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Sample records for computer-assisted detection decision

  1. Reliability analysis framework for computer-assisted medical decision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Habas, Piotr A.; Zurada, Jacek M.; Elmaghraby, Adel S.; Tourassi, Georgia D.

    2007-02-15

    We present a technique that enhances computer-assisted decision (CAD) systems with the ability to assess the reliability of each individual decision they make. Reliability assessment is achieved by measuring the accuracy of a CAD system with known cases similar to the one in question. The proposed technique analyzes the feature space neighborhood of the query case to dynamically select an input-dependent set of known cases relevant to the query. This set is used to assess the local (query-specific) accuracy of the CAD system. The estimated local accuracy is utilized as a reliability measure of the CAD response to the query case. The underlying hypothesis of the study is that CAD decisions with higher reliability are more accurate. The above hypothesis was tested using a mammographic database of 1337 regions of interest (ROIs) with biopsy-proven ground truth (681 with masses, 656 with normal parenchyma). Three types of decision models, (i) a back-propagation neural network (BPNN), (ii) a generalized regression neural network (GRNN), and (iii) a support vector machine (SVM), were developed to detect masses based on eight morphological features automatically extracted from each ROI. The performance of all decision models was evaluated using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The study showed that the proposed reliability measure is a strong predictor of the CAD system's case-specific accuracy. Specifically, the ROC area index for CAD predictions with high reliability was significantly better than for those with low reliability values. This result was consistent across all decision models investigated in the study. The proposed case-specific reliability analysis technique could be used to alert the CAD user when an opinion that is unlikely to be reliable is offered. The technique can be easily deployed in the clinical environment because it is applicable with a wide range of classifiers regardless of their structure and it requires neither additional

  2. Computer Assisted Thermography And Its Application In Ovulation Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. H.; Shah, A. V.

    1984-08-01

    Hardware and software of a computer-assisted image analyzing system used for infrared images in medical applications are discussed. The application of computer-assisted thermography (CAT) as a complementary diagnostic tool in centralized diagnostic management is proposed. The authors adopted 'Computer Assisted Thermography' to study physiological changes in the breasts related to the hormones characterizing the menstrual cycle of a woman. Based on clinical experi-ments followed by thermal image analysis, they suggest that 'differential skin temperature (DST)1 be measured to detect the fertility interval in the menstrual cycle of a woman.

  3. Detection of microcalcification in computer-assisted mammogram analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghdy, Golshah A.; Naghdy, Fazel; Yue, L.; Drijarkara, A. P.

    1999-07-01

    The latest trend in computer assisted mammogram analysis is reviewed and two new methods developed by the authors for automatic detection of microcalcifications (MCs) are presented. The first method is based on wavelet neurone feature detectors and ART classifiers while the second method utilized fuzzy rules for detection and grading of MCs.

  4. Computer-assisted detection of swallowing difficulty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Chan; Seo, Han Gil; Lee, Woo Hyung; Kim, Hee Chan; Han, Tai Ryoon; Oh, Byung-Mo

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate classification performance of a support vector machine (SVM) classifier for diagnosing swallowing difficulty based on the hyoid movement data attained from videofluoroscopic swallowing study, the hyoid kinematics during the swallowing of 2 mL of liquid barium solution were analyzed for 90 healthy volunteers and 116 dysphagic stroke patients. SVM was used to classify the kinematic results as normal or dysfunctional swallowing. Various kernel functions and kernel parameters were used for optimization. Features were selected to find an optimal feature subset and to minimize redundancy. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and area under a receiving operating characteristic curve (AUC) were used to assess the discrimination performance. In 19 out of 26 features, mean comparison revealed a significant difference between healthy subjects and dysphagic patients. By reducing the number of features to 10, an AUC of 0.9269 could be reached. Common features showing the best classification in both kernel functions included forward maximum excursion time, upward maximum excursion time, maximum excursion length, upward maximum velocity time, upward maximum acceleration time, maximum acceleration, maximum acceleration time, and mean acceleration. SVM-based classification method with the use of kernel functions showed an outstanding (AUC of 0.9269) discrimination performance for either healthy or dysphagic hyoid movement during swallowing. We expect that this classification method will be useful as an adjunct diagnostic tool by providing automatic detection of swallowing dysfunction as well as a research tool providing deeper understanding of pathophysiology. PMID:27480734

  5. Computer-Assisted Diagnostic Decision Support: History, Challenges, and Possible Paths Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randolph A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a brief history of computer-assisted diagnosis, including challenges and future directions. Some ideas presented in this article on computer-assisted diagnostic decision support systems (CDDSS) derive from prior work by the author and his colleagues (see list in Acknowledgments) on the INTERNIST-1 and QMR projects. References…

  6. Computer-Assisted Detection of Infectious Lung Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Ulas; Bray, Mike; Caban, Jesus; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections are a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although radiology serves as a primary diagnostic method for assessing respiratory tract infections, visual analysis of chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans is restricted by low specificity for causal infectious organisms and a limited capacity to assess severity and predict patient outcomes. These limitations suggest that computer-assisted detection (CAD) could make a valuable contribution to the management of respiratory tract infections by assisting in the early recognition of pulmonary parenchymal lesions, providing quantitative measures of disease severity and assessing the response to therapy. In this paper, we review the most common radiographic and CT features of respiratory tract infections, discuss the challenges of defining and measuring these disorders with CAD, and propose some strategies to address these challenges. PMID:21723090

  7. Computer-Assisted Career Decision Making: The Guide in the Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Martin R.

    This book examines the rationale, benefits, and limitations of computer-assisted career decision making (CDM). Discussed in Chapter 1 are the following: the components of CDM (options, persons, environments, processes, and outcomes); the historical development and context of CDM; and considerations in reaching decisions about work, occupations and…

  8. Computer-Assisted Community Planning and Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME.

    The College of the Atlantic (COA) developed a broad-based, interdisciplinary curriculum in ecological policy and community planning and decision-making that incorporates two primary computer-based tools: ARC/INFO Geographic Information System (GIS) and STELLA, a systems-dynamics modeling tool. Students learn how to use and apply these tools…

  9. Decision making and problem solving with computer assistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraiss, F.

    1980-01-01

    In modern guidance and control systems, the human as manager, supervisor, decision maker, problem solver and trouble shooter, often has to cope with a marginal mental workload. To improve this situation, computers should be used to reduce the operator from mental stress. This should not solely be done by increased automation, but by a reasonable sharing of tasks in a human-computer team, where the computer supports the human intelligence. Recent developments in this area are summarized. It is shown that interactive support of operator by intelligent computer is feasible during information evaluation, decision making and problem solving. The applied artificial intelligence algorithms comprehend pattern recognition and classification, adaptation and machine learning as well as dynamic and heuristic programming. Elementary examples are presented to explain basic principles.

  10. Application of Adaptive Decision Aiding Systems to Computer-Assisted Instruction. Final Report, January-December 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Donald M.; And Others

    The minicomputer-based Computerized Diagnostic and Decision Training (CDDT) system described combines the principles of artificial intelligence, decision theory, and adaptive computer assisted instruction for training in electronic troubleshooting. The system incorporates an adaptive computer program which learns the student's diagnostic and…

  11. A comparative analysis of multi-level computer-assisted decision making systems for traumatic injuries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper focuses on the creation of a predictive computer-assisted decision making system for traumatic injury using machine learning algorithms. Trauma experts must make several difficult decisions based on a large number of patient attributes, usually in a short period of time. The aim is to compare the existing machine learning methods available for medical informatics, and develop reliable, rule-based computer-assisted decision-making systems that provide recommendations for the course of treatment for new patients, based on previously seen cases in trauma databases. Datasets of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients are used to train and test the decision making algorithm. The work is also applicable to patients with traumatic pelvic injuries. Methods Decision-making rules are created by processing patterns discovered in the datasets, using machine learning techniques. More specifically, CART and C4.5 are used, as they provide grammatical expressions of knowledge extracted by applying logical operations to the available features. The resulting rule sets are tested against other machine learning methods, including AdaBoost and SVM. The rule creation algorithm is applied to multiple datasets, both with and without prior filtering to discover significant variables. This filtering is performed via logistic regression prior to the rule discovery process. Results For survival prediction using all variables, CART outperformed the other machine learning methods. When using only significant variables, neural networks performed best. A reliable rule-base was generated using combined C4.5/CART. The average predictive rule performance was 82% when using all variables, and approximately 84% when using significant variables only. The average performance of the combined C4.5 and CART system using significant variables was 89.7% in predicting the exact outcome (home or rehabilitation), and 93.1% in predicting the ICU length of stay for airlifted TBI patients

  12. Computer assisted pulse oximetry for detecting children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vavrina, J

    1995-11-01

    A prospective study was carried out on 110 children undergoing tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy to evaluate the usefulness of computer assisted pulse oximetry (POM) as a screening tool for nocturnal obstructive sleep apnea episodes. Twenty-one healthy age-matched children served as a control group. A self-designed software (CAPO version 1.0) was used to analyse collected oximetric data. Pre-operatively up to 25% of children showed a characteristic pattern of repeated oxygen desaturations related to partial or complete airway obstruction, which was not seen in the matched group. Thirty-one percent had an oxygen desaturation index (ODI) of more than 2 phases/h, being significantly higher than in the matched group. These children could not be identified from history or clinical examination with an acceptable sensitivity. A second monitoring has been performed in 32 patients 5 days after surgery. The nocturnal cyclic oscillations of oxygen saturation resolved in almost all cases. Computer assisted POM is useful in predicting and grading nocturnal obstruction and adds decision making data for the treatment in children suspected of suffering from obstructive sleep apnea.

  13. Computer-assisted lesion detection system for stomach screening using stomach shape and appearance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midoh, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Takashima, M.; Nakamae, K.; Fujioka, H.

    2007-03-01

    In Japan, stomach cancer is one of the three most common causes of death from cancer. Since periodic health checks of stomach X-rays have become more widely carried out, the physicians' burdens have been increasing in the mass screening to detect initial symptoms of a disease. For the purpose of automatic diagnosis, we try to develop a computer-assisted lesion detection system for stomach screening. The proposed system has two databases. One is the stomach shape database that consists of the computer graphics stomach 3D models based on biomechanics simulation and their projected 2D images. The other is the normal appearance database that is constructed by learning patterns in a normal patient training set. The stomach contour is extracted from an X-ray image including a barium filled region by the following steps. Firstly, the approximated stomach region is obtained by nonrigid registration based on mutual information. We define nonrigid transformation as one that includes translations, rotations, scaling, air-barium interface and weights of eigenvectors determined by principal components analysis in the stomach shape database. Secondly, the accurate stomach contour is extracted from the gradient of an image by using the Dynamic Programming. After then, stomach lesions are detected by inspecting whether the Mahalanobis distance from the mean in the normal appearance database is longer than a suitable value on the extracted stomach contour. We applied our system to 75 X-ray images of barium-filled stomach to show its validity.

  14. 'Should I Use a Computer-Assisted Career Guidance System?' It Depends on Where Your Career Decision-Making Difficulties Lie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; Saka, Noa; Krausz, Mina

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of computer assisted career guidance system (CACGS) in reducing the career decision making difficulties of young adults in Israel. Difficulties were found to be highest for individuals who were prior to the pre-screening stage of the career decision making process and lowest for those who were at the choice stage.…

  15. Effects of Computer-Assisted Career Decision Making on Vocational Identity and Career Exploratory Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mau, Wei-Cheng

    1999-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=108) were assigned to six groups: computerized Career Decision-Making (CDM), computerized Self-Directed Search (SDS), CHOICES, CDM and SDS, wait-listed, or control. Teaching decision-making strategies through CDM improved short- and long-term vocational identity; the informational approach (CHOICES) had long-term impact. Despite…

  16. Detection of somatic mosaicism in DMD using computer-assisted laser densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.E.; Allingham-Hawkins, D.J.; MacKenzie, J.

    1994-09-01

    Approximately two-thirds of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients have a deletion in the dystrophin gene located at Xp21.1. Two PCR-based multiplex systems have been developed which detect 98% of deletions in affected males. Diagnosis of carrier females requires densitometry of PCR products following gel electrophoresis to calculate dosage of specific exons. We have developed a system in which fluorescently labelled PCR products are analysed using a GENESCANNER automated fragment analyser (ABI). Dosage is determined using computer-assisted laser densitometry (CALD). Recently, we diagnosed somatic mosaicism in the mother of an affected boy using this method. PCR analysis showed that the patient had a deletion that included exons 47-51 of his dystrophin gene. CALD analysis on the patient`s 36-year-old mother revealed a 29-34% reduction in the intensity of the bands corresponding to the deleted region of the gene rather than the 50% reduction normally seen in carrier females. A skin biopsy was obtain and monoclonal fibroblast colonies were tested by CALD for the deletion. Four of the twenty colonies screened were found to be deleted while the remaining colonies had two intact copies of the gene. We conclude that this patient is a somatic mosaic for DMD and that the mutation was the result of a post-zygotic event. This is the only case of somatic mosaicism detected among 800 women from 400 DMD families tested using CALD in our laboratory. At least one other case of possible somatic mosaicism has been reported but not confirmed. Germinal mosaicism is thought to occur in approximately 10% of mothers of sporadic DMD patients. Our findings indicate that somatic mosaicism is a much rarer condition among DMD carriers, thus suggesting that mitotic mutations in the dystrophin gene are more likely to occur later in embryogenesis after differentiation of the germline.

  17. Adaptive Decision Aiding in Computer-Assisted Instruction: Adaptive Computerized Training System (ACTS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopf-Weichel, Rosemarie; And Others

    This report describes results of the first year of a three-year program to develop and evaluate a new Adaptive Computerized Training System (ACTS) for electronics maintenance training. (ACTS incorporates an adaptive computer program that learns the student's diagnostic and decision value structure, compares it to that of an expert, and adapts the…

  18. Decision Support Systems and the Conflict Model of Decision Making: A Stimulus for New Computer-Assisted Careers Guidance Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantine, R. Malcolm

    Decision Support Systems (DSSs) are computer-based decision aids to use when making decisions which are partially amenable to rational decision-making procedures but contain elements where intuitive judgment is an essential component. In such situations, DSSs are used to improve the quality of decision-making. The DSS approach is based on Simon's…

  19. Computer-Assisted Detection of Collapse Pits in LROC NAC Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R. V.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    150 small (average diameter 15m) pits in impact melt deposits of Copernican craters [1]. More recently, improvements to the algorithm revealed two new large mare pits, similar to the three pits discovered in Kaguya images [2]. One is in Schlüter crater, a mare-filled crater near Orientale basin, with a 20 x 40m opening, approximately 60 m deep. The second new pit is in Lacus Mortis (44.96°N, 25.61°E) in a tectonically complex region west of Burg crater, This pit is the largest mare pit found to date, with an opening approximately 100 x 150 m, and a floor more than 90 m below the surrounding terrain. Most interesting from an exploration point of view is the fact that the east wall appears to have collapsed, leaving a relatively smooth ~22° slope from the surrounding mare down to the pit floor. Computer-assisted feature detection is an effective method of locating rare features in the extremely large high-resolution NAC dataset. Pitscan enabled the discovery of unknown collapse pits both in the mare and highlands. These pits are an important resource for future surface exploration, both by providing access to pristine cross-sections of the near-surface and by providing radiation and micrometorite shielding for human outposts. [1] Wagner, R.V. et al. (2012), LPSC XLIII, #2266 [2] Haruyama, J. et al. (2010), LPSC XLI, #1285

  20. Improvement of method for computer-assisted detection of pulmonary nodules in CT of the chest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebich, Martin; Wormanns, Dag; Heindel, Walter

    2001-07-01

    Computed tomography of the chest can be used as a screening method for lung cancer in a high-risk population. However, the detection of lung nodules is a difficult and time-consuming task for radiologists. The developed technique should improve the sensitivity of the detection of lung nodules without showing too many false positive nodules. In the first step the CAD technique for nodule detection in CT examinations of the lung eliminates all air outside the patient, then soft tissue and bony structures are removed. In the remaining lung fields a three-dimensional region detection is performed and rule-based analysis is used to detect possible lung nodules. In a study, which should evaluate the feasibility of screening lung cancer, about 2000 thoracic examinations were performed. The CAD system was used for reporting in a consecutive subset (n=100) of those studies. Computation time is about 5 min on an Silicon Graphics O2 workstation. Of the total number of found nodules >= 5 mm (n=68) 26 were found by the CAD scheme, 59 were detected by the radiologist. The CAD workstation helped the radiologist to identify 9 additional nodules. The false positive rate was less than 0.1 per image. The nodules missed by the CAD scheme were analyzed and the reasons for failure categorized into the density of the nodule is too low, nodules is connected to chest wall, segmentation error, and misclassification. Possible solutions for those problems are presented. We have developed a technique, which increased the detection rate of the radiologist in the detection of pulmonary nodules in CT exams of the chest. Correction of the CAD scheme using the analysis of the missed nodules will further enhance the performance of this method.

  1. Computer-assisted image processing to detect spores from the fungus Pandora neoaphidis

    PubMed Central

    Korsnes, Reinert; Westrum, Karin; Fløistad, Erling; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    This contribution demonstrates an example of experimental automatic image analysis to detect spores prepared on microscope slides derived from trapping. The application is to monitor aerial spore counts of the entomopathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis which may serve as a biological control agent for aphids. Automatic detection of such spores can therefore play a role in plant protection. The present approach for such detection is a modification of traditional manual microscopy of prepared slides, where autonomous image recording precedes computerised image analysis. The purpose of the present image analysis is to support human visual inspection of imagery data – not to replace it. The workflow has three components:•Preparation of slides for microscopy.•Image recording.•Computerised image processing where the initial part is, as usual, segmentation depending on the actual data product. Then comes identification of blobs, calculation of principal axes of blobs, symmetry operations and projection on a three parameter egg shape space. PMID:27073786

  2. Computer-assisted image processing to detect spores from the fungus Pandora neoaphidis.

    PubMed

    Korsnes, Reinert; Westrum, Karin; Fløistad, Erling; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    This contribution demonstrates an example of experimental automatic image analysis to detect spores prepared on microscope slides derived from trapping. The application is to monitor aerial spore counts of the entomopathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis which may serve as a biological control agent for aphids. Automatic detection of such spores can therefore play a role in plant protection. The present approach for such detection is a modification of traditional manual microscopy of prepared slides, where autonomous image recording precedes computerised image analysis. The purpose of the present image analysis is to support human visual inspection of imagery data - not to replace it. The workflow has three components:•Preparation of slides for microscopy.•Image recording.•Computerised image processing where the initial part is, as usual, segmentation depending on the actual data product. Then comes identification of blobs, calculation of principal axes of blobs, symmetry operations and projection on a three parameter egg shape space. PMID:27073786

  3. Automatic segmentation of lesions for the computer-assisted detection in fluorescence urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kage, Andreas; Legal, Wolfgang; Kelm, Peter; Simon, Jörg; Bergen, Tobias; Münzenmayer, Christian; Benz, Michaela

    2012-03-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in the western world. The diagnosis in Germany is based on the visual inspection of the bladder. This inspection performed with a cystoscope is a challenging task as some kinds of abnormal tissues do not differ much in their appearance from their surrounding healthy tissue. Fluorescence Cystoscopy has the potential to increase the detection rate. A liquid marker introduced into the bladder in advance of the inspection is concentrated in areas with high metabolism. Thus these areas appear as bright "glowing". Unfortunately, the fluorescence image contains besides the glowing of the suspicious lesions no more further visual information like for example the appearance of the blood vessels. A visual judgment of the lesion as well as a precise treatment has to be done using white light illumination. Thereby, the spatial information of the lesion provided by the fluorescence image has to be guessed by the clinical expert. This leads to a time consuming procedure due to many switches between the modalities and increases the risk of mistreatment. We introduce an automatic approach, which detects and segments any suspicious lesion in the fluorescence image automatically once the image was classified as a fluorescence image. The area of the contour of the detected lesion is transferred to the corresponding white light image and provide the clinical expert the spatial information of the lesion. The advantage of this approach is, that the clinical expert gets the spatial and the visual information of the lesion together in one image. This can save time and decrease the risk of an incomplete removal of a malign lesion.

  4. Computer assisted detection and analysis of tall cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma in histological images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Edward; Baloch, Zubair; Kim, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    The number of new cases of thyroid cancer are dramatically increasing as incidences of this cancer have more than doubled since the early 1970s. Tall cell variant (TCV-PTC) papillary thyroid carcinoma is one type of thyroid cancer that is more aggressive and usually associated with higher local recurrence and distant metastasis. This variant can be identified through visual characteristics of cells in histological images. Thus, we created a fully automatic algorithm that is able to segment cells using a multi-stage approach. Our method learns the statistical characteristics of nuclei and cells during the segmentation process and utilizes this information for a more accurate result. Furthermore, we are able to analyze the detected regions and extract characteristic cell data that can be used to assist in clinical diagnosis.

  5. A Computer-Assisted Instruction Course on Laboratory Detection of Malarial Parasites in Human Blood. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitzel, Harold E.

    In cooperation with the United States Navy, this project was undertaken to examine the feasibility of computer assisted instruction in clinical malaria recognition, to train a small group of Naval personnel in techniques of creating and presenting such material, and to evaluate the course by giving it to a representative sample of Naval medical…

  6. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Using Formal Decision-Making Strategies to Choose a College Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mau, Wei-Cheng; Jepsen, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Compared decision-making strategies and college major choice among 113 first-year students assigned to Elimination by Aspects Strategy (EBA), Subjective Expected Utility Strategy (SEU), and control groups. "Rational" EBA students scored significantly higher on choice certainty; lower on choice anxiety and career indecision than "rational"…

  7. Co-Design of a Computer-Assisted Medical Decision Support System to Manage Antibiotic Prescription in an ICU Ward.

    PubMed

    Gil, Miguel; Pinto, Pedro; Simões, Alexandra S; Póvoa, Pedro; Da Silva, Miguel Mira; Lapão, Luís Velez

    2016-01-01

    About 37 thousand people die per year in Europe due to infections by resistant bacteria. Fighting antimicrobial resistances (AR) is a top priority to save lives and reduce costs. AR is triggered mostly by uncritical antibiotic prescription. This paper presents HAITool, a decision-making information system to support antibiotic prescription. The system was co-developed together with health professionals using Design Science Research Methodology, empowered with innovative data visualization techniques to improve AR management. HAITool includes integrated visualizations of patient, microbiology, and pharmacy data, facilitating clinical decision support, antibiotic prescriptions quality and antibiotic-resistant bacteria monitoring. It also includes an alert module that monitors conformance of antibiotic prescriptions with norms and guidelines. HAITool is evaluated using both the Österle principles and interviews with physicians and infection control team from three participant hospitals. PMID:27577433

  8. [Computer-assisted implantology].

    PubMed

    Davarpanah, K; Demurashvili, G; Daas, M; Rajzbaum, P; Capelle-Ouadah, N; Szmukler-Moncler, S; Davarpanah, M

    2012-09-01

    We had for aim to present the three applications of computer-assisted implantology: preoperative exploration of the surgery site, guided surgery, and preparation of the temporization prosthesis before surgery. Cases are presented for each indication and their clinical relevance is discussed.

  9. Computer-assisted psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jesse H.; Wright, Andrew S.

    1997-01-01

    The rationale for using computers in psychotherapy includes the possibility that therapeutic software could improve the efficiency of treatment and provide access for greater numbers of patients. Computers have not been able to reliably duplicate the type of dialogue typically used in clinician-administered therapy. However, computers have significant strengths that can be used to advantage in designing treatment programs. Software developed for computer-assisted therapy generally has been well accepted by patients. Outcome studies have usually demonstrated treatment effectiveness for this form of therapy. Future development of computer tools may be influenced by changes in health care financing and rapid growth of new technologies. An integrated care delivery model incorporating the unique attributes of both clinicians and computers should be adopted for computer-assisted therapy. PMID:9292446

  10. Computer-assisted instruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a project of research and development on strategies for optimizing the instructional process, and dissemination of information about the applications of such research to the instructional medium of computer-assisted instruction. Accomplishments reported include construction of the author language INSTRUCT, construction of a practical CAI course in the area of computer science, and a number of investigations into the individualization of instruction, using the course as a vehicle.

  11. Costs Associated with Implementation of Computer-Assisted Clinical Decision Support System for Antenatal and Delivery Care: Case Study of Kassena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Dalaba, Maxwell Ayindenaba; Akweongo, Patricia; Williams, John; Saronga, Happiness Pius; Tonchev, Pencho; Sauerborn, Rainer; Mensah, Nathan; Blank, Antje; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Loukanova, Svetla

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study analyzed cost of implementing computer-assisted Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) in selected health care centres in Ghana. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in the Kassena-Nankana district (KND). CDSS was deployed in selected health centres in KND as an intervention to manage patients attending antenatal clinics and the labour ward. The CDSS users were mainly nurses who were trained. Activities and associated costs involved in the implementation of CDSS (pre-intervention and intervention) were collected for the period between 2009–2013 from the provider perspective. The ingredients approach was used for the cost analysis. Costs were grouped into personnel, trainings, overheads (recurrent costs) and equipment costs (capital cost). We calculated cost without annualizing capital cost to represent financial cost and cost with annualizing capital costs to represent economic cost. Results Twenty-two trained CDSS users (at least 2 users per health centre) participated in the study. Between April 2012 and March 2013, users managed 5,595 antenatal clients and 872 labour clients using the CDSS. We observed a decrease in the proportion of complications during delivery (pre-intervention 10.74% versus post-intervention 9.64%) and a reduction in the number of maternal deaths (pre-intervention 4 deaths versus post-intervention 1 death). The overall financial cost of CDSS implementation was US$23,316, approximately US$1,060 per CDSS user trained. Of the total cost of implementation, 48% (US$11,272) was pre-intervention cost and intervention cost was 52% (US$12,044). Equipment costs accounted for the largest proportion of financial cost: 34% (US$7,917). When economic cost was considered, total cost of implementation was US$17,128–lower than the financial cost by 26.5%. Conclusions The study provides useful information in the implementation of CDSS at health facilities to enhance health workers' adherence to practice guidelines

  12. Computer Assisted Instruction for Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Gifford L.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two computer assisted tutorials, one on acid ionization constants (Ka), and the other on solubility product constants (Ksp). Discusses framework to be used in writing computer assisted instruction programs. Lists topics covered in the programs. (MVL)

  13. Computer-assisted detection of colonic polyps with CT colonography using neural networks and binary classification trees.

    PubMed

    Jerebko, Anna K; Summers, Ronald M; Malley, James D; Franaszek, Marek; Johnson, C Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Detection of colonic polyps in CT colonography is problematic due to complexities of polyp shape and the surface of the normal colon. Published results indicate the feasibility of computer-aided detection of polyps but better classifiers are needed to improve specificity. In this paper we compare the classification results of two approaches: neural networks and recursive binary trees. As our starting point we collect surface geometry information from three-dimensional reconstruction of the colon, followed by a filter based on selected variables such as region density, Gaussian and average curvature and sphericity. The filter returns sites that are candidate polyps, based on earlier work using detection thresholds, to which the neural nets or the binary trees are applied. A data set of 39 polyps from 3 to 25 mm in size was used in our investigation. For both neural net and binary trees we use tenfold cross-validation to better estimate the true error rates. The backpropagation neural net with one hidden layer trained with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm achieved the best results: sensitivity 90% and specificity 95% with 16 false positives per study.

  14. Computer Assisted Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arámbula Cosío, F.; Padilla Castañeda, M. A.

    2003-09-01

    Computer assisted surgery (CAS) systems can provide different levels of assistance to a surgeon during training and execution of a surgical procedure. This is done through the integration of : measurements taken on medical images; computer graphics techniques; and positioning or tracking mechanisms which accurately locate the surgical instruments inside the operating site. According to the type of assistance that is provided to the surgeon, CAS systems can be classified as: Image guided surgery systems; Assistant robots for surgery; and Training simulators for surgery. In this work are presented the main characteristics of CAS systems. It is also described the development of a computer simulator for training on Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) based on a computer model of the prostate gland which is able to simulate, in real time, deformations and resections of tissue. The model is constructed as a 3D mesh with physical properties such as elasticity. We describe the main characteristics of the prostate model and its performance. The prostate model will also be used in the development of a CAS system designed to assist the surgeon during a real TURP procedure. The system will provide 3D views of the shape of the prostate of the patient, and the position of the surgical instrument during the operation. The development of new computer graphics models which are able to simulate, in real time, the mechanical behavior of an organ during a surgical procedure, can improve significantly the training and execution of other minimally invasive surgical procedures such as laparoscopic gall bladder surgery.

  15. Computer Assisted Learning in Numeracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollin, Freda

    Computer-assisted learning in numeracy for adults is far less developed than computer-assisted learning in literacy. Although a great many software programs exist, few are suitable for adults and many offer only drill and practice exercises instead of teaching genuine computer skills. One approach instructors can take is to have their students use…

  16. Design of a Computer-Assisted System to Automatically Detect Cell Types Using ANA IIF Images for the Diagnosis of Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chung-Chuan; Lu, Chun-Feng; Hsieh, Tsu-Yi; Lin, Yaw-Jen; Taur, Jin-Shiuh; Chen, Yung-Fu

    2015-10-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence technique applied on HEp-2 cell substrates provides the major screening method to detect ANA patterns in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. Currently, the ANA patterns are mostly inspected by experienced physicians to identify abnormal cell patterns. The objective of this study is to design a computer-assisted system to automatically detect cell patterns of IIF images for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases in the clinical setting. The system simulates the functions of modern flow cytometer and provides the diagnostic reports generated by the system to the technicians and physicians through the radar graphs, box-plots, and tables. The experimental results show that, among the IIF images collected from 17 patients, 6 were classified as coarse-speckled, 3 as diffused, 2 as discrete-speckled, 1 as fine-speckled, 2 as nucleolar, and 3 as peripheral patterns, which were consistent with the patterns determined by the physicians. In addition to recognition of cell patterns, the system also provides the function to automatically generate the report for each patient. The time needed for the whole procedure is less than 30 min, which is more efficient than the manual operation of the physician after inspecting the ANA IIF images. Besides, the system can be easily deployed on many desktop and laptop computers. In conclusion, the designed system, containing functions for automatic detection of ANA cell pattern and generation of diagnostic report, is effective and efficient to assist physicians to diagnose patients with autoimmune diseases. The limitations of the current developed system include (1) only a unique cell pattern was considered for the IIF images collected from a patient, and (2) the cells during the process of mitosis were not adopted for cell classification. PMID:26289629

  17. Long-term evaluation of asymptomatic patients operated on for intracranial epidermoid cysts. Comparison of the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and computer-assisted cisternography for detection of cholesterin fragments.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, P; Fortuna, A; Cantore, G; Missori, P

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or computer-assisted cisternography (CAc) assessment of latent late recurrences in long-term asymptomatic patients surgically treated for intracranial epidermoid cyst is here presented. MRI was exclusively utilized in one patient; CAc was exclusively employed in three patients with metalic operative clips; both CAc and MRI were employed in another four patients. CAc appears to be more reliable than MRI in detecting cholesterin fragments in asymptomatic patients operated on for intracranial epidermoid cyst.

  18. Two Computer-Assisted Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Two computer-assisted experiments are described: (i) determination of the speed of ultrasound waves in water and (ii) measurement of the thermal expansion of an aluminum-based alloy. A new data-acquisition system developed by PASCO scientific is used. In both experiments, the "Keep" mode of recording data is employed: the data are…

  19. Computer-Assisted Instruction Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entelek, Inc., Newburyport, MA.

    Provided is a compilation of abstracts of currently available computer-assisted instructional (CAI) programs. The guide contains the specifications of all operational CAI programs that have come under the surveillance of ENTELEK's CAI Information Exchange since its establishment in 1965. A total of 226 CAI programs by 160 authors at 38 CAI centers…

  20. Index to Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekan, Helen A., Ed.

    The computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs and projects described in this index are listed by subject matter. The index gives the program name, author, source, description, prerequisites, level of instruction, type of student, average completion time, logic and program, purpose for which program was designed, supplementary…

  1. Index to Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekan, Helen A., Ed.

    This index contains information on 456 computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs and projects developed by 51 organizations. The information was obtained from correspondence, annual reports, technical reports, and questionnaires which were sent to the producers of the program. The material is organized to list: the name of each program or…

  2. Computer-Assisted Laboratory Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, William J., Hanyak, Michael E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the advantages and features of computer-assisted laboratory stations for use in a chemical engineering program. Also describes a typical experiment at such a station: determining the response times of a solid state humidity sensor at various humidity conditions and developing an empirical model for the sensor. (JN)

  3. Implications Of Computer Assisted Radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Heinz U.

    1989-10-01

    Within the field of radiology, assistance with computer and communication systems may be applied to generation, storing, transmission, viewing, analyzing and interpreting of images. As a result, digital image management and communication systems will be applied at various levels in the health care system. Four groups of people are somehow involved or affected by this process. These are, first of all, the patients and the medical personnel, but also the scientific-engineering community and the group of professions involved with financing and/or administering these systems. Each group approaches computer assisted radiology from a particular point of view. The paper outlines some aspects as regards the different perceptions of these groups, which need to be clarified in order to successfully realise computer assisted radiology.

  4. Computer Assisted Virtual Environment - CAVE

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Phillip; Podgorney, Robert; Weingartner, Shawn; Whiting, Eric

    2014-01-14

    Research at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies is taking on another dimension with a 3-D device known as a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment. The CAVE uses projection to display high-end computer graphics on three walls and the floor. By wearing 3-D glasses to create depth perception and holding a wand to move and rotate images, users can delve into data.

  5. Computer Assisted Virtual Environment - CAVE

    ScienceCinema

    Erickson, Phillip; Podgorney, Robert; Weingartner, Shawn; Whiting, Eric

    2016-07-12

    Research at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies is taking on another dimension with a 3-D device known as a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment. The CAVE uses projection to display high-end computer graphics on three walls and the floor. By wearing 3-D glasses to create depth perception and holding a wand to move and rotate images, users can delve into data.

  6. Integrating structural and functional imaging for computer assisted detection of prostate cancer on multi-protocol in vivo 3 Tesla MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, Satish; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Rosen, Mark; Chappelow, Jonathan; Toth, Robert; Rofsky, Neil; Lenkinski, Robert; Genega, Elizabeth; Kalyanpur, Arjun; Madabhushi, Anant

    2009-02-01

    Screening and detection of prostate cancer (CaP) currently lacks an image-based protocol which is reflected in the high false negative rates currently associated with blinded sextant biopsies. Multi-protocol magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers high resolution functional and structural data about internal body structures (such as the prostate). In this paper we present a novel comprehensive computer-aided scheme for CaP detection from high resolution in vivo multi-protocol MRI by integrating functional and structural information obtained via dynamic-contrast enhanced (DCE) and T2-weighted (T2-w) MRI, respectively. Our scheme is fully-automated and comprises (a) prostate segmentation, (b) multimodal image registration, and (c) data representation and multi-classifier modules for information fusion. Following prostate boundary segmentation via an improved active shape model, the DCE/T2-w protocols and the T2-w/ex vivo histological prostatectomy specimens are brought into alignment via a deformable, multi-attribute registration scheme. T2-w/histology alignment allows for the mapping of true CaP extent onto the in vivo MRI, which is used for training and evaluation of a multi-protocol MRI CaP classifier. The meta-classifier used is a random forest constructed by bagging multiple decision tree classifiers, each trained individually on T2-w structural, textural and DCE functional attributes. 3-fold classifier cross validation was performed using a set of 18 images derived from 6 patient datasets on a per-pixel basis. Our results show that the results of CaP detection obtained from integration of T2-w structural textural data and DCE functional data (area under the ROC curve of 0.815) significantly outperforms detection based on either of the individual modalities (0.704 (T2-w) and 0.682 (DCE)). It was also found that a meta-classifier trained directly on integrated T2-w and DCE data (data-level integration) significantly outperformed a decision-level meta

  7. Client Anticipations about Computer-Assisted Career Guidance System Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Debra S.; Peterson, Gary W.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Reardon, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    This study describes how 55 clients from a career center at a large, southeastern university anticipated using computer-assisted career guidance (CACG) systems to help in their career decision making and problem solving. Responses to a cued and a free response survey indicated that clients' most frequent anticipations included increased career…

  8. Computer-assisted orbital surgery.

    PubMed

    Klimek, L; Wenzel, M; Mösges, R

    1993-06-01

    In orbital surgery, deep lesions must be operated on through extremely small approaches. We developed a method (Computer Assisted Surgery or CAS) designed to achieve safer and more precise surgery by providing highly accurate intraoperative information regarding the location of the surgical instrument. The device involved consists of a high-capacity computer that processes computed tomographic (CT) data in real time, connected to a mechanical measuring arm attached to the surgical instrument. From the CT data, the computer calculates a three-dimensional reconstruction and displays the tip of the instrument as a reticle in this model. Using the CAS system, the surgeon is continuously apprised of the precise position of the surgical instrument vis-a-vis all relevant anatomical structures. We have used CAS successfully in 21 cases of orbital surgery. We have found the system especially useful in dealing with deep-seated tumors, either for biopsy or surgery; in performing orbital and optic nerve decompression; in localizing deep-seated foreign bodies; and in all cases of impaired orientation due to severe bleeding, tumor-destroyed landmarks, or preoperated anatomy. Although the number of patients is too small to yield statistically significant data allowing a comparison of patient outcomes with and without using the system, we have just begun a large prospective clinical trial designed to provide such data. PMID:8336894

  9. Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Introduces the field of intelligent computer assisted language learning (ICALL) and relates them to current practice in computer assisted language learning (CALL) and second language learning. Points out that ICALL applies expertise from artificial intelligence and the computer and cognitive sciences to the development of language learning…

  10. A Computer-Assisted Method of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parente, Frederick J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A computer-assisted method of counseling was applied to cases of stuttering and hypertension. Although both symptom complexes had previously resisted therapy, results indicated that computer-assisted counseling eliminated the stuttering and reduced diastolic blood pressure to normal levels. (Author)

  11. Sample Computer Assisted Instruction Student Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Keith A.; And Others

    To convey to those who have had no experience with computer-assisted instruction an impression of the experience that students have in a CAI course, this report presents in print the sequence of instruction that one student received from one chapter of the course, Computer Assisted Remedial Education (CARE 1): Introduction to the Education of…

  12. Computer-Assisted College Administration. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punga, V.

    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute of Connecticut offered a part-time training program "Computer-Assisted-College-Administration" during the academic year 1969-70. Participants were trained in the utilization of computer-assisted methods in dealing with the common tasks of college administration, the problems of college development and promotion,…

  13. Computer-Assisted Instruction: Possibilities and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; Fortune, Ronald F.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews possibilities of computer-assisted instruction in specialized technical courses, math and science, foreign languages, and basic skills. Reviews problems associated with change and new theories of learning and instruction. Includes reference list. (MD)

  14. Computer-assisted, high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection for the analysis of coumarins in Peucedanum palustre and Angelica archangelica.

    PubMed

    Eeva, Manu; Rauha, Jussi-Pekka; Vuorela, Pia; Vuorela, Heikki

    2004-01-01

    A reversed-phase HPLC method with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation MS detection has been developed for the separation and identification of coumarins in plants of Peucedanum palustre L. (Moench) and Angelica archangelica (L.) var. archangelica. The Turbo Method Development program was utilised to optimise the mobile phase with two organic solvents (acetonitrile and methanol) and two aqueous solutions (1.0% formic acid and 10 mM ammonium acetate). Optimisation of the solvent gradients for the method was performed with the aid of the DryLab program. Analyses were carried out using a Phenomenex Prodigy RP C18 column. Fifty-two peaks (14 of which were associated with coumarins) were separated in 30 min from extracts of P. palustre, and 48 peaks (15 associated with coumarins) from extracts of A. archangelica. A total of 21 different coumarin-type compounds were identified in the aerial and the underground parts of the title plants. Isopimpinellin and pimpinellin were found for the first time in P. palustre and were identified by comparison of retention times and MS data obtained following the analysis of pure standards. This is the first report of the coumarin composition of the umbels of P. palustre. PMID:15202601

  15. Future Prospects for Computer-Assisted Mathematics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2005-10-26

    The recent rise of ''computer-assisted'' and ''experimental'' mathematics raises intriguing questions as to the future role of computation in mathematics. These results also draw into question the traditional distinctions that have been drawn between formal proof and computationally-assisted proof. This article explores these questions in the context of the growing consensus among computer technologists that Moore's Law is likely to continue unabated for quite some time into the future, producing hardware and software much more powerful than what is available today.

  16. Computer-assisted cartography: an overview.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, S.C.; Starr, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    An assessment of the current status of computer-assisted cartography, in part, is biased by one's view of the cartographic process as a whole. From a traditional viewpoint we are concerned about automating the mapping process; from a progressive viewpoint we are concerned about using the tools of computer science to convey spatial information. On the surface these viewpoints appear to be in opposition. However, it is postulated that in the final analysis, they face the same goal. This overview uses the perspectives from two viewpoints to depict the current state of computer-assisted cartography and speculate on future goals, trends, and challenges.-Authors

  17. Computer assisted robotic examination swab sampling (CARESS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Shawn; Witus, Gary; Ellis, Darin

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes progress toward robotic arm system to collect swab samples for trace chemical analysis. Collecting a swab sample requires bringing the swab in contact with the target object, maintaining adequate pressure against the object while dragging the swab tip across the surface, conforming to the surface compliance, curvature and irregularities. It also requires detecting when the swipe motion is blocked, when it has reached the end or edge of the object, and when the normal swipe excursion has been completed. Remote or robotic swab sample collection is complicated by the fact that key physical properties of the target object, e.g., its location, surface contour, compliance, friction, are unknown or, at best, uncertain. We are pursuing a two-fold approach to computer assisted robotic examination swab sampling. We are developing a force-feedback master-slave puppet arm control system in which the operator manipulates and receives force feedback through a scale model of the remote arm. We are also developing adaptive motion behaviors for autonomous swab sample collection, in which the arm feels its way over the surface, adjusting its configuration to conform to the surface contour, while maintaining pressure and keeping the swab tip in the desired orientation with respect to the surface as it drags the swab across the target object. Experiments with the master-slave system will provide data on human operator adaptive motion behaviors, and provide a baseline for evaluation of the automatic system. This paper describes the force-feedback master-slave puppet arm control system, presents example teleoperated swab dynamics data, describes the emerging framework for analysis of adaptive motion behaviors in swab sample collection, and describes our approach to autonomous swab sampling adaptive behavior and control.

  18. Computer-Assisted Handwriting Analysis: Interaction with Legal Issues in U.S. Courts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Kenneth A.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    Advances in the development of computer-assisted handwriting analysis have led to the consideration of a computational system by courts in the United States. Computer-assisted handwriting analysis has been introduced in the context of Frye or Daubert hearings conducted to determine the admissibility of handwriting testimony by questioned document examiners, as expert witnesses, in civil and criminal proceedings. This paper provides a comparison of scientific and judicial methods, and examines concerns over reliability of handwriting analysis expressed in judicial decisions. Recently, the National Research Council assessed that “the scientific basis for handwriting comparisons needs to be strengthened”. Recent studies involving computer-assisted handwriting analysis are reviewed in light of the concerns expressed by the judiciary and National Research Council. A future potential role for computer-assisted handwriting analysis in the courts is identified.

  19. Giraffe, a Computer Assisted Instruction Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekhorst, Albert K.; Groot, Tineke

    In 1989 a two year collaborative project, CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) & Humanities, was initiated between the Faculty of Arts and IBM Netherlands during which General Information Retrieval All Faculties For Bibliographic Education (GIRAFFE), a program for the retrieval of information on general bibliographies, was developed. The program,…

  20. Computer Assisted Instruction in English Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Lester S.

    The changes expected to take place in the professional education of English teachers are discussed. Within the next decade, computer-assisted instructional English teacher education programs will be available in the following areas: (1) eliciting textual response to literature, (2) grammar, usage, and spelling, (3) composition skills to…

  1. Color in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Esther R.

    Color monitors are in wide use in computer systems. Thus, it is important to understand how to apply color effectively in computer assisted instruction (CAI) and computer based training (CBT). Color can enhance learning, but it does not automatically do so. Indiscriminate application of color can mislead a student and thereby even interfere with…

  2. Evaluating Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumboltz, John D.

    1990-01-01

    Finds the Sampson et al. guidelines for computer-assisted career guidance systems (CE 521 972) comprehensive and self-explanatory, but states that user judgment is still required. Suggests revision of existing standards to take into account the feature-cost analysis method. (SK)

  3. Computer-Assisted Learning: Design and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Glyn; Kidd, Marilyn E.

    1980-01-01

    Issues related to design and implementation of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) programs on the university level are discussed. First, three points are noted that affect the way materials are conceived: the type of user and the way of giving choices regarding exercises, the fact that the computer is primarily a medium adapted to the written word,…

  4. Competency Reference for Computer Assisted Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Technical Education.

    This guide, developed in Oregon, lists competencies essential for students in computer-assisted drafting (CAD). Competencies are organized in eight categories: computer hardware, file usage and manipulation, basic drafting techniques, mechanical drafting, specialty disciplines, three dimensional drawing/design, plotting/printing, and advanced CAD.…

  5. Introduction: Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailin, Alan; Levin, Lori

    1989-01-01

    Presents an overview of intelligent computer-assisted language instruction (ICALI) research as a type of artificial intelligence research. Outlines the components and kinds of ICALI systems. Examines practical research considerations such as personnel needs for development of ICALI software. (Author/LS)

  6. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Authoring Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Sue E. K.; Pusack, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) authoring refers to a wide variety of creative development activities using software tools that run the gamut from simple templates (easy-to-use predefined forms into which content is typed) to complex authoring environments (flexible but harder-to-use systems, requiring advanced skills and a great deal…

  7. Computer-Assisted Programmed Instruction in Textiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kean, Rita C.; Laughlin, Joan

    Students in an introductory textiles course at the University of Nebraska's College of Home Economics actively participate in the learning experience through a self-paced instructional technique. Specific learning packets were developed adapting programmed instructional learning materials to computer assisted instruction (CAI). A study booklet…

  8. Computer-Assisted Study Skills Improvement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William F.; Forristall, Dorothy Z.

    The Computer-Assisted Study Skills Improvement Program (CASSIP) is designed to help students develop effective study skills and academic attitudes, thus increasing their potential for scholastic success. The program contains four integrated items: Study Skills Surveys; Study Skills Modules, Study Skills Notebook; and Study Skills Test. The surveys…

  9. Computer-Assisted Instruction at Stanford.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    Programs for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) which were developed at Stanford University from 1963-70 are described, and prospects for CAI in the 1970's are considered briefly. The programs include ones in arithmetic, logic, and reading for elementary grades and in basic Russian and remedial algebra for college students. Of these, the logic…

  10. Computer-Assisted Discovery and Proof

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2007-12-10

    With the advent of powerful, widely-available mathematical software, combined with ever-faster computer hardware, we are approaching a day when both the discovery and proof of mathematical facts can be done in a computer-assisted manner. his article presents several specific examples of this new paradigm in action.

  11. A Computer-Assisted Teacher Training System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmel, M. I.

    This series of working papers represents early stages in the development of a versatile and economical Computer-Assisted Teacher Training System (CATTS) for special educators, a system capable of providing immediate visual feedback of data relevant to teacher-pupil interaction in a classroom setting. Part 1 discusses the problem of existing…

  12. Computer-Assisted Instruction. Special Double Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Glyn, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This booklet presents evidence to support the idea that distinctions between the instructional and research applications of the computer are becoming blurred. The issue includes contributions from authors who are at the forefront of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) development in their respective fields. An attempt is made to represent most…

  13. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Programming: AID.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Jamesine; Atkinson, R. C.

    A computer-assisted course on programing, consisting of a set of 50 lessons, was developed for and is now being used by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) personnel. The course is intended for students at about the junior college level with no experience in mathematics beyond high school algebra and with no previous introduction…

  14. Prospects in Computer Assisted Language Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Joan; Chapelle, Carol

    Some prospects for development of computer-assisted language instruction in six language skill areas (grammar, communication, reading, listening, speaking, and writing) are presented. In grammar instruction, a current challenge is to improve judging of student answers, and "intelligent" computer programs that try to identify the student's…

  15. Sequential decision rules for failure detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, E. Y.; Willsky, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    The formulation of the decision making of a failure detection process as a Bayes sequential decision problem (BSDP) provides a simple conceptualization of the decision rule design problem. As the optimal Bayes rule is not computable, a methodology that is based on the Baysian approach and aimed at a reduced computational requirement is developed for designing suboptimal rules. A numerical algorithm is constructed to facilitate the design and performance evaluation of these suboptimal rules. The result of applying this design methodology to an example shows that this approach is a useful one.

  16. A Knowledge-Based System for the Computer Assisted Diagnosis of Endoscopic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kage, Andreas; Münzenmayer, Christian; Wittenberg, Thomas

    Due to the actual demographic development the use of Computer-Assisted Diagnosis (CAD) systems becomes a more important part of clinical workflows and clinical decision making. Because changes on the mucosa of the esophagus can indicate the first stage of cancerous developments, there is a large interest to detect and correctly diagnose any such lesion. We present a knowledge-based system which is able to support a physician with the interpretation and diagnosis of endoscopic images of the esophagus. Our system is designed to support the physician directly during the examination of the patient, thus prodving diagnostic assistence at the point of care (POC). Based on an interactively marked region in an endoscopic image of interest, the system provides a diagnostic suggestion, based on an annotated reference image database. Furthermore, using relevant feedback mechanisms, the results can be enhanced interactively.

  17. Computer-Assisted Surgery Using Telemanipulators

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of computer-assisted surgery with telemanipulators. The Technology The technology for computer-assisted surgery with telemanipulators is a robotic arm that carries an endoscope while two other manipulator arms carry interchangeable tools, such as scissors and grippers. In a master-slave telemanipulator system, the master may consist of a joystick input system, or for surgery, may mimic the motion of the slave robot, such as the da Vinci and ZEUS surgical systems. These systems are capable of telerobotic surgery, or surgery from remote locations. Review Strategy The Cochrane and INAHTA databases yielded 4 health technology assessments or systematic reviews on computer-assisted surgery using telemanipulators. A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE January 1, 2001 to November 24, 2003 was conducted. This search produced 448 studies, of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. Summary of Findings Published health technology assessments indicate that there are limited data from studies, although there is initial evidence of the safety and efficacy of telemanipulators in some procedures when they are used at large academic centres for surgery on selected patients. Most studies are Level 3 and 4 observational studies and assess a wide variety of surgical procedures. Limited studies indicate the promise of telemanipulators, but their efficacy is not fully established. In some procedures, the advantages that telemanipulators may offer may also be achieved by non-robotic minimally invasive/laparoscopic techniques. To date, cost-effectiveness has not been demonstrated. Patients who have undergone robotic surgery must be followed to further define outcomes (e.g., long-term quality of the graft after coronary arterial bypass graft [CABG] surgery). The exact role of computer-assisted surgery with telemanipulators has not been fully defined

  18. Computer assisted surgery for total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nizard, R

    2002-06-01

    The author has attempted to assess the value of computer-assisted surgery in arthroplasty of the knee. Basic requisites in TKR include adequate alignment and ligament balance. These requisites have become easier to meet as ancillary instrumentations have improved over time. Numerical tools are now available; they are sometimes presented as an essential technical step. The author reviews the various available options, with their advantages and disadvantages. Satisfactory alignment in the three planes classically relies on anatomic landmarks, the reliability of which is limited, and on ligament tension. Targeting systems, intra- or extramedullary, all have a margin of error. Computer-assisted surgery aims at increasing the precision of implant positioning and achieving optimal ligament balance. Among the systems currently available, a distinction must be made between active and passive systems. The former correspond to the "surgical robots", which are capable of performing the various parts of the operation following adequate preparation, at least regarding the bone cuts. Passive systems remain under control from the surgeon and assist him in positioning the cutting jigs. Among localization systems, a distinction must be made between optical and magnetic systems. Certain systems require preoperative imaging--usually CT scan--in order to first reconstruct a 3-D model of the knee. This step is time-consuming, but this will likely improve in the future. Image matching requires the use of a software, with specific landmarks defined preoperatively by the surgeon. Such systems may be used in cases with major deformities; their main drawback is the need for preoperative imaging. Other systems do not require preoperative imaging: a few points are identified by kinematic analysis of the hip, knee and ankle; they are used for 2-D or 3-D reconstruction. Computer-assisted systems may improve the precision in defining anatomic landmarks and achieving accurate location and

  19. Computer-Assisted Exposure Treatment for Flight Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortella-Feliu, Miguel; Bornas, Xavier; Llabres, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    This review introduces the state of the art in computer-assisted treatment for behavioural disorders. The core of the paper is devoted to describe one of these interventions providing computer-assisted exposure for flight phobia treatment, the Computer-Assisted Fear of Flying Treatment (CAFFT). The rationale, contents and structure of the CAFFT…

  20. Authoring options for computer assisted nursing instruction.

    PubMed

    Gerheim, S M

    1990-01-01

    Nurse educators who want to control the content of computer assisted instructional courseware may want to write their own programs. Traditional programming languages, authoring systems, and authoring languages are the three principal approaches to coding courseware, and each approach has advantages and disadvantages. The use of an authoring language or an authoring system may be the easiest courseware development method for the nurse educator who is unfamiliar with programming techniques. Whatever approach is chosen, it is important that the approach support the instructional strategy of the lesson. PMID:2405963

  1. Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems: A Part of NCDA History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Bowlsbey, JoAnn

    2013-01-01

    The first computer-assisted career planning systems were developed in the late 1960s and were based soundly on the best of career development and decision-making theory. Over the years, this tradition has continued as the technology that delivers these systems' content has improved dramatically and as they have been universally accepted as…

  2. Role of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in an Introductory Computer Concepts Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skudrna, Vincent J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in undergraduate education via a survey of related literature and specific applications. Describes an undergraduate computer concepts course and includes appendices of instructions, flowcharts, programs, sample student work in accounting, COBOL instructional model, decision logic in a…

  3. Robotics and computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Specht, L M; Koval, K J

    These are just a few representative applications of the synergistic use of computer and robotic technology assisting the orthopaedic surgeon. While the individual systems are certain to change over time, the basic principles of correlating radiographic and anatomic data through a registration process, and displaying additional instrument or implant information through smart tools and surgical navigation are certain to become an increasingly important aspect of joint arthroplasty, deformity correction, and spinal and trauma surgery. Only the orthopaedic surgeon who clearly understands the goals, applications, and limitations of these systems can decide which are appropriate for his patients, his hospital, and his practice. Determining the cost and time benefits, both before and after an obligatory "learning curve" requires a complex interaction of capital investments, time savings, and outcome research on both safety and efficacy issues. The orthopaedist who understands and applies these technologies will help his patients to achieve the best possible care. Excellent resources in the literature on this topic include the September, 1998, issue of Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, a symposium on "Computer-Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery: Medical Robots and Image Guided Surgery"; Guest editor, Anthony M. DiGioia, III, MD. Also, the January, 2000, issue of Operative Techniques in Orthopaedics, "Medical Robotics and Computer-Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery. Guest editors: Anthony M. DiGioia, III, M.D. and Branislav Jaramaz, Ph.D. Additional Internet based information is available from the Journal of Computer Aided Surgery (formerly: Journal of Image Guided Surgery), at http://journals.wiley.com/.

  4. Computer Assisted Language Learning. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. This books provides an up-to date and comprehensive overview of…

  5. [Computer assisted neuropsychological testing of children].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, U; Dahl, R; White, R F; Grandjean, P

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility of a computer-assisted neuro-psychological test program, the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES), in six to seven year-old children. We administered three NES tests, Finger Tapping (FT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Hand-Eye Coordination (HEC) to Faroese and Danish children. The FT and CPT were of appropriate difficulty, while the HE was too difficult for the majority of the children. Boys obtained better scores than the girls, and children who were familiar with computers and video games performed better than those without such experience. Older children also obtained better scores than younger ones, especially in the Faroese group. The Danish children performed better than the Faroese in FT and CPT. In HE there was no difference. The NES tests are feasible for children at this age, but appropriate comparison groups must be secured. PMID:9641043

  6. Computer-Assisted Photo Interpretation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzwiadek, Harry A.

    1981-11-01

    A computer-assisted photo interpretation research (CAPIR) system has been developed at the U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories (ETL), Fort Belvoir, Virginia. The system is based around the APPS-IV analytical plotter, a photogrammetric restitution device that was designed and developed by Autometric specifically for interactive, computerized data collection activities involving high-resolution, stereo aerial photographs. The APPS-IV is ideally suited for feature analysis and feature extraction, the primary functions of a photo interpreter. The APPS-IV is interfaced with a minicomputer and a geographic information system called AUTOGIS. The AUTOGIS software provides the tools required to collect or update digital data using an APPS-IV, construct and maintain a geographic data base, and analyze or display the contents of the data base. Although the CAPIR system is fully functional at this time, considerable enhancements are planned for the future.

  7. Computer assisted biopsy of breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Arambula Cosio, Fernando; Lira Berra, Eric; Hevia Montiel, Nidiyare; Garcia Segundo, Cresencio; Garduno, Edgar; Alvarado Gonzalez, Montserrat; Quispe Siccha, Rosa Ma; Reyes Ramirez, Bartolome; Hazan Lasri, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report our preliminary results of the development of a computer assisted system for breast biopsy. The system is based on tracked ultrasound images of the breast. A three dimensional ultrasound volume is constructed from a set of tracked B-scan images acquired with a calibrated probe. The system has been designed to assist a radiologist during breast biopsy, and also as a training system for radiology residents. A semiautomatic classification algorithm was implemented to assist the user with the annotation of the tumor on an ultrasound volume. We report the development of the system prototype, tested on a physical phantom of a breast with a tumor, made of polivinil alcohol. PMID:21097108

  8. [The foundations of computer assisted surgery].

    PubMed

    Langlotz, F; Nolte, L-P; Tannast, M

    2006-10-01

    Using navigation systems in general orthopaedic surgery and, in particular, knee replacement is becoming more and more accepted. This paper describes the basic technological concepts of modern computer assisted surgical systems. It explains the variation in currently available systems and outlines research activities that will potentially influence future products. In general, each navigation system is defined by three components: (1) the therapeutic object is the anatomical structure that is operated on using the navigation system, (2) the virtual object represents an image of the therapeutic object, with radiological images or computer generated models potentially being used, and (3) last but not least, the navigator acquires the spatial position and orientation of instruments and anatomy thus providing the necessary data to replay surgical action in real-time on the navigation system's screen. PMID:16924446

  9. Computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing systems: A revolution in restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Arbaz

    2016-01-01

    For the better part of the past 20 years, dentistry has seen the development of many new all-ceramic materials and restorative techniques fueled by the desire to capture the ever elusive esthetic perfection. This has resulted in the fusion of the latest in material science and the pen ultimate in computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. This case report describes the procedure for restoring the esthetic appearance of both the left and right maxillary peg-shaped lateral incisors with a metal-free sintered finely structured feldspar ceramic material using the latest laboratory CAD/CAM system. The use of CAD/CAM technology makes it possible to produce restorations faster with precision- fit and good esthetics overcoming the errors associated with traditional ceramo-metal technology. The incorporation of this treatment modality would mean that the dentist working procedures will have to be adapted in the methods of CAD/CAM technology.

  10. [Computer-assisted 3D phonetography].

    PubMed

    Neuschaefer-Rube, C; Klajman, S

    1996-10-01

    Profiles of fundamental frequency sound pressure levels and voice duration are measured separately in clinical practice. It was the aim of the present study to combine the two examinations, in order to estimate the relationship between pitch, sound pressure level and voice duration and to develop a new computer-assisted graph. A three-dimensional (3D) wireframe phonogram was constructed based on SPL profiles to obtain a general view of the parameters recorded. We have termed this "phonetography". Variable further projections were selected for the analysis of different aspects of parametric relationships. The results in 21 healthy volunteers and 4 patients with hyperfunctional dysphonias demonstrated that there were three typical figures of the 3D phonograms produced, depending on the relationship between voice duration when soft ("piano") compared to loud ("forte"). In one-third of the healthy volunteers, the values of the piano voice duration were greater than those of forte for almost all pitches examined. In two-thirds of the healthy subjects the values of forte voice duration were partly greater, as were those of piano voice duration. All of the patients showed voice duration values greater for forte than for piano. The results of the study demonstrate that the 3D phonogram is a useful tool for obtaining new insights into various relationships of voice parameters.

  11. Computer-assisted surgery in orthopedic oncology

    PubMed Central

    Gerbers, Jasper G; Stevens, Martin; Ploegmakers, Joris JW; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Jutte, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — In orthopedic oncology, computer-assisted surgery (CAS) can be considered an alternative to fluoroscopy and direct measurement for orientation, planning, and margin control. However, only small case series reporting specific applications have been published. We therefore describe possible applications of CAS and report preliminary results in 130 procedures. Patients and methods — We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all oncological CAS procedures in a single institution from November 2006 to March 2013. Mean follow-up time was 32 months. We categorized and analyzed 130 procedures for clinical parameters. The categories were image-based intralesional treatment, image-based resection, image-based resection and reconstruction, and imageless resection and reconstruction. Results — Application to intralesional treatment showed 1 inadequate curettage and 1 (other) recurrence in 63 cases. Image-based resections in 42 cases showed 40 R0 margins; 16 in 17 pelvic resections. Image-based reconstruction facilitated graft creation with a mean reconstruction accuracy of 0.9 mm in one case. Imageless CAS was helpful in resection planning and length- and joint line reconstruction for tumor prostheses. Interpretation — CAS is a promising new development. Preliminary results show a high number of R0 resections and low short-term recurrence rates for curettage. PMID:25140984

  12. Audio computer-assisted survey instrument versus face-to-face interviews: optimal method for detecting high-risk behaviour in pregnant women and their sexual partners in the south of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Yeganeh, N; Dillavou, C; Simon, M; Gorbach, P; Santos, B; Fonseca, R; Saraiva, J; Melo, M; Nielsen-Saines, K

    2016-01-01

    Summary Audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI) has been shown to decrease under-reporting of socially undesirable behaviours, but has not been evaluated in pregnant women at risk of HIV acquisition in Brazil. We assigned HIV-negative pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at in Porto Alegre, Brazil and their partners to receive a survey regarding high-risk sexual behaviours and drug use via ACASI (n = 372) or face-to-face (FTF) (n = 283) interviews. Logistic regression showed that compared with FTF, pregnant women interviewed via ACASI were significantly more likely to self-report themselves as single (14% versus 6%), having >5 sexual partners (35% versus 29%), having oral sex (42% versus 35%), using intravenous drugs (5% versus 0), smoking cigarettes (23% versus 16%), drinking alcohol (13% versus 8%) and using condoms during pregnancy (32% versus 17%). Therefore, ACASI may be a useful method in assessing risk behaviours in pregnant women, especially in relation to drug and alcohol use. PMID:23970659

  13. Computer-Assisted Behavioral Health Counseling for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Kent E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared computer-assisted behavioral health counseling intervention for high school students (N=45) with a health tip educational intervention (N=17) and an assessment only group (N=15). Found significant dietary improvement among computer-assisted counseling group and lesser improvement among two control groups. (Author/CM)

  14. CARLOS: Computer-Assisted Instruction in Spanish at Dartmouth College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ronald C.

    The computer-assisted instruction project in review Spanish, Computer-Assisted Review Lessons on Syntax (CARLOS), initiated at Dartmouth College in 1967-68, is described here. Tables are provided showing the results of the experiment on the basis of aptitude and achievement tests, and the procedure for implementing CARLOS as well as its place in…

  15. Proactive Guidance in Computer-Assisted Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    A discussion of computer-assisted language learning focuses on management of individual learning processes. As distinct from a reference package, a computer-assisted teaching program has to assure that the student acquires and retains the complete information in the most efficient way, provide accurate and useful material, and pique the student's…

  16. Program in Computer-Assisted Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Richard C.; Suppes, Patrick

    Applications of basic elements in a theory of individualized instruction to computer-assisted programs in mathematics, reading, and spelling are described and recent results obtained in an existing elementary school facility are reported. To optimize learning in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) a program model is provided in which content,…

  17. Computer Assisted Psychomotor Training in a Specialized Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Computer assisted psychomotor training is recognized as an appropriate tool in motor skill acquisition in adults with and without physical limitations. In specialized populations of individuals with physical deficits such as Parkinson's disease, previous researchers have examined the application of computer assisted training during upper extremity…

  18. Applications and Problems of Computer Assisted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usun, Salih

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey; reviews of the related literature; examines the projects, applications and problems on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey compares with the World; exposes the positive and negative aspects of the projects; a number of the suggestion presents on the effective use of…

  19. Limits of detection and decision. Part 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigtman, E.

    2008-02-01

    It has been shown that the MARLAP (Multi-Agency Radiological Laboratory Analytical Protocols) for estimating the Currie detection limit, which is based on 'critical values of the non-centrality parameter of the non-central t distribution', is intrinsically biased, even if no calibration curve or regression is used. This completed the refutation of the method, begun in Part 2. With the field cleared of obstructions, the true theory underlying Currie's limits of decision, detection and quantification, as they apply in a simple linear chemical measurement system (CMS) having heteroscedastic, Gaussian measurement noise and using weighted least squares (WLS) processing, was then derived. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations were performed, on 900 million independent calibration curves, for linear, "hockey stick" and quadratic noise precision models (NPMs). With errorless NPM parameters, all the simulation results were found to be in excellent agreement with the derived theoretical expressions. Even with as much as 30% noise on all of the relevant NPM parameters, the worst absolute errors in rates of false positives and false negatives, was only 0.3%.

  20. Computer Assisted Mechanical Axis and Kinematic TKA

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Peter; Mahoharan, Varaguna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has traditionally been and largely continues to be aligned mechanically, that being with a neutral coronal plane mechanical tibiofemoral axis and a joint line orientated at 900 to this axis. Femoral component rotation is set by gap balancing or by externally rotating 30 from any of a number femoral reference lines. This produces a rectangular flexion gap and relaxes patellar tracking. Kinematic alignment (KA) is an alternative technique that aims to restore premorbid alignment, joint orientation and ligament tension. The basic premise for this technique is based on evidence that the medial and lateral femoral condyles consistently equate to cylinders of equal or near equal size and that therefore with a fixed radius, cruciate retaining implant, matched distal femoral, posterior femoral and proximal tibial resections, accounting for bone and cartilage already lost will reproduce the premorbid joint line and restore native premorbid kinematics. Femoral rotation is therefore referenced off the prearthritic posterior condylar axis (PCA) that is on average internally rotated to the AP axis. Kinematic alignment therefore has the potential to challenge patellar tracking, increase patellar load and potentially increase patellar complications. Method: Case control study – level of evidence III-2. Between November 2012 and June 2013 the senior author completed 104 consecutive computer assisted (CAS) kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasties (TKA) with a cruciate retaining, fixed bearing, single radius implant. The results of these surgeries were compared with the results of 91 consecutive CAS mechanically aligned TKA done between November 2011 and October 2012 using the same navigation system and implant Implant sizing and positioning as well as gap measurement and ligament balance was done with computer assistance in all cases. Data was collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively. Results: The Oxford Knee Score

  1. Real time simulation of computer-assisted sequencing of terminal area operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dear, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A simulation was developed to investigate the utilization of computer assisted decision making for the task of sequencing and scheduling aircraft in a high density terminal area. The simulation incorporates a decision methodology termed Constrained Position Shifting. This methodology accounts for aircraft velocity profiles, routes, and weight classes in dynamically sequencing and scheduling arriving aircraft. A sample demonstration of Constrained Position Shifting is presented where six aircraft types (including both light and heavy aircraft) are sequenced to land at Denver's Stapleton International Airport. A graphical display is utilized and Constrained Position Shifting with a maximum shift of four positions (rearward or forward) is compared to first come, first serve with respect to arrival at the runway. The implementation of computer assisted sequencing and scheduling methodologies is investigated. A time based control concept will be required and design considerations for such a system are discussed.

  2. Computer-assisted warehouse personnel scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Sandra C.; Malstrom, Eric J.; Usmani, Tariq

    1992-02-01

    A decision support system is developed for personnel scheduling in a multiple warehouse environment. The system incorporates current manpower level, historical data of workers used, empirical load distributions, and performance standards to generate manpower requirements for a specified planning horizon. The software has been developed to be easily adaptable to varying situational details, therefore is widely applicable in different warehouse settings. The system offers personnel managers a valuable tool for evaluating alternative schedules and making intelligent decisions regarding personnel scheduling in warehouses.

  3. Comprehensive automatic assessment of retinal vascular abnormalities for computer-assisted retinopathy grading.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vinayak; Agurto, Carla; VanNess, Richard; Nemeth, Sheila; Soliz, Peter; Barriga, Simon

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important signs of systemic disease that presents on the retina is vascular abnormalities such as in hypertensive retinopathy. Manual analysis of fundus images by human readers is qualitative and lacks in accuracy, consistency and repeatability. Present semi-automatic methods for vascular evaluation are reported to increase accuracy and reduce reader variability, but require extensive reader interaction; thus limiting the software-aided efficiency. Automation thus holds a twofold promise. First, decrease variability while increasing accuracy, and second, increasing the efficiency. In this paper we propose fully automated software as a second reader system for comprehensive assessment of retinal vasculature; which aids the readers in the quantitative characterization of vessel abnormalities in fundus images. This system provides the reader with objective measures of vascular morphology such as tortuosity, branching angles, as well as highlights of areas with abnormalities such as artery-venous nicking, copper and silver wiring, and retinal emboli; in order for the reader to make a final screening decision. To test the efficacy of our system, we evaluated the change in performance of a newly certified retinal reader when grading a set of 40 color fundus images with and without the assistance of the software. The results demonstrated an improvement in reader's performance with the software assistance, in terms of accuracy of detection of vessel abnormalities, determination of retinopathy, and reading time. This system enables the reader in making computer-assisted vasculature assessment with high accuracy and consistency, at a reduced reading time.

  4. A Computer Assisted Learning Project in Engineering Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheesewright, R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A British project in engineering science is described. Computer assisted instruction packages are being developed to provide students with experience with models or systems of models related to lecture material on electrical, electronic, nuclear, and mechanical engineering. (SD)

  5. Research on the Use of Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, C. O.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews recent research studies related to computer assisted instruction (CAI). The studies concerned program effectiveness, teaching of psychomotor skills, tool availability, and factors affecting the adoption of CAI. (CT)

  6. Computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation for BPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Gideon; Barrett, Adrian R. W.; Ng, Wan S.; Lim, Liam G.; Cheng, Wai S.

    2001-06-01

    Interstitial laser thermotherapy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that utilizes laser to coagulate and treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. This study explores the use of a computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation system to aid surgeons in performing this procedure.

  7. Rules for Authoring Computer-Assisted Instruction Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitler, C. Douglas; Corgan, Virginia E.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions for writing computer-assisted instructional programs are offered through an examination of the goals and structure of these programs. Discussed are problems one may encounter in creating such programs. (RAO)

  8. Technology development for remote, computer-assisted operation of a continuous mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Schnakenberg, G.H.

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines was created to conduct research to improve the health, safety, and efficiency of the coal and metal mining industries. In 1986, the Bureau embarked on a new, major research effort to develop the technology that would enable the relocation of workers from hazardous areas to areas of relative safety. This effort is in contrast to historical efforts by the Bureau of controlling or reducing the hazardous agent or providing protection to the worker. The technologies associated with automation, robotics, and computer software and hardware systems had progressed to the point that their use to develop computer-assisted operation of mobile mining equipment appeared to be a cost-effective and accomplishable task. At the first International Symposium of Mine Mechanization and Automation, an overview of the Bureau`s computer-assisted mining program for underground coal mining was presented. The elements included providing computer-assisted tele-remote operation of continuous mining machines, haulage systems and roof bolting machines. Areas of research included sensors for machine guidance and for coal interface detection. Additionally, the research included computer hardware and software architectures which are extremely important in developing technology that is transferable to industry and is flexible enough to accommodate the variety of machines used in coal mining today. This paper provides an update of the research under the computer-assisted mining program.

  9. Dental outcomes in computer-assisted orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Travis; Markiewicz, Michael R; Jarman, Joseph; Bell, R Bryan

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of computer-aided orthognathic surgery in reducing incisal overjet and establishing class I occlusion in subjects with dentofacial deformities. To address the research purpose, the investigators initiated a retrospective cohort study and enrolled a sample of subjects who underwent computer-assisted orthognathic surgery for dentofacial deformities. Two examiners assessed preoperative and postoperative lateral cephalometric radiographs for change in overjet after computer-assisted orthognathic surgery. Preoperative and postoperative occlusal photographs were then reviewed to assess for establishment of class I occlusion after computer-assisted orthognathic surgery. Cohen κ coefficient was used to assess for interrater agreement. A matched-pairs t-test was used to assess reduction in incisal overjet after computer-assisted orthognathic surgery. The sample was composed of 9 subjects who underwent computer-assisted surgery for dentofacial deformities. There was good interrater consistency for preoperative measurement of overjet (κ = 0.7, P ≤ 0.001). There was fair interrater consistency for postoperative measurement of overjet (κ = 0.4, P = 0 .02). Both examiners agreed on preoperative and postoperative assessments of occlusal photographs. There was a 3.4-mm reduction in incisal overjet after computer-assisted orthognathic surgery (P ≤ 0.001). Mean postoperative absolute overjet was 1.3 mm. In subjects with dentofacial deformities, computer-aided orthognathic surgery was effective in reducing incisal overjet and establishing class I occlusion.

  10. Horses for courses: facilitating postgraduate research students' choice of Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis System (CAQDAS).

    PubMed

    Marshall, Helen

    2002-08-01

    Supervisors of postgraduate students are increasingly likely to find themselves discussing whether or not the student should use a CAQDAS (computer assisted qualitative data analysis system) in their research. This paper discusses Weitzman and Miles (1995) framework for decision-making about CAQDAS and then reports the experiences of five postgraduate students, each of whom made a different decision. (These were variously: not to use a CAQDAS, using Atlas-Ti, Ethnograph, N. VIVO and N5). It explores the fit between Weitzman's and Miles' principles and the students' experiences then suggests some modifications of the principles and strategies for advising students.

  11. Role of computer-assisted visual search in mammographic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nodine, Calvin F.; Kundel, Harold L.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Weinstein, Susan P.

    2001-06-01

    We used eye-position data to develop Computer-Assisted Visual Search (CAVS) as an aid to mammographic interpretation. CAVS feeds back regions of interest that receive prolonged visual dwell (greater than or equal to 1000 ms) by highlighting them on the mammogram. These regions are then reevaluated for possible missed breast cancers. Six radiology residents and fellows interpreted a test set of 40 mammograms twice, once with CAVS feedback (FB), and once without CAVS FB in a crossover, repeated- measures design. Eye position was monitored. LROC performance (area) was compared with and without CAVS FB. Detection and localization of malignant lesions improved 12% with CAVS FB. This was not significant. The test set contained subtle malignant lesions. 65% (176/272) of true lesions were fixated. Of those fixated, 49% (87/176) received prolonged attention resulting in CAVS FB, and 54% (47/87) of FBs resulted in TPs. Test-set difficulty and the lack of reading experience of the readers may have contributed to the relatively low overall performance, and may have also limited the effectiveness of CAVS FB which could only play a role in localizing potential lesions if the reader fixated and dwelled on them.

  12. Simple and Computer-assisted Olfactory Testing for Mice.

    PubMed

    Brai, Emanuele; Alberi, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction is highly conserved among species and is required for reproduction and survival. In humans, olfaction is also one of the senses that is affected with aging and is a strong predictor of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, olfaction testing is used as a non-invasive diagnostic method to detect neurological deficits early on. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying olfactory network susceptibility, olfactory research in rodents has gained momentum in the past decade. Here, we present a very simple, time efficient and reproducible olfactory testing method of innate odor perception and sensitivity in mice without the need of any prior food or water restriction. The tests are performed in a familiar environment to the mice, require only the scents and a 2 min session of odorant exposure. The analysis is performed, post-hoc, using computer-assisted commands on ImageJ and can be, therefore, carried out from start to end by one researcher. This protocol does not require any special hardware or setup and is indicated for any laboratory interested in testing olfactory perception and sensitivity.

  13. Optimal multisensor decision fusion of mine detection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yuwei; Nolte, Loren W.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2003-09-01

    Numerous detection algorithms, using various sensor modalities, have been developed for the detection of mines in cluttered and noisy backgrounds. The performance for each detection algorithm is typically reported in terms of the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), which is a plot of the probability of detection versus false alarm as a function of the threshold setting on the output decision variable of each algorithm. In this paper we present multi-sensor decision fusion algorithms that combine the local decisions of existing detection algorithms for different sensors. This offers, in certain situations, an expedient, attractive and much simpler alternative to "starting over" with the redesign of a new algorithm which fuses multiple sensors at the data level. The goal in our multi-sensor decision fusion approach is to exploit complimentary strengths of existing multi-sensor algorithms so as to achieve performance (ROC) that exceeds the performance of any sensor algorithm operating in isolation. Our approach to multi-sensor decision fusion is based on optimal signal detection theory, using the likelihood ratio. We consider the optimal fusion of local decisions for two sensors, GPR (ground penetrating radar) and MD (metal detector). A new robust algorithm for decision fusion is presented that addresses the problem that the statistics of the training data is not likely to exactly match the statistics of the test data. ROC's are presented and compared for real data.

  14. Separating Decision and Encoding Noise in Signal Detection Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Carlos Alexander; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dosher, Barbara Anne

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we develop an extension to the Signal Detection Theory (SDT) framework to separately estimate internal noise arising from representational and decision processes. Our approach constrains SDT models with decision noise by combining a multi-pass external noise paradigm with confidence rating responses. In a simulation study we present evidence that representation and decision noise can be separately estimated over a range of representative underlying representational and decision noise level configurations. These results also hold across a number of decision rules and show resilience to rule miss-specification. The new theoretical framework is applied to a visual detection confidence-rating task with three and five response categories. This study compliments and extends the recent efforts of researchers (Benjamin, Diaz, & Wee, 2009; Mueller & Weidemann, 2008; Rosner & Kochanski, 2009, Kellen, Klauer, & Singmann, 2012) to separate and quantify underlying sources of response variability in signal detection tasks. PMID:26120907

  15. Interactive computer-assisted approach for evaluation of ultrastructural cilia abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, Christoph; Siegmund, Heiko; Semmelmann, Matthias; Grafe, Claudia; Evert, Matthias; Schroeder, Josef A.

    2016-03-01

    Introduction - Diagnosis of abnormal cilia function is based on ultrastructural analysis of axoneme defects, especialy the features of inner and outer dynein arms which are the motors of ciliar motility. Sub-optimal biopsy material, methodical, and intrinsic electron microscopy factors pose difficulty in ciliary defects evaluation. We present a computer-assisted approach based on state-of-the-art image analysis and object recognition methods yielding a time-saving and efficient diagnosis of cilia dysfunction. Method - The presented approach is based on a pipeline of basal image processing methods like smoothing, thresholding and ellipse fitting. However, integration of application specific knowledge results in robust segmentations even in cases of image artifacts. The method is build hierarchically starting with the detection of cilia within the image, followed by the detection of nine doublets within each analyzable cilium, and ending with the detection of dynein arms of each doublet. The process is concluded by a rough classification of the dynein arms as basis for a computer-assisted diagnosis. Additionally, the interaction possibilities are designed in a way, that the results are still reproducible given the completion report. Results - A qualitative evaluation showed reasonable detection results for cilia, doublets and dynein arms. However, since a ground truth is missing, the variation of the computer-assisted diagnosis should be within the subjective bias of human diagnosticians. The results of a first quantitative evaluation with five human experts and six images with 12 analyzable cilia showed, that with default parameterization 91.6% of the cilia and 98% of the doublets were found. The computer-assisted approach rated 66% of those inner and outer dynein arms correct, where all human experts agree. However, especially the quality of the dynein arm classification may be improved in future work.

  16. Computer-assisted trauma care prototype.

    PubMed

    Holzman, T G; Griffith, A; Hunter, W G; Allen, T; Simpson, R J

    1995-01-01

    Each year, civilian accidental injury results in 150,000 deaths and 400,000 permanent disabilities in the United States alone. The timely creation of and access to dynamically updated trauma patient information at the point of injury is critical to improving the state of care. Such information is often non-existent, incomplete, or inaccurate, resulting in less than adequate treatment by medics and the loss of precious time by medical personnel at the hospital or battalion aid station as they attempt to reassess and treat the patient. The Trauma Care Information Management System (TCIMS) is a prototype system for facilitating information flow and patient processing decisions in the difficult circumstances of civilian and military trauma care activities. The program is jointly supported by the United States Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and a consortium of universities, medical centers, and private companies. The authors' focus has been the human-computer interface for the system. We are attempting to make TCIMS powerful in the functions it delivers to its users in the field while also making it easy to understand and operate. To develop such a usable system, an approach known as user-centered design is being followed. Medical personnel themselves are collaborating with the authors in its needs analysis, design, and evaluation. Specifically, the prototype being demonstrated was designed through observation of actual civilian trauma care episodes, military trauma care exercises onboard a hospital ship, interviews with civilian and military trauma care providers, repeated evaluation of evolving prototypes by potential users, and study of the literature on trauma care and human factors engineering. This presentation at MedInfo '95 is still another avenue for soliciting guidance from medical information system experts and users. The outcome of this process is a system that provides the functions trauma care personnel desire in a manner that can be easily and

  17. Computer-assisted trauma care prototype.

    PubMed

    Holzman, T G; Griffith, A; Hunter, W G; Allen, T; Simpson, R J

    1995-01-01

    Each year, civilian accidental injury results in 150,000 deaths and 400,000 permanent disabilities in the United States alone. The timely creation of and access to dynamically updated trauma patient information at the point of injury is critical to improving the state of care. Such information is often non-existent, incomplete, or inaccurate, resulting in less than adequate treatment by medics and the loss of precious time by medical personnel at the hospital or battalion aid station as they attempt to reassess and treat the patient. The Trauma Care Information Management System (TCIMS) is a prototype system for facilitating information flow and patient processing decisions in the difficult circumstances of civilian and military trauma care activities. The program is jointly supported by the United States Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and a consortium of universities, medical centers, and private companies. The authors' focus has been the human-computer interface for the system. We are attempting to make TCIMS powerful in the functions it delivers to its users in the field while also making it easy to understand and operate. To develop such a usable system, an approach known as user-centered design is being followed. Medical personnel themselves are collaborating with the authors in its needs analysis, design, and evaluation. Specifically, the prototype being demonstrated was designed through observation of actual civilian trauma care episodes, military trauma care exercises onboard a hospital ship, interviews with civilian and military trauma care providers, repeated evaluation of evolving prototypes by potential users, and study of the literature on trauma care and human factors engineering. This presentation at MedInfo '95 is still another avenue for soliciting guidance from medical information system experts and users. The outcome of this process is a system that provides the functions trauma care personnel desire in a manner that can be easily and

  18. Computer-Assisted Registration and Student Statistics Reporting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Robert

    This report describes the development and evaluation of a computer-assisted, student-interactive registration program that was designed for a community school in southeastern Florida which offers courses in the curricular areas of adult basic education, GED, adult high school, business and office education, home economics, industrial education,…

  19. A Model for Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Instruction (MICALI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farghaly, Ali

    1989-01-01

    States that Computer Assisted Language Instruction (CALI) software should be developed as an interactive natural language processing system. Describes artificial intelligence and proposes a model for intelligent CALI software (MICALI). Discusses MICALI's potential and current limitations due to the present state of the art. (Author/LS)

  20. An Overview of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Walter

    After a detailed history and definition of Computer-Assisted Instruction (which identifies drill and practice, tutorial, and problem-solving activities as comprising CAI), the development and implementation of a college level computer based multimedia physics course is described as an example of tutorial activities in CAI for those interested in…

  1. Applications of Parsing Theory to Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markosian, Lawrence Z.; Ager, Tryg A.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of an LR-1 parsing algorithm to intelligent programs for computer assisted instruction in symbolic logic and foreign languages are discussed. The system has been adequately used for diverse instructional applications, including analysis of student input, generation of pattern drills, and modeling the student's understanding of the…

  2. Technical Aspects of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chaun; Sherwood, Bruce

    1981-01-01

    Computer assisted instruction in Chinese is considered in relation to the design and recognition of Chinese characters, speech synthesis of the standard Chinese language, and the identification of Chinese tone. The PLATO work has shifted its orientation from provision of supplementary courseware to implementation of independent lessons and…

  3. Computer-Assisted Synthesis of Psychometric Data in Vocational Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    This paper proposes computer assistance in the synthesis operation of vocational counseling. The goal of vocational counseling is to match the client with a vocation in which he will be both satisfied and satisfactory. The computer would, through its rapid scanning and computation, produce probabilities of satisfactoriness based on (1) the…

  4. The MUPET Lab: Computer Assisted Management of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Thomas D.

    Project Computer-Assisted Instructional Management (C-AIM) is being pilot tested on third grade mathematics students in the Jonesboro Public schools (Jonesboro, Arkansas). Each elementary building operates a MUPET Lab equipped with at least six Commodore Model 4016/4032 microcomputers, one Commodore Model 4040 dual disc drive, and one Commodore…

  5. Computer-Assisted Periodical Routing and Renewal Audit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerkey, A. Neil

    1973-01-01

    A computer-assisted periodical control system was designed to reduce clerical time required to maintain records in three areas: renewal audit, routing, and records-keeping. The renewal audit features are unusual and are described in detail. (3 references) (Author/DH)

  6. Computer-Assisted Intervention for Children with Low Numeracy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasanen, Pekka; Salminen, Jonna; Wilson, Anna J.; Aunio, Pirjo; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a computer-assisted intervention (CAI) study on number skills in kindergarten children. Children with low numeracy skill (n = 30) were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. The first group played a computer game (The Number Race) which emphasized numerical comparison and was designed to train number sense, while the…

  7. Computer Assisted Financial Aid Disbursement and Loan Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry K.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the computer assisted system in use at Washington State University. It controls and reports funds requested by students, offered to students, and disbursed to students, writes financial aid checks, prepares fiscal year-end statements and performs loan collection processes according to federal government regulations, and provides internal…

  8. Computer Assisted Language Learning: A Shortcut to Proficiency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Kathleen K.

    A study investigated the attitudes of language program students, teachers, and administrators concerning the effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) instruction for adults, and specifically concerning EXITO courseware, a Spanish language program developed by the Central Intelligence Agency. Interviews with an adult language…

  9. A Topical Bibliography on Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilickaya, Ferit

    2009-01-01

    This bibliography aims to serve the language teacher educators who are working in the field of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) by making a collection of 1732 bibliographic entries, which stem from mainly books and journal articles in English that date back to 1980 and provide good discussions on the theory of technology in language…

  10. Social Choice in a Computer-Assisted Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thavikulwat, Precha

    2009-01-01

    Pursuing a line of inquiry suggested by Crookall, Martin, Saunders, and Coote, the author applied, within the framework of design science, an optimal-design approach to incorporate into a computer-assisted simulation two innovative social choice processes: the multiple period double auction and continuous voting. Expectations that the…

  11. Teaching Reading through Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Tariq Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    To study the role of reading in secondary schools and how it may be improved through computers, a year-long study was conducted to examine which of two methods of teaching reading skills, an instructor-led class vs. computer-assisted language learning (CALL), aided secondary students in improving the literal, inferential, and evaluative levels of…

  12. A Computer-Assisted Instructional Approach to Teaching Applied Therapeutics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jim, Lucia K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction to conduct pharmacy therapeutics case analysis exercises was compared with the traditional conference format. Pre- and posttest scores were compared statistically within and between groups to determine knowledge gained and comparative effectivness of teaching. (Author/MLW)

  13. System/360 Computer Assisted Network Scheduling (CANS) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer assisted scheduling techniques that produce conflict-free and efficient schedules have been developed and implemented to meet needs of the Manned Space Flight Network. CANS system provides effective management of resources in complex scheduling environment. System is automated resource scheduling, controlling, planning, information storage and retrieval tool.

  14. How to Develop Computer-Assisted Instruction Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poston, Iona

    1993-01-01

    Advice for developing computer-assisted instruction includes (1) narrow the topic focus; (2) select appropriate hardware and software for goals; (3) develop instructional design by mapping software features; and (4) consider the instructional, aesthetic, operational, and curricular adequacy of the program. (SK)

  15. A New Approach: Computer-Assisted Problem-Solving Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gok, Tolga

    2010-01-01

    Computer-assisted problem solving systems are rapidly growing in educational use and with the advent of the Internet. These systems allow students to do their homework and solve problems online with the help of programs like Blackboard, WebAssign and LON-CAPA program etc. There are benefits and drawbacks of these systems. In this study, the…

  16. Fifth Generation Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Andrew D.; Cartwright, Glenn F.

    1997-01-01

    Emerging "fifth-generation" computer-assisted career guidance systems include Internet-based resources such as listservs and Web sites. Obstacles to fifth-generation systems include confidentiality, counselor resistance, and lack of training. Counselors can aid their development by authoring, collaborating, evaluating, and advocating for equal…

  17. A Computer Assisted Problem Solving Method for Beginning Chemistry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael H.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a problem-solving method for beginning chemistry students that utilizes specific, concrete steps as well as computer-assisted tutorials. The method involves an approach referred to as the Factor-Unit Method coupled with a graphical "road map" which allows students to trace problems from start to finish. (JN)

  18. Computer-Assisted Law Instruction: Clinical Education's Bionic Sibling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Harry G.; Platt, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI), like clinical education, has considerable potential for legal training. As an initial Cornell Law School experiment, a lesson in applying different corporate statutory dividend formulations, with a cross-section of balance sheets and other financial data, was used to supplement regular class assignments.…

  19. Renal Diet Therapy--A Computer-Assisted Instruction Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Lois; Thiele, Victoria F.

    1981-01-01

    A computer-assisted instruction (CAI) unit was designed to teach renal diet therapy. Utilizing this unit, differences in performance and attitudes between traditionally taught and CAI taught students (N=34), and differences in achievement between students in two nutrition fields were assessed. (DS)

  20. An Instructional Model for Computer Assisted Instruction. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizenko, Albert J; Evans, Allyn A.

    An instructional model suitable for the implementation of the tutorial mode of a computer-assisted instruction program is described in this report. The general guidelines for the design of the model are presented. Course organization, instructional strategies, and learning paths are discussed. The model provided for the accommodation of high,…

  1. Perceptions of University Students regarding Computer Assisted Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamil, Mubashrah

    2012-01-01

    Computer assisted assessment (CAA) is a common technique of assessment in higher educational institutions in Western countries, but a relatively new concept for students and teachers in Pakistan. It was therefore interesting to investigate students' perceptions about CAA practices from different universities of Pakistan. Information was collected…

  2. Computer-Assisted Microscopy in Science Teaching and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radice, Gary P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a technological approach to teaching the relationships between biological form and function. Computer-assisted image analysis was integrated into a microanatomy course. Students spend less time memorizing and more time observing, measuring, and interpreting, building technical and analytical skills. Appendices list hardware and software…

  3. Optimizing Computer Assisted Instruction By Applying Principles of Learning Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thomas O.

    The development of learning theory and its application to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are described. Among the early theoretical constructs thought to be important are E. L. Thorndike's concept of learning connectisms, Neal Miller's theory of motivation, and B. F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. Early devices incorporating those…

  4. Computer Assisted Drafting (CNC) Drawings. Drafting Module 6. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Missouri Vocational Instruction Management System instructor's drafting guide has been keyed to the drafting competency profile developed by state industry and education professionals. This unit contains information on computer-assisted drafting drawings. The guide contains a cross-reference table of instructional materials and 20 worksheets.…

  5. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: From Vision to Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Learning a second language is a challenging endeavor, and, for decades now, proponents of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) have declared that help is on the horizon. As documented not only in the "CALICO Journal" over its 25-year history but also in other scholarly venues, research has demonstrated the value of CALL. Nevertheless,…

  6. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Bin; Xing, Minjie; Wang, Yuping; Sun, Mingyu; Xiang, Catherine H.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances highlights new research and an original framework that brings together foreign language teaching, experiments and testing practices that utilize the most recent and widely used e-learning resources. This comprehensive collection of research will offer linguistic…

  7. Engineering Students' Use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huczynski, Andrzej; Johnston, Scott Paul

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) by undergraduate engineering students studying a business and management course. Discussing both the relationship between management and engineering and CAL applied to engineering education, this study is based on a survey of 82 undergraduates and adopts a quantitative research…

  8. Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction: A Selective Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Karen K.

    The history of some computer-assisted instruction (CAI) strategies is traced. A number of components of computerized instruction systems are described and explanations provided on the influence these components have in the development and production of a CAI system. A description of the interaction between a student and a CAI system is presented…

  9. Evaluation of Three Computer-Assisted Instruction Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; Morningstar, Mona

    This technical report is concerned with the evaluation of three Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) Programs - The Drill-and practice Program in Elementary School Mathematics, The Brentwood Tutorial Mathematics Program, and the Russian Program. Among the results reported were (1) the drill-and-practice mathematics program used in Mississippi and…

  10. Computer-Assisted Instruction: Stanford's 1965-66 Arithmetic Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    A review of the possibilities and challenges of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and a brief history of CAI projects at Stanford serve to give the reader the context of the particular program described and analyzed in this book. The 1965-66 arithmetic drill-and-practice program is described, summarizing the curriculum and project operation. An…

  11. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  12. Ethical and Professional Issues in Computer-Assisted Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, B. Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Discusses ethical and professional issues in psychology regarding computer-assisted therapy (CAT). Topics addressed include an explanation of CAT; whether CAT is psychotherapy; software, including independent use, validation of effectiveness, and restricted access; clinician resistance; client acceptance; the impact on ethical standards; and a…

  13. Computer-Assisted Instruction: Authoring Languages. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Thomas C.

    One of the most perplexing tasks in producing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is the authoring process. Authoring is generally defined as the process of turning the flowcharts, control algorithms, format sheets, and other documentation of a CAI program's design into computer code that will operationalize the simulation on the delivery system.…

  14. THE LEARNING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER'S COMPUTER ASSISTED LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAGSDALE, RONALD G.

    THIS PAPER DESCRIBES THE OPERATION AND PLANNED APPLICATIONS OF A COMPUTER ASSISTED LABORATORY FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH. THE LAB CENTERS AROUND AN 8K PDP-7 COMPUTER AND ITS SPECIAL PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT. SPECIAL DEVICES INCLUDE RANDOM ACCESS AUDIO AND VIDEO, GRAPHICAL INPUT, AND TOUCH-SENSITIVE AND BLOCK-MANIPULATION INPUTS. THE SYSTEM MAY BE…

  15. Successes, Failures, and Dropouts in Computer-Assisted Language Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Joan; And Others

    This report attempts to profile students who participated in a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) research and development project. The researchers hoped to find some pattern or common denominator within each group i.e., the successes, the failures, and the dropouts, that would identify group membership and distinguish one group from…

  16. Computer-Assisted Dieting: Effects of a Randomized Nutrition Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Kerstin E. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of a computer-assisted dieting intervention (CAD) with and without self-management training on dieting among 55 overweight and obese adults. Methods: Random assignment to a single-session nutrition intervention (CAD-only) or a combined CAD plus self-management group intervention (CADG). Dependent variables were…

  17. Audio Utilization Conventions and Techniques for Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Signal Center and School, Fort Monmouth, NJ.

    A set of guidelines has been developed for the implementation of the audio mode in computer assisted instruction (CAI). The manual contains a collection of conventions and techniques synthesized from recent publications in areas pertinent to multi-media audiovisual presentation. These areas include audio message placement, positioning, frequency,…

  18. Students' Attitudes towards Control Methods in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintze, Hanne; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes study designed to investigate dental students' attitudes toward computer-assisted teaching as applied in programs for oral radiology in Denmark. Programs using personal computers and slide projectors with varying degrees of learner and teacher control are described, and differences in attitudes between male and female students are…

  19. Computer-assisted coding and clinical documentation: first things first.

    PubMed

    Tully, Melinda; Carmichael, Angela

    2012-10-01

    Computer-assisted coding tools have the potential to drive improvements in seven areas: Transparency of coding. Productivity (generally by 20 to 25 percent for inpatient claims). Accuracy (by improving specificity of documentation). Cost containment (by reducing overtime expenses, audit fees, and denials). Compliance. Efficiency. Consistency.

  20. Wired Students: Computer-Assisted Research and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawamoto, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of library automation and changes in research methodology focuses on computer-assisted research curricula. Topics addressed include public access to government information; the information superhighway; commercialization of government documents that may restrict public access; computer literacy; and a proposed curriculum plan for a…

  1. Implementing Computer-Assisted Instruction: The Garland Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Eli; Bryant, Deborah G.

    1985-01-01

    After much study, administrators at the Garland Independent School District (Texas) adopted a minicomputer-based system which provides curriculum development for kindergarten through grade 12. The process of implementing computer-assisted instruction in this district is described. Results after the first year and teacher training are examined. (JN)

  2. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Diversity in Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, Glenn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning languages that uses computers and other technologies to present, reinforce, and assess material to be learned, or to create environments where teachers and learners can interact with one another and the outside world. This book provides a much-needed overview of the…

  3. Computer-Assisted Analysis of Qualitative Gerontological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiemstra, Roger; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Asserts that qualitative research has great potential for use in gerontological research. Describes QUALOG, a computer-assisted, qualitative data analysis scheme using logic programming developed at Syracuse University. Reviews development of QUALOG and discusses how QUALOG was used to analyze data from a qualitative study of older adult learners.…

  4. Computer-Assisted Assessment: Suggested Guidelines for an Institutional Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Derek; Bull, Joanna; Wade, Winnie

    1998-01-01

    Reviews lessons learned from experience with computer-aided learning that can inform the use of computers in student assessment in college teaching, describes the experience of two institutions with computer-assisted student assessment, and makes recommendations for developing and implementing effective institution-wide systems. (Author/MSE)

  5. An Infrastructure for Web-Based Computer Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Mike; Muzykantskii, Boris; Rawles, Simon; Evans, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We describe an initiative under way at Warwick to provide a technical foundation for computer aided learning and computer-assisted assessment tools, which allows a rich dialogue sensitive to individual students' response patterns. The system distinguishes between dialogues for individual problems and the linking of problems. This enables a subject…

  6. The Effectiveness of a Computer-Assisted Math Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witte, K.; Haelermans, C.; Rogge, N.

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs are considered as a way to improve learning outcomes of students. However, little is known on the schools who implement such programs as well as on the effectiveness of similar information and communication technology programs. We provide a literature review that pays special attention to the existing…

  7. Integrating Computer-Assisted Translation Tools into Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Parra, María

    2016-01-01

    Although Computer-Assisted Translation (CAT) tools play an important role in the curriculum in many university translator training programmes, they are seldom used in the context of learning a language, as a good command of a language is needed before starting to translate. Since many institutions often have translator-training programmes as well…

  8. Computer Assisted Teaching Comparisons with Handicapped. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, JoDell K.

    A project was conducted to see if computer-assisted instruction could be used successfully with the low-level, non-reading adult. The experimental classroom group consisted of mentally handicapped and other educationally handicapped adults in adult basic education (ABE) programs. (Long-range implementation is aimed at ABE students who have a…

  9. Computer Assisted Instruction at Rhode Island Junior College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubert, Sylvia; Masi, Anthony

    1975-01-01

    Computer assisted instruction is an excellent medium for humanizing the teaching-learning process not only by providing a patient, helpful, readily available source of information that is adaptable to the individual's needs, but also by freeing teachers to enable them to re-personalize the educational process. (Author/NHM)

  10. Framework for Computer Assisted Instruction Courseware: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betlach, Judith A.

    1987-01-01

    Systematically investigates, defines, and organizes variables related to production of internally designed and implemented computer assisted instruction (CAI) courseware: special needs of users; costs; identification and definition of realistic training needs; CAI definition and design methodology; hardware and software requirements; and general…

  11. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Medicine: A German View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Gunnar; And Others

    The following seven American programs of Computer Assisted Instruction in Medicine are among 20 implemented at the University of Bonn: OPHTHA and FUNDUS (programs of the tutorial mode), CARDI (presents information via three media on the clinical alterations of Mitral and Aortic Stenosis as well as Mitral and Aortal Incompetence), CARDIOPULMONARY…

  12. Decisions that Make a Difference in Detecting Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Rios, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous statistical procedures for detecting items that function differently across subgroups of examinees that take a test or survey. However, in endeavouring to detect items that may function differentially, selection of the statistical method is only one of many important decisions. In this article, we discuss the important decisions…

  13. Errors and Intelligence in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Parsers and Pedagogues. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This book provides the first comprehensive overview of theoretical issues, historical developments and current trends in ICALL (Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning). It assumes a basic familiarity with Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory and teaching, CALL and linguistics. It is of interest to upper undergraduate and/or graduate…

  14. Bayesian design of decision rules for failure detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, E. Y.; Willsky, A. S.

    1984-01-01

    The formulation of the decision making process of a failure detection algorithm as a Bayes sequential decision problem provides a simple conceptualization of the decision rule design problem. As the optimal Bayes rule is not computable, a methodology that is based on the Bayesian approach and aimed at a reduced computational requirement is developed for designing suboptimal rules. A numerical algorithm is constructed to facilitate the design and performance evaluation of these suboptimal rules. The result of applying this design methodology to an example shows that this approach is potentially a useful one.

  15. Computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Eells, Tracy D; Barrett, Marna S; Wright, Jesse H; Thase, Michael

    2014-06-01

    This article reviews the use of computer technology in treating depression as a substitute or adjunct for standard therapy. It discusses advantages and disadvantages of introducing computer technology as a treatment option, problems and barriers to expanded use, the varieties of computer-assisted psychotherapy for major depression, and relevant research. Three specific Internet-based programs are described, assessed and compared: Good Days Ahead, Beating the Blues, and MoodGYM. The authors conclude that these and similar programs are promising. Preliminary outcome studies suggest that these programs produce outcome similar to standard therapy, although methodological shortcomings limit confidence in these findings. Suggestions are offered for practitioners considering the addition of computer assistance to their treatment of depression. PMID:24059735

  16. Computer-assisted navigation in knee arthroplasty: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Muralidharan; Mahadevan, Devendra; Ashford, Robert U

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this review was to appraise the use of computer-assisted navigation in total knee arthroplasty and to assess whether this technology has improved clinical outcomes. Studies were identified through searches in MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed. Numerous studies have shown improved leg and component alignment using navigation systems. However, the better alignment achieved in navigated knee arthroplasty has not been shown to lead to better clinical outcomes. Navigated knee arthroplasty had lower calculated blood loss and lower incidence of fat embolism compared with conventional knee arthroplasty using intramedullary jigs. It may be most valued when dealing with complex knee deformities, revision surgery, or minimally invasive surgery. Navigated knee arthroplasty, however, is only cost-effective in centers with a high volume of joint replacements. Overall, computer-assisted navigated knee arthroplasty provides some advantages over conventional surgery, but its clinical benefits to date are unclear and remain to be defined on a larger scale.

  17. Stress intensity estimates by a computer assisted photoelastic method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    Following an introductory history, the frozen stress photoelastic method is reviewed together with analytical and experimental aspects of cracks in photoelastic models. Analytical foundations are then presented upon which a computer assisted frozen stress photoelastic technique is based for extracting estimates of stress intensity factors from three-dimensional cracked body problems. The use of the method is demonstrated for two currently important three-dimensional crack problems.

  18. Computer-assisted percutaneous scaphoid fixation: concepts and evolution.

    PubMed

    Smith, Erin J; Ellis, Randy E; Pichora, David R

    2013-11-01

    Background The treatment for undisplaced scaphoid waist fractures has evolved from conventional cast immobilization to percutaneous screw insertion. Percutaneous fixation reduces some of the risks of open surgery, but can be technically demanding and carries the risk of radiation exposure. Recently, computer-assisted percutaneous scaphoid fixation (CAPSF) has been gaining interest. Materials and Methods Conventional percutaneous scaphoid fixation is performed under fluoroscopic guidance and involves insertion of a guide wire along the length of the scaphoid to facilitate placement of a cannulated screw. Adapting computer-assisted techniques for scaphoid fixation poses several unique challenges including patient tracking and registration. Results To date, five groups have successfully implemented systems for CAPSF. These systems have implemented wrist immobilization strategies to resolve the issue of patient tracking and have developed unique guidance techniques incorporating 2D fluoroscope, cone-beam CT, and ultrasound, to circumvent patient-based registration. Conclusions Computer-aided percutaneous pinning of scaphoid waist fractures can significantly reduce radiation exposure and has the potential to improve the accuracy of this procedure. This article reviews the rationale for, and the evolution of, CAPSF and describes the key principles of computer-assisted technology.

  19. A decision surface-based taxonomy of detection statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, François

    2012-09-01

    Current and past literature on the topic of detection statistics - in particular those used in hyperspectral target detection - can be intimidating for newcomers, especially given the huge number of detection tests described in the literature. Detection tests for hyperspectral measurements, such as those generated by dispersive or Fourier transform spectrometers used in remote sensing of atmospheric contaminants, are of paramount importance if any level of analysis automation is to be achieved. The detection statistics used in hyperspectral target detection are generally borrowed and adapted from other fields such as radar signal processing or acoustics. Consequently, although remarkable efforts have been made to clarify and categorize the vast number of available detection tests, understanding their differences, similarities, limits and other intricacies is still an exacting journey. Reasons for this state of affairs include heterogeneous nomenclature and mathematical notation, probably due to the multiple origins of hyperspectral target detection formalisms. Attempts at sorting out detection statistics using ambiguously defined properties may also cause more harm than good. Ultimately, a detection statistic is entirely characterized by its decision boundary. Thus, we propose to catalogue detection statistics according to the shape of their decision surfaces, which greatly simplifies this taxonomy exercise. We make a distinction between the topology resulting from the mathematical formulation of the statistic and mere parameters that adjust the boundary's precise shape, position and orientation. Using this simple approach, similarities between various common detection statistics are found, limit cases are reduced to simpler statistics, and a general understanding of the available detection tests and their properties becomes much easier to achieve.

  20. ICCE/ICCAI 2000 Full & Short Papers (Computer-Assisted Language Learning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains the following full and short papers on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction): (1) "A Computer-Assisted English Abstract Words Learning Environment on the Web" (Wenli Tsou and others); (2)…

  1. Design Principles for Computer-Assisted Instruction in Histology Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan; Cakir, Hasan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development process and the key components of a computer-assisted histology material. Computer-assisted histology material is designed to supplement traditional histology education in a large Midwestern university. Usability information of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) material was obtained…

  2. Health literacy and computer-assisted instruction: usability and patient preference.

    PubMed

    Duren-Winfield, Vanessa; Onsomu, Elijah O; Case, Douglas L; Pignone, Michael; Miller, David

    2015-04-01

    The authors investigated the feasibility of using computer-assisted instruction in patients of varying literacy levels by examining patients' preferences for learning and their ability to use 2 computer-based educational programs. A total of 263 participants 50-74 years of age with varying health literacy levels interacted with 1 of 2 educational computer programs as part of a randomized trial of a colorectal cancer screening decision aid. A baseline and postprogram evaluation survey were completed. More than half (56%) of the participants had limited health literacy. Regardless of literacy level, doctors were the most commonly used source of medical information-used frequently by 85% of limited and adequate literacy patients. In multivariate logistic regression, only those with health insurance (OR = 2.35, p = .06) and computer use experience (OR = 0.39, p = .03) predicted the ability to complete the programs without assistance compared with those without health insurance or prior computer use, respectively. Although patients with limited health literacy had less computer experience, the majority completed the programs without any assistance and stated that they learned more than they would have from a brochure. Future research should investigate ways that computer-assisted instruction can be incorporated in medical care to enhance patient understanding. PMID:25719814

  3. Computer-assisted everything? Tools and techniques for design and production

    SciTech Connect

    Alic, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    This article discusses applications of computer-assisted technologies in both product design/development and manufacturing. The intent is to explore the capabilities-and limits-of computer-automated engineering and manufacturing, and examine the impacts on international competitiveness. The conclusions in brief: (1) Computer-assisted everything, or CAX, will prove to be a receding goal for the foreseeable future. Many technical limitations, typically associated with computational complexity, must still be overcome; as one set of problems is solved, others will appear. No end is yet in sight. (2) Although the US had led for many years in the development of CAX technologies, American firms have not been able to use the resulting capabilities to establish substantial competitive advantages. There are two primary reasons. On the product side, computer-aided engineering remains mostly a matter of analysis (that is, solving complicated mathematical problems) rather than conceptualization and design, while it is design decisions that largely determine both product performance and manufacturing costs. Second, effective application of CAX in manufacturing requires effective integration of people and machines; US capabilities in computer applications do not extend to making the best use of people`s skills and abilities on the factory floor. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Health Literacy and Computer-Assisted Instruction: Usability and Patient Preference

    PubMed Central

    DUREN-WINFIELD, VANESSA; ONSOMU, ELIJAH O.; CASE, DOUGLAS L.; PIGNONE, MICHAEL; MILLER, DAVID

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated the feasibility of using computer-assisted instruction in patients of varying literacy levels by examining patients’ preferences for learning and their ability to use 2 computer-based educational programs. A total of 263 participants 50–74 years of age with varying health literacy levels interacted with 1 of 2 educational computer programs as part of a randomized trial of a colorectal cancer screening decision aid. A baseline and postprogram evaluation survey were completed. More than half (56%) of the participants had limited health literacy. Regardless of literacy level, doctors were the most commonly used source of medical information—used frequently by 85% of limited and adequate literacy patients. In multivariate logistic regression, only those with health insurance (OR = 2.35, p = .06) and computer use experience (OR = 0.39, p .03) predicted the ability to complete the programs without assistance compared with those without health insurance or prior computer use, respectively. Although patients with limited health literacy had less computer experience, the majority completed the programs without any assistance and stated that they learned more than they would have from a brochure. Future research should investigate ways that computer-assisted instruction can be incorporated in medical care to enhance patient understanding. PMID:25719814

  5. Computer-assisted volumetric resections of intracranial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Moure, Federico; Zamorano, Lucia J.

    1993-09-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies reconstructed in a stereotactic space can be used for accurate localization of intracranial lesions located in deep or eloquent regions in the brain, and for optimization of subsequent surgical removal. We describe our experience with 163 patients who underwent computer-assisted volumetric resection. The planning for the stereotactic volumetric neurosurgical methodology utilized the Zamarano-Dujovny localizing unit, the neurosurgical planning software (NSPS) system, which generates 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional views of the area of surgical interest, the arc setting parameters, and reconstructed CT images corresponding to the surgeon's eye-view perspective.

  6. Computer-Assisted Management of the Hospital Clinical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, Glen L.; Miller, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    Computer systems in hospital clinical laboratories historically have been used largely to manage medically-oriented patient data, particularly laboratory test requests and results. At The Johns Hopkins Hospital, effort has been devoted to the development of computer-assisted laboratory management applications in addition to routine medical data processing. This paper describes these development efforts in four areas: Workload Measurement and Reporting, Measurement of Personnel Productivity, Control of Expenses, and Laboratory Performance Measurement. Sample reports from each management subsystem are included, along with a discussion of the purpose and benefits of each application.

  7. CASS: A Program for Computer Assisted Stereotaxic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Tyrone L.; Koch, Jay

    1981-01-01

    A program for computer assisted stereotaxic surgery is presented. This program aids the stereotaxic surgeon by presenting an on-line graphic display of stereotaxic probes and electrodes superimposed on cross sections of the human thalamus. It, therefore, simulates an otherwise blind surgical procedure on a CRT screen for viewing during surgery. The programs are written in FORTRAN IV for use on a DEC MINC-11BA computer with dual RX02 floppy disks. Additional required hardware is a Tektronix 4012 graphics display terminal. In addition, response data can be recorded during surgery and redisplayed later on the same maps. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  8. The knee adduction moment during gait is associated with the adduction angle measured during computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Roda, Richard D; Wilson, Janie L Astephen; Wilson, David A J; Richardson, Glen; Dunbar, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Computer-assisted surgery can be used to measure 3-dimensional knee function during arthroplasty surgery; however, it is unknown if the movement of the knee measured during surgery is related to the in vitro, dynamic state of the knee joint, specifically the knee adduction moment during gait, which has been related to implant migration. The purpose of this study was to determine if the preoperative adduction moment is correlated with the knee abduction/adduction angle measured intraoperatively. A statistically significant correlation was found between the mean (r(2) = 0.59; P = .001) and peak (r(2) = 0.53; P = .003) preoperative knee adduction moment and the mean abduction/adduction angle measured intraoperatively. The association found in this study suggests the potential for incorporating functional information that relates to surgical outcome into surgical decision making using computer-assisted surgery.

  9. Effectiveness of computer-assisted perimetry in the diagnosis of pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Cannavó, S; De Natale, R; Princi, P; Li Calzi, L; Aragona, A; Trimarchi, F

    1989-12-01

    Computer-assisted perimetry (CP) is a new method which quantifies the differential light sensitivity threshold and allows the statistical analysis of the data. It offers advantages as compared with manual methods. This study has been carried out in 27 patients with pituitary adenomas (four males and 23 females; 13 with prolactinomas; six with acromegaly, four with Cushing's disease and four with non-secreting adenomas). A skull X-ray and a computed tomodensitometry (CT), a manual Goldman perimeter and a computer assisted visual field examination were performed in all cases. The presence of a pituitary tumour was suggested by the X-ray and by the CT in 12 and 23 patients respectively out of the 27: the CT scan revealed a suprasellar extension in seven cases. Visual field defects were detected by means of the Goldman perimeter in six patients and by means of the computer-assisted technique in 25/27. The effectiveness of this new technique was proved by the concordance with the CT scan results in 21 cases and by the histological examination of the four adenomas which were not apparent at CT scan. A significant difference was found for both eyes (right eye, chi squared = 258, P less than 0.001; left eye, chi squared = 295.0, P less than 0.001) between patients and controls. No correlation existed between visual defects and the pituitary size apparent at CT scan. Six patients were evaluated with the CT and CP after 1 year of bromocriptine treatment; a slight reduction of size was documented with the CT in four cases, whereas a significant positive change in visual acuity was observed in five patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Automated anatomical description of pleural thickening towards improvement of its computer-assisted diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Jiang, Mingze; Faltin, Peter; Merhof, Dorit; Eisenhawer, Christian; Gube, Monika; Kraus, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Pleural thickenings are caused by asbestos exposure and may evolve into malignant pleural mesothelioma. An early diagnosis plays a key role towards an early treatment and an increased survival rate. Today, pleural thickenings are detected by visual inspection of CT data, which is time-consuming and underlies the physician's subjective judgment. A computer-assisted diagnosis system to automatically assess pleural thickenings has been developed, which includes not only a quantitative assessment with respect to size and location, but also enhances this information with an anatomical description, i.e. lung side (left, right), part of pleura (pars costalis, mediastinalis, diaphragmatica, spinalis), as well as vertical (upper, middle, lower) and horizontal (ventral, dorsal) position. For this purpose, a 3D anatomical model of the lung surface has been manually constructed as a 3D atlas. Three registration sub-steps including rigid, affine, and nonrigid registration align the input patient lung to the 3D anatomical atlas model of the lung surface. Finally, each detected pleural thickening is assigned a set of labels describing its anatomical properties. Through this added information, an enhancement to the existing computer-assisted diagnosis system is presented in order to assure a higher precision and reproducible assessment of pleural thickenings, aiming at the diagnosis of the pleural mesothelioma in its early stage.

  11. Transmission Bearing Damage Detection Using Decision Fusion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.

    2004-01-01

    A diagnostic tool was developed for detecting fatigue damage to rolling element bearings in an OH-58 main rotor transmission. Two different monitoring technologies, oil debris analysis and vibration, were integrated using data fusion into a health monitoring system for detecting bearing surface fatigue pitting damage. This integrated system showed improved detection and decision-making capabilities as compared to using individual monitoring technologies. This diagnostic tool was evaluated by collecting vibration and oil debris data from tests performed in the NASA Glenn 500 hp Helicopter Transmission Test Stand. Data was collected during experiments performed in this test rig when two unanticipated bearing failures occurred. Results show that combining the vibration and oil debris measurement technologies improves the detection of pitting damage on spiral bevel gears duplex ball bearings and spiral bevel pinion triplex ball bearings in a main rotor transmission.

  12. Spiral Bevel Gear Damage Detection Using Decision Fusion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    2002-01-01

    A diagnostic tool for detecting damage to spiral bevel gears was developed. Two different monitoring technologies, oil debris analysis and vibration, were integrated using data fusion into a health monitoring system for detecting surface fatigue pitting damage on gears. This integrated system showed improved detection and decision-making capabilities as compared to using individual monitoring technologies. This diagnostic tool was evaluated by collecting vibration and oil debris data from fatigue tests performed in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rigs. Data was collected during experiments performed in this test rig when pitting damage occurred. Results show that combining the vibration and oil debris measurement technologies improves the detection of pitting damage on spiral bevel gears.

  13. Computer Assisted Learning in Geographical Education. Papers Presented at an International Conference on Computer Assisted Learning in Geographical Education (13th, London, England, April 10, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Norman J., Ed.

    Containing papers presented at a multinational conference, this document examines the development of computer assisted learning (CAL) in geography, and describes program and curriculum development, teacher education, and experiences and problems of countries using CAL. Specific papers include: "Computer Assisted Learning in Geographical Education…

  14. Stability Outcomes following Computer-Assisted ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Christino, Melissa A.; Vopat, Bryan G.; Matson, Andrew P.; Reinert, Steven E.; Shalvoy, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intraoperative prereconstruction stability measurements and/or patient characteristics were associated with final knee stability after computer-assisted ACL reconstruction. Methods. This was a retrospective review of all patients who underwent computer-assisted single-bundle ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon. Prereconstruction intraoperative stability measurements were correlated with patient characteristics and postreconstruction stability measurements. 143 patients were included (87 male and 56 female). Average age was 29.8 years (SD ± 11.8). Results. Females were found to have significantly more pre- and postreconstruction internal rotation than males (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, resp.). Patients with additional intra-articular injuries demonstrated more prereconstruction anterior instability than patients with isolated ACL tears (P < 0.001). After reconstruction, these patients also had higher residual anterior translation (P = 0.01). Among all patients with ACL reconstructions, the percent of correction of anterior translation was found to be significantly higher than the percent of correction for internal or external rotation (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Anterior translation was corrected the most using a single-bundle ACL reconstruction. Females had higher pre- and postoperative internal rotation. Patients with additional injuries had greater original anterior translation and less operative correction of anterior translation compared to patients with isolated ACL tears. PMID:25883804

  15. General purpose computer-assisted clustering and conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Grimmer, Justin; King, Gary

    2011-01-01

    We develop a computer-assisted method for the discovery of insightful conceptualizations, in the form of clusterings (i.e., partitions) of input objects. Each of the numerous fully automated methods of cluster analysis proposed in statistics, computer science, and biology optimize a different objective function. Almost all are well defined, but how to determine before the fact which one, if any, will partition a given set of objects in an “insightful” or “useful” way for a given user is unknown and difficult, if not logically impossible. We develop a metric space of partitions from all existing cluster analysis methods applied to a given dataset (along with millions of other solutions we add based on combinations of existing clusterings) and enable a user to explore and interact with it and quickly reveal or prompt useful or insightful conceptualizations. In addition, although it is uncommon to do so in unsupervised learning problems, we offer and implement evaluation designs that make our computer-assisted approach vulnerable to being proven suboptimal in specific data types. We demonstrate that our approach facilitates more efficient and insightful discovery of useful information than expert human coders or many existing fully automated methods. PMID:21292983

  16. Computer-assisted skull identification system using video superimposition.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Matsuda, H; Kubota, S; Imaizumi, K; Miyasaka, S; Seta, S

    1997-12-01

    This system consists of two main units, namely a video superimposition system and a computer-assisted skull identification system. The video superimposition system is comprised of the following five parts: a skull-positioning box having a monochrome CCD camera, a photo-stand having a color CCD camera, a video image mixing device, a TV monitor and a videotape recorder. The computer-assisted skull identification system is composed of a host computer including our original application software, a film recorder and a color printer. After the determination of the orientation and size of the skull to those of the facial photograph using the video superimposition system, the skull and facial photograph images are digitized and stored within the computer, and then both digitized images are superimposed on the monitor. For the assessment of anatomical consistency between the digitized skull and face, the distance between the landmarks and the thickness of soft tissue of the anthropometrical points are semi-automatically measured on the monitor. The wipe images facilitates the comparison of positional relationships between the digitized skull and face. The software includes the polynomial functions and Fourier harmonic analysis for evaluating the match of the outline such as the forehead and mandibular line in both the digitized images.

  17. Modeling the behavior of the computer-assisted instruction user

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    The field of computer-assisted instruction CAI contains abundant studies on effectiveness of particular programs or systems. However, the nature of the field is such that the computer is the focus of research, not the users. Few research studies have focused on the behavior of the individual CAI user. Morgan (1981) stated that descriptive studies are needed to clarify what the important phenomena of user behavior are. The need for such studies is particularly acute in computer-assisted instruction. Building a behavioral model would enable us to understand problem-solving strategies and rules applied by the user during a CAI experience. Also, courseware developers could use this information to design tutoring systems that are more responsive to individual differences than our present CAI is. This paper proposes a naturalistic model for evaluating both affective and cognitive characteristics of the CAI user. It begins with a discussion of features of user behavior, followed by a description of evaluation methodology that can lead to modeling user behavior. The paper concludes with a discussion of how implementation of this model can contribute to the fields of CAI and cognitive psychology.

  18. A string matching computer-assisted system for dolphin photoidentification.

    PubMed

    Araabi, B N; Kehtarnavaz, N; McKinney, T; Hillman, G; Würsig, B

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a syntactic/semantic string representation scheme as well as a string matching method as part of a computer-assisted system to identify dolphins from photographs of their dorsal fins. A low-level string representation is constructed from the curvature function of a dolphin's fin trailing edge, consisting of positive and negative curvature primitives. A high-level string representation is then built over the low-level string via merging appropriate groupings of primitives in order to have a less sensitive representation to curvature fluctuations or noise. A family of syntactic/semantic distance measures between two strings is introduced. A composite distance measure is then defined and used as a dissimilarity measure for database search, highlighting both the syntax (structure or sequence) and semantic (attribute or feature) differences. The syntax consists of an ordered sequence of significant protrusions and intrusions on the edge, while the semantics consist of seven attributes extracted from the edge and its curvature function. The matching results are reported for a database of 624 images corresponding to 164 individual dolphins. The identification results indicate that the developed string matching method performs better than the previous matching methods including dorsal ratio, curvature, and curve matching. The developed computer-assisted system can help marine mammalogists in their identification of dolphins, since it allows them to examine only a handful of candidate images instead of the currently used manual searching of the entire database. PMID:11144987

  19. Foreign accent conversion in computer assisted pronunciation training

    PubMed Central

    Felps, Daniel; Bortfeld, Heather; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Learners of a second language practice their pronunciation by listening to and imitating utterances from native speakers. Recent research has shown that choosing a well-matched native speaker to imitate can have a positive impact on pronunciation training. Here we propose a voice-transformation technique that can be used to generate the (arguably) ideal voice to imitate: the own voice of the learner with a native accent. Our work extends previous research, which suggests that providing learners with prosodically corrected versions of their utterances can be a suitable form of feedback in computer assisted pronunciation training. Our technique provides a conversion of both prosodic and segmental characteristics by means of a pitch-synchronous decomposition of speech into glottal excitation and spectral envelope. We apply the technique to a corpus containing parallel recordings of foreign-accented and native-accented utterances, and validate the resulting accent conversions through a series of perceptual experiments. Our results indicate that the technique can reduce foreign accentedness without significantly altering the voice quality properties of the foreign speaker. Finally, we propose a pedagogical strategy for integrating accent conversion as a form of behavioral shaping in computer assisted pronunciation training. PMID:21124807

  20. Evaluation of Decision Trees for Cloud Detection from AVHRR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiffman, Smadar; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    2005-01-01

    Automated cloud detection and tracking is an important step in assessing changes in radiation budgets associated with global climate change via remote sensing. Data products based on satellite imagery are available to the scientific community for studying trends in the Earth's atmosphere. The data products include pixel-based cloud masks that assign cloud-cover classifications to pixels. Many cloud-mask algorithms have the form of decision trees. The decision trees employ sequential tests that scientists designed based on empirical astrophysics studies and simulations. Limitations of existing cloud masks restrict our ability to accurately track changes in cloud patterns over time. In a previous study we compared automatically learned decision trees to cloud masks included in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data products from the year 2000. In this paper we report the replication of the study for five-year data, and for a gold standard based on surface observations performed by scientists at weather stations in the British Islands. For our sample data, the accuracy of automatically learned decision trees was greater than the accuracy of the cloud masks p < 0.001.

  1. Application of Computer-Assisted Dispute Resolution Methods to Water Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardwell, H. E.

    2006-12-01

    also touch on similar efforts in other federal agencies, non-governmental organizations and within the private sector and discuss current initiatives to develop an interagency center on computer assisted dispute resolution for water and environmental management problems.

  2. Decision Processes in Discrimination: Fundamental Misrepresentations of Signal Detection Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    In the first part of this article, I describe a new approach to studying decision making in discrimination tasks that does not depend on the technical assumptions of signal detection theory (e.g., normality of the encoding distributions). Applying these new distribution-free tests to data from three experiments, I show that base rate and payoff manipulations had substantial effects on the participants' encoding distributions but no effect on their decision rules, which were uniformly unbiased in equal and unequal base rate conditions and in symmetric and asymmetric payoff conditions. In the second part of the article, I show that this seemingly paradoxical result is readily explained by the sequential sampling models of discrimination. I then propose a new, "model-free" test for response bias that seems to more properly identify both the nature and direction of the biases induced by the classical bias manipulations.

  3. Cartographic Modeling: Computer-assisted Analysis of Spatially Defined Neighborhoods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, J. K.; Tomlin, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Cartographic models addressing a wide variety of applications are composed of fundamental map processing operations. These primitive operations are neither data base nor application-specific. By organizing the set of operations into a mathematical-like structure, the basis for a generalized cartographic modeling framework can be developed. Among the major classes of primitive operations are those associated with reclassifying map categories, overlaying maps, determining distance and connectivity, and characterizing cartographic neighborhoods. The conceptual framework of cartographic modeling is established and techniques for characterizing neighborhoods are used as a means of demonstrating some of the more sophisticated procedures of computer-assisted map analysis. A cartographic model for assessing effective roundwood supply is briefly described as an example of a computer analysis. Most of the techniques described have been implemented as part of the map analysis package developed at the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.

  4. Computer-assisted pathology encoding and reporting system (CAPER).

    PubMed

    Aller, R D; Robboy, S J; Poitras, J W; Altshuler, B S; Cameron, M; Prior, M C; Miao, S; Barnett, G O

    1977-12-01

    An on-line computer-assisted pathology encoding and reportying system (CAPER) has been developed by the Department of Pathology and Laboratory of Computer Science of the Massachusetts General Hospital for a department of surgical pathology that processes more than 25,000 specimens yearly. CAPER performs clerical functions, including the accessioning of specimens, monitoring their state of completion, production of log books, billing, statistics, and transfer of diagnoses to other hospital departments. It also permits instantaneous display of all diagnoses rendered within two years, printout within 24 hours of all older diagnoses for any patient, and retrieval of all specimens with any given diagnosis, further defined by any data item (e.g., age) stored in the computer file.

  5. Computer-Assisted Technique for Surgical Tooth Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Surgical tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry. However, numerous extraction cases show a high level of difficulty in practice. This difficulty is usually related to inadequate visualization, improper instrumentation, or other factors related to the targeted tooth (e.g., ankyloses or presence of bony undercut). Methods. In this work, the author presents a new technique for surgical tooth extraction based on 3D imaging, computer planning, and a new concept of computer-assisted manufacturing. Results. The outcome of this work is a surgical guide made by 3D printing of plastics and CNC of metals (hybrid outcome). In addition, the conventional surgical cutting tools (surgical burs) are modified with a number of stoppers adjusted to avoid any excessive drilling that could harm bone or other vital structures. Conclusion. The present outcome could provide a minimally invasive technique to overcome the routine complications facing dental surgeons in surgical extraction procedures. PMID:27127510

  6. Computer assistance in hazards analyses and emergency planning

    SciTech Connect

    Bare, J.C.

    1988-04-01

    This paper discusses computer assistance in hazards analysis and emergency planning. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986--Title III of the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA)--requires facilities handling any of the designated chemicals--Extremely Hazardous Substances (EHSs)--in quantities greater than the Threshold Planning Quantities (TPQs) to submit information to their State Emergency Response Commissions (SERCs). Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) engage these facilities in planning and request information from the facilities that is necessary for planning. A user-friendly Macintosh computerized system was developed that allows LEPCs to handle the large quantities of data and assists them in analyzing the potential hazard of each chemical by assessing the severity of the consequences of a pre-planned release. The paper concentrates on hazards analysis for emergency planning for accidental releases of EHSs.

  7. A qualitative model for computer-assisted instruction in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Julen, N; Siregar, P; Sinteff, J P; Le Beux, P

    1998-01-01

    CARDIOLAB is an interactive computational framework dedicated to teaching and computer-aided diagnosis in cardiology. The framework embodies models that simulate the heart's electrical activity. They constitute the core of a Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) program intended to teach, in a multimedia environment, the concepts underlying rhythmic disorders and cardiac diseases. The framework includes a qualitative model (QM) which is described in this paper. During simulation using QM, dynamic sequences representing impulse formation and conduction processes are produced along with the corresponding qualitative descriptions. The corresponding electrocardiogram (ECG) and ladder diagram are also produced, and thus, both qualitative notions and quantitative facts can be taught via the model. We discuss how qualitative models in particular, and computational models in general can enhance the teaching capability of CAI programs.

  8. Computer-Assisted Technique for Surgical Tooth Extraction.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Surgical tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry. However, numerous extraction cases show a high level of difficulty in practice. This difficulty is usually related to inadequate visualization, improper instrumentation, or other factors related to the targeted tooth (e.g., ankyloses or presence of bony undercut). Methods. In this work, the author presents a new technique for surgical tooth extraction based on 3D imaging, computer planning, and a new concept of computer-assisted manufacturing. Results. The outcome of this work is a surgical guide made by 3D printing of plastics and CNC of metals (hybrid outcome). In addition, the conventional surgical cutting tools (surgical burs) are modified with a number of stoppers adjusted to avoid any excessive drilling that could harm bone or other vital structures. Conclusion. The present outcome could provide a minimally invasive technique to overcome the routine complications facing dental surgeons in surgical extraction procedures. PMID:27127510

  9. Computer-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery: Current State and Future Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoyan; Nolte, Lutz P

    2015-01-01

    Introduced about two decades ago, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS) has emerged as a new and independent area, due to the importance of treatment of musculoskeletal diseases in orthopedics and traumatology, increasing availability of different imaging modalities, and advances in analytics and navigation tools. The aim of this paper is to present the basic elements of CAOS devices and to review state-of-the-art examples of different imaging modalities used to create the virtual representations, of different position tracking devices for navigation systems, of different surgical robots, of different methods for registration and referencing, and of CAOS modules that have been realized for different surgical procedures. Future perspectives will also be outlined. PMID:26779486

  10. Computer-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery: Current State and Future Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoyan; Nolte, Lutz P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduced about two decades ago, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS) has emerged as a new and independent area, due to the importance of treatment of musculoskeletal diseases in orthopedics and traumatology, increasing availability of different imaging modalities, and advances in analytics and navigation tools. The aim of this paper is to present the basic elements of CAOS devices and to review state-of-the-art examples of different imaging modalities used to create the virtual representations, of different position tracking devices for navigation systems, of different surgical robots, of different methods for registration and referencing, and of CAOS modules that have been realized for different surgical procedures. Future perspectives will also be outlined. PMID:26779486

  11. A qualitative model for computer-assisted instruction in cardiology.

    PubMed Central

    Julen, N.; Siregar, P.; Sinteff, J. P.; Le Beux, P.

    1998-01-01

    CARDIOLAB is an interactive computational framework dedicated to teaching and computer-aided diagnosis in cardiology. The framework embodies models that simulate the heart's electrical activity. They constitute the core of a Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) program intended to teach, in a multimedia environment, the concepts underlying rhythmic disorders and cardiac diseases. The framework includes a qualitative model (QM) which is described in this paper. During simulation using QM, dynamic sequences representing impulse formation and conduction processes are produced along with the corresponding qualitative descriptions. The corresponding electrocardiogram (ECG) and ladder diagram are also produced, and thus, both qualitative notions and quantitative facts can be taught via the model. We discuss how qualitative models in particular, and computational models in general can enhance the teaching capability of CAI programs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9929258

  12. [3D computer-assisted ENT biopsies of the Iceman].

    PubMed

    Thumfart, W F; Freysinger, W; Gunkel, A R; Truppe, M J; Platzer, W

    1997-02-01

    The University of Innsbruck possesses a unique prehistoric, completely conserved 5300-year-old human cadaver. We report our experiences during which ENT specialists collected samples from various cavities inside the Iceman. Guidance of biopsy instruments was accomplished with computer-assisted navigation based on Interventional Video Tomography. This technology allows surgical guidance by interlinking currently available imaging modalities with live endoscopic video. The system operates without patient fixation and is practically free of external contact. Apart from sterility, special precautionary measures were necessary to avoid contamination with heavy metals or microorganisms. Visual inspection of the samples of mucosa from the nose, maxillary sinus and larynx revealed the typical patterns of a human cadaver without overt pathology.

  13. Computer-assisted ground control management system. Information circular/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, D.P.; McDonnell, J.P.; Hanna, K.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) has developed a computer-assisted Ground Control Management System (GCMS) for near real-time evaluation of underground coal mine ground conditions. The GCMS combines existing mine monitoring system and sensor technology with automated computer analysis techniques to enhance the acquisition, analysis, and display of geostructural data. The GCMS, which combines mine structure data with other information, such as geologic conditions and mine layout, has provided information on mining-induced stress transfer and pressure buildup associated with several ground control events. Real-time collection, processing, and analysis of mine structure and shield pressure information has proven to be an effective method for assessing near-face ground conditions while mining progresses. The GCMS provides the mine operator with information to rapidly identify and manage potentially hazardous ground conditions while mining is in progress.

  14. Mechatronics Interface for Computer Assisted Prostate Surgery Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamirano del Monte, Felipe; Padilla Castañeda, Miguel A.; Arámbula Cosío, Fernando

    2006-09-01

    In this work is presented the development of a mechatronics device to simulate the interaction of the surgeon with the surgical instrument (resectoscope) used during a Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP). Our mechatronics interface is part of a computer assisted system for training in TURP, which is based on a 3D graphics model of the prostate which can be deformed and resected interactively by the user. The mechatronics interface, is the device that the urology residents will manipulate to simulate the movements performed during surgery. Our current prototype has five degrees of freedom, which are enough to have a realistic simulation of the surgery movements. Two of these degrees of freedom are linear, to determinate the linear displacement of the resecting loop and the other three are rotational to determinate three directions and amounts of rotation.

  15. Computer-assisted LAD bypass grafting at the open heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, Christine; Gnahm, Claudia; Friedl, Reinhard; Hoffmann, Martin; Dietmayer, Klaus

    2009-02-01

    Open heart bypass surgery is the standard treatment in advanced coronary heart diseases. For an effective revascularization procedure, optimal placement of the bypass is very important. To accelerate the intraoperative localization of the anastomosis site and to increase the precision of the procedure, a concept for computer assistance in open heart bypass surgery has been developed comprising the following steps: 1. Preprocedural planning: A patient-specific coronary map with information on vessel paths and wall plaque formations is extracted from a multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT). On this basis, the heart surgeon and the cardiac radiologist define the optimal anastomosis site prior to surgery. 2. Intraoperative navigation: During surgery, data are recorded at the beating heart using a stereo camera system. After registering the pre- and intraoperative data sets, preprocedural information can be transferred to the surgical site by overlaying the coronary map and the planned anastomosis site on the live video stream. With this visual guidance system, the surgeon can navigate to the planned anastomosis site. In this work, the proposed surgical assistance system has been validated for the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). The accuracy of the registration mechanism has been evaluated in retrospective on patient data sets and the effects of breathing motion were quantified. The promising results of the retrospective evaluation led to the in-vivo application of the computer assistance system during several bypass grafting procedures. Intraoperative navigation has been performed successfully and postoperative evaluation confirms that the bypass grafts were accurately positioned to the preoperatively planned anastomosis sites.

  16. The Application of Web-based Computer-assisted Instruction Courseware within Health Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiuyan, Guo

    Health assessment is a clinical nursing course and places emphasis on clinical skills. The application of computer-assisted instruction in the field of nursing teaching solved the problems in the traditional lecture class. This article stated teaching experience of web-based computer-assisted instruction, based upon a two-year study of computer-assisted instruction courseware use within the course health assessment. The computer-assisted instruction courseware could develop teaching structure, simulate clinical situations, create teaching situations and facilitate students study.

  17. A Decision Theoretic Approach to Evaluate Radiation Detection Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Nobles, Mallory A.; Sego, Landon H.; Cooley, Scott K.; Gosink, Luke J.; Anderson, Richard M.; Hays, Spencer E.; Tardiff, Mark F.

    2013-07-01

    There are a variety of sensor systems deployed at U.S. border crossings and ports of entry that scan for illicit nuclear material. In this work, we develop a framework for comparing the performance of detection algorithms that interpret the output of these scans and determine when secondary screening is needed. We optimize each algorithm to minimize its risk, or expected loss. We measure an algorithm’s risk by considering its performance over a sample, the probability distribution of threat sources, and the consequence of detection errors. While it is common to optimize algorithms by fixing one error rate and minimizing another, our framework allows one to simultaneously consider multiple types of detection errors. Our framework is flexible and easily adapted to many different assumptions regarding the probability of a vehicle containing illicit material, and the relative consequences of a false positive and false negative errors. Our methods can therefore inform decision makers of the algorithm family and parameter values which best reduce the threat from illicit nuclear material, given their understanding of the environment at any point in time. To illustrate the applicability of our methods, in this paper, we compare the risk from two families of detection algorithms and discuss the policy implications of our results.

  18. Computer-Assisted Diagnosis of the Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Estevez, Diego; Moret-Bonillo, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Automatic diagnosis of the Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (SAHS) has become an important area of research due to the growing interest in the field of sleep medicine and the costs associated with its manual diagnosis. The increment and heterogeneity of the different techniques, however, make it somewhat difficult to adequately follow the recent developments. A literature review within the area of computer-assisted diagnosis of SAHS has been performed comprising the last 15 years of research in the field. Screening approaches, methods for the detection and classification of respiratory events, comprehensive diagnostic systems, and an outline of current commercial approaches are reviewed. An overview of the different methods is presented together with validation analysis and critical discussion of the current state of the art. PMID:26266052

  19. Computer-Assisted Synthetic Planning: The End of the Beginning.

    PubMed

    Szymkuć, Sara; Gajewska, Ewa P; Klucznik, Tomasz; Molga, Karol; Dittwald, Piotr; Startek, Michał; Bajczyk, Michał; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2016-05-10

    Exactly half a century has passed since the launch of the first documented research project (1965 Dendral) on computer-assisted organic synthesis. Many more programs were created in the 1970s and 1980s but the enthusiasm of these pioneering days had largely dissipated by the 2000s, and the challenge of teaching the computer how to plan organic syntheses earned itself the reputation of a "mission impossible". This is quite curious given that, in the meantime, computers have "learned" many other skills that had been considered exclusive domains of human intellect and creativity-for example, machines can nowadays play chess better than human world champions and they can compose classical music pleasant to the human ear. Although there have been no similar feats in organic synthesis, this Review argues that to concede defeat would be premature. Indeed, bringing together the combination of modern computational power and algorithms from graph/network theory, chemical rules (with full stereo- and regiochemistry) coded in appropriate formats, and the elements of quantum mechanics, the machine can finally be "taught" how to plan syntheses of non-trivial organic molecules in a matter of seconds to minutes. The Review begins with an overview of some basic theoretical concepts essential for the big-data analysis of chemical syntheses. It progresses to the problem of optimizing pathways involving known reactions. It culminates with discussion of algorithms that allow for a completely de novo and fully automated design of syntheses leading to relatively complex targets, including those that have not been made before. Of course, there are still things to be improved, but computers are finally becoming relevant and helpful to the practice of organic-synthetic planning. Paraphrasing Churchill's famous words after the Allies' first major victory over the Axis forces in Africa, it is not the end, it is not even the beginning of the end, but it is the end of the beginning for the

  20. Computer-Assisted Synthetic Planning: The End of the Beginning.

    PubMed

    Szymkuć, Sara; Gajewska, Ewa P; Klucznik, Tomasz; Molga, Karol; Dittwald, Piotr; Startek, Michał; Bajczyk, Michał; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2016-05-10

    Exactly half a century has passed since the launch of the first documented research project (1965 Dendral) on computer-assisted organic synthesis. Many more programs were created in the 1970s and 1980s but the enthusiasm of these pioneering days had largely dissipated by the 2000s, and the challenge of teaching the computer how to plan organic syntheses earned itself the reputation of a "mission impossible". This is quite curious given that, in the meantime, computers have "learned" many other skills that had been considered exclusive domains of human intellect and creativity-for example, machines can nowadays play chess better than human world champions and they can compose classical music pleasant to the human ear. Although there have been no similar feats in organic synthesis, this Review argues that to concede defeat would be premature. Indeed, bringing together the combination of modern computational power and algorithms from graph/network theory, chemical rules (with full stereo- and regiochemistry) coded in appropriate formats, and the elements of quantum mechanics, the machine can finally be "taught" how to plan syntheses of non-trivial organic molecules in a matter of seconds to minutes. The Review begins with an overview of some basic theoretical concepts essential for the big-data analysis of chemical syntheses. It progresses to the problem of optimizing pathways involving known reactions. It culminates with discussion of algorithms that allow for a completely de novo and fully automated design of syntheses leading to relatively complex targets, including those that have not been made before. Of course, there are still things to be improved, but computers are finally becoming relevant and helpful to the practice of organic-synthetic planning. Paraphrasing Churchill's famous words after the Allies' first major victory over the Axis forces in Africa, it is not the end, it is not even the beginning of the end, but it is the end of the beginning for the

  1. Computer-assisted individual osteotomy design for mandibular reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian U.; Sader, Robert; Horch, Hans-Henning; Wunderlich, Arthur P.; Kirsten, Rainer; Gerhardt, H. C. P.

    1994-04-01

    The complex structure and functional capacity of the mandible places high demands on the design for mandibular reconstructions for graft or transplant purposes. When using the crista iliac as a basis for grafts to bridge large defects, the graft is empirically shaped by the operator according to this experience, whereby it is often necessary to dissect and reconstruct it numerous times. A 3-D computer tomogram of the lower jaw and ilium is carried out on patients undergoing a planned mandible reconstruction. The 3-D CT data are processed in a workstation using a medical image analysis system. The ala of the ilium is superimposed over the region of the lower jaw which is to be replaced. This enables a coincidence of the structure of the lower jaw and the structure of the ilium crest to be formed to within an accuracy of one voxel - despite the complex three dimensional structure and distortions in all three spatial planes. In accordance with the computer simulation, the applicably shaped ilium crest is placed on the individually calculated donor site and transplanted in the resected section of the lower jaw. An exact reconstruction of the lower jaw bone is made possible using computer assisted individual osteotomy design, resulting in complete restoration regarding shape and functionality.

  2. Computer-Assisted Transgenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans for Deep Phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Gilleland, Cody L; Falls, Adam T; Noraky, James; Heiman, Maxwell G; Yanik, Mehmet F

    2015-09-01

    A major goal in the study of human diseases is to assign functions to genes or genetic variants. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans provides a powerful tool because homologs of many human genes are identifiable, and large collections of genetic vectors and mutant strains are available. However, the delivery of such vector libraries into mutant strains remains a long-standing experimental bottleneck for phenotypic analysis. Here, we present a computer-assisted microinjection platform to streamline the production of transgenic C. elegans with multiple vectors for deep phenotyping. Briefly, animals are immobilized in a temperature-sensitive hydrogel using a standard multiwell platform. Microinjections are then performed under control of an automated microscope using precision robotics driven by customized computer vision algorithms. We demonstrate utility by phenotyping the morphology of 12 neuronal classes in six mutant backgrounds using combinations of neuron-type-specific fluorescent reporters. This technology can industrialize the assignment of in vivo gene function by enabling large-scale transgenic engineering.

  3. Is Computer-assisted Distance Learning Possible in Nematology?

    PubMed Central

    Francl, Leonard J.

    1998-01-01

    In many institutions of higher education, introductory nematology is taught to small numbers of students. Nematology and other low-enrollment courses may be placed under scrutiny, reformatted, or dropped from the curriculum to cut costs and improve faculty efficiency. Computer-assisted distance education (CADE) offers a way to increase faculty productivity and job satisfaction, student learning and socialization, and cost-effectiveness. Participating institutions gain by sharing resources with other schools and may retain or even increase enrollments through broadened educational opportunities. CADE ranges from complete course offerings and video interaction to supplemental materials on a personal computer for independent learning. A modular approach to course development is the most successfuI model because of the flexibility it offers. While an entire hematology course through CADE is not possible without substantial institutional and faculty investment, supplemental materials can help remotely located students gain an appreciation for hematology. Nematological images, text, computer programs, and other resources can easily be placed on Internet web pages. Nematologists in all sectors need to continue to reach out to the next generation of leaders to tell them what nematologists do and why nematodes are important. The Society of Nematologists can be a leader in the systematic development of CADE in nematology. PMID:19274217

  4. Computer-Assisted Transgenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans for Deep Phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Gilleland, Cody L; Falls, Adam T; Noraky, James; Heiman, Maxwell G; Yanik, Mehmet F

    2015-09-01

    A major goal in the study of human diseases is to assign functions to genes or genetic variants. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans provides a powerful tool because homologs of many human genes are identifiable, and large collections of genetic vectors and mutant strains are available. However, the delivery of such vector libraries into mutant strains remains a long-standing experimental bottleneck for phenotypic analysis. Here, we present a computer-assisted microinjection platform to streamline the production of transgenic C. elegans with multiple vectors for deep phenotyping. Briefly, animals are immobilized in a temperature-sensitive hydrogel using a standard multiwell platform. Microinjections are then performed under control of an automated microscope using precision robotics driven by customized computer vision algorithms. We demonstrate utility by phenotyping the morphology of 12 neuronal classes in six mutant backgrounds using combinations of neuron-type-specific fluorescent reporters. This technology can industrialize the assignment of in vivo gene function by enabling large-scale transgenic engineering. PMID:26163188

  5. Computer assisted audit techniques for UNIX (UNIX-CAATS)

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, W.T.

    1991-01-01

    Federal and DOE regulations impose specific requirements for internal controls of computer systems. These controls include adequate separation of duties and sufficient controls for access of system and data. The DOE Inspector General's Office has the responsibility to examine internal controls, as well as efficient use of computer system resources. As a result, DOE supported NIST development of computer assisted audit techniques to examine BSD UNIX computers (UNIX-CAATS). These systems were selected due to the increasing number of UNIX workstations in use within DOE. This paper describes the design and development of these techniques, as well as the results of testing at NIST and the first audit at a DOE site. UNIX-CAATS consists of tools which examine security of passwords, file systems, and network access. In addition, a tool was developed to examine efficiency of disk utilization. Test results at NIST indicated inadequate password management, as well as weak network resource controls. File system security was considered adequate. Audit results at a DOE site indicated weak password management and inefficient disk utilization. During the audit, we also found improvements to UNIX-CAATS were needed when applied to large systems. NIST plans to enhance the techniques developed for DOE/IG in future work. This future work would leverage currently available tools, along with needed enhancements. These enhancements would enable DOE/IG to audit large systems, such as supercomputers.

  6. Computer assisted audit techniques for UNIX (UNIX-CAATS)

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, W.T.

    1991-12-31

    Federal and DOE regulations impose specific requirements for internal controls of computer systems. These controls include adequate separation of duties and sufficient controls for access of system and data. The DOE Inspector General`s Office has the responsibility to examine internal controls, as well as efficient use of computer system resources. As a result, DOE supported NIST development of computer assisted audit techniques to examine BSD UNIX computers (UNIX-CAATS). These systems were selected due to the increasing number of UNIX workstations in use within DOE. This paper describes the design and development of these techniques, as well as the results of testing at NIST and the first audit at a DOE site. UNIX-CAATS consists of tools which examine security of passwords, file systems, and network access. In addition, a tool was developed to examine efficiency of disk utilization. Test results at NIST indicated inadequate password management, as well as weak network resource controls. File system security was considered adequate. Audit results at a DOE site indicated weak password management and inefficient disk utilization. During the audit, we also found improvements to UNIX-CAATS were needed when applied to large systems. NIST plans to enhance the techniques developed for DOE/IG in future work. This future work would leverage currently available tools, along with needed enhancements. These enhancements would enable DOE/IG to audit large systems, such as supercomputers.

  7. Computer assisted sperm morphometry in mammals: a review.

    PubMed

    Yániz, J L; Soler, C; Santolaria, P

    2015-05-01

    Computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASMA or ASMA) systems were developed to reduce the subjectivity of sperm morphology assessement. This review focuses on a complete description of the CASMA technique, including recent developments, factors of variation, results in the different species and possible applications. Techniques to study sperm morphometry include light microscopy, phase-contrast microscopy and, more recently, fluorescence microscopy. Most published studies on sperm morphometry have been centered on the whole sperm heads, although some of them also measured other parts of the sperm structure, such as the nucleus, acrosome, midpiece or flagellum. The independent study of sperm components may be more informative than the traditional assessment of the whole sperm head. Morphometric data provided by the CASMA system may be analyzed using classical statistics although, given the heterogeneity of spermatozoa in the ejaculates, the study of sperm subpopulations using clustering procedures may be more informative. Morphometric results may vary depending on factors intrinsic and extrinsic to the semen donor. Intrinsic factors may include, among others, genetic factors, age and sexual maturity. Extrinsic factors may include those related to the influence of environment on the donor, as well as those related with sample processing and the morphometric analysis itself. Once standardized, this technique may provide relevant information in studies focused on evolutionary biology, sperm formation, sperm quality assessment, including prediction of the potential fertility, semen cryopreservation, or the effect of reprotoxicants. PMID:25802026

  8. Computer assisted orthopaedic surgery. Image guided and robotic assistive technologies.

    PubMed

    DiGioia, A M; Jaramaz, B; Colgan, B D

    1998-09-01

    Technologies are emerging that will influence the way in which orthopaedic surgery is planned, simulated, and performed. Recent advances in the fields of medical imaging, computer vision, and robotics have provided the enabling technologies to permit computer aided surgery to become an established area which can address clinical needs. Although these technologies have been applied in industry for more than 20 years, the field of computer assisted orthopaedic surgery is still in its infancy. Image guided and surgical navigation systems, robotic assistive devices, and surgical simulators have begun to emerge from the laboratory and hold the potential to improve current surgical practice and patients' outcomes. The goals of these new clinically focused technologies are to develop interactive, patient specific preoperative planners to optimize the performance of surgery and the postoperative biologic response, and develop more precise and less invasive interactive smart tools and sensors to assist in the accurate and precise performance of surgery. The medical community is beginning to see the benefit of these enabling technologies which can be realized only through the collaboration and combined expertise of engineers, roboticists, computer scientists, and surgeons.

  9. Computer-assisted learning lessons in drug disposition and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Aarons, L; Foster, R W; Hollingsworth, M; Morgan, C H; Smith, A

    1988-09-01

    A suite of 18 computer-assisted learning (C.A.L.) lessons has been developed in drug disposition covering processes, concepts and techniques, and pharmacokinetics. Development of lesions and implementation (using CDC's PLATO Programmerless Courseware Development authoring language (Advanced Tutorial Model) for delivery on IBM-PC clones (some also using NPL's Microtext on BBC model B microcomputers) and evaluation by questionnaire proceeded in stages. Staff assessed the authoring system and library lessons for their potential usefulness. Students assessed the importance to their own learning of the features that good quality C.A.L. lessons should display. Finally, our lessons were assessed by students for the presence of these features, comparison with other forms of presentation, their teaching performance, and integration into the curriculum. The use of a programmerless authoring language allowed the authors to concentrate on lesson subject content. The students appreciated the ability to go at their own pace and that their active involvement was required. Lessons scored well in relation to private reading and lectures but less well in comparison with practical work and tutorials. Appropriate integration of C.A.L. into the curriculum was found to be important. Evaluation by questionnaire at each stage of development was valuable. PMID:3065577

  10. Individual differences in gains from computer-assisted remedial reading.

    PubMed

    Wise, B W; Ring, J; Olson, R K

    2000-11-01

    Two hundred second- to fifth-grade students (aged approximately 7 to 11 years) spent 29 h in a computer-assisted remedial reading program that compared benefits from accurate, speech-supported reading in context, with and without explicit phonological training. Children in the "accurate-reading-in-context" condition spent 22 individualized computer hours reading stories and 7 small-group hours learning comprehension strategies. Children in the "phonological-analysis" condition learned phonological strategies in 7 small-group hours, and divided their computer time between phonological exercises and story reading. Phonologically trained children gained more in phonological skills and untimed word reading; children with more contextual reading gained more in time-limited word reading. Lower level readers gained more, and benefited more from phonological training, than higher level readers. In follow-up testing, most children maintained or improved their levels, but not their rates, of training gains. Phonologically trained children scored higher on phonological decoding, but children in both conditions scored equivalently on word reading.

  11. Computer-assisted education system for arrhythmia (CAESAR).

    PubMed

    Fukushima, M; Inoue, M; Fukunami, M; Ishikawa, K; Inada, H; Abe, H

    1984-08-01

    A computer-assisted education system for arrhythmia (CAESAR) was developed for students to acquire the ability to logically diagnose complicated arrhythmias. This system has a logical simulator of cardiac rhythm using a mathematical model of the impulse formation and conduction system of the heart. A simulated arrhythmia (ECG pattern) is given on a graphic display unit with simulated series of the action potential of five pacemaker centers and the "ladder diagram" of impulse formation and conduction, which show the mechanism of that arrhythmia. For the purpose of the evaluation of this system, 13 medical students were given two types of tests concerning arrhythmias before and after 2-hr learning with this system. The scores they obtained after learning increased significantly from 73.3 +/- 11.9 to 93.2 +/- 3.0 (P less than 0.001) in one test and from 47.2 +/- 17.9 to 64.9 +/- 19.6 (P less than 0.001) in another one. These results proved that this CAI system is useful and effective for training ECG interpretation of arrhythmias.

  12. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Teaching on Remedying Misconceptions: The Case of the Subject "Probability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurbuz, Ramazan; Birgin, Osman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of computer-assisted teaching (CAT) on remedying misconceptions students often have regarding some probability concepts in mathematics. Toward this aim, computer-assisted teaching materials were developed and used in the process of teaching. Within the true-experimental research method, a pre- and…

  13. A Descriptive Analysis of Computer-Assisted Teaching and Learning in Molecular Biological Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Guangxing; Yin, Jiechao; Ren, Yudong; Wang, Binjie; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2006-01-01

    The role and importance of computer-assisted teaching and learning in molecular biological-related education and research has been emphasized and pinpointed. In this study, some benefit viewpoints and discussion are provided for applying the computer-assisted teaching and learning more efficiently in the process of knowledge acquisition and…

  14. A Study of the Effects of Learning Style on Computer-Assisted Discovery Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jon-Chao; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined relationships between learning style and computer-assisted discovery learning. Secondary students used computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to learn biology under three discovery learning circumstances. The main factor affecting the effectiveness of learning was students' initial acquisition of biology. Learning style and type…

  15. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) over Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Seda; Basol, Gülsah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to determine the overall effects of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) on academic achievement. After an extensive review of the literature, studies using Turkish samples and observing the effects of Computer-Assisted Education (CAE) on mathematics achievement were examined. As a result of this…

  16. Learner Control Commands for Computer-Assisted Instruction Systems. Technical Report 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Stephen Ronald

    Student control of computer-assisted instruction has a number of pragmatic advantages due to difficulties in providing a general program which is truly individualized. The attempt here has been to define and describe the commands which could be modified to provide learner control in any computer-assisted instruction course. Some of the commands…

  17. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Treble Clef Note Reading for Gifted, Primary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Patricia D.

    A program was developed using computer-assisted instruction to enable gifted primary-level students to learn the basic elements of note reading in the treble clef at individual speeds and without stress of competition. The target group was selected from students enrolled in beginning and advanced ukulele classes. The computer-assisted instruction…

  18. Public Computer Assisted Learning Facilities for Children with Visual Impairment: Universal Design for Inclusive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung

    2012-01-01

    Although computer assisted learning (CAL) is becoming increasingly popular, people with visual impairment face greater difficulty in accessing computer-assisted learning facilities. This is primarily because most of the current CAL facilities are not visually impaired friendly. People with visual impairment also do not normally have access to…

  19. A Computer-Assisted Instruction Program for Exercises on Finding Axioms. Technical Report Number 186.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Adele; Suppes, Patrick

    An interactive computer-assisted system for teaching elementary logic is described, which was designed to handle formalizations of first-order theories suitable for presentation in a computer-assisted instruction environment. The system provides tools with which the user can develop and then study a nonlogical axiomatic theory along whatever lines…

  20. Applications of NLP Techniques to Computer-Assisted Authoring of Test Items for Elementary Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chao-Lin; Lin, Jen-Hsiang; Wang, Yu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    The authors report an implemented environment for computer-assisted authoring of test items and provide a brief discussion about the applications of NLP techniques for computer assisted language learning. Test items can serve as a tool for language learners to examine their competence in the target language. The authors apply techniques for…

  1. Computer-assisted instruction for medicine and nursing: sources and programs.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, V; McCorkel, J

    1987-01-01

    A list of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) vendors and programs was compiled as a resource for medical librarians who are building a nonprint collection. It includes only computer-assisted instruction for clinical education in medicine and nursing. The very brief description of each program is followed by price, audience, and hardware requirements. PMID:3297219

  2. Promoting Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation among Chemistry Students Using Computer-Assisted Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Isiaka A.; Gbodi, Bimpe E.; Olakanmi, Eyitao U.; Abalaka, Eneojo N.

    2016-01-01

    The role of computer-assisted instruction in promoting intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among Nigerian secondary school chemistry students was investigated in this study. The study employed two modes of computer-assisted instruction (computer simulation instruction and computer tutorial instructional packages) and two levels of gender (male and…

  3. Perceptions of the Computer-Assisted Writing Program among EFL College Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Yuehchiu

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the perceptions of a computer-assisted writing program among EFL learners in a college composition class. A mixed method research design was employed combining both qualitative and qualitative techniques. Forty-five junior students in a Taiwanese college writing class were introduced to the computer-assisted writing…

  4. Computer-Assisted Assessment in Higher Education. Staff and Educational Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sally, Ed.; Race, Phil, Ed.; Bull, Joanna, Ed.

    This book profiles how computer-assisted assessment can help both staff and students by drawing on the experience and expertise of practitioners, in the United Kingdom and internationally, who are already using computer-assisted assessment. The publication is organized into three main sections--"Pragmatics and Practicalities of CAA,""Using CAA for…

  5. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Feedback Strategies in Technology Education: A Comparison of Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ruifang Hope; Strickland, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted feedback strategies that have been utilized by university students in a technology education curriculum. Specifically, the study examined the effectiveness of the computer-assisted feedback strategy "Knowledge of Response feedback" (KOR), and the "Knowledge of Correct Responses feedback"…

  6. Does Computer-Assisted Instruction Reduce Individual Differences? Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, August

    The interrelationship of computer assisted instruction and individual differences was investigated. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) Bloom's hypothesis of decreasing individual differences under a mastery-learning strategy, and (2) the random walk interpretation of simplicial correlation matrices. Stanford's Computer-Assisted Instruction Math…

  7. Quantitative error analysis for computer assisted navigation: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Güler, Ö.; Perwög, M.; Kral, F.; Schwarm, F.; Bárdosi, Z. R.; Göbel, G.; Freysinger, W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The benefit of computer-assisted navigation depends on the registration process, at which patient features are correlated to some preoperative imagery. The operator-induced uncertainty in localizing patient features – the User Localization Error (ULE) - is unknown and most likely dominating the application accuracy. This initial feasibility study aims at providing first data for ULE with a research navigation system. Methods Active optical navigation was done in CT-images of a plastic skull, an anatomic specimen (both with implanted fiducials) and a volunteer with anatomical landmarks exclusively. Each object was registered ten times with 3, 5, 7, and 9 registration points. Measurements were taken at 10 (anatomic specimen and volunteer) and 11 targets (plastic skull). The active NDI Polaris system was used under ideal working conditions (tracking accuracy 0.23 mm root mean square, RMS; probe tip calibration was 0.18 mm RMS. Variances of tracking along the principal directions were measured as 0.18 mm2, 0.32 mm2, and 0.42 mm2. ULE was calculated from predicted application accuracy with isotropic and anisotropic models and from experimental variances, respectively. Results The ULE was determined from the variances as 0.45 mm (plastic skull), 0.60 mm (anatomic specimen), and 4.96 mm (volunteer). The predicted application accuracy did not yield consistent values for the ULE. Conclusions Quantitative data of application accuracy could be tested against prediction models with iso- and anisotropic noise models and revealed some discrepancies. This could potentially be due to the facts that navigation and one prediction model wrongly assume isotropic noise (tracking is anisotropic), while the anisotropic noise prediction model assumes an anisotropic registration strategy (registration is isotropic in typical navigation systems). The ULE data are presumably the first quantitative values for the precision of localizing anatomical landmarks and implanted fiducials

  8. A Hybrid Segmentation Framework for Computer-Assisted Dental Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosntalab, Mohammad; Aghaeizadeh Zoroofi, Reza; Abbaspour Tehrani-Fard, Ali; Shirani, Gholamreza; Reza Asharif, Mohammad

    Teeth segmentation in computed tomography (CT) images is a major and challenging task for various computer assisted procedures. In this paper, we introduced a hybrid method for quantification of teeth in CT volumetric dataset inspired by our previous experiences and anatomical knowledge of teeth and jaws. In this regard, we propose a novel segmentation technique using an adaptive thresholding, morphological operations, panoramic re-sampling and variational level set algorithm. The proposed method consists of several steps as follows: first, we determine the operation region in CT slices. Second, the bony tissues are separated from other tissues by utilizing an adaptive thresholding technique based on the 3D pulses coupled neural networks (PCNN). Third, teeth tissue is classified from other bony tissues by employing panorex lines and anatomical knowledge of teeth in the jaws. In this case, the panorex lines are estimated using Otsu thresholding and mathematical morphology operators. Then, the proposed method is followed by calculating the orthogonal lines corresponding to panorex lines and panoramic re-sampling of the dataset. Separation of upper and lower jaws and initial segmentation of teeth are performed by employing the integral projections of the panoramic dataset. Based the above mentioned procedures an initial mask for each tooth is obtained. Finally, we utilize the initial mask of teeth and apply a variational level set to refine initial teeth boundaries to final contour. In the last step a surface rendering algorithm known as marching cubes (MC) is applied to volumetric visualization. The proposed algorithm was evaluated in the presence of 30 cases. Segmented images were compared with manually outlined contours. We compared the performance of segmentation method using ROC analysis of the thresholding, watershed and our previous works. The proposed method performed best. Also, our algorithm has the advantage of high speed compared to our previous works.

  9. Accuracy of computer-assisted implant placement with insertion templates

    PubMed Central

    Naziri, Eleni; Schramm, Alexander; Wilde, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of computer-assisted implant insertion based on computed tomography and template-guided implant placement. Material and methods: A total of 246 implants were placed with the aid of 3D-based transfer templates in 181 consecutive partially edentulous patients. Five groups were formed on the basis of different implant systems, surgical protocols and guide sleeves. After virtual implant planning with the CoDiagnostiX Software, surgical guides were fabricated in a dental laboratory. After implant insertion, the actual implant position was registered intraoperatively and transferred to a model cast. Deviations between the preoperative plan and postoperative implant position were measured in a follow-up computed tomography of the patient’s model casts and image fusion with the preoperative computed tomography. Results: The median deviation between preoperative plan and postoperative implant position was 1.0 mm at the implant shoulder and 1.4 mm at the implant apex. The median angular deviation was 3.6º. There were significantly smaller angular deviations (P=0.000) and significantly lower deviations at the apex (P=0.008) in implants placed for a single-tooth restoration than in those placed at a free-end dental arch. The location of the implant, whether in the upper or lower jaw, did not significantly affect deviations. Increasing implant length had a significant negative influence on deviations from the planned implant position. There was only one significant difference between two out of the five implant systems used. Conclusion: The data of this clinical study demonstrate the accuracy and predictable implant placement when using laboratory-fabricated surgical guides based on computed tomography. PMID:27274440

  10. Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA): capabilities and potential developments.

    PubMed

    Amann, Rupert P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems have evolved over approximately 40 years, through advances in devices to capture the image from a microscope, huge increases in computational power concurrent with amazing reduction in size of computers, new computer languages, and updated/expanded software algorithms. Remarkably, basic concepts for identifying sperm and their motion patterns are little changed. Older and slower systems remain in use. Most major spermatology laboratories and semen processing facilities have a CASA system, but the extent of reliance thereon ranges widely. This review describes capabilities and limitations of present CASA technology used with boar, bull, and stallion sperm, followed by possible future developments. Each marketed system is different. Modern CASA systems can automatically view multiple fields in a shallow specimen chamber to capture strobe-like images of 500 to >2000 sperm, at 50 or 60 frames per second, in clear or complex extenders, and in <2 minutes, store information for ≥ 30 frames and provide summary data for each spermatozoon and the population. A few systems evaluate sperm morphology concurrent with motion. CASA cannot accurately predict 'fertility' that will be obtained with a semen sample or subject. However, when carefully validated, current CASA systems provide information important for quality assurance of semen planned for marketing, and for the understanding of the diversity of sperm responses to changes in the microenvironment in research. The four take-home messages from this review are: (1) animal species, extender or medium, specimen chamber, intensity of illumination, imaging hardware and software, instrument settings, technician, etc., all affect accuracy and precision of output values; (2) semen production facilities probably do not need a substantially different CASA system whereas biology laboratories would benefit from systems capable of imaging and tracking sperm in deep chambers for a flexible

  11. Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA): capabilities and potential developments.

    PubMed

    Amann, Rupert P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems have evolved over approximately 40 years, through advances in devices to capture the image from a microscope, huge increases in computational power concurrent with amazing reduction in size of computers, new computer languages, and updated/expanded software algorithms. Remarkably, basic concepts for identifying sperm and their motion patterns are little changed. Older and slower systems remain in use. Most major spermatology laboratories and semen processing facilities have a CASA system, but the extent of reliance thereon ranges widely. This review describes capabilities and limitations of present CASA technology used with boar, bull, and stallion sperm, followed by possible future developments. Each marketed system is different. Modern CASA systems can automatically view multiple fields in a shallow specimen chamber to capture strobe-like images of 500 to >2000 sperm, at 50 or 60 frames per second, in clear or complex extenders, and in <2 minutes, store information for ≥ 30 frames and provide summary data for each spermatozoon and the population. A few systems evaluate sperm morphology concurrent with motion. CASA cannot accurately predict 'fertility' that will be obtained with a semen sample or subject. However, when carefully validated, current CASA systems provide information important for quality assurance of semen planned for marketing, and for the understanding of the diversity of sperm responses to changes in the microenvironment in research. The four take-home messages from this review are: (1) animal species, extender or medium, specimen chamber, intensity of illumination, imaging hardware and software, instrument settings, technician, etc., all affect accuracy and precision of output values; (2) semen production facilities probably do not need a substantially different CASA system whereas biology laboratories would benefit from systems capable of imaging and tracking sperm in deep chambers for a flexible

  12. Innovative approach in the development of computer assisted algorithm for spine pedicle screw placement.

    PubMed

    Solitro, Giovanni F; Amirouche, Farid

    2016-04-01

    Pedicle screws are typically used for fusion, percutaneous fixation, and means of gripping a spinal segment. The screws act as a rigid and stable anchor points to bridge and connect with a rod as part of a construct. The foundation of the fusion is directly related to the placement of these screws. Malposition of pedicle screws causes intraoperative complications such as pedicle fractures and dural lesions and is a contributing factor to fusion failure. Computer assisted spine surgery (CASS) and patient-specific drill templates were developed to reduce this failure rate, but the trajectory of the screws remains a decision driven by anatomical landmarks often not easily defined. Current data shows the need of a robust and reliable technique that prevents screw misplacement. Furthermore, there is a need to enhance screw insertion guides to overcome the distortion of anatomical landmarks, which is viewed as a limiting factor by current techniques. The objective of this study is to develop a method and mathematical lemmas that are fundamental to the development of computer algorithms for pedicle screw placement. Using the proposed methodology, we show how we can generate automated optimal safe screw insertion trajectories based on the identification of a set of intrinsic parameters. The results, obtained from the validation of the proposed method on two full thoracic segments, are similar to previous morphological studies. The simplicity of the method, being pedicle arch based, is applicable to vertebrae where landmarks are either not well defined, altered or distorted. PMID:26922675

  13. Simulation software specification for the Urban Combat Computer Assisted Training System (UCCATS)

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, L.A.; Toms, R. Berlin Brigade )

    1990-03-16

    The United States Army, Berlin and its Berlin Brigade have an urgent requirement for a training system that can provide a realistic, stress-filled, simulated combat training environment for an urban battlefield. The simulation system will support the training of division/brigade/battalion commanders and their staffs to exercise procedures and decision making which will be essential to win on a modern urban battlefield. The current manual simulation used by the Berlin Brigade requires an excessive amount of time for pre-exercise set up and training of players and controllers. The manual simulation requires a large training support staff consisting of 40 to 60 personnel per shift. In addition, the current simulation has numerous modeling deficiencies reducing the quality of the combat representation to the extent that realistic training is not feasible in many circumstances. The computer assisted simulation system UCCATS will provide a means to more efficiently support realistic training for combat in the urban environment. UCCATS will support the training of a division/brigade/battalion commander and his staff. It will exercise commanders and staff in the command and control of combined arms operations in an urban terrain environment.

  14. STANFORD PROGRAM IN COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION, PROGRESS REPORT 7, FOR THE PERIOD APRIL 1, 1967 TO JUNE 30, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ATKINSON, RICHARD C.; SUPPES, PATRICK

    THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE PROJECTS IN COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION CONDUCTED AT THE STANFORD LABORATORY FOR COMPUTER-ASSISTED LEARNING AND TEACHING AND AT THE STANFORD-BRENTWOOD COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI) LABORATORY. THE MAJOR ACTIVITIES, WHICH ARE REPORTED FOR THE PERIOD FROM APRIL 1 TO JUNE 30, 1967, ARE (1) READING AND MATHEMATICS AT…

  15. STANFORD PROGRAM IN COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION, PROGRESS REPORT 6, FOR THE PERIOD JANUARY 1, 1967 TO MARCH 31, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ATKINSON, RICHARD C.; SUPPES, PATRICK

    THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE PROJECTS IN COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION CONDUCTED AT THE STANFORD LABORATORY FOR COMPUTER-ASSISTED LEARNING AND TEACHING AND AT THE STANFORD-BRENTWOOD COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI) LABORATORY. THE MAJOR ACTIVITIES, WHICH ARE REPORTED FOR THE PERIOD FROM JANUARY 1 THROUGH MARCH 31, 1967, ARE RELATED TO (1) READING…

  16. Application of Computer-Assisted Learning Methods in the Teaching of Chemical Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayscough, P. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the application of computer-assisted learning methods to the interpretation of infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectra; and outlines extensions into the area of integrated spectroscopy. (Author/CMV)

  17. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Second-Language Learning: An Alberta Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    1977-01-01

    A computer-assisted instruction program in French is described. Preliminary analysis suggests the program was successful and has potential for use in a regular French course. Advantages to the student as a method of individualized instruction are noted. (CHK)

  18. Delivering Continuing Education to the Pharmacist: Correspondence Course versus Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, K. Richard; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study of the effectiveness of two teaching methods, correspondence study and computer-assisted instruction, for professional continuing education in pharmacokinetics found that both were effective methods. (AUTHOR/MSE)

  19. Computer-assisted instruction of arrhythmia for MS-windows.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, A; Nara, Y; Ikeda, N; Miyahara, H; Mitobe, H

    1995-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION. Training in the diagnosis of arrhythmias is an important part of the curriculum for medical students, postgraduates, and paramedical staff. Although several CAI for arrhythmia have been developed [1-3], we could not get CAI software for arrhythmia for the MS-Windows environment. In this report, we present a newly-developed computer-assisted reference system for arrhythmia that functions in the Windows environment. 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM. The system consists of a program and two data files. An MS-Windows program (ECG9405.EXE, 180kB) was compiled using Borland's C++ v.3.1. A binary file (ECPAT.BAS 33kB) includes data of normal and abnormal wave segments of ECG: P wave, PQ interval segment, and QRs complex with/without T wave. A mother file (ECG9405.sys, 57kB) includes 85 data sets to generate ECG waveforms of arrhythmia. Each data set contains a sequence of wave form numbers, the text for questions and answers, and the commands strings. There are five major commands: 1) to create a new window as "wave window"; 2) to make electrocardiogram data; 3) to plot the data on the window; 4) to create a "dialog box" for questions and explanations; and 5) to check the answers. he program gets a data set from the data according to the user's choice. The program then interprets the data set and executes the commands. The wave segment data are plotted in a "wave window" at every 10 milliseconds; this is controlled by the MS-Windows' timer. The timer interval can be changed by selecting the speed button. The ECG waveforms are displayed on a window just like an ordinary ECG monitor with beat sound. Many windows can be created by the user and many ECG waves simultaneously plotted on CRT. 3. USAGE OF THE SYSTEM. The "main window" has a menu that has three items corresponding to the training course: BASIC, TRY, and TEST. Thirty-five types of arrythmias are listed in the "list box" of the windows in BASIC course e.g., sinus arrhythmia, atrial flutter, atrial

  20. Validation of computer-assisted sperm-motility analysis in the amphibian Silurana tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Larroze, Severine; Pickford, Daniel B; Holt, William V

    2015-09-01

    We have developed and validated a computer-assisted sperm-motility assessment (CASA) method for use with the emerging amphibian model Silurana tropicalis. The testicular sperm-activation method was validated by analysing activation replicate coefficients of variation, effects of tracking time settings on velocity distributions and the relative partitioning of differentially motile sperm subpopulations between matched right and left testes. Two major sperm subpopulations were identified using multivariate pattern analysis and their relative frequencies were consistent between samples from matched right and left testes and from randomly drawn subsets of six frogs sampled from the total set of 16 frogs. The power of this approach for detecting treatment effects targeting the hypothalamic-pituitary--gonadal axis was investigated by injecting a group of frogs with 100IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) 2h before sampling and comparing their sperm-subpopulation frequencies with non-injected controls. While parametric analysis across sperm samples failed to detect treatment effects, subpopulation analysis showed that hCG significantly increased the proportion of progressive and non-sinuous spermatozoa compared with controls (Chi square=6.40, DF=1, P=0.011). This demonstrated the potential value of analysing objectively measured sperm behaviour as an endpoint.

  1. Computer-Assisted Instruction and the Teaching of Mathematics. Proceedings of a National Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction (The Pennsylvania State University, September 24-26, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimer, Ralph T., Ed.

    The preface to this book notes the relationship of its contents to the 1968 conference "to appraise mathematics educators of the present status and future prospects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and its implications for the teaching of mathematics." The introduction, "Computers in Mathematics and Other Education," was the keynote address…

  2. Decision making from economic and signal detection perspectives: development of an integrated framework

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Spencer K.; Wormwood, Jolie B.; Barrett, Lisa F.; Quigley, Karen S.

    2015-01-01

    Behavior is comprised of decisions made from moment to moment (i.e., to respond one way or another). Often, the decision maker cannot be certain of the value to be accrued from the decision (i.e., the outcome value). Decisions made under outcome value uncertainty form the basis of the economic framework of decision making. Behavior is also based on perception—perception of the external physical world and of the internal bodily milieu, which both provide cues that guide decision making. These perceptual signals are also often uncertain: another person's scowling facial expression may indicate threat or intense concentration, alternatives that require different responses from the perceiver. Decisions made under perceptual uncertainty form the basis of the signals framework of decision making. Traditional behavioral economic approaches to decision making focus on the uncertainty that comes from variability in possible outcome values, and typically ignore the influence of perceptual uncertainty. Conversely, traditional signal detection approaches to decision making focus on the uncertainty that arises from variability in perceptual signals and typically ignore the influence of outcome value uncertainty. Here, we compare and contrast the economic and signals frameworks that guide research in decision making, with the aim of promoting their integration. We show that an integrated framework can expand our ability to understand a wider variety of decision-making behaviors, in particular the complexly determined real-world decisions we all make every day. PMID:26217275

  3. Independent versus sequential reading in ROC studies of computer-assist modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiden, Sergey V.; Wagner, Robert F.; Doi, Kunio; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Xu, Xin-Wei

    2002-04-01

    This paper provides results of a statistical analysis of two methods for arranging the temporal sequencing of the unaided vs computer-assisted reading in multiple-reader, multiple- case (MRMC) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies of computer-aided detection of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) on chest radiographs. The modes are the Independent mode, in which the readings are separated by a time on the order of one month, and the Sequential mode, in which the CAD-assisted reading immediately follows the unassisted reading. The method of Beiden, Wagner, Campbell (BWC) was used to decompose the variance of the ROC area summary accuracy measure into the components that are correlated across unaided and aided reading conditions and the components that are uncorrelated across these reading conditions. The latter are the only components of variability that contribute to the uncertainty in a measurement of the difference in reader performance between reading conditions. These uncorrelated components were dramatically reduced in the Sequential reading mode compared to the Independent reading mode-while the total reader variability remained almost constant. The results were remarkably similar across two independent studies analyzed. This may have important practical consequences because the Sequential mode is the least demanding on reader logistics and time.

  4. [Construct validity of a new computer-assisted cognitive assessment battery in normal adults].

    PubMed

    Maeshima, S; Komai, N; Nakai, K; Oura, Y; Nakagawa, M; Itakura, T; Masuo, O; Yamaga, H; Okita, R; Ozaki, F; Moriwaki, H

    1999-01-01

    A computer-assisted battery for neuropsychological tests (CNT) has been designed to screen adults for cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to gather evidence for the construct validity of CNT and also investigate the relationship between CNT and conventional neuropsychological tests. Subjects were 45 healthy adults (21 men and 24 women), who ranged in age from 20 to 70 years (mean = 33.5, SD = 1.9) with no history of substance abuse, or of psychotic or neurological disorders. The CNT in our study consists of six subtests designed to assess various components of driving, such as digit span, visual scanning, visual and verbal memory, complex reaction time, and vigilance. Mini-mental state test, Kana-hiroi test, word fluency, the auditory-verbal learning test and Raven's colored progressive matrices were also performed as conventional neuropsychological tests. Results showed there were high correlations between each CNT subtests and conventional neuropsychological tests. A factor analysis (with varimax rotation) identified 4 factors with eigen values greater than 1, which accounted for over 70% of the variance. CNT was able to estimate each factor related to cognitive function such as learning and memory, attention, judgment, and visual scanning selectively. CNT may thus be a useful tool for detection of cognitive impairment, although this test has important limitations. Broader applications of these tests will require extensive population-based validation.

  5. Staff and student perceptions of computer-assisted assessment for physiology practical classes.

    PubMed

    Sheader, Elizabeth; Gouldsborough, Ingrid; Grady, Ruth

    2006-12-01

    Effective assessment of laboratory practicals is a challenge for large-size classes. To reduce the administrative burden of staff members without compromising the student learning experience, we utilized dedicated computer software for short-answer question assessment for nearly 300 students and compared it with the more traditional, paper-based method of assessment of the same student cohort. Students were generally favorably disposed toward computer-assisted assessment (CAA): 75% of the students responded that for future assignments, they either had no preference for the method of assessment or would prefer CAA. Advantages were perceived to be remote access to the questions and ease of submission. The most common disadvantage cited was lack of internet access. Various advantages of CAA were mentioned by staff members: notably, the reduction in marking time and reduction of paperwork as well as the potential for the software to detect plagiarism and to administer anonymous marking. Disadvantages to CAA were the need to tailor questions to the technology, having to adapt to reading answers and marking onscreen, and the quality of feedback to students. All of the disadvantages could be overcome by training and improved versions of CAA software, currently under development. The use of CAA has proved to be a welcome addition to the tools available to staff members for the assessment of practical classes, and future improved versions of the software will increase the utility of this assessment method. PMID:17108245

  6. Short-term evaluation of plaque area measurement reproducibility from computer-assisted sonography.

    PubMed

    Massonneau, M; Caillard, P; de Chassey, L; Mouren, X; Thébault, B; Cloarec, M

    1995-05-01

    One reason why quantifying plaque regression is difficult is the poor spatial control of the shooting angle whether in angiography or ultrasonography techniques. A computer-assisted technique has been developed to assess absolute carotid plaque dimensions from B-mode ultrasonography, with enhanced capability of comparative examinations at large time intervals. Plaque area is measured from arterial lumen to adventitia with a real-time tissular detection program. Further measurements on the same patient are made using an echo-specific mask automatically generated by the computer from the original section. For an average sonographer, the manipulation takes no more than ten minutes for each view. In order to determine the reproducibility of this technique, a repeated measurement study (T0, T1, T2) was carried out on 8 patients with moderate to severe atherosclerotic lesions at carotid localizations. The plaque areas ranged from 52.7 to 202.3 mm2 (120.7 +/- 61). The coefficients of correlation between the measurements (T0-T1, T0-T2) were respectively 0.93 and 0.96 (P < 0.0001). The mean coefficient of variation (+/- SD) was 9.8% +/- 4.8. This study shows the feasibility of an accurate follow-up for atherosclerotic patients, with a two-dimensional plaque quantification, closer to the reality of the evolution of the pathology than the usual scoring system.

  7. Computer-assisted neurosurgical navigational system for transsphenoidal surgery--technical note.

    PubMed

    Onizuka, M; Tokunaga, Y; Shibayama, A; Miyazaki, H

    2001-11-01

    Transsphenoidal surgery carries the risk of carotid artery injury even for very experienced neurosurgeons. The computer-assisted neurosurgical (CANS) navigational system was used to obtain more precise guidance, based on the axial and coronal images during the transsphenoidal approach for nine pituitary adenomas. The CANS navigator consists of a three-dimensional digitizer, a computer, and a graphic unit, which utilizes electromagnetic coupling technology to detect the spatial position of a suction tube attached to a magnetic sensor. Preoperatively, the magnetic resonance images are transferred and stored in the computer and the tip of the suction tube is shown on a real-time basis superimposed on the preoperative images. The CANS navigation system correctly displayed the surgical orientation and provided localization in all nine patients. No intraoperative complications were associated with the use of this system. However, outflow of cerebrospinal fluid during tumor removal may affect the accuracy, so the position of the probe when the tumor is removed must be accurately determined. The CANS navigator enables precise localization of the suction tube during the transsphenoidal approach and allows safer and less-invasive surgery.

  8. Mechanization of library procedures in a medium-sized medical library: XVI. Computer-assisted cataloging, the first decade.

    PubMed Central

    Bolef, D

    1975-01-01

    After ten years of experimentation in computer-assisted cataloging, the Washington University School of Medicine Library has decided to join the Ohio College Library Center network. The history of the library's work preceding this decision is reviewed. The data processing equipment and computers that have permitted librarians to explore different ways of presenting cataloging information are discussed. Certain cataloging processes are facilitated by computer manipulation and printouts, but the intellectual cataloging processes such as descriptive and subject cataloging are not. Networks and shared bibliographic data bases show promise of eliminating the intellectual cataloging for one book by more than one cataloger. It is in this area that future developments can be expected. PMID:1148442

  9. Two-Stage Dynamic Signal Detection: A Theory of Choice, Decision Time, and Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleskac, Timothy J.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    2010-01-01

    The 3 most often-used performance measures in the cognitive and decision sciences are choice, response or decision time, and confidence. We develop a random walk/diffusion theory--2-stage dynamic signal detection (2DSD) theory--that accounts for all 3 measures using a common underlying process. The model uses a drift diffusion process to account…

  10. Surgical reconstruction of maxillary defects using a computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing-produced titanium mesh supporting a free flap.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Achille; Battaglia, Salvatore; Ciocca, Leonardo; Scotti, Roberto; Cipriani, Riccardo; Marchetti, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    The maxilla provides support to the overlying structures and contributes significantly to the overall facial appearance and to critical functions such as mastication, speech, and deglutition. Many different techniques have been used over the years to achieve this reconstructive goal. Modern computer-assisted surgery affords new methods for planning resections, as well as optimising reconstructive outcomes and functional rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to describe our experience with, and technique for, the functional, structural, and aesthetic reconstruction of maxillary bone defects using a computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM)-printed titanium mesh to provide structural support for free flap reconstruction. Four patients who underwent reconstruction with a CAD/CAM-printed titanium mesh were included in this study. The preoperative computed tomography (CT) data set used for virtual planning was superimposed onto the postoperative CT scan to calculate the difference between the virtually planned position and the postoperative position of the titanium mesh. The orbital floor and alveolus were the most frequent sites of deviation, and good reproducibility could be obtained with less than 1 mm of deviation between planning and results in most regions. Printed titanium meshes obtained with CAD/CAM technology and used to structurally support free flaps provide a valuable method for the achievement of good aesthetic, structural, and functional outcomes in maxillary reconstruction. Reconstructive accuracy using this technique is reasonably high. Further studies with a larger number of patients would be useful to confirm these results. PMID:27519658

  11. Narrow-band imaging for the computer assisted diagnosis in patients with Barrett's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kage, Andreas; Raithel, Martin; Zopf, Steffen; Wittenberg, Thomas; Münzenmayer, Christian

    2009-02-01

    Cancer of the esophagus has the worst prediction of all known cancers in Germany. The early detection of suspicious changes in the esophagus allows therapies that can prevent the cancer. Barrett's esophagus is a premalignant change of the esophagus that is a strong indication for cancer. Therefore there is a big interest to detect Barrett's esophagus as early as possible. The standard examination is done with a videoscope where the physician checks the esophagus for suspicious regions. Once a suspicious region is found, the physician takes a biopsy of that region to get a histological result of it. Besides the traditional white light for the illumination there is a new technology: the so called narrow-band Imaging (NBI). This technology uses a smaller spectrum of the visible light to highlight the scene captured by the videoscope. Medical studies indicate that the use of NBI instead of white light can increase the rate of correct diagnoses of a physician. In the future, Computer-Assisted Diagnosis (CAD) which is well known in the area of mammography might be used to support the physician in the diagnosis of different lesions in the esophagus. A knowledge-based system which uses a database is a possible solution for this task. For our work we have collected NBI images containing 326 Regions of Interest (ROI) of three typical classes: epithelium, cardia mucosa and Barrett's esophagus. We then used standard texture analysis features like those proposed by Haralick, Chen, Gabor and Unser to extract features from every ROI. The performance of the classification was evaluated with a classifier using the leaving-one-out sampling. The best result that was achieved is an accuracy of 92% for all classes and an accuracy of 76% for Barrett's esophagus. These results show that the NBI technology can provide a good diagnosis support when used in a CAD system.

  12. Implementation of Audio Computer-Assisted Interviewing Software in HIV/AIDS Research

    PubMed Central

    Pluhar, Erika; Yeager, Katherine A.; Corkran, Carol; McCarty, Frances; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Denzmore-Nwagbara, Pamela; Fielder, Bridget; DiIorio, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    Computer assisted interviewing (CAI) has begun to play a more prominent role in HIV/AIDS prevention research. Despite the increased popularity of CAI, particularly audio computer assisted self-interviewing (ACASI), some research teams are still reluctant to implement ACASI technology due to lack of familiarity with the practical issues related to using these software packages. The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of one particular ACASI software package, the Questionnaire Development System™ (QDS™), in several nursing and HIV/AIDS prevention research settings. We present acceptability and satisfaction data from two large-scale public health studies in which we have used QDS with diverse populations. We also address issues related to developing and programming a questionnaire, discuss practical strategies related to planning for and implementing ACASI in the field, including selecting equipment, training staff, and collecting and transferring data, and summarize advantages and disadvantages of computer assisted research methods. PMID:17662924

  13. [Computer assisted long-term ECG analysis: method and clinical importance (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Weber, H; Joskowicz, G; Glogar, D; Steinbach, K

    1982-01-01

    The basic principle of computer assisted analysis of Holter recordings is to store the whole ECG after data reduction and AD conversion in digitized form on random access medium like magnetic disks. In "Multipass Scanning" the linear segmentation techniques leads to highly reproducible ECG-data, which were analysed during multiple passes under continuous operator control. The field of clinical applications of such a highly sophisticated method reaches from supraventricular over ventricular to symptomatic arrhythmias. In combination with ECG-telefon-telemetry computer assisted LT-ECG analysis could be used in more than 75% of the patients successfully. The clinical expectations during routine could be fulfilled in more than 75%. Commonly a detailed numerical or graphical description of clinical relevant arrhythmias were necessary in the demand of the routine. So computer assisted LT-ECG analysis is not only a tool for research, but also valuable in the clinical routine.

  14. Visualization of the Newly Designed Jig and Fixture for Computer-Assisted Knee Replacement Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Intan Syaherra; Arshad, Haslina; Sulong, Abu Bakar; Mohd. Yahaya, Nor Hamdan; Che Haron, Che Hassan

    Surgical training systems based on virtual reality (VR) are highly desired as they offer a cost effective and efficient alternative compared to traditional training methods. Traditional surgical training methods require cadavers or plastic models which are costly. Cadavers cannot be used repeatedly and training with plastic models cannot provide the realistic experience. This paper describes a visualization to show the use of newly design jig and fixture for computer-assisted knee replacement surgery. Orthopedic surgeons found it difficult to align the existing jig with the computer-assisted device during the operation and it is time consuming to place it at the right position. A newly design jig and fixture has been proposed to solve this problem. Visualization is needed to show the surgeons on how it will be used in the computer-assisted knee replacement surgery. Virtual models used in this visualization are constructed from the actual equipment and real human dataset.

  15. Computer assisted laboratory diagnosis: a ten-year experience.

    PubMed

    Zatti, M; Guidi, G; Marcolini, F

    1988-10-01

    An automated procedure to help general practitioners in clinical diagnosis and decision making is presented. The computer-based program is conceived to process results from laboratory tests performed on outpatients, providing general practitioners with possible causes of abnormal results. When only one or two abnormal tests are observed, a series of suggestions pertinent to each abnormality is printed. When there are more abnormal test results, the program performs a more complex procedure ending with the output of some diagnostic hypotheses. Messages are also printed to focus the physician's attention to particular aspects of patient pathology that were sometimes missed or disregarded and to suggest new investigations the laboratory can perform to improve diagnostic efficiency. Moreover some advice is supplied to allow a better evaluation of particular risk conditions, as those associated with the development of coronary heart disease. The program has been recently extended with the calculation of intraindividual reference intervals. The system described has been working since 1976 and appears particularly useful when the general practitioner is faced with a number of pathological results of difficult interpretation.

  16. Spiral-Bevel-Gear Damage Detected Using Decision Fusion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Helicopter transmission integrity is critical to helicopter safety because helicopters depend on the power train for propulsion, lift, and flight maneuvering. To detect impending transmission failures, the ideal diagnostic tools used in the health-monitoring system would provide real-time health monitoring of the transmission, demonstrate a high level of reliable detection to minimize false alarms, and provide end users with clear information on the health of the system without requiring them to interpret large amounts of sensor data. A diagnostic tool for detecting damage to spiral bevel gears was developed. (Spiral bevel gears are used in helicopter transmissions to transfer power between nonparallel intersecting shafts.) Data fusion was used to integrate two different monitoring technologies, oil debris analysis and vibration, into a health-monitoring system for detecting surface fatigue pitting damage on the gears.

  17. Novel computer-assisted method for revision arthroplasty of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Hoffart, Hanns-Edgar; Dinges, Harald; Kolbeck, Stefan; Ritschl, Peter; Hommel, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To introduce the navigation system of software and instruments designed specifically for revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: We present an imageless navigation system for revision TKA, with optical point and tracker identification to assess kinematic and anatomical landmarks. The system automatically positions the cutting guides with a motorized cutting unit. The cutting unit is placed on the distal femur with a femoral clamp and acts as a rigid body and the base for all femoral cuts. The surgical technique for using the navigation system for revision TKA is based on the technique used in primary TKA. However, there are some important differences. The most notable are: (1) differences in estimation of the position of the primary implant relative to the bone and the mechanical axes; (2) the specific possibilities the revision navigation software offers in terms of optimal joint level positioning; and (3) the suggested “best fit” position, in which the clock position, stem position and offset, femoral component size, and mediolateral position of the femoral component are taken into account to find the optimal femoral component position. We assessed the surgical technique, and accompanying software procedural steps, of the system, identifying any advantages or disadvantages that they present. RESULTS: The system aims to visualize critical steps of the procedure and is intended as a tool to support the surgeon in surgical decision-making. Combining a computer-assisted cutting device with navigation makes it possible to carry out precise cuts without pinning. Furthermore, the femoral clamp provides a stable fixation mechanism for the motorized cutting unit. A stable clamp is paramount in the presence of periarticular bony defects. The system allows the position of the primary implant relative to the bone and mechanical axes to be estimated, at which point any malalignments can be corrected. It also offers an optimal joint level position for

  18. [Computer-assisted navigation in orthognathic surgery. Application to Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Benassarou, M; Benassarou, A; Meyer, C

    2013-08-01

    Computer-assisted navigation is a tool that allows the surgeon to reach intraoperatively a previously defined target. This technique can be applied to the positioning of bone fragments in orthognathic surgery. It is not used routinely yet because there are no specifically dedicated systems available on the market for this kind of surgery. The goal of our study was to describe the various systems that could be used in orthognathic surgery and to report our experience of computer-assisted surgery in the positioning of the maxilla during maxillomandibular osteotomies. PMID:23928252

  19. Flood damage assessment using computer-assisted analysis of color infrared photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.

    1978-01-01

    Use of digitized aerial photographs for flood damage assessment in agriculture is new and largely untested. However, under flooding circumstances similar to the 1975 Red River Valley flood, computer-assisted techniques can be extremely useful, especially if detailed crop damage estimates are needed within a relatively short period of time. Airphoto interpretation techniques, manual or computer-assisted, are not intended to replace conventional ground survey and sampling procedures. But their use should be considered a valuable addition to the tools currently available for assessing agricultural flood damage.

  20. Practical use of computer-assisted EEG interpretation in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gotman, J

    1985-07-01

    Computer methods can automatically recognize interictal spikes and seizures quite reliably, but they still make a large number of false detections because of physiological or artifactual nonepileptiform transients. In the context of long-term monitoring, these methods can be used efficiently and safely despite their imperfection. They allow considerable data reduction, by selecting epileptiform activity and discarding the largest part of the recording. In addition to data reduction, computer methods can be useful in refining the analysis of epileptic seizures, revealing information not available from visual inspection of the paper tracing. Recent technological advances make these applications affordable in a clinical EEG laboratory.

  1. Decision Analysis Using Spreadsheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sounderpandian, Jayavel

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of decision analysis and its importance in a business curriculum focuses on the use of spreadsheets instead of commercial software packages for computer assisted instruction. A hypothetical example is given of a company drilling for oil, and suggestions are provided for classroom exercises using spreadsheets. (seven references) (LRW)

  2. A comparative study of 2 computer-assisted methods of quantifying brightfield microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Tse, George H; Marson, Lorna P

    2013-10-01

    Immunohistochemistry continues to be a powerful tool for the detection of antigens. There are several commercially available software packages that allow image analysis; however, these can be complex, require relatively high level of computer skills, and can be expensive. We compared 2 commonly available software packages, Adobe Photoshop CS6 and ImageJ, in their ability to quantify percentage positive area after picrosirius red (PSR) staining and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining. On analysis of DAB-stained B cells in the mouse spleen, with a biotinylated primary rat anti-mouse-B220 antibody, there was no significant difference on converting images from brightfield microscopy to binary images to measure black and white pixels using ImageJ compared with measuring a range of brown pixels with Photoshop (Student t test, P=0.243, correlation r=0.985). When analyzing mouse kidney allografts stained with PSR, Photoshop achieved a greater interquartile range while maintaining a lower 10th percentile value compared with analysis with ImageJ. A lower 10% percentile reflects that Photoshop analysis is better at analyzing tissues with low levels of positive pixels; particularly relevant for control tissues or negative controls, whereas after ImageJ analysis the same images would result in spuriously high levels of positivity. Furthermore comparing the 2 methods by Bland-Altman plot revealed that these 2 methodologies did not agree when measuring images with a higher percentage of positive staining and correlation was poor (r=0.804). We conclude that for computer-assisted analysis of images of DAB-stained tissue there is no difference between using Photoshop or ImageJ. However, for analysis of color images where differentiation into a binary pattern is not easy, such as with PSR, Photoshop is superior at identifying higher levels of positivity while maintaining differentiation of low levels of positive staining.

  3. Computer-assisted diagnosis in CT angiography of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebich, Martin; Tomiak, Myrosia M.; Engelmann, Roger M.; McGill, James; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop methods for automatic 3D-segmentation and automatic quantification of vascular structures in CT angiographic studies, e.g., abdominal aortic aneurysms. Methods for segmentation were developed based on thresholding, maximum gradient, and second derivative techniques. All parameters for the segmentation are generated automatically, i.e. no user interaction is necessary for this process. Median filtering of all images is initially performed to reduce the image noise. The algorithm then automatically identifies the starting point inside the aorta for the volume growing. The segmentation of the vascular tree is achieved in two steps. First, only the aorta and small parts of branch vessels are segmented by using strong restrictions in the parameters for threshold and gradient. A description of the aorta is generated by fitting the detected outer border of the aorta with an ellipse. This description includes centerline, direction, contour, eccentricity, and area. In the second step, segmentation parameters are changed automatically for segmentation of branch vessels. A shaded surface display of the segmented structures is then generated. The segmentation of the aorta appears accurate, is fast, and the 3D display can be manipulated in real time. The quantitative description of the aorta is reliable giving reproducible information. Total CPU time for the segmentation and description is less than five minutes on a standard workstation. Time-consuming manual segmentation and parameterization of vascular structures are obviated, with 3D visualization and quantitative results available in minutes instead of hours. This technique for segmentation and description of the aorta and renal arteries shows the feasibility of computer assisted diagnosis in CT angiographic studies without user interaction. Besides the description, a rapid 3D view of the vessels is generated, often needed by the physician and normally only achievable by time

  4. A new computer-assisted technique to aid personal identification.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Sala, Remo; Cantatore, Angela; Grandi, Marco; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2009-07-01

    The paper describes a procedure aimed at identification from two-dimensional (2D) images (video-surveillance tapes, for example) by comparison with a three-dimensional (3D) facial model of a suspect. The application is intended to provide a tool which can help in analyzing compatibility or incompatibility between a criminal and a suspect's facial traits. The authors apply the concept of "geometrically compatible images". The idea is to use a scanner to reconstruct a 3D facial model of a suspect and to compare it to a frame extracted from the video-surveillance sequence which shows the face of the perpetrator. Repositioning and reorientation of the 3D model according to subject's face framed in the crime scene photo are manually accomplished, after automatic resizing. Repositioning and reorientation are performed in correspondence of anthropometric landmarks, distinctive for that person and detected both on the 2D face and on the 3D model. In this way, the superimposition between the original two-dimensional facial image and the three-dimensional one is obtained and a judgment is formulated by an expert on the basis of the fit between the anatomical facial districts of the two subjects. The procedure reduces the influence of face orientation and may be a useful tool in identification.

  5. Relative Saliency in Change Signals Affects Perceptual Comparison and Decision Processes in Change Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2011-01-01

    Change detection requires perceptual comparison and decision processes on different features of multiattribute objects. How relative salience between two feature-changes influences the processes has not been addressed. This study used the systems factorial technology to investigate the processes when detecting changes in a Gabor patch with visual…

  6. Tapered Roller Bearing Damage Detection Using Decision Fusion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Kreider, Gary; Fichter, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A diagnostic tool was developed for detecting fatigue damage of tapered roller bearings. Tapered roller bearings are used in helicopter transmissions and have potential for use in high bypass advanced gas turbine aircraft engines. A diagnostic tool was developed and evaluated experimentally by collecting oil debris data from failure progression tests conducted using health monitoring hardware. Failure progression tests were performed with tapered roller bearings under simulated engine load conditions. Tests were performed on one healthy bearing and three pre-damaged bearings. During each test, data from an on-line, in-line, inductance type oil debris sensor and three accelerometers were monitored and recorded for the occurrence of bearing failure. The bearing was removed and inspected periodically for damage progression throughout testing. Using data fusion techniques, two different monitoring technologies, oil debris analysis and vibration, were integrated into a health monitoring system for detecting bearing surface fatigue pitting damage. The data fusion diagnostic tool was evaluated during bearing failure progression tests under simulated engine load conditions. This integrated system showed improved detection of fatigue damage and health assessment of the tapered roller bearings as compared to using individual health monitoring technologies.

  7. Computer-Assisted Pronunciation Learning in a Collaborative Context: A Case Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pi-hua

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) software provides language learners with an individualized free environment where they can have access to unlimited input and repetitive practice pronunciation at their own pace. This study explores the impact of CAPT on 90 Taiwanese college students' pronunciation learning and examines if other…

  8. Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

  9. Moderators of Efficacy for a Computer-Assisted Career Guidance System (CACGS) Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Molly Rae

    2013-01-01

    Research investigating career intervention efficacy has inadequately investigated the identification of important client factors which might moderate the effects of various career interventions. The current study had two aims. First it examined the efficacy of a newly developed Computer-Assisted Career Guidance System (CACGS) used alone, and the…

  10. The Utilization of a Computer Assisted Guidance System in Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfautz, Charles Van Vleck

    2010-01-01

    Computer assisted guidance systems may adapt well to various models of academic advising, and they have the ability to address the challenge of meeting the diverse advising needs of community college students without sacrificing the integrity of academic advising (Fowkes & McWhirter, 2007). The purpose of this qualitative case study was to assess…

  11. Training Counselors to Use Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems More Effectively: A Model Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobek, Becky L.; Robbins, Steven B.; Gore, Paul A., Jr.; Harris-Bowlsbey, JoAnn; Lapan, Richard T.; Dahir, Carol A.; Jepsen, David A.

    2005-01-01

    A model graduate training curriculum that emphasizes the counselor's role in assisting clients in the effective use of computer-assisted career guidance (CACG) systems is described in this article. This 4-module graduate training program emphasizes client readiness and exploration using CACG systems, skill building and simulation exercises, and…

  12. Computer-Assisted Video Instruction at Moore-Norman Vocational Technical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Marles Long

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes Computer-Assisted Video Instruction (CAVI) programs developed for use with young adult hearing-impaired students. The programs provide individualized instruction in vocabulary, activities, and concepts for specific areas of study (accounting and shop safety). The program provides visual examples of vocabulary, activities, and…

  13. Computer-Assisted Video Instruction in Training Paraprofessionals to Teach Brain-Damaged Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glang, Ann; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of computer-assisted video instruction (CAVI) on three paraprofessionals' implementation of the firming strategy (which presents new material in alternation with previously learned material) with three severely brain-damaged young men. Results indicated CAVI effectiveness with proficient strategy implementation,…

  14. The Impact of Advance Organizers upon Students' Achievement in Computer-Assisted Video Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidi, Houshmand

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study of undergraduates that was conducted to determine the impact of advance organizers on students' achievement in computer-assisted video instruction (CAVI). Treatments of the experimental and control groups are explained, and results indicate that advance organizers do not facilitate near-transfer of rule-learning in CAVI.…

  15. Computer-Assisted Video Instruction for Training Paraprofessionals in Rural Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, George; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Computer assisted video instruction (CAVI) was tested as a way to improve four teaching behaviors of a paraprofessional who was responsible for the instruction of a deaf-blind, severely retarded six-year-old student in a rural school. Direct observation revealed that CAVI was effective in modifying three of the target behaviors. (Author/DB)

  16. Selected Applications of Computer-Assisted Video Instruction in the Education of Hearing-Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillingham, Larry M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The paper illustrates two applications of computer assisted video instruction (CAVI) techniques for educating deaf and hearing impaired students in vocational education. CAVI involves the interactive qualities of microcomputers and the visual impact of videotape. This partnership lends itself naturally to two basic approaches: linear instruction…

  17. Sustainability and Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Factors for Success in a Context of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Claire; Levy, Mike

    2009-01-01

    A team of university Italian teachers at an Australian university has been able to obtain enduring benefits from computer-assisted language learning (CALL), through projects that last, and indeed grow and develop over time. The projects have focused on supporting students in effective use of out-of-class time once they reach an intermediate level…

  18. Computer-Assisted Instruction In Dental Diagnosis; A Systematic Product Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Thomas K.; Sokolow, Sonya

    A developmental project created and field tested a computer-assisted instructional (CAI) unit in dental diagnosis. The main objectives were to determine 1) if, after having received CAI, the dental student could determine whether a patient had a clinical need for space management and 2) if the dental student's attitude toward CAI and space…

  19. Report on WRITE; A Computer Assisted Instruction Course in Written English Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunwell, Stephen; And Others

    A computer-assisted instructional (CAI) course, WRITE, was used at the Poughkeepsie, New York, Middle School to help 5th through 8th graders with spelling and word usage problems. The course used the Coursewriter III language and an IBM System/360 computer; students received self-paced instructional programs at typewriter terminals. All teaching…

  20. Some Factors in the Design of Systems for Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolurow, Lawrence M.

    Computer assisted instruction (CAI) can achieve its potential as a tool for individualizing instruction only if the flexible logic and memory capabilities of computers are utilized. An instructional program must be written in such a way that it can handle at least three variables: (a) who is being taught; (b) what is critical; and (c) how the…

  1. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Elementary Logic at the University Level. Technical Report No. 239.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Adele; Suppes, Patrick

    Earlier research by the authors in the design and use of computer-assisted instructional systems and curricula for teaching mathematical logic to gifted elementary school students has been extended to the teaching of university-level courses. This report is a description of the curriculum and problem types of a computer-based course offered at…

  2. Computer-Assisted Instruction Program: Tennessee State University. Technical Report Number 198.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searle, Barbara; And Others

    The computer-assisted instruction program at Tennessee State University in cooperation with the Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences at Stanford University during the spring and summer of 1972 is described in this report. Four courses in Basic English, Algebra, Computer Programing, and Symbolic Logic are described. Amount of…

  3. Establishing a Methodology for Benchmarking Speech Synthesis for Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Zoe; Hamel, Marie-Josee

    2005-01-01

    Despite the new possibilities that speech synthesis brings about, few Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) applications integrating speech synthesis have found their way onto the market. One potential reason is that the suitability and benefits of the use of speech synthesis in CALL have not been proven. One way to do this is through…

  4. Generalization of Computer-Assisted Prosody Training: Quantitative and Qualitative Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardison, Debra M.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effectiveness of computer-assisted prosody training, its generalization to novel sentences and segmental accuracy, and the relationship between prosodic and lexical information in long-term memory. Experiment 1, using a pretest-posttest design, provided native English-speaking learners of French with 3 weeks of…

  5. Computer Assisted English Language Learning in Costa Rican Elementary Schools: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez-Marinelli, Horacio; Blanco, Marta; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.; Tong, Fuhui; Stanley, Katherine; Fan, Yinan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents first-year findings of a 25-week longitudinal project derived from a two-year longitudinal randomized trial study at the elementary school level in Costa Rica on effective computer-assisted language learning (CALL) approaches in an English as a foreign language (EFL) setting. A pre-test-post-test experimental group design was…

  6. Are They Numbers or VIPs? A Personalized, Computer-Assisted Approach to College Admissions and Advising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Evelyn P.; Reda, Denice A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Personalized Admissions and Advisement System introduced at Triton College, Illinois, to administer student recruitment, admissions, advising, and initial orientation. The article compares the old and the new systems and points out the benefits of the computer-assisted method, particularly as related to speed and ease of data…

  7. Pull-Down Menus, Menu Design, and Usage Patterns in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuerman, Robert L.; Peck, Kyle L.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of menu design strategies for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) focuses on a study that investigated whether menu design would affect undergraduate learners' usage patterns during a CAI lesson. Sequential versus random selection of options is discussed, and new measures for describing usage patterns in CAI are explained. (eight…

  8. Using Computer-Assisted Interviewing to Consult with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Wilma; Hannah, Elizabeth F.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the use of computer-assisted interviewing (CAI) as a tool for consulting with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This is considered within the context of a research study which utilized one CAI programme, "In My Shoes", to investigate children and young people's views of provision, support, and participation in…

  9. Applying Computer-Assisted Musical Instruction to Music Appreciation Course: An Example with Chinese Musical Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Guo, Yuan-Chang; Zhu, Yi-Zhen; Shih, Ru-Chu; Dzan, Wei-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effectiveness of computer-assisted musical instruction (CAMI) in the Learning Chinese Musical Instruments (LCMI) course. The CAMI software for Chinese musical instruments was developed and administered to 228 students in a vocational high school. A pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design with three…

  10. Variability in Reading Ability Gains as a Function of Computer-Assisted Instruction Method of Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erin Phinney; Perry, Justin; Shamir, Haya

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects on early reading skills of three different methods of presenting material with computer-assisted instruction (CAI): (1) learner-controlled picture menu, which allows the student to choose activities, (2) linear sequencer, which progresses the students through lessons at a pre-specified pace, and (3) mastery-based…

  11. Relationship between Pre-Service Music Teachers' Personality and Motivation for Computer-Assisted Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkmen, Serkan; Cevik, Beste

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pre-service music teachers' personalities and their motivation for computer-assisted music instruction (CAI). The "Big Five" Model of Personality served as the framework. Participants were 83 pre-service music teachers in Turkey. Correlation analysis revealed that three…

  12. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Political Science. Instructional Resource Monograph No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Jonathan, Ed.

    This six-author study highlights the most significant attributes of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) and explains the techniques of authoring CAI lessons in political science. Fourth in a series of Instructional Resource Monographs, the volume has the objective to inform political science teachers and students about what CAI has to offer on a…

  13. The Effect of Computer Assisted Grammar Teaching on the Academic Success of Classroom Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyup, Bircan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of computer assisted grammar teaching on the academic success of classroom teacher candidates. The study group consists of 2nd grade students from Karadeniz Technical University Fatih, Faculty of Education, Department of Classroom Teaching in the educational year of 2010 to 2011. Experimental…

  14. Deconstructing the Discourse of Opportunity: Computer-Assisted Credit Recovery in Alternative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative schools educate students who have previously been unsuccessful in the traditional school setting. Many alternative school students are behind on high school credits, and the schools provide options for credit recovery. Computer-assisted instruction is often used for this purpose. Using case study methodology and a critical theoretical…

  15. OBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF HYPERACTIVATED MOTILITY IN RAT SPERMATOZA USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective evaluation of hyperactivated motility in rat spermatozoa using computer-assisted sperm analysis.

    Cancel AM, Lobdell D, Mendola P, Perreault SD.

    Toxicology Program, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

    The aim of this study was t...

  16. Review Question Formats and Web Design Usability in Computer-Assisted Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Rebecca S.; Eppler, Marion A.; Ironsmith, Marsha; Wuensch, Karl L.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the effects of two embedded review question formats and the application of web design guidelines in a computer-assisted mastery learning course in developmental psychology. Students used either a branching review question format that redirected them to relevant portions of the study module after incorrect answers or a linear format that…

  17. SuperPILOT: A Comprehensive Computer-Assisted Instruction Programming Language for the Apple II Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falleur, David M.

    This presentation describes SuperPILOT, an extended version of Apple PILOT, a programming language for developing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with the Apple II computer that includes the features of its early PILOT (Programmed Inquiry, Learning or Teaching) ancestors together with new features that make use of the Apple computer's advanced…

  18. Mechanical Design Technology--Modified. (Computer Assisted Drafting, Computer Aided Design). Curriculum Grant 84/85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoolcraft Coll., Livonia, MI.

    This document is a curriculum guide for a program in mechanical design technology (computer-assisted drafting and design developed at Schoolcraft College, Livonia, Michigan). The program helps students to acquire the skills of drafters and to interact with electronic equipment, with the option of becoming efficient in the computer-aided…

  19. Views of Pre-Service Primary School Teachers Regarding Computer Assisted Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turan, Ilhan

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to highlight the importance of computer assisted instruction in environmental education. Recently, the importance of environmental education in many countries has begun to increase in parallel with environmental problems. This has led to increased interest in environmental education. The fact that computers were the…

  20. Correcting Spellings in Second Language Learners' Computer-Assisted Collaborative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musk, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    The present study uses multimodal conversation analysis to examine how pupils studying English as a foreign language make spelling corrections in real time while doing collaborative computer-assisted project work. Unlike most previous related investigations, this study focuses on the "process" rather than evaluating the final…

  1. Incorporating a Computer Assisted Reading Program into an Adult Vocational Basic Skills Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vescial, Ann; And Others

    A computer-assisted reading program was implemented in the VESL (Vocational English as a Second Language) Center at Hacienda La Puente Adult Schools (California), which provides support services to adult special needs vocational students. The purpose of the program was to improve the technical reading skills of the vocational students. The basic…

  2. Development and Evaluation of Computer Assisted Instruction for Navy Electronics Training. Two, Inductance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlock, Richard E.

    A computer-assisted instruction (CAI) curriculum module covering the area of electrical inductance was developed and evaluated. This module was a part of a program in which a series of CAI modules are being developed and tested for a Navy training course in basic electronics. After the module was written, it was given three tryout tests.…

  3. Computer-Assisted Analysis of Spontaneous Speech: Quantification of Basic Parameters in Aphasic and Unimpaired Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussmann, Katja; Grande, Marion; Meffert, Elisabeth; Christoph, Swetlana; Piefke, Martina; Willmes, Klaus; Huber, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Although generally accepted as an important part of aphasia assessment, detailed analysis of spontaneous speech is rarely carried out in clinical practice mostly due to time limitations. The Aachener Sprachanalyse (ASPA; Aachen Speech Analysis) is a computer-assisted method for the quantitative analysis of German spontaneous speech that allows for…

  4. A Sequential Evaluation of Computer Assisted Instruction in US Army Basic Electronics Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Alexander A.; Giunti, Frank E.

    The Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Division of the U.S. Army Signal Center and School (USASCS) at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey evaluated CAI's success in teaching basic electronics. An initial feasibility study, interim assessments, and a summative evaluation assessed the value of the developmental, user-oriented, individualized CAI programs…

  5. A Reaction to an Analysis of Nine Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Gonzalo, Jr.; Plansker, Christine M.

    1990-01-01

    Critiques the assessment of computer-assisted career guidance systems by Sampson et al. (CE 521 972), stating that the conceptual framework was sound and well developed and criteria were based on recognized experts. Limitations of the study are the assumption of equivalent effectiveness and the use of a checklist for comparing the systems. (SK)

  6. A Study of Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) over Classroom Lecture (CRL) at ICS Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaousar, Tayyeba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CAI vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with classroom lecture and computer-assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of CAI and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypotheses of…

  7. Can Computer-Assisted Discovery Learning Foster First Graders' Fluency with the Most Basic Addition Combinations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Arthur J.; Eiland, Michael D.; Purpura, David J.; Reid, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    In a 9-month training experiment, 64 first graders with a risk factor were randomly assigned to computer-assisted structured discovery of the add-1 rule (e.g., the sum of 7 + 1 is the number after "seven" when we count), unstructured discovery learning of this regularity, or an active-control group. Planned contrasts revealed that the add-1…

  8. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Statistics: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Giovanni W.; Berger, Dale E.; Saw, Amanda T.; Mary, Justin C.

    2011-01-01

    Although previous meta-analyses have documented the efficacy of computer-assisted statistics instruction, the current study examined a range of specific features that presumably influence its effectiveness, such as the level of learner engagement, learner control, and the nature of feedback. In 45 experimental studies with a control condition,…

  9. The Relative Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) for Teaching Students To Read English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard A.

    In a review of research on computer assisted instruction (CAI) related to reading, evidence collected provides tentative conclusions about CAI effectiveness. CAI was effective as an instructional medium in the surveyed studies. In a number of instances, CAI groups achieved higher scores than the control groups. Some studies indicated that CAI…

  10. English Language Teachers' Perceptions of Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Yu Lin

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of studies have reported the potential use of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and other types of technology for ESL and EFL students. So far, most studies on CALL have focused on CALL-classroom comparisons (Chenoweth & Murday, 2003; Chenoweth, Ushida, & Murday, 2007; Fitze, 2006; Neri, Mich, Gerosa, &…

  11. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Latin and in English Vocabulary Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Computer assisted instruction in Latin and in English vocabulary development, which is used at the University of Illinois-Urbana, is described. The computer portion of the beginning Latin course consists of 40 lessons which provide drill and practice in vocabulary, morphology, and syntax. The program can be used either as a classroom supplement or…

  12. Secondary School Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics Computer--Assisted Instruction Environment in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwei, Philip K.; Wando, Dave; Too, Jackson K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of research conducted in six classes (Form IV) with 205 students with a sample of 94 respondents. Data represent students' statements that describe (a) the role of Mathematics teachers in a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) environment and (b) effectiveness of CAI in Mathematics instruction. The results indicated…

  13. Effectiveness of a Computer-Assisted Intervention for Young Children with Attention and Reading Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy M.; Marett, Katherine; Hessel, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    Children who are significantly inattentive and poor early readers require intervention, and traditional tutoring approaches may not be effective with this group. Using a single-subject, multiple-baseline-across-participants design, Study 1 examines whether a computer-assisted reading intervention increases performance for three first-grade…

  14. A Computer Assisted Application in Preschool Education: Seasons and Their Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akçay, Nilufer Okur

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine the effect of computer-assisted instruction while teaching the subject seasons to preschool students on the academic success. The sample of the study consists of 86 children from the nursery classes of private and official schools in Agri city center. As data collecting tools General Achievement Test used as…

  15. A Mathematical Model for Project Planning and Cost Analysis in Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, William F.

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) has become sufficiently widespread to require attention to the relationships between its costs, administration and benefits. Despite difficulties in instituting them, quantifiable cost-effectiveness analyses offer several advantages. They allow educators to specify with precision anticipated instructional loads,…

  16. Programming for Generalization of Oral Reading Fluency Using Computer-Assisted Instruction and Changing Fluency Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Starr E.; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Gibson, Lenwood, Jr.; Robinson-Ervin, Porsha

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a supplemental repeated reading intervention delivered through a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program on the oral reading fluency (ORF), comprehension, and generalization of second graders who were at risk for reading failure. Six students received the Read Naturally Software Edition (RNSE) treatment…

  17. Bridging the Gap between ESL and EFL: Using Computer Assisted Language Learning as a Medium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hashash, Saad

    2007-01-01

    Many researchers have investigated several aspects of using Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) applications and presented many advantages for using CALL in TESL setting (i.e. where English is taught as a second language). In this paper, the author aims to illustrate how CALL applications would improve substantially the process of teaching…

  18. Ring Fenced Research: The Case of Computer-Assisted Learning in Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Gabriel; Ip, Barry

    2005-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research is being promoted in many quarters as the way forward, but "research islands" still persist. Taking computer-assisted learning (CAL) within health sciences as a case in point, this paper describes a detailed study of the references to source material within papers published in general medical, specific nursing and…

  19. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted STAD Cooperative Learning Strategy on Physics Problem Solving, Achievement and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-assisted Students' Team Achievement Division (STAD) cooperative learning strategy on physics problem solving, students' achievement and retention. It also examined if the student performance would vary with gender. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two senior secondary schools…

  20. Educational Technology Research Journals: "Journal of Computer Assisted Learning," 2002-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Kyle R.; Zabriskie, Grant D.; Ashton, Scott M.; Borup, Jered; West, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors analyzed all research articles published between 2002 and 2011 in the "Journal of Computer Assisted Learning," in order to understand the research topics methods, major contributing authors, and most-cited publications. Over the 10-year period, they found the journal has explored educational uses of computer…

  1. Blogging in Teacher Professional Development: Its Role in Building Computer-Assisted Language Teaching Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murugaiah, Puvaneswary; Azman, Hazita; Ya'acob, Azizah; Thang, Siew Ming

    2010-01-01

    Teaching in today's classroom is technology-driven. For language teachers, computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is exciting yet challenging as they are required to possess appropriate skills and knowledge to teach in such an environment. Both technical skills and pedagogical knowledge are crucial for teaching and learning in a…

  2. Development and Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Assessment in Higher Education in Relation to BS7988

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Kerry; Warburton, Bill; Maier, Pat; Warren, Adam

    2006-01-01

    A university-wide project team of academic and administrative staff worked together to prepare, deliver and evaluate a number of diagnostic, formative and summative computer-based assessments. The team also attempted to assess the University of Southampton's readiness to deliver computer-assisted assessment (CAA) within the "Code of practice for…

  3. Fabric of Life: The Design of a System for Computer-Assisted Instruction in Histology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, S. K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes the establishment of a library of computer images of histological preparations and the use of this library for computer-assisted instruction. Images from various organ systems along with line diagrams are stored on a central file server which can be accessed from remote terminals. The Fabric of Life program allows testing on each image…

  4. Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Secondary School Students' Performance in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Afolabi, Adedeji Olufemi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on secondary school students' performance in biology. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI in individualised or cooperative learning settings package was examined. The research was a quasi experimental involving a 3 x 2 factorial…

  5. Computer-Assisted Performance Evaluation for Navy Anti-Air Warfare Training: Concepts, Methods, and Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesler, David J.

    An improved general methodological approach for the development of computer-assisted evaluation of trainee performance in the computer-based simulation environment is formulated in this report. The report focuses on the Tactical Advanced Combat Direction and Electronic Warfare system (TACDEW) at the Fleet Anti-Air Warfare Training Center at San…

  6. Keewatin Region Educational Authority Pilot Education Project: Computer-Assisted Learning. Preliminary Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Heidi; And Others

    A project was conducted to improve and expand academic upgrading, job readiness, and special skill training for adults in the Keewatin Region through the implementation of computer-assisted learning (CAL). It was intended as a response to the special needs of unemployed Inuit who were not reached in the past by traditional training programs and…

  7. The Differential Effects of Interactive versus Didactic Pedagogy Using Computer-Assisted Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Tieja; Alexander, Kristopher; Jackson, Renee; Abrami, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a representative sample meta-analysis that explored the effects of interactive versus didactic pedagogy using computer-assisted instruction on measures of academic achievement. A systematic literature search revealed 40 studies, from which 55 effect sizes were extracted. The random effects model of analysis…

  8. Computer-Assisted Audiovisual Training Methods for Rural Staff Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeece, C. Aaron

    The state-of-the art review suggests that human services agencies in rural areas can provide adequate staff training through the use of high technology training systems. Training equipment discussed includes: videotapes, microcomputers for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) or computer-managed instruction (CMI), solenoid-operated videocassette…

  9. Using Computer-Assisted Instruction to Enhance Achievement of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Hussein, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in English-Language environments offer practice time, motivates students, enhance student learning, increase authentic materials that students can study, and has the potential to encourage teamwork between students. The findings from this particular study suggested that students who used computer assisted…

  10. Computer-Assisted Instruction in the Basic Public Speaking Course: Issues of Development and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, David; Tajchman, Ron

    A study explained the manner in which a computer-assisted tutorial was built and assessed the utility of the courseware. The tutorial was designed to demonstrate the efficacy of good organization in informing the audience about a topic and provide appropriate models for the presentation of the well-organized informative speech. The topic of the…

  11. FL-IDE: Hypertext for Structuring a Conceptual Design for Computer-Assisted Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Merryanna L.; Russell, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the use of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) for foreign language instruction, and describes the development of a Foreign Language Instructional Design Environment (FL-IDE) that uses hypertext to organize the domain knowledge structure. The development of the original IDE as an intelligent tutoring system is also described. (20…

  12. Telidon and Computer Assisted Learning - A Report on the First Experiment Using Telidon for CAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trueman, D.

    As part of the TV Ontario Telidon and Education Field Trials, a study was made of the application of the Telidon videotex systems to computer-assisted learning (CAL), including the future directions of these applications and differences in achievement between advanced and general-level students. Subjects were 129 middle- to upper-middle,…

  13. Cognitive Models of Students' Language Structure: The View from Intelligent Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psotka, Joseph; And Others

    Methods and approaches used at the U.S. Army Research Institute to investigate intelligent computer-assisted foreign language instruction are discussed. The research described explores the use of hypertext and natural language processing for improving language training by articulating student knowledge structures and for providing, incidentally, a…

  14. CHEMEX; Understanding and Solving Problems in Chemistry. A Computer-Assisted Instruction Program for General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower, Stephen K.

    A brief overview of CHEMEX--a problem-solving, tutorial style computer-assisted instructional course--is provided and sample problems are offered. In CHEMEX, students receive problems in advance and attempt to solve them before moving through the computer program, which assists them in overcoming difficulties and serves as a review mechanism.…

  15. Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Secondary School Students' Achievement in Ecological Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkemdilim, Egbunonu Roseline; Okeke, Sam O. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on students' achievement in ecological concepts. Quasi-experimental design, specifically the pre-test post test non-equivalent control group design was adopted. The sample consisted of sixty-six (66) senior secondary year two (SS II) biology students, drawn from two…

  16. A Personal Application of Learning Theory to the Design of Computer Assisted Instruction in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Terry

    The application of behavioral and cognitive learning theories to the design of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) at the college level is discussed. A model of instructional design and the unique qualities of computers are also briefly reviewed. The general model of instruction, which is used for designing a curriculum, has five major components:…

  17. The Lower Manhattan Project: A New Approach to Computer-Assisted Learning in History Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, William; Gaffield, Chad

    1990-01-01

    The Lower Manhattan Project, a computer-assisted undergraduate course in U.S. history, enhances student appreciation of the historical process through research and writing. Focuses on the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries emphasizing massive immigration, rapid industrialization, and the growth of cities. Includes a reading list and…

  18. A Compilation of Postgraduate Theses Written in Turkey on Computer Assisted Instruction in Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Demirbas, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study conducted is to present in-depth information about the postgraduate theses written within the context of Computer Assisted Instruction in Chemistry Education in Turkey. The theses collected in National Thesis Centre of Turkish Council of Higher Education were examined. As a result of an examination, it was found that about…

  19. Computer Assisted Instruction in Schools: Achievements, Present Developments, and Projections for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallworth, H. J.; Brebner, Ann

    This overview of computer assisted instruction (CAI) traces the development and use of computers in learning and instruction and describes some current CAI projects including PLATO, CDC PLATO, TICCIT, and others at Stanford University and the Computer Curriculum Corporation, and in Chicago, Los Nietos (California), Minnesota, Europe, and Canada.…

  20. The Relationship between Second Language Acquisition Theory and Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapelle, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    The point of departure for this article is the contrast between the theoretical landscape within view of language teaching professionals in 1991 and that of today. I argue that the pragmatic goal of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) developers and researchers to create and evaluate learning opportunities pushes them to consider a variety…

  1. Evaluation of DILearn: An Interactive Computer-Assisted Learning Program for Drug Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunget, Cynthia L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Use of an interactive computer-assisted learning program to teach basic skills in obtaining drug information was investigated with 26 doctoral pharmacy students and a control group of 25 students receiving lecture instruction. Findings indicated no significant differences in short-term retention of drug information between groups and that students…

  2. Computer-Assisted Scheduling of Army Unit Training: An Application of Simulated Annealing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Roland J.; Goehring, Dwight J.

    This report of an ongoing research project intended to provide computer assistance to Army units for the scheduling of training focuses on the feasibility of simulated annealing, a heuristic approach for solving scheduling problems. Following an executive summary and brief introduction, the document is divided into three sections. First, the Army…

  3. Computer-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Child Anxiety: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Muniya S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of Camp Cope-A-Lot (CCAL), a computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety in youth. Method: Children (49; 33 males) ages 7-13 (M = 10.1 [plus or minus] 1.6; 83.7% Caucasian, 14.2% African American, 2% Hispanic) with a principal anxiety disorder were…

  4. Perceptions of Control and Use of Control Options in Computer-Assisted Video Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Geri; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discussion of the effectiveness of learner control in computer assisted instruction focuses on a study of undergraduates at Cornell University using an interactive videodisc lesson on waterfowl identification. Opportunities for students to modify the delivery of the program are described, and the effects of student expectations of control on…

  5. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Performance of Senior High School Biology Students in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, K. A.; Monney, K. A.; Appiah, J. Y.; Wilmot, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the comparative efficiency of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and conventional teaching method in biology on senior high school students. A science class was selected in each of two randomly selected schools. The pretest-posttest non equivalent quasi experimental design was used. The students in the experimental group…

  6. Integrating Computer-Assisted Language Learning in Saudi Schools: A Change Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alresheed, Saleh; Leask, Marilyn; Raiker, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) technology and pedagogy have gained recognition globally for their success in supporting second language acquisition (SLA). In Saudi Arabia, the government aims to provide most educational institutions with computers and networking for integrating CALL into classrooms. However, the recognition of CALL's…

  7. Pedagogy and Related Criteria: The Selection of Software for Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is an established field of academic inquiry with distinct applications for second language teaching and learning. Many CALL professionals direct language labs or language resource centers (LRCs) in which CALL software applications and generic software applications support language learning programs and…

  8. A Case for Assessing Motivation from Learning a Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ChanLin, Lih-Juan

    The purpose of this paper is to report specific motivational requirements within each motivation category of Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model (1991) based on data collected on students' reactions to a computer-assisted learning lesson that incorporated motivational strategies in its design. Interview techniques…

  9. Teaching Pronunciation with Computer Assisted Pronunciation Instruction in a Technological University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Sze-Chu; Hung, Po-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of computer assisted pronunciation instruction in English pronunciation for students in vocational colleges and universities in Taiwan. The participants were fifty-one first-year undergraduate students from a technological university located in central Taiwan. The participants received an…

  10. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  11. Decreasing Transition Times in Elementary School Classrooms: Using Computer-Assisted Instruction to Automate Intervention Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hine, Jeffrey F.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Foster, Tori E.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that students spend a substantial amount of time transitioning between classroom activities, which may reduce time spent academically engaged. This study used an ABAB design to evaluate the effects of a computer-assisted intervention that automated intervention components previously shown to decrease transition times. We examined…

  12. An Information and Technical Manual for the Computer-Assisted Teacher Training System (CATTS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmel, Melvyn I.; And Others

    The manual presents technical information on the computer assisted teacher training system (CATTS) which aims at developing a versatile and economical computer based teacher training system with the capability of providing immediate analysis and feedback of data relevant to teacher pupil transactions in a classroom setting. The physical…

  13. The Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Mathematics Achievement of Underachieving Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce-Simmons, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of computer-assisted instruction on the mathematics performance of underachieving fifth-grade students in a rural school district in South Carolina. The instructional technology program ([IF) is South Carolina's response to addressing the needs of its young, struggling math students. The 449 fifth-grade students in…

  14. Generative Computer Assisted Instruction: An Application of Artificial Intelligence to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffman, Elliot B.

    Frame-oriented computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems dominate the field, but these mechanized programed texts utilize the computational power of the computer to a minimal degree and are difficult to modify. Newer, generative CAI systems which are supplied with a knowledge of subject matter can generate their own problems and solutions, can…

  15. Interactive Computer Assisted Instruction in Teaching of Process Analysis and Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Herbert E., Jr.; Himmelblau, David M.

    To improve the instructional process, time shared computer-assisted instructional methods were developed to teach upper division undergraduate chemical engineering students the concepts of process simulation and analysis. The interactive computer simulation aimed at enabling the student to learn the difficult concepts of process dynamics by…

  16. Experimentation With Computer-Assisted Instruction in Technical Education. Semi-Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitzel, Harold E.; And Others

    Side-developments of an instructional systems development team which are themselves important products of a research effort are documented in this report. The five studies presented include an investigation of the comparability of computer-assisted and conventional test administration, prompting and confirmation as instructional strategies with…

  17. Assessing the Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) in Undergraduate Latin American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Jack

    This paper assesses the impact of using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in three American University undergraduate classes, a General Education survey course on Latin America (taught in English), and two Spanish language courses. The courses utilized both commercial software programs and software programs authored by faculty using Macintosh…

  18. Improving Computer-Assisted Instruction in Teaching Higher-Order Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Kelsey J.; Renshaw, Carl E.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) has been shown to enhance rote memory skills and improve higher order critical thinking skills. The challenge now is to identify what aspects of CAI improve which specific higher-order skills. This study focuses on the effectiveness of using CAI to teach logarithmic graphing and dimensional analysis. Two groups…

  19. Effectiveness of Cognitive Skills-Based Computer-Assisted Instruction for Students with Disabilities: A Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Pei-Lin; Maeda, Yukiko; Bouck, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for students with disabilities can be categorized into the following categories: visual, auditory, mobile, and cognitive skills-based CAI. Cognitive-skills based CAI differs from other types of CAI largely in terms of an emphasis on instructional design features. We conducted both systematic review of…

  20. Review of Research on the Cognitive Effects of Computer-Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandinach, E.; And Others

    This review of the research on the cognitive effects of computer-assisted instruction begins with an overview of the ACCCEL (Assessing Cognitive Consequences of Computer Environments for Learning) research program at the University of California at Berkeley, which consists of several interrelated studies examining the acquisition of such higher…

  1. A Computer-Assisted Instruction in Teaching Abstract Statistics to Public Affairs Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Ali Osman

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to demonstrate the applicability of a computer-assisted instruction supported with simulated data in teaching abstract statistical concepts to political science and public affairs students in an introductory research methods course. The software is called the Elaboration Model Computer Exercise (EMCE) in that it takes a great…

  2. Operation Storefront. A Computer-Assisted Instruction Component of the Reading Assistance Program (RAP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasco County District School Board, Land O'Lakes, FL.

    This document contains teacher's materials that accompany Operation Storefront, the computer-assisted instruction package used in the Reading Assistance Program (RAP) that serves nonreading adults in Pasco County, Florida, who are 16 years or older and not in school. The target population for Operation Storefront is adults reading at or below the…

  3. Using Computer Assisted Instruction to Teach Science Facts to Students with Moderate to Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrong, Amy Ketterer

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found the use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to be effective in teaching skills to a variety of populations. Students with and without disabilities have been taught a variety of skills including social skills and core academic content using CAI. Students with moderate to severe disabilities (MSD) have been taught a…

  4. Development of a Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) Program on the Delphi Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurdy, Carol

    The concept of Delphi technique was presented in a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) module designed for educational administration classes or inservice training of administrators. Instructional Dialogue Facility (IDF) Author Language on a 2000F Hewlett-Packard time-sharing system was used to write the sequence. Instructional objectives,…

  5. Computer-Assisted Instruction in the Schools: Potentialities, Problems, Prospects. Psychology Series. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    Computer-assisted instruction has many potential applications, particularly at the elementary level, in the teaching of skill subjects such as mathematics, reading, and foreign languages. Since 1963 at Stanford a study has been made of programing a total curriculum for elementary mathematics, grades one through six, and for reading, grades one and…

  6. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Mathematics and Language Arts for Deaf Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; Fletcher, John Dexter

    The Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences at Stanford University has operated a three-year computer-assisted instruction (CAI) network for hearing-impaired or deaf students; the effectiveness of the two main curricula in the program, elementary mathematics and language arts, was evaluated. The computer network spans the United…

  7. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Mathematics and Language Arts for the Deaf. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J. D.; Suppes, Patrick

    A three-year project supported research, development and evaluation of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for hearing impaired, or deaf, children. Over 4,000 students from 15 schools for the deaf in five states participated in the effort. Although students received CAI in algebra, logic, computer programing and basic English, the skill subjects…

  8. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  9. COMPUTER-ASSISTED MOTION ANALYSIS OF SPERM FROM THE COMMON CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...

  10. Computer-Assisted Training in the Comprehension of Authentic French Speech: A Closer View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeflaak, Arie

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the development of a computer-assisted listening comprehension project is described. First, we comment briefly on the points of departure, the need for autonomous learning against the background of recent changes in Dutch education, and the role of learning strategies. Then, an error analysis, the programs used for this project,…

  11. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Students' Achievement in Taiwan: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Yuen-kuang Cliff

    2007-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize existing research comparing the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) versus traditional instruction (TI) on students' achievement in Taiwan. Fifty-two studies were located from four sources, and their quantitative data was transformed into effect size (ES). The overall grand mean of the…

  12. Can Computer-Assisted Instruction Make a Difference? An Analysis of Who Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavin, Bebe F.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluates benefits of computer-assisted instruction in an introductory sociology course on the college level. Findings indicated that students who used the self-testing computer program performed better than non-users on examinations covering course material. Additional research is suggested on student ability, pattern of use, and performance…

  13. How the Use of Cognitive Psychology Findings Can Raise the Productivity of Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Daniel L.

    An overview is provided of the principles of cognitive psychology that can be used to enhance the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI). First, the paper looks at the features of classical and operant conditioning that provide the foundation for important parts of mastery learning and CAI programs. Next, findings from four areas of…

  14. Benefits of Computer-Assisted Instruction to Support Reading Acquisition in English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaruso, Paul; Rodman, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    Young children who are English language learners (ELLs) face major challenges in learning to read English. This study examined whether computer-assisted instruction (CAI) can be beneficial to ELL kindergartners enrolled in bilingual classes. The CAI programs provided systematic and structured exercises in developing phonological awareness and…

  15. An Evaluation of the Costs of Computer-Assisted Instruction. Program Report No. 80-B7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.; Woo, Louis

    Cost data were collected from a study on the effectiveness of computer assisted instruction (CAI) for culturally disadvantaged children in the Los Angeles Unified School District. Based upon the resource ingredients approach to measuring costs, it was found that up to three daily 10-minute sessions of drill and practice could be provided for each…

  16. Computer-Assisted Instruction for Students at Risk for ADHD, Mild Disabilities, or Academic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Renet L.; Bender, William N.

    This guide is intended to help teachers integrate computer-assisted instruction into classrooms which include students who are at risk for or students who have mild and moderate disabilities such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. After an introductory chapter, Chapter 2 discusses how computer programs can help students with particular…

  17. A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Instruction and Tutorials in Hematology and Oncology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, T. J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study comparing the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and small group instruction found no significant difference in medical student achievement in oncology but higher achievement through small-group instruction in hematology. Students did not view CAI as more effective, but saw it as a supplement to traditional methods. (MSE)

  18. The Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL) Project in Mathematics at the University of Glasgow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, D. W.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the nature and use of a computer-assisted sequence of instruction in college-level mathematics. Units in differential and integral calculus and geometry are described. The authors claim that students acquire increased confidence in their knowledge and problem-solving ability. (SD)

  19. Using Simultaneous Prompting and Computer-Assisted Instruction to Teach Story Writing to Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Robert C.; Ault, Melinda Jones; Schuster, John W.; Sanders, Ann

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, the researchers evaluated the effects of simultaneous prompting and computer-assisted instruction on the story-writing responses of 3 males with autism, 7 to 10 ears of age. Classroom teachers conducted all probe and training sessions. The researchers used a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the…

  20. Computer Assisted Project-Based Instruction: The Effects on Science Achievement, Computer Achievement and Portfolio Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Yavuz; Dede, Dinçer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of computer assisted project-based instruction on learners' achievement in a science and technology course, in a computer course and in portfolio development. With this aim in mind, a quasi-experimental design was used and a sample of 70 seventh grade secondary school students from Org. Esref…

  1. A Meta-Analytical Investigation of the Influence of Computer Assisted Instruction on Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekbiyik, Ahmet; Akdeniz, Ali Riza

    2010-01-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to determine the overall effectiveness of computer assisted instruction on students' academic achievement in science education from 2001 to 2007 in Turkey. The study reported the results of 65 effect sizes (ES) included in 52 studies. Grand mean for 65 ESs was found to be 1.12. This effect size can be interpreted…

  2. Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Elementary Mathematics for Hearing-Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    A sample of approximately 385 hearing-impaired elementary and secondary school students whose mathematical achievement ranged from second to sixth grades were examined to determine the effectiveness of a computer assisted elementary mathematics program on the acquisition of computational skills. The students selected were from a population of over…

  3. Computer-Assisted Instruction in 2-Year Colleges: Technology for Innovative Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Rick L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes efforts of Florence-Darlington Technical College (South Carolina) to improve academic programs through the development and implementation of computer-assisted instruction (CAI). Includes results from a study investigating four variables of student performance in CAI and traditional lecture sections for five courses. Reports mixed results…

  4. Listening Strategy Use and Influential Factors in Web-Based Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, L.; Zhang, R.; Liu, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates second and foreign language (L2) learners' listening strategy use and factors that influence their strategy use in a Web-based computer assisted language learning (CALL) system. A strategy inventory, a factor questionnaire and a standardized listening test were used to collect data from a group of 82 Chinese students…

  5. Comparative Effects of Ability and Presentation Mode in Computer-Assisted Instruction and Programmed Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Walter; Latta, Raymond

    A comparison was made of a programed instruction (PI) text, which had been developed following a systems model, with a comparable computer-assisted instruction (CAI) version of the same material. The text was designed to teach the mathematical concept of significant figures to eighth graders. The PI text consisted of 52 linear frames. The CAI…

  6. A Computer-Assisted-Instruction Course in Vocabulary Building through Latin and Greek Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Richard T.

    1976-01-01

    A course in the enlargement of students' English vocabulary through the study of Latin and Greek roots and their derivatives was developed by the Department of Classics at the University of Illinois. The class makes use of computer assisted instruction on the PLATO IV system. (Author/RM)

  7. The Development of a Computer Assisted Distribution and Assignment (CADA) System for Navy Enlisted Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Randall F.; And Others

    This report describes the development of a computerized system to assist Navy personnel managers in carrying out the functions associated with the distribution and assignment of enlisted personnel. This Computer Assisted Distribution and Assignment (CADA) System is aimed at the most efficient interaction between the computer and human manager to…

  8. Comparative Effects of Two Modes of Computer-Assisted Instructional Package on Solid Geometry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Isiaka Amosa; Ezenwa, Victoria Ifeoma; Anyanwu, Romanus Chogozie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effects of two modes of computer-assisted instructional package on solid geometry achievement amongst senior secondary school students in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI(AT) and CAI(AN) packages were examined. This study adopted a pretest-posttest…

  9. Interactive Computer-Assisted Instruction in Acid-Base Physiology for Mobile Computer Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmuir, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    In this project, the traditional lecture hall presentation of acid-base physiology in the first-year medical school curriculum was replaced by interactive, computer-assisted instruction designed primarily for the iPad and other mobile computer platforms. Three learning modules were developed, each with ~20 screens of information, on the subjects…

  10. Computerized Games and Simulations in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: A Meta-Analysis of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article explores research on the use of computerized games and simulations in language education. The author examined the psycholinguistic and sociocultural constructs proposed as a basis for the use of games and simulations in computer-assisted language learning. Research in this area is expanding rapidly. However, to date, few studies have…

  11. Learning Achievement in Solving Word-Based Mathematical Questions through a Computer-Assisted Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tzu-Hua; Liu, Yuan-Chen; Chang, Hsiu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a computer-assisted mathematical problem-solving system in the form of a network instruction website to help low-achieving second- and third-graders in mathematics with word-based addition and subtraction questions in Taiwan. According to Polya's problem-solving model, the system is designed to guide these low-achievers…

  12. A Computer-Assisted Nutrition Education Unit for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Alvina M.

    1983-01-01

    A computer-assisted instructional unit (written for 32K Commodore PET microcomputer) was developed to identify four food groups outlined in Canada's Food Guide, place specific foods in correct groups, and identify food not belonging to the four groups. Animated color-coded keys are used to represent the food groups. (JN)

  13. Using Computer Assisted Instruction in a Reading and Study Skills Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Margaret

    Test wiseness programs and computer assisted study skills instruction (CASSI) were found to be valuable resources for college reading and study skills instructors and students at St. Cloud State University (Minnesota). Two booklets on test wiseness cues were reorganized and used as computer programs to allow the information to be presented outside…

  14. MICA, Managed Instruction with Computer Assistance: Level Five. An Outline of the System's Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Thomas B.; And Others

    Computer technology has been used since 1972 in the Madison, Wisconsin, public schools to control the flow of information required to support individualized instruction. Madison's computer-managed instruction system, MICA (Managed Instruction with Computer Assistance), operates interactively within individualized instruction programs to provide…

  15. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Material on Students' Cognitive Levels, Misconceptions and Attitudes Towards Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepni, Salih; Tas, Erol; Kose, Sacit

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Computer-Assisted Instruction Material (CAIM) related to "photosynthesis" topic on student cognitive development, misconceptions and attitudes. The study conducted in 2002-2003 academic year and was carried out in two different classes taught by the same teacher, in which there were…

  16. Using Java and Dynamic HTML To Develop Collaborative, Computer Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Callum R.; Robinson, David A.; Hamilton, Neil M.

    The construction of a very fast network backbone between all Scottish universities, in conjunction with the formation of a common core curriculum for Scottish medical schools teaching child health, has provided the schools with an opportunity to provide collaborative, computer assisted learning (CAL) across the World Wide Web, delivered by a…

  17. From Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) to Mobile Assisted Language Use (MALU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Huw; Achilleos, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by critiquing the long-established acronym CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning). We then go on to report on a small-scale study which examines how student non-native speakers of English use a range of digital devices beyond the classroom in both their first (L1) and second (L2) languages. We look also at the extent to…

  18. How Can We Assess Computer-Assisted Reading and Writing Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauthamer, Helene

    This paper addresses the lack of evaluative resources for computer-assisted reading and writing instruction (CARWI). It begins by discussing the benefits, drawbacks, and effectiveness of computer-based instruction. It then describes types of CARWI packages, including: (1) writing process software; (2) electronic handbooks; (3) interactive…

  19. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Struggling Elementary Readers with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Kelley; Berkeley, Sheri; Hughes, Melissa; Kirby, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Despite a lack of conclusive evidence, many researchers in the field view computer-assisted instruction (CAI) as an opportunity for improved instruction for students with disabilities. This study examined the effects of a CAI program, Lexia Strategies for Older Students (SOS)™ on the word recognition skills of four, upper elementary students with…

  20. Environmental Factors Affecting Computer Assisted Language Learning Success: A Complex Dynamic Systems Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…

  1. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Engineering Dynamics. CAI-Systems Memo Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, John W.

    A 90-minute computer-assisted instruction (CAI) unit course supplemented by a 1-hour lecture on the dynamic nature of three-dimensional rotations and Euler angles was given to 29 undergraduate engineering students. The area of Euler angles was selected because it is essential to problem-working in three-dimensional rotations of a rigid body, yet…

  2. Computer-assisted surgery: double surgical guides for immediate loading of implants in maxillary postextractive sites.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Daniele; Malchiodi, Luciano; Cucchi, Alessandro; Canton, Luciano Claudio; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Nocini, Pier Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Implant-supported prostheses are a predictable treatment of totally edentulous patients. Progresses in implantology allowed realizing prostheses that are supported by immediately loading implants. Implants can be inserted in the healed site as fresh extraction sites, without differences about long-term results. Using computer-assisted surgery, it is possible to insert implants in a predetermined position and to create a prostheses, which can be immediately fixed on the implants. Patients have major comfort and an immediate aesthetic and functional result. The use of computer-assisted surgery in fresh extraction sites is a procedure that has not been evaluated because of technical difficulties: teeth extraction eliminates references for surgical guides. The absence of guidelines to treat dentulous areas is often likely caused by lack of computer-assisted surgery: we attempted to use this procedure to replace residual teeth with an immediate implant prosthetic rehabilitation. The aim of this clinical report was to show the possibility to apply computer-assisted surgery in dentulous patient using a double surgical template: one before extraction and the other after extraction of selected teeth.

  3. A Computer-Assisted Teaching System in Pharmacology for Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pazdernik, Thomas L.; Walaszek, Edward J.

    1983-01-01

    Experiences with a combined computer-assisted and computer-managed pharmacology course that allows both scheduled and individual pacing are described. Students with low aptitudes achieved significantly higher scores on the pharmacology portion of a national medical examination after participation. (Author/MSE)

  4. Computer-Assisted Techniques to Enhance Transformative Learning in First-Year Literature Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Marguerite; Kajs, Rebecca; Agee, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates techniques to foster transformative learning in computer-assisted literature classes: (1) a lesson plan on John Donne's "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning"; (2) a plan to analyze "Oedipus Rex" using the "Daedalus" Interactive Writing Environment; and (3) a demonstration of how students engage in "meta-reflection" as they explore…

  5. A Computer-Assisted Test Design and Diagnosis System for Use by Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Q.; Tymms, P.

    2005-01-01

    Computer-assisted assessment (CAA) has become increasingly important in education in recent years. A variety of computer software systems have been developed to help assess the performance of students at various levels. However, such systems are primarily designed to provide objective assessment of students and analysis of test items, and focus…

  6. Persistence of Learning Gains from Computer Assisted Learning: Experimental Evidence from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mo, D.; Zhang, L.; Wang, J.; Huang, W.; Shi, Y.; Boswell, M.; Rozelle, S.

    2015-01-01

    Computer assisted learning (CAL) programs have been shown to be effective in improving educational outcomes. However, the existing studies on CAL have almost all been conducted over a short period of time. There is very little evidence on how the impact evolves over time. In response, we conducted a clustered randomized experiment involving 2741…

  7. The Effect of Adaptive Confidence Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction on Learning and Learner Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Richard Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of including adaptive confidence strategies in instructionally sound computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on learning and learner confidence. Seventy-one general educational development (GED) learners recruited from various GED learning centers at community colleges in the southeast United…

  8. The Effect on Retention of Computer Assisted Instruction in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Izzet

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the retention effect of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on students' academic achievement for teaching the Physics topics. The research includes the Force and Pressure units of 7th grade Science Lesson. In this research, 132 students were structured as both control and experiment groups. Traditional…

  9. What Can Computer Assisted Language Learning Contribute to Foreign Language Pedagogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangs, Paul; Gomez, Pascual Cantos

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. On one hand, to shed new light on the uneasy relationship of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) with foreign language (FL) pedagogy in the past and on the other, to explore the possible contribution of CALL to FL pedagogy. The first part of this research starts with a brief description of the first CALL…

  10. Improving English Pronunciation through Computer-Assisted Programs in Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qudah, Fatima Zaki Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of using computer- assisted programs for teaching English pronunciation on students' performance in English Language pronunciation in Jordanian universities. To achieve the purpose of the study, a pre/post-test was constructed to measure students' level in English pronunciation. The sample…

  11. Promoting Contextual Vocabulary Learning through an Adaptive Computer-Assisted EFL Reading System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Y.-H.

    2016-01-01

    The study developed an adaptive computer-assisted reading system and investigated its effect on promoting English as a foreign language learner-readers' contextual vocabulary learning performance. Seventy Taiwanese college students were assigned to two reading groups. Participants in the customised reading group read online English texts, each of…

  12. The Impact of Computer Assisted Grammar Teaching on EFL Pupils' Performance in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Naba'h, Abdallah M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the impact of using computer assisted grammar teaching on the performance of Jordanian pupils studying English as a foreign language. The sample of the study consisted of (212) secondary pupils distributed randomly on four experimental groups and four control groups. To find out the impact of a software program on…

  13. Opinions and Experiences of Dental Students and Faculty Concerning Computer-Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plasschaert, Alphons J. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A study investigated the experiences and attitudes of students and faculty in three dental schools in England, Netherlands, and the United States concerning computer-assisted learning (CAL), including their access to computers at home and at school, experience with interactive multimedia, and familiarity with the technique. Implications for use of…

  14. Computer Assisted Vocational Math. Written for TRS-80, Model I, Level II, 16K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Judith; And Others

    This computer-assisted curriculum is intended to be used to enhance a vocational mathematics/applied mathematics course. A total of 32 packets were produced to increase the basic mathematics skills of students in the following vocational programs: automotive trades, beauty culture, building trades, climate control, electrical trades,…

  15. Why Should I Present a Thesis on Computer Assisted Ndjebbana on DVD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auld, Glenn

    This paper justifies the presentation of a Ph.D. thesis about computer-assisted Ndjebbana on a digital video disc (DVD). Ndjebbana is a language spoken by 200 Kunibidji, the indigenous landowners of Maningrida on the north coast of Arnhem Land, Australia. Simple digital talking books about the community were created in Ndjebbana and then presented…

  16. Bioassay-guided fractionation of antifouling compounds using computer-assisted motion analysis of brown algal spore swimming.

    PubMed

    Greer, Stephen P; Iken, Katrin; McClintock, James B; Amsler, Charles D

    2006-01-01

    Antifouling extracts from the sea stars Astropecten articulatus and Luidia clathrata and from the brittle star Astrocyclus caecilia were fractionated by solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography. Bioactive fractions were identified with the use of computer-assisted motion analysis-based bioassays utilising previously described Hincksia irregularis spore swimming behaviour parameters. Quantified parameters of spore movement were rate of change of direction (RCD) and speed (SPEE). The methods used initially required only 10 microg equivalent amounts of total crude extract and each resultant resolving step (normalised to 1 mg ml(-1) of crude, unfractionated extract) required far less material. Statistical analyses of RCD and ratios of RCD:SPEE values in experiments comparing swimming in the presence of extract fractions to controls revealed that both parameters were useful individually and in combination for efficiently following compound bioactivity throughout the fractionation procedure. This technique was also able to detect synergistic or additive interactions between compounds.

  17. From computer-assisted intervention research to clinical impact: The need for a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Ourselin, Sébastien; Emberton, Mark; Vercauteren, Tom

    2016-10-01

    The early days of the field of medical image computing (MIC) and computer-assisted intervention (CAI), when publishing a strong self-contained methodological algorithm was enough to produce impact, are over. As a community, we now have substantial responsibility to translate our scientific progresses into improved patient care. In the field of computer-assisted interventions, the emphasis is also shifting from the mere use of well-known established imaging modalities and position trackers to the design and combination of innovative sensing, elaborate computational models and fine-grained clinical workflow analysis to create devices with unprecedented capabilities. The barriers to translating such devices in the complex and understandably heavily regulated surgical and interventional environment can seem daunting. Whether we leave the translation task mostly to our industrial partners or welcome, as researchers, an important share of it is up to us. We argue that embracing the complexity of surgical and interventional sciences is mandatory to the evolution of the field. Being able to do so requires large-scale infrastructure and a critical mass of expertise that very few research centres have. In this paper, we emphasise the need for a holistic approach to computer-assisted interventions where clinical, scientific, engineering and regulatory expertise are combined as a means of moving towards clinical impact. To ensure that the breadth of infrastructure and expertise required for translational computer-assisted intervention research does not lead to a situation where the field advances only thanks to a handful of exceptionally large research centres, we also advocate that solutions need to be designed to lower the barriers to entry. Inspired by fields such as particle physics and astronomy, we claim that centralised very large innovation centres with state of the art technology and health technology assessment capabilities backed by core support staff and open

  18. Usability Characteristics of Sel-Fadministered Computer-Assisted Interviewing in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, D. B.; Nakhasi, A.; Nelson, B.; Rice, S.; Abbott, P. A.; Saber Tehrani, A. S.; Rothman, R. E.; Lehmann, H. P.; Newman-Toker, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Self-administered computer-assisted interviewing (SACAI) gathers accurate information from patients and could facilitate Emergency Department (ED) diagnosis. As part of an ongoing research effort whose long-range goal is to develop automated medical interviewing for diagnostic decision support, we explored usability attributes of SACAI in the ED. Methods Cross-sectional study at two urban, academic EDs. Convenience sample recruited daily over six weeks. Adult, non-level I trauma patients were eligible. We collected data on ease of use (self-reported difficulty, researcher documented need for help), efficiency (mean time-per-click on a standardized interview segment), and error (self-report age mismatched with age derived from electronic health records) when using SACAI on three different instruments: Elo TouchSystems ESY15A2 (finger touch), Toshiba M200 (with digitizer pen), and Motion C5 (with digitizer pen). We calculated descriptive statistics and used regression analysis to evaluate the impact of patient and computer factors on time-per-click. Results 841 participants completed all SACAI questions. Few (<1%) thought using the touch computer to ascertain medical information was difficult. Most (86%) required no assistance. Participants needing help were older (54 ± 19 vs. 40 ± 15 years, p<0.001) and more often lacked internet at home (13.4% vs. 7.3%, p = 0.004). On multivariate analysis, female sex (p<0.001), White (p<0.001) and other (p = 0.05) race (vs. Black race), younger age (p<0.001), internet access at home (p<0.001), high school graduation (p = 0.04), and touch screen entry (vs. digitizer pen) (p = 0.01) were independent predictors of decreased time-per-click. Participant misclick errors were infrequent, but, in our sample, occurred only during interviews using a digitizer pen rather than a finger touch-screen interface (1.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.09). Discussion Our results support the facility of interactions between ED patients and SACAI

  19. An Analysis of the Experience and Effects of Computer Assisted Scheduling in Selected Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomei, Mario Joseph

    The author used interviews, questionnaires, and in-depth interviews to gather data about the use of computer assisted scheduling systems in operation in higher education. The study presents descriptive data about each system and also seeks to identify those institutions operating superior systems. It compares computer assisted scheduling systems…

  20. Surface Modeling, Solid Modeling and Finite Element Modeling. Analysis Capabilities of Computer-Assisted Design and Manufacturing Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, John G.; Kare, Audhut P.

    1987-01-01

    Explores several concepts in computer assisted design/computer assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Defines, evaluates, reviews and compares advanced computer-aided geometric modeling and analysis techniques. Presents the results of a survey to establish the capabilities of minicomputer based-systems with the CAD/CAM packages evaluated. (CW)

  1. Human Factors. Proceedings of the Computer Assisted Language Instruction Consortium (CALICO) Annual Symposium (Flagstaff, Arizona, March 4-18, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchardt, Frank L., Ed.; Johnson, Eleanor M. T., Ed.

    This conference proceedings presents abstracts, complete papers, and author biographies for the 1994 Computer Assisted Language Instruction Consortium (CALICO) annual symposium on human factors in computer-assisted language learning (CALL), specifically the actual use of software by the human learner and teacher. Presented topics included…

  2. Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction: A Review and Assessment of ICAI Research and Its Potential for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Christopher J.; And Others

    The first of five sections in this report places intelligent computer-assisted instruction (ICAI) in its historical context through discussions of traditional computer-assisted instruction (CAI) linear and branching programs; TICCIT and PLATO IV, two CAI demonstration projects funded by the National Science Foundation; generative programs, the…

  3. A Comparative Study of Two ESL Writing Environments: A Computer-Assisted Classroom and a Traditional Oral Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Nancy; Pratt, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    Compares students in two English-as-a-Second-Language writing environments: a networked computer-assisted classroom and a traditional oral classroom. Results indicate that while the writing environment has no effect on attitudes toward writing with computers or writing apprehension, writing quality improves in the computer-assisted classroom and…

  4. The Effect of Active Student Responding during Computer-Assisted Instruction on Social Studies Learning by Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerome, Annamaria; Barbetta, Patricia M.

    2005-01-01

    An alternating treatments design with a best treatments phase was used to compare two active student response (ASR) conditions and one on-task (OT) condition on the acquisition and maintenance of social studies facts during computer-assisted instruction. Each week for six weeks, five students were provided daily computer-assisted instruction on 21…

  5. Effects of a Computer-Assisted Concept Mapping Learning Strategy on EFL College Students' English Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Pei-Lin; Chen, Chiu-Jung; Chang, Yu-Ju

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of a computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on EFL college learners' English reading comprehension. The research questions were: (1) what was the influence of the computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on different learners' English reading comprehension? (2) did…

  6. Using Decision Trees to Detect and Isolate Simulated Leaks in the J-2X Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark A.; Aguilar, Robert; Figueroa, Fernando F.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work was to use data-driven methods to automatically detect and isolate faults in the J-2X rocket engine. It was decided to use decision trees, since they tend to be easier to interpret than other data-driven methods. The decision tree algorithm automatically "learns" a decision tree by performing a search through the space of possible decision trees to find one that fits the training data. The particular decision tree algorithm used is known as C4.5. Simulated J-2X data from a high-fidelity simulator developed at Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne and known as the Detailed Real-Time Model (DRTM) was used to "train" and test the decision tree. Fifty-six DRTM simulations were performed for this purpose, with different leak sizes, different leak locations, and different times of leak onset. To make the simulations as realistic as possible, they included simulated sensor noise, and included a gradual degradation in both fuel and oxidizer turbine efficiency. A decision tree was trained using 11 of these simulations, and tested using the remaining 45 simulations. In the training phase, the C4.5 algorithm was provided with labeled examples of data from nominal operation and data including leaks in each leak location. From the data, it "learned" a decision tree that can classify unseen data as having no leak or having a leak in one of the five leak locations. In the test phase, the decision tree produced very low false alarm rates and low missed detection rates on the unseen data. It had very good fault isolation rates for three of the five simulated leak locations, but it tended to confuse the remaining two locations, perhaps because a large leak at one of these two locations can look very similar to a small leak at the other location.

  7. Gender-based Outcomes and Acceptability of a Computer-assisted Psychosocial Intervention for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Nunes, Edward V.; Pavlicova, Martina; Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Hu, Mei-Chen; Bailey, Genie L.; Sugarman, Dawn E.; Miele, Gloria M.; Rieckmann, Traci; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Turrigiano, Eva; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Digital technologies show promise for increasing treatment accessibility and improving quality of care, but little is known about gender differences. This secondary analysis uses data from a multi-site effectiveness trial of a computer-assisted behavioral intervention, conducted within NIDA's National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network, to explore gender differences in intervention acceptability and treatment outcomes. Methods Men (n=314) and women (n=192) were randomly assigned to 12-weeks of treatment-as-usual (TAU) or modified TAU + Therapeutic Education System (TES), whereby TES substituted for 2 hours of TAU per week. TES is comprised of 62 web-delivered, multimedia modules, covering skills for achieving and maintaining abstinence plus prize-based incentives contingent on abstinence and treatment adherence. Outcomes were: (1) abstinence from drugs and heavy drinking in the last 4 weeks of treatment, (2) retention, (3) social functioning, and (4) drug and alcohol craving. Acceptability was the mean score across five indicators (i.e., interesting, useful, novel, easy to understand, and satisfaction). Results Gender did not moderate the effect of treatment on any outcome. Women reported higher acceptability scores at week 4 (p=.02), but no gender differences were detected at weeks 8 or 12. Acceptability was positively associated with abstinence, but only among women (p=.01). Conclusions Findings suggest that men and women derive similar benefits from participating in a computer-assisted intervention, a promising outcome as technology-based treatments expand. Acceptability was associated with abstinence outcomes among women. Future research should explore characteristics of women who report less satisfaction with this modality of treatment and ways to improve overall acceptability. PMID:25613105

  8. Diabetes Patients' Experiences With the Implementation of Insulin Therapy and Their Perceptions of Computer-Assisted Self-Management Systems for Insulin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gude, Wouter T; Holleman, Frits; Hoekstra, Joost BL; Peek, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Background Computer-assisted decision support is an emerging modality to assist patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in insulin self-titration (ie, self-adjusting insulin dose according to daily blood glucose levels). Computer-assisted insulin self-titration systems mainly focus on helping patients overcome barriers related to the cognitive components of insulin titration. Yet other (eg, psychological or physical) barriers could still impede effective use of such systems. Objective Our primary aim was to identify experiences with and barriers to self-monitoring of blood glucose, insulin injection, and insulin titration among patients with T2DM. Our research team developed a computer-assisted insulin self-titration system, called PANDIT. The secondary aim of this study was to evaluate patients’ perceptions of computer-assisted insulin self-titration. We included patients who used PANDIT in a 4-week pilot study as well as patients who had never used such a system. Methods In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with patients on insulin therapy who were randomly recruited from a university hospital and surrounding general practices in the Netherlands. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed qualitatively. To classify the textual remarks, we created a codebook during the analysis, in a bottom-up and iterative fashion. To support examination of the final coded data, we used three theories from the field of health psychology and the integrated model of user satisfaction and technology acceptance by Wixom and Todd. Results When starting insulin therapy, some patients feared a lifelong commitment to insulin therapy and disease progression. Also, many barriers arose when implementing insulin therapy (eg, some patients were embarrassed to inject insulin in public). Furthermore, patients had difficulties increasing the insulin dose because they fear hypoglycemia, they associate higher insulin doses with disease progression

  9. When change happens: computer assistance and image guidance for minimally invasive therapy.

    PubMed

    Linte, Cristian A; Yaniv, Ziv

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted interventions are medical procedures that rely on image guidance and computer-based systems to provide visualisation and navigation information to the clinician, when direct vision of the sites or targets to be treated is not available, during minimally invasive procedures. Recent advances in medical image acquisition and processing, accompanied by technological breakthroughs in image fusion, visualisation and display have accelerated the adoption of minimally invasive approaches for a variety of medical procedures. This Letter is intended to serve as a brief overview of available image guidance and computer-assisted technology in the context of popular minimally invasive applications, while outlining some of the limitations and challenges in the transition from laboratory to clinical care.

  10. Using CamiTK for rapid prototyping of interactive Computer Assisted Medical Intervention applications

    PubMed Central

    Promayon, Emmanuel; Fouard, Celine; Bailet, Mathieu; Deram, Aurelien; Fiard, Gaelle; Hungr, Nikolai; Luboz, Vincent; Payan, Yohan; Sarrazin, Johan; Saubat, Nicolas; Selmi, Sonia Yuki; Voros, Sandrine; Cinquin, Philippe; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    Computer Assisted Medical Intervention (CAMI hereafter) is a complex multi-disciplinary field. CAMI research requires the collaboration of experts in several fields as diverse as medicine, computer science, mathematics, instrumentation, signal processing, mechanics, modeling, automatics, optics, etc. CamiTK1 is a modular framework that helps researchers and clinicians to collaborate together in order to prototype CAMI applications by regrouping the knowledge and expertise from each discipline. It is an open-source, cross-platform generic and modular tool written in C++ which can handle medical images, surgical navigation, biomedicals simulations and robot control. This paper presents the Computer Assisted Medical Intervention ToolKit (CamiTK) and how it is used in various applications in our research team. PMID:24110841

  11. Computer assisted preoperative planning of bone fracture reduction: Simulation techniques and new trends.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Delgado, Juan J; Paulano-Godino, Félix; PulidoRam-Ramírez, Rubén; Jiménez-Pérez, J Roberto

    2016-05-01

    The development of support systems for surgery significantly increases the likelihood of obtaining satisfactory results. In the case of fracture reduction interventions these systems enable surgery planning, training, monitoring and assessment. They allow improvement of fracture stabilization, a minimizing of health risks and a reduction of surgery time. Planning a bone fracture reduction by means of a computer assisted simulation involves several semiautomatic or automatic steps. The simulation deals with the correct position of osseous fragments and fixation devices for a fracture reduction. Currently, to the best of our knowledge there is no computer assisted methods to plan an entire fracture reduction process. This paper presents an overall scheme of the computer based process for planning a bone fracture reduction, as described above, and details its main steps, the most common proposed techniques and their main shortcomings. In addition, challenges and new trends of this research field are depicted and analyzed.

  12. Personalized, relevance-based Multimodal Robotic Imaging and augmented reality for Computer Assisted Interventions.

    PubMed

    Navab, Nassir; Fellow, Miccai; Hennersperger, Christoph; Frisch, Benjamin; Fürst, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade, many researchers in medical image computing and computer assisted interventions across the world focused on the development of the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH), aiming at changing the practice of medicine from classification and treatment of diseases to that of modeling and treating patients. These projects resulted in major advancements in segmentation, registration, morphological, physiological and biomechanical modeling based on state of art medical imaging as well as other sensory data. However, a major issue which has not yet come into the focus is personalizing intra-operative imaging, allowing for optimal treatment. In this paper, we discuss the personalization of imaging and visualization process with particular focus on satisfying the challenging requirements of computer assisted interventions. We discuss such requirements and review a series of scientific contributions made by our research team to tackle some of these major challenges.

  13. Enhancing the transfer of computer-assisted training proficiency in geographically distributed teams.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, Bradley L; Rosen, Benson; Tesluk, Paul E; Gibson, Cristina B

    2006-05-01

    The authors examined factors that determine whether knowledge gained from computer-assisted (i.e., technology-based) team training in a geographically distributed team (GDT) context transfers to organizational results. They examined the moderating effects of team trust, technology support, and leader experience on the relation between teams' average individual training proficiency on a computer-assisted (i.e., CD-ROM-based) training program and team performance as assessed by team customer satisfaction ratings. Using data collected from 40 GDTs in a high-technology company, the authors found that the relation between teams' average training proficiency and team performance was complex and moderated by several factors. In particular, teams' average training proficiency had a positive association with customer satisfaction when GDTs were higher, rather than lower, in both trust and technology support and when team leaders had longer, rather than shorter, levels of tenure with their specific team. PMID:16737366

  14. Personalized, relevance-based Multimodal Robotic Imaging and augmented reality for Computer Assisted Interventions.

    PubMed

    Navab, Nassir; Fellow, Miccai; Hennersperger, Christoph; Frisch, Benjamin; Fürst, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade, many researchers in medical image computing and computer assisted interventions across the world focused on the development of the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH), aiming at changing the practice of medicine from classification and treatment of diseases to that of modeling and treating patients. These projects resulted in major advancements in segmentation, registration, morphological, physiological and biomechanical modeling based on state of art medical imaging as well as other sensory data. However, a major issue which has not yet come into the focus is personalizing intra-operative imaging, allowing for optimal treatment. In this paper, we discuss the personalization of imaging and visualization process with particular focus on satisfying the challenging requirements of computer assisted interventions. We discuss such requirements and review a series of scientific contributions made by our research team to tackle some of these major challenges. PMID:27475417

  15. Contemporary issues for experimental design in assessment of medical imaging and computer-assist systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Robert F.; Beiden, Sergey V.; Campbell, Gregory; Metz, Charles E.; Sacks, William M.

    2003-05-01

    The dialog among investigators in academia, industry, NIH, and the FDA has grown in recent years on topics of historic interest to attendees of these SPIE sub-conferences on Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment. Several of the most visible issues in this regard have been the emergence of digital mammography and modalities for computer-assisted detection and diagnosis in breast and lung imaging. These issues appear to be only the "tip of the iceberg" foreshadowing a number of emerging advances in imaging technology. So it is timely to make some general remarks looking back and looking ahead at the landscape (or seascape). The advances have been facilitated and documented in several forums. The major role of the SPIE Medical Imaging Conferences i well-known to all of us. Many of us were also present at the Medical Image Perception Society and co-sponsored by CDRH and NCI in September of 2001 at Airlie House, VA. The workshops and discussions held at that conference addressed some critical contemporary issues related to how society - and in particular industry and FDA - approach the general assessment problem. A great deal of inspiration for these discussions was also drawn from several workshops in recent years sponsored by the Biomedical Imaging Program of the National Cancer Institute on these issues, in particular the problem of "The Moving Target" of imaging technology. Another critical phenomenon deserving our attention is the fact that the Fourth National Forum on Biomedical Imaging in Oncology was recently held in Bethesda, MD., February 6-7, 2003. These forums are presented by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). They are sponsored by the National Institutes of Health/Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (NIH/FAES). These forums led to the development of the NCI

  16. Computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstruction and simulations of vestibular macular neural connectivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Chimento, Thomas; Doshay, David; Cheng, Rei

    1992-01-01

    Results of computer-assisted research concerned with the three-dimensional reconstruction and simulations of vestibular macular neural connectivities are summarized. The discussion focuses on terminal/receptive fields, the question of synapses across the striola, endoplasmic reticulum and its potential role in macular information processing, and the inner epithelial plexus. Also included are preliminary results of computer simulations of nerve fiber collateral functioning, an essential step toward the three-dimensional simulation of a functioning macular neural network.

  17. Application of a bi-directional associative memory (BAM) network in computer assisted learning in chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chau, F T; Cheung, B; Tam, K Y; Li, L K

    1994-12-01

    A computer assisted learning software based on a bi-directional associative memory (BAM) network was developed. The software was implemented to assist students in associating the names of the elements in the periodic table with their chemical symbols. The use of the BAM facilitates the analysis and interpretation of students' responses. The software package can be modified easily as an educational tool for other disciplines. PMID:7812638

  18. Effect of decision load on whole-display superiority in change detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Ta; Tseng, Philip; Wu, Yi-Jung

    2015-04-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) refers to our ability in remembering visual information for a limited amount of time. In the VSTM literature, mixed findings have been reported regarding whether items are encoded individually or globally in the context of other items. This study adopted a color change detection task and manipulated color and spatial relations of the items on display to test whether inter-item relational information and processing can facilitate change detection performance. Results showed that only when a post-cue was presented to reduce decision load (Experiments 1 and 3), both color and spatial relations facilitated color change detection. However, when there was no post-cue to lessen the decision load, preserving spatial relations at test impaired color change detection (Experiment 2). Furthermore, spatial and color relational processing interactively affected color change detection. Benefit of the spatial relations was observed only when color grouping cues can aid change detection, and the utilization of color relations was optimized when spatial relations were preserved to cue the retrieval of color relations. Our results support the hierarchical representation hypothesis, which assumes that both individual items and item relations are encoded and maintained in VSTM. The amount of cognitive resources for retrieving different levels of representations is highly constrained by the decision load.

  19. Effect of decision load on whole-display superiority in change detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Ta; Tseng, Philip; Wu, Yi-Jung

    2015-04-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) refers to our ability in remembering visual information for a limited amount of time. In the VSTM literature, mixed findings have been reported regarding whether items are encoded individually or globally in the context of other items. This study adopted a color change detection task and manipulated color and spatial relations of the items on display to test whether inter-item relational information and processing can facilitate change detection performance. Results showed that only when a post-cue was presented to reduce decision load (Experiments 1 and 3), both color and spatial relations facilitated color change detection. However, when there was no post-cue to lessen the decision load, preserving spatial relations at test impaired color change detection (Experiment 2). Furthermore, spatial and color relational processing interactively affected color change detection. Benefit of the spatial relations was observed only when color grouping cues can aid change detection, and the utilization of color relations was optimized when spatial relations were preserved to cue the retrieval of color relations. Our results support the hierarchical representation hypothesis, which assumes that both individual items and item relations are encoded and maintained in VSTM. The amount of cognitive resources for retrieving different levels of representations is highly constrained by the decision load. PMID:25678275

  20. Local Anaesthetic Drug Administration in Dentistry Using Computer Assisted Anaesthetic Delivery System: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sivaramakrishnan, Gowri; Sridharan, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Local anaesthetics play a key role in reducing pain and anxiety during dental treatment. However the disadvantage of using syringe and needle technique in the maxilla, proximal to the apices of the teeth is that it is painful and also leads to collateral anaesthesia. Hence this systematic review aims to identify whether computer assisted local anaesthetic delivery system could produce predictable results similar to conventional syringe needle technique and also eliminate the disadvantages. Method: Electronic databases were searched for eligible studies. A pre-tested data extraction form was created and following data were extracted from each eligible study: trial site, year, trial methods, participants, interventions and outcomes. A significant heterogeneity was seen in between the eligible studies. Results: Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present review. One was cross-over and one split mouth, while others were parallel. Only one was open label and the rest were single blinded. Three studies were conducted in children while the rest in adults. The outcome measurement was directed to measure psychological attributes using visual analog scale, electric pulp testing and pain behaviour code. Conclusion: Unfortunately because of the clinical heterogeneity, meta-analysis could not be performed. Hence it is difficult to conclude that the computer assisted delivery is better than the conventional method, although it was found to perform better. Many high quality studies assessing the efficacy and cost-efficiency of various modes of administration are required to confirm the utility of computer assisted delivery systems. PMID:27733872

  1. Effects of a test taking strategy on postsecondary computer assisted chemistry assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manco, Sharon Ann

    Metacognitive test taking strategies have proven advantageous in improving content-based test scores in a wide variety of disciplines and age/grade levels using traditional paper-and-pencil tests. However, despite the increase in computer assisted assessment (CAA), little research has examined whether these test taking strategies are effective for computer assisted tests. Research was conducted to determine if learning a proven test taking strategy would improve the online quiz scores of six university students in an introductory chemistry course intended for science, technology, engineering and math majors. Participants completed six to ten chemistry quizzes prior to intervention---learning the test taking strategy---and four to eight chemistry quizzes after intervention. Results indicated that, while students learned the strategy, it had little effect on their online chemistry quiz scores. Additionally, at the end of the semester, participants completed a satisfaction survey indicating general satisfaction with having learned the test taking strategy and generalization to other courses and types of tests. Furthermore, results suggest that adaptations to the on-line delivery method of the quizzes and to the test taking strategies may improve the robustness of the effect. Due to the increased use of computer assisted assessment, additional research is warranted to determine appropriate test taking strategies for online tests.

  2. Computer-assisted Minimally Invasive Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion without C-arm Fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masato; Sugimoto, Yoshiharu; Arataki, Shinya; Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Computer-assisted spinal surgery is becoming more common; however, this is the first technical report to describe the technique of minimally invasive spinal posterior lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-PLIF) without using C-arm fluoroscopy. The authors report 2 years of follow-up of a 49-year-old female patient with L4 degenerative spondylolisthesis. The patient suffered from low back pain and intermittent claudication for more than 6 years. The authors performed computer-assisted MIS-PLIF without C-arm fluoroscopy. Instead, O-arm® navigation, the use of which reduces radiation exposure to patients as well as others in the operating room, was employed. Surgery was successful, and correct lumbar alignment was maintained. She had neither neurological deficits nor low back pain at her 12-month final follow-up. In conclusion, computer-assisted MIS-PLIF without C-arm fluoroscopy is a useful technique that reduces radiation exposure to the surgeon and operating room staff.

  3. Clinicians’ Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Medication Summarization of Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xinxin; Cimin, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Each year thousands of patients die of avoidable medication errors. When a patient is admitted to, transferred within, or discharged from a clinical facility, clinicians should review previous medication orders, current orders and future plans for care, and reconcile differences if there are any. If medication reconciliation is not accurate and systematic, medication errors such as omissions, duplications, dosing errors, or drug interactions may occur and cause harm. Computer-assisted medication applications showed promise as an intervention to reduce medication summarization inaccuracies and thus avoidable medication errors. In this study, a computer-assisted medication summarization application, designed to abstract and represent multi-source time-oriented medication data, was introduced to assist clinicians with their medication reconciliation processes. An evaluation study was carried out to assess clinical usefulness and analyze potential impact of such application. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were applied to measure clinicians' performance efficiency and inaccuracy in medication summarization process with and without the intervention of computer-assisted medication application. Clinicians' feedback indicated the feasibility of integrating such a medication summarization tool into clinical practice workflow as a complementary addition to existing electronic health record systems. The result of the study showed potential to improve efficiency and reduce inaccuracy in clinician performance of medication summarization, which could in turn improve care efficiency, quality of care, and patient safety. PMID:24393492

  4. Computer-assisted versus unassisted analysis of the exercise electrocardiogram in patients without myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Detrano, R; Salcedo, E; Leatherman, J; Day, K

    1987-10-01

    Computer-assisted interpretation of the exercise electrocardiogram has been advocated to improve the accuracy of diagnosing coronary artery disease. Its accuracy was compared with a blinded visual interpretation of exercise-induced ST depression in 271 consecutive subjects without prior myocardial infarction who were referred for coronary angiography. The sensitivity of the visual and computer readings was 0.51 and 0.51, respectively, at a specificity of 0.87. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated for the visual and computer ST depression in lead V5. Analysis of the areas under these curves showed no significant difference between them, indicating that computer-assisted analysis was not superior to unmodified visual analysis. A similar analysis was applied to two other computer indexes reported to be superior to visual assessments (treadmill exercise score and ST index). These computer indexes were not superior to a conventional visual analysis of leads I, II, V2, V4 and V5 in predicting severe disease (greater than 50% luminal narrowing). These results suggest that computer-assisted interpretation does not improve the accuracy of exercise electrocardiography in diagnosing coronary artery disease in subjects without prior myocardial infarction.

  5. Usability of an Adaptive Computer Assistant that Improves Self-care and Health Literacy of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Blanson Henkemans, O. A.; Rogers, W. A.; Fisk, A. D.; Neerincx, M. A.; Lindenberg, J.; van der Mast, C. A. P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives We developed an adaptive computer assistant for the supervision of diabetics’ self-care, to support limiting illness and need for acute treatment, and improve health literacy. This assistant monitors self-care activities logged in the patient’s electronic diary. Accordingly, it provides context-aware feedback. The objective was to evaluate whether older adults in general can make use of the computer assistant and to compare an adaptive computer assistant with a fixed one, concerning its usability and contribution to health literacy. Methods We conducted a laboratory experiment in the Georgia Tech Aware Home wherein 28 older adults participated in a usability evaluation of the computer assistant, while engaged in scenarios reflecting normal and health-critical situations. We evaluated the assistant on effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction, and educational value. Finally, we studied the moderating effects of the subjects’ personal characteristics. Results Logging self-care tasks and receiving feedback from the computer assistant enhanced the subjects’ knowledge of diabetes. The adaptive assistant was more effective in dealing with normal and health-critical situations, and, generally, it led to more time efficiency. Subjects’ personal characteristics had substantial effects on the effectiveness and efficiency of the two computer assistants. Conclusions Older adults were able to use the adaptive computer assistant. In addition, it had a positive effect on the development of health literacy. The assistant has the potential to support older diabetics’ self care while maintaining quality of life. PMID:18213433

  6. The Contribution of a Decision Support System to Educational Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Joseph; Ronen, Herman

    2003-01-01

    In the light of reports of bias, the present study investigated the hypothesis that administrative educational decisions assisted by Decision Support Systems (DSS) are characterized by different pedagogical and organizational orientation than decisions made without computer assistance. One hundred and ten high school teachers were asked to suggest…

  7. Focus on Clinical Research: Cognitive Rehabilitation of Severely Closed-Head-Injured Patients Using Computer-Assisted and Noncomputerized Treatment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study compared computer assisted cognitive retraining of 47 patients with severe closed head injury with comparable noncomputerized treatment techniques. Results on neuropsychological tests did not support the increased effectiveness of the computer assisted cognitive therapy. (DB)

  8. Signal detection by human observers: a cutoff reinforcement learning model of categorization decisions under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Erev, I

    1998-04-01

    Previous experimental examinations of binary categorization decisions have documented robust behavioral regularities that cannot be predicted by signal detection theory (D.M. Green & J.A. Swets, 1966/1988). The present article reviews the known regularities and demonstrates that they can be accounted for by a minimal modification of signal detection theory: the replacement of the "ideal observer" cutoff placement rule with a cutoff reinforcement learning rule. This modification is derived from a cognitive game theoretic analysis (A.E. Roth & I. Erev, 1995). The modified model reproduces all 19 experimental regularities that have been considered. In all cases,it outperforms the original explanations. Some of these previous explanations are based on important concepts such as conservatism, probability matching, and "the gambler's fallacy" that receive new meanings given the current results. Implications for decision-making research and for applications of traditional signal detection theory are discussed.

  9. An Exploratory Study of a Computer-Assisted Abuse Awareness and Safety Planning Program for Men With Disabilities: The Men's Safer and Stronger Program.

    PubMed

    Oschwald, Mary; Lund, Emily M; Latorre, Allyn; Shelton, Rollin; Hughes, Rosemary B; Liston, Bob; Flaherty, Michael C; Powers, Laurie E

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) is a serious and often unrecognized problem for men with disabilities (MWD). However, abuse awareness programs and outcome measures have not been systematically evaluated in MWD. This article reports findings from an exploratory study (n = 31) of the Safer and Stronger Program for Men with Disabilities (Men's SSP), an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) abuse awareness program. Preliminary findings suggest it is sensitive toward detecting abuse and it allows MWD to privately and independently self-identify IPV experiences. Preliminary psychometric data on a battery of abuse and safety awareness outcome measures suggest that they are reliable in this population. PMID:25671458

  10. An Exploratory Study of a Computer-Assisted Abuse Awareness and Safety Planning Program for Men With Disabilities: The Men's Safer and Stronger Program.

    PubMed

    Oschwald, Mary; Lund, Emily M; Latorre, Allyn; Shelton, Rollin; Hughes, Rosemary B; Liston, Bob; Flaherty, Michael C; Powers, Laurie E

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) is a serious and often unrecognized problem for men with disabilities (MWD). However, abuse awareness programs and outcome measures have not been systematically evaluated in MWD. This article reports findings from an exploratory study (n = 31) of the Safer and Stronger Program for Men with Disabilities (Men's SSP), an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) abuse awareness program. Preliminary findings suggest it is sensitive toward detecting abuse and it allows MWD to privately and independently self-identify IPV experiences. Preliminary psychometric data on a battery of abuse and safety awareness outcome measures suggest that they are reliable in this population.

  11. Vertex potentials evoked during auditory signal detection - Relation to decision criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squires, K. C.; Hillyard, S. A.; Lindsay, P. H.

    1973-01-01

    Vertex potentials were recorded from eight subjects performing in an auditory threshold detection task with rating scale responses. The amplitudes and latencies of both the N1 and the late positive (P3) components were found to vary systematically with the criterion level of the decision. These changes in the waveshape of the N1 component were comparable to those produced by varying the signal intensity in a passive condition, but the late positive component in the active task was not similarly related to the passively evoked P2 component. It was suggested that the N1 and P3 components represent distinctive aspects of the decision process, with N1 signifying the quantity of signal information received and P3 reflecting the certainty of the decision based upon that information.

  12. A novel anomaly detection approach based on clustering and decision-level fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shengwei; Zhang, Ye

    2015-09-01

    In hyperspectral image processing, anomaly detection is a valuable way of searching targets whose spectral characteristics are not known, and the estimation of background signals is the key procedure. On account of the high dimensionality and complexity of hyperspectral image, dimensionality reduction and background suppression is necessary. In addition, the complementarity of different anomaly detection algorithms can be utilized to improve the effectiveness of anomaly detection. In this paper, we propose a novel method of anomaly detection, which is based on clustering of optimized K-means and decision-level fusion. In our proposed method, pixels with similar features are firstly clustered using an optimized k-means method. Secondly, dimensionality reduction is conducted using principle component analysis to reduce the amount of calculation. Then, to increase the accuracy of detection and decrease the false-alarm ratio, both Reed-Xiaoli (RX) and Kernel RX algorithm are used on processed image. Lastly, a decision-level fusion is processed on the detection results. A simulated hyperspectral image and a real hyperspectral one are both used to evaluate the performance of our proposed method. Visual analysis and quantative analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that our algorithm can achieve better performance when compared with other classic approaches and state-of-the-art approaches.

  13. Quantitative prediction of perceptual decisions during near-threshold fear detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessoa, Luiz; Padmala, Srikanth

    2005-04-01

    A fundamental goal of cognitive neuroscience is to explain how mental decisions originate from basic neural mechanisms. The goal of the present study was to investigate the neural correlates of perceptual decisions in the context of emotional perception. To probe this question, we investigated how fluctuations in functional MRI (fMRI) signals were correlated with behavioral choice during a near-threshold fear detection task. fMRI signals predicted behavioral choice independently of stimulus properties and task accuracy in a network of brain regions linked to emotional processing: posterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, and left insula. We quantified the link between fMRI signals and behavioral choice in a whole-brain analysis by determining choice probabilities by means of signal-detection theory methods. Our results demonstrate that voxel-wise fMRI signals can reliably predict behavioral choice in a quantitative fashion (choice probabilities ranged from 0.63 to 0.78) at levels comparable to neuronal data. We suggest that the conscious decision that a fearful face has been seen is represented across a network of interconnected brain regions that prepare the organism to appropriately handle emotionally challenging stimuli and that regulate the associated emotional response. decision making | emotion | functional MRI

  14. Thermodynamic Properties of Asphaltenes: A Predictive Approach Based On Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation and Atomistic Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, Mamadou S.; Cagin, Tahir; Faulon, Jean Loup; Goddard, William A.

    2000-08-01

    The authors describe a new methodology for predicting the thermodynamic properties of petroleum geomacromolecules (asphaltenes and resins). This methodology combines computer assisted structure elucidation (CASE) with atomistic simulations (molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics and statistical mechanics). They use quantitative and qualitative structural data as input to a CASE program (SIGNATURE) to generate a sample of ten asphaltene model structures for a Saudi crude oil (Arab Berri). MM calculations and MD simulations are used to estimate selected volumetric and thermal properties of the model structures.

  15. Computer-assisted three-dimensional surgical planning and simulation: 3D virtual osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Xia, J; Ip, H H; Samman, N; Wang, D; Kot, C S; Yeung, R W; Tideman, H

    2000-02-01

    A computer-assisted three-dimensional virtual osteotomy system for orthognathic surgery (CAVOS) is presented. The virtual reality workbench is used for surgical planning. The surgeon immerses in a virtual reality environment with stereo eyewear, holds a virtual "scalpel" (3D Mouse) and operates on a "real" patient (3D visualization) to obtain pre-surgical prediction (3D bony segment movements). Virtual surgery on a computer-generated 3D head model is simulated and can be visualized from any arbitrary viewing point in a personal computer system.

  16. Towards Projector-Based Visualization for Computer-Assisted CABG at the Open Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, Christine; Gnahm, Claudia; Sailer, Stefan; Schenderlein, Marcel; Friedl, Reinhard; Hoffmann, Martin; Dietmayer, Klaus

    Computer-assistance in coronary artery bypass grafting at the open heart with intraoperative navigation enables accurate placement of a bypass graft to a preoperatively planned anastomosis site. So far, navigation information were displayed on a monitor, requiring the operating surgeon to change focus from the monitor to the surgical site and vice versa during the navigation process. In this work, a mechanism is presented which is intended to enable the projection of registered preprocedural information directly onto the surface of the open heart. The method was tested on a heart phantom yielding good results.

  17. Innovation in engineering education through computer assisted learning and virtual university model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicu, A.; Raicu, G.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents the most important aspects of innovation in Engineering Education using Computer Assisted Learning. The authors propose to increase the quality of Engineering Education programs of study at European standards. The use of computer assisted learning methodologies in all studies is becoming an important resource in Higher Education. We intend to improve the concept of e-Learning using virtual terminals, online support and assisting special training through live seminars and interactive labs to develop a virtual university model. We intend to encourage computer assisted learning and innovation as sources of competitive advantage, to permit vision and learning analysis, identifies new sources of technology and ideas. Our work is based on our university datasets collected during last fifteen years using several e-Learning systems. In Constanta Maritime University (CMU), using eLearning and Knowledge Management Services (KMS) is very important and we apply it effectively to achieve strategic objectives, such as collaboration, sharing and good practice. We have experience in this field since 2000 year using Moodle as KMS in our university. The term KMS can be associated to Open Source Software, Open Standards, Open Protocols and Open Knowledge licenses, initiatives and policies. In CMU Virtual Campus we have today over 12500 active users. Another experience of the authors is the implementation of MariTrainer Wiki educational platform based on Dokeos and DekiWiki under MARICOMP and MEP Leonardo da Vinci Project. We'll also present in this paper a case study under EU funded project POSDRU, where the authors implemented other educational platform in Technological High Schools from Romania used over 1000 teachers. Based on large datasets the study tries to improve the concept of e-Learning teaching using the revolutionary technologies. The new concept present in this paper is that the teaching and learning will be interactive and live. The new and modern

  18. Direct supervision: adding computer-assisted feedback and data capture to live supervision.

    PubMed

    Smith, R C; Mead, D E; Kinsella, J A

    1998-01-01

    This is a critical review of live supervision with emphasis on technical innovations such as earphones or bug-in-the-ear, Teleprompters, and computers. A computer-assisted approach is described that overcomes many criticisms of live supervision. Direct supervision uses a computer monitor to unobtrusively provide information to the therapist about the supervisor's perceptions of the clients' and therapist's behavior, the expected therapeutic behaviors, and the therapist's "on target" behavior. Direct supervision has the advantage over other forms of supervision by providing an immediate, continuous, and permanent record for postsession supervision and for research into the supervisor-therapist-client process. The paper provides several suggestions for research.

  19. Computer-Assisted Generation of Patterns and Virtual Reality Techniques for Fashion Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, Mickael; Richard, Paul; Chapeau-Blondeau, François

    2009-03-01

    We present a methodology for the design of aesthetic patterns and their visualization on virtual clothes. Generated patterns are directly mapped on the dress of a virtual mannequin. Furthermore, patterns sets may be interactively mapped on the virtual dress using a specific 3D interaction technique called Back-and-Forth. Pattern generation involves different mathematical approaches such as iterated function systems (IFS) and nonlinear trajectory models. Both model parameters and color space exploration is performed through a simple user interface. This work contributes to promote both computer assistance in the context of mass customization for fashion design.

  20. Acquisition of basic concepts by children with intellectual disabilities using a computer-assisted learning approach.

    PubMed

    Alcade, C; Navarro, J I; Marchena, E; Ruiz, G

    1998-06-01

    Computer-assisted learning can be an efficient learning-teaching procedure. Although there is an extensive educational software tradition for this approach, few have better performance than standard drill-and-practice methods. In this work, the specific software "Let's Play With..." was designed to teach concepts of colours, shapes, and body position to children with intellectual disabilities. The software structure follows the Gagné instructional design and applied behaviour analysis. The program was carried out with 39 boys and 21 girls who were special education students in the Cadiz School District. Statistically significant differences were found between groups taught with and without the software.

  1. Physics and engineering aspects of cell and tissue imaging systems: microscopic devices and computer assisted diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaodong; Ren, Liqiang; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    The conventional optical microscopes have been used widely in scientific research and in clinical practice. The modern digital microscopic devices combine the power of optical imaging and computerized analysis, archiving and communication techniques. It has a great potential in pathological examinations for improving the efficiency and accuracy of clinical diagnosis. This chapter reviews the basic optical principles of conventional microscopes, fluorescence microscopes and electron microscopes. The recent developments and future clinical applications of advanced digital microscopic imaging methods and computer assisted diagnosis schemes are also discussed.

  2. Development of software for computer assisted model simplification. Final report. [Lagrange multipliers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-25

    The final report of DBS Corporation on the model simplification project is presented. The purpose of the project is to develop computer-assisted model simplification. The contributions of DBS to this project where an initial overall project assessment, contributions to design principles and testing procedures, specific experimental designs, and initial test results. The main contributions of DBS to this project were in the area of LP matrix scaling, and particularly in the potential usefulness of shadow price information for model simplification. An algorithm for obtaining approximate shadow price information was developed and subjected to initial small-scale testing with promising results.

  3. Applications of computer assisted surgery and medical robotics at the ISSSTE, México: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Mosso, José Luis; Pohl, Mauricio; Jimenez, Juan Ramon; Valdes, Raquel; Yañez, Oscar; Medina, Veronica; Arambula, Fernando; Padilla, Miguel Angel; Marquez, Jorge; Gastelum, Alfonso; Mosso, Alejo; Frausto, Juan

    2007-01-01

    We present the first results of four projects of a second phase of a Mexican Project Computer Assisted Surgery and Medical Robotics, supported by the Mexican Science and Technology National Council (Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología) under grant SALUD-2002-C01-8181. The projects are being developed by three universities (UNAM, UAM, ITESM) and the goal of this project is to integrate a laboratory in a Hospital of the ISSSTE to give service to surgeons or clinicians of Endoscopic surgeons, urologist, gastrointestinal endoscopist and neurosurgeons.

  4. A web ontology for brain trauma patient computer-assisted rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Zikos, Dimitrios; Galatas, George; Metsis, Vangelis; Makedon, Fillia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe CABROnto, which is a web ontology for the semantic representation of the computer assisted brain trauma rehabilitation. This is a novel and emerging domain, since it employs the use of robotic devices, adaptation software and machine learning to facilitate interactive and adaptive rehabilitation care. We used Protégé 4.2 and Protégé-Owl schema editor. The primary goal of this ontology is to enable the reuse of the domain knowledge. CABROnto has nine main classes, more than 50 subclasses, existential and cardinality restrictions. The ontology can be found online at Bioportal.

  5. A Fuzzy-Decision Based Approach for Composite Event Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shukui; Chen, Hao; Zhu, Qiaoming

    2014-01-01

    The event detection is one of the fundamental researches in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Due to the consideration of various properties that reflect events status, the Composite event is more consistent with the objective world. Thus, the research of the Composite event becomes more realistic. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of the Composite event; then we propose a criterion to determine the area of the Composite event and put forward a dominating set based network topology construction algorithm under random deployment. For the unreliability of partial data in detection process and fuzziness of the event definitions in nature, we propose a cluster-based two-dimensional τ-GAS algorithm and fuzzy-decision based composite event decision mechanism. In the case that the sensory data of most nodes are normal, the two-dimensional τ-GAS algorithm can filter the fault node data effectively and reduce the influence of erroneous data on the event determination. The Composite event judgment mechanism which is based on fuzzy-decision holds the superiority of the fuzzy-logic based algorithm; moreover, it does not need the support of a huge rule base and its computational complexity is small. Compared to CollECT algorithm and CDS algorithm, this algorithm improves the detection accuracy and reduces the traffic. PMID:25136690

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Clinical Decision Support System in Improving Maternal Health Care in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Dalaba, Maxwell Ayindenaba; Akweongo, Patricia; Aborigo, Raymond Akawire; Saronga, Happiness Pius; Williams, John; Blank, Antje; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Sauerborn, Rainer; Loukanova, Svetla

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper investigated the cost-effectiveness of a computer-assisted Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) in the identification of maternal complications in Ghana. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed in a before- and after-intervention study. Analysis was conducted from the provider’s perspective. The intervention area was the Kassena- Nankana district where computer-assisted CDSS was used by midwives in maternal care in six selected health centres. Six selected health centers in the Builsa district served as the non-intervention group, where the normal Ghana Health Service activities were being carried out. Results Computer-assisted CDSS increased the detection of pregnancy complications during antenatal care (ANC) in the intervention health centres (before-intervention= 9 /1,000 ANC attendance; after-intervention= 12/1,000 ANC attendance; P-value=0.010). In the intervention health centres, there was a decrease in the number of complications during labour by 1.1%, though the difference was not statistically significant (before-intervention =107/1,000 labour clients; after-intervention= 96/1,000 labour clients; P-value=0.305). Also, at the intervention health centres, the average cost per pregnancy complication detected during ANC (cost –effectiveness ratio) decreased from US$17,017.58 (before-intervention) to US$15,207.5 (after-intervention). Incremental cost –effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated at US$1,142. Considering only additional costs (cost of computer-assisted CDSS), cost per pregnancy complication detected was US$285. Conclusions Computer –assisted CDSS has the potential to identify complications during pregnancy and marginal reduction in labour complications. Implementing computer-assisted CDSS is more costly but more effective in the detection of pregnancy complications compared to routine maternal care, hence making the decision to implement CDSS very complex. Policy makers should however be guided by whether

  7. Doppler detection of decompression bubbles with computer assisted digitization of ultrasonic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, B. D.; Robinson, R.; Fife, C.; Sutton, T.

    1991-01-01

    The use of an inexpensive, commercially available audio digitizer in conjunction with a PC to digitize Doppler bubble signals for visual and electronic evaluation is reported. This device can be operated simultaneously with Doppler audio monitoring. Precordial and arterial Doppler recordings of gas bubbles were obtained from anesthetized dogs after intravascular infusion or following decompression. Additional evaluations were conducted on Doppler bubble recordings obtained from human decompression studies. The device can be used in real-time or for later signal analysis. Accompanying menu-driven software provides for numerous signal modification options and visual displays. This device can provide a simultaneous visual display of Doppler signals normally available only for audio evaluation.

  8. 77 FR 39498 - Guidances for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Computer-Assisted Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidances for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Approval and Premarket Notification (510(k)) Submissions; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability...

  9. Computer-assisted evaluation of contrast kinetics for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Abhishek; Bhargava, Puneet; Kolokythas, Orpheus; Mitsumori, Lee M; Maki, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the use of semiquantitative contrast-enhanced parameter analysis as an objective criteria for improving the magnetic resonance (MR) evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis. Contrast-enhanced MR examination findings from 19 patients with 21 pathologically proven HCC were evaluated using a dedicated liver image postprocessing workstation. Contrast-enhancement kinetic curves were created for each lesion, and 4 enhancement parameters (arterial wash-in slope, arterial-portal slope, arterial-equilibrium slope, and portal-equilibrium slope) were defined from the signal intensity-time plots. The accuracy of each enhancement parameter for the characterization of HCC was assessed. Statistical analysis revealed that an arterial-phase wash-in slope percentage value >1.35 per sec had a sensitivity of 86%, a specificity of 71%, and an accuracy of 79% for the correct characterization of HCC, whereas an arterial-equilibrium wash-out slope percentage value<0.05 per sec had a sensitivity of 86%, a specificity of 81%, and an accuracy of 83%. Although there were significant differences among all groups, the greatest accuracy for differentiation based on receiver operating curve analysis appears to be with arterial and arterial-equilibrium phases. Semiquantitative analysis of lesion contrast kinetics could provide objective parameters to improve the characterization of HCC on contrast-enhanced MR images.

  10. Computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty using patient-specific templating.

    PubMed

    Hafez, M A; Chelule, K L; Seedhom, B B; Sherman, K P

    2006-03-01

    Current techniques used for total knee arthroplasty rely on conventional instrumentation that violates the intramedullary canals. Accuracy of the instrumentation is questionable, and assembly and disposal of the numerous pieces is time consuming. Navigation techniques are more accurate, but their broad application is limited by cost and complexity. We aimed to prove a new concept of computer-assisted preoperative planning to provide patient-specific templates that can replace conventional instruments. Computed tomography-based planning was used to design two virtual templates. Using rapid prototyping technology, virtual templates were transferred into physical templates (cutting blocks) with surfaces that matched the distal femur and proximal tibia. We performed 45 total knee arthroplasties on 16 cadaveric and 29 plastic knees, including a comparative trial against conventional instrumentations. All operations were performed using patient-specific templates with no conventional instrumentations, intramedullary perforation, tracking, or registration. The mean time for bone cutting was 9 minutes with a surgical assistant and 11 minutes without an assistant. Computer-assisted analyses of six random computed tomography scans showed mean errors for alignment and bone resection within 1.7 degrees and 0.8 mm (maximum, 2.3 degrees and 1.2 mm, respectively). Patient-specific templates are a practical alternative to conventional instrumentations, but additional clinical validation is required before clinical use.

  11. Design of computer-assisted education programs for optics and photonics: implications of educational technology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.

    2002-05-01

    The design of computer-assisted educational materials and programs is a speciality of science education and relies heavily upon the results of science education and educational technology research. This paper explores the implications of this research for successful computer- assisted instruction. Two areas are examined: (1) Simulations and problem-based learning environments. (2) The basis for the evaluation of distance learning course software. Examples will be given using a project developed by the NASA Classroom of the Future, at the Center for Educational Technologies at Wheeling Jesuit University. There are a number of optics-related computer simulations in CD-ROM based programs such as the award winning Astronomy Village: Investigating the Universe. Most educational designers can identify the characteristics of a good educational simulation. The design of an entire course delivered over the Internet requires high quality software that can maximize not only course material delivery but the conversation and information exchange that must take place as well. A model approach for an entire course using such software will be presented. Particular care will be given to how one evaluates the course software.

  12. Computer-assisted continuous infusions of fentanyl during cardiac anesthesia: comparison with a manual method.

    PubMed

    Alvis, J M; Reves, J G; Govier, A V; Menkhaus, P G; Henling, C E; Spain, J A; Bradley, E

    1985-07-01

    The design and implementation of a computer-assisted continuous infusion (CACI) system to rapidly attain and maintain a constant plasma fentanyl concentration (PFC), as well as a CACI system that allowed the anesthesiologist to change the plasma level of fentanyl during cardiac anesthesia, were developed. In 30 patients (three groups of 10 patients each) these two automated methods of fentanyl infusion were compared with a manual fentanyl administration method. There was excellent agreement in the measured/predicted PFC ratios with the CACI stable fentanyl level system (ratio = 0.99, n = 91) and in the CACI variable fentanyl level system (ratio = 1.08, n = 79). The stable fentanyl level group of patients received significantly more (P less than 0.05) fentanyl than did the other groups. The CACI variable fentanyl level group of patients had greater hemodynamic stability, required significantly (P less than 0.05) fewer adjuvant drug interventions and experienced significantly (P less than 0.05) fewer hypotensive and hypertensive episodes than the manual, bolus fentanyl (control) group. These data show that a computer-assisted automated infusion of fentanyl is safe and as good as manual methods. CACI has greater potential as a new method of intravenous anesthesia administration. PMID:3874568

  13. Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI) in Teaching of Mathematics at Secondary Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhevakrishnan, R.; Devi, S.; Chinnaiyan, K.

    2012-09-01

    The present study was aimed at effectiveness of computer assisted instructions (CAI) in teaching of mathematics at secondary level adopted experimental method and observing the difference between (CAI) and traditional method. A sample of sixty (60) students of IX class in VVB Matriculation Higher Secondary School at Elayampalayam, Namakkal district were selected for a sample and sample was divided into two group namely experiment and control group. The experimental group consisted 30 students who were taught 'Mensurationí by the computer assisted instructions and the control groups comprising 30 students were taught by the conventional method of teaching. Data analyzed using mean, S.D. and t-test. Findings of the study clearly point out that significant increase in the mean gain scores has been found in the post test scores of the experimental group. Significant differences have been found between the control group and experimental group on post test gain scores. The experiment group, which was taught by the CAI showed better, learning. The conclusion is evident that the CAI is an effective media of instruction for teaching Mathematics at secondary students.s

  14. Using embedded computer-assisted instruction to teach science to students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bethany

    The need for promoting scientific literacy for all students has been the focus of recent education reform resulting in the rise of the Science Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics movement. For students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and intellectual disability, this need for scientific literacy is further complicated by the need for individualized instruction that is often required to teach new skills, especially when those skills are academic in nature. In order to address this need for specialized instruction, as well as scientific literacy, this study investigated the effects of embedded computer-assisted instruction to teach science terms and application of those terms to three middle school students with autism and intellectual disability. This study was implemented within an inclusive science classroom setting. A multiple probe across participants research design was used to examine the effectiveness of the intervention. Results of this study showed a functional relationship between the number of correct responses made during probe sessions and introduction of the intervention. Additionally, all three participants maintained the acquired science terms and applications over time and generalized these skills across materials and settings. The findings of this study suggest several implications for practice within inclusive settings and provide suggestions for future research investigating the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction to teach academic skills to students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and intellectual disability.

  15. A Brief Review of Computer-Assisted Approaches to Rational Design of Peptide Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Ashesh; Basak, Subhash C

    2016-01-01

    The growing incidences of new viral diseases and increasingly frequent viral epidemics have strained therapeutic and preventive measures; the high mutability of viral genes puts additional strains on developmental efforts. Given the high cost and time requirements for new drugs development, vaccines remain as a viable alternative, but there too traditional techniques of live-attenuated or inactivated vaccines have the danger of allergenic reactions and others. Peptide vaccines have, over the last several years, begun to be looked on as more appropriate alternatives, which are economically affordable, require less time for development and hold the promise of multi-valent dosages. The developments in bioinformatics, proteomics, immunogenomics, structural biology and other sciences have spurred the growth of vaccinomics where computer assisted approaches serve to identify suitable peptide targets for eventual development of vaccines. In this mini-review we give a brief overview of some of the recent trends in computer assisted vaccine development with emphasis on the primary selection procedures of probable peptide candidates for vaccine development. PMID:27153063

  16. [Computer-assisted insertion of zygomatic implants (Brånemark system) after extensive tumor surgery].

    PubMed

    Schramm, A; Gellrich, N C; Schimming, R; Schmelzeisen, R

    2000-09-01

    Installation of fixtures for prosthetic reconstruction of the upper jaw in patients with extensive bone and soft tissue defects is still a challenge. The new fixture developed by Brånemark System achieves immediate prosthetic reconstruction by anchoring implants in the zygomatic bone to offer sufficient support without bone grafts. The dimension of these zygomatic fixtures and the complex anatomy due to previous surgical procedures demand specific treatment for a precise and safe insertion of the implants. On the basis of an axial spiral CT data set, the STN navigation system (Stryker-Leibinger/Zeiss) was used for preoperative planning and intraoperative control of the insertion of zygomatic fixtures after subtotal maxillectomy. Computer-assisted insertion of zygomatic fixtures was successfully completed. The implants could be positioned precisely as preoperatively planned. The use of zygomatic fixtures after ablative tumor surgery with resection of the maxillary bone provides immediate prosthetic reconstruction without additional bone grafting. Computer-assisted insertion of these implants improves preoperative planning and facilitates clinical procedure.

  17. Boolean Combinations of Implicit Functions for Model Clipping in Computer-Assisted Surgical Planning

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an interactive method of model clipping for computer-assisted surgical planning. The model is separated by a data filter that is defined by the implicit function of the clipping path. Being interactive to surgeons, the clipping path that is composed of the plane widgets can be manually repositioned along the desirable presurgical path, which means that surgeons can produce any accurate shape of the clipped model. The implicit function is acquired through a recursive algorithm based on the Boolean combinations (including Boolean union and Boolean intersection) of a series of plane widgets’ implicit functions. The algorithm is evaluated as highly efficient because the best time performance of the algorithm is linear, which applies to most of the cases in the computer-assisted surgical planning. Based on the above stated algorithm, a user-friendly module named SmartModelClip is developed on the basis of Slicer platform and VTK. A number of arbitrary clipping paths have been tested. Experimental results of presurgical planning for three types of Le Fort fractures and for tumor removal demonstrate the high reliability and efficiency of our recursive algorithm and robustness of the module. PMID:26751685

  18. Computer-assisted optics teaching at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soboleva, Natalia N.; Kozel, Stanislav M.; Lockshin, Gennady R.; Entin, M. A.; Galichsky, K. V.; Lebedinsky, P. L.; Zhdanovich, P. M.

    1995-10-01

    Traditional methods used in optics teaching lack clarity and vividness when illustrating abstract notions such as polarization or interference. Here's where computer models may help, but they usually show only a single phenomenon or process and don't let the student see the entire picture. For this reason at Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology was developed the courseware 'Wave Optics on the Computer' consisting of a number of related simulations. It is intended for students studying optics at the Universities. Recently we have developed different simulations in optics for secondary school level. They are included as part of large computer courseware 'Physics by Pictures'. The courseware 'Wave Optics on the Computer' consists of nine large simulation programs and the textbook. The programs are simulating basic phenomena of wave optics. parameters of optical systems can be varied by the user. The textbook contains theoretical considerations on studied optical phenomena, recommendations concerning work with computer programs, and, especially for those wishing to deeper understand wave optics, original problems for individual solution. At the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology the course 'Wave Optics on the Computer' is used for teaching optics in the course of general physics. The course provides both the computer assisted teaching for lectures support and computer assisted learning for students during seminars in the computer classroom.

  19. Using computer-assisted learning to engage diverse learning styles in understanding business management principles

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Mary E.; Derby, Dustin C.; Haan, Andrea G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Changes in small business and insurance present challenges for newly graduated chiropractors. Technology that reaches identified, diverse learning styles may assist the chiropractic student in business classes to meet course outcomes better. Thus, the purpose of our study is to determine if the use of technology-based instructional aids enhance students' mastery of course learning outcomes. Methods Using convenience sampling, 86 students completed a survey assessing course learning outcomes, learning style, and the helpfulness of lecture and computer-assisted learning related to content mastery. Quantitative analyses occurred. Results Although respondents reported not finding the computer-assisted learning as helpful as the lecture, significant relationships were found between pre- and post-assisted learning measures of the learning outcomes 1 and 2 for the visual and kinesthetic groups. Surprisingly, however, all learning style groups exhibited significant pre- and post-assisted learning appraisal relationships with learning outcomes 3 and 4. Conclusion While evidence exists within the current study of a relationship between students' learning of the course content corollary to the use of technologic instructional aids, the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear. PMID:24087903

  20. Impact Of Manual And Computer-Assisted PACS For Automated PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, James L.

    1983-05-01

    Considerations of totally electronic picture archiving system (PACS) often neglect the fact that every radiology practice currently has some system for storing and retrieving images and related alphanumeric data. Although these systems are usually manual, many departments now use on-line computers to help manage film flow. In either event, the creation of electronic PACS can be viewed as a classic data processing problem of automating an existing system, and the conversion should proceed through the usual steps of documenting the existing system in detail, and conducting feasibility studies and cost-benefit analyses. Documenting current systems should be facilitated by computer-assisted PACS - particularly documenting transaction volumes which can be provided as a by-product of radiology information management systems. Similarly cost-benefit analysis should be facilitated, although the cost/benefit ratio may be less favorable when comparing automated to computer-assisted PACS. Finally, information management features such as those provided by current on-line radiology systems provide a framework necessary to realize the full benefits of automated PACS.