of problem domains addressed, user acceptance, and in development methodologies. A specific problem was discussed, that of constructing an automated test analysis system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine. In this domain, knowledge acquisition was part of requirements systems analysis, and was performed with the aid of a powerful inductive ESBT in conjunction with a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. The original prediction is not a very risky one -- it has already been accomplished.

  16. CASE/A - COMPUTER AIDED SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND ANALYSIS, ECLSS/ATCS SERIES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacskay, A.

    1994-01-01

    Design and analysis of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) for spacecraft missions requires powerful software that is flexible and responsive to the demands of particular projects. CASE/A is an interactive trade study and analysis tool designed to increase productivity during all phases of systems engineering. The graphics-based command-driven package provides a user-friendly environment in which the engineer can analyze the performance and interface characteristics of an ECLS/ATC system. The package is useful during all phases of a spacecraft design program, from initial conceptual design trade studies to the actual flight, including pre-flight prediction and in-flight anomaly analysis. The CASE/A program consists of three fundamental parts: 1) the schematic management system, 2) the database management system, and 3) the simulation control and execution system. The schematic management system allows the user to graphically construct a system model by arranging icons representing system components and connecting the components with physical fluid streams. Version 4.1 contains 51 fully coded and documented default component routines. New components can be added by the user through the "blackbox" component option. The database management system supports the storage and manipulation of component data, output data, and solution control data through interactive edit screens. The simulation control and execution system initiates and controls the iterative solution process, displaying time status and any necessary diagnostic messages. In addition to these primary functions, the program provides three other important functional areas: 1) model output management, 2) system utility commands, and 3) user operations logic capacity. The model output management system provides tabular and graphical output capability. Complete fluid constituent mass fraction and properties data (mass flow, pressure, temperature

  17. CASE/A - COMPUTER AIDED SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND ANALYSIS, ECLSS/ATCS SERIES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacskay, A.

    1994-01-01

    Design and analysis of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) for spacecraft missions requires powerful software that is flexible and responsive to the demands of particular projects. CASE/A is an interactive trade study and analysis tool designed to increase productivity during all phases of systems engineering. The graphics-based command-driven package provides a user-friendly environment in which the engineer can analyze the performance and interface characteristics of an ECLS/ATC system. The package is useful during all phases of a spacecraft design program, from initial conceptual design trade studies to the actual flight, including pre-flight prediction and in-flight anomaly analysis. The CASE/A program consists of three fundamental parts: 1) the schematic management system, 2) the database management system, and 3) the simulation control and execution system. The schematic management system allows the user to graphically construct a system model by arranging icons representing system components and connecting the components with physical fluid streams. Version 4.1 contains 51 fully coded and documented default component routines. New components can be added by the user through the "blackbox" component option. The database management system supports the storage and manipulation of component data, output data, and solution control data through interactive edit screens. The simulation control and execution system initiates and controls the iterative solution process, displaying time status and any necessary diagnostic messages. In addition to these primary functions, the program provides three other important functional areas: 1) model output management, 2) system utility commands, and 3) user operations logic capacity. The model output management system provides tabular and graphical output capability. Complete fluid constituent mass fraction and properties data (mass flow, pressure, temperature

  18. CASE/A - COMPUTER AIDED SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND ANALYSIS, ECLSS/ATCS SERIES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacskay, A.

    1994-01-01

    Design and analysis of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) for spacecraft missions requires powerful software that is flexible and responsive to the demands of particular projects. CASE/A is an interactive trade study and analysis tool designed to increase productivity during all phases of systems engineering. The graphics-based command-driven package provides a user-friendly environment in which the engineer can analyze the performance and interface characteristics of an ECLS/ATC system. The package is useful during all phases of a spacecraft design program, from initial conceptual design trade studies to the actual flight, including pre-flight prediction and in-flight anomaly analysis. The CASE/A program consists of three fundamental parts: 1) the schematic management system, 2) the database management system, and 3) the simulation control and execution system. The schematic management system allows the user to graphically construct a system model by arranging icons representing system components and connecting the components with physical fluid streams. Version 4.1 contains 51 fully coded and documented default component routines. New components can be added by the user through the "blackbox" component option. The database management system supports the storage and manipulation of component data, output data, and solution control data through interactive edit screens. The simulation control and execution system initiates and controls the iterative solution process, displaying time status and any necessary diagnostic messages. In addition to these primary functions, the program provides three other important functional areas: 1) model output management, 2) system utility commands, and 3) user operations logic capacity. The model output management system provides tabular and graphical output capability. Complete fluid constituent mass fraction and properties data (mass flow, pressure, temperature

  19. Computer aided reliability, availability, and safety modeling for fault-tolerant computer systems with commentary on the HARP program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shooman, Martin L.

    1991-01-01

    Many of the most challenging reliability problems of our present decade involve complex distributed systems such as interconnected telephone switching computers, air traffic control centers, aircraft and space vehicles, and local area and wide area computer networks. In addition to the challenge of complexity, modern fault-tolerant computer systems require very high levels of reliability, e.g., avionic computers with MTTF goals of one billion hours. Most analysts find that it is too difficult to model such complex systems without computer aided design programs. In response to this need, NASA has developed a suite of computer aided reliability modeling programs beginning with CARE 3 and including a group of new programs such as: HARP, HARP-PC, Reliability Analysts Workbench (Combination of model solvers SURE, STEM, PAWS, and common front-end model ASSIST), and the Fault Tree Compiler. The HARP program is studied and how well the user can model systems using this program is investigated. One of the important objectives will be to study how user friendly this program is, e.g., how easy it is to model the system, provide the input information, and interpret the results. The experiences of the author and his graduate students who used HARP in two graduate courses are described. Some brief comparisons were made with the ARIES program which the students also used. Theoretical studies of the modeling techniques used in HARP are also included. Of course no answer can be any more accurate than the fidelity of the model, thus an Appendix is included which discusses modeling accuracy. A broad viewpoint is taken and all problems which occurred in the use of HARP are discussed. Such problems include: computer system problems, installation manual problems, user manual problems, program inconsistencies, program limitations, confusing notation, long run times, accuracy problems, etc.

  20. Image-based retrieval system and computer-aided diagnosis system for renal cortical scintigraphy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumcuoğlu, Erkan; Nar, Fatih; Uğur, Omer; Bozkurt, M. Fani; Aslan, Mehmet

    2008-03-01

    Cortical renal (kidney) scintigraphy images are 2D images (256x256) acquired in three projection angles (posterior, right-posterior-oblique and left-posterior-oblique). These images are used by nuclear medicine specialists to examine the functional morphology of kidney parenchyma. The main visual features examined in reading the images are: size, location, shape and activity distribution (pixel intensity distribution within the boundary of each kidney). Among the above features, activity distribution (in finding scars if any) was found to have the least interobserver reproducibility. Therefore, in this study, we developed an image-based retrieval (IBR) and a computer-based diagnosis (CAD) system, focused on this feature in particular. The developed IBR and CAD algorithms start with automatic segmentation, boundary and landmark detection. Then, shape and activity distribution features are computed. Activity distribution feature is obtained using the acquired image and image set statistics of the normal patients. Active Shape Model (ASM) technique is used for more accurate kidney segmentation. In the training step of ASM, normal patient images are used. Retrieval performance is evaluated by calculating precision and recall. CAD performance is evaluated by specificity and sensitivity. To our knowledge, this paper is the first IBR or CAD system reported in the literature on renal cortical scintigraphy images.

  1. Evaluation of a stand-alone computer-aided detection system for acute intra-cranial hemorrhage in emergency environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, James; Deshpande, Ruchi; Wang, Ximing; Liu, Brent; Brazaitis, Michael; Munter, Fletcher; Liu, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Acute intra-cranial hemorrhage (AIH) may result from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Successful management of AIH depends heavily on the speed and accuracy of diagnosis. Timely diagnosis in emergency environments in both civilian and military settings is difficult primarily due to severe time restraints and lack of resources. Often, diagnosis is performed by emergency physicians rather than trained radiologists. As a result, added support in the form of computer-aided detection (CAD) would greatly enhance the decision-making process and help in providing faster and more accurate diagnosis of AIH. This paper discusses the implementation of a CAD system in an emergency environment, and its efficacy in aiding in the detection of AIH.

  2. Examining Learning Theory of Online Information Retrieval Systems and Applications in Computer-Aided Instruction: Implications for the Defense Technical Information Center’s Computer-Aided Instruction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    conducted by searching the online databases ERIC and Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA). The following printed indexes were also examined...observed behavior known as learning. Theories are usually tested under controlled observations and under a wide variety of conditions. I0 Learning...computer systems focusing on psychological theory and method. Psychology was defined for Borgman’s review as the study of human *’ behavior --that is, the

  3. Applied, theoretical modeling of space-based assembly, using expert system architecture for computer-aided engineering tool development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Steven Douglas

    1992-01-01

    The challenges associated with constructing interplanetary spacecraft and space platforms in low earth orbit are such that it is imperative that comprehensive, preliminary process planning analyses be completed before committing funds for Phase B design (detail design, development). Phase A and 'pre-Phase A' design activities will commonly address engineering questions such as mission-design structural integrity, attitude control, thermal control, etc. But the questions of constructability, maintainability and reliability during the assembly phase usually go unaddressed until the more mature stages of design (or very often production) are reached. This is an unacceptable strategy for future space missions whether they be government or commercial ventures. After interviews with expert Aerospace and Construction industry planners a new methodology was formulated and a Blackboard Metaphor Knowledge-based Expert System synthesis model has been successfully developed which can decompose interplanetary vehicles into deliverable orbital subassemblies. Constraint propagation, including launch vehicle payload shroud envelope, is accomplished with heuristic and numerical algorithms including a unique adaptation of a reasoning technique used by Stanford researchers in terrestrial automated process planning. The model is a hybrid combination of rule and frame-based representations, designed to integrate into a Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) environment. Emphasis is placed on the actual joining, rendezvous, and refueling of the orbiting, dynamic spacecraft. Significant results of this new methodology upon a large Mars interplanetary spacecraft (736,000 kg) designed by Boeing, show high correlation to manual decomposition and planning analysis studies, but at a fraction of the time, and with little user interaction. Such Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) tools would greatly leverage the designers ability to assess constructability.

  4. Comparisons of Wilson-Fowler and Parametric Cubic Splines with the Curve-Fitting Algorithms of Several Computer-Aided Design Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Birchler, W.D.; Schilling, S.A.

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to demonstrate that modern computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems can be used in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) to design new and remodel old products, fabricate old and new parts, and reproduce legacy data within the inspection uncertainty limits. In this study, two two-dimensional splines are compared with several modern CAD curve-fitting modeling algorithms. The first curve-fitting algorithm is called the Wilson-Fowler Spline (WFS), and the second is called a parametric cubic spline (PCS). Modern CAD systems usually utilize either parametric cubic and/or B-splines.

  5. Feasibility Study of a Generalized Framework for Developing Computer-Aided Detection Systems-a New Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Mitsutaka; Hayashi, Naoto; Hanaoka, Shouhei; Nomura, Yukihiro; Miki, Soichiro; Yoshikawa, Takeharu

    2017-04-12

    We propose a generalized framework for developing computer-aided detection (CADe) systems whose characteristics depend only on those of the training dataset. The purpose of this study is to show the feasibility of the framework. Two different CADe systems were experimentally developed by a prototype of the framework, but with different training datasets. The CADe systems include four components; preprocessing, candidate area extraction, candidate detection, and candidate classification. Four pretrained algorithms with dedicated optimization/setting methods corresponding to the respective components were prepared in advance. The pretrained algorithms were sequentially trained in the order of processing of the components. In this study, two different datasets, brain MRA with cerebral aneurysms and chest CT with lung nodules, were collected to develop two different types of CADe systems in the framework. The performances of the developed CADe systems were evaluated by threefold cross-validation. The CADe systems for detecting cerebral aneurysms in brain MRAs and for detecting lung nodules in chest CTs were successfully developed using the respective datasets. The framework was shown to be feasible by the successful development of the two different types of CADe systems. The feasibility of this framework shows promise for a new paradigm in the development of CADe systems: development of CADe systems without any lesion specific algorithm designing.

  6. High-performance computer aided detection system for polyp detection in CT colonography with fluid and fecal tagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiamin; Wang, Shijun; Kabadi, Suraj; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    CT colonography (CTC) is a feasible and minimally invasive method for the detection of colorectal polyps and cancer screening. Computer-aided detection (CAD) of polyps has improved consistency and sensitivity of virtual colonoscopy interpretation and reduced interpretation burden. A CAD system typically consists of four stages: (1) image preprocessing including colon segmentation; (2) initial detection generation; (3) feature selection; and (4) detection classification. In our experience, three existing problems limit the performance of our current CAD system. First, highdensity orally administered contrast agents in fecal-tagging CTC have scatter effects on neighboring tissues. The scattering manifests itself as an artificial elevation in the observed CT attenuation values of the neighboring tissues. This pseudo-enhancement phenomenon presents a problem for the application of computer-aided polyp detection, especially when polyps are submerged in the contrast agents. Second, general kernel approach for surface curvature computation in the second stage of our CAD system could yield erroneous results for thin structures such as small (6-9 mm) polyps and for touching structures such as polyps that lie on haustral folds. Those erroneous curvatures will reduce the sensitivity of polyp detection. The third problem is that more than 150 features are selected from each polyp candidate in the third stage of our CAD system. These high dimensional features make it difficult to learn a good decision boundary for detection classification and reduce the accuracy of predictions. Therefore, an improved CAD system for polyp detection in CTC data is proposed by introducing three new techniques. First, a scale-based scatter correction algorithm is applied to reduce pseudo-enhancement effects in the image pre-processing stage. Second, a cubic spline interpolation method is utilized to accurately estimate curvatures for initial detection generation. Third, a new dimensionality

  7. Application of knowledge-based systems to electronic computer-aided engineering, design, and manufacturing data base transport

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The proliferation of computer-aided engineering (CAE), design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) systems for electronic design has created an excess of CAE/CAD/CAM database formats. These databases very from one system to the next, and yet they often carry common information, represented in different formats. In spite of this variation, databases must be transported between systems, since electronic design requires the use of features from several CAE/CAD/CAM systems. Commercial offerings that translate between CAE/CAD/CAM formats do not translate all of the data. This is because there is usually some data which is unique to each system and cannot be translated. Most commercial translators disregard this data. This is not satisfactory in all cases, since important data relationships are lost in translation. This dissertation defines a methodology for the transport of databases between independent CAE/CAD/CAM systems. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of this methodology, a prototype system was developed. A nontraditional, expert systems approach was used to solve the problems that have plagued earlier attempts at a data transport method. The prototype was implemented using PROLOG, running under LOCUS/UNIX on a VAX network.

  8. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  9. Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard

    This document contains course outlines in computer-aided manufacturing developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The four units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM); (2) CAM…

  10. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  11. Incorporating texture features in a computer-aided breast lesion diagnosis system for automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haixia; Tan, Tao; van Zelst, Jan; Mann, Ritse; Karssemeijer, Nico; Platel, Bram

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We investigated the benefits of incorporating texture features into an existing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for classifying benign and malignant lesions in automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound images. The existing system takes into account 11 different features, describing different lesion properties; however, it does not include texture features. In this work, we expand the system by including texture features based on local binary patterns, gray level co-occurrence matrices, and Gabor filters computed from each lesion to be diagnosed. To deal with the resulting large number of features, we proposed a combination of feature-oriented classifiers combining each group of texture features into a single likelihood, resulting in three additional features used for the final classification. The classification was performed using support vector machine classifiers, and the evaluation was done with 10-fold cross validation on a dataset containing 424 lesions (239 benign and 185 malignant lesions). We compared the classification performance of the CAD system with and without texture features. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased from 0.90 to 0.91 after adding texture features (p<0.001). PMID:26158036

  12. Evaluation of computer-aided detection of lesions in mammograms obtained with a digital phase-contrast mammography system.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toyohiko; Nitta, Norihisa; Ohta, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Kano, Akiko; Tsuchiya, Keiko; Murakami, Yoko; Kitahara, Sawako; Wakamiya, Makoto; Furukawa, Akira; Takahashi, Masashi; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2009-12-01

    A computer-aided detection (CAD) system was evaluated for its ability to detect microcalcifications and masses on images obtained with a digital phase-contrast mammography (PCM) system, a system characterised by the sharp images provided by phase contrast and by the high resolution of 25-μm-pixel mammograms. Fifty abnormal and 50 normal mammograms were collected from about 3,500 mammograms and printed on film for reading on a light box. Seven qualified radiologists participated in an observer study based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The average of the areas under ROC curve (AUC) values for the ROC analysis with and without CAD were 0.927 and 0.897 respectively (P = 0.015). The AUC values improved from 0.840 to 0.888 for microcalcifications (P = 0.034) and from 0.947 to 0.962 for masses (P = 0.025) respectively. The application of CAD to the PCM system is a promising approach for the detection of breast cancer in its early stages.

  13. BRAIM: A computer-aided diagnosis system for neurodegenerative diseases and brain lesion monitoring from volumetric analyses.

    PubMed

    Morales, Sandra; Bernabeu-Sanz, Angela; López-Mir, Fernando; González, Pablo; Luna, Luis; Naranjo, Valery

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents BRAIM, a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to help clinicians in diagnosing and treatment monitoring of brain diseases from magnetic resonance image processing. BRAIM can be used for early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson, Alzheimer or Multiple Sclerosis and also for brain lesion diagnosis and monitoring. The developed CAD system includes different user-friendly tools for segmenting and determining whole brain and brain structure volumes in an easy and accurate way. Specifically, three types of measurements can be performed: (1) total volume of white, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid; (2) brain structure volumes (volume of putamen, thalamus, hippocampus and caudate nucleus); and (3) brain lesion volumes. As a proof of concept, some study cases were analyzed with the presented system achieving promising results. In addition to be used to quantify treatment effectiveness in patients with brain lesions, it was demonstrated that BRAIM is able to classify a subject according to the brain volume measurements using as reference a healthy control database created for this purpose. The CAD system presented in this paper simplifies the daily work of clinicians and provides them with objective and quantitative volume data for prospective and retrospective analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Incorporating texture features in a computer-aided breast lesion diagnosis system for automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haixia; Tan, Tao; van Zelst, Jan; Mann, Ritse; Karssemeijer, Nico; Platel, Bram

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the benefits of incorporating texture features into an existing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for classifying benign and malignant lesions in automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound images. The existing system takes into account 11 different features, describing different lesion properties; however, it does not include texture features. In this work, we expand the system by including texture features based on local binary patterns, gray level co-occurrence matrices, and Gabor filters computed from each lesion to be diagnosed. To deal with the resulting large number of features, we proposed a combination of feature-oriented classifiers combining each group of texture features into a single likelihood, resulting in three additional features used for the final classification. The classification was performed using support vector machine classifiers, and the evaluation was done with 10-fold cross validation on a dataset containing 424 lesions (239 benign and 185 malignant lesions). We compared the classification performance of the CAD system with and without texture features. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased from 0.90 to 0.91 after adding texture features ([Formula: see text]).

  15. Building a computer-aided design capability using a standard time share operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes how an integrated system of engineering computer programs can be built using a standard commercially available operating system. The discussion opens with an outline of the auxiliary functions that an operating system can perform for a team of engineers involved in a large and complex task. An example of a specific integrated system is provided to explain how the standard operating system features can be used to organize the programs into a simple and inexpensive but effective system. Applications to an aircraft structural design study are discussed to illustrate the use of an integrated system as a flexible and efficient engineering tool. The discussion concludes with an engineer's assessment of an operating system's capabilities and desirable improvements.

  16. Building a computer-aided design capability using a standard time share operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes how an integrated system of engineering computer programs can be built using a standard commercially available operating system. The discussion opens with an outline of the auxiliary functions that an operating system can perform for a team of engineers involved in a large and complex task. An example of a specific integrated system is provided to explain how the standard operating system features can be used to organize the programs into a simple and inexpensive but effective system. Applications to an aircraft structural design study are discussed to illustrate the use of an integrated system as a flexible and efficient engineering tool. The discussion concludes with an engineer's assessment of an operating system's capabilities and desirable improvements.

  17. Version and Variation Control of a Design Database for a computer Aided Prototyping System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-18

    contains four software tools . - the Design Database - the Software Base - the Software Design Management System - the Rewrite Subsystem The system is...met. The CAPS consists of sev- eral software tools that automatically generate an executable Ada model of the proposed system. This thesis describes the...system require- ments can be met. The CAPS consists of several software tools that automatically generate an executable Ada model of the proposed

  18. Design Considerations in Development of Minicomputer-Based Computer Aided Instructional Hardware Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, C. H.

    A minicomputer-based computer-assisted instructional (CAI) system was designed at the University of Texas Medical Branch in an attempt to lower both the excessive hardware costs and the inordinate amount of time required for the preparation of each hour of instructional material associated with traditional CAI systems. A prototype system with an…

  19. Computer-Aided Decisions in Human Services: Expert Systems and Multivariate Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicoly, Fiore

    1989-01-01

    This comparison of two approaches to the development of computerized supports for decision making--expert systems and multivariate models--focuses on computerized systems that assist professionals with tasks related to diagnosis or classification in human services. Validation of both expert systems and statistical models is emphasized. (39…

  20. Development and Evaluation of Computer-Aided Music-Learning System for the Hearing Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, H.-J.; Lay, Y.-L.; Liou, Y.-C.; Tsao, W.-Y.; Lin, C.-K.

    2007-01-01

    A computer-assisted music-learning system (CAMLS) has been developed to help the hearing impaired practice playing a musical melody. The music-learning performance is evaluated to test the usability of the system. This system can be a computer-supported learning tool for the hearing impaired to help them understand what pitch and tempo are, and…

  1. Development and Evaluation of Computer-Aided Music-Learning System for the Hearing Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, H.-J.; Lay, Y.-L.; Liou, Y.-C.; Tsao, W.-Y.; Lin, C.-K.

    2007-01-01

    A computer-assisted music-learning system (CAMLS) has been developed to help the hearing impaired practice playing a musical melody. The music-learning performance is evaluated to test the usability of the system. This system can be a computer-supported learning tool for the hearing impaired to help them understand what pitch and tempo are, and…

  2. Two and three dimensional systems for computer aided geometric design of aircraft surface and components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryeh, F.

    1982-01-01

    Three interactive software systems dealing with the computerized definition, storage and handling of aircraft geometric shapes and entities in a multidisciplinary design environment are presented. The systems are operated in an interactive fashion via use of low cost graphic display terminals driven by a remote computer in a time sharing mode. GEODEF is a system for interactive definition of complex aircraft surfaces, GEOBASE is a system for interrogation and manipulation of a computerized aircraft geometry data base, and DOG is a 3-D detailed structural and mechanical part definition system.

  3. A hybrid feature-based segmentation and classification system for the computer aided self-diagnosis of otitis media.

    PubMed

    Shie, Chuen-Kai; Chang, Hao-Ting; Fan, Fu-Cheng; Chen, Chung-Jung; Fang, Te-Yung; Wang, Pa-Chun

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel hybrid otitis media (OM) computer aided detection (CAD) system, designed to aid in the self-diagnosis of various forms of OM. OM is a prevalent disease in both children and adults. Our system is able to differentiate normal ear from acute otitis media (AOM), otitis media with effusion (OME) and the multi-categories of chronic otitis media including perforation, retraction, cholesteatoma, etc. We propose a modified double active contour segmentation method designed for use with otoscope images, and enabled to handle user acquired data. To describe the visual symptoms (e.g., red, bulging, effusion, perforation, retraction, etc.) of otitis media accurately, we extract color, geometric and texture features by grid color moment, Gabor filter, local binary pattern and histogram of oriented gradients. A powerful classification structure based on Adaboost is used to select the most useful features and build a strong classifier. Our system achieves classification accuracy as high as 88.06% and is suitable for real use. In addition, some interesting observations about OM otoscope images are also discussed.

  4. A computer-aided telephone system to enable five persons with Alzheimer's disease to make phone calls independently.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E; Laporta, Dominga; Paparella, Adele; Caffò, Alessandro O; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-06-01

    This study extended the assessment of a computer-aided telephone system to enable five patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease to make phone calls independently. The patients were divided into two groups and exposed to intervention according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across groups. All patients started with baseline in which the technology was not available, and continued with intervention in which the technology was used. The technology involved a net-book computer provided with specific software, a global system for mobile communication modem (GSM), a microswitch, and lists of partners to call with related photos. All the patients learned to use the system and made phone calls independently to a variety of partners, such as family members, friends, and caregivers. A social validation assessment, in which care and health professionals working with persons with dementia were asked to rate the patients' performance with the technology and with the help of a caregiver, provided generally more positive scores for the technology-assisted performance. The positive implications of the findings for daily programs of patients with Alzheimer's disease are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Independent Component Analysis-Support Vector Machine-Based Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Alzheimer's with Visual Support.

    PubMed

    Khedher, Laila; Illán, Ignacio A; Górriz, Juan M; Ramírez, Javier; Brahim, Abdelbasset; Meyer-Baese, Anke

    2017-05-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems constitute a powerful tool for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but limitations on interpretability and performance exist. In this work, a fully automatic CAD system based on supervised learning methods is proposed to be applied on segmented brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) participants for automatic classification. The proposed CAD system possesses two relevant characteristics: optimal performance and visual support for decision making. The CAD is built in two stages: a first feature extraction based on independent component analysis (ICA) on class mean images and, secondly, a support vector machine (SVM) training and classification. The obtained features for classification offer a full graphical representation of the images, giving an understandable logic in the CAD output, that can increase confidence in the CAD support. The proposed method yields classification results up to 89% of accuracy (with 92% of sensitivity and 86% of specificity) for normal controls (NC) and AD patients, 79% of accuracy (with 82% of sensitivity and 76% of specificity) for NC and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 85% of accuracy (with 85% of sensitivity and 86% of specificity) for MCI and AD patients.

  6. Development of the engineering design integration (EDIN) system: A computer aided design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, C. R.; Hirsch, G. N.

    1977-01-01

    The EDIN (Engineering Design Integration) System which provides a collection of hardware and software, enabling the engineer to perform man-in-the-loop interactive evaluation of aerospace vehicle concepts, was considered. Study efforts were concentrated in the following areas: (1) integration of hardware with the Univac Exec 8 System; (2) development of interactive software for the EDIN System; (3) upgrading of the EDIN technology module library to an interactive status; (4) verification of the soundness of the developing EDIN System; (5) support of NASA in design analysis studies using the EDIN System; (6) provide training and documentation in the use of the EDIN System; and (7) provide an implementation plan for the next phase of development and recommendations for meeting long range objectives.

  7. Computer-aided cluster expansion: An efficient algebraic approach for open quantum many-particle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, A.; Leymann, H. A. M.; Wiersig, J.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce an equation of motion approach that allows for an approximate evaluation of the time evolution of a quantum system, where the algebraic work to derive the equations of motion is done by the computer. The introduced procedures offer a variety of different types of approximations applicable for finite systems with strong coupling as well as for arbitrary large systems where augmented mean-field theories like the cluster expansion can be applied.

  8. The development of computer-aided system for tissue scaffolds (CASTS) system for functionally graded tissue-engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sudarmadji, Novella; Chua, Chee Kai; Leong, Kah Fai

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided system for tissue scaffolds (CASTS) is an in-house parametric library of polyhedral units that can be assembled into customized tissue scaffolds. Thirteen polyhedral configurations are available to select, depending on the biological and mechanical requirements of the target tissue/organ. Input parameters include the individual polyhedral units and overall scaffold block as well as the scaffold strut diameter. Taking advantage of its repeatability and reproducibility, the scaffold file is then converted into .STL file and fabricated using selective laser sintering, a rapid prototyping system. CASTS seeks to fulfill anatomical, biological, and mechanical requirements of the target tissue/organ. Customized anatomical scaffold shape is achieved through a Boolean operation between the scaffold block and the tissue defect image. Biological requirements, such as scaffold pore size and porosity, are unique for different type of cells. Matching mechanical properties, such as stiffness and strength, between the scaffold and target organ is very important, particularly in the regeneration of load-bearing organ, i.e., bone. This includes mimicking the compressive stiffness variation across the bone to prevent stress shielding and ensuring that the scaffold can withstand the load normally borne by the bone. The stiffness variation is tailored by adjusting the scaffold porosity based on the porosity-stiffness relationship of the CASTS scaffolds. Two types of functional gradients based on the gradient direction include radial and axial/linear gradient. Radial gradient is useful in the case of regenerating a section of long bones while the gradient in linear direction can be used in short or irregular bones. Stiffness gradient in the radial direction is achieved by using cylindrical unit cells arranged in a concentric manner, in which the porosity decreases from the center of the structure toward the outside radius, making the scaffold stiffer at the outer radius

  9. Computer-aided operations engineering with integrated models of systems and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Ryan, Dan; Fleming, Land

    1994-01-01

    CONFIG 3 is a prototype software tool that supports integrated conceptual design evaluation from early in the product life cycle, by supporting isolated or integrated modeling, simulation, and analysis of the function, structure, behavior, failures and operation of system designs. Integration and reuse of models is supported in an object-oriented environment providing capabilities for graph analysis and discrete event simulation. Integration is supported among diverse modeling approaches (component view, configuration or flow path view, and procedure view) and diverse simulation and analysis approaches. Support is provided for integrated engineering in diverse design domains, including mechanical and electro-mechanical systems, distributed computer systems, and chemical processing and transport systems. CONFIG supports abstracted qualitative and symbolic modeling, for early conceptual design. System models are component structure models with operating modes, with embedded time-related behavior models. CONFIG supports failure modeling and modeling of state or configuration changes that result in dynamic changes in dependencies among components. Operations and procedure models are activity structure models that interact with system models. CONFIG is designed to support evaluation of system operability, diagnosability and fault tolerance, and analysis of the development of system effects of problems over time, including faults, failures, and procedural or environmental difficulties.

  10. [Development of a computer-aided system for augmentation mammaplasty simulation].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jian; Jun, Feng; Gao, Jian-Hu; Li, Shi-Heng; Cao, Lei

    2007-10-01

    A method for developing a three-dimensional visual system for simulating augmentation mammaplasty based on OpenGL is proposed. The 3D reconstruction of breast surface using NURBS, reality simulation of the breast surface, parametric design of mammary prosthesis, and simulation of postoperative effect are described. The system may provide a means for better communication between the surgeons and patients.

  11. Computer aided design: Buildings and building systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of computer analyses in architectural and engineering studies of buildings and associated building systems. Topics include analyses of structural members under various load conditions, heating and cooling system design, seismic evaluations, and economic factors. Specific software packages are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Earl A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Morris, Macdonald S.; Winkler, James L.

    1997-01-01

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks.

  13. Development of a computer-aided detection system for lung cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Inaoka, Noriko; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Sasaoka, Soichi; Natori, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Akira

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes a modified system for automatic detection of lung nodules by means of chest x ray image processing techniques. The objective of the system is to help radiologists to improve their accuracy in cancer detection. It is known from retrospective studies of chest x- ray images that radiologists fail to detect about 30 percent of lung cancer cases. A computerized method for detecting lung nodules would be very useful for decreasing the proportion of such oversights. Our proposed system consists of five sub-systems, for image input, lung region determination, nodule detection, rule-based false-positive elimination, and statistical false-positive elimination. In an experiment with the modified system, using 30 lung cancer cases and 78 normal control cases, we obtained figures of 73.3 percent and 89.7 percent for the sensitivity and specificity of the system, respectively. The system has been developed to run on the IBM* PS/55* and IBM RISC System/6000* (RS/6000), and we give the processing time for each platform.

  14. Dual system approach to computer-aided detection of breast masses on mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Jun; Chan, H.-P.; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Zhou Chuan; Ge Jun

    2006-11-15

    In this study, our purpose was to improve the performance of our mass detection system by using a new dual system approach which combines a computer-added detection (CAD) system optimized with ''average'' masses with another CAD system optimized with ''subtle'' masses. The two single CAD systems have similar image processing steps, which include prescreening, object segmentation, morphological and texture feature extraction, and false positive (FP) reduction by rule-based and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifiers. A feed-forward backpropagation artificial neural network was trained to merge the scores from the LDA classifiers in the two single CAD systems and differentiate true masses from normal tissue. For an unknown test mammogram, the two single CAD systems are applied to the image in parallel to detect suspicious objects. A total of three data sets were used for training and testing the systems. The first data set of 230 current mammograms, referred to as the average mass set, was collected from 115 patients. We also collected 264 mammograms, referred to as the subtle mass set, which were one to two years prior to the current exam from these patients. Both the average and the subtle mass sets were partitioned into two independent data sets in a cross validation training and testing scheme. A third data set containing 65 cases with 260 normal mammograms was used to estimate the FP marker rates during testing. When the single CAD system trained on the average mass set was applied to the test set with average masses, the FP marker rates were 2.2, 1.8, and 1.5 per image at the case-based sensitivities of 90%, 85%, and 80%, respectively. With the dual CAD system, the FP marker rates were reduced to 1.2, 0.9, and 0.7 per image, respectively, at the same case-based sensitivities. Statistically significant (p<0.05) improvements on the free response receiver operating characteristic curves were observed when the dual system and the single system were compared

  15. Operator Station Design System - A computer aided design approach to work station layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    The Operator Station Design System is resident in NASA's Johnson Space Center Spacecraft Design Division Performance Laboratory. It includes stand-alone minicomputer hardware and Panel Layout Automated Interactive Design and Crew Station Assessment of Reach software. The data base consists of the Shuttle Transportation System Orbiter Crew Compartment (in part), the Orbiter payload bay and remote manipulator (in part), and various anthropometric populations. The system is utilized to provide panel layouts, assess reach and vision, determine interference and fit problems early in the design phase, study design applications as a function of anthropometric and mission requirements, and to accomplish conceptual design to support advanced study efforts.

  16. Multi-Input/Multi-Output Designated Eigenstructure (MODES): A Computer-Aided Control System Design Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    SIMUL8 Purpose: " Simulates the time response history of a controlled system. Calculates the time response history matrix which is plotted with...subroutine PLOT. Calling Sequence: CALL SIMUL8 (A,B,N,M,DIARY) Input Variables: A The real N by N system matrix used for the time history simulation . B The...wants to see the eigenstructure of the basic system. If the user wants, - "..~ [MODES will then perform a discrete time simulation of the 1-2 q

  17. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries. PMID:26899876

  18. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-22

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries.

  19. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries.

  20. A New Era for Cancer Target Therapies: Applying Systems Biology and Computer-Aided Drug Design to Cancer Therapies.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yung-Hao; Chiu, Chia-Chiun; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chen, Ting-Shou; Jheng, Bo-Ren; Lee, Yu-Ching; Chen, Jeremy; Chen, Bor-Sen

    In recent years, many systems biology approaches have been used with various cancers. The materials described here can be used to build bases to discover novel cancer therapy targets in connection with computer-aided drug design (CADD). A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of cancer will provide more choices and correct strategies in the development of multiple target drug therapies, which is quite different from the traditional cancer single target therapy. Targeted therapy is one of the most powerful strategies against cancer and can also be applied to other diseases. Due to the large amount of progress in computer hardware and the theories of computational chemistry and physics, CADD has been the main strategy for developing novel drugs for cancer therapy. In contrast to traditional single target therapies, in this review we will emphasize the future direction of the field, i.e., multiple target therapies. Structure-based and ligand-based drug designs are the two main topics of CADD. The former needs both 3D protein structures and ligand structures, while the latter only needs ligand structures. Ordinarily it is estimated to take more than 14 years and 800 million dollars to develop a new drug. Many new CADD software programs and techniques have been developed in recent decades. We conclude with an example where we combined and applied systems biology and CADD to the core networks of four cancers and successfully developed a novel cocktail for drug therapy that treats multiple targets.

  1. Reliability of a computer-aided detection system in detecting lung metastases compared to manual palpation during surgery.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Alexandra; Wormanns, Dag; Leschber, Gunda; Merk, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    For resection of lung metastases computed tomography (CT) is needed to determine the operative strategy. A computer-aided detection (CAD) system, a software tool for automated detection of lung nodules, analyses the CT scans in addition to the radiologists and clearly marks lesions. The aim of this feasibility study was to evaluate the reliability of CAD in detecting lung metastases. Preoperative CT scans of 18 patients, who underwent surgery for suspected lung metastases, were analysed with CAD (September-December 2009). During surgery all suspected lesions were traced and resected. Histological examination was performed and results compared to radiologically suspicious nodes. Radiological analysis assisted by CAD detected 64 nodules (mean 3.6, range 1-7). During surgery 91 nodules (mean 5.0, range 1-11) were resected, resulting in 27 additionally palpated nodules. Histologically all these additional nodules were benign. In contrast, all 30 nodules shown to be metastases by histological studies were correctly described by CAD. The CAD system is a sensible and useful tool for finding pulmonary lesions. It detects more and smaller lesions than conventional radiological analysis. In this feasibility study we were able to show a greater reliability of the CAD analysis. A further and prospective study to confirm these data is ongoing.

  2. Feedback and its effectiveness in a computer-aided personalized system of instruction course.

    PubMed

    Martin, Toby L; Pear, Joseph J; Martin, Garry L

    2002-01-01

    In a computer-managed version of Keller's personalized system of instruction, students received frequent feedback from more advanced students within the course. Overall accuracy of student-provided feedback was 87%, and students complied with 61% of the feedback.

  3. Computer-Aided Mission Planning System (CAMPS) Test 1-82.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-23

    biective6 To assess the marginal value off addin4-g Eb-erimenta. ?enetration and Analysis Support Sys-tem SPASS) tyrpe canabi !lities to the :A,,!S. .3.7...Objective To assess t-he user’s overall omnion off the .ZA.’S/:?PASS system as a mission planning tool. 1 .3.8 Objecti-,e 3 To com- oile a list off

  4. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1999-01-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  5. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Lipshutz, R.J.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  6. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Earl A.; Morris, MacDonald S.; Winkler, James L.

    1996-01-01

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system (100) is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files (104) to design and/or generate lithographic masks (110).

  7. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Earl A.; Morris, MacDonald S.; Winkler, James L.

    1999-01-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system (100) is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files (104) to design and/or generate lithographic masks (110).

  8. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1996-11-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  9. Screening mammography-detected cancers: sensitivity of a computer-aided detection system applied to full-field digital mammograms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sang Kyu; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cho, Nariya; Park, Jeong Seon; Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Seung Ja; Im, Jung-Gi

    2007-07-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the sensitivity of the performance of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system applied to full-field digital mammograms for detection of breast cancers in a screening group, with histologic findings as the reference standard. This study had institutional review board approval, and patient informed consent was waived. A commercially available CAD system was applied to the digital mammograms of 103 women (mean age, 51 years; range, 35-69 years) with 103 breast cancers detected with screening. Sensitivity values of the CAD system according to mammographic appearance, breast composition, and histologic findings were analyzed. Normal mammograms from 100 women (mean age, 54 years; age range, 35-75 years) with no mammographic and clinical abnormality during 2-year follow-up were used to determine false-positive CAD system marks. Differences between the cancer detection rates in fatty and dense breasts for the CAD system were compared by using the chi(2) test. The CAD system correctly marked 99 (96.1%) of 103 breast cancers. The CAD system marked all 44 breast cancers that manifested as microcalcifications only, all 23 breast cancers that manifested as a mass with microcalcifications, and 32 (89%) of 36 lesions that appeared as a mass only. The sensitivity of the CAD system in the fatty breast group was 95% (59 of 62) and in the dense breast group was 98% (40 of 41) (P = .537). The CAD system correctly marked all 31 lesions of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), all 22 lesions of invasive ductal carcinoma with DCIS, the single invasive lobular carcinoma lesion, and 45 (92%) of 49 lesions of invasive ductal carcinoma. On normal mammograms, the mean number of false-positive marks per patient was 1.80 (range, 0-10 marks; median, 1 mark). The CAD system can correctly mark most (96.1%) asymptomatic breast cancers detected with digital mammographic screening, with acceptable false-positive marks (1.80 per patient). (c) RSNA, 2007.

  10. VPIsystems industry training program on computer-aided design of fiber optic communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Andre; Chan, David K. C.

    2002-05-01

    In industry today, professional Photonic Design Automation (PDA) tools are a necessity to enable fast development cycles for the design of optical components, systems and networks. The training of industrial personnel is of great importance in facilitating the full usability of PDA tools tailored to meet these demands. As the market leader of design and planning tools for system integrators and manufacturers of optical transmission systems and components, VPIsystems offers a set of two-day training courses. Attendees are taught on the design of metro WDM networks, high speed DWDM and ultra long-haul WDM systems, analogue and digital cable access systems, EDFA and Raman amplifiers, as well as active devices and circuits. The course work compromises of: (1) lectures on physical and modeling background topics; (2) creation of typical simulation scenarios and; (3) the analysis of results. This course work is facilitated by guided, hands-on lab exercises using VPIsystems software for a variety of practical design situations. In classes of up to 15, each attendee is allocated a computer, thereby allowing for a thorough and speedy training for the individual in all of the covered topics as well as for any extra-curriculum topics to be covered. Since 1999, more than 750 people have graduated from over 60 training courses. In this paper, details of VPIsystems Industry training program will be presented.

  11. Computer-aided parachute guiding system for closed reduction of diaphyseal fractures.

    PubMed

    Du, Dajiang; Liu, Zhen; Omori, Shinsuke; Kurita, Masahiro; Tomita, Tetsuya; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Murase, Tsuyoshi

    2014-09-01

    Closed reduction is of great benefit for fracture healing. However, achieving this without sacrificing the reduction accuracy and exposing the surgeon and patient to excessive radiation is difficult. A novel parachute guiding system (ParaEx System) was developed for closed reduction of fractures based on computed tomography data. The system included two counter guides with stainless tubular markers that could be attached to the unilateral external fixator. Comminuted tibial diaphyseal fracture models were used to validate the ParaEx System. The mean errors (and standard deviations) of residual rotational and translational deformity were 0.67° ± 0.45°, 0.92° ± 1.00°, and 0.64° ± 0.50° in rotation and 1.30 ± 1.10 mm, 1.13 ± 0.70 mm, and 0.94 ± 0.92 mm in translation about the X, Y, and Z axes of the local coordinate axes, respectively. The ParaEx System was useful for accurate closed reduction of fractures at low cost. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A computer-aided telescope pointing system utilizing a video star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. P.; Lorell, K. R.; Swift, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    The Video Inertial Pointing (VIP) System developed to satisfy the acquisition and pointing requirements of astronomical telescopes is described. A unique feature of the system is the use of a single sensor to provide information for the generation of three axis pointing error signals and for a cathode ray tube (CRT) display of the star field. The pointing error signals are used to update the telescope's gyro stabilization and the CRT display is used by an operator to facilitate target acquisition and to aid in manual positioning of the telescope optical axis. A model of the system using a low light level vidicon built and flown on a balloon-borne infrared telescope is briefly described from a state of the art charge coupled device (CCD) sensor. The advanced system hardware is described and an analysis of the multi-star tracking and three axis error signal generation, along with an analysis and design of the gyro update filter, are presented. Results of a hybrid simulation are described in which the advanced VIP system hardware is driven by a digital simulation of the star field/CCD sensor and an analog simulation of the telescope and gyro stabilization dynamics.

  13. An Intelligent computer-aided tutoring system for diagnosing anomalies of spacecraft in operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolincik, Mark; Lauriente, Michael; Koons, Harry C.; Gorney, David

    1993-01-01

    A new rule-based, expert system for diagnosing spacecraft anomalies is under development. The knowledge base consists of over two-hundred (200) rules and provides links to historical and environmental databases. Environmental causes considered are bulk charging, single event upsets (SEU), surface charging, and total radiation dose. The system's driver translates forward chaining rules into a backward chaining sequence, prompting the user for information pertinent to the causes considered. When the user selects the novice mode, the system automatically gives detailed explanations and descriptions of terms and reasoning as the session progresses, in a sense teaching the user. As such it is an effective tutoring tool. The use of heuristics frees the user from searching through large amounts of irrelevant information and allows the user to input partial information (varying degrees of confidence in an answer) or 'unknown' to any question. The system is available on-line and uses C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), an expert shell developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center AI Laboratory in Houston.

  14. Computer-aided system for morphometric mandibular index computation (Using dental panoramic radiographs)

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-López, Jose M.; Jané-Salas, Enrique; Estrugo-Devesa, Albert; Ayuso-Montero, Raul; Velasco-Ortega, Eugenio; Segura-Egea, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We propose and validate a computer—aided system to measure three different mandibular indexes: cortical width, panoramic mandibular index and, mandibular alveolar bone resorption index. Study Design: Repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements are analyzed and compared to the manual estimation of the same indexes. Results: The proposed computerized system exhibits superior repeatability and reproducibility rates compared to standard manual methods. Moreover, the time required to perform the measurements using the proposed method is negligible compared to perform the measurements manually. Conclusions: We have proposed a very user friendly computerized method to measure three different morphometric mandibular indexes. From the results we can conclude that the system provides a practical manner to perform these measurements. It does not require an expert examiner and does not take more than 16 seconds per analysis. Thus, it may be suitable to diagnose osteoporosis using dental panoramic radiographs. Key words:Osteoporosis, panoramic mandibular index, cortical width, mandibular alveolar bone resorption index. PMID:22322489

  15. Virtual environment and computer-aided technologies used for system prototyping and requirements development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Cory; Maida, James; Goldsby, Michael; Clark, Jim; Wu, Liew; Prenger, Henk

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS) consists of distributed hardware and software which monitor and control the many onboard systems. Virtual environment and off-the-shelf computer technologies can be used at critical points in project development to aid in objectives and requirements development. Geometric models (images) coupled with off-the-shelf hardware and software technologies were used in The Space Station Mockup and Trainer Facility (SSMTF) Crew Operational Assessment Project. Rapid prototyping is shown to be a valuable tool for operational procedure and system hardware and software requirements development. The project objectives, hardware and software technologies used, data gained, current activities, future development and training objectives shall be discussed. The importance of defining prototyping objectives and staying focused while maintaining schedules are discussed along with project pitfalls.

  16. Computer-Aided Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems (CAMAPPS). Phase 1: Users handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Lee, J.; Cho, B. H.; Lee, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    The EASY5 macro component models developed for the spacecraft power system simulation are described. A brief explanation about how to use the macro components with the EASY5 Standard Components to build a specific system is given through an example. The macro components are ordered according to the following functional group: converter power stage models, compensator models, current-feedback models, constant frequency control models, load models, solar array models, and shunt regulator models. Major equations, a circuit model, and a program listing are provided for each macro component.

  17. A prototype computer-aided modelling tool for life-support system models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preisig, H. A.; Lee, Tae-Yeong; Little, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Based on the canonical decomposition of physical-chemical-biological systems, a prototype kernel has been developed to efficiently model alternative life-support systems. It supports (1) the work in an interdisciplinary group through an easy-to-use mostly graphical interface, (2) modularized object-oriented model representation, (3) reuse of models, (4) inheritance of structures from model object to model object, and (5) model data base. The kernel is implemented in Modula-II and presently operates on an IBM PC.

  18. Computer-Aided Systems Engineering for Flight Research Projects Using a Workgroup Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukami, Masahi

    2004-01-01

    An online systems engineering tool for flight research projects has been developed through the use of a workgroup database. Capabilities are implemented for typical flight research systems engineering needs in document library, configuration control, hazard analysis, hardware database, requirements management, action item tracking, project team information, and technical performance metrics. Repetitive tasks are automated to reduce workload and errors. Current data and documents are instantly available online and can be worked on collaboratively. Existing forms and conventional processes are used, rather than inventing or changing processes to fit the tool. An integrated tool set offers advantages by automatically cross-referencing data, minimizing redundant data entry, and reducing the number of programs that must be learned. With a simplified approach, significant improvements are attained over existing capabilities for minimal cost. By using a workgroup-level database platform, personnel most directly involved in the project can develop, modify, and maintain the system, thereby saving time and money. As a pilot project, the system has been used to support an in-house flight experiment. Options are proposed for developing and deploying this type of tool on a more extensive basis.

  19. Southwell's Relaxation Search in Computer Aided Advising: An Intelligent Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xueshu

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development and validation of a microcomputer software system that enhances undergraduate students' interests in becoming engineering graduate students. The development of a database with information on engineering graduate programs is discussed, and a model that matches individual and institutional needs using Southwell's Relaxation…

  20. Heterogeneous Software System Interoperability Through Computer-Aided Resolution of Modeling Differences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    existing ones [RRH00]. A program or design is considered extensible if enhancements can be made to an existing component or data structure without...provides an architecture and set of tools designed for the integration of incompatible legacy systems, databases , packaged applications, middleware

  1. Designing Intelligent Computer Aided Instruction Systems with Integrated Knowledge Representation Schemes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    for De- velopment of ICAI," Computers in Human Behavior , v. 3, 1987. Seidel, R. J., Park, 0.., and Perez, R. S., "Expertise of ICAI. Development...Require- ments," Computers in Human Behavior , v. 4, 1988. Sleeman, D., "Intellhent Tutoring Systems: A Review," School of Education and De- partment of

  2. Interactive and Multimedia Contents Associated with a System for Computer-Aided Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paiva, Rui C.; Ferreira, Milton S.; Mendes, Ana G.; Eusébio, Augusto M. J.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a research study addressing the development, implementation, evaluation, and use of Interactive Modules for Online Training (MITO) of mathematics in higher education. This work was carried out in the context of the MITO project, which combined several features of the learning and management system Moodle, the computer-aided…

  3. Computer-Aided Authoring System (AUTHOR) User's Guide. Volume I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guitard, Charles R.

    This user's guide for AUTHOR, an automatic authoring system which produces programmed texts for teaching symbol recognition, provides detailed instructions to help the user construct and enter the information needed to create the programmed text, run the AUTHOR program, and edit the automatically composed paper. Major sections describe steps in…

  4. The Development of Computer-Aided Careers Guidance Systems: A Response to Closs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce-Price, R. P.; Corscaden, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    Responds to Closs' (1994) article concerning the project management concerns of the UK PROSPECT system. Suggests that the problems encountered in the implementation of UK PROSPECT were not caused by project management, but were, as suggested by Watts (1993), economic and political in nature. (JPS)

  5. AESOP: A computer-aided design program for linear multivariable control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehtinen, B.; Geyser, L. C.

    1982-01-01

    An interactive computer program (AESOP) which solves quadratic optimal control and is discussed. The program can also be used to perform system analysis calculations such as transient and frequency responses, controllability, observability, etc., in support of the control and filter design computations.

  6. Manned space station environmental control and life support system computer-aided technology assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Pickett, S. J.; Sage, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program for assessing manned space station environmental control and life support systems technology is described. The methodology, mission model parameters, evaluation criteria, and data base for 17 candidate technologies for providing metabolic oxygen and water to the crew are discussed. Examples are presented which demonstrate the capability of the program to evaluate candidate technology options for evolving space station requirements.

  7. Performance evaluation using SYSTID time domain simulation. [computer-aid design and analysis for communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tranter, W. H.; Ziemer, R. E.; Fashano, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews the SYSTID technique for performance evaluation of communication systems using time-domain computer simulation. An example program illustrates the language. The inclusion of both Gaussian and impulse noise models make accurate simulation possible in a wide variety of environments. A very flexible postprocessor makes possible accurate and efficient performance evaluation.

  8. Development of computer-aided motion analyzing (CAMA) system for radiopaque implanted tilting disk heart valves.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Y; Horiuchi, T; Dohi, T; Sugaya, K; Matsumoto, H; Ide, H

    1990-12-01

    The newly developed semiautomatic data acquisition and processing system allows progress in quantitative evaluation of functions of implanted tilting disk valves. In the new system, data acquisition could be carried out semiautomatically by utilizing image processing methods, and the data analysis time was shortened. The system consists of a computer-controlled cinefilm loading device, a CCD camera, a frame memory, a superimposer, and CRT displays. Since series of the open- and shut-mode frames are commonly observed by turns in normal subjects, data acquisition was carried out manually at the first frame of each mode and semiautomatically from the second frame to the last. By processing the image data with the binarization method, the valve contours were detected, and an open angle and other motion properties can be obtained. Analyzing 90 frames of the cinefilm, this system analyzes data in a time period 20 min shorter than the manual procedure. With the implanted Medtronic Hall valve, a 60 to 65 degrees open angle was calculated.

  9. [Computer-aided implantology: Contribution of the Robodent(®) passive robotic system.

    PubMed

    Armand, S; Legac, O; Galibourg, A

    2013-08-02

    The use of the Robodent(®) passive robotic system improves the accuracy of implant placement and thus allows extending the field of indications for flapless surgical technique. Surgery can be performed with a greater operative safety and peroperative modification of the surgical protocol is possible.

  10. Interactive and Multimedia Contents Associated with a System for Computer-Aided Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paiva, Rui C.; Ferreira, Milton S.; Mendes, Ana G.; Eusébio, Augusto M. J.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a research study addressing the development, implementation, evaluation, and use of Interactive Modules for Online Training (MITO) of mathematics in higher education. This work was carried out in the context of the MITO project, which combined several features of the learning and management system Moodle, the computer-aided…

  11. Manned space station environmental control and life support system computer-aided technology assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Pickett, S. J.; Sage, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program for assessing manned space station environmental control and life support systems technology is described. The methodology, mission model parameters, evaluation criteria, and data base for 17 candidate technologies for providing metabolic oxygen and water to the crew are discussed. Examples are presented which demonstrate the capability of the program to evaluate candidate technology options for evolving space station requirements.

  12. Digital Mammography: Development of an Advanced Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Breast Cancer Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    AGENC Y USE ONLY 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED (Leave blank), May 2005 Annual (1 May 2004 - 30 Apr 2005) 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5...microcalcifications on DMs, (3) developed computer vision techniques and a prototype CAD system for detection of masses on DFMs and DMs, ( 4 ) explored the...3 ( 4 ) Introduction

  13. Computer-aided detection of lung cancer: combining pulmonary nodule detection systems with a tumor risk prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setio, Arnaud A. A.; Jacobs, Colin; Ciompi, Francesco; van Riel, Sarah J.; Winkler Wille, Mathilde M.; Dirksen, Asger; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van Ginneken, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) has been shown to be a promising tool for automatic detection of pulmonary nodules from computed tomography (CT) images. However, the vast majority of detected nodules are benign and do not require any treatment. For effective implementation of lung cancer screening programs, accurate identification of malignant nodules is the key. We investigate strategies to improve the performance of a CAD system in detecting nodules with a high probability of being cancers. Two strategies were proposed: (1) combining CAD detections with a recently published lung cancer risk prediction model and (2) the combination of multiple CAD systems. First, CAD systems were used to detect the nodules. Each CAD system produces markers with a certain degree of suspicion. Next, the malignancy probability was automatically computed for each marker, given nodule characteristics measured by the CAD system. Last, CAD degree of suspicion and malignancy probability were combined using the product rule. We evaluated the method using 62 nodules which were proven to be malignant cancers, from 180 scans of the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. The malignant nodules were considered as positive samples, while all other findings were considered negative. Using a product rule, the best proposed system achieved an improvement in sensitivity, compared to the best individual CAD system, from 41.9% to 72.6% at 2 false positives (FPs)/scan and from 56.5% to 88.7% at 8 FPs/scan. Our experiment shows that combining a nodule malignancy probability with multiple CAD systems can increase the performance of computerized detection of lung cancer.

  14. Predicting Mobility Performance of a Small, Lightweight Track System Using the Computer-Aided Method NTVPM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-24

    NTVPM), originally developed for evaluating the mobility of large, heavy tracked vehicles, to predicting the performance of a small, lightweight...interaction, are applicable to large, heavy , as well as small, lightweight vehicles, provided that appropriate terrain data are used as input. Keywords...of large, heavy tracked vehicles (Wong, 2008; Wong 2010), to predicting the performance of a small, lightweight single track system on sandy soil

  15. Concept Study of the Computer-Aided ARTEP (Army Training and Evaluation Program) Production System (CAPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    PRODUCTION SYSTEM (CAPS) 6. PERFORMING ORG . REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(.) a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) Bloedorn, G. W., Crooks, W. H., Merrill, M. D...rll j:; ItrlCCT Keg: Primar i.~ISxNCn ~i!~iiii~ii~iL~;i!Jii TTin i RNN FIGRE55 CPSItraiv Ipat iara SM S~xST d 130 x IT < - - - - -. - Primary Data Entry

  16. An Expert System in C for Computer-Aided Digital Circuit Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    is reported in Wagner’s thesis (Wagner,87). 2 - 4 Current Technology The current technology available in the market is limited. Wagner pointed out two...suitable to be used in codification of an expert system. The commercial packages available in the market do not fill the needs of AFIT, due in part to...B.S.) degree and from ITA - Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica ( Aeronautical Institute of Technology), Sao Paulo, Brazil in 1983 with a B.S degree

  17. CADS - A Computer Aided Design System. Volume 3. Program Maintenance Manal.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    from our mailing list, or if the addressee is no longer employed by your organization please notify AFWAL/ FIBRA , W-PAFB, OH 45433 to help us maintain...Wright Aeronautical Laboratories Rockwell International Air Force Systems Command (AFWAL/ FIBRA ) 6c ADDRESS t(i. State and /I1 Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City...SPONSORING Sb. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION (if applicable) Flight Dynamics Laboratory AFWAL/ FIBRA F33615-81-C

  18. CADS - A Computer Aided Design System. Volume 1. Final Summary Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    employed by your organization please notify AFWAL/ FIBRA , W-PAFB, OH 45433 to help us maintain a current mailing list". Copies of this report should not be...Systems Command (AFWAL/ FIBRA ) 6c. ADDRESS (City. State and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City. State and ZIP Code) North American Aircraft Operations (NAAO...NUMBER ORGANIZATION (if appliaoble) Flight Dynamics Laboratory AFWAL/ FIBRA F33615-81-C-3229 -c. ADDRESS (City. State and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF

  19. Computer-aided modeling of heterogeneous, two-dimensional, groundwater system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, A.; Aziz, A.; Wong, Kau-Fui V.

    1992-10-01

    An interactive groundwater modeling (IGWM) package has been developed on a dedicated artificial-intelligence computer. The package consists of a graphic interface and groundwater models. The purpose of the graphic interface is to facilitate modeling tasks such as defining the groundwater system and the input stresses, managing the numerical solution, and updating the hydraulic parameters. The package is developed in Symbolics Common LISP language and uses numerical models written in LISP. During the modeling, the numerical grid is projected on the graphic screen to serve as an interface to the two-dimensional (2-D) arrays where the magnitude of the hydraulic parameters are stored. The user of the package recreates the scenario that simulates a natural groundwater system by symbolically manipulating the nodes of the numerical grid, assigning patterns to the nodes, and setting the contents of the 2-D arrays. These steps are accomplished through execution of commands available from the command menu. Layers of patterns containing the information regarding the hydraulic parameters are stored in the computer memory and are redisplayed at the appropriate update sequence by the package automatically. The modeling process is continued until a satisfactory match is obtained between the computed piezometric head and the field-observed piezometric head. The use of the package in modeling heterogeneous groundwater systems is demonstrated by a field application. The numerical solutions obtained using the package were compared with other published results.

  20. A novel computer-aided diagnosis system for breast MRI based on feature selection and ensemble learning.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Li, Zhe; Chu, Jinghui

    2017-03-06

    Breast cancer is a common cancer among women. With the development of modern medical science and information technology, medical imaging techniques have an increasingly important role in the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. In this paper, we propose an automated computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) framework for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The scheme consists of an ensemble of several machine learning-based techniques, including ensemble under-sampling (EUS) for imbalanced data processing, the Relief algorithm for feature selection, the subspace method for providing data diversity, and Adaboost for improving the performance of base classifiers. We extracted morphological, various texture, and Gabor features. To clarify the feature subsets' physical meaning, subspaces are built by combining morphological features with each kind of texture or Gabor feature. We tested our proposal using a manually segmented Region of Interest (ROI) data set, which contains 438 images of malignant tumors and 1898 images of normal tissues or benign tumors. Our proposal achieves an area under the ROC curve (AUC) value of 0.9617, which outperforms most other state-of-the-art breast MRI CADx systems. Compared with other methods, our proposal significantly reduces the false-positive classification rate.

  1. An Expert System for Computer-aided Volcano Monitoring on Mt. Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannavo', Flavio; Cannata, Andrea; Cassisi, Carmelo; Di Grazia, Giuseppe; Montalto, Placido; Prestifilippo, Michele; Privitera, Eugenio; Gambino, Salvatore; Coltelli, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    Constant estimation of the state of potentially hazardous volcanos plays a crucial role for civil protection purposes. In particular, the importance of monitoring volcanic activity, especially for paroxysms that usually come with tephra emissions, is crucial not only for hazards to the local population but also for airline traffic. Indeed, At present, real-time surveillance of most volcanoes worldwide is essentially deputized to one or more human experts in volcanology, who interpret data coming from different kind of monitoring networks. Unfavourably, the coupling of highly nonlinear and complex volcanic dynamic processes leads to measurable effects that can show a large variety of different behaviours. Moreover, due to intrinsic uncertainties and possible failures in some recorded data, the volcano state needs to be expressed in probabilistic terms, thus making the fast volcano state assessment sometimes impracticable for the personnel on duty at the control rooms. With the aim of aiding the personnel on duty in volcano surveillance, we present an expert system based on a probabilistic graphical model to estimate automatically the ongoing volcano state from all the available different kind of measurements. The system consists of a decision network able to represent a set of variables and their conditional dependencies via a directed acyclic graph. The model variables are both the measurements and the possible states of the volcano through the time. The model output is the most likely volcanic state. We tested the expert system on the Mt. Etna (Italy) case study by considering a long record of multivariate data from 2011 to 2015 and cross-validated it. Results indicate that the proposed model is effective and of great power for decision making purposes.

  2. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of subsolid nodules: Evaluation of a commercial CAD system.

    PubMed

    Benzakoun, Joseph; Bommart, Sébastien; Coste, Joël; Chassagnon, Guillaume; Lederlin, Mathieu; Boussouar, Samia; Revel, Marie-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the performance of a commercially available CAD system for automated detection and measurement of subsolid nodules. The CAD system was tested on 50 pure ground-glass and 50 part-solid nodules (median diameter: 17mm) previously found on standard-dose CT scans in 100 different patients. True nodule detection and the total number of CAD marks were evaluated at different sensitivity settings. The influence of nodule and CT acquisition characteristics was analyzed with logistic regression. Software and manually measured diameters were compared with Spearman and Bland-Altman methods. With sensitivity adjusted for 3-mm nodule detection, 50/100 (50%) subsolid nodules were detected, at the average cost of 17 CAD marks per CT. These figures were respectively 26/100 (26%) and 2 at the 5-mm setting. At the highest sensitivity setting (2-mm nodule detection), the average number of CAD marks per CT was 41 but the nodule detection rate only increased to 54%. Part-solid nodules were better detected than pure ground glass nodules: 36/50 (72%) versus 14/50 (28%) at the 3-mm setting (p<0.0001), with no influence of the solid component size. Except for the type (i.e. part solid or pure ground glass), no other nodule characteristic influenced the detection rate. High-quality segmentation was obtained for 79 nodules, which for automated measurements correlated well with manual measurements (rho=0.90[0.84-0.93]). All part-solid nodules had software-measured attenuation values above -671Hounsfield units (HU). The detection rate of subsolid nodules by this CAD system was insufficient, but high-quality segmentation was obtained in 79% of cases, allowing automated measurement of size and attenuation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. COMPUTER-Aided-Control Engineering (CACE) PRimitives for Robust and Adaptive control Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-12

    factorization approach ! [see, e.g., Desoer et al. (1980), Zames (1981), Vidyasagar (1985), Doyle (1985)], which has xmade it possible to formulate and solve...34A Kalman Filtering Approach to Short- Time Fourier Analysis", ANU Report, Canberra, Australia, Feb. 1984. C.A. Desoer , i{.W. Liu, J. Murray and R...399-412, June 1980. C.A. Desoer and M. Vidyasagar, Feedback Systems: Input-Output Properties, Academic Press, 1975. J.C. Doyle and C.C. Chu (1985

  4. False-positive reduction in computer-aided diagnostic scheme for detecting nodules in chest radiographs by means of massive training artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenji; Shiraishi, Junji; Abe, Hiroyuki; MacMahon, Heber; Doi, Kunio

    2005-02-01

    We developed a technique that uses a multiple massive-training artificial neural network (multi-MTANN) to reduce the number of false-positive results in a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for detecting nodules in chest radiographs. Our database consisted of 91 solitary pulmonary nodules, including 64 malignant nodules and 27 benign nodules, in 91 chest radiographs. With our current CAD scheme based on a difference-image technique and linear discriminant analysis, we achieved a sensitivity of 82.4%, with 4.5 false positives per image. We developed the multi-MTANN for further reduction of the false positive rate. An MTANN is a highly nonlinear filter that can be trained with input images and corresponding teaching images. To reduce the effects of background levels in chest radiographs, we applied a background-trend-correction technique, followed by contrast normalization, to the input images for the MTANN. For enhancement of nodules, the teaching image was designed to contain the distribution for a "likelihood of being a nodule." Six MTANNs in the multi-MTANN were trained by using typical nodules and six different types of non-nodules (false positives). Use of the trained multi-MTANN eliminated 68.3% of false-positive findings with a reduction of one true-positive result. The false-positive rate of our original CAD scheme was improved from 4.5 to 1.4 false positives per image, at an overall sensitivity of 81.3%. Use of a multi-MTANN substantially reduced the false-positive rate of our CAD scheme for lung nodule detection on chest radiographs, while maintaining a level of sensitivity.

  5. Computer-Aided Design and Analysis of Digital Guidance and Control Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    Polyak and Ya.Z. Tsypkin: Robust (noiseproof) identification. Preprints of IV IFAC Symposium on Identification and System Parameter Estimation...C OCWWU 0lE 0 C D’D cl c 0 ) V1) . ’ £I W VO0Ch L L 0 4- LV V W14- - 0 c 0 w aL ) u 0 03 4J L0 U - i0 - ~ U 4 ~ 4 - n * - U)-~~~~’ 01 u ~ Z0i M31...C)O W3 C ’- C O<~3 4SUWL4 0 w N cL L . ~ r- L U 0E4 -4- ) E. )- CE- -11 U)C a LV W > 0 Q 0 o m - M Wfl ,- -a. -. 0 -LW w -0. 0 l-0>-- .Q.. 0O D I U 3

  6. An application of computer aided requirements analysis to a real time deep space system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farny, A. M.; Morris, R. V.; Hartsough, C.; Callender, E. D.; Teichroew, D.; Chikofsky, E.

    1981-01-01

    The entire procedure of incorporating the requirements and goals of a space flight project into integrated, time ordered sequences of spacecraft commands, is called the uplink process. The Uplink Process Control Task (UPCT) was created to examine the uplink process and determine ways to improve it. The Problem Statement Language/Problem Statement Analyzer (PSL/PSA) designed to assist the designer/analyst/engineer in the preparation of specifications of an information system is used as a supporting tool to aid in the analysis. Attention is given to a definition of the uplink process, the definition of PSL/PSA, the construction of a PSA database, the value of analysis to the study of the uplink process, and the PSL/PSA lessons learned.

  7. Computer-aided engineering of belt conveyor systems with horizontal curves

    SciTech Connect

    Bahke, T.

    1983-11-01

    The application of belt conveyors with vertical as well as horizontal curves is of great advantage for the continuous transport of bulk materials free of transfer points. A simulation program has been developed and is discussed in this article for the technical and economical optimization of such plants. The complex interdependencies for calculating stable curve tracking can be processed quickly for all operating and load states. In practice, belt guidance effected by gravity and/or friction without additional wear parts has been successful and also economical. The usual conveyor belts and framework designs are used without any great additional structural work as done for straight belt conveyor systems. No belt damage or wear resulting from horizontal curve tracking has been established on curved belt conveyors built to date. The entire route of the curved conveyor is protected by removable covers to prevent environmental pollution being caused by the weather.

  8. Comparison of two software versions of a commercially available computer-aided detection (CAD) system for detecting breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Ja; Moon, Woo Kyung; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Chang, Jung Min; Kim, Sun Mi; Cho, Nariya

    2010-06-01

    The performance of the computer-aided detection (CAD) system can be determined by the sensitivity and false-positive marks rate, therefore these factors should be improved by upgrading the software version of the CAD system. To compare retrospectively the performances of two software versions of a commercially available CAD system when applied to full-field digital mammograms for the detection of breast cancers in a screening group. Versions 3.1 and 8.3 of a CAD software system (ImageChecker, R2 Technology) were applied to the full-field digital mammograms of 130 women (age range 36-80, mean age 53 years) with 130 breast cancers detected by screening. The overall sensitivities of the version 3.1 and 8.3 CAD systems were 92.3% (120 of 130) and 96.2% (125 of 130) (P=0.025), respectively, and sensitivities for masses were 78.3% (36 of 46) and 89.1% (41 of 46) (P=0.024) and for microcalcifications 100% (84 of 84) and 100% (84 of 84), respectively. Version 8.3 correctly marked five lesions of invasive ductal carcinoma that were missed by version 3.1. Average numbers of false-positive marks per image were 0.38 (0.15 for calcifications, 0.23 for masses) for version 3.1 and 0.46 (0.13 for calcifications, 0.33 for masses) for version 8.3 (P=0.1420). The newer version 8.3 of the CAD system showed better overall sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer than version 3.1 due to its improved sensitivity for masses when applied to full-field digital mammograms.

  9. Computer aided approximation of flow rate through systemic-pulmonary arterial shunts (SPAS).

    PubMed

    Vennemann, Peter; Montag, Michael; Peters, Franz; Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    2012-02-22

    The discrimination of flow rates through bronchial arteries that are affected by pathological SPAS today still happens solely qualitatively. A reproducible quantification of flow rates, however, would enable the comprehension of phenomena like the intensified shunt perfusion seen in cases of chronic inflammations or the characterization of SPAS that may cause cardiovascular problems. A computational program is developed, that allows the modeling of individual bronchial arteries on the basis of the information provided by angiography. Angiographic images are available from the standard clinical assessment of SPAS. The flow through continuous and geometrically measurable vessel segments and SPAS is given by the law of Hagen-Poiseuille. The discharge through healthy branches is calculated by means of allometric scaling laws. The simulation results are verified by flow experiments in artificial vessel networks made of glass and PE tubing. The experimental set-up mimics realistic, pulsating pressure and flow conditions. When applied to the artificial vessel networks, the model described herein provides results for the volumetric flow rate that differ from values measured in laboratory experiments by <6%. The computer model is also applied to real angiographic images. Due to inaccuracies during the deduction of the geometry and due to necessary simplifications of the model, we expect significant deviations between calculated and real flow rates in bronchial systems. Nevertheless, the presented method enables the physician to objectively estimate the order of magnitude of volumetric flow through individual SPAS fairly independently from his experience and without the need of measurements additional to the mandatory angiography.

  10. Computer Aided Design of Microwave Front-End Components and Antennas for Ultrawideband Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almalkawi, Mohammad J.

    order to maintain high performance of conventional rectangular waveguides in planar form, substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology was utilized. A design of single-band dual-mode SIW filters with improved upper stopband performance and a design of dual-band dual mode SIW filters are introduced. Compact evanescent-mode SIW filters are also realized for low frequency applications and for better stopband performance. In addition, a novel tuning solution for planar SIW reconfigurable filters is also presented. Tunablity of the reconfigurable filter is achieved by adjusting dc-magnetic bias applied to the ferrite material. The new tuning technique leads to a dramatic reduction in complexity for the external control system.

  11. Perceptual challenges to computer-aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yulei

    2012-03-01

    We review the motivation and development of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in diagnostic medical imaging, particularly in breast cancer screening. After briefly describe in generic terms of typical CAD methods, we focus on the question of whether CAD helps improve diagnostic accuracy. We review both studies that support the notion that CAD helps improve diagnostic accuracy and studies that do not. We further identify difficulties in conducting this type of evaluation studies and suggest areas of perceptual challenges to applications of CAD.

  12. Interactive content-based image retrieval (CBIR) computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system for ultrasound breast masses using relevance feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyun-chong; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Paramagul, Chintana; Helvie, Mark; Nees, Alexis V.

    2012-03-01

    We designed a Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) system to assist radiologists in characterizing masses on ultrasound images. The CADx system retrieves masses that are similar to a query mass from a reference library based on computer-extracted features that describe texture, width-to-height ratio, and posterior shadowing of a mass. Retrieval is performed with k nearest neighbor (k-NN) method using Euclidean distance similarity measure and Rocchio relevance feedback algorithm (RRF). In this study, we evaluated the similarity between the query and the retrieved masses with relevance feedback using our interactive CBIR CADx system. The similarity assessment and feedback were provided by experienced radiologists' visual judgment. For training the RRF parameters, similarities of 1891 image pairs obtained from 62 masses were rated by 3 MQSA radiologists using a 9-point scale (9=most similar). A leave-one-out method was used in training. For each query mass, 5 most similar masses were retrieved from the reference library using radiologists' similarity ratings, which were then used by RRF to retrieve another 5 masses for the same query. The best RRF parameters were chosen based on three simulated observer experiments, each of which used one of the radiologists' ratings for retrieval and relevance feedback. For testing, 100 independent query masses on 100 images and 121 reference masses on 230 images were collected. Three radiologists rated the similarity between the query and the computer-retrieved masses. Average similarity ratings without and with RRF were 5.39 and 5.64 on the training set and 5.78 and 6.02 on the test set, respectively. The average Az values without and with RRF were 0.86+/-0.03 and 0.87+/-0.03 on the training set and 0.91+/-0.03 and 0.90+/-0.03 on the test set, respectively. This study demonstrated that RRF improved the similarity of the retrieved masses.

  13. When and why might a Computer Aided Detection (CAD) system interfere with visual search? An eye-tracking study

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Trafton; Cunningham, Corbin; Wolfe, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Rational and Objectives Computer Aided Detection (CAD) systems are intended to improve performance. This study investigates how CAD might actually interfere with a visual search task. This is a laboratory study with implications for clinical use of CAD. Methods 47 naïve observers in two studies were asked to search for a target, embedded in 1/f2.4 noise while we monitored their eye-movements. For some observers, a CAD system marked 75% of targets and 10% of distractors while other observers completed the study without CAD. In Experiment 1, the CAD system’s primary function was to tell observers where the target might be. In Experiment 2, CAD provided information about target identity. Results In Experiment 1, there was a significant enhancement of observer sensitivity in the presence of CAD (t(22)=4.74, p<.001), but there was also a substantial cost. Targets that were not marked by the CAD system were missed more frequently than equivalent targets in No CAD blocks of the experiment (t(22)=7.02, p<.001). Experiment 2 showed no behavioral benefit from CAD, but also no significant cost on sensitivity to unmarked targets (t(22)=0.6, p=n.s.). Finally, in both experiments, CAD produced reliable changes in eye-movements: CAD observers examined a lower total percentage of the search area than the No CAD observers (Ex 1: t(48)=3.05, p<.005; Ex 2: t(50)=7.31, p<.001). Conclusions CAD signals do not combine with observers’ unaided performance in a straight-forward manner. CAD can engender a sense of certainty that can lead to incomplete search and elevated chances of missing unmarked stimuli. PMID:22958720

  14. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis System Using Artificial Intelligence for the Diagnosis and Characterization of Thyroid Nodules on Ultrasound: Initial Clinical Assessment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Jun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Park, Hye Sun; Shim, Woo Hyun; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2017-04-01

    An initial clinical assessment is described of a new, commercially available, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system using artificial intelligence (AI) for thyroid ultrasound, and its performance is evaluated in the diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules and categorization of nodule characteristics. Patients with thyroid nodules with decisive diagnosis, whether benign or malignant, were consecutively enrolled from November 2015 to February 2016. An experienced radiologist reviewed the ultrasound image characteristics of the thyroid nodules, while another radiologist assessed the same thyroid nodules using the CAD system, providing ultrasound characteristics and a diagnosis of whether nodules were benign or malignant. The diagnostic performance and agreement of US characteristics between the experienced radiologist and the CAD system were compared. In total, 102 thyroid nodules from 89 patients were included; 59 (57.8%) were benign and 43 (42.2%) were malignant. The CAD system showed a similar sensitivity as the experienced radiologist (90.7% vs. 88.4%, p > 0.99), but a lower specificity and a lower area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve (specificity: 74.6% vs. 94.9%, p = 0.002; AUROC: 0.83 vs. 0.92, p = 0.021). Classifications of the ultrasound characteristics (composition, orientation, echogenicity, and spongiform) between radiologist and CAD system were in substantial agreement (κ = 0.659, 0.740, 0.733, and 0.658, respectively), while the margin showed a fair agreement (κ = 0.239). The sensitivity of the CAD system using AI for malignant thyroid nodules was as good as that of the experienced radiologist, while specificity and accuracy were lower than those of the experienced radiologist. The CAD system showed an acceptable agreement with the experienced radiologist for characterization of thyroid nodules.

  15. Evaluation of computer-aided detection and diagnosis systemsa)

    PubMed Central

    Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Armato, Samuel G.; Bert, Alberto; Correale, Loredana; Delsanto, Silvia; Freedman, Matthew T.; Fryd, David; Gur, David; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Huo, Zhimin; Jiang, Yulei; Morra, Lia; Paquerault, Sophie; Raykar, Vikas; Samuelson, Frank; Summers, Ronald M.; Tourassi, Georgia; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Zheng, Bin; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) systems are increasingly being used as an aid by clinicians for detection and interpretation of diseases. Computer-aided detection systems mark regions of an image that may reveal specific abnormalities and are used to alert clinicians to these regions during image interpretation. Computer-aided diagnosis systems provide an assessment of a disease using image-based information alone or in combination with other relevant diagnostic data and are used by clinicians as a decision support in developing their diagnoses. While CAD systems are commercially available, standardized approaches for evaluating and reporting their performance have not yet been fully formalized in the literature or in a standardization effort. This deficiency has led to difficulty in the comparison of CAD devices and in understanding how the reported performance might translate into clinical practice. To address these important issues, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed the Computer Aided Detection in Diagnostic Imaging Subcommittee (CADSC), in part, to develop recommendations on approaches for assessing CAD system performance. The purpose of this paper is to convey the opinions of the AAPM CADSC members and to stimulate the development of consensus approaches and “best practices” for evaluating CAD systems. Both the assessment of a standalone CAD system and the evaluation of the impact of CAD on end-users are discussed. It is hoped that awareness of these important evaluation elements and the CADSC recommendations will lead to further development of structured guidelines for CAD performance assessment. Proper assessment of CAD system performance is expected to increase the understanding of a CAD system's effectiveness and limitations, which is expected to stimulate further research and development efforts on CAD technologies, reduce problems due to improper use, and eventually improve the utility and efficacy of CAD

  16. Computer-Aided Remote Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    1994-01-01

    System for remote control of robotic land vehicle requires only small radio-communication bandwidth. Twin video cameras on vehicle create stereoscopic images. Operator views cross-polarized images on two cathode-ray tubes through correspondingly polarized spectacles. By use of cursor on frozen image, remote operator designates path. Vehicle proceeds to follow path, by use of limited degree of autonomous control to cope with unexpected conditions. System concept, called "computer-aided remote driving" (CARD), potentially useful in exploration of other planets, military surveillance, firefighting, and clean-up of hazardous materials.

  17. Computer-aided diagnostic scheme for distinction between benign and malignant nodules in thoracic low-dose CT by use of massive training artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenji; Li, Feng; Sone, Shusuke; Doi, Kunio

    2005-09-01

    Low-dose helical computed tomography (LDCT) is being applied as a modality for lung cancer screening. It may be difficult, however, for radiologists to distinguish malignant from benign nodules in LDCT. Our purpose in this study was to develop a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for distinction between benign and malignant nodules in LDCT scans by use of a massive training artificial neural network (MTANN). The MTANN is a trainable, highly nonlinear filter based on an artificial neural network. To distinguish malignant nodules from six different types of benign nodules, we developed multiple MTANNs (multi-MTANN) consisting of six expert MTANNs that are arranged in parallel. Each of the MTANNs was trained by use of input CT images and teaching images containing the estimate of the distribution for the "likelihood of being a malignant nodule," i.e., the teaching image for a malignant nodule contains a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution and that for a benign nodule contains zero. Each MTANN was trained independently with ten typical malignant nodules and ten benign nodules from each of the six types. The outputs of the six MTANNs were combined by use of an integration ANN such that the six types of benign nodules could be distinguished from malignant nodules. After training of the integration ANN, our scheme provided a value related to the "likelihood of malignancy" of a nodule, i.e., a higher value indicates a malignant nodule, and a lower value indicates a benign nodule. Our database consisted of 76 primary lung cancers in 73 patients and 413 benign nodules in 342 patients, which were obtained from a lung cancer screening program on 7847 screenees with LDCT for three years in Nagano, Japan. The performance of our scheme for distinction between benign and malignant nodules was evaluated by use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Our scheme achieved an Az (area under the ROC curve) value of 0.882 in a round-robin test. Our scheme correctly

  18. Computer-aided detection system performance on current and previous digital mammograms in patients with contralateral metachronous breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Ja; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cho, Nariya; Chang, Jung Min

    2012-05-01

    The computer-aided detection (CAD) system is widely used for screening mammography. The performance of the CAD system for contralateral breast cancer has not been reported for women with a history of breast cancer. To retrospectively evaluate the performance of a CAD system on current and previous mammograms in patients with contralateral metachronous breast cancer. During a 3-year period, 4945 postoperative patients had follow-up examinations, from whom we selected 55 women with contralateral breast cancers. Among them, 38 had visible malignant signs on the current mammograms. We analyzed the sensitivity and false-positive marks of the system on the current and previous mammograms according to lesion type and breast density. The total visible lesion components on the current mammograms included 27 masses and 14 calcifications in 38 patients. The case-based sensitivity for all lesion types was 63.2% (24/38) with false-positive marks of 0.71 per patient. The lesion-based sensitivity for masses and calcifications was 59.3% (16/27) and 71.4% (10/14), respectively. The lesion-based sensitivity for masses in fatty and dense breasts was 68.8% (11/16) and 45.5% (5/11), respectively. The lesion-based sensitivity for calcifications in fatty and dense breasts was 100.0% (3/3) and 63.6% (7/11), respectively. The total visible lesion components on the previous mammograms included 13 masses and three calcifications in 16 patients, and the sensitivity for all lesion types was 31.3% (5/16) with false-positive marks of 0.81 per patient. On these mammograms, the sensitivity for masses and calcifications was 30.8% (4/13) and 33.3% (1/3), respectively. The sensitivity in fatty and dense breasts was 28.6% (2/7) and 33.3% (3/9), respectively. In the women with a history of breast cancer, the sensitivity of the CAD system in visible contralateral breast cancer was lower than in most previous reports using the same CAD system probably due to the relatively small size, subtlety of the

  19. Measurement of myocardial perfusion and infarction size using computer-aided diagnosis system for myocardial contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Du, Guo-Qing; Xue, Jing-Yi; Guo, Yanhui; Chen, Shuang; Du, Pei; Wu, Yan; Wang, Yu-Hang; Zong, Li-Qiu; Tian, Jia-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Proper evaluation of myocardial microvascular perfusion and assessment of infarct size is critical for clinicians. We have developed a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) approach for myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) to measure myocardial perfusion and infarct size. Rabbits underwent 15 min of coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (group I, n = 15) or 60 min of coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (group II, n = 15). Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed before and 7 d after ischemia/reperfusion, and images were analyzed with the CAD system on the basis of eliminating particle swarm optimization clustering analysis. The myocardium was quickly and accurately detected using contrast-enhanced images, myocardial perfusion was quantitatively calibrated and a color-coded map calibrated by contrast intensity and automatically produced by the CAD system was used to outline the infarction region. Calibrated contrast intensity was significantly lower in infarct regions than in non-infarct regions, allowing differentiation of abnormal and normal myocardial perfusion. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis documented that -54-pixel contrast intensity was an optimal cutoff point for the identification of infarcted myocardium with a sensitivity of 95.45% and specificity of 87.50%. Infarct sizes obtained using myocardial perfusion defect analysis of original contrast images and the contrast intensity-based color-coded map in computerized images were compared with infarct sizes measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Use of the proposed CAD approach provided observers with more information. The infarct sizes obtained with myocardial perfusion defect analysis, the contrast intensity-based color-coded map and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were 23.72 ± 8.41%, 21.77 ± 7.8% and 18.21 ± 4.40% (% left ventricle) respectively (p > 0.05), indicating that computerized myocardial contrast echocardiography can

  20. Machine Learning for Computer-aided Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Mitsutaka; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Nomura, Yukihiro; Hanaoka, Shohei; Miki, Soichiro; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Ootomo, Kuni

    Machine learning algorithms are to analyze any dataset to extract data-driven model, prediction rule, or decision rule from the dataset. Various machine learning algorithms are now used to develop high-performance medical image processing systems such as computer-aided detection (CADe) system which detects clinically significant objects from medical images and computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system which quantifies malignancy of manually or automatically detected clinical objects. In this paper, we introduce some applications of machine learning algorithms to the development of medical image processing system.

  1. Computer-aided diagnostic scheme for the detection of lung nodules on chest radiographs: Localized search method based on anatomical classification

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Suzuki, Kenji; Engelmann, Roger; Doi, Kunio

    2006-07-15

    We developed an advanced computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of various types of lung nodules on chest radiographs intended for implementation in clinical situations. We used 924 digitized chest images (992 noncalcified nodules) which had a 500x500 matrix size with a 1024 gray scale. The images were divided randomly into two sets which were used for training and testing of the computerized scheme. In this scheme, the lung field was first segmented by use of a ribcage detection technique, and then a large search area (448x448 matrix size) within the chest image was automatically determined by taking into account the locations of a midline and a top edge of the segmented ribcage. In order to detect lung nodule candidates based on a localized search method, we divided the entire search area into 7x7 regions of interest (ROIs: 64x64 matrix size). In the next step, each ROI was classified anatomically into apical, peripheral, hilar, and diaphragm/heart regions by use of its image features. Identification of lung nodule candidates and extraction of image features were applied for each localized region (128x128 matrix size), each having its central part (64x64 matrix size) located at a position corresponding to a ROI that was classified anatomically in the previous step. Initial candidates were identified by use of the nodule-enhanced image obtained with the average radial-gradient filtering technique, in which the filter size was varied adaptively depending on the location and the anatomical classification of the ROI. We extracted 57 image features from the original and nodule-enhanced images based on geometric, gray-level, background structure, and edge-gradient features. In addition, 14 image features were obtained from the corresponding locations in the contralateral subtraction image. A total of 71 image features were employed for three sequential artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to reduce the number of false-positive candidates. All

  2. Computer-aided diagnostic scheme for the detection of lung nodules on chest radiographs: localized search method based on anatomical classification.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Suzuki, Kenji; Engelmann, Roger; Doi, Kunio

    2006-07-01

    We developed an advanced computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of various types of lung nodules on chest radiographs intended for implementation in clinical situations. We used 924 digitized chest images (992 noncalcified nodules) which had a 500 x 500 matrix size with a 1024 gray scale. The images were divided randomly into two sets which were used for training and testing of the computerized scheme. In this scheme, the lung field was first segmented by use of a ribcage detection technique, and then a large search area (448 x 448 matrix size) within the chest image was automatically determined by taking into account the locations of a midline and a top edge of the segmented ribcage. In order to detect lung nodule candidates based on a localized search method, we divided the entire search area into 7 x 7 regions of interest (ROIs: 64 x 64 matrix size). In the next step, each ROI was classified anatomically into apical, peripheral, hilar, and diaphragm/heart regions by use of its image features. Identification of lung nodule candidates and extraction of image features were applied for each localized region (128 x 128 matrix size), each having its central part (64 x 64 matrix size) located at a position corresponding to a ROI that was classified anatomically in the previous step. Initial candidates were identified by use of the nodule-enhanced image obtained with the average radial-gradient filtering technique, in which the filter size was varied adaptively depending on the location and the anatomical classification of the ROI. We extracted 57 image features from the original and nodule-enhanced images based on geometric, gray-level, background structure, and edge-gradient features. In addition, 14 image features were obtained from the corresponding locations in the contralateral subtraction image. A total of 71 image features were employed for three sequential artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to reduce the number of false

  3. Downgrading BIRADS 3 to BIRADS 2 category using a computer-aided microcalcification analysis and risk assessment system for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulou, Georgia; Spyrou, George M; Antaraki, Argyro; Andreadis, Ioannis; Koulocheri, Dimitra; Zagouri, Flora; Nonni, Afroditi; Filippakis, George M; Nikita, Konstantina S; Ligomenides, Panos A; Zografos, George C

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of a computer-aided diagnosis system to discriminate the real benign microcalcifications among a specific subset of 109 patients with BIRADS 3 mammograms who had undergone biopsy, thus making it possible to downgrade them to BIRADS 2 category. The system detected and quantified critical features of microcalcifications and classified them on a risk percentage scale for malignancy. The system successfully detected all cancers. Nevertheless, it suggested biopsy for 11/15 atypical lesions. Finally, the system characterized as definitely benign (BIRADS 2) 29/88 benign lesions, previously assigned to BIRADS 3, and thus achieved a reduction of 33% in unnecessary biopsies.

  4. Computer-aided dermoscopy for diagnosis of melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Barzegari, Masoomeh; Ghaninezhad, Haiedeh; Mansoori, Parisa; Taheri, Arash; Naraghi, Zahra S; Asgari, Masood

    2005-01-01

    Background Computer-aided dermoscopy using artificial neural networks has been reported to be an accurate tool for the evaluation of pigmented skin lesions. We set out to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a computer-aided dermoscopy system for diagnosis of melanoma in Iranian patients. Methods We studied 122 pigmented skin lesions which were referred for diagnostic evaluation or cosmetic reasons. Each lesion was examined by two clinicians with naked eyes and all of their clinical diagnostic considerations were recorded. The lesions were analyzed using a microDERM® dermoscopy unit. The output value of the software for each lesion was a score between 0 and 10. All of the lesions were excised and examined histologically. Results Histopathological examination revealed melanoma in six lesions. Considering only the most likely clinical diagnosis, sensitivity and specificity of clinical examination for diagnosis of melanoma were 83% and 96%, respectively. Considering all clinical diagnostic considerations, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 89%. Choosing a cut-off point of 7.88 for dermoscopy score, the sensitivity and specificity of the score for diagnosis of melanoma were 83% and 96%, respectively. Setting the cut-off point at 7.34, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 90%. Conclusion The diagnostic accuracy of the dermoscopy system was at the level of clinical examination by dermatologists with naked eyes. This system may represent a useful tool for screening of melanoma, particularly at centers not experienced in the field of pigmented skin lesions. PMID:16000171

  5. Computer aided diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekh, Viktor; Soliz, Peter; McGrew, Elizabeth; Barriga, Simon; Burge, Mark; Luan, Shuang

    2014-03-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) refers to the nerve damage that can occur in diabetes patients. It most often affects the extremities, such as the feet, and can lead to peripheral vascular disease, deformity, infection, ulceration, and even amputation. The key to managing diabetic foot is prevention and early detection. Unfortunately, current existing diagnostic techniques are mostly based on patient sensations and exhibit significant inter- and intra-observer differences. We have developed a computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The thermal response of the feet of diabetic patients following cold stimulus is captured using an infrared camera. The plantar foot in the images from a thermal video are segmented and registered for tracking points or specific regions. The temperature recovery of each point on the plantar foot is extracted using our bio-thermal model and analyzed. The regions that exhibit abnormal ability to recover are automatically identified to aid the physicians to recognize problematic areas. The key to our CAD system is the segmentation of infrared video. The main challenges for segmenting infrared video compared to normal digital video are (1) as the foot warms up, it also warms up the surrounding, creating an ever changing contrast; and (2) there may be significant motion during imaging. To overcome this, a hybrid segmentation algorithm was developed based on a number of techniques such as continuous max-flow, model based segmentation, shape preservation, convex hull, and temperature normalization. Verifications of the automatic segmentation and registration using manual segmentation and markers show good agreement.

  6. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis in hysteroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Neofytou, M S; Tanos, V; Constantinou, I; Kyriacou, E C; Pattichis, M S; Pattichis, C S

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents the development of a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system for the early detection of endometrial cancer. The proposed CAD system supports reproducibility through texture feature standardization, standardized multifeature selection, and provides physicians with comparative distributions of the extracted texture features. The CAD system was validated using 516 regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from 52 subjects. The ROIs were equally distributed among normal and abnormal cases. To support reproducibility, the RGB images were first gamma corrected and then converted into HSV and YCrCb. From each channel of the gamma-corrected YCrCb, HSV, and RGB color systems, we extracted the following texture features: 1) statistical features (SFs), 2) spatial gray-level dependence matrices (SGLDM), and 3) gray-level difference statistics (GLDS). The texture features were then used as inputs with support vector machines (SVMs) and the probabilistic neural network (PNN) classifiers. After accounting for multiple comparisons, texture features extracted from abnormal ROIs were found to be significantly different than texture features extracted from normal ROIs. Compared to texture features extracted from normal ROIs, abnormal ROIs were characterized by lower image intensity, while variance, entropy, and contrast gave higher values. In terms of ROI classification, the best results were achieved by using SF and GLDS features with an SVM classifier. For this combination, the proposed CAD system achieved an 81% correct classification rate.

  8. Design of the Digital Sky Survey DA and online system---A case history in the use of computer aided tools for data acquisition system design

    SciTech Connect

    Petravick, D.; Berman, E.; Nicinski, T.; Rechenmacher, R.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Stoughton, C.

    1991-06-01

    As part of its expanding Astrophysics program, Fermilab is participating in the Digital Sky Survey (DSS). Fermilab is part of a collaboration involving University of Chicago, Princeton University, and the Institute of Advanced Studies (at Princeton). DSS main results will be a photometric imaging survey and a redshift survey of galaxies and color-selected quasars over {pi} steradians of the Northern Galactic Cap. This paper focuses on our use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) in specifying the data system for DSS. Extensions to standard'' methodologies were necessary to compensate for tool shortcomings and to improve communication amongst the collaboration members. One such important extension was the incorporation of CASE information into the specification document. 7 refs.

  9. Texture Analysis of Supraspinatus Ultrasound Image for Computer Aided Diagnostic System

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byung Eun; Jang, Won Seuk

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In this paper, we proposed an algorithm for recognizing a rotator cuff supraspinatus tendon tear using a texture analysis based on a histogram, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and gray level run length matrix (GLRLM). Methods First, we applied a total of 57 features (5 first order descriptors, 40 GLCM features, and 12 GLRLM features) to each rotator cuff region of interest. Our results show that first order statistics (mean, skewness, entropy, energy, smoothness), GLCM (correlation, contrast, energy, entropy, difference entropy, homogeneity, maximum probability, sum average, sum entropy), and GLRLM features are helpful to distinguish a normal supraspinatus tendon and an abnormal supraspinatus tendon. The statistical significance of these features is verified using a t-test. The support vector machine classification showed accuracy using feature combinations. Support Vector Machine offers good performance with a small amount of training data. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy are used to evaluate performance of a classification test. Results From the results, first order statics features and GLCM and GLRLM features afford 95%, 85%, and 100% accuracy, respectively. First order statistics and GLCM and GLRLM features in combination provided 100% accuracy. Combinations that include GLRLM features had high accuracy. GLRLM features were confirmed as highly accurate features for classified normal and abnormal. Conclusions This algorithm will be helpful to diagnose supraspinatus tendon tear on ultrasound images. PMID:27895962

  10. Computer-Aided Design in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Peter, Ed.

    This publication updates the 1982 occasional paper that was intended to foster staff awareness and assist colleges in Great Britain considering the use of computer-aided design (CAD) material in engineering courses. The paper begins by defining CAD and its place in the Integrated Business System with a brief discussion of the effect of CAD on the…

  11. Computer-Aided Design in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Peter, Ed.

    This publication updates the 1982 occasional paper that was intended to foster staff awareness and assist colleges in Great Britain considering the use of computer-aided design (CAD) material in engineering courses. The paper begins by defining CAD and its place in the Integrated Business System with a brief discussion of the effect of CAD on the…

  12. Integrated Computer-Aided Drafting Instruction (ICADI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, C. Y.; McCampbell, David H.

    Until recently, computer-aided drafting and design (CAD) systems were almost exclusively operated on mainframes or minicomputers and their cost prohibited many schools from offering CAD instruction. Today, many powerful personal computers are capable of performing the high-speed calculation and analysis required by the CAD application; however,…

  13. Computer Aided Modeling and Post Processing with NASTRAN Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroughs, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Computer aided engineering systems are invaluable tools in performing NASTRAN finite element analysis. These techniques are implemented in both the pre-processing and post-processing phases of the NASTRAN analysis. The finite element model development, or pre-processing phase, was automated with a computer aided modeling program called Supertabl, and the review and interpretation of the results of the NASTRAN analysis, or post-processing phase, was automated with a computer aided plotting program called Output Display. An intermediate program, Nasplot, which was developed in-house, has also helped to cut down on the model checkout time and reduce errors in the model. An interface has been established between the finite element computer aided engineering system and the Learjet computer aided design system whereby data can be transferred back and forth between the two. These systems have significantly improved productivity and the ability to perform NASTRAN analysis in response to product development requests.

  14. Proceedings of the NATO-Advanced Study Institute on Computer Aided Analysis of Rigid and Flexible Mechanical Systems. Volume 1: Main lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Manuel S.; Ambrosio, Jorge A. C.

    1993-07-01

    During the last few years, major scientific progress has been achieved in fields related to computer aided analysis of multibody systems. In view of this progress and recent developments of computer hardware and general purpose software, there is a need to access the current state of art and results from different schools of thought, with the objective of focussing trends in future research. Going back to 1983 when an important NATO-NSF-ARO Advanced Study Institute on Computer Aided Analysis and Optimization of Mechanical Systems was held at the University of Iowa, one may notice that less then 10 years ago the state of art was mainly dwelling on rigid body dynamics. The interest in the dynamic simulation of mechanical systems has steadily increased in recent years coming mainly from the aerospace and automative industries. The development of multibody system analysis formulations have been more recently motivated with the need to include several features such as: real-time simulation capabilities, highly non-linear control devices, work space path planing, active control of machine flexibilities and reliability and accuracy in the analysis results. The need for accurate and efficient analysis tools for design of large and lightweight mechanical systems has driven many research groups in the challenging problem of flexible systems with an increasing interaction with finite element methodologies. Basic approaches to mechanical systems dynamic analysis have recently been presented in several new text books. These publications demonstrate that both recursive and absolute methods still have their proponents to resolve the redundancy encountered in most mechanical systems.

  15. Diagnosis of osteoporosis from dental panoramic radiographs using the support vector machine method in a computer-aided system.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, M S; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira; Kurita, Takio; Sanada, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-16

    Early diagnosis of osteoporosis can potentially decrease the risk of fractures and improve the quality of life. Detection of thin inferior cortices of the mandible on dental panoramic radiographs could be useful for identifying postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD) or osteoporosis. The aim of our study was to assess the diagnostic efficacy of using kernel-based support vector machine (SVM) learning regarding the cortical width of the mandible on dental panoramic radiographs to identify postmenopausal women with low BMD. We employed our newly adopted SVM method for continuous measurement of the cortical width of the mandible on dental panoramic radiographs to identify women with low BMD or osteoporosis. The original X-ray image was enhanced, cortical boundaries were determined, distances among the upper and lower boundaries were evaluated and discrimination was performed by a radial basis function. We evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of this newly developed method for identifying women with low BMD (BMD T-score of -1.0 or less) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck in 100 postmenopausal women (≥50 years old) with no previous diagnosis of osteoporosis. Sixty women were used for system training, and 40 were used in testing. The sensitivity and specificity using RBF kernel-SVM method for identifying women with low BMD were 90.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 85.3-96.5] and 83.8% (95% CI, 76.6-91.0), respectively at the lumbar spine and 90.0% (95% CI, 84.1-95.9) and 69.1% (95% CI, 60.1-78.6), respectively at the femoral neck. The sensitivity and specificity for identifying women with low BMD at either the lumbar spine or femoral neck were 90.6% (95% CI, 92.0-100) and 80.9% (95% CI, 71.0-86.9), respectively. Our results suggest that the newly developed system with the SVM method would be useful for identifying postmenopausal women with low skeletal BMD.

  16. Computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) for colposcopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Holger; Ferris, Daron G.

    2005-04-01

    Uterine cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Colposcopy is a diagnostic method, whereby a physician (colposcopist) visually inspects the lower genital tract (cervix, vulva and vagina), with special emphasis on the subjective appearance of metaplastic epithelium comprising the transformation zone on the cervix. Cervical cancer precursor lesions and invasive cancer exhibit certain distinctly abnormal morphologic features. Lesion characteristics such as margin; color or opacity; blood vessel caliber, intercapillary spacing and distribution; and contour are considered by colposcopists to derive a clinical diagnosis. Clinicians and academia have suggested and shown proof of concept that automated image analysis of cervical imagery can be used for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis, having the potential to have a direct impact on improving women"s health care and reducing associated costs. STI Medical Systems is developing a Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system for colposcopy -- ColpoCAD. At the heart of ColpoCAD is a complex multi-sensor, multi-data and multi-feature image analysis system. A functional description is presented of the envisioned ColpoCAD system, broken down into: Modality Data Management System, Image Enhancement, Feature Extraction, Reference Database, and Diagnosis and directed Biopsies. The system design and development process of the image analysis system is outlined. The system design provides a modular and open architecture built on feature based processing. The core feature set includes the visual features used by colposcopists. This feature set can be extended to include new features introduced by new instrument technologies, like fluorescence and impedance, and any other plausible feature that can be extracted from the cervical data. Preliminary results of our research on detecting the three most important features: blood vessel structures, acetowhite regions and lesion margins are shown. As this is a new

  17. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Images Based on Level Set Segmentation and ReliefF Feature Selection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dongmei; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study established a fully automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for the classification of malignant and benign masses via breast magnetic resonance imaging (BMRI). A breast segmentation method consisting of a preprocessing step to identify the air-breast interfacing boundary and curve fitting for chest wall line (CWL) segmentation was included in the proposed CAD system. The Chan-Vese (CV) model level set (LS) segmentation method was adopted to segment breast mass and demonstrated sufficiently good segmentation performance. The support vector machine (SVM) classifier with ReliefF feature selection was used to merge the extracted morphological and texture features into a classification score. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity measurements for the leave-half-case-out resampling method were 92.3%, 98.2%, and 76.2%, respectively. For the leave-one-case-out resampling method, the measurements were 90.0%, 98.7%, and 73.8%, respectively. PMID:25628755

  18. Computer-aided design (CAD) model for silicon avalanche Geiger mode systems design: Application to high sensitivity imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jradi, K.; Pellion, D.; Esteve, D.; Boizard, J. L.; Le Padellec, A.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    Our consortium CESR-LAAS in Toulouse has developed generic technology for Geiger-APD and SiPM. The main feature of these devices is the high homogeneity in breakdown voltage. The work presented here describes the model that has been used to design these devices. This also includes the integration into micro-systems, with the ambition in the long term, to develop multiple applications in astrophysics, biology, optical sensing, and above all, imaging systems. The paper is divided as follows: An introduction presents the main issues in the physics of silicon avalanche Geiger mode systems. A section (Geiger mode) divided into two parts. The first part is devoted to the electrical model of the basic device, which provides the response of the Geiger-APD to an incident photon: gain, current, and voltage. The second part presents the production of the model using Simplorer simulation software under VHDL-AMS (VHSIC—Very High Speed Integrated Circuit-Hardware Description Language-Analog and Mixed Signal) [1]. A comparison between our model and that used by Otono et al. [5] followed by a discussion with a special emphasis on presenting the noise model based on the real component made and tested by our consortium. A conclusion.

  19. Computer-Aided Writing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    Adapter IBM ............. International Business Machines K ............... Kilo (thousand) LAN ............. Local Area Network M ............... Mega ...and Review Software ................. 18 Other ................................................ 19 Communications and Networking Systems...Defense Data Network DOS ............. Disk Operating System DTP ............. Desktop Publishing EGA ............. Enhanced Graphics

  20. Computer-aided modeling and prediction of performance of the modified Lundell class of alternators in space station solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, Nabeel A. O.; Wang, Ren-Hong

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of this project is the development of computer-aided models for purposes of studying the effects of various design changes on the parameters and performance characteristics of the modified Lundell class of alternators (MLA) as components of a solar dynamic power system supplying electric energy needs in the forthcoming space station. Key to this modeling effort is the computation of magnetic field distribution in MLAs. Since the nature of the magnetic field is three-dimensional, the first step in the investigation was to apply the finite element method to discretize volume, using the tetrahedron as the basic 3-D element. Details of the stator 3-D finite element grid are given. A preliminary look at the early stage of a 3-D rotor grid is presented.

  1. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  2. Computer-Aided Geometry Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoosmith, J. N. (Compiler); Fulton, R. E. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Techniques in computer-aided geometry modeling and their application are addressed. Mathematical modeling, solid geometry models, management of geometric data, development of geometry standards, and interactive and graphic procedures are discussed. The applications include aeronautical and aerospace structures design, fluid flow modeling, and gas turbine design.

  3. Computer Aided Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Elisabeth

    An approach to using the computer to assemble German tests is described. The purposes of the system would be: (1) an expansion of the bilingual lexical memory bank to list and store idioms of all degrees of difficulty, with frequency data and with complete and sophisticated retrieval possibility for assembly; (2) the creation of an…

  4. Radiological technologists' performance for the detection of malignant microcalcifications in digital mammograms without and with a computer-aided detection system.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Takamori, Miho; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Shiraishi, Junji

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of radiological technologists (RTs) in the detection of malignant microcalcifications and to evaluate how much computer-aided detection (CADe) improved their performances compared with those by expert breast radiologists (BRs). Six board-certified breast RTs and four board-certified BRs participated in a free-response receiver operating characteristic observer study. The dataset consisted of 75 cases (25 malignant, 25 benign, and 25 normal cases) of digital mammograms, selected from the digital database for screening mammography provided by the University of South Florida. Average figure of merit (FOM) of the RTs' performances was statistically analyzed using jack-knife free-response receiver operating characteristic and compared with that of expert BRs. The detection performance of RTs was significantly improved by using CADe; average sensitivity was increased from 46.7% to 56.7%, with a decrease in the average number of false positives per case from 0.19 to 0.13. Detection accuracy of an average FOM was improved from 0.680 to 0.816 ([Formula: see text]) and the difference in FOMs between RTs and radiologists failed to reach statistical significance. RTs' performances for the identification of malignant microcalcifications on digital mammography were sufficiently high and comparable to those of radiologists by using CADe.

  5. Issues of a Computer-Aided Design of Hydraulic Jacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averchenkov, V. I.; Averchenkov, A. V.; Kolyakinand, V. V.; Orekhov, O. D.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the issues of a computer-aided design of hydraulic equipment, namely hydraulic jacks. Design principles of the hydraulic jack CAD system are described. In addition, the possibilities for the system improvement and expansion are considered.

  6. Computer-aided system of evaluation for population-based all-in-one service screening (CASE-PASS): from study design to outcome analysis with bias adjustment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Sheng; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Duffy, Stephen W; Tabar, Laszlo; Lin, Wen-Chou; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2010-10-01

    Population-based routine service screening has gained popularity following an era of randomized controlled trials. The evaluation of these service screening programs is subject to study design, data availability, and the precise data analysis for adjusting bias. We developed a computer-aided system that allows the evaluation of population-based service screening to unify these aspects and facilitate and guide the program assessor to efficiently perform an evaluation. This system underpins two experimental designs: the posttest-only non-equivalent design and the one-group pretest-posttest design and demonstrates the type of data required at both the population and individual levels. Three major analyses were developed that included a cumulative mortality analysis, survival analysis with lead-time adjustment, and self-selection bias adjustment. We used SAS AF software to develop a graphic interface system with a pull-down menu style. We demonstrate the application of this system with data obtained from a Swedish population-based service screen and a population-based randomized controlled trial for the screening of breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer, and one service screening program for cervical cancer with Pap smears. The system provided automated descriptive results based on the various sources of available data and cumulative mortality curves corresponding to the study designs. The comparison of cumulative survival between clinically and screen-detected cases without a lead-time adjustment are also demonstrated. The intention-to-treat and noncompliance analysis with self-selection bias adjustments are also shown to assess the effectiveness of the population-based service screening program. Model validation was composed of a comparison between our adjusted self-selection bias estimates and the empirical results on effectiveness reported in the literature. We demonstrate a computer-aided system allowing the evaluation of population-based service screening

  7. Robustness evaluation of a computer-aided detection system for pulmonary embolism (PE) in CTPA using independent test set from multiple institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Wei, Jun; Patel, Smita

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for assisting radiologists in detection of pulmonary embolism (PE) in computed tomographic pulmonary angiographic (CTPA) images. The CAD system includes stages of pulmonary vessel segmentation, prescreening of PE candidates and false positive (FP) reduction to identify suspicious PEs. The system was trained with 59 CTPA PE cases collected retrospectively from our patient files (UM set) with IRB approval. Five feature groups containing 139 features that characterized the intensity texture, gradient, intensity homogeneity, shape, and topology of PE candidates were initially extracted. Stepwise feature selection guided by simplex optimization was used to select effective features for FP reduction. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier was formulated to differentiate true PEs from FPs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of our CAD system using an independent test set of CTPA cases. The test set consists of 50 PE cases from the PIOPED II data set collected by multiple institutions with access permission. A total of 537 PEs were manually marked by experienced thoracic radiologists as reference standard for the test set. The detection performance was evaluated by freeresponse receiver operating characteristic (FROC) analysis. The FP classifier obtained a test Az value of 0.847 and the FROC analysis indicated that the CAD system achieved an overall sensitivity of 80% at 8.6 FPs/case for the PIOPED test set.

  8. An adaptive incremental approach to constructing ensemble classifiers: Application in an information-theoretic computer-aided decision system for detection of masses in mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurowski, Maciej A.; Zurada, Jacek M.; Tourassi, Georgia D.

    2009-07-15

    Ensemble classifiers have been shown efficient in multiple applications. In this article, the authors explore the effectiveness of ensemble classifiers in a case-based computer-aided diagnosis system for detection of masses in mammograms. They evaluate two general ways of constructing subclassifiers by resampling of the available development dataset: Random division and random selection. Furthermore, they discuss the problem of selecting the ensemble size and propose two adaptive incremental techniques that automatically select the size for the problem at hand. All the techniques are evaluated with respect to a previously proposed information-theoretic CAD system (IT-CAD). The experimental results show that the examined ensemble techniques provide a statistically significant improvement (AUC=0.905{+-}0.024) in performance as compared to the original IT-CAD system (AUC=0.865{+-}0.029). Some of the techniques allow for a notable reduction in the total number of examples stored in the case base (to 1.3% of the original size), which, in turn, results in lower storage requirements and a shorter response time of the system. Among the methods examined in this article, the two proposed adaptive techniques are by far the most effective for this purpose. Furthermore, the authors provide some discussion and guidance for choosing the ensemble parameters.

  9. Computer-aided screening system for cervical precancerous cells based on field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray images and spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusman, Yessi; Ng, Siew-Cheok; Hasikin, Khairunnisa; Kurnia, Rahmadi; Osman, Noor Azuan Bin Abu; Teoh, Kean Hooi

    2016-10-01

    The capability of field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDX) to scan material structures at the microlevel and characterize the material with its elemental properties has inspired this research, which has developed an FE-SEM/EDX-based cervical cancer screening system. The developed computer-aided screening system consisted of two parts, which were the automatic features of extraction and classification. For the automatic features extraction algorithm, the image and spectra of cervical cells features extraction algorithm for extracting the discriminant features of FE-SEM/EDX data was introduced. The system automatically extracted two types of features based on FE-SEM/EDX images and FE-SEM/EDX spectra. Textural features were extracted from the FE-SEM/EDX image using a gray level co-occurrence matrix technique, while the FE-SEM/EDX spectra features were calculated based on peak heights and corrected area under the peaks using an algorithm. A discriminant analysis technique was employed to predict the cervical precancerous stage into three classes: normal, low-grade intraepithelial squamous lesion (LSIL), and high-grade intraepithelial squamous lesion (HSIL). The capability of the developed screening system was tested using 700 FE-SEM/EDX spectra (300 normal, 200 LSIL, and 200 HSIL cases). The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity performances were 98.2%, 99.0%, and 98.0%, respectively.

  10. Computer-aided design development transition for IPAD environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, H. G.; Mock, W. D.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of federally sponsored computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) programs to the aircraft life cycle design process, an overview of NAAD'S CAD development program, an evaluation of the CAD design process, a discussion of the current computing environment within which NAAD is developing its CAD system, some of the advantages/disadvantages of the NAAD-IPAD approach, and CAD developments during transition into the IPAD system are discussed.

  11. Computer-aided design development transition for IPAD environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, H. G.; Mock, W. D.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of federally sponsored computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) programs to the aircraft life cycle design process, an overview of NAAD'S CAD development program, an evaluation of the CAD design process, a discussion of the current computing environment within which NAAD is developing its CAD system, some of the advantages/disadvantages of the NAAD-IPAD approach, and CAD developments during transition into the IPAD system are discussed.

  12. Development of a Computer-aided Diagnosis System for Early Detection of Masses Using Retrospectively Detected Cancers on Prior Mammograms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    developed CAD system into our current CAD system. We hypothesize t hat a du al CAD system, which combines a sy stem tr ained with subtle lesions...mortality rate, the CAD sy stem will be useful for in creasing the effectiveness of mammographic screening. 5 (5) Body This is the final re...computerized detection system. We found that our multiple v iew CAD sy stem significantly improved the accuracy for mass d etection on mammograms

  13. Survey of Intelligent Computer-Aided Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) systems integrate artificial intelligence and simulation technologies to deliver training for complex, procedural tasks in a distributed, workstation-based environment. Such systems embody both the knowledge of how to perform a task and how to train someone to perform that task. This paper briefly reviews the antecedents of ICAT systems and describes the approach to their creation developed at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. In addition to the general ICAT architecture, specific ICAT applications that have been or are currently under development are discussed. ICAT systems can offer effective solutions to a number of training problems of interest to the aerospace community.

  14. Survey of Intelligent Computer-Aided Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) systems integrate artificial intelligence and simulation technologies to deliver training for complex, procedural tasks in a distributed, workstation-based environment. Such systems embody both the knowledge of how to perform a task and how to train someone to perform that task. This paper briefly reviews the antecedents of ICAT systems and describes the approach to their creation developed at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. In addition to the general ICAT architecture, specific ICAT applications that have been or are currently under development are discussed. ICAT systems can offer effective solutions to a number of training problems of interest to the aerospace community.

  15. A computer-aided diagnosis for distinguishing Tourette's syndrome from chronic tic disorder in children by a fuzzy system with a two-step minimization approach.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tang-Kai; Chiu, Nan-Tsing

    2004-07-01

    Tourette's syndrome, no longer considered as a rare and unusual disease, is the most severe tic disorder in children. Early differential diagnosis between Tourette's syndrome and chronic tic disorder is difficult but important because proper and early medical therapy can improve the child's condition. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime is a method to distinguish these two diseases. In this paper, a fuzzy system called characteristic-point-based fuzzy inference system (CPFIS) is proposed to help radiologists perform computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The CPFIS consists of SPECT-volume processing, input-variables selection, characteristic-points (CPs) derivation, and parameter tuning of the fuzzy system. Experimental results showed that the major fuzzy rules from the obtained CPs match the major patterns of Tourette's syndrome and chronic tic disorder in perfusion imaging. If any case that was diagnosed as chronic tic by the radiologist but as Tourette's syndrome by the CPFIS was taken as Tourette's syndrome, then the accuracy of the radiologist was increased from 87.5% (21 of 24) without the CPFIS to 91.7% (22 of 24) with the CPFIS. All 17 cases of Tourette's syndrome, which is more severe than chronic tic disorder, were correctly classified. Although the construction and application process of the proposed method is complete, more samples should be used and tested in order to design a universally effective CAD without small sample-size concerns in this research.

  16. The adaptive computer-aided diagnosis system based on tumor sizes for the classification of breast tumors detected at screening ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Moon, Woo Kyung; Chen, I-Ling; Chang, Jung Min; Shin, Sung Ui; Lo, Chung-Ming; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Screening ultrasound (US) is increasingly used as a supplement to mammography in women with dense breasts, and more than 80% of cancers detected by US alone are 1cm or smaller. An adaptive computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on tumor size was proposed to classify breast tumors detected at screening US images using quantitative morphological and textural features. In the present study, a database containing 156 tumors (78 benign and 78 malignant) was separated into two subsets of different tumor sizes (<1cm and ⩾1cm) to explore the improvement in the performance of the CAD system. After adaptation, the accuracies, sensitivities, specificities and Az values of the CAD for the entire database increased from 73.1% (114/156), 73.1% (57/78), 73.1% (57/78), and 0.790 to 81.4% (127/156), 83.3% (65/78), 79.5% (62/78), and 0.852, respectively. In the data subset of tumors larger than 1cm, the performance improved from 66.2% (51/77), 68.3% (28/41), 63.9% (23/36), and 0.703 to 81.8% (63/77), 85.4% (35/41), 77.8% (28/36), and 0.855, respectively. The proposed CAD system can be helpful to classify breast tumors detected at screening US.

  17. Comparison between low-cost marker-less and high-end marker-based motion capture systems for the computer-aided assessment of working ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Patrizi, Alfredo; Pennestrì, Ettore; Valentini, Pier Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the comparison between a high-end marker-based acquisition system and a low-cost marker-less methodology for the assessment of the human posture during working tasks. The low-cost methodology is based on the use of a single Microsoft Kinect V1 device. The high-end acquisition system is the BTS SMART that requires the use of reflective markers to be placed on the subject's body. Three practical working activities involving object lifting and displacement have been investigated. The operational risk has been evaluated according to the lifting equation proposed by the American National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The results of the study show that the risk multipliers computed from the two acquisition methodologies are very close for all the analysed activities. In agreement to this outcome, the marker-less methodology based on the Microsoft Kinect V1 device seems very promising to promote the dissemination of computer-aided assessment of ergonomics while maintaining good accuracy and affordable costs. PRACTITIONER’S SUMMARY: The study is motivated by the increasing interest for on-site working ergonomics assessment. We compared a low-cost marker-less methodology with a high-end marker-based system. We tested them on three different working tasks, assessing the working risk of lifting loads. The two methodologies showed comparable precision in all the investigations.

  18. Computer-aided laser-optoelectronic OPTEL 3D measurement systems of complex-shaped object geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiulin, Ravil M.; Galiulin, Rishat M.; Bakirov, J. M.; Bogdanov, D. R.; Shulupin, C. O.; Khamitov, D. H.; Khabibullin, M. G.; Pavlov, A. F.; Ryabov, M. S.; Yamaliev, K. N.

    1996-03-01

    Technical characteristics, advantages and applications of automated optoelectronic measuring systems designed at the Regional Interuniversity Optoelectronic Systems Laboratory ('OPTEL') of Ufa State Aviation Technical University are given. The suggested range of systems is the result of the long-term scientific and research experiments, work on design and introduction work. The system can be applied in industrial development and research, in the field of high precision measurement of geometrical parameters in aerospace, robotic, etc., where non-contact and fast measurements of complicated shape objects made of various materials including brittle and plastic articles are required.

  19. A schema for knowledge representation and its implementation in a computer-aided design and manufacturing system

    SciTech Connect

    Tamir, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Modularity in the design and implementation of expert systems relies upon cooperation among the expert systems and communication of knowledge between them. A prerequisite for an effective modular approach is some standard for knowledge representation to be used by the developers of the different modules. In this work the author presents a schema for knowledge representation, and apply this schema in the design of a rule-based expert system. He also implements a cooperative expert system using the proposed knowledge representation method. A knowledge representation schema is a formal specification of the internal, conceptual, and external components of a knowledge base, each specified in a separate schema. The internal schema defines the structure of a knowledge base, the conceptual schema defines the concepts, and the external schema formalizes the pragmatics of a knowledge base. The schema is the basis for standardizing knowledge representation systems and it is used in the various phases of design and specification of the knowledge base. A new model of knowledge representation based on a pattern recognition interpretation of implications is developed. This model implements the concept of linguistic variables and can, therefore, emulate human reasoning with linguistic imprecision. The test case for the proposed schema of knowledge representation is a system is a cooperative expert system composed of two expert systems. This system applies a pattern recognition interpretation of a generalized one-variable implication with linguistic variables.

  20. Computer-aided cytological cancer diagnosis: cell type classification as a step towards fully automatic cancer diagnostics on cytopathological specimens of serous effusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Timna E.; Bell, André A.; Meyer-Ebrecht, Dietrich; Böcking, Alfred; Aach, Til

    2007-03-01

    Compared to histopathological methods cancer can be detected earlier, specimens can be obtained easier and with less discomfort for the patient by cytopathological methods. Their downside is the time needed by an expert to find and select the cells to be analyzed on a specimen. To increase the use of cytopathological diagnostics, the cytopathologist has to be supported in this task. DNA image cytometry (DNA-ICM) is one important cytopathological method that measures the DNA content of cells based on the absorption of light within Feulgen stained cells. The decision whether or not the patient has cancer is based on the histogram of the DNA values. To support the cytopathologist it is desirable to replace manual screening of the specimens by an automatic selection of relevant cells for DNA-ICM. This includes automated acquisition and segmentation of focused cells, a recognition of cell types, and a selection of cells to be measured. As a step towards automated cell type detection we show the discrimination of cell types in serous effusions on a selection of about 3, 100 manually classified cells. We present a set of 112 features and the results of feature selection with ranking and a floating-search method combined with different objective functions. The validation of the best feature sets with a k-nearest neighbor and a fuzzy k-nearest neighbor classifier on a disjoint set of cells resulted in classification rates of 96% for lymphocytes and 96.8% for the diagnostically relevant cells (mesothelial+ cells), which includes benign and malign mesothelial cells and metastatic cancer cells.

  1. Design analysis and computer-aided performance evaluation of shuttle orbiter electrical power system. Volume 2: SYSTID user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The manual for the use of the computer program SYSTID under the Univac operating system is presented. The computer program is used in the simulation and evaluation of the space shuttle orbiter electric power supply. The models described in the handbook are those which were available in the original versions of SYSTID. The subjects discussed are: (1) program description, (2) input language, (3) node typing, (4) problem submission, and (5) basic and power system SYSTID libraries.

  2. CAMAC and NIM systems in the space program. [Computer-Aided Measurement And Control and Nuclear Instrumentation Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trainor, J. H.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Kaminski, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    The CAMAC and NIM instrumentation systems were developed originally to serve the needs of nuclear research institutions in Europe and North America. CAMAC and NIM are currently considered in several studies at the systems level conducted by NASA and ESRO groups. NIM and CAMAC studies for applications related to the space shuttle are discussed along with the advantages provided by aspects of modularization and standardization, a use of NIM and CAMAC equipment in connection with a group of astrophysics experiments, and questions of cost effectiveness.

  3. The reliability of an easy measuring method for abutment convergence angle with a computer-aided design (CAD) system

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yong-Joon; Kwon, Taek-Ka; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra-rater reliability and inter-rater reliability of three different methods using a drawing protractor, a digital protractor after tracing, and a CAD system. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-four artificial abutments that had been prepared by dental students were used in this study. Three dental students measured the convergence angles by each method three times. Bland-Altman plots were applied to examine the overall reliability by comparing the traditional tracing method with a new method using the CAD system. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) evaluated intra-rater reliability and inter-rater reliability. RESULTS All three methods exhibited high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability (ICC>0.80, P<.05). Measurements with the CAD system showed the highest intra-rater reliability. In addition, it showed improved inter-rater reliability compared with the traditional tracing methods. CONCLUSION Based on the results of this study, the CAD system may be an easy and reliable tool for measuring the abutment convergence angle. PMID:25006382

  4. An Interactive Computer-Aided Instructional Strategy and Assessment Methods for System Identification and Adaptive Control Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özbek, Necdet Sinan; Eker, Ilyas

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a set of real-time interactive experiments that address system identification and model reference adaptive control (MRAC) techniques. In constructing laboratory experiments that contribute to efficient teaching, experimental design and instructional strategy are crucial, but a process for doing this has yet to be defined. This…

  5. Solving rational matrix equations in the state space with applications to computer-aided control-system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, A. K.; Sastry, S. S.

    1986-01-01

    A method of solving a class of linear matrix equations over various rings is proposed, using results from linear geometric control theory. An algorithm, successfully implemented, is presented, along with non-trivial numerical examples. Applications of the method to the algebraic control system design methodology are discussed.

  6. The Use of an Online Learning and Teaching System for Monitoring Computer Aided Design Student Participation and Predicting Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhtar, S.; Warburton, S.; Xu, W.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we report on the use of a purpose built Computer Support Collaborative learning environment designed to support lab-based CAD teaching through the monitoring of student participation and identified predictors of success. This was carried out by analysing data from the interactive learning system and correlating student behaviour with…

  7. Solving rational matrix equations in the state space with applications to computer-aided control-system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, A. K.; Sastry, S. S.

    1986-01-01

    A method of solving a class of linear matrix equations over various rings is proposed, using results from linear geometric control theory. An algorithm, successfully implemented, is presented, along with non-trivial numerical examples. Applications of the method to the algebraic control system design methodology are discussed.

  8. [Evaluation of a Computer-Aided Microscope System and Its Anti-Nuclear Antibody Test Kit for Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Nobuhide; Saegusa, Jun; Uto, Kenichi; Oyabu, Chinami; Saito, Toshiharu; Sato, Itsuko; Kawano, Seiji; Kumagai, Shunichi

    2016-02-01

    Antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing is indispensable for diagnosing and understanding clinical conditions of autoimmune diseases. The indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is the gold standard for ANA screening, and it can detect more than 100 different antibodies, such as anti-PCNA as well as anti-cytoplasmic antibodies. However, complicated procedures of conventional IFA and visual interpretation require highly skilled laboratory staff. This study evaluates the capability, characteristics, and applicability of the recently developed ANA detection system (EUROPattern Cosmic IFA System, EPA) using HEp20-10 cells and the automated pattern recognition microscope. Findings using EPA and conventional methods were compared in 282 sera obtained from connective tissue disease patients and 250 sera from healthy individuals. The concordance of the positivity rate, antibody titer (within +/- 1 tube difference), and the accurate recognition rate of ANA patterns between the automated EPA method and the microscopic judgement of the EPA image by eye was 98.9, 97.4, and 55.3%, respectively. The EPA method showed concordance of the positivity rate as high as 93.3% and concordance of the antibody titer as high as 94.0% (within +/- 1 titer) compared with the conventional method. Regarding the four typical patterns of ANA (homogeneous, speckled, nucleolar, and centromere), large differences between the EPA and conventional methods were not observed, and the rate of concordance between the final EPA result and the conventional method was from 94.1 to 100%. The positivity rate of ANA using the EPA and conventional methods showed marked agreement among the six connective tissue diseases (SLE, MCTD, SSc, PM/DM, and SS) and healthy individuals. Although the EPA system is not considered a complete system and laboratory staff should verify the results, it is a useful system for routine ANA analysis because it contributes to ANA standardization and an efficient workflow.

  9. Investigation of CPD and HMDS sample preparation techniques for cervical cells in developing computer-aided screening system based on FE-SEM/EDX.

    PubMed

    Jusman, Yessi; Ng, Siew Cheok; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated the effects of critical-point drying (CPD) and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) sample preparation techniques for cervical cells on field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (FE-SEM/EDX). We investigated the visualization of cervical cell image and elemental distribution on the cervical cell for two techniques of sample preparation. Using FE-SEM/EDX, the cervical cell images are captured and the cell element compositions are extracted for both sample preparation techniques. Cervical cell image quality, elemental composition, and processing time are considered for comparison of performances. Qualitatively, FE-SEM image based on HMDS preparation technique has better image quality than CPD technique in terms of degree of spread cell on the specimen and morphologic signs of cell deteriorations (i.e., existence of plate and pellet drying artifacts and membrane blebs). Quantitatively, with mapping and line scanning EDX analysis, carbon and oxygen element compositions in HMDS technique were higher than the CPD technique in terms of weight percentages. The HMDS technique has shorter processing time than the CPD technique. The results indicate that FE-SEM imaging, elemental composition, and processing time for sample preparation with the HMDS technique were better than CPD technique for cervical cell preparation technique for developing computer-aided screening system.

  10. Investigation of CPD and HMDS Sample Preparation Techniques for Cervical Cells in Developing Computer-Aided Screening System Based on FE-SEM/EDX

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Siew Cheok; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated the effects of critical-point drying (CPD) and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) sample preparation techniques for cervical cells on field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (FE-SEM/EDX). We investigated the visualization of cervical cell image and elemental distribution on the cervical cell for two techniques of sample preparation. Using FE-SEM/EDX, the cervical cell images are captured and the cell element compositions are extracted for both sample preparation techniques. Cervical cell image quality, elemental composition, and processing time are considered for comparison of performances. Qualitatively, FE-SEM image based on HMDS preparation technique has better image quality than CPD technique in terms of degree of spread cell on the specimen and morphologic signs of cell deteriorations (i.e., existence of plate and pellet drying artifacts and membrane blebs). Quantitatively, with mapping and line scanning EDX analysis, carbon and oxygen element compositions in HMDS technique were higher than the CPD technique in terms of weight percentages. The HMDS technique has shorter processing time than the CPD technique. The results indicate that FE-SEM imaging, elemental composition, and processing time for sample preparation with the HMDS technique were better than CPD technique for cervical cell preparation technique for developing computer-aided screening system. PMID:25610902

  11. Design analysis and computer-aided performance evaluation of shuttle orbiter electrical power system. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Studies were conducted to develop appropriate space shuttle electrical power distribution and control (EPDC) subsystem simulation models and to apply the computer simulations to systems analysis of the EPDC. A previously developed software program (SYSTID) was adapted for this purpose. The following objectives were attained: (1) significant enhancement of the SYSTID time domain simulation software, (2) generation of functionally useful shuttle EPDC element models, and (3) illustrative simulation results in the analysis of EPDC performance, under the conditions of fault, current pulse injection due to lightning, and circuit protection sizing and reaction times.

  12. IGIS (Interactive Geologic Interpretation System) computer-aided photogeologic mapping with image processing, graphics and CAD/CAM capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    McGuffie, B.A.; Johnson, L.F.; Alley, R.E.; Lang, H.R. )

    1989-10-01

    Advances in computer technology are changing the way geologists integrate and use data. Although many geoscience disciplines are absolutely dependent upon computer processing, photogeological and map interpretation computer procedures are just now being developed. Historically, geologists collected data in the field and mapped manually on a topographic map or aerial photographic base. New software called the interactive Geologic Interpretation System (IGIS) is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-funded Multispectral Analysis of Sedimentary Basins Project. To complement conventional geological mapping techniques, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) or other digital remote sensing image data and co-registered digital elevation data are combined using computer imaging, graphics, and CAD/CAM techniques to provide tools for photogeologic interpretation, strike/dip determination, cross section construction, stratigraphic section measurement, topographic slope measurement, terrain profile generation, rotatable 3-D block diagram generation, and seismic analysis.

  13. Mathematical Modeling of Complex Reaction Systems for Computer-Aided Control and its Illustration on Atmospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiryan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling of sequential process has its own importance in Atmospheric Chemistry. Numerical calculations which allow to predict separate stages and components of chemical reaction make possible the reaction management, such is the new and perspective direction in chemical researches. Chemical processes basically pass multiple simple stages where various atoms and radicals participate. The complex chain of chemical reactionary systems complicates their research and the research is impossible without new methods of mathematical simulation and high technologies which allow not only to explain results of experiments but also to predict dynamics of processes. A new program package is suggested for solving research problems of chemical kinetics. The program is tested on different illustrative examples on Atmospheric Chemistry and installed in various scientific and educational institutions.

  14. An esthetics rehabilitation with computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    Mazaro, Josá Vitor Quinelli; de Mello, Caroline Cantieri; Zavanelli, Adriana Cristina; Santiago, Joel Ferreira; Amoroso, Andressa Paschoal; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a case of a rehabilitation involving Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD-CAM) system in implant supported and dental supported prostheses using zirconia as framework. The CAD-CAM technology has developed considerably over last few years, becoming a reality in dental practice. Among the widely used systems are the systems based on zirconia which demonstrate important physical and mechanical properties of high strength, adequate fracture toughness, biocompatibility and esthetics, and are indicated for unitary prosthetic restorations and posterior and anterior framework. All the modeling was performed by using CAD-CAM system and prostheses were cemented using resin cement best suited for each situation. The rehabilitation of the maxillary arch using zirconia framework demonstrated satisfactory esthetic and functional results after a 12-month control and revealed no biological and technical complications. This article shows the important of use technology CAD/CAM in the manufacture of dental prosthesis and implant-supported.

  15. A prostate cancer computer-aided diagnosis system using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging and targeted biopsy labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peter; Wang, Shijun; Turkbey, Baris; Grant, Kinzya; Pinto, Peter; Choyke, Peter; Wood, Bradford J.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2013-02-01

    We propose a new method for prostate cancer classification based on supervised statistical learning methods by integrating T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI images with targeted prostate biopsy results. In the first step of the method, all three imaging modalities are registered based on the image coordinates encoded in the DICOM images. In the second step, local statistical features are extracted in each imaging modality to capture intensity, shape, and texture information at every biopsy target. Finally, using support vector machines, supervised learning is conducted with the biopsy results to train a classification system that predicts the pathology of suspicious cancer lesions. The algorithm was tested with a dataset of 54 patients that underwent 164 targeted biopsies (58 positive, 106 negative). The proposed tri-modal MRI algorithm shows significant improvement over a similar approach that utilizes only T2-weighted MRI images (p= 0.048). The areas under the ROC curve for these methods were 0.82 (95% CI: [0.71, 0.93]) and 0.73 (95% CI: [0.55, 0.84]), respectively.

  16. Multi-modality computer-aided diagnosis system for axillary lymph node (ALN) staging: segmentation of ALN on ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbash Meinel, Lina; Bergtholdt, Martin; Abe, Hiroyuki; Huo, D.; Buelow, Thomas; Carlsen, Ingwer; Newstead, Gillian

    2009-02-01

    Our goal was to develop and evaluate a reliable segmentation method to delineate axillary lymph node (ALN) from surrounding tissues on US images as the first step of building a multi-modality CADx system for staging ALN. Ultrasound images of 24 ALN from 18 breast cancer patients were used. An elliptical model algorithm was used to fit ALNs boundaries using the following steps: reduce image noise, extract image edges using the Canny edge detector, select edge pixels and fit an ellipse by minimizing the quadratic error, Find the best fitting ellipse based on RANSAC. The segmentation was qualitatively evaluated by 3 expert readers using 4 aspects: Orientation of long axis (OLA): within +- 45 degrees, or off by +-45 degrees, overlap (OV): the fitted ellipse completely included ALN, partially included ALN, or missed the ALN, size (SZ): too small, good within 20% error margin, or too large, and aspect ratio (AR): correct or wrong. Nightly six % of ALNs were correctly evaluated by all readers in terms of OLA and AR, 90.2% in terms of OV and 86.11 in terms of SZ. Readers agreed that the segmentation was correct in 70% of the cases in all aspects. Due to small sample size and small variation among readers, we don't have power to show the accuracy of them is different.

  17. Comparison of the marginal fit of different coping materials and designs produced by computer aided manufacturing systems.

    PubMed

    Karataşli, Ozge; Kursoğlu, Pinar; Capa, Nuray; Kazazoğlu, Ender

    2011-01-01

    In this study, marginal adaptations of different copings fabricated with CAD/CAM or MAD/CAM were analysed. Celay and Zirkonzahn groups were fabricated by MAD/CAM, LAVA and DC-Zircon groups were fabricated by CAD/CAM. Casting metal copings were used as the control group. An implant abutment that was embedded in octagonal acrylic block was used to prepare the copings. Sixteen previously established points were marked and the measurements were performed with the stereomicroscope (at × 150). The marginal fit of the samples were evaluated by calculating the mean measurements of each 16 points. The statistical analysis was performed by Tukey multiple comparisons test at 95% confidence interval. The groups can be summarized as follows in terms of marginal gap, from the lowest to highest: LAVA (24.6 ± 14.0 µm)systems may not be the most important factor for marginal adaptation.

  18. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing skull base drill.

    PubMed

    Couldwell, William T; MacDonald, Joel D; Thomas, Charles L; Hansen, Bradley C; Lapalikar, Aniruddha; Thakkar, Bharat; Balaji, Alagar K

    2017-05-01

    The authors have developed a simple device for computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) that uses an image-guided system to define a cutting tool path that is shared with a surgical machining system for drilling bone. Information from 2D images (obtained via CT and MRI) is transmitted to a processor that produces a 3D image. The processor generates code defining an optimized cutting tool path, which is sent to a surgical machining system that can drill the desired portion of bone. This tool has applications for bone removal in both cranial and spine neurosurgical approaches. Such applications have the potential to reduce surgical time and associated complications such as infection or blood loss. The device enables rapid removal of bone within 1 mm of vital structures. The validity of such a machining tool is exemplified in the rapid (< 3 minutes machining time) and accurate removal of bone for transtemporal (for example, translabyrinthine) approaches.

  19. [Retrospective analysis of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system in full-field digital mammography in correlation to tumor histology].

    PubMed

    Obenauer, S; Sohns, C; Werner, C; Grabbe, E

    2005-08-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system in full-field digital mammography in correlation to tumor histology. A total of 476 patients (226 patients with histologically proven malignant tumors, 250 healthy women) took part in this study. The mammograms were studied retrospectively, using the CAD system Image Checker. For 226 patients digital mammograms in MLO-projection were available. For 186 of these patients the CC-projection was also available. CAD markers that correlated with histologically proven carcinomas were considered to be true-positive markers. All other CAD markers were considered to be false-positive. Histologically proven carcinomas without markers were false-negative results. The dependence of the CAD markers placement upon the different carcinoma histologies was studied using the Chi-square test. No significant difference could be proven for the detectability of malignant breast lesions of different histologic types. For the detectability of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), tubular carcinoma and ductulo-lobular carcinoma, the true positives were 71.1 %, 75 %, 70.7 %, 70 %, 60 % and 80 %, respectively, in the MLO projection and 83.9 %, 75.9 %, 81.8 %, 77.8 %, 87.5 % and 33.3 %, respectively, in the CC projection. There was an average of 0.5 false-positive markers per mammographic image. The histologic type of carcinoma seems to have no influence on detectability when using the CAD system. The high rate of false-positive markers shows, however, the limited specificity of the CAD system and that improvements are necessary.

  20. Quality indexing with computer-aided lexicography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Indexing with computers is a far cry from indexing with the first indexing tool, the manual card sorter. With the aid of computer-aided lexicography, both indexing and indexing tools can provide standardization, consistency, and accuracy, resulting in greater quality control than ever before. A brief survey of computer activity in indexing is presented with detailed illustrations from NASA activity. Applications from techniques mentioned, such as Retrospective Indexing (RI), can be made to many indexing systems. In addition to improving the quality of indexing with computers, the improved efficiency with which certain tasks can be done is demonstrated.

  1. Sensitivity of a direct computer-aided detection system in full-field digital mammography for detection of microcalcifications not associated with mass or architectural distortion.

    PubMed

    Scaranelo, Anabel M; Crystal, Pavel; Bukhanov, Karina; Helbich, Thomas H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of a direct computer-aided detection (CAD) system (d-CAD) in full-field digital mammography (FFDM) for the detection of microcalcifications not associated with mass or architectural distortion. A database search of 1063 consecutive stereotactic core biopsies performed between 2002 and 2005 identified 196 patients with Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 4 and 5 microcalcifications not associated with mass or distortion detected exclusively by bilateral FFDM. A commercially available CAD system (Second Look, version 7.2) was retrospectively applied to the craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique views in these patients (mean age, 59 years; range, 35-84 years). Breast density, location and mammographic size of the lesion, distribution, and tumour histology were recorded and analysed by using chi(2), Fisher exact, or McNemar tests, when applicable. When using d-CAD, 71 of 74 malignant microcalcification cases (96%) and 101 of 122 benign microcalcifications (83%) were identified. There was a significant difference (P < .05) between CAD sensitivity on the craniocaudal view, 91% (68 of 75), vs CAD sensitivity on the mediolateral oblique view, 80% (60 of 75). The d-CAD sensitivity for dense breast tissue (American College of Radiology [ACR] density 3 and 4) was higher (97%) than d-CAD sensitivity (95%) for nondense tissue (ACR density 1 and 2), but the difference was not statically significant. All 28 malignant calcifications larger than 10 mm were detected by CAD, whereas the sensitivity for lesions small than or equal to 10 mm was 94%. D-CAD had a high sensitivity in the depiction of asymptomatic breast cancers, which were seen as microcalcifications on FFDM screening, with a sensitivity of d-CAD on the craniocaudal view being significantly better. All malignant microcalcifications larger than 10 mm were detected by d-CAD. Copyright 2010 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc

  2. Integrated computer-aided design using minicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, O. O.

    1980-01-01

    Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), a highly interactive software, has been implemented on minicomputers at the NASA Langley Research Center. CAD/CAM software integrates many formerly fragmented programs and procedures into one cohesive system; it also includes finite element modeling and analysis, and has been interfaced via a computer network to a relational data base management system and offline plotting devices on mainframe computers. The CAD/CAM software system requires interactive graphics terminals operating at a minimum of 4800 bits/sec transfer rate to a computer. The system is portable and introduces 'interactive graphics', which permits the creation and modification of models interactively. The CAD/CAM system has already produced designs for a large area space platform, a national transonic facility fan blade, and a laminar flow control wind tunnel model. Besides the design/drafting element analysis capability, CAD/CAM provides options to produce an automatic program tooling code to drive a numerically controlled (N/C) machine. Reductions in time for design, engineering, drawing, finite element modeling, and N/C machining will benefit productivity through reduced costs, fewer errors, and a wider range of configuration.

  3. Integrated computer-aided design using minicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, O. O.

    1980-01-01

    Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), a highly interactive software, has been implemented on minicomputers at the NASA Langley Research Center. CAD/CAM software integrates many formerly fragmented programs and procedures into one cohesive system; it also includes finite element modeling and analysis, and has been interfaced via a computer network to a relational data base management system and offline plotting devices on mainframe computers. The CAD/CAM software system requires interactive graphics terminals operating at a minimum of 4800 bits/sec transfer rate to a computer. The system is portable and introduces 'interactive graphics', which permits the creation and modification of models interactively. The CAD/CAM system has already produced designs for a large area space platform, a national transonic facility fan blade, and a laminar flow control wind tunnel model. Besides the design/drafting element analysis capability, CAD/CAM provides options to produce an automatic program tooling code to drive a numerically controlled (N/C) machine. Reductions in time for design, engineering, drawing, finite element modeling, and N/C machining will benefit productivity through reduced costs, fewer errors, and a wider range of configuration.

  4. On the convergence of nanotechnology and Big Data analysis for computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose F; Paulovich, Fernando V; de Oliveira, Maria Cf; de Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2016-04-01

    An overview is provided of the challenges involved in building computer-aided diagnosis systems capable of precise medical diagnostics based on integration and interpretation of data from different sources and formats. The availability of massive amounts of data and computational methods associated with the Big Data paradigm has brought hope that such systems may soon be available in routine clinical practices, which is not the case today. We focus on visual and machine learning analysis of medical data acquired with varied nanotech-based techniques and on methods for Big Data infrastructure. Because diagnosis is essentially a classification task, we address the machine learning techniques with supervised and unsupervised classification, making a critical assessment of the progress already made in the medical field and the prospects for the near future. We also advocate that successful computer-aided diagnosis requires a merge of methods and concepts from nanotechnology and Big Data analysis.

  5. Effectiveness of a computer-aided neuroanatomy program for entry-level physical therapy students: anatomy and clinical examination of the dorsal column-medial lemniscal system.

    PubMed

    McKeough, D Michael; Mattern-Baxter, Katrin; Barakatt, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a computer-aided instruction learning module improves students' knowledge of the neuroanatomy/physiology and clinical examination of the dorsal column-medial lemniscal (DCML) system. Sixty-one physical therapy students enrolled in a clinical neurology course in entry-level PT educational programs at two universities participated in the study. Students from University-1 (U1;) had not had a previous neuroanatomy course, while students from University-2 (U2;) had taken a neuroanatomy course in the previous semester. Before and after working with the learning module, students took a paper-and-pencil test on the neuroanatomy/physiology and clinical examination of the DCML system. Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests were used to determine if differences existed between neuroanatomy/physiology examination scores and clinical examination scores before and after taking the learning module, and between student groups based on university attended. For students from U1, neuroanatomy/physiology post-test scores improved significantly over pre-test scores (p < 0.001), while post-test scores of students from U2 did not (p = 0.60). Neuroanatomy/physiology pre-test scores from U2 were significantly better than those from U1 (p < 0.001); there was no significant difference in post-test scores (p = 0.062). Clinical examination pre-test and post-test scores from U2 were significantly better than those from U1 (p < 0.001). Clinical examination post-test scores improved significantly from the pre-test scores for both U1 (p < 0.001) and U2 (p < 0.001).

  6. Impact on breast cancer diagnosis in a multidisciplinary unit after the incorporation of mammography digitalization and computer-aided detection systems.

    PubMed

    Romero, Cristina; Varela, Celia; Muñoz, Enriqueta; Almenar, Asunción; Pinto, Jose María; Botella, Miguel

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the impact on the diagnosis of breast cancer of implementing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in a multidisciplinary breast pathology unit and, 1 year later, the addition of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system. A total of 13,453 mammograms performed between January and July of the years 2004, 2006, and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed using conventional mammography, digital mammography, and digital mammography plus CAD techniques. Mammograms were classified into two subsets: screening and diagnosis. Variables analyzed included cancer detection rate, rate of in situ carcinoma, tumor size at detection, biopsy rate, and positive predictive value of biopsy. FFDM increased the cancer detection rate, albeit not statistically significantly. The detection rate of in situ carcinoma increased significantly using FFDM plus CAD compared with conventional technique (36.8% vs 6.7%; p = 0.05 without Bonferroni statistical correction) for the screening dataset. Relative to conventional mammography, tumor size at detection decreased with digital mammography (T1, 61.5% vs 88%; p = 0.018) and with digital mammography plus CAD (T1, 79.7%; p = 0.03 without Bonferroni statistical correction). Biopsy rates in the general population increased significantly using CAD (10.6/1000 for conventional mammography, 14.7/1000 for digital mammography, and 17.9/1000 for digital mammography plus CAD; p = 0.02). The positive predictive value of biopsy decreased slightly, but not significantly, for both subsets. The incorporation of new techniques has improved the performance of the breast unit by increasing the overall detection rates and earlier detection (smaller tumors), both leading to an increase in interventionism.

  7. A noninvasive eye fixation and computer-aided eye monitoring system for linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bogner, Joachim; Petersch, Bernhard; Georg, Dietmar; Dieckmann, Karin; Zehetmayer, Martin; Pötter, Richard

    2003-07-15

    To introduce a noninvasive eye fixation and computer-aided eye monitoring system for linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiotherapy for uveal melanoma. At the Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, University of Vienna, stereotactic radiotherapy is offered to patients with uveal melanoma considered unsuitable for (106)Ru brachytherapy or local resection. For the present feasibility study, 8 patients were carefully selected according to their ability to fixate a small light source with the diseased eye and whether they had a rather small head to meet the limited geometric space available. A polymethyl methacrylate tube was attached to a stereotactic mask system in craniocaudal orientation supporting a 45 degrees mirror, which was placed in front of the diseased eye. At the other end of the tube, the patient was given a small fixation light, and a small camera was positioned beneath, which was shielded for use during MRI. A computer interface calculated and visualized the spatial difference of the actual and a given reference pupil position, which was defined before CT scanning, during the MRI sequences, and during treatment delivery at the linear accelerator. The described system can be attached to a conventional stereotactic mask system with minor modifications. Because of the large distance between the eye and the fixation light, the optical fixation system was well tolerated by all patients, and a stable position of the eye was obtained. The camera system can be used during CT and MRI without interference. Absorption of the 6-MV photon beam by the mirror and the polymethyl methacrylate tube was negligible. The computer interface designed to determine the pupil position uses an image-processing algorithm that correlates a template of the reference image with the actual image of the eye. Provided sufficient illumination of the pupil, the correlation function showed a pronounced minimum at the reference position. The precision of the algorithm was tested

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis of alcoholism-related EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; S, Vidya; Bhat, Shreya; Adeli, Hojjat; Adeli, Amir

    2014-12-01

    Alcoholism is a severe disorder that affects the functionality of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and alters the behavior of the affected person. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of subjects with alcoholism. The neurophysiological interpretation of EEG signals in persons with alcoholism (PWA) is based on observation and interpretation of the frequency and power in their EEGs compared to EEG signals from persons without alcoholism. This paper presents a review of the known features of EEGs obtained from PWA and proposes that the impact of alcoholism on the brain can be determined by computer-aided analysis of EEGs through extracting the minute variations in the EEG signals that can differentiate the EEGs of PWA from those of nonaffected persons. The authors advance the idea of automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of alcoholism by employing the EEG signals. This is achieved through judicious combination of signal processing techniques such as wavelet, nonlinear dynamics, and chaos theory and pattern recognition and classification techniques. A CAD system is cost-effective and efficient and can be used as a decision support system by physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism especially those who do not specialize in alcoholism or neurophysiology. It can also be of great value to rehabilitation centers to assess PWA over time and to monitor the impact of treatment aimed at minimizing or reversing the effects of the disease on the brain. A CAD system can be used to determine the extent of alcoholism-related changes in EEG signals (low, medium, high) and the effectiveness of therapeutic plans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Computer-Aided Distinction Method of Borderline Grades of Oral Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sami, Mustafa M.; Saito, Masahisa; Muramatsu, Shogo; Kikuchi, Hisakazu; Saku, Takashi

    We have developed a new computer-aided diagnostic system for differentiating oral borderline malignancies in hematoxylin-eosin stained microscopic images. Epithelial dysplasia and carcinoma in-situ (CIS) of oral mucosa are two different borderline grades similar to each other, and it is difficult to distinguish between them. A new image processing and analysis method has been applied to a variety of histopathological features and shows the possibility for differentiating the oral cancer borderline grades automatically. The method is based on comparing the drop-shape similarity level in a particular manually selected pair of neighboring rete ridges. It was found that the considered similarity level in dysplasia was higher than those in epithelial CIS, of which pathological diagnoses were conventionally made by pathologists. The developed image processing method showed a good promise for the computer-aided pathological assessment of oral borderline malignancy differentiation in clinical practice.

  10. Computer-aided light sheet flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Kathryn; Severance, Kurt; Childers, Brooks A.

    1993-01-01

    A computer-aided flow visualization process has been developed to analyze video images acquired from rotating and translating light sheet visualization systems. The computer process integrates a mathematical model for image reconstruction, advanced computer graphics concepts, and digital image processing to provide a quantitative and visual analysis capability. The image reconstruction model, based on photogrammetry, uses knowledge of the camera and light sheet locations and orientations to project two-dimensional light sheet video images into three-dimensional space. A sophisticated computer visualization package, commonly used to analyze computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data sets, was chosen to interactively display the reconstructed light sheet images, along with the numerical surface geometry for the model or aircraft under study. A description is provided of the photogrammetric reconstruction technique, and the image processing and computer graphics techniques and equipment. Results of the computer aided process applied to both a wind tunnel translating light sheet experiment and an in-flight rotating light sheet experiment are presented. The capability to compare reconstructed experimental light sheet images and CFD solutions in the same graphics environment is also demonstrated.

  11. Computer-Aided Light Sheet Flow Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Kathryn; Severance, Kurt; Childers, Brooks A.

    1993-01-01

    A computer-aided flow visualization process has been developed to analyze video images acquired from rotating and translating light sheet visualization systems. The computer process integrates a mathematical model for image reconstruction, advanced computer graphics concepts, and digital image processing to provide a quantitative and visual analysis capability. The image reconstruction model, based on photogrammetry, uses knowledge of the camera and light sheet locations and orientations to project two-dimensional light sheet video images into three-dimensional space. A sophisticated computer visualization package, commonly used to analyze computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data sets, was chosen to interactively display the reconstructed light sheet images, along with the numerical surface geometry for the model or aircraft under study. A description is provided of the photogrammetric reconstruction technique, and the image processing and computer graphics techniques and equipment. Results of the computer aided process applied to both a wind tunnel translating light sheet experiment and an in-flight rotating light sheet experiment are presented. The capability to compare reconstructed experimental light sheet images and CFD solutions in the same graphics environment is also demonstrated.

  12. Evaluation of computer-aided system design tools for SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) Battle Management/C3 (command, control and communications) architecture development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fife, D.W.; Campbell, K.; Chludzinski, J.; Corcoran, N.; Gonzalez, C.

    1987-10-01

    This IDA paper was prepared at the request of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. The paper documents findings of an evaluation on the capabilities of certain computer software/computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools to provide computer-aided graphic design of Battle Management/C3 for the SDIO. Each tool (of the five selected on the basis of the best available at this time), was installed at IDA. After training by vendor tool staff, an IDA team, using a hands-on design experience determined the merits of the tools for SDI application. A comparative summary of the tools is given relative to envisaged SDI requirements and an extensive questionnaire is answered for each.

  13. Computer aided control of a mechanical arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Zermuehlen, r. O.

    1979-01-01

    A method for computer-aided remote control of a six-degree-of-freedom manipulator arm involved in the on-orbit servicing of a spacecraft is presented. The control configuration features a supervisory type of control in which each of the segments of a module exchange trajectory is controlled automatically under human supervision, with manual commands to proceed to the next step and in the event of a failure or undesirable outcome. The implementation of the supervisory system is discussed in terms of necessary onboard and ground- or Orbiter-based hardware and software, and a one-g demonstration system built to allow further investigation of system operation is described. Possible applications of the system include the construction of satellite solar power systems, environmental testing and the control of heliostat solar power stations.

  14. Mathematical modelling in the computer-aided process planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitin, S.; Bochkarev, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents new approaches to organization of manufacturing preparation and mathematical models related to development of the computer-aided multi product process planning (CAMPP) system. CAMPP system has some peculiarities compared to the existing computer-aided process planning (CAPP) systems: fully formalized developing of the machining operations; a capacity to create and to formalize the interrelationships among design, process planning and process implementation; procedures for consideration of the real manufacturing conditions. The paper describes the structure of the CAMPP system and shows the mathematical models and methods to formalize the design procedures.

  15. An Expert Assistant for Computer Aided Parallelization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Chun, Robert; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

    2004-01-01

    The prototype implementation of an expert system was developed to assist the user in the computer aided parallelization process. The system interfaces to tools for automatic parallelization and performance analysis. By fusing static program structure information and dynamic performance analysis data the expert system can help the user to filter, correlate, and interpret the data gathered by the existing tools. Sections of the code that show poor performance and require further attention are rapidly identified and suggestions for improvements are presented to the user. In this paper we describe the components of the expert system and discuss its interface to the existing tools. We present a case study to demonstrate the successful use in full scale scientific applications.

  16. Applications of intelligent computer-aided training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent computer-aided training (ICAT) systems simulate the behavior of an experienced instructor observing a trainee, responding to help requests, diagnosing and remedying trainee errors, and proposing challenging new training scenarios. This paper presents a generic ICAT architecture that supports the efficient development of ICAT systems for varied tasks. In addition, details of ICAT projects, built with this architecture, that deliver specific training for Space Shuttle crew members, ground support personnel, and flight controllers are presented. Concurrently with the creation of specific ICAT applications, a general-purpose software development environment for ICAT systems is being built. The widespread use of such systems for both ground-based and on-orbit training will serve to preserve task and training expertise, support the training of large numbers of personnel in a distributed manner, and ensure the uniformity and verifiability of training experiences.

  17. Emergency Management Computer-Aided Trainer (EMCAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, R. C.; Johnson, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    The Emergency Management Computer-Aided Trainer (EMCAT) developed by Essex Corporation or NASA and the Federal Emergency Management Administration's (FEMA) National Fire Academy (NFA) is described. It is a computer based training system for fire fighting personnel. A prototype EMCAT system was developed by NASA first using video tape images and then video disk images when the technology became available. The EMCAT system is meant to fill the training needs of the fire fighting community with affordable state-of-the-art technologies. An automated real time simulation of the fire situation was needed to replace the outdated manual training methods currently being used. In order to be successful, this simulator had to provide realism, be user friendly, be affordable, and support multiple scenarios. The EMCAT system meets these requirements and therefore represents an innovative training tool, not only for the fire fighting community, but also for the needs of other disciplines.

  18. Quality Indexing with Computer-Aided Lexicography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchan, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of computer-aided indexing activity focuses on examples from projects at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Standardization and quality in providing subject access to databases are considered; and computer-aided lexicography, including thesaurus construction, access vocabulary, definitions preparation,…

  19. User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

  20. User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

  1. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  2. Interactive computer aided shift scheduling.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, J

    2001-12-01

    This paper starts with a discussion of computer aided shift scheduling. After a brief review of earlier approaches, two conceptualizations of this field are introduced: First, shift scheduling as a field that ranges from extremely stable rosters at one pole to rather market-like approaches on the other pole. Unfortunately, already small alterations of a scheduling problem (e.g., the number of groups, the number of shifts) may call for rather different approaches and tools. Second, their environment shapes scheduling problems and scheduling has to be done within idiosyncratic organizational settings. This calls for the amalgamation of scheduling with other tasks (e.g., accounting) and for reflections whether better solutions might become possible by changes in the problem definition (e.g., other service levels, organizational changes). Therefore shift scheduling should be understood as a highly connected problem. Building upon these two conceptualizations, a few examples of software that ease scheduling in some areas of this field are given and future research questions are outlined.

  3. Pulmonary lobar volumetry using novel volumetric computer-aided diagnosis and computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Iwano, Shingo; Kitano, Mariko; Matsuo, Keiji; Kawakami, Kenichi; Koike, Wataru; Kishimoto, Mariko; Inoue, Tsutomu; Li, Yuanzhong; Naganawa, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the accuracy of pulmonary lobar volumetry using the conventional number of segments method and novel volumetric computer-aided diagnosis using 3D computed tomography images. METHODS We acquired 50 consecutive preoperative 3D computed tomography examinations for lung tumours reconstructed at 1-mm slice thicknesses. We calculated the lobar volume and the emphysematous lobar volume < −950 HU of each lobe using (i) the slice-by-slice method (reference standard), (ii) number of segments method, and (iii) semi-automatic and (iv) automatic computer-aided diagnosis. We determined Pearson correlation coefficients between the reference standard and the three other methods for lobar volumes and emphysematous lobar volumes. We also compared the relative errors among the three measurement methods. RESULTS Both semi-automatic and automatic computer-aided diagnosis results were more strongly correlated with the reference standard than the number of segments method. The correlation coefficients for automatic computer-aided diagnosis were slightly lower than those for semi-automatic computer-aided diagnosis because there was one outlier among 50 cases (2%) in the right upper lobe and two outliers among 50 cases (4%) in the other lobes. The number of segments method relative error was significantly greater than those for semi-automatic and automatic computer-aided diagnosis (P < 0.001). The computational time for automatic computer-aided diagnosis was 1/2 to 2/3 than that of semi-automatic computer-aided diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS A novel lobar volumetry computer-aided diagnosis system could more precisely measure lobar volumes than the conventional number of segments method. Because semi-automatic computer-aided diagnosis and automatic computer-aided diagnosis were complementary, in clinical use, it would be more practical to first measure volumes by automatic computer-aided diagnosis, and then use semi-automatic measurements if automatic computer-aided

  4. Intelligent computer-aided training authoring environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Robert D.

    1994-01-01

    Although there has been much research into intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), there are few authoring systems available that support ITS metaphors. Instructional developers are generally obliged to use tools designed for creating on-line books. We are currently developing an authoring environment derived from NASA's research on intelligent computer-aided training (ICAT). The ICAT metaphor, currently in use at NASA has proven effective in disciplines from satellite deployment to high school physics. This technique provides a personal trainer (PT) who instructs the student using a simulated work environment (SWE). The PT acts as a tutor, providing individualized instruction and assistance to each student. Teaching in an SWE allows the student to learn tasks by doing them, rather than by reading about them. This authoring environment will expedite ICAT development by providing a tool set that guides the trainer modeling process. Additionally, this environment provides a vehicle for distributing NASA's ICAT technology to the private sector.

  5. From Phonomecanocardiography to Phonocardiography computer aided

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados, J.; Tavera, F.; López, G.; Velázquez, J. M.; Hernández, R. T.; López, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    Due to lack of training doctors to identify many of the disorders in the heart by conventional listening, it is necessary to add an objective and methodological analysis to support this technique. In order to obtain information of the performance of the heart to be able to diagnose heart disease through a simple, cost-effective procedure by means of a data acquisition system, we have obtained Phonocardiograms (PCG), which are images of the sounds emitted by the heart. A program of acoustic, visual and artificial vision recognition was elaborated to interpret them. Based on the results of previous research of cardiologists a code of interpretation of PCG and associated diseases was elaborated. Also a site, within the university campus, of experimental sampling of cardiac data was created. Phonocardiography computer-aided is a viable and low cost procedure which provides additional medical information to make a diagnosis of complex heart diseases. We show some previous results.

  6. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1992-01-01

    The goal was the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. Several packages and design studies were completed, including two software tools currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) and the Environment for Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and additionally provides initial mass property analysis. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand alone analysis codes that result in the streamlining of the exchange of data between programs, reducing errors and improving efficiency.

  7. Initial Evaluation of a Subjective Bayesian Diagnostic System

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, David H.; Kestly, John J.; Greist, John H.; Jensen, Norman M.

    1971-01-01

    A computer-aided diagnostic system using subjectively estimated probabilities for symptom—disease relationships is described and applied to a sample of 200 cases divided among hypothyroid, euthyroid, and hyperthyroid diagnoses. The subjective system is evaluated by comparing it with one using actuarial probabilities developed in standard fashion and one using separate actuarial probabilities for suspected hypothyroid and suspected hyperthyroid categories. Analysis of the data indicates that the subjective model's developmental cost and time requirement is much lower, while it performs as well as either actuarial model. PMID:4937847

  8. Computer-Aided Characterization and Diagnosis of Diffuse Liver Diseases Based on Ultrasound Imaging: A Review.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Puja; Mittal, Deepti; Ananthasivan, Rupa

    2016-04-19

    Diffuse liver diseases, such as hepatitis, fatty liver, and cirrhosis, are becoming a leading cause of fatality and disability all over the world. Early detection and diagnosis of these diseases is extremely important to save lives and improve effectiveness of treatment. Ultrasound imaging, a noninvasive diagnostic technique, is the most commonly used modality for examining liver abnormalities. However, the accuracy of ultrasound-based diagnosis depends highly on expertise of radiologists. Computer-aided diagnosis systems based on ultrasound imaging assist in fast diagnosis, provide a reliable "second opinion" for experts, and act as an effective tool to measure response of treatment on patients undergoing clinical trials. In this review, we first describe appearance of liver abnormalities in ultrasound images and state the practical issues encountered in characterization of diffuse liver diseases that can be addressed by software algorithms. We then discuss computer-aided diagnosis in general with features and classifiers relevant to diffuse liver diseases. In later sections of this paper, we review the published studies and describe the key findings of those studies. A concise tabular summary comparing image database, features extraction, feature selection, and classification algorithms presented in the published studies is also exhibited. Finally, we conclude with a summary of key findings and directions for further improvements in the areas of accuracy and objectiveness of computer-aided diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Computer-aided engineering: the step beyond CAD/CAM

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, L.; Trost, S.R.; O'Brien, D.W.; Pomernacki, C.L.

    1981-11-06

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the need for increased engineering productivity, coupled with increasingly difficult engineering problems, presents a significant challenge. Advances in computer technology coupled with successful CAD/CAM experiences suggest that computer-aided engineering (CAE) will help meet this challenge. Requirements for a CAE system are developed, a CAE system plan is outlined, and some remaining problem areas are discussed.

  10. Computer-aided design of LSI topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliutin, V. A.

    The problems and methods of the computer-aided design of the topology of LSI circuits and computer-aided manufacture of LSI templates are reviewed. Topics discussed include algorithms for the layout of cells and circuit units, algorithms for tracing connections, the design of the topology of matrix LSI, and the topology of functional LSI circuit units based on MIS structures. The discussion also covers the design of the layout of LSI circuits with single-layer commutation, application examples, and the main trends in the computer-aided design of LSI circuits.

  11. A critically appraised topic review of computer-aided design/computer-aided machining of removable partial denture frameworks.

    PubMed

    Lang, Lisa A; Tulunoglu, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    A critically appraised topic (CAT) review is presented about the use of computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided machining (CAM) removable partial denture (RPD) frameworks. A systematic search of the literature supporting CAD/CAM RPD systems revealed no randomized clinical trials, hence the CAT review was performed. A PubMed search yielded 9 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Each article was characterized by study design and level of evidence. No clinical outcomes research has been published on the use of CAD/CAM RPDs. Low levels of evidence were found in the available literature. Clinical research studies are needed to determine the efficacy of this treatment modality.

  12. Computer-aided testing of pilot response to critical in-flight events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, W. C.; Rockwell, T. H.

    1984-01-01

    This research on pilot response to critical in-flight events employs a unique methodology including an interactive computer-aided scenario-testing system. Navigation displays, instrument-panel displays, and assorted textual material are presented on a touch-sensitive CRT screen. Problem diagnosis scenarios, destination-diversion scenarios and combined destination/diagnostic tests are available. A complete time history of all data inquiries and responses is maintained. Sample results of diagnosis scenarios obtained from testing 38 licensed pilots are presented and discussed.

  13. Computer-aided testing of pilot response to critical in-flight events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, W. C.; Rockwell, T. H.

    1984-01-01

    This research on pilot response to critical in-flight events employs a unique methodology including an interactive computer-aided scenario-testing system. Navigation displays, instrument-panel displays, and assorted textual material are presented on a touch-sensitive CRT screen. Problem diagnosis scenarios, destination-diversion scenarios and combined destination/diagnostic tests are available. A complete time history of all data inquiries and responses is maintained. Sample results of diagnosis scenarios obtained from testing 38 licensed pilots are presented and discussed.

  14. Computer-Aided Instruction for Adult Professionals: A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Doris Smith

    1992-01-01

    Discusses computer-aided instruction (CAI) for adult learners and describes research conducted at the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory to study the impact of CAI on design professionals, i.e., architects and engineers. Attitudes of adult professionals are examined, and design requirements for a CAI system for professionals…

  15. An Elective Course on Computer-Aided Process Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerfeld, Jude T.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate chemical engineering course which has been offered at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The objectives, structure, instructional materials and content of this course, which emphasizes the structure and usage of computer-aided design systems, are also included. (HM)

  16. The Journal of Computer- Aided Molecular Design: a bibliometric note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes the articles in, and the citations to, volumes 2-24 of the Journal of Computer- Aided Molecular Design. The citations to the journal come from almost 2000 different sources that span a very wide range of academic subjects, with the most heavily cited articles being descriptions of software systems and of computational methods.

  17. Caesy: A software tool for computer-aided engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matt

    1993-01-01

    A new software tool, Caesy, is described. This tool provides a strongly typed programming environment for research in the development of algorithms and software for computer-aided control system design. A description of the user language and its implementation as they currently stand are presented along with a description of work in progress and areas of future work.

  18. Specification and Development of Computer Aids to ISD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, A. Fred

    This paper first notes the evolution of instructional development which has led to a need for the specification and development of computer aids to ISD activities, then notes several current efforts to meet this need, and finally describes the development of an Authoring Management System (AMS) designed to help manage the development phase of ISD.…

  19. Electronic Computer Aided Design. Its Application in FE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    A study was conducted at the Electronics Industrial Unit at the Dorset Institute of Higher Education to investigate the feasibility of incorporating computer-aided design (CAD) in electrical and electronic courses. The aim was to investigate the application of CAD to electrical and electronic systems; the extent to which industrial developments…

  20. Prerequisites for Computer-Aided Cognitive Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legrand, Colette

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes computer-aided cognitive rehabilitation for mentally deficient persons. It lists motor, cognitive, emotional, and educational prerequisites to such rehabilitation and states advantages and disadvantages in using the prerequisites. (JDD)

  1. Computer-aided detection for screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Kevin S.; Sallam, Maha

    1999-06-01

    Computer-aided detection of breast cancer in screening mammography is just now becoming a clinically useful tool for radiologist. Systems are being implemented to act as second readers of mammograms. These systems automatically detect suspicious regions in digitized films, or directly acquired digital images, then prompt the radiologists to examine the identified regions more carefully. The purpose of using a computerized system as a second reader is to reduce the chances of overlooking visible signs of malignancies and hence improve the breast cancer detection rates in screening programs. This paper present an overview of a mammogram image analysis system developed at Intelligent Systems, M.D., Inc. for identifying all primary signal of cancer in mammogram images. The system has been tested on a set of 88 mammography cases of four views each. The cases contain a total of 96 malignant abnormalities. They system currently achieves 91 percent sensitivity at an average of just over one false prompt per image. Ongoing system refinement and updates are expected to further improve performance.

  2. Microwave processing of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Pendola, Martin; Saha, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Because of their favorable mechanical properties and natural esthetics, ceramics are widely used in restorative dentistry. The conventional ceramic sintering process required for their use is usually slow, however, and the equipment has an elevated energy consumption. Sintering processes that use microwaves have several advantages compared to regular sintering: shorter processing times, lower energy consumption, and the capacity for volumetric heating. The objective of this study was to test the mechanical properties of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) after the specimens were processed with microwave hybrid sintering. Density, hardness, and bending strength were measured. When ceramic specimens were sintered with microwaves, the processing times were reduced and protocols were simplified. Hardness was improved almost 20% compared to regular sintering, and flexural strength measurements suggested that specimens were approximately 50% stronger than specimens sintered in a conventional system. Microwave hybrid sintering may preserve or improve the mechanical properties of dental ceramics designed for CAD/CAM processing systems, reducing processing and waiting times.

  3. A Prototype of Pilot Knowledge Evaluation by an Intelligent CAI (Computer -Aided Instruction) System Using a Bayesian Diagnostic Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    The goal of computer is to cement the retention of the material by repeated practice and exercise. This method -provides the student .itn the...frcm outside material by the student t .rou ...a~r~ ...... .... e. norarn. The latter method is more flexible and provides for more student in’.%oement...tutorial strategy and it remains the most preferred of CAI S.. methods . This technique can be tailored to fit most any learning situation but it excels

  4. Development of a Computer-Aided Diagnostic System for the Detection of Lung Cancer in Helical CT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    radiologists in the diagnosis of lung cancer. We have developed methods in nodule modeling and analysis, segmentation of lung field and nodule suspects as...well as image functions for segmentation of lung and enhanced 3-dimensional visualization of local nodule regions. We have also integrated majority our... Nodules ............................................... 10 (D) Volumetric Display of Lung

  5. Intelligent computer-aided training and tutoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    Specific autonomous training systems based on artificial intelligence technology for use by NASA astronauts, flight controllers, and ground-based support personnel that demonstrate an alternative to current training systems are described. In addition to these specific systems, the evolution of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems that integrates many of the features of traditional training programs with artificial intelligence techniques is presented. These Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) systems would provide, for the trainee, much of the same experience that could be gained from the best on-the-job training. By integrating domain expertise with a knowledge of appropriate training methods, an ICAT session should duplicate, as closely as possible, the trainee undergoing on-the-job training in the task environment, benefitting from the full attention of a task expert who is also an expert trainer. Thus, the philosophy of the ICAT system is to emulate the behavior of an experienced individual devoting his full time and attention to the training of a novice - proposing challenging training scenarios, monitoring and evaluating the actions of the trainee, providing meaningful comments in response to trainee errors, responding to trainee requests for information, giving hints (if appropriate), and remembering the strengths and weaknesses displayed by the trainee so that appropriate future exercises can be designed.

  6. Development and evaluation of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for lung nodule detection in chest radiographs by means of two-stage nodule enhancement with support vector classification

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Sheng; Suzuki, Kenji; MacMahon, Heber

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To develop a computer-aided detection (CADe) scheme for nodules in chest radiographs (CXRs) with a high sensitivity and a low false-positive (FP) rate. Methods: The authors developed a CADe scheme consisting of five major steps, which were developed for improving the overall performance of CADe schemes. First, to segment the lung fields accurately, the authors developed a multisegment active shape model. Then, a two-stage nodule-enhancement technique was developed for improving the conspicuity of nodules. Initial nodule candidates were detected and segmented by using the clustering watershed algorithm. Thirty-one shape-, gray-level-, surface-, and gradient-based features were extracted from each segmented candidate for determining the feature space, including one of the new features based on the Canny edge detector to eliminate a major FP source caused by rib crossings. Finally, a nonlinear support vector machine (SVM) with a Gaussian kernel was employed for classification of the nodule candidates. Results: To evaluate and compare the scheme to other published CADe schemes, the authors used a publicly available database containing 140 nodules in 140 CXRs and 93 normal CXRs. The CADe scheme based on the SVM classifier achieved sensitivities of 78.6% (110/140) and 71.4% (100/140) with averages of 5.0 (1165/233) FPs/image and 2.0 (466/233) FPs/image, respectively, in a leave-one-out cross-validation test, whereas the CADe scheme based on a linear discriminant analysis classifier had a sensitivity of 60.7% (85/140) at an FP rate of 5.0 FPs/image. For nodules classified as ''very subtle'' and ''extremely subtle,'' a sensitivity of 57.1% (24/42) was achieved at an FP rate of 5.0 FPs/image. When the authors used a database developed at the University of Chicago, the sensitivities was 83.3% (40/48) and 77.1% (37/48) at an FP rate of 5.0 (240/48) FPs/image and 2.0 (96/48) FPs /image, respectively. Conclusions: These results compare favorably to those described for

  7. The Analytic Process Model for System Design and Measurement: A computer-Aided Tool for Analyzing Training Systems and other Human-Machine Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    performance measurement; effective- ness measurement; system populations; Bradley Infantry . Fighting Vehicle; BIFV; Analytic Process Model; APM...process model (APM) was developed from earlier models, applied in sample fashions to an existing system (the Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle) and...liradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle (Carrier Team Subsystem) 11 6. Example of a System Hierarchical Structure 14 7. Guidelines for Identifying

  8. Adhesive Bonding to Computer-aided Design/ Computer-aided Manufacturing Esthetic Dental Materials: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Awad, Mohamed Moustafa; Alqahtani, H; Al-Mudahi, A; Murayshed, M S; Alrahlah, A; Bhandi, Shilpa H

    2017-07-01

    To review the adhesive bonding to different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) esthetic restorative materials. The use of CAD/CAM esthetic restorative materials has gained popularity in recent years. Several CAD/ CAM esthetic restorative materials are commercially available. Adhesive bonding is a major determinant of success of CAD/ CAM restorations. Review result: An account of the currently available bonding strategies are discussed with their rationale in various CAD/ CAM materials. Different surface treatment methods as well as adhesion promoters can be used to achieve reliable bonding of CAD/CAM restorative materials. Selection of bonding strategy to such material is determined based on its composition. Further evidence is required to evaluate the effect of new surface treatment methods, such as nonthermal atmospheric plasma and self-etching ceramic primer on bonding to different dental ceramics. An understanding of the currently available bonding strategies to CA/CAM materials can help the clinician to select the most indicated system for each category of materials.

  9. Computer Aided Design: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Wan-Lee

    This instructional manual contains 12 learning activity packets for use in a workshop in computer-aided design and drafting (CADD). The lessons cover the following topics: introduction to computer graphics and computer-aided design/drafting; coordinate systems; advance space graphics hardware configuration and basic features of the IBM PC…

  10. Computer Aided Design: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Wan-Lee

    This instructional manual contains 12 learning activity packets for use in a workshop in computer-aided design and drafting (CADD). The lessons cover the following topics: introduction to computer graphics and computer-aided design/drafting; coordinate systems; advance space graphics hardware configuration and basic features of the IBM PC…

  11. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology.

    PubMed

    Calamia, J R

    1994-01-01

    Although the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology and the benefits of increased productivity became obvious in the automobile and aerospace industries in the 1970s, investigations of this technology's application in the field of dentistry did not begin until the 1980s. Only now are we beginning to see the fruits of this work with the commercial availability of some systems; the potential for this technology seems boundless. This article reviews the recent literature with emphasis on the period from June 1992 to May 1993. This review should familiarize the reader with some of the latest developments in this technology, including a brief description of some systems currently available and the clinical and economical rationale for their acceptance into the dental mainstream. This article concentrates on a particular system, the Cerec (Siemens/Pelton and Crane, Charlotte, NC) system, for three reasons: first, this system has been available since 1985 and, as a result, has a track record of almost 7 years of data. Most of the data have just recently been released and consequently, much of this year's literature on CAD-CAM is monopolized by studies using this system. Second, this system was developed as a mobile, affordable, direct chairside CAD-CAM restorative method. As such, it is of special interest to the dentist who will offer this new technology directly to the patient, providing a one-visit restoration. Third, the author is currently engaged in research using this particular system and has a working knowledge of this system's capabilities.

  12. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jia; Poirson, Allen

    2007-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths, and ranks third for new cancer cases and cancer mortality for both men and women. However, its death rate can be dramatically reduced by appropriate treatment when early detection is available. The purpose of colonoscopy is to identify and assess the severity of lesions, which may be flat or protruding. Due to the subjective nature of the examination, colonoscopic proficiency is highly variable and dependent upon the colonoscopist's knowledge and experience. An automated image processing system providing an objective, rapid, and inexpensive analysis of video from a standard colonoscope could provide a valuable tool for screening and diagnosis. In this paper, we present the design, functionality and preliminary results of its Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system for colonoscopy - ColonoCAD TM. ColonoCAD is a complex multi-sensor, multi-data and multi-algorithm image processing system, incorporating data management and visualization, video quality assessment and enhancement, calibration, multiple view based reconstruction, feature extraction and classification. As this is a new field in medical image processing, our hope is that this paper will provide the framework to encourage and facilitate collaboration and discussion between industry, academia, and medical practitioners.

  13. Intelligent Image Based Computer Aided Education (IICAE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Amos A.; Thiery, Odile; Crehange, Marion

    1989-03-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) has found its way into Computer Aided Education (CAE), and there are several systems constructed to put in evidence its interesting advantages. We believe that images (graphic or real) play an important role in learning. However, the use of images, outside their use as illustration, makes it necessary to have applications such as AI. We shall develop the application of AI in an image based CAE and briefly present the system under construction to put in evidence our concept. We shall also elaborate a methodology for constructing such a system. Futhermore we shall briefly present the pedagogical and psychological activities in a learning process. Under the pedagogical and psychological aspect of learning, we shall develop areas such as the importance of image in learning both as pedagogical objects as well as means for obtaining psychological information about the learner. We shall develop the learner's model, its use, what to build into it and how. Under the application of AI in an image based CAE, we shall develop the importance of AI in exploiting the knowledge base in the learning environment and its application as a means of implementing pedagogical strategies.

  14. Computer aids for integrated circuit design at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. W.

    A general framework for a hierarchical computer-aided design (CAD) system for VLSI design is described. The system supports both functional and physical design in the area of initial design specification, system synthesis, simulation, mask layout, verification, and documentation. The system is being implemented in phases within a user environment on a DECsystem 20-VAX 11/780 computer network. It supports evolutionary changes as new technologies, design strategies, and application programs are developed.

  15. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.; Olariu, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of this grant has been the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles particularly focused on the elements of geometric design, graphical user interfaces, and the interaction of the multitude of software typically used in this engineering environment. This has resulted in the development of several analysis packages and design studies. These include two major software systems currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are SMART, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool, and EASIE, the Environment for Software Integration and Execution. Additional software tools were designed and implemented to address the needs of the engineer working in the conceptual design environment. SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and several engineering analysis capabilities. In addition, SMART has a carefully engineered user interface that makes it easy to learn and use. Finally, a number of specialty characteristics have been built into SMART which allow it to be used efficiently as a front end geometry processor for other analysis packages. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand-alone, analysis codes. Resulting in a streamlining of the exchange of data between programs reducing errors and improving the efficiency. EASIE provides both a methodology and a collection of software tools to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes.

  16. Computer-aided control in nonround process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangjie; Huang, Shenghua

    1995-11-01

    Currently, un-round process (such as piston in internal-combustion engine etc.) is mainly realized by hard contact turning and ellipse milling. This paper introduces the computer-aided control in non-round process, using a high speed voice coil motor which can move to and fro in straight line to drive the cutting tool directly and so as to realize the un-round process under the control of computer. The precision can reach 1 micrometer. It exemplifies the process on convex varying elliptical piston. The best process curve is deduced. Double-CPUs are adopted to realize high speed detection and curve imitation in on-line process. IGBT is selected to drive the motor, optics grid decoder with the resolution of 0.25 micrometer for position detection. The self-adaptive control and feed forward control of sliding model on varying structure assures the request on system's dynamic response and stability. The simulation results reach the expected goal of system design.

  17. Comparative Cytotoxicity and Sperm Motility Using a Computer-Aided Sperm Analysis System (CASA) for Isomers of Phthalic Acid, a Common Final Metabolite of Phthalates.

    PubMed

    Kwack, Seung Jun; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2015-01-01

    The general population is exposed to phthalates through consumer products, diet, and medical devices. Phthalic acid (PA) is a common final metabolite of phthalates, and its isomers include isophthalic acid (IPA), terephthalic acid (TPA), and phthalaldehyde (o-phthalic acid, OPA). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether PA and PA isomers exert reproductive toxicity, including altered sperm movement. In vitro cell viability assays were comparatively performed using Sertoli and liver cell lines. In animal experiments, PA or PA isomers (10, 100, or 1000 mg/kg) were administered orally to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, and semen samples were analyzed by computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA). PA treatment produced a significant effect on curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight-line velocity (VSL), mean velocity or average path velocity (VAP), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), and frequency of head displacement or beat cross-frequency (BCF), whereas IPA, TPA, and OPA induced no marked effects. In vitro cell viability assays showed that mouse normal testis cells (TM4) and human testis cancer cells (NTERA 2 cl. D1) were more sensitive to PA and OPA than mouse liver normal cells (NCTC clone 1469) and human fetal liver cells (FL 62891). Our study suggests that PA and PA isomers specifically produced significant in vitro and in vivo reproductive toxicity, particularly sperm toxicity and testis cell cytotoxicity. Of the isomers examined, PA appeared to be the most toxic and may serve as a surrogate biomarker for reproductive toxicity following mixed exposure to phthalates.

  18. Engineering Technology Programs Courses Guide for Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide describes the requirements for courses in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) that are part of engineering technology programs conducted in vocational-technical schools in Georgia. The guide is organized in five sections. The first section provides a rationale for occupations in design and in production,…

  19. Engineering Technology Programs Courses Guide for Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide describes the requirements for courses in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) that are part of engineering technology programs conducted in vocational-technical schools in Georgia. The guide is organized in five sections. The first section provides a rationale for occupations in design and in production,…

  20. Computer-Aided Video Differential Planimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Michael; Djoleto, Ben D.

    1984-08-01

    THE VIDEO DIFFERENTIAL PLANIMETER (VDP)1 is a re-mote sensing instrument that can measure minute changes in the area of any object seen by an optical scanning system. The composite video waveforms obtained by scanning the object against a contrasting back-ground are amplified and shaped to yield a sequence of constant amplitude pulses whose polarity distinguishes the studied area from its background and whose varying widths reflect the dynamics of the viewed object. These pulses are passed through a relatively long time-constant capacitor-resistor circuit and are then fed into an integrator. The net integration voltage resulting from the most recent sequence of object-background time pulses is recorded and the integrator is returned to zero at the end of each video frame. If the object's area remains constant throughout the following frame, the integrator's summation will also remain constant. However, if the object's area varies, the positive and negative time pulses entering the integrator will change, and the integrator's summation will vary proportionately. The addition of a computer interface and a video recorder enhances the versatility and the resolving power of the VDP by permitting the repeated study and analysis of selected portions of the recorded data, thereby uncovering the major sources of the object's dynamics. Among the medical and biological procedures for which COMPUTER-AIDED VIDEO DIFFERENTIAL PLANIMETRY is suitable are Ophthalmoscopy, Endoscopy, Microscopy, Plethysmography, etc. A recent research study in Ophthalmoscopy2 will be cited to suggest a useful application of Video Differential Planimetry.

  1. Computer Aided Drug Design: Success and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mohammad Hassan; Ahmad, Khurshid; Roy, Sudeep; Ashraf, Jalaluddin Mohammad; Adil, Mohd; Siddiqui, Mohammad Haris; Khan, Saif; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Provazník, Ivo; Choi, Inho

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, computer-aided drug design has emerged as a powerful technique playing a crucial role in the development of new drug molecules. Structure-based drug design and ligand-based drug design are two methods commonly used in computer-aided drug design. In this article, we discuss the theory behind both methods, as well as their successful applications and limitations. To accomplish this, we reviewed structure based and ligand based virtual screening processes. Molecular dynamics simulation, which has become one of the most influential tool for prediction of the conformation of small molecules and changes in their conformation within the biological target, has also been taken into account. Finally, we discuss the principles and concepts of molecular docking, pharmacophores and other methods used in computer-aided drug design.

  2. Combining destination diversion decisions and critical in-flight event diagnosis in computer aided testing of pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockwell, T. H.; Giffin, W. C.; Romer, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell and Giffin (1982) and Giffin and Rockwell (1983) have discussed the use of computer aided testing (CAT) in the study of pilot response to critical in-flight events. The present investigation represents an extension of these earlier studies. In testing pilot responses to critical in-flight events, use is made of a Plato-touch CRT system operating on a menu based format. In connection with the typical diagnostic problem, the pilot was presented with symptoms within a flight scenario. In one problem, the pilot has four minutes for obtaining the information which is needed to make a diagnosis of the problem. In the reported research, the attempt has been made to combine both diagnosis and diversion scenario into a single computer aided test. Tests with nine subjects were conducted. The obtained results and their significance are discussed.

  3. Photogrammetry and computer-aided piping design

    SciTech Connect

    Keneflick, J.F.; Chirillo, R.D.

    1985-02-18

    Three-dimensional measurements taken from photographs of a plant model can be digitized and linked with computer-aided piping design. This can short-cut the design and construction of new plants and expedite repair and retrofitting projects. Some designers bridge the gap between model and computer by digitizing from orthographic prints obtained via orthography or the laser scanning of model sections. Such valve or fitting then processed is described in this paper. The marriage of photogrammetry and computer-aided piping design can economically produce such numerical drawings.

  4. Computer-aided diagnosis and artificial intelligence in clinical imaging.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Doi, Kunio

    2011-11-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is rapidly entering the radiology mainstream. It has already become a part of the routine clinical work for the detection of breast cancer with mammograms. The computer output is used as a "second opinion" in assisting radiologists' image interpretations. The computer algorithm generally consists of several steps that may include image processing, image feature analysis, and data classification via the use of tools such as artificial neural networks (ANN). In this article, we will explore these and other current processes that have come to be referred to as "artificial intelligence." One element of CAD, temporal subtraction, has been applied for enhancing interval changes and for suppressing unchanged structures (eg, normal structures) between 2 successive radiologic images. To reduce misregistration artifacts on the temporal subtraction images, a nonlinear image warping technique for matching the previous image to the current one has been developed. Development of the temporal subtraction method originated with chest radiographs, with the method subsequently being applied to chest computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine bone scans. The usefulness of the temporal subtraction method for bone scans was demonstrated by an observer study in which reading times and diagnostic accuracy improved significantly. An additional prospective clinical study verified that the temporal subtraction image could be used as a "second opinion" by radiologists with negligible detrimental effects. ANN was first used in 1990 for computerized differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases in CAD. Since then, ANN has been widely used in CAD schemes for the detection and diagnosis of various diseases in different imaging modalities, including the differential diagnosis of lung nodules and interstitial lung diseases in chest radiography, CT, and position emission tomography/CT. It is likely that CAD will be integrated into picture archiving and

  5. Breast Cancer: Computer-aided Detection with Digital Breast Tomosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Morra, Lia; Sacchetto, Daniela; Durando, Manuela; Agliozzo, Silvano; Carbonaro, Luca Alessandro; Delsanto, Silvia; Pesce, Barbara; Persano, Diego; Mariscotti, Giovanna; Marra, Vincenzo; Fonio, Paolo; Bert, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate a commercial tomosynthesis computer-aided detection (CAD) system in an independent, multicenter dataset. Diagnostic and screening tomosynthesis mammographic examinations (n = 175; cranial caudal and mediolateral oblique) were randomly selected from a previous institutional review board-approved trial. All subjects gave informed consent. Examinations were performed in three centers and included 123 patients, with 132 biopsy-proven screening-detected cancers, and 52 examinations with negative results at 1-year follow-up. One hundred eleven lesions were masses and/or microcalcifications (72 masses, 22 microcalcifications, 17 masses with microcalcifications) and 21 were architectural distortions. Lesions were annotated by radiologists who were aware of all available reports. CAD performance was assessed as per-lesion sensitivity and false-positive results per volume in patients with negative results. Use of the CAD system showed per-lesion sensitivity of 89% (99 of 111; 95% confidence interval: 81%, 94%), with 2.7 ± 1.8 false-positive rate per view, 62 of 72 lesions detected were masses, 20 of 22 were microcalcification clusters, and 17 of 17 were masses with microcalcifications. Overall, 37 of 39 microcalcification clusters (95% sensitivity, 95% confidence interval: 81%, 99%) and 79 of 89 masses (89% sensitivity, 95% confidence interval: 80%, 94%) were detected with the CAD system. On average, 0.5 false-positive rate per view were microcalcification clusters, 2.1 were masses, and 0.1 were masses and microcalcifications. A digital breast tomosynthesis CAD system can allow detection of a large percentage (89%, 99 of 111) of breast cancers manifesting as masses and microcalcification clusters, with an acceptable false-positive rate (2.7 per breast view). Further studies with larger datasets acquired with equipment from multiple vendors are needed to replicate the findings and to study the interaction of radiologists and CAD systems. (©) RSNA, 2015.

  6. Computer-aided decision making.

    Treesearch

    Keith M. Reynolds; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2006-01-01

    Several major classes of software technologies have been used in decisionmaking for forest management applications over the past few decades. These computer-based technologies include mathematical programming, expert systems, network models, multi-criteria decisionmaking, and integrated systems. Each technology possesses unique advantages and disadvantages, and has...

  7. Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowell, Louis

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management at John F. Kennedy Space Center. The contents include: 1) Corrosion at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC); 2) Requirements and Objectives; 3) Program Description, Background and History; 4) Approach and Implementation; 5) Challenges; 6) Lessons Learned; 7) Successes and Benefits; and 8) Summary and Conclusions.

  8. Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics: Software Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yushau, B.; Bokhari, M. A.; Wessels, D. C. J.

    2004-01-01

    Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics (CALM) has been in use for some time in the Prep-Year Mathematics Program at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. Different kinds of software (both locally designed and imported) have been used in the quest of optimizing the recitation/problem session hour of the mathematics classes. This paper…

  9. Computer-Aided Instruction and Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euler, Dieter

    1990-01-01

    Investigates effect of computer-aided instruction (CAI) on acquisition of communication skills. Sketches a tutorial of the basic communication structure. Recommends confining CAI to cognitive learning because CAI cannot advance communication skills. Maintains that integrating CAI in social arrangements will allow the computer to remain an…

  10. Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics: Software Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yushau, B.; Bokhari, M. A.; Wessels, D. C. J.

    2004-01-01

    Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics (CALM) has been in use for some time in the Prep-Year Mathematics Program at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. Different kinds of software (both locally designed and imported) have been used in the quest of optimizing the recitation/problem session hour of the mathematics classes. This paper…

  11. A computer-aided regulator design.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmarkar, J. S.; Siljak, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    A unified computer-aided method for the design of linear and nonlinear regulators is discussed. The general mathematical programming approach considered involves the determination of a vector that solves the problem of minimizing the objective function subject to constraints. Classical design problems stated are related to stability design, dominant mode design, and comprehensive design. A computer algorithm is also developed.

  12. New Paradigms for Computer Aids to Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, M. Diane

    Many people are interested in computer aids to rhetorical invention and want to know how to evaluate an invention aid, what the criteria are for a good one, and how to assess the trade-offs involved in buying one product or another. The frame of reference for this evaluation is an "old paradigm," which treats the computer as if it were…

  13. Computer-Aided Medical Diagnosis. Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-15

    BOUCKAERT, A., Computer-aided diagnosis of goitres in a cancer department, Int. J. Bio-’Med. Comput., 3 (1972) p. 3. BOYLE, J. A., GREIG, W. R., FRANKLIN, D...toxic goitre , Q. J. Med., 35 (1966) p. 565. Bricetti, A. B. and Bleich, H. L., A computer program that evaluates patients with hypercalcemia, J

  14. Classification of Computer-Aided Design-Computer-Aided Manufacturing Applications for the Reconstruction of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Defects.

    PubMed

    Wauters, Lauri D J; Miguel-Moragas, Joan San; Mommaerts, Maurice Y

    2015-11-01

    To gain insight into the methodology of different computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) applications for the reconstruction of cranio-maxillo-facial (CMF) defects. We reviewed and analyzed the available literature pertaining to CAD-CAM for use in CMF reconstruction. We proposed a classification system of the techniques of implant and cutting, drilling, and/or guiding template design and manufacturing. The system consisted of 4 classes (I-IV). These classes combine techniques used for both the implant and template to most accurately describe the methodology used. Our classification system can be widely applied. It should facilitate communication and immediate understanding of the methodology of CAD-CAM applications for the reconstruction of CMF defects.

  15. Computer Aided Grid Interface: An Interactive CFD Pre-Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.

    1997-01-01

    NASA maintains an applications oriented computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts complementary to and in support of the aerodynamic-propulsion design and test activities. This is especially true at NASA/MSFC where the goal is to advance and optimize present and future liquid-fueled rocket engines. Numerical grid generation plays a significant role in the fluid flow simulations utilizing CFD. An overall goal of the current project was to develop a geometry-grid generation tool that will help engineers, scientists and CFD practitioners to analyze design problems involving complex geometries in a timely fashion. This goal is accomplished by developing the CAGI: Computer Aided Grid Interface system. The CAGI system is developed by integrating CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) geometric system output and/or Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files (including all the NASA-IGES entities), geometry manipulations and generations associated with grid constructions, and robust grid generation methodologies. This report describes the development process of the CAGI system.

  16. Computer Aided Grid Interface: An Interactive CFD Pre-Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.

    1996-01-01

    NASA maintains an applications oriented computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts complementary to and in support of the aerodynamic-propulsion design and test activities. This is especially true at NASA/MSFC where the goal is to advance and optimize present and future liquid-fueled rocket engines. Numerical grid generation plays a significant role in the fluid flow simulations utilizing CFD. An overall goal of the current project was to develop a geometry-grid generation tool that will help engineers, scientists and CFD practitioners to analyze design problems involving complex geometries in a timely fashion. This goal is accomplished by developing the Computer Aided Grid Interface system (CAGI). The CAGI system is developed by integrating CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) geometric system output and / or Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files (including all the NASA-IGES entities), geometry manipulations and generations associated with grid constructions, and robust grid generation methodologies. This report describes the development process of the CAGI system.

  17. Computer-aided design and computer science technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Voigt, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A description is presented of computer-aided design requirements and the resulting computer science advances needed to support aerospace design. The aerospace design environment is examined, taking into account problems of data handling and aspects of computer hardware and software. The interactive terminal is normally the primary interface between the computer system and the engineering designer. Attention is given to user aids, interactive design, interactive computations, the characteristics of design information, data management requirements, hardware advancements, and computer science developments.

  18. CADEE: Computer-Aided Directed Evolution of Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Amrein, Beat Anton; Steffen-Munsberg, Fabian; Szeler, Ireneusz; Purg, Miha; Kulkarni, Yashraj; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2017-01-01

    The tremendous interest in enzymes as biocatalysts has led to extensive work in enzyme engineering, as well as associated methodology development. Here, a new framework for computer-aided directed evolution of enzymes (CADEE) is presented which allows a drastic reduction in the time necessary to prepare and analyze in silico semi-automated directed evolution of enzymes. A pedagogical example of the application of CADEE to a real biological system is also presented in order to illustrate the CADEE workflow.

  19. Computer aided coordination of line protection schemes IEEE committee report

    SciTech Connect

    Postforoosh, J.M.; Akamine, J.; Banerjee, H.N.; Cornelison, J.R.; Enns, M.K.; Grier, S.E.; Hass, R.W.; Hasenwinkle, I.O.; Johnson, R.W.; Mozina, C.J.; Ramaswami, R.; Smith, H.S.; Taylor, R.P.; Turley, J.R.; Zipp, J.A.

    1991-04-01

    IEEE PSRC working group on Computer Aided Coordination of Line Protection Schemes was established in 1985 to investigate the application of computers to the task of setting and verifying the setting of line protective devices. This report provides the findings of the working group regarding functional requirements of the data base, software, and hardware for this system as well as the methods of presenting the results to the protection engineer.

  20. CADEE: Computer-Aided Directed Evolution of Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Amrein, Beat Anton; Steffen-Munsberg, Fabian; Szeler, Ireneusz; Purg, Miha; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2017-01-01

    The tremendous interest in enzymes as biocatalysts has led to extensive work in enzyme engineering, as well as associated methodology development. Here, a new framework for computer-aided directed evolution of enzymes (CADEE) is presented which allows a drastic reduction in the time necessary to prepare and analyze in silico semi-automated directed evolution of enzymes. A pedagogical example of the application of CADEE to a real biological system is also presented in order to illustrate the CADEE workflow. PMID:28250941

  1. Computer Aided Breast Cancer Diagnosis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    19980617 062 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE form Approved OMB No. 0704-018$ 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (leave blank) 2, REPORT DATE September 1937 4 . TITLE AND...Table of Contents Front Cover 1 Report Documentation Page 2 Foreword 3 Table of Contents 4 Introduction 5 Report on Research for 1997 8...standardized BI-RADS™ reporting system, 3) trained and evaluated an ANN predictive model, 4 ) conducted a small prospective study, 5) examined the

  2. Application of infrared thermography in computer aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Oliver; Rajendra Acharya, U.; Ng, E. Y. K.; Hong, Tan Jen; Yu, Wenwei

    2014-09-01

    The invention of thermography, in the 1950s, posed a formidable problem to the research community: What is the relationship between disease and heat radiation captured with Infrared (IR) cameras? The research community responded with a continuous effort to find this crucial relationship. This effort was aided by advances in processing techniques, improved sensitivity and spatial resolution of thermal sensors. However, despite this progress fundamental issues with this imaging modality still remain. The main problem is that the link between disease and heat radiation is complex and in many cases even non-linear. Furthermore, the change in heat radiation as well as the change in radiation pattern, which indicate disease, is minute. On a technical level, this poses high requirements on image capturing and processing. On a more abstract level, these problems lead to inter-observer variability and on an even more abstract level they lead to a lack of trust in this imaging modality. In this review, we adopt the position that these problems can only be solved through a strict application of scientific principles and objective performance assessment. Computing machinery is inherently objective; this helps us to apply scientific principles in a transparent way and to assess the performance results. As a consequence, we aim to promote thermography based Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems. Another benefit of CAD systems comes from the fact that the diagnostic accuracy is linked to the capability of the computing machinery and, in general, computers become ever more potent. We predict that a pervasive application of computers and networking technology in medicine will help us to overcome the shortcomings of any single imaging modality and this will pave the way for integrated health care systems which maximize the quality of patient care.

  3. Application of Particle Swarm Optimization in Computer Aided Setup Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafashi, Sajad; Shakeri, Mohsen; Abedini, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    New researches are trying to integrate computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) environments. The role of process planning is to convert the design specification into manufacturing instructions. Setup planning has a basic role in computer aided process planning (CAPP) and significantly affects the overall cost and quality of machined part. This research focuses on the development for automatic generation of setups and finding the best setup plan in feasible condition. In order to computerize the setup planning process, three major steps are performed in the proposed system: a) Extraction of machining data of the part. b) Analyzing and generation of all possible setups c) Optimization to reach the best setup plan based on cost functions. Considering workshop resources such as machine tool, cutter and fixture, all feasible setups could be generated. Then the problem is adopted with technological constraints such as TAD (tool approach direction), tolerance relationship and feature precedence relationship to have a completely real and practical approach. The optimal setup plan is the result of applying the PSO (particle swarm optimization) algorithm into the system using cost functions. A real sample part is illustrated to demonstrate the performance and productivity of the system.

  4. Discriminating coastal rangeland production and improvements with computer aided techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. A.; Faulkner, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility and utility of using satellite data and computer-aided remote sensing analysis techniques to conduct range inventories were tested. This pilot study was focused over a 250,000 acre site in Galveston and Brazoria Counties along the Texas Gulf Coast. Rectified enlarged aircraft color infrared photographs of this site were used as the ground truth base. The different land categories were identified, delineated, and measured. Multispectral scanner (MSS) bulk data from LANDSAT-1 was received and analyzed with the Image 100 pattern recognition system. Features of interest were delineated on the image console giving the number of picture elements classified; the picture elements were converted to acreages and the accuracy of the technique was evaluated by comparison with data base results for three test sites. The accuracies for computer aided classification of coastal marshes ranged from 89% to 96%.

  5. Method of computer-aided measurement in a shooting range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chanlao; Zhang, Yun; Xiong, Rensheng; Sun, Yishang

    2000-10-01

    In the view of the blindness of photoelectric measurement scheme argument and the danger of live shell measurement in shooting range, this paper provided a computer aided measurement method guiding the measurement scheme argument and equipment researching and producing and driving the measurement process visiblization and standardization. The computer aided measurement in shooting range can be divided into the mathematical simulation of targets moving, the mathematical simulation of measurement method, the mathematical simulation of photoelectric system, the animated displaying of measurement process, and so on. By adding random jamming, Gaussian white noise and so on, the live measurement environment and condition was built. By using mathematical discretization, the time series pictures was obtained. By controlling the time changing and time unifying of several equipment, the animated displaying of measurement process was built. The programming language was MATLAB. The method was proved through simulating the intersection measurement trajectory of antiaircraft gun's shell successfully.

  6. Microstereolithography-based computer-aided manufacturing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Various solid freeform fabrication technologies have been introduced for constructing three-dimensional (3-D) freeform structures. Of these, microstereolithography (MSTL) technology performs the best in 3-D space because it not only has high resolution, but also fast fabrication speed. Using this technology, 3-D structures with mesoscale size and microscale resolution are achievable. Many researchers have been trying to apply this technology to tissue engineering to construct medically applicable scaffolds, which require a 3-D shape that fits a defect with a mesoscale size and microscale inner architecture for efficient regeneration of artificial tissue. This chapter introduces the principles of MSTL technology and representative systems. It includes fabrication and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) processes to show the automation process by which measurements from medical images are used to fabricate the required 3-D shape. Then, various tissue engineering applications based on MSTL are summarized.

  7. Computer-aided dental prostheses construction using reverse engineering.

    PubMed

    Solaberrieta, E; Minguez, R; Barrenetxea, L; Sierra, E; Etxaniz, O

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems with virtual articulators, which take into account the kinematics, constitutes a breakthrough in the construction of customised dental prostheses. This paper presents a multidisciplinary protocol involving CAM techniques to produce dental prostheses. This protocol includes a step-by-step procedure using innovative reverse engineering technologies to transform completely virtual design processes into customised prostheses. A special emphasis is placed on a novel method that permits a virtual location of the models. The complete workflow includes the optical scanning of the patient, the use of reverse engineering software and, if necessary, the use of rapid prototyping to produce CAD temporary prostheses.

  8. Evaluation of computer-aided monitoring of patients after heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, L H; Mac Vaugh, H; Stevens, J; Wechsler, A B; Worthington, G M

    1977-12-01

    The medical and economic benefits of a computer-aided monitoring system were evaluated in a prospective, randomized study of 810 patients after open-heart surgery. The design of the study separated benefits of systematized postoperative care from benefits unique to the computer system and established measurable criteria by which computer-aided monitoring systems could be objectively evaluated. Criteria for comparison included the rapidity, safety, and smoothness of convalescence and time spent for various nursing activities. The study showed that the computer-aided monitoring system did not provide discernible medical benefits nor favorably affect nursing activities. Downtime of the system averaged 1 day per week. Reliability and accuracy of the system were inadequate and the benefit/cost ratio was low. Future development of computer-aided monitoring systems for open cardiac surgery should stress reliability, accuracy and relevance of the monitored measurements.

  9. Teleradiology network system and computer-aided diagnosis workstation using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2011-03-01

    We have developed the teleradiology network system with a new information security solution that provided with web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. We are studying the secret sharing scheme as a method safely to store or to transmit the confidential medical information used with the teleradiology network system. The confidential medical information is exposed to the risk of the damage and intercept. Secret sharing scheme is a method of dividing the confidential medical information into two or more tallies. Individual medical information cannot be decoded by using one tally at all. Our method has the function of RAID. With RAID technology, if there is a failure in a single tally, there is redundant data already copied to other tally. Confidential information is preserved at an individual Data Center connected through internet because individual medical information cannot be decoded by using one tally at all. Therefore, even if one of the Data Centers is struck and information is damaged, the confidential medical information can be decoded by using the tallies preserved at the data center to which it escapes damage. We can safely share the screen of workstation to which the medical image of Data Center is displayed from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. Moreover, Real time biometric face authentication system is connected with Data Center. Real time biometric face authentication system analyzes the feature of the face image of which it takes a picture in 20 seconds with the camera and defends the safety of the medical information. We propose a new information transmission method and a new information storage method with a new information security solution.

  10. Letter regarding 'Comparison between low-cost marker-less and high-end marker-based motion capture systems for the computer-aided assessment of working ergonomics' by Patrizi et al. and research reproducibility.

    PubMed

    2017-04-01

    The reporting of research in a manner that allows reproduction in subsequent investigations is important for scientific progress. Several details of the recent study by Patrizi et al., 'Comparison between low-cost marker-less and high-end marker-based motion capture systems for the computer-aided assessment of working ergonomics', are absent from the published manuscript and make reproduction of findings impossible. As new and complex technologies with great promise for ergonomics develop, new but surmountable challenges for reporting investigations using these technologies in a reproducible manner arise. Practitioner Summary: As with traditional methods, scientific reporting of new and complex ergonomics technologies should be performed in a manner that allows reproduction in subsequent investigations and supports scientific advancement.

  11. Assessment of Chair-side Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Restorations: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Baroudi, Kusai; Ibraheem, Shukran Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper aimed to evaluate the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and the factors that affect the survival of restorations. Materials and Methods: A thorough literature search using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library and Grey literature were performed from the year 2004 up to June 2014. Only relevant research was considered. Results: The use of chair-side CAD/CAM systems is promising in all dental branches in terms of minimizing time and effort made by dentists, technicians and patients for restoring and maintaining patient oral function and aesthetic, while providing high quality outcome. Conclusion: The way of producing and placing the restorations made with the chair-side CAD/CAM (CEREC and E4D) devices is better than restorations made by conventional laboratory procedures. PMID:25954082

  12. Computer aided nonlinear electrical networks analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slapnicar, P.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques used in simulating an electrical circuit with nonlinear elements for use in computer-aided circuit analysis programs are described. Elements of the circuit include capacitors, resistors, inductors, transistors, diodes, and voltage and current sources (constant or time varying). Simulation features are discussed for dc, ac, and/or transient circuit analysis. Calculations are based on the model approach of formulating the circuit equations. A particular solution of transient analysis for nonlinear storage elements is described.

  13. Continuing education through computer-aided instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.

    1981-01-01

    Computer-aided and managed instruction has been incorporated into the continuing education program in the Electronics Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two Control Data Corporation PLATO terminals have been installed in the learning center, and have been providing individualized instruction to the employees for approximately 2 years. Reactions from users and total usage figures indicate that there are unique advantages to computer-aided instruction. User interaction with a computer assures individual response from a student. The learner must be actively involved in the course and cannot passively allow content to flow by. Complex simulations can be programed and used in the learning process; thus, expensive equipment can be spared the wear and tear attributed to learners. The breadth of course topics included in the on-line library assures that PLATO has a continuing education offering for most employees. New lessons appear on line at the rate of three or four per week; PLATO cost effectiveness is thus certified. Comparisons of courses taken on the terminal to the same or similar courses offered elsewhere indicate that PLATO is advantageous. Computer-aided instruction is available when the learner is ready for initial instruction and later for reviews. At Los Alamos, the demand for PLATO service is growing. The Laboratory will have eight terminals installed and operating by April 1981. 8 tables.

  14. A Metric for Reducing False Positives in the Computer-Aided Detection of Breast Cancer from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based Screening Examinations of High-Risk Women.

    PubMed

    Levman, Jacob E D; Gallego-Ortiz, Cristina; Warner, Ellen; Causer, Petrina; Martel, Anne L

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-enabled cancer screening has been shown to be a highly sensitive method for the early detection of breast cancer. Computer-aided detection systems have the potential to improve the screening process by standardizing radiologists to a high level of diagnostic accuracy. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. This study compares the performance of a proposed method for computer-aided detection (based on the second-order spatial derivative of the relative signal intensity) with the signal enhancement ratio (SER) on MRI-based breast screening examinations. Comparison is performed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis as well as free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve analysis. A modified computer-aided detection system combining the proposed approach with the SER method is also presented. The proposed method provides improvements in the rates of false positive markings over the SER method in the detection of breast cancer (as assessed by FROC analysis). The modified computer-aided detection system that incorporates both the proposed method and the SER method yields ROC results equal to that produced by SER while simultaneously providing improvements over the SER method in terms of false positives per noncancerous exam. The proposed method for identifying malignancies outperforms the SER method in terms of false positives on a challenging dataset containing many small lesions and may play a useful role in breast cancer screening by MRI as part of a computer-aided detection system.

  15. Application of artificial neural networks in computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bei

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis is a diagnostic procedure in which a radiologist uses the outputs of computer analysis of medical images as a second opinion in the interpretation of medical images, either to help with lesion detection or to help determine if the lesion is benign or malignant. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are usually employed to formulate the statistical models for computer analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves are used to evaluate the performance of the ANN alone, as well as the diagnostic performance of radiologists who take into account the ANN output as a second opinion. In this chapter, we use mammograms to illustrate how an ANN model is trained, tested, and evaluated, and how a radiologist should use the ANN output as a second opinion in CAD.

  16. The Computer-Aided Analytic Process Model. Operations Handbook for the APM (Analytic Process Model) Demonstration Package. Appendix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    The Analytic Process Model for System Design and Measurement: A Computer-Aided Tool for Analyzing Training Systems and Other Human-Machine Systems. A...separate companion volume--The Computer-Aided Analytic Process Model : Operations Handbook for the APM Demonstration Package is also available under

  17. Computer-aided periodontal disease diagnosis using computer vision.

    PubMed

    Juan, M C; Alcañiz, M; Monserrat, C; Grau, V; Knoll, C

    1999-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are the major cause of tooth loss. The study of the evolution of these diseases is crucial to achieve adequate planning and treatment. Depth probing is essential to know the periodontal disease stage. In this paper we present a new system for Computer-Aided Periodontal Disease Diagnosis using computer vision. The system automates the depth probing and incorporates a colour camera fitted together with a plastic probe that automatically and exactly obtains the depth probing measure. The system has been tested by several periodontists and with 125 teeth of different patients. The differences between the values taken by the system and two periodontists have not been significant.

  18. Intelligent diagnostics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquiston, Barbara M.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent systems have been applied to today's problems and could also be applied to space operations integrity. One of these systems is the XMAN tool designed for 'troubleshooting' jet engines. XMAN is the eXpert MAiNtenance tool developed to be an expert information analysis tool which stores trending and diagnostic data on Air Force engines. XMAN operates with a 'network topology' which follows a flow chart containing engine management information reports required by the governments technical order procedures. With XMAN technology, the user is able to identify engine problems by presenting the assertions of the fault isolation logic and attempting to satisfy individual assertions by referring to the databases created by an engine monitoring system. The troubleshooting process requires interaction between the technician and the computer to acquire new evidence form auxiliary maintenance tests corroboration of analytical results to accurately diagnose equipment malfunctions. This same technology will be required for systems which are functioning in space either with an onboard crew, or with an unmanned system. The technology and lessons learned developing this technology while suggesting definite applications for its use with developing space systems are addressed.

  19. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Xianbin

    2015-01-01

    AM Biotechnologies, LLC, in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a diagnostic device that quickly detects sampled biomarkers. The TDS quickly quantifies clinically relevant biomarkers using only microliters of a single sample. The system combines ambient-stable, long shelf-life affinity assays with handheld, microfluidic gel electrophoresis affinity assay quantification technology. The TDS is easy to use, operates in microgravity, and permits simultaneous quantification of 32 biomarkers. In Phase I of the project, the partners demonstrated that a thioaptamer assay used in the microfluidic instrument could quantify a specific biomarker in serum in the low nanomolar range. The team also identified novel affinity agents to bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and demonstrated their ability to detect BAP with the microfluidic instrument. In Phase II, AM Biotech expanded the number of ambient affinity agents and demonstrated a TDS prototype. In the long term, the clinical version of the TDS will provide a robust, flight-tested diagnostic capability for space exploration missions.

  20. A computer-aided approach to nonlinear control systhesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Anthony, Tobin

    1988-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to develop a computer-aided approach to nonlinear stability analysis and nonlinear control system design. This goal is to be obtained by refining the describing function method as a synthesis tool for nonlinear control design. The interim report outlines the approach by this study to meet these goals including an introduction to the INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program which was instrumental in meeting these study objectives. A single-input describing function (SIDF) design methodology was developed in this study; coupled with the software constructed in this study, the results of this project provide a comprehensive tool for design and integration of nonlinear control systems.