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Sample records for computer-assisted interview instrument

  1. Validation of a substance and alcohol use assessment instrument among orphans and vulnerable children in Zambia using Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interviewing (ACASI)

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Jeremy C.; Murray, Laura K.; Bass, Judith K.; Johnson, Renee M.; Bolton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Substance and alcohol misuse is a global problem that increases the risk of HIV infection. This is a concern among orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in sub-Saharan Africa who may have elevated substance use rates. The Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) is a reliable and valid instrument of substance use among adults in primary care high-income settings. This study examined psychometric properties of the ASSIST among OVC in Zambia using Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interviewing (ACASI). Methods Baseline data from an ongoing randomized trial of interventions to reduce HIV risk behaviors were analyzed. The analysis included 502 OVC ages 13-17 living in low-income, high-density neighborhoods in Lusaka, Zambia. Internal consistency of the ASSIST was assessed and discriminant validity was measured using items from the Youth Self Report as criterion variables. Results Internal reliability was strong with a Cronbach's alpha of ≥0.80 for each of the specific substance scales and total substance involvement. For all substances except tobacco and sedatives, discriminant validity was demonstrated in distinguishing between low risk use and moderate use. Sensitivity and specificity analysis indicated adequate area under the curve across substance types (AUC range: 0.68 – 0.80). Discrimination between moderate and high risk was demonstrated for alcohol and total substance involvement. Conclusions ASSIST administered via ACASI is a reliable instrument and an appropriate tool for distinguishing between low and hazardous substance use among adolescent OVC populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Additional examination is warranted to determine its ability to measure gradations of severity within hazardous use. PMID:27402551

  2. Computer-assisted self interviewing in sexual health clinics.

    PubMed

    Fairley, Christopher K; Sze, Jun Kit; Vodstrcil, Lenka A; Chen, Marcus Y

    2010-11-01

    This review describes the published information on what constitutes the elements of a core sexual history and the use of computer-assisted self interviewing (CASI) within sexually transmitted disease clinics. We searched OVID Medline from 1990 to February 2010 using the terms "computer assisted interviewing" and "sex," and to identify published articles on a core sexual history, we used the term "core sexual history." Since 1990, 3 published articles used a combination of expert consensus, formal clinician surveys, and the Delphi technique to decide on what questions form a core sexual health history. Sexual health histories from 4 countries mostly ask about the sex of the partners, the number of partners (although the time period varies), the types of sex (oral, anal, and vaginal) and condom use, pregnancy intent, and contraceptive methods. Five published studies in the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom compared CASI with in person interviews in sexually transmitted disease clinics. In general, CASI identified higher risk behavior more commonly than clinician interviews, although there were substantial differences between studies. CASI was found to be highly acceptable and individuals felt it allowed more honest reporting. Currently, there are insufficient data to determine whether CASI results in differences in sexually transmitted infection testing, diagnosis, or treatment or if CASI improves the quality of sexual health care or its efficiency. The potential public health advantages of the widespread use of CASI are discussed.

  3. Audio computer-assisted survey instrument versus face-to-face interviews: optimal method for detecting high-risk behaviour in pregnant women and their sexual partners in the south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yeganeh, N; Dillavou, C; Simon, M; Gorbach, P; Santos, B; Fonseca, R; Saraiva, J; Melo, M; Nielsen-Saines, K

    2013-04-01

    Audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI) has been shown to decrease under-reporting of socially undesirable behaviours, but has not been evaluated in pregnant women at risk of HIV acquisition in Brazil. We assigned HIV-negative pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at in Porto Alegre, Brazil and their partners to receive a survey regarding high-risk sexual behaviours and drug use via ACASI (n = 372) or face-to-face (FTF) (n = 283) interviews. Logistic regression showed that compared with FTF, pregnant women interviewed via ACASI were significantly more likely to self-report themselves as single (14% versus 6%), having >5 sexual partners (35% versus 29%), having oral sex (42% versus 35%), using intravenous drugs (5% versus 0), smoking cigarettes (23% versus 16%), drinking alcohol (13% versus 8%) and using condoms during pregnancy (32% versus 17%). Therefore, ACASI may be a useful method in assessing risk behaviours in pregnant women, especially in relation to drug and alcohol use.

  4. Audio computer-assisted survey instrument versus face-to-face interviews: optimal method for detecting high-risk behaviour in pregnant women and their sexual partners in the south of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Yeganeh, N; Dillavou, C; Simon, M; Gorbach, P; Santos, B; Fonseca, R; Saraiva, J; Melo, M; Nielsen-Saines, K

    2016-01-01

    Summary Audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI) has been shown to decrease under-reporting of socially undesirable behaviours, but has not been evaluated in pregnant women at risk of HIV acquisition in Brazil. We assigned HIV-negative pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at in Porto Alegre, Brazil and their partners to receive a survey regarding high-risk sexual behaviours and drug use via ACASI (n = 372) or face-to-face (FTF) (n = 283) interviews. Logistic regression showed that compared with FTF, pregnant women interviewed via ACASI were significantly more likely to self-report themselves as single (14% versus 6%), having >5 sexual partners (35% versus 29%), having oral sex (42% versus 35%), using intravenous drugs (5% versus 0), smoking cigarettes (23% versus 16%), drinking alcohol (13% versus 8%) and using condoms during pregnancy (32% versus 17%). Therefore, ACASI may be a useful method in assessing risk behaviours in pregnant women, especially in relation to drug and alcohol use. PMID:23970659

  5. Application of computer-assisted interviews to sexual behavior research.

    PubMed

    Kissinger, P; Rice, J; Farley, T; Trim, S; Jewitt, K; Margavio, V; Martin, D H

    1999-05-15

    Collection of sensitive data with the use of video-enhanced, computer-assisted, self-administered interviews (V-CASI) has the potential to reduce interview bias and improve the validity of the study. The purpose of this study was to compare responses to sensitive questions elicited by V-CASI and by face-to-face interview (FTFI) methods. Women attending a New Orleans, Louisiana, public family planning or sexually transmitted disease clinic from July 1995 to July 1996, diagnosed with a Chlamydia trachomatis infection responded to eight close-ended behavioral questions (four socially undesirable, two socially desirable, and two neutral behaviors) using both FTFI and V-CASI techniques in a randomized crossover design. Of the 280 women included, the mean age was 23 years, 95 percent were African American, and 71 percent felt comfortable using computers. While kappa scores indicated good-to-excellent agreement between interview techniques, women tended to admit to socially undesirable behaviors more often on V-CASI compared with FTFI. Thirty percent of the women gave a discrepant response between V-CASI and FTFI toward social desirability. Women who reported a socially undesirable behavior in V-CASI (i.e., more than two sex partners and infrequent condom usage) were more likely to have a discrepant response. Utilization of the same logistic regression model to predict condom use yielded different results when data from V-CASI were used compared with data from FTFI. The V-CASI technique can reduce social desirability bias and improve validity in research requiring information on sensitive sexual behaviors.

  6. Computer-assisted software transcription of qualitative interviews.

    PubMed

    Alcock, John; Iphofen, Ron

    2007-01-01

    John Alcock and Ron Iphofen examine a method to assist with interview transcription using free, open source computer software and digital recordings, and consider some underlying practical, ethical and philosophical issues.

  7. Implementation of Audio Computer-Assisted Interviewing Software in HIV/AIDS Research

    PubMed Central

    Pluhar, Erika; Yeager, Katherine A.; Corkran, Carol; McCarty, Frances; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Denzmore-Nwagbara, Pamela; Fielder, Bridget; DiIorio, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    Computer assisted interviewing (CAI) has begun to play a more prominent role in HIV/AIDS prevention research. Despite the increased popularity of CAI, particularly audio computer assisted self-interviewing (ACASI), some research teams are still reluctant to implement ACASI technology due to lack of familiarity with the practical issues related to using these software packages. The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of one particular ACASI software package, the Questionnaire Development System™ (QDS™), in several nursing and HIV/AIDS prevention research settings. We present acceptability and satisfaction data from two large-scale public health studies in which we have used QDS with diverse populations. We also address issues related to developing and programming a questionnaire, discuss practical strategies related to planning for and implementing ACASI in the field, including selecting equipment, training staff, and collecting and transferring data, and summarize advantages and disadvantages of computer assisted research methods. PMID:17662924

  8. Using Computer-Assisted Interviewing to Consult with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Wilma; Hannah, Elizabeth F.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the use of computer-assisted interviewing (CAI) as a tool for consulting with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This is considered within the context of a research study which utilized one CAI programme, "In My Shoes", to investigate children and young people's views of provision, support, and participation in…

  9. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  10. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  11. Using Computer-Assisted Interviewing to Consult with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Wilma; Hannah, Elizabeth F.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the use of computer-assisted interviewing (CAI) as a tool for consulting with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This is considered within the context of a research study which utilized one CAI programme, "In My Shoes", to investigate children and young people's views of provision, support, and participation in…

  12. Audio computer-assisted self interview compared to traditional interview in an HIV-related behavioral survey in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Linh Cu; Vu, Lan T H

    2012-10-01

    Globally, population surveys on HIV/AIDS and other sensitive topics have been using audio computer-assisted self interview for many years. This interview technique, however, is still new to Vietnam and little is known about its application and impact in general population surveys. One plausible hypothesis is that residents of Vietnam interviewed using this technique may provide a higher response rate and be more willing to reveal their true behaviors than if interviewed with traditional methods. This study aims to compare audio computer-assisted self interview with traditional face-to-face personal interview and self-administered interview with regard to rates of refusal and affirmative responses to questions on sensitive topics related to HIV/AIDS. In June 2010, a randomized study was conducted in three cities (Ha Noi, Da Nan and Can Tho), using a sample of 4049 residents aged 15 to 49 years. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of three interviewing methods: audio computer-assisted self interview, personal face-to-face interview, and self-administered paper interview. Instead of providing answers directly to interviewer questions as with traditional methods, audio computer-assisted self-interview respondents read the questions displayed on a laptop screen, while listening to the questions through audio headphones, then entered responses using a laptop keyboard. A MySQL database was used for data management and SPSS statistical package version 18 used for data analysis with bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Rates of high risk behaviors and mean values of continuous variables were compared for the three data collection methods. Audio computer-assisted self interview showed advantages over comparison techniques, achieving lower refusal rates and reporting higher prevalence of some sensitive and risk behaviors (perhaps indication of more truthful answers). Premarital sex was reported by 20.4% in the audio computer-assisted self-interview survey

  13. Usability Characteristics of Sel-Fadministered Computer-Assisted Interviewing in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, D. B.; Nakhasi, A.; Nelson, B.; Rice, S.; Abbott, P. A.; Saber Tehrani, A. S.; Rothman, R. E.; Lehmann, H. P.; Newman-Toker, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Self-administered computer-assisted interviewing (SACAI) gathers accurate information from patients and could facilitate Emergency Department (ED) diagnosis. As part of an ongoing research effort whose long-range goal is to develop automated medical interviewing for diagnostic decision support, we explored usability attributes of SACAI in the ED. Methods Cross-sectional study at two urban, academic EDs. Convenience sample recruited daily over six weeks. Adult, non-level I trauma patients were eligible. We collected data on ease of use (self-reported difficulty, researcher documented need for help), efficiency (mean time-per-click on a standardized interview segment), and error (self-report age mismatched with age derived from electronic health records) when using SACAI on three different instruments: Elo TouchSystems ESY15A2 (finger touch), Toshiba M200 (with digitizer pen), and Motion C5 (with digitizer pen). We calculated descriptive statistics and used regression analysis to evaluate the impact of patient and computer factors on time-per-click. Results 841 participants completed all SACAI questions. Few (<1%) thought using the touch computer to ascertain medical information was difficult. Most (86%) required no assistance. Participants needing help were older (54 ± 19 vs. 40 ± 15 years, p<0.001) and more often lacked internet at home (13.4% vs. 7.3%, p = 0.004). On multivariate analysis, female sex (p<0.001), White (p<0.001) and other (p = 0.05) race (vs. Black race), younger age (p<0.001), internet access at home (p<0.001), high school graduation (p = 0.04), and touch screen entry (vs. digitizer pen) (p = 0.01) were independent predictors of decreased time-per-click. Participant misclick errors were infrequent, but, in our sample, occurred only during interviews using a digitizer pen rather than a finger touch-screen interface (1.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.09). Discussion Our results support the facility of interactions between ED patients and SACAI

  14. Using Text-to-Speech (TTS) for Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing (ACASI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couper, Mick P.; Berglund, Patricia; Kirgis, Nicole; Buageila, Sarrah

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the use of text-to-speech (TTS) technology for audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI). We use a quasi-experimental design, comparing the use of recorded human voice in the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth with the use of TTS in the first year of the 2011-2013 survey, where the essential survey conditions are…

  15. A data quality control program for computer-assisted personal interviews.

    PubMed

    Squires, Janet E; Hutchinson, Alison M; Bostrom, Anne-Marie; Deis, Kelly; Norton, Peter G; Cummings, Greta G; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2012-01-01

    Researchers strive to optimize data quality in order to ensure that study findings are valid and reliable. In this paper, we describe a data quality control program designed to maximize quality of survey data collected using computer-assisted personal interviews. The quality control program comprised three phases: (1) software development, (2) an interviewer quality control protocol, and (3) a data cleaning and processing protocol. To illustrate the value of the program, we assess its use in the Translating Research in Elder Care Study. We utilize data collected annually for two years from computer-assisted personal interviews with 3004 healthcare aides. Data quality was assessed using both survey and process data. Missing data and data errors were minimal. Mean and median values and standard deviations were within acceptable limits. Process data indicated that in only 3.4% and 4.0% of cases was the interviewer unable to conduct interviews in accordance with the details of the program. Interviewers' perceptions of interview quality also significantly improved between Years 1 and 2. While this data quality control program was demanding in terms of time and resources, we found that the benefits clearly outweighed the effort required to achieve high-quality data.

  16. A Data Quality Control Program for Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Janet E.; Hutchinson, Alison M.; Bostrom, Anne-Marie; Deis, Kelly; Norton, Peter G.; Cummings, Greta G.; Estabrooks, Carole A.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers strive to optimize data quality in order to ensure that study findings are valid and reliable. In this paper, we describe a data quality control program designed to maximize quality of survey data collected using computer-assisted personal interviews. The quality control program comprised three phases: (1) software development, (2) an interviewer quality control protocol, and (3) a data cleaning and processing protocol. To illustrate the value of the program, we assess its use in the Translating Research in Elder Care Study. We utilize data collected annually for two years from computer-assisted personal interviews with 3004 healthcare aides. Data quality was assessed using both survey and process data. Missing data and data errors were minimal. Mean and median values and standard deviations were within acceptable limits. Process data indicated that in only 3.4% and 4.0% of cases was the interviewer unable to conduct interviews in accordance with the details of the program. Interviewers' perceptions of interview quality also significantly improved between Years 1 and 2. While this data quality control program was demanding in terms of time and resources, we found that the benefits clearly outweighed the effort required to achieve high-quality data. PMID:23304481

  17. In My Shoes - Validation of a computer assisted approach for interviewing children.

    PubMed

    Fängström, Karin; Bokström, Pär; Dahlberg, Anton; Calam, Rachel; Lucas, Steven; Sarkadi, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Interviewing young children presents a challenge because they tend to provide incomplete accounts and are easily misled. Therefore there is a need for techniques to improve young children's recall, while maintaining accuracy and increasing completeness. The computer-assisted interview In My Shoes (IMS) is an aid that potentially offers a way for young children to provide accounts of their experiences. This study examined the validity of IMS, by comparing it with a forensic best practice interview approach using a real-life clinical situation to ensure high ecological validity. Children were randomly assigned to either method and both accuracy and completeness of statements made by 4- and 5-year-olds (N=54) regarding a video-documented health check-up were assessed. The In My Shoes interviews were as good as best practice interviews on all accuracy measures for both age groups, except for object accuracy that was better in the forensic interview condition. Events description completeness was similar in both interview conditions; however, IMS interviews generated more complete statements about people present at the visit. The findings suggest that the IMS approach yields comparable results to a best practice interview, and it can be used as an alternative aid in child interviews.

  18. Applying Computer-Assisted Musical Instruction to Music Appreciation Course: An Example with Chinese Musical Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Guo, Yuan-Chang; Zhu, Yi-Zhen; Shih, Ru-Chu; Dzan, Wei-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effectiveness of computer-assisted musical instruction (CAMI) in the Learning Chinese Musical Instruments (LCMI) course. The CAMI software for Chinese musical instruments was developed and administered to 228 students in a vocational high school. A pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design with three…

  19. The computer-assisted interview In My Shoes can benefit shy preschool children's communication

    PubMed Central

    Salari, Raziye; Eriksson, Maria; Sarkadi, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Interviewing children is a cognitively, socially, and emotionally challenging situation, especially for young and shy children. Thus, finding methods that aid rapport and increase these children’s communication is important. The present study investigated whether children’s verbal and non-verbal communicative behavior developed differently during the rapport phase, depending on whether children were situationally shy or not, and whether the interview was conducted using the computer-assisted interview In My Shoes (IMS) or a Standard verbal interview. The sample consisted of 60 children aged 4 to 5-years-old. The results showed that for the shy children in the IMS group their talkativeness increased and their answer latency decreased including the amount of encouragement the child needed to talk, while no changes were observed for the shy children in the Standard verbal interview group. There were no significant differences in the non-verbal behavior for the shy children regardless of the interview method used. For the non-shy children, overall, the interview method did not affect either the verbal or the non-verbal outcomes. Our findings indicate that IMS can be a useful tool during the rapport-building phase with shy children as it helps these children to improve their verbal communication. PMID:28813534

  20. The computer-assisted interview In My Shoes can benefit shy preschool children's communication.

    PubMed

    Fängström, Karin; Salari, Raziye; Eriksson, Maria; Sarkadi, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Interviewing children is a cognitively, socially, and emotionally challenging situation, especially for young and shy children. Thus, finding methods that aid rapport and increase these children's communication is important. The present study investigated whether children's verbal and non-verbal communicative behavior developed differently during the rapport phase, depending on whether children were situationally shy or not, and whether the interview was conducted using the computer-assisted interview In My Shoes (IMS) or a Standard verbal interview. The sample consisted of 60 children aged 4 to 5-years-old. The results showed that for the shy children in the IMS group their talkativeness increased and their answer latency decreased including the amount of encouragement the child needed to talk, while no changes were observed for the shy children in the Standard verbal interview group. There were no significant differences in the non-verbal behavior for the shy children regardless of the interview method used. For the non-shy children, overall, the interview method did not affect either the verbal or the non-verbal outcomes. Our findings indicate that IMS can be a useful tool during the rapport-building phase with shy children as it helps these children to improve their verbal communication.

  1. Audio computer assisted interviewing to measure HIV risk behaviours in a clinic population.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S M; Willis, G; Al-Tayyib, A; Villarroel, M A; Turner, C F; Ganapathi, L; Zenilman, J; Jadack, R

    2005-12-01

    To examine whether audio computer assisted survey interviewing (ACASI) influenced responses to sensitive HIV risk behaviour questions, relative to interviewer administration of those questions (IAQ), among patients attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic and whether the impact of interview mode on reporting of risk behaviours was homogeneous across subgroups of patients (defined by age, sex, and previous STI clinic experience). 1350 clinic patients were assigned to complete a detailed behavioural survey on sexual risk practices, previous STIs and symptoms, condom use, and drug and alcohol use using either ACASI or IAQ. Respondents assigned to ACASI were more likely to report recent risk behaviours such as sex without a condom in the past 24 hours (adjusted OR = 1.9), anal sex (adjusted OR = 2.0), and one or more new partners in the past 6 months (adjusted OR = 1.5) compared to those interviewed by IAQ. The impact of ACASI varied by sex but, contrary to expectations, not by whether the patient had previously visited an STI clinic. Mode of survey administration made little difference within this population in reports of STI knowledge, previous STIs, STI symptoms, or illicit drug use. ACASI provides a useful tool for improving the quality of behavioural data in clinical environments.

  2. Audio computer assisted self interview and face to face interview modes in assessing response bias among STD clinic patients.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, K G; Hutton, H E; Zenilman, J M; Zimba, R; Erbelding, E J

    2005-10-01

    Audio computer assisted self interview (ACASI) may minimise social desirability bias in the ascertainment of sensitive behaviours. The aim of this study was to describe the difference in reporting risk behaviour in ACASI compared to a face to face interview (FFI) among public sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic attendees. Randomly selected patients attending a public STD clinic in Baltimore, Maryland, sequentially took an ACASI formatted risk behaviour assessment followed by an FFI conducted by a single clinician, with both interview modalities surveying sexual and drug use behaviours. Binary responses were compared using the sign test, and categorical responses were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test to account for repeated measures. 671 (52% men, mean age 30 years, 95% African American) of 795 clinic attendees screened consented to participate. Subjects affirmed sensitive sexual behaviours such as same sex contact (p = 0.012), receptive rectal sexual exposure (p < 0.001), orogenital contact (p < 0.001), and a greater number of sex partners in the past month (p < 0.001) more frequently with ACASI than with an FFI. However, there were no differences in participant responses to questions on use of illicit drugs or needle sharing. Among STD clinic patients, reporting of sensitive sexual risk behaviours to clinicians was much more susceptible to social desirability bias than was reporting of illegal drug use behaviours. In STD clinics where screening of sexual risk is an essential component of STD prevention, the use of ACASI may be a more reliable assessment method than traditional FFI.

  3. A Comparison of Paper vs. Computer-Assisted Self Interview for School, Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallfors, Denise; Khatapoush, Shereen; Kadushin, Charles; Watson, Kim; Saxe, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    Examined whether computer assisted self-interview (CASI) alcohol, tobacco, and drug use surveys are feasible with 2,296 7th, 9th, and 11th graders in 2 communities. CASI surveys did not increase reported rates of substance abuse, but did improve the speed of data processing and decrease missing data. (SLD)

  4. Brother-sister incest: data from anonymous computer-assisted self interviews.

    PubMed

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The other 1,230 served as controls. The victims of brother-sister incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures (e.g., more likely than the controls to endorse feeling like damaged goods, thinking that they had suffered psychological injury, and having undergone psychological treatment for childhood sexual abuse). However, victims of brother-sister incest also had significantly less problematic outcomes than victims of father-daughter incest on some measures (e.g., significantly less likely than the father-daughter incest victims to endorse feeling like damaged goods, thinking that they had suffered psychological injury, and having undergone psychological treatment for childhood sexual abuse).

  5. Implementation of an Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) System in a General Medicine Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Deamant, C.; Smith, J.; Garcia, D.; Angulo, F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Routine implementation of instruments to capture patient-reported outcomes could guide clinical practice and facilitate health services research. Audio interviews facilitate self-interviews across literacy levels. Objectives To evaluate time burden for patients, and factors associated with response times for an audio computer-assisted self interview (ACASI) system integrated into the clinical workflow. Methods We developed an ACASI system, integrated with a research data warehouse. Instruments for symptom burden, self-reported health, depression screening, tobacco use, and patient satisfaction were administered through touch-screen monitors in the general medicine clinic at the Cook County Health & Hospitals System during April 8, 2011-July 27, 2012. We performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the mean time burden per item and for each module of instruments; we evaluated factors associated with longer response latency. Results Among 1,670 interviews, the mean per-question response time was 18.4 [SD, 6.1] seconds. By multivariable analysis, age was most strongly associated with prolonged response time and increased per decade compared to < 50 years as follows (additional seconds per question; 95% CI): 50–59 years (1.4; 0.7 to 2.1 seconds); 60–69 (3.4; 2.6 to 4.1); 70–79 (5.1; 4.0 to 6.1); and 80–89 (5.5; 4.1 to 7.0). Response times also were longer for Spanish language (3.9; 2.9 to 4.9); no home computer use (3.3; 2.8 to 3.9); and, low mental self-reported health (0.6; 0.0 to 1.1). However, most interviews were completed within 10 minutes. Conclusions An ACASI software system can be included in a patient visit and adds minimal time burden. The burden was greatest for older patients, interviews in Spanish, and for those with less computer exposure. A patient’s self-reported health had minimal impact on response times. PMID:25848420

  6. Implementation of an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) system in a general medicine clinic: patient response burden.

    PubMed

    Trick, W E; Deamant, C; Smith, J; Garcia, D; Angulo, F

    2015-01-01

    Routine implementation of instruments to capture patient-reported outcomes could guide clinical practice and facilitate health services research. Audio interviews facilitate self-interviews across literacy levels. To evaluate time burden for patients, and factors associated with response times for an audio computer-assisted self interview (ACASI) system integrated into the clinical workflow. We developed an ACASI system, integrated with a research data warehouse. Instruments for symptom burden, self-reported health, depression screening, tobacco use, and patient satisfaction were administered through touch-screen monitors in the general medicine clinic at the Cook County Health & Hospitals System during April 8, 2011-July 27, 2012. We performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the mean time burden per item and for each module of instruments; we evaluated factors associated with longer response latency. Among 1,670 interviews, the mean per-question response time was 18.4 [SD, 6.1] seconds. By multivariable analysis, age was most strongly associated with prolonged response time and increased per decade compared to < 50 years as follows (additional seconds per question; 95% CI): 50-59 years (1.4; 0.7 to 2.1 seconds); 60-69 (3.4; 2.6 to 4.1); 70-79 (5.1; 4.0 to 6.1); and 80-89 (5.5; 4.1 to 7.0). Response times also were longer for Spanish language (3.9; 2.9 to 4.9); no home computer use (3.3; 2.8 to 3.9); and, low mental self-reported health (0.6; 0.0 to 1.1). However, most interviews were completed within 10 minutes. An ACASI software system can be included in a patient visit and adds minimal time burden. The burden was greatest for older patients, interviews in Spanish, and for those with less computer exposure. A patient's self-reported health had minimal impact on response times.

  7. Development of a Computer-Assisted Instrumentation Curriculum for Physics Students: Using LabVIEW and Arduino Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Wen-Hsuan; Tseng, Chi-Hung; Chen, Sufen; Wong, Ching-Chang

    2016-06-01

    We propose an integrated curriculum to establish essential abilities of computer programming for the freshmen of a physics department. The implementation of the graphical-based interfaces from Scratch to LabVIEW then to LabVIEW for Arduino in the curriculum `Computer-Assisted Instrumentation in the Design of Physics Laboratories' brings rigorous algorithm and syntax protocols together with imagination, communication, scientific applications and experimental innovation. The effectiveness of the curriculum was evaluated via statistical analysis of questionnaires, interview responses, the increase in student numbers majoring in physics, and performance in a competition. The results provide quantitative support that the curriculum remove huge barriers to programming which occur in text-based environments, helped students gain knowledge of programming and instrumentation, and increased the students' confidence and motivation to learn physics and computer languages.

  8. Labour migration of Polish nurses: a questionnaire survey conducted with the Computer Assisted Web Interview technique.

    PubMed

    Szpakowski, Rafał; Zając, Patrycja W; Dykowska, Grażyna; Sienkiewicz, Zofia; Augustynowicz, Anna; Czerw, Aleksandra

    2016-06-30

    According to data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Poland has one of the lowest numbers of nurses (5.2) per 1000 inhabitants among 28 EU countries. The migration of nurses from Poland has particular importance in the context of scarce human resources in this professional group, especially given the increasingly ageing population in European societies, which will entail an increased demand for nursing and care services. The aim of the study was to obtain information on the intentions of Polish nurses to migrate for work to other countries in the European region. The study included 581 nurses, professionally active in Poland over the duration of the study. The Computer Assisted Web Interview technique was used to collect data. Nurses filled in a web-based questionnaire that was available from December 5, 2011, to March 5, 2012. The choice of respondents for the sample was based on the availability of data. An invitation to participate in the study could be viewed on selected websites from the Portal of Nurses and Midwives, the Supreme Chamber of Nurses and Midwives, and the Polish Nursing Society. The survey questionnaire was designed by the authors, which served as the primary research tool. Nearly one in three respondents intended to leave Poland for professional reasons. Overall, 12.4 % of respondents had already worked as a nurse abroad. The main destinations for migration included Germany, followed by England and Norway. The intended length of stay abroad ranged from 2-5 years. In the studied group of Polish nurses, there was great interest in seeking employment abroad. Nurses tend to go abroad mostly for long-term, repeated periods to the wealthiest countries nearest to Poland. In view of the low level of human resources in the Polish nursing sector, the migration of Polish nurses will probably have crucial implications for the quality of healthcare services in Poland in the coming years. Given the methodology applied, study

  9. Etiological Risk Factors for Sibling Incest: Data From an Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self-Interview.

    PubMed

    Griffee, Karen; Swindell, Sam; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Stroebel, Sandra S; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Stroupe, Walter

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective data from 1,821 women and 1,064 men with one or more siblings, provided anonymously using a computer-assisted self-interview, were used to identify risk factors for sibling incest (SI); 137 were participants in SI. In order of decreasing predictive power, the risk factors identified by the multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a sibling, parent-child incest (PCI), family nudity, low levels of maternal affection, and ever having shared a tub bath with a sibling. The results were consistent with the idea that SI in many families was the cumulative result of four types of parental behaviors: (a) factors that lower external barriers to sexual behavior (e.g., permitting co-sleeping or co-bathing of sibling dyads), (b) factors that encourage nudity of children within the nuclear family and permit children to see the parent's genitals, (c) factors that lead to the siblings relying on one another for affection (e.g., diminished maternal affection), and (d) factors that eroticize young children (e.g., child sexual abuse [CSA] by a parent). Thirty-eight of the 137 SI participants were participants in coerced sibling incest (CSI). In order of decreasing predictive power, risk factors for CSI identified by multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a brother, PCI, witnessing parental physical fighting, and family nudity. SI was more likely to have been reported as CSI if the sibling had touched the reporting sibling's genitals, and less likely to have been reported as CSI if the siblings had shared a bed.

  10. A comparison between audio computer-assisted self-interviews and clinician interviews for obtaining the sexual history.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Ann E; Martin, Diane P; Golden, Matthew R; Weiss, Noel S; Heagerty, Patrick J; Spielberg, Freya; Handsfield, H Hunter; Holmes, King K

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare reporting between audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) and clinician-administered sexual histories. The goal of this study was to explore the usefulness of ACASI in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of ACASI followed by a clinician history (CH) among 609 patients (52% male, 59% white) in an urban, public STD clinic. We assessed completeness of data, item prevalence, and report concordance for sexual history and patient characteristic variables classified as socially neutral (n=5), sensitive (n=11), or rewarded (n=4). Women more often reported by ACASI than during CH same-sex behavior (19.6% vs. 11.5%), oral sex (67.3% vs. 50.0%), transactional sex (20.7% vs. 9.8%), and amphetamine use (4.9% vs. 0.7%) but were less likely to report STD symptoms (55.4% vs. 63.7%; all McNemar chi-squared P values <0.003). Men's reporting was similar between interviews, except for ever having had sex with another man (36.9% ACASI vs. 28.7% CH, P <0.001). Reporting agreement as measured by kappas and intraclass correlation coefficients was only moderate for socially sensitive and rewarded variables but was substantial or almost perfect for socially neutral variables. ACASI data tended to be more complete. ACASI was acceptable to 89% of participants. ACASI sexual histories may help to identify persons at risk for STDs.

  11. Implementing a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system to increase colorectal cancer screening: a process evaluation.

    PubMed

    White, Mary Jo; Stark, Jennifer R; Luckmann, Roger; Rosal, Milagros C; Clemow, Lynn; Costanza, Mary E

    2006-06-01

    Computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) systems used by telephone counselors (TCs) may be efficient mechanisms to counsel patients on cancer and recommended preventive screening tests in order to extend a primary care provider's reach to his/her patients. The implementation process of such a system for promoting colorectal (CRC) cancer screening using a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system is reported in this paper. The process evaluation assessed three components of the intervention: message production, program implementation and audience reception. Of 1181 potentially eligible patients, 1025 (87%) patients were reached by the TCs and 725 of those patients (71%) were eligible to receive counseling. Five hundred eighty-two (80%) patients agreed to counseling. It is feasible to design and use CATI systems for prevention counseling of patients in primary care practices. CATI systems have the potential of being used as a referral service by primary care providers and health care organizations for patient education.

  12. [Computer-assisted process simulation: a suitable instrument for process optimization in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Feyrer, R; Kunzmann, U; Weyand, M

    2006-08-01

    The increasing financial pressure on hospitals resulting from changes in the health system demands detailed knowledge about the cost and earnings situation in the hospital. An essential part of strategic controlling now entails establishing structured cost-unit accounting. This can then be used for example through process optimization to ascertain savings potential and rationalization measures. This paper illustrates a possibility of using computer-assisted process simulation to find ways for prozess optimization. The simulation has been based on the treatment process "operative procedure" of a clinical pathway "CABG" developed in our hospital. The starting points for simulation possible prozess optimization consisted in the elimination of existing waiting times, respectively the parallel organization of certain partial processes. The software used for the simulation was Coral iGrafix Process 2003. The results of 1000 simulation processes reveal a clear reduction in the whole lead-time for the patient, both in avoiding waiting times and also in parallel process organization. In contrast to the initial situation (triangular distribution), the overall duration of the treatment section can be described approximately with normal distribution and a clear cluster of minimum overall durations. Computer-assisted process simulation is a suitable instrument for revealing and establishing possibilities for process optimization in hospitals, and therefore makes a valuable contribution to strategic controlling.

  13. A comparison of audio computer-assisted self-interviews to face-to-face interviews of sexual behavior among perinatally HIV-exposed youth.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Curtis; Marhefka, Stephanie L; Santamaria, E Karina; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Mellins, Claude Ann

    2012-04-01

    Computer-assisted interview methods are increasingly popular in the assessment of sensitive behaviors (e.g., substance abuse and sexual behaviors). It has been suggested that the effect of social desirability is diminished when answering via computer, as compared to an interviewer-administered face-to-face (FTF) interview, although studies exploring this hypothesis among adolescents are rare and yield inconsistent findings. This study compared two interview modes among a sample of urban, ethnic-minority, perinatally HIV-exposed U.S. youth (baseline = 148 HIV+, 126 HIV-, ages 9-16 years; follow-up = 120 HIV+, 110 HIV-, ages 10-19 years). Participants were randomly assigned to receive a sexual behavior interview via either Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) or FTF interview. The prevalence of several sexual behaviors and participants' reactions to the interviews were compared. Although higher rates of sexual behaviors were typically reported in the ACASI condition, the differences rarely reached statistical significance, even when limited to demographic subgroups--except for gender. Boys were significantly more likely to report several sexual behaviors in the ACASI condition compared to FTF, whereas among girls no significant differences were found between the two conditions. ACASI-assigned youth rated the interview process as easier and more enjoyable than did FTF-assigned youth, and this was fairly consistent across subgroup analyses as well. We conclude that these more positive reactions to the ACASI interview give that methodology a slight advantage, and boys may disclose more sexual behavior when using computer-assisted interviews.

  14. A Comparison of Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviews to Face-to-Face Interviews of Sexual Behavior Among Perinatally HIV-Exposed Youth

    PubMed Central

    Marhefka, Stephanie L.; Santamaria, E. Karina; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Mellins, Claude Ann

    2013-01-01

    Computer-assisted interview methods are increasingly popular in the assessment of sensitive behaviors (e.g., substance abuse and sexual behaviors). It has been suggested that the effect of social desirability is diminished when answering via computer, as compared to an interviewer-administered face-to-face (FTF) interview, although studies exploring this hypothesis among adolescents are rare and yield inconsistent findings. This study compared two interview modes among a sample of urban, ethnic-minority, perinatally HIV-exposed U.S. youth (baseline = 148 HIV+, 126 HIV−, ages 9–16 years; follow-up = 120 HIV+, 110 HIV−, ages 10–19 years). Participants were randomly assigned to receive a sexual behavior interview via either Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) or FTF interview. The prevalence of several sexual behaviors and participants’ reactions to the interviews were compared. Although higher rates of sexual behaviors were typically reported in the ACASI condition, the differences rarely reached statistical significance, even when limited to demographic subgroups—except for gender. Boys were significantly more likely to report several sexual behaviors in the ACASI condition compared to FTF, whereas among girls no significant differences were found between the two conditions. ACASI-assigned youth rated the interview process as easier and more enjoyable than did FTF-assigned youth, and this was fairly consistent across subgroup analyses as well. We conclude that these more positive reactions to the ACASI interview give that methodology a slight advantage, and boys may disclose more sexual behavior when using computer-assisted interviews. PMID:21604065

  15. Validating a Computer-Assisted Language Learning Attitude Instrument Used in Iranian EFL Context: An Evidence-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryadoust, Vahid; Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa

    2016-01-01

    A few computer-assisted language learning (CALL) instruments have been developed in Iran to measure EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' attitude toward CALL. However, these instruments have no solid validity argument and accordingly would be unable to provide a reliable measurement of attitude. The present study aimed to develop a CALL…

  16. Validating a Computer-Assisted Language Learning Attitude Instrument Used in Iranian EFL Context: An Evidence-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryadoust, Vahid; Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa

    2016-01-01

    A few computer-assisted language learning (CALL) instruments have been developed in Iran to measure EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' attitude toward CALL. However, these instruments have no solid validity argument and accordingly would be unable to provide a reliable measurement of attitude. The present study aimed to develop a CALL…

  17. Development of a Computer-Assisted Instrumentation Curriculum for Physics Students: Using LabVIEW and Arduino Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuan, Wen-Hsuan; Tseng, Chi-Hung; Chen, Sufen; Wong, Ching-Chang

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrated curriculum to establish essential abilities of computer programming for the freshmen of a physics department. The implementation of the graphical-based interfaces from Scratch to LabVIEW then to LabVIEW for Arduino in the curriculum "Computer-Assisted Instrumentation in the Design of Physics Laboratories" brings…

  18. Development of a Computer-Assisted Instrumentation Curriculum for Physics Students: Using LabVIEW and Arduino Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuan, Wen-Hsuan; Tseng, Chi-Hung; Chen, Sufen; Wong, Ching-Chang

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrated curriculum to establish essential abilities of computer programming for the freshmen of a physics department. The implementation of the graphical-based interfaces from Scratch to LabVIEW then to LabVIEW for Arduino in the curriculum "Computer-Assisted Instrumentation in the Design of Physics Laboratories" brings…

  19. Routine history as compared to audio computer-assisted self-interview for prenatal care history taking.

    PubMed

    Mears, Molly; Coonrod, Dean V; Bay, R Curtis; Mills, Terry E; Watkins, Michelle C

    2005-09-01

    To compare endorsement rates obtained with audio computer-assisted self-interview versus routine prenatal history. A crosssectional study compared items captured with the routine history to those captured with a computer interview (computer screen displaying and computer audio reading questions, with responses entered by touch screen). The subjects were women (n=174) presenting to a public hospital clinic for prenatal care. The prevalence of positive responses using the computer interview was significantly greater (p < 0.01) than with the routine history for induced abortion (16.8% versus 4.0%), lifetime smoking (12.8% versus 5.2%), intimate partner violence (10.0% versus 2.4%), ectopic pregnancy (5.2% versus 1.1%) and family history of mental retardation (6.7% versus 0.6%). Significant differences were not found for history of spontaneous abortion, hypertension, epilepsy, thyroid disease, smoking during pregnancy, gynecologic surgery, abnormal Pap test, neural tube defect or cystic fibrosis family history. However, in all cases, prevalence was equal or greater with the computer interview. Women were more likely to report sensitive and high-risk behavior, such as smoking history, intimate partner violence and elective abortion, with the computer interview. The computer interview displayed equal or increased patient reporting of positive responses and may therefore be an accurate method of obtaining an initial history.

  20. Designing an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) system in a multisite trial: a brief report.

    PubMed

    2008-09-01

    To describe the advantages and limitations of an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) system in a multisite trial with African American couples and to present the steps in designing, testing, and implementing a system. The ACASI system evolved from a paper and pencil interview that was pilot tested. Based on this initial work, the paper and pencil interview was translated into storyboards that were the basis of the development of ACASI system. Storyboards consisted of 1 page per question and provided the programmers with the test of the question, valid responses, and any instructions that were to be read to the participants. Storyboards were further translated into flow diagrams representing each module of the survey and illustrating the skip patterns used to navigate a participant through the survey. Provisions were also made to insert a face-to-face interview, into the ACASI assessment process, to elicit sexual abuse history data, which typically requires specially trained data collectors with active listening skills to help participants reframe and coordinate times, places and, emotionally difficult memories. The ACASI was successfully developed and implemented in the main trial. During an exit interview, respondents indicated that they liked using the ACASI and indicating that they favored it as the method to answer questions. It is feasible to implement an ACASI system in a multisite study in a timely and efficient way.

  1. Audio computer assisted interviewing to measure HIV risk behaviours in a clinic population

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, S; Willis, G; Al-Tayyib, A; Villarroel, M; Turner, C; Ganapathi, L; Zenilman, J; Jadack, R

    2005-01-01

    Methods: 1350 clinic patients were assigned to complete a detailed behavioural survey on sexual risk practices, previous STIs and symptoms, condom use, and drug and alcohol use using either ACASI or IAQ. Results: Respondents assigned to ACASI were more likely to report recent risk behaviours such as sex without a condom in the past 24 hours (adjusted OR = 1.9), anal sex (adjusted OR = 2.0), and one or more new partners in the past 6 months (adjusted OR = 1.5) compared to those interviewed by IAQ. The impact of ACASI varied by sex but, contrary to expectations, not by whether the patient had previously visited an STI clinic. Mode of survey administration made little difference within this population in reports of STI knowledge, previous STIs, STI symptoms, or illicit drug use. Conclusion: ACASI provides a useful tool for improving the quality of behavioural data in clinical environments. PMID:16326855

  2. Perceptions of audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) among women in an HIV-positive prevention program.

    PubMed

    Estes, Larissa J; Lloyd, Linda E; Teti, Michelle; Raja, Sheela; Bowleg, Lisa; Allgood, Kristi L; Glick, Nancy

    2010-02-10

    Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interviewing (ACASI) has improved the reliability and accuracy of self-reported HIV health and risk behavior data, yet few studies account for how participants experience the data collection process. This exploratory qualitative analysis aimed to better understand the experience and implications of using ACASI among HIV-positive women participating in sexual risk reduction interventions in Chicago (n = 12) and Philadelphia (n = 18). Strategies of Grounded Theory were used to explore participants' ACASI experiences. Key themes we identified included themes that could be attributed to the ACASI and other methods of data collection (e.g., paper-based self-administered questionnaire or face-to-face interviews). The key themes were usability; privacy and honesty; socially desirable responses and avoiding judgment; and unintentional discomfort resulting from recalling risky behavior using the ACASI. Despite both positive and negative findings about the ACASI experience, we conclude that ACASI is in general an appropriate method for collecting sensitive data about HIV/AIDS risk behaviors among HIV-positive women because it seemed to ensure privacy in the study population allowing for more honest responses, minimize socially desirable responses, and help participants avoid actual or perceived judgment.

  3. Perceptions of Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing (ACASI) among Women in an HIV-Positive Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Larissa J.; Lloyd, Linda E.; Teti, Michelle; Raja, Sheela; Bowleg, Lisa; Allgood, Kristi L.; Glick, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Background Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interviewing (ACASI) has improved the reliability and accuracy of self-reported HIV health and risk behavior data, yet few studies account for how participants experience the data collection process. Methodology/Principal Findings This exploratory qualitative analysis aimed to better understand the experience and implications of using ACASI among HIV-positive women participating in sexual risk reduction interventions in Chicago (n = 12) and Philadelphia (n = 18). Strategies of Grounded Theory were used to explore participants' ACASI experiences. Conclusion/Significance Key themes we identified included themes that could be attributed to the ACASI and other methods of data collection (e.g., paper-based self-administered questionnaire or face-to-face interviews). The key themes were usability; privacy and honesty; socially desirable responses and avoiding judgment; and unintentional discomfort resulting from recalling risky behavior using the ACASI. Despite both positive and negative findings about the ACASI experience, we conclude that ACASI is in general an appropriate method for collecting sensitive data about HIV/AIDS risk behaviors among HIV-positive women because it seemed to ensure privacy in the study population allowing for more honest responses, minimize socially desirable responses, and help participants avoid actual or perceived judgment. PMID:20161771

  4. Effect of computer-assisted interviewing on self-reported sexual behavior data in a microbicide clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gorbach, Pamina M; Mensch, Barbara S; Husnik, Marla; Coly, Astou; Mâsse, Benoit; Makanani, Bonus; Nkhoma, Chiwawa; Chinula, Lameck; Tembo, Tchangani; Mierzwa, Stan; Reynolds, Kimberly; Hurst, Stacey; Coletti, Anne; Forsyth, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    In a microbicide safety and effectiveness trial (HPTN 035) in Malawi, 585 women completed the same questionnaire through a face-to-face interview (FTFI) and an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI). Concordance between FTFI and ACASI responses ranged from 72.0 % for frequency of sex in the past week to 95.2 % for anal intercourse (AI) in the past 3 months. Reported gel and condom use at last sex act were marginally lower with ACASI than FTFI (73.5 % vs. 77.2 %, p = 0.11 and 60.9 % vs. 65.5 %, p = 0.05, respectively). More women reported AI with ACASI than FTFI (5.0 % vs. 0.2 %, p < 0.001). Analyses of consistency of responses within ACASI revealed that 15.0 % of participants in the condom-only arm and 28.7 % in the gel arm provided at least one discrepant answer regarding total sex acts and sex acts where condom and gel were used (19.2 % reported one inconsistent answer, 8.1 % reported two inconsistent answers, and 1.4 % reported three inconsistent answers). While ACASI may provide more accurate assessments of sensitive behaviors in HIV prevention trials, it also results in a high level of internally inconsistent responses.

  5. A pilot of audio computer-assisted self-interview for youth reproductive health research in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Linh Cu; Blum, Robert W; Magnani, Robert; Hewett, Paul C; Do, Hoa Mai

    2006-06-01

    Several recent adolescent health studies in Vietnam have shown low levels of premarital sex among youth compared to neighboring countries and other regions of the world. One possible explanation for these findings is that adolescents in Vietnam are less willing to reveal their true behaviors. This study aims to assess the level of reporting of sensitive behaviors/events using three methods of survey data collection: face-to-face interviewer-administered (IA), paper-and-pencil self-administered (SA) and AudioComputerAssisted Self Interview (ACASI). A randomized experiment was undertaken in Gialam, a suburb of Hanoi, among a sample of 2,394 youth ages 15 to 24 years. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of three interviewing methods, with females and males evaluated separately. ACASI showed certain advantages with regard to respondent attitudes and perceptions of sensitive topics. ACAI also revealed higher prevalence rates for sensitive and stigmatized behaviors. Among those in the pencil and paper survey group it is estimated that 12.9% of unmarried males and 3.4% of unmarried females have had premarital sex. The rate found by using ACASI is higher at 17.1% in males (95% CI: 13.5-21.4) and 4.5% in females (95% CI: 2.7-7.3). Using ACASI, unmarried males also reported higher levels of risky sexual relations. For example, 7.8% confirmed visiting sex workers compared with only 1.2% in SA group and 3.9% in IA group. Additionally, ACASI respondents reported having had more sex partners by age group, gender and marital status. When coupled with the emerging data from around the world, the present findings suggest that researchers should consider using ACASI for future studies dealing with sensitive and stigmatized topics.

  6. Behavioral assessments in Russian addiction treatment inpatients: a comparison of audio computer-assisted self-interviewing and interviewer-administered questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Erika M; Cheng, Debbie M; Levenson, Suzette; Bridden, Carly; Meli, Seville; Egorova, Valentina Y; Krupitsky, Evgeny M; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2008-01-01

    Assess agreement between reported sex and drug use behaviors from audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) and interviewer-administered questionnaire (IAQ). Participants (N = 180) enrolled in an HIV intervention trial in Russia completed ACASI and IAQ on the same day. Agreement between responses was evaluated. Of the 13 sex behavior questions, 10 items had excellent agreement (kappas/ICC 0.80-0.95) and 3 items had moderate agreement (kappas/ICC 0.59-0.75). The 3 drug behavior questions had excellent agreement (kappas/ICC 0.94-0.97). Among HIV-specific questions asked of HIV-positive participants (n = 21) only, 2 items had excellent agreement (kappas 1.0) and 3 items had moderate agreement (kappas 0.40-0.71). Assessment of drug and sex risk behaviors by ACASI and IAQ had generally strong agreement for the majority of items. The lack of discrepancy may result from these Russian subjects' perception that computers do not ensure privacy. Another potential explanatory factor is that both interviews were delivered on the same day. These data raise questions as to whether use of ACASI is uniformly beneficial in all settings, and what influence cultural factors have on its utility.

  7. Behavioral Assessments in Russian Addiction Treatment Inpatients: A Comparison of Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing and Interviewer-Administered Questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Erika M.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Levenson, Suzette; Bridden, Carly; Meli, Seville; Egorova, Valentina Y.; Krupitsky, Evgeny M.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Assess agreement between reported sex and drug use behaviors from audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) and interviewer-administered questionnaire (IAQ). Method: Participants (N = 180) enrolled in an HIV intervention trial in Russia completed ACASI and IAQ on the same day. Agreement between responses was evaluated. Results: Of the 13 sex behavior questions, 10 items had excellent agreement (kappas/ICC 0.80–0.95) and 3 items had moderate agreement (kappas/ICC 0.59–0.75). The 3 drug behavior questions had excellent agreement (kappas/ICC 0.94–0.97). Among HIV-specific questions asked of HIV-positive participants (n = 21) only, 2 items had excellent agreement (kappas 1.0) and 3 items had moderate agreement (kappas 0.40–0.71). Conclusions: Assessment of drug and sex risk behaviors by ACASI and IAQ had generally strong agreement for the majority of items. The lack of discrepancy may result from these Russian subjects' perception that computers do not ensure privacy. Another potential explanatory factor is that both interviews were delivered on the same day. These data raise questions as to whether use of ACASI is uniformly beneficial in all settings, and what influence cultural factors have on its utility. PMID:18753119

  8. The Reliability of a Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview Version of the Ohio State University Traumatic Brain Injury Identification Method.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Jeffrey P; Whiteneck, Gale G; Corrigan, John D; Bogner, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Provide test-retest reliability (>5 months) of the Ohio State University Traumatic Brain Injury Identification Method modified for use as a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) to capture traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other substantial bodily injuries among a representative sample of noninstitutionalized adults living in Colorado. Four subsamples of 50 individuals, including people with no major lifetime injury, a major lifetime injury but no TBI, TBI with no loss of consciousness, and TBI with loss of consciousness, were interviewed using the CATI Ohio State University Traumatic Brain Injury Identification Method between 6 and 18 months after an initial interview. Stratified random sample of Coloradans (n = 200) selected from a larger study of TBI. Cumulative, Severity and Age-related indices were assessed for long-term reliability. Cumulative indices were those that summed the total number of specific TBI severities across the lifetime; Severity indices included measures of the most severe type of injury incurred throughout the lifetime; and Age-related indices assessed the timing of specific injury types across the lifespan. Test-retest reliabilities ranged from poor to excellent. The indices demonstrating the greatest reliability were Severity measures, with intraclass correlations for ordinal indices ranging from 0.62 to 0.78 and Cohen κ ranging from 0.50 to 0.62. One Cumulative outcome demonstrated high reliability (0.70 for number of TBIs with loss of consciousness ≥30 minutes), while the remaining Cumulative outcomes demonstrated low reliability, ranging from 0.06 to 0.21. Age-related test-retest reliabilities were fair to poor, with intraclass correlations of 0.38 to 0.49 and Cohen κ of 0.32 and 0.34. The CATI-modified Ohio State University Traumatic Brain Injury Identification Method used in this study is an effective measure for evaluating the maximum TBI severity incurred throughout the lifetime within a general population survey. The

  9. Effect of face-to-face interview versus computer-assisted self-interview on disclosure of intimate partner violence among African American women in WIC clinics.

    PubMed

    Fincher, Danielle; VanderEnde, Kristin; Colbert, Kia; Houry, Debra; Smith, L Shakiyla; Yount, Kathryn M

    2015-03-01

    African American women in the United States report intimate partner violence (IPV) more often than the general population of women. Overall, women underreport IPV because of shame, embarrassment, fear of retribution, or low expectation of legal support. African American women may be especially unlikely to report IPV because of poverty, low social support, and past experiences of discrimination. The purpose of this article is to determine the context in which low-income African American women disclose IPV. Consenting African American women receiving Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services in WIC clinics were randomized to complete an IPV screening (Revised Conflict Tactics Scales-Short Form) via computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) or face-to-face interview (FTFI). Women (n = 368) reported high rates of lifetime and prior-year verbal (48%, 34%), physical (12%, 7%), sexual (10%, 7%), and any (49%, 36%) IPV, as well as IPV-related injury (13%, 7%). Mode of screening, but not interviewer race, affected disclosure. Women screened via FTFI reported significantly more lifetime and prior-year negotiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 10.54, 3.97) and more prior-year verbal (aOR = 2.10), sexual (aOR = 4.31), and any (aOR = 2.02) IPV than CASI-screened women. African American women in a WIC setting disclosed IPV more often in face-to-face than computer screening, and race-matching of client and interviewer did not affect disclosure. Findings highlight the potential value of face-to-face screening to identify women at risk of IPV. Programs should weigh the costs and benefits of training staff versus using computer-based technologies to screen for IPV in WIC settings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Usability characteristics of self-administered computer-assisted interviewing in the emergency department: factors affecting ease of use, efficiency, and entry error.

    PubMed

    Herrick, D B; Nakhasi, A; Nelson, B; Rice, S; Abbott, P A; Saber Tehrani, A S; Rothman, R E; Lehmann, H P; Newman-Toker, D E

    2013-01-01

    Self-administered computer-assisted interviewing (SACAI) gathers accurate information from patients and could facilitate Emergency Department (ED) diagnosis. As part of an ongoing research effort whose long-range goal is to develop automated medical interviewing for diagnostic decision support, we explored usability attributes of SACAI in the ED. Cross-sectional study at two urban, academic EDs. Convenience sample recruited daily over six weeks. Adult, non-level I trauma patients were eligible. We collected data on ease of use (self-reported difficulty, researcher documented need for help), efficiency (mean time-per-click on a standardized interview segment), and error (self-report age mismatched with age derived from electronic health records) when using SACAI on three different instruments: Elo TouchSystems ESY15A2 (finger touch), Toshiba M200 (with digitizer pen), and Motion C5 (with digitizer pen). We calculated descriptive statistics and used regression analysis to evaluate the impact of patient and computer factors on time-per-click. 841 participants completed all SACAI questions. Few (<1%) thought using the touch computer to ascertain medical information was difficult. Most (86%) required no assistance. Participants needing help were older (54 ± 19 vs. 40 ± 15 years, p<0.001) and more often lacked internet at home (13.4% vs. 7.3%, p = 0.004). On multivariate analysis, female sex (p<0.001), White (p<0.001) and other (p = 0.05) race (vs. Black race), younger age (p<0.001), internet access at home (p<0.001), high school graduation (p = 0.04), and touch screen entry (vs. digitizer pen) (p = 0.01) were independent predictors of decreased time-per-click. Participant misclick errors were infrequent, but, in our sample, occurred only during interviews using a digitizer pen rather than a finger touch-screen interface (1.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.09). Our results support the facility of interactions between ED patients and SACAI. Demographic factors associated with need for

  11. The Instruments of Power: A Computer-Assisted Game for the ACSC Curriculum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Tolbert, Brian G. "Instruments of Power Game and Rules Development." Air Command and Staff College, 2005. Wang, Wallace. Visual Basic 6 for Dummies . New...Wang, Visual Basic 6 for Dummies (New York, NY: Wiley Publishing, 1998), 56-58. 56 Hasbro, Risk Rules (Pawtucket, RI: 1999). 57 Hasbro, Risk II Game

  12. In-vivo alignment comparing patient specific instrumentation with both conventional and computer assisted surgery (CAS) instrumentation in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Barrett, William; Hoeffel, Daniel; Dalury, David; Mason, J Bohannon; Murphy, Jeff; Himden, Sam

    2014-02-01

    Patient specific instrumentation (PSI) was developed to increase total knee arthroplasty (TKA) accuracy and efficiency. The study purpose was to compare immediate post-operative mechanical alignment, achieved using PSI, with conventional and computer assisted surgery (CAS) instruments in high volume TKA practices. This prospective, multicenter, non-randomized study accrued 66 TKA patients using PSI. A computed tomography (CT) based algorithm was used to develop the surgical plan. Sixty-two percent were females, 99% were diagnosed with osteoarthritis, average age at surgery was 66 years, and 33 was the average body mass index. A historical control group was utilized that underwent TKA using conventional instruments (n=86) or CAS (n=81), by the same set of surgeons. Postoperative mechanical alignment was comparable across the groups. Operative time mean and variance were significant.

  13. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction and Field Independence on the Development of Rhythm Sight-Reading Skills of Middle School Instrumental Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to teach rhythm reading skills may be influenced by subjects' level of field dependence/independence. The subjects for the study consisted of 120 middle school instrumental music students divided into four groups based on scores from the Group Embedded Figures…

  14. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction and Field Independence on the Development of Rhythm Sight-Reading Skills of Middle School Instrumental Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to teach rhythm reading skills may be influenced by subjects' level of field dependence/independence. The subjects for the study consisted of 120 middle school instrumental music students divided into four groups based on scores from the Group Embedded Figures…

  15. Using computer-assisted survey instruments instead of paper and pencil increased completeness of self-administered sexual behavior questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Spark, Simone; Lewis, Dyani; Vaisey, Alaina; Smyth, Eris; Wood, Anna; Temple-Smith, Meredith; Lorch, Rebecca; Guy, Rebecca; Hocking, Jane

    2015-01-01

    To compare the data quality, logistics, and cost of a self-administered sexual behavior questionnaire administered either using a computer-assisted survey instrument (CASI) or by paper and pencil in a primary care clinic. A self-administered sexual behavior questionnaire was administered to 16-29 year olds attending general practice. Questionnaires were administered by either paper and pencil (paper) or CASI. A personal digital assistant was used to self-administer the CASI. A total of 4,491 people completed the questionnaire, with 46.9% responses via CASI and 53.2% by paper. Completion of questions was greater for CASI than for paper for sexual behavior questions: number of sexual partners [odds ratio (OR), 6.85; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.32, 14.11] and ever having had sex with a person of the same gender (OR, 2.89; 95% CI: 1.52, 5.49). The median number of questions answered was higher for CASI than for paper (17.6 vs. 17.2; P < 0.01). CASI was cheaper to run at $8.18 per questionnaire compared with $11.83 for paper. Electronic devices using CASI are a tool that can increase participants' questionnaire responses and deliver more complete data for a sexual behavior questionnaire in primary care clinics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving completion rates for client intake forms through Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI): results from a pilot study with the Avon Breast Health Outreach Program.

    PubMed

    Hallum-Montes, Rachel; Senter, Lindsay; D'Souza, Rohan; Gates-Ferris, Kathryn; Hurlbert, Marc; Anastario, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study compares rates of completion of client intake forms (CIFs) collected via three interview modes: audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI), face-to-face interview (FFI), and self-administered paper-based interview (SAPI). A total of 303 clients served through the Avon Breast Health Outreach Program (BHOP) were sampled from three U.S. sites. Clients were randomly assigned to complete a standard CIF via one of the three interview modes. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that clients were significantly more likely to complete the entire CIF via ACASI than either FFI or SAPI. The greatest observed differences were between ACASI and SAPI; clients were almost six times more likely to complete the CIF via ACASI as opposed to SAPI (AOR = 5.8, p < .001). We recommend that where feasible, ACASI be utilized as an effective means of collecting client-level data in healthcare settings. Adoption of ACASI in health centers may translate into higher completion rates of intake forms by clients, as well as reduced burden on clinic staff to enter data and review intake forms for completion.

  17. From pen-and-paper questionnaire to a computer-assisted instrument for self-triage in the ophthalmic emergency department: Process and validation.

    PubMed

    Eijk, Eva S V; Bettink-Remeijer, Marijke Wefers; Timman, Reinier; Busschbach, Jan J V

    2015-11-01

    The ISET (Instrument for SElf-Triage) is a validated pen-and-paper instrument for patient self-triage in ophthalmic emergency departments. The aim of the present study is to develop a validated computer-assisted ISET (ca-ISET) with a touch screen. In the emergency department of the Eye Hospital Rotterdam, the Netherlands, successive computer-assisted versions of the ISET were tested by patients visiting the emergency department. The versions were developed by iteratively prototyping, testing, analysing and refining the computer-assisted ISET. In three test cycles, 16, 53 and 75 patients ≥ 18 years old, visiting the emergency department for the first time with their ophthalmic complaint, were monitored while using the ca-ISET. They were debriefed, and their input was used to adapt the computer-assisted ISET. To validate the ca-ISET, a sensitivity outcome of .80 and a specificity of .70 was required (CI=95%). The ca-ISET sensitivity and specificity were tested by comparing ca-ISET triage outcome to triage outcome as decided by the regular triage assistant. ISET accuracy increased from 0.69 in the first test to 0.79 in the third test. Sensitivity increased from 0.66 (CI 0.13-0.98) to 0.80 (0.51-0.95). Specificity increased from 0.69 (0.39-0.90) to 0.78 (0.65-0.88). To improve validity and usability, several adjustments were made in the text and the flow chart of the computer-assisted ISET. A ca-ISET prototype was developed, with minor textual modification of the pen-and-paper version. The new ca-ISET was validated by comparing against triage decided by the regular triage assistant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) may avert socially desirable responses about infant feeding in the context of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Waruru, Anthony K; Nduati, Ruth; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2005-01-01

    Background Understanding infant feeding practices in the context of HIV and factors that put mothers at risk of HIV infection is an important step towards prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Face-to-face (FTF) interviewing may not be a suitable way of ascertaining this information because respondents may report what is socially desirable. Audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) is thought to increase privacy, reporting of sensitive issues and to eliminate socially desirable responses. We compared ACASI with FTF interviewing and explored its feasibility, usability, and acceptability in a PMTCT program in Kenya. Methods A graphic user interface (GUI) was developed using Macromedia Authorware® and questions and instructions recorded in local languages Kikuyu and Kiswahili. Eighty mothers enrolled in the PMTCT program were interviewed with each of the interviewing mode (ACASI and FTF) and responses obtained in FTF interviews and ACASI compared using McNemar's χ2 for paired proportions. A paired Student's t-test was used to compare means of age, marital-time and parity when measuring interview mode effect and two-sample Student's t-test to compare means for samples stratified by education level – determined during the exit interview. A Chi-Square (χ2test) was used to compare ability to use ACASI by education level. Results Mean ages for intended time for breastfeeding as reported by ACASI were 11 months by ACASI and 19 months by FTF interviewing (p < 0.001). Introduction of complementary foods at ≤3 months was reported more frequently by respondents in ACASI compared to FTF interviews for 7 of 13 complementary food items commonly utilized in the study area (p < 0.05). More respondents reported use of unsuitable utensils for infant feeding in ACASI than in FTF interviewing (p = 0.001). In other sensitive questions, 7% more respondents reported unstable relationships with ACASI than when interviewed FTF (p = 0.039). Regardless of

  19. Accuracy of audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) and self-administered questionnaires for the assessment of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Carey, Michael P; Tu, Xin

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the accuracy of two retrospective methods and assessment intervals for recall of sexual behavior and assessed predictors of recall accuracy. Using a 2 [mode: audio-computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) vs. self-administered questionnaire (SAQ)] by 2 (frequency: monthly vs. quarterly) design, young women (N =102) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. Participants completed baseline measures, monitored their behavior with a daily diary, and returned monthly (or quarterly) for assessments. A mixed pattern of accuracy between the four assessment methods was identified. Monthly assessments yielded more accurate recall for protected and unprotected vaginal sex but quarterly assessments yielded more accurate recall for unprotected oral sex. Mode differences were not strong, and hypothesized predictors of accuracy tended not to be associated with recall accuracy. Choice of assessment mode and frequency should be based upon the research question(s), population, resources, and context in which data collection will occur.

  20. Feasibility and Acceptability of an Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview Version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Suzanne E.; Shedlin, Michele; Gilberti, Brian; Fiellin, Maya; McNeely, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background This study explores the feasibility and acceptability of a computer self-administered approach to substance use screening from the perspective of primary care patients. Methods Forty-eight patients from a large safety net hospital in New York City completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and a qualitative interview to assess feasibility and acceptability; comprehension; comfort with screening questions; and preferences for screening mode (interviewer or computer). Qualitative data analysis organized the participants’ feedback into major themes. Results Participants overwhelmingly reported being comfortable with the ACASI ASSIST. Mean administration time was 5.2 minutes (range 1.6 – 14.8). The major themes from the qualitative interviews were 1) ACASI ASSIST is feasible and acceptable to patients, 2) Social stigma around substance use is a barrier to patient disclosure, and 3) ACASI screening should not preclude personal interaction with providers. Conclusions The ACASI ASSIST is an appropriate and feasible approach to substance use screening in primary care. Because of the highly sensitive nature of substance use, screening tools must explain the purpose of screening, assure patients that their privacy is protected, and inform patients of the opportunity to discuss their screening results with their provider. PMID:26158798

  1. Computer-assisted audiovisual health history self-interviewing. Results of the pilot study of the Hoxworth Quality Donor System.

    PubMed

    Zuck, T F; Cumming, P D; Wallace, E L

    2001-12-01

    The safety of blood for transfusion depends, in part, on the reliability of the health history given by volunteer blood donors. To improve reliability, a pilot study evaluated the use of an interactive computer-based audiovisual donor interviewing system at a typical midwestern blood center in the United States. An interactive video screening system was tested in a community donor center environment on 395 volunteer blood donors. Of the donors using the system, 277 completed surveys regarding their acceptance of and opinions about the system. The study showed that an interactive computer-based audiovisual donor screening system was an effective means of conducting the donor health history. The majority of donors found the system understandable and favored the system over a face-to-face interview. Further, most donors indicated that they would be more likely to return if they were to be screened by such a system. Interactive computer-based audiovisual blood donor screening is useful and well accepted by donors; it may prevent a majority of errors and accidents that are reportable to the FDA; and it may contribute to increased safety and availability of the blood supply.

  2. Feasibility of a computer-assisted social network motivational interviewing intervention for substance use and HIV risk behaviors for housing first residents.

    PubMed

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Kennedy, David P; Hunter, Sarah B; Maksabedian, Ervant

    2016-09-07

    Social networks play positive and negative roles in the lives of homeless people influencing their alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) and HIV risk behaviors. We developed a four-session computer-assisted social network motivational interviewing intervention for homeless adults transitioning into housing. We examined the acceptability of the intervention among staff and residents at an organization that provides permanent supportive housing through iterative rounds of beta testing. Staff were 3 men and 3 women who were residential support staff (i.e., case managers and administrators). Residents were 8 men (7 African American, 1 Hispanic) and 3 women (2 African American, 1 Hispanic) who had histories of AOD and HIV risk behaviors. We conducted a focus group with staff who gave input on how to improve the delivery of the intervention to enhance understanding and receptivity among new residents. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews and collected self-report satisfaction data from residents. Three themes emerged over the course of the resident interviews. Residents reported that the intervention was helpful in discussing their social network, that seeing the visualizations was more impactful than just talking about their network, and that the intervention prompted thoughts about changing their AOD use and HIV risk networks. This study is the first of its kind that has developed, with input from Housing First staff and residents, a motivational interviewing intervention that targets both the structure and composition of one's social network. These results suggest that providing visual network feedback with a guided motivational interviewing discussion is a promising approach to supporting network change. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02140359.

  3. Sexually active HIV-positive patients frequently report never using condoms in audio computer-assisted self-interviews conducted at routine clinical visits.

    PubMed

    Schackman, Bruce R; Dastur, Zubin; Ni, Quanhong; Callahan, Mark A; Berger, Judith; Rubin, David S

    2008-02-01

    HIV prevention has become a new priority for HIV clinicians, as their patients live longer and more sexually active lives. Prevention interventions can be effective in clinical settings, but first patients must be screened and inconsistent condom use must be disclosed. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) are an effective way to elicit this sensitive information. We assessed condom use by ACASI among 198 English- or Spanish-speaking HIV patients at 2 community hospital-based HIV clinics in Queens and the Bronx, New York. Among 120 patients reporting sex with a regular partner in the past 4 weeks, 41 (34%) reported not using a condom every time and 22 (18%) reported never using a condom. Among 81 reporting sex with a casual partner in the past 4 weeks, 21 (26%) reported not using a condom every time and 12 (15%) reported never using a condom. Overall, 24 of 129 sexually active patients (19%) reported never using a condom. In a multivariable model controlling for age, race/ethnicity, gender, and HIV exposure category, depression symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score >/= 16; p = 0.03) and self-reported antiretroviral medication non-adherence (interviews may be an effective way of identifying patients in clinical settings who require prevention counseling as well as other psychosocial services.

  4. Development of an audio-computer assisted self-interview to investigate violence and health in the lives of adults with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Oschwald, Mary; Leotti, Sandy; Raymaker, Dora; Katz, Marsha; Goe, Rebecca; Harviston, Mark; Wallington, Annie; Howard, Lisa; Beers, Leanne; Nicolaidis, Christina; Robinson-Whelen, Susan; Hughes, Rosemary B; Lund, Emily; Powers, Laurie E

    2014-07-01

    Audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASIs) have safely and effectively obtained sensitive research data from the general public and have been recommended for use with people with disabilities. However, few studies have used ACASIs with people with disabilities and ACASIs have not been used to investigate the relationship between disability, interpersonal violence (IPV), and physical and psychological health among people with developmental disabilities (PWDD). We developed an accessible ACASI specifically designed to allow PWDD to answer questions independently, while privately and securely collecting anonymous data related to their disability, IPV experiences, and physical and psychological health. We used a safety protocol to apply community based participatory research (CBPR) principles and an iterative process to create, test, and administer a cross-sectional ACASI survey to 350 adults with developmental disabilities in urban and rural locales. Most participants completed the ACASI independently and reported that its accessibility features allowed them to do so. Most also agreed that the ACASI was easy to use, its questions were easy to understand, and that they would prefer using an ACASI to answer IPV and health-related questions rather than in a face-to-face interview. The majority agreed that health and safety were critical issues to address. ACASI technology has the potential to maximize the independent and private participation of PWDD in research on sensitive topics. We recommend further exploration into accessibility options for ACASI technology, including hardware and Internet applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The reliability of sensitive information provided by injecting drug users in a clinical setting: clinician-administered versus audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI).

    PubMed

    Islam, M Mofizul; Topp, Libby; Conigrave, Katherine M; van Beek, Ingrid; Maher, Lisa; White, Ann; Rodgers, Craig; Day, Carolyn A

    2012-01-01

    Research with injecting drug users (IDUs) suggests greater willingness to report sensitive and stigmatised behaviour via audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) methods than during face-to-face interviews (FFIs); however, previous studies were limited in verifying this within the same individuals at the same time point. This study examines the relative willingness of IDUs to report sensitive information via ACASI and during a face-to-face clinical assessment administered in health services for IDUs. During recruitment for a randomised controlled trial undertaken at two IDU-targeted health services, assessments were undertaken as per clinical protocols, followed by referral of eligible clients to the trial, in which baseline self-report data were collected via ACASI. Five questions about sensitive injecting and sexual risk behaviours were administered to participants during both clinical interviews and baseline research data collection. "Percentage agreement" determined the magnitude of concordance/discordance in responses across interview methods, while tests appropriate to data format assessed the statistical significance of this variation. Results for all five variables suggest that, relative to ACASI, FFI elicited responses that may be perceived as more socially desirable. Discordance was statistically significant for four of the five variables examined. Participants who reported a history of sex work were more likely to provide discordant responses to at least one socially sensitive item. In health services for IDUs, information collection via ACASI may elicit more reliable and valid responses than FFI. Adoption of a universal precautionary approach to complement individually tailored assessment of and advice regarding health risk behaviours for IDUs may address this issue.

  6. Feasibility of Audio-Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing With Color-Coding and Helper Assistance (ACASI-H) for Hmong Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lor, Maichou; Bowers, Barbara J

    2017-08-01

    Many older adult immigrants in the US, including Hmong older adults, have limited English proficiency (LEP), and cannot read or have difficulty reading even in their first language (non-literate [NL]). Little has been done to identify feasible data collection approaches to enable inclusion of LEP or NL populations in research, limiting knowledge about their health. This study's purpose was to test the feasibility of culturally and linguistically adapted audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) with color-labeled response categories and helper assistance (ACASI-H) for collection of health data with Hmong older adults. Thirty dyads (older adult and a helper) completed an ACASI-H survey with 13 health questions and a face-to-face debriefing interview. ACASI-H survey completion was video-recorded and reviewed with participants. Video review and debriefing interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Directed and conventional content analyses were used to analyze the interviews. All respondents reported that ACASI-H survey questions were consistent with their health experience. They lacked computer experience and found ACASI-H's interface user-friendly. All used the pre-recorded Hmong oral translation except for one, whose helper provided translation. Some Hmong older adults struggled with the color labeling at first, but helpers guided them to use the colors correctly. All dyads liked the color-labeled response categories and confirmed that a helper was necessary during the survey process. Findings support use of oral survey question administration with a technologically competent helper and color-labeled response categories when engaging LEP older adults in health-related data collection. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Computer-assisted neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Maciunas, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Computer-assisted neurosurgery has become so successful that it is rapidly becoming indistinguishable from, quite simply, neurosurgery. This trend promises to accelerate over the next several decades, bringing considerable benefit to the patients we care for. From a pragmatic point of view, can we identify specific instances in which clinical practice has been altered by computer assistance? During craniotomies for the resection of brain tumors, this technology has led to a greater standardization within and among practitioners for the expected degree of resection and the risk of morbidity and mortality. Minimally invasive approaches are transforming the practice of cranial base surgery. This technological trend has made craniotomy for biopsy virtually obsolete in the face of frameless stereotactic techniques. Functional neurosurgery has benefited from these technologies, as deep brain stimulation surgery has become the standard of care for most cases of movement disorder surgery. Extratemporal epilepsy due to cortical dysplasia has proven especially amenable to image-guided surgical techniques that integrate electrophysiological monitoring to refine the target of resection. New surgical procedures made possible by computer assistance include minimally invasive spine surgery, endovascular procedures, resections of low-grade nonenhancing gliomas, and stereotactic radiosurgery. A program for future research and development in this field would include: Electronic patient medical records. Automatic dynamic and elastic registration Novel surgical instrumentation guided by augmented reality Real-time feedback using anatomic and functional information Active robotic servo control systems to amplify neurosurgical capabilities Outcomes analysis-driven refinement of neurosurgical interventions. It is apparent that using computer assistance in neurosurgery has begun a process that will irrevocably transform all of neurosurgical practice itself. It must be neurosurgeons

  8. Development and Evaluation of a Web-based Computer-Assisted Personal Interview System (CAPIS) for Open-ended Dietary Assessments among Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sangah; Park, Eunyoung; Sun, Dong Han; You, Tae-Kyoung; Lee, Myung-Joo; Hwang, Soochan; Paik, Hee Young

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of dietary assessments has emerged as a major concern in nutritional epidemiology and new dietary assessment tools using computer technology to increase accuracy have been developed in many countries. The purpose of this study was to develop a web-based computer-assisted personal interview system (CAPIS) for conducting dietary assessment and to evaluate its practical utilization among Koreans. The client software was developed using Microsoft's ClickOnce technology, which allows communication with a database system via an http server to add or retrieve data. The system consists of a tracking system for the subject and researcher, a data-input system during the interview, a calculation system for estimating food and nutrient intake, a data-output system for presenting the results, and an evaluation system for assessing the adequacy of nutrient and food intake. Databases of the nutrient composition of common food (n = 3,642), recipes for common dishes (n = 1,886), and photos of serving sizes for food and dishes (n = 4,152) were constructed, and logical processes for data collection, calculation, and output were developed. The functionality, on-site applicability, and efficiency of CAPIS were evaluated in a convenience sample of 181 participants (61 males, 120 females; aged 24 to 85) by comparing with manual 24 hour recall method with paper questionnaire. The CAPIS was functioned adequately in the field survey in terms of completeness of function, security, and compliance of researcher and subjects. Regarding on-site applicability, 23.2%, 32.6%, 35.4%, and 43.7% of subjects reported that CAPIS was easier to recall their diet, to estimate the amount consumed, to communicate with the interviewer, and to concentrate on the interview than the manual method with paper questionnaire, respectively. Although CAPIS required more interview time (9 min 42 sec) compared to the manual method (7 min 30 sec), it saved time and cost for data coding and entry (15 min 35

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Web-based Computer-Assisted Personal Interview System (CAPIS) for Open-ended Dietary Assessments among Koreans.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sangah; Park, Eunyoung; Sun, Dong Han; You, Tae-Kyoung; Lee, Myung-Joo; Hwang, Soochan; Paik, Hee Young; Joung, Hyojee

    2014-07-01

    The accuracy of dietary assessments has emerged as a major concern in nutritional epidemiology and new dietary assessment tools using computer technology to increase accuracy have been developed in many countries. The purpose of this study was to develop a web-based computer-assisted personal interview system (CAPIS) for conducting dietary assessment and to evaluate its practical utilization among Koreans. The client software was developed using Microsoft's ClickOnce technology, which allows communication with a database system via an http server to add or retrieve data. The system consists of a tracking system for the subject and researcher, a data-input system during the interview, a calculation system for estimating food and nutrient intake, a data-output system for presenting the results, and an evaluation system for assessing the adequacy of nutrient and food intake. Databases of the nutrient composition of common food (n = 3,642), recipes for common dishes (n = 1,886), and photos of serving sizes for food and dishes (n = 4,152) were constructed, and logical processes for data collection, calculation, and output were developed. The functionality, on-site applicability, and efficiency of CAPIS were evaluated in a convenience sample of 181 participants (61 males, 120 females; aged 24 to 85) by comparing with manual 24 hour recall method with paper questionnaire. The CAPIS was functioned adequately in the field survey in terms of completeness of function, security, and compliance of researcher and subjects. Regarding on-site applicability, 23.2%, 32.6%, 35.4%, and 43.7% of subjects reported that CAPIS was easier to recall their diet, to estimate the amount consumed, to communicate with the interviewer, and to concentrate on the interview than the manual method with paper questionnaire, respectively. Although CAPIS required more interview time (9 min 42 sec) compared to the manual method (7 min 30 sec), it saved time and cost for data coding and entry (15 min 35

  10. HIV-related risk behaviors among the general population: a survey using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview in 3 cities in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu, Lan T H; Nadol, Patrick; Le, Linh Cu

    2015-03-01

    This study used a confidential survey method-namely, Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI)-to gather data about HIV-related risk knowledge/behaviors among the general population in Vietnam. The study sample included 1371 people aged 15 to 49 years in 3 cities-Hanoi, Da nang, and Can Tho. Results indicated that 7% of participants had ever had nonconsensual sex, and 3.6% of them had ever had a one-night stand. The percentage of male participants reported to ever have sex with sex workers was 9.6% and to ever inject drugs was 4.3%. The proportion of respondents who had ever tested for HIV was 17.6%. The risk factors and attitudes reported in the survey indicate the importance of analyzing risk behaviors related to HIV infection among the general population. Young people, especially men in more urbanized settings, are engaging in risky behaviors and may act as a "bridge" for the transmission of HIV from high-risk groups to the general population in Vietnam. © 2012 APJPH.

  11. Inter-method reliability of paper surveys and computer assisted telephone interviews in a randomized controlled trial of yoga for low back pain.

    PubMed

    Cerrada, Christian J; Weinberg, Janice; Sherman, Karen J; Saper, Robert B

    2014-04-09

    Little is known about the reliability of different methods of survey administration in low back pain trials. This analysis was designed to determine the reliability of responses to self-administered paper surveys compared to computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI) for the primary outcomes of pain intensity and back-related function, and secondary outcomes of patient satisfaction, SF-36, and global improvement among participants enrolled in a study of yoga for chronic low back pain. Pain intensity, back-related function, and both physical and mental health components of the SF-36 showed excellent reliability at all three time points; ICC scores ranged from 0.82 to 0.98. Pain medication use showed good reliability; kappa statistics ranged from 0.68 to 0.78. Patient satisfaction had moderate to excellent reliability; ICC scores ranged from 0.40 to 0.86. Global improvement showed poor reliability at 6 weeks (ICC = 0.24) and 12 weeks (ICC = 0.10). CATI shows excellent reliability for primary outcomes and at least some secondary outcomes when compared to self-administered paper surveys in a low back pain yoga trial. Having two reliable options for data collection may be helpful to increase response rates for core outcomes in back pain trials. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01761617. Date of trial registration: December 4, 2012.

  12. Inter-method reliability of paper surveys and computer assisted telephone interviews in a randomized controlled trial of yoga for low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the reliability of different methods of survey administration in low back pain trials. This analysis was designed to determine the reliability of responses to self-administered paper surveys compared to computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI) for the primary outcomes of pain intensity and back-related function, and secondary outcomes of patient satisfaction, SF-36, and global improvement among participants enrolled in a study of yoga for chronic low back pain. Results Pain intensity, back-related function, and both physical and mental health components of the SF-36 showed excellent reliability at all three time points; ICC scores ranged from 0.82 to 0.98. Pain medication use showed good reliability; kappa statistics ranged from 0.68 to 0.78. Patient satisfaction had moderate to excellent reliability; ICC scores ranged from 0.40 to 0.86. Global improvement showed poor reliability at 6 weeks (ICC = 0.24) and 12 weeks (ICC = 0.10). Conclusion CATI shows excellent reliability for primary outcomes and at least some secondary outcomes when compared to self-administered paper surveys in a low back pain yoga trial. Having two reliable options for data collection may be helpful to increase response rates for core outcomes in back pain trials. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01761617. Date of trial registration: December 4, 2012. PMID:24716775

  13. Is audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) useful in risk behaviour assessment of female and male sex workers, Mombasa, Kenya?

    PubMed

    van der Elst, Elisabeth M; Okuku, Haile Selassie; Nakamya, Phellister; Muhaari, Allan; Davies, Alun; McClelland, R Scott; Price, Matthew A; Smith, Adrian D; Graham, Susan M; Sanders, Eduard J

    2009-01-01

    Audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) may elicit more frequent reporting of socially sensitive behaviours than face-to-face (FtF)-interview. However, no study compared responses to both methods in female and male sex workers (FSW; MSW) in Africa. We sequentially enrolled adults recruited for an HIV-1 intervention trial into a comparative study of ACASI and FtF-interview, in a clinic near Mombasa, Kenya. Feasibility and acceptability of ACASI, and a comparative analysis of enrolment responses between ACASI and FtF on an identical risk assessment questionnaire were evaluated. In total, 139 women and 259 men, 81% of eligible cohort participants, completed both interviews. ACASI captured a higher median number of regular (2 vs. 1, p<0.001, both genders) and casual partners in the last week (3 vs. 2, p = 0.04 in women; 2 vs. 1, p<0.001 in men). Group sex (21.6 vs. 13.5%, p<0.001, in men), intravenous drug use (IDU; 10.8 vs. 2.3%, p<0.001 in men; 4.4 vs. 0%, p = 0.03 in women), and rape (8.9 vs. 3.9%, p = 0.002, in men) were reported more frequently in ACASI. A surprisingly high number of women reported in ACASI that they had paid for sex (49.3 vs. 5.8%, p<0.001). Behaviours for recruitment (i.e. anal sex, sex work, sex between males) were reported less frequently in ACASI. The majority of women (79.2%) and men (69.7%) felt that answers given in ACASI were more honest. Volunteers who were not able to take ACASI (84 men, and 37 women) mostly lacked reading skills. About 1 in 5 cohort participants was not able to complete ACASI, mostly for lack of reading skills. Participants who completed ACASI were more likely to report IDU, rape, group sex, and payment for sex by women than when asked in FtF interview. ACASI appears to be a useful tool for high risk behaviour assessments in the African context.

  14. Is Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) Useful in Risk Behaviour Assessment of Female and Male Sex Workers, Mombasa, Kenya?

    PubMed Central

    van der Elst, Elisabeth M.; Okuku, Haile Selassie; Nakamya, Phellister; Muhaari, Allan; Davies, Alun; McClelland, R. Scott; Price, Matthew A.; Smith, Adrian D.; Graham, Susan M.; Sanders, Eduard J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) may elicit more frequent reporting of socially sensitive behaviours than face-to-face (FtF)-interview. However, no study compared responses to both methods in female and male sex workers (FSW; MSW) in Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequentially enrolled adults recruited for an HIV-1 intervention trial into a comparative study of ACASI and FtF-interview, in a clinic near Mombasa, Kenya. Feasibility and acceptability of ACASI, and a comparative analysis of enrolment responses between ACASI and FtF on an identical risk assessment questionnaire were evaluated. In total, 139 women and 259 men, 81% of eligible cohort participants, completed both interviews. ACASI captured a higher median number of regular (2 vs. 1, p<0.001, both genders) and casual partners in the last week (3 vs. 2, p = 0.04 in women; 2 vs. 1, p<0.001 in men). Group sex (21.6 vs. 13.5%, p<0.001, in men), intravenous drug use (IDU; 10.8 vs. 2.3%, p<0.001 in men; 4.4 vs. 0%, p = 0.03 in women), and rape (8.9 vs. 3.9%, p = 0.002, in men) were reported more frequently in ACASI. A surprisingly high number of women reported in ACASI that they had paid for sex (49.3 vs. 5.8%, p<0.001). Behaviours for recruitment (i.e. anal sex, sex work, sex between males) were reported less frequently in ACASI. The majority of women (79.2%) and men (69.7%) felt that answers given in ACASI were more honest. Volunteers who were not able to take ACASI (84 men, and 37 women) mostly lacked reading skills. Conclusions/Significance About 1 in 5 cohort participants was not able to complete ACASI, mostly for lack of reading skills. Participants who completed ACASI were more likely to report IDU, rape, group sex, and payment for sex by women than when asked in FtF interview. ACASI appears to be a useful tool for high risk behaviour assessments in the African context. PMID:19412535

  15. Motivational Interviewing with computer assistance as an intervention to empower women to make contraceptive choices while incarcerated: study protocol for randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important and costly public health problems in the United States resulting from unprotected sexual intercourse. Risk factors for unplanned pregnancies and STIs (poverty, low educational attainment, homelessness, substance abuse, lack of health insurance, history of an abusive environment, and practice of commercial sex work) are especially high among women with a history of incarceration. Project CARE (Contraceptive Awareness and Reproductive Education) is designed to evaluate an innovative intervention, Motivational Interviewing with Computer Assistance (MICA), aimed at enhancing contraceptive initiation and maintenance among incarcerated women who do not want a pregnancy within the next year and who are anticipated to be released back to the community. This study aims to: (1) increase the initiation of highly effective contraceptives while incarcerated; (2) increase the continuation of highly effective contraceptive use at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after release; and (3) decrease unsafe sexual activity. Methods/Design This randomized controlled trial will recruit 400 women from the Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RI DOC) women’s jail at risk for an unplanned pregnancy (that is, sexually active with men and not planning/wanting to become pregnant in the next year). They will be randomized to two interventions: a control group who receive two educational videos (on contraception, STIs, and pre-conception counseling) or a treatment group who receive two sessions of personalized MICA. MICA is based on the principles of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) and on Motivational Interviewing (MI), an empirically supported counseling technique designed to enhance readiness to change targeted behaviors. Women will be followed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post release and assessed for STIs, pregnancy, and reported condom use. Discussion Results from this study are expected to enhance our

  16. VALIDATION OF AN AUDIO COMPUTER ASSISTED SELF INTERVIEW (ACASI) VERSION OF THE ALCOHOL, SMOKING AND SUBSTANCE INVOLVEMENT SCREENING TEST (ASSIST) IN PRIMARY CARE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    McNeely, Jennifer; Strauss, Shiela M.; Rotrosen, John; Ramautar, Arianne; Gourevitch, Marc N.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To address barriers to implementing the “Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST)” in medical settings, we adapted the traditional interviewer-administered (IA) ASSIST to an audio-guided computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. This study sought to validate the ACASI ASSIST by estimating the concordance, correlation, and agreement of scores generated using the ACASI versus the reference standard IA ASSIST. Secondary aims were to assess feasibility and compare ASSIST self-report to drug testing results. Design Participants completed the ACASI and IA ASSIST in a randomly assigned order, followed by drug testing. Setting Urban safety-net primary care clinic. Participants A total of 393 adult patients. Measurements Scores generated by the ACASI and IA ASSIST; drug testing results from saliva and hair samples. Findings Concordance between the ACASI and IA ASSIST in identifying moderate-high risk use was 92–99% for each substance class. Correlation was excellent for global scores (ICC=0.94, CI 0.92–0.95) and for substance-specific scores for tobacco (ICC=0.93, CI 0.91–0.94), alcohol (ICC=0.91, CI 0.89–0.93) and illicit drugs (ICC=0.85, CI 0.85–0.90), and good for prescription drugs (ICC=0.68, CI 0.61–0.73). Ninety-four percent of differences in global scores fell within anticipated limits of agreement. Among participants with a positive saliva test, 74% self-reported use on the ACASI ASSIST. The ACASI ASSIST required a median time of 3.7 minutes (range 0.7–15.4), and 21 (5.3%) participants requested assistance. Conclusions The computer self-administered Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test appears to be a valid alternative to the interviewer-administered approach for identifying substance use in primary care patients. PMID:26360315

  17. Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus infection among Brazilian blood donors: a multicentre case-control study using audio computer-assisted structured interviews.

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Neto, C; Goncalez, T T; Birch, R J; de Carvalho, S M F; Capuani, L; Leão, S C; Miranda, C; Rocha, P C; Carneiro-Proietti, A B; Johnson, B R; Wright, D J; Murphy, E L; Custer, B

    2013-08-01

    Although risk factors for HIV infection are known, it is important for blood centres to understand local epidemiology and disease transmission patterns. Current risk factors for HIV infection in blood donors in Brazil were assessed. A case-control study was conducted at large public blood centres located in four major cities between April 2009 and March 2011. Cases were persons whose donations were confirmed positive by enzyme immunoassays followed by Western blot confirmation. Audio computer-assisted structured interviews (ACASI) were completed by all cases and controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There were 341 cases, including 47 with recently acquired infection, and 791 controls. Disclosed risk factors for both females and males were sex with an HIV-positive person AOR 11.3, 95% CI (4.1, 31.7) and being an IVDU or sexual partner of an IVDU [AOR 4.65 (1.8, 11.7)]. For female blood donors, additional risk factors were having male sex partners who also are MSM [AOR 13.5 (3.1, 59.8)] and having unprotected sex with multiple sexual partners [AOR 5.19 (2.1, 12.9)]. The primary risk factor for male blood donors was MSM activity [AOR 21.6 (8.8, 52.9)]. Behaviours associated with recently acquired HIV were being a MSM or sex partner of MSM [13.82, (4.7, 40.3)] and IVDU [11.47, (3.0, 43.2)]. Risk factors in blood donors parallel those in the general population in Brazil. Identified risk factors suggest that donor compliance with selection procedures at the participating blood centres is inadequate. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  18. Risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases in northern Thai adolescents: an audio-computer-assisted self-interview with noninvasive specimen collection.

    PubMed

    Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Kilmarx, Peter H; Supawitkul, Somsak; Chaowanachan, Thanyanan; Jeeyapant, Supaporn; Sternberg, Maya; Markowitz, Lauri; Mastro, Timothy D; Van Griensven, Frits

    2003-04-01

    Previous studies of sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Thai adolescents may have been limited by participation bias and underreporting of stigmatized behaviors. The goal was to increase knowledge about risk behaviors and STDs among youths in Thailand. Students aged 15 to 21 years completed an audio-computer-assisted self-interview. Oral fluid was tested for HIV antibodies and urine was tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae nucleic acids with polymerase chain reaction. Of 1736 invited students, 1725 (99.4%) agreed to participate. Overall, C trachomatis infection was detected in 49 (2.8%), and there were five cases (0.3%) each of infection with N gonorrhoeae and HIV. Among those who reported sexual intercourse, the prevalence of chlamydial infection was 3.7% among men and 6.1% among women. Logistic regression analysis showed age-adjusted factors associated with chlamydial infection among men to be parents' occupation in agriculture, having sold sex, having a sex partner who had been pregnant, and the number of casual sex partners during lifetime. Among women, age-adjusted factors were parents' occupation in agriculture, number of casual partners during lifetime, having an older sex partner, and perception of higher HIV infection risk. These adolescents had high rates of unprotected intercourse and are at risk for STDs. Prevention programs should emphasize use of effective contraceptive methods, including condom use; reducing the number of sex partners (stressing the risk a partner of older age may pose to female adolescents); and reducing engagement in commercial sex.

  19. Audio-computer-assisted survey interview and patient navigation to increase chronic viral hepatitis diagnosis and linkage to care in urban health clinics.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, A N; Castaneda, I; Ahmad, M; Ekholy, N; Tham, N; Herrera, I B; Beaty, P; Malapero, R J; Ayoub, F; Slim, J; Johnson, M B

    2017-06-21

    Intravenous drug use and sexual practices account for 60% of hepatitis C (HCV) and B (HBV) infection. Disclosing these activities can be embarrassing and reduce risk reporting, blood testing and diagnosis. In diagnosed patients, linkage to care remains a challenge. Audio-computer-assisted survey interview (Audio-CASI) was used to guide HCV and HBV infection testing in urban clinics. Risk reporting, blood testing and serology results were compared to historical controls. A patient navigator (PN) followed up blood test results and provided patients with positive serology linkage to care (LTC). Of 1932 patients surveyed, 574 (30%) were at risk for chronic viral hepatitis. A total of 254 (44.3%) patients were tested, 34 (13.5%) had serology warranting treatment evaluation, and 64% required HBV vaccination. Of 16 patients with infection, seven HCV and three HBV patients started treatment following patient LTC. Of 146 HBV-naïve patients, 70 completed vaccination. About 75% and 49% of HCV antibody and HBV surface antigen-positive patients were born between 1945 and 1965. Subsequently, automated HCV testing of patients born between 1945 and 1965 was built into our hospital electronic medical records. Average monthly HCV antibody testing increased from 245 (January-June) to 1187 (July-October). Patient navigator directed LTC for HCV antibody-positive patients was 61.6%. In conclusion, audio-CASI can identify patients at risk for HCV or HBV infection and those in need of HBV vaccination in urban medical clinics. Although blood testing once a patient is identified at risk for infection needs to increase, a PN is useful to provide LTC of newly diagnosed patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Usability of a Computer-assisted Interview System for the Unaided Self-entry of Patient Data in an Urban Rheumatology Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Carl A.; Templin, Thomas; Mosley-Williams, Angelia D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study quantified the ease of use for patients and providers of a microcomputer-based, computer-assisted interview (CAI) system for the serial collection of the American College of Rheumatology Patient Assessment (ACRPA) questionnaire in routine outpatient clinical care in an urban rheumatology clinic. Design: A cross-sectional survey was used. Measurements: The answers of 93 respondents to a computer use questionnaire mailed to the 130 participants of a previous validation study of the CAI system were analyzed. For a 30-month period, the percentage of patient visits during which complete ACRPA questionnaire data were obtained with the system was determined. Results: The computer system provided cost and labor savings in the collection of 2,476 questionnaires for 2,964 patients visits over 30 months for a capture rate of 83.5%. In the last 12 of those months, 1,035 questionnaires were collected for 1,062 patient visits (97.5% capture). There were no missing data. The prestudy capture rate was 13.5%, with 33% of surveys having complete data. Patients rated the overall usability of the system as good (mean = 1.34, standard deviation = 0.61) on a scale of 0–2, where 2 = good, but expressed difficulty with mouse manipulation and concerns about the privacy of the data entry environment. Conclusion The system proved easy to use and cost-effective for the (mostly) unaided self-entry of self-report data for each patient for each visit in routine outpatient clinical care in an urban rheumatology clinic. PMID:15064286

  1. Computer Assisted Self Interviewing in a Sexual Health Clinic as Part of Routine Clinical Care; Impact on Service and Patient and Clinician Views

    PubMed Central

    Vodstrcil, Lenka A.; Hocking, Jane S.; Cummings, Rosey; Chen, Marcus Y.; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Read, Tim R. H.; Sze, Jun K.; Fairley, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Computer assisted self interviewing (CASI) has been used at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) since 2008 for obtaining sexual history and identifying patients' risk factors for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We aimed to evaluate the impact of CASI operating at MSHC. Methodology/Principal Findings The proportion of patients who decline to answer questions using CASI was determined. We then compared consultation times and STI-testing rates during comparable CASI and non-CASI operating periods. Patients and staff completed anonymous questionnaires about their experience with CASI. 14,190 patients completed CASI during the audit period. Men were more likely than women to decline questions about the number of partners they had of the opposite sex (4.4% v 3.6%, p = 0.05) and same sex (8.9% v 0%, p<0.001). One third (34%) of HIV-positive men declined the number of partners they had and 11–17% declined questions about condom use. Women were more likely than men to decline to answer questions about condom use (2.9% v 2.3%, p = 0.05). There was no difference in the mean consultation times during CASI and non-CASI operating periods (p≥0.17). Only the proportion of women tested for chlamydia differed between the CASI and non-CASI period (84% v 88% respectively, p<0.01). 267 patients completed the survey about CASI. Most (72% men and 69% women) were comfortable using the computer and reported that all their answers were accurate (76% men and 71% women). Half preferred CASI but 18% would have preferred a clinician to have asked the questions. 39 clinicians completed the staff survey. Clinicians felt that for some STI risk factors (range 11%–44%), face-to-face questioning was more accurate than CASI. Only 5% were unsatisfied with CASI. Conclusions We have demonstrated that CASI is acceptable to both patients and clinicians in a sexual health setting and does not adversely affect various measures of clinical output. PMID:21483799

  2. Comparison of audio computer assisted self-interview and face-to-face interview methods in eliciting HIV-related risks among men who have sex with men and men who inject drugs in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, Sylvia; Obianwu, Otibho; Eluwa, George; Vu, Lung; Oginni, Ayo; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Ahonsi, Babatunde; Bashorun, Adebobola; Idogho, Omokhudu; Karlyn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Face-to-face (FTF) interviews are the most frequently used means of obtaining information on sexual and drug injecting behaviours from men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who inject drugs (MWID). However, accurate information on these behaviours may be difficult to elicit because of sociocultural hostility towards these populations and the criminalization associated with these behaviours. Audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) is an interviewing technique that may mitigate social desirability bias in this context. This study evaluated differences in the reporting of HIV-related risky behaviours by MSM and MWID using ACASI and FTF interviews. Between August and September 2010, 712 MSM and 328 MWID in Nigeria were randomized to either ACASI or FTF interview for completion of a behavioural survey that included questions on sensitive sexual and injecting risk behaviours. Data were analyzed separately for MSM and MWID. Logistic regression was run for each behaviour as a dependent variable to determine differences in reporting methods. MSM interviewed via ACASI reported significantly higher risky behaviours with both women (multiple female sexual partners 51% vs. 43%, p = 0.04; had unprotected anal sex with women 72% vs. 57%, p = 0.05) and men (multiple male sex partners 70% vs. 54%, p≤0.001) than through FTF. Additionally, they were more likely to self-identify as homosexual (AOR: 3.3, 95%CI:2.4-4.6) and report drug use in the past 12 months (AOR:40.0, 95%CI: 9.6-166.0). MWID interviewed with ACASI were more likely to report needle sharing (AOR:3.3, 95%CI:1.2-8.9) and re-use (AOR:2.2, 95%CI:1.2-3.9) in the past month and prior HIV testing (AOR:1.6, 95%CI 1.02-2.5). The feasibility of using ACASI in studies and clinics targeting key populations in Nigeria must be explored to increase the likelihood of obtaining more accurate data on high risk behaviours to inform improved risk reduction strategies that reduce HIV transmission.

  3. Comparison of Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview and Face-To-Face Interview Methods in Eliciting HIV-Related Risks among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Men Who Inject Drugs in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebajo, Sylvia; Obianwu, Otibho; Eluwa, George; Vu, Lung; Oginni, Ayo; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Ahonsi, Babatunde; Bashorun, Adebobola; Idogho, Omokhudu; Karlyn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Face-to-face (FTF) interviews are the most frequently used means of obtaining information on sexual and drug injecting behaviours from men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who inject drugs (MWID). However, accurate information on these behaviours may be difficult to elicit because of sociocultural hostility towards these populations and the criminalization associated with these behaviours. Audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) is an interviewing technique that may mitigate social desirability bias in this context. Methods This study evaluated differences in the reporting of HIV-related risky behaviours by MSM and MWID using ACASI and FTF interviews. Between August and September 2010, 712 MSM and 328 MWID in Nigeria were randomized to either ACASI or FTF interview for completion of a behavioural survey that included questions on sensitive sexual and injecting risk behaviours. Data were analyzed separately for MSM and MWID. Logistic regression was run for each behaviour as a dependent variable to determine differences in reporting methods. Results MSM interviewed via ACASI reported significantly higher risky behaviours with both women (multiple female sexual partners 51% vs. 43%, p = 0.04; had unprotected anal sex with women 72% vs. 57%, p = 0.05) and men (multiple male sex partners 70% vs. 54%, p≤0.001) than through FTF. Additionally, they were more likely to self-identify as homosexual (AOR: 3.3, 95%CI:2.4–4.6) and report drug use in the past 12 months (AOR:40.0, 95%CI: 9.6–166.0). MWID interviewed with ACASI were more likely to report needle sharing (AOR:3.3, 95%CI:1.2–8.9) and re-use (AOR:2.2, 95%CI:1.2–3.9) in the past month and prior HIV testing (AOR:1.6, 95%CI 1.02–2.5). Conclusion The feasibility of using ACASI in studies and clinics targeting key populations in Nigeria must be explored to increase the likelihood of obtaining more accurate data on high risk behaviours to inform improved risk reduction strategies

  4. Computer Assisted Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arámbula Cosío, F.; Padilla Castañeda, M. A.

    2003-09-01

    Computer assisted surgery (CAS) systems can provide different levels of assistance to a surgeon during training and execution of a surgical procedure. This is done through the integration of : measurements taken on medical images; computer graphics techniques; and positioning or tracking mechanisms which accurately locate the surgical instruments inside the operating site. According to the type of assistance that is provided to the surgeon, CAS systems can be classified as: Image guided surgery systems; Assistant robots for surgery; and Training simulators for surgery. In this work are presented the main characteristics of CAS systems. It is also described the development of a computer simulator for training on Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) based on a computer model of the prostate gland which is able to simulate, in real time, deformations and resections of tissue. The model is constructed as a 3D mesh with physical properties such as elasticity. We describe the main characteristics of the prostate model and its performance. The prostate model will also be used in the development of a CAS system designed to assist the surgeon during a real TURP procedure. The system will provide 3D views of the shape of the prostate of the patient, and the position of the surgical instrument during the operation. The development of new computer graphics models which are able to simulate, in real time, the mechanical behavior of an organ during a surgical procedure, can improve significantly the training and execution of other minimally invasive surgical procedures such as laparoscopic gall bladder surgery.

  5. In-vitro evaluation of the tolerance of surgical instruments in templates for computer-assisted guided implantology produced by 3-D printing.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David; Schober, Florian; Grohmann, Philipp; Hammerle, Christoph H F; Jung, Ronald E

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the tolerance of surgical instruments in surgical guides produced by 3-D printing, without metal sleeves to a surgical guide with conventional metal sleeves from two different manufacturers. Lateral movements of drill tips caused by tolerance between the sleeve and drill key and between the drill key and the drill were recorded after application of a standardized force to the surgical instruments. Four groups were tested: Control 1 (C1): metal sleeve from commercially available surgical system 1; Test 1 (T1): 3-D-printed sleeve for surgical system 1; Control 2 (C2): metal sleeve from commercially available surgical system 2. Test 2 (T2): 3-D-printed sleeve for surgical system 2. The mean total lateral movement was 0.75 mm (0.5-1.04 mm) in the C1 group and 0.91 mm (0.54-1.34 mm) in the C2 group. The mean amount of movement from tolerance between sleeve and drill-guiding key was 0.31 mm (range 0.22-0.41 mm) in C1 and 0.42 mm (range 0.29-0.56 mm) in C2. This lateral movement was in mean reduced by 0.24 mm (32%) in T1 and by 0.39 mm (43%) in T2 group. This reduction was statistically significant in both groups (P < 0.001). The tolerance of surgical instruments and the lateral movements of the drills were significantly reduced by the use of 3-D printing with reduced sleeve diameter. This reduction could improve the overall accuracy in computer-assisted template-guided implant dentistry. The lateral movement of the drill can be further reduced by using a shorter drill and a higher drill key. This can be considered during implant planning and CAD/CAM of surgical guides. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corre, Le; Jacoud, R.

    The Paris Faculty of Science is developing programs in computer-assisted instruction (CAI). Their first goal is to develop "questionnaires" (instructional sequences) administered by teletype machines which check on a student's knowledge in an area and draw his attention to basic concepts, definitions, and theorems in that area. Using an…

  7. CAA: Computer Assisted Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, John H.

    Computers have been used in a variety of applications for athletics since the late 1950's. These have ranged from computer-controlled electric scoreboards to computer-designed pole vaulting poles. Described in this paper are a computer-based athletic injury reporting system and a computer-assisted football scouting system. The injury reporting…

  8. Computer-assisted psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jesse H.; Wright, Andrew S.

    1997-01-01

    The rationale for using computers in psychotherapy includes the possibility that therapeutic software could improve the efficiency of treatment and provide access for greater numbers of patients. Computers have not been able to reliably duplicate the type of dialogue typically used in clinician-administered therapy. However, computers have significant strengths that can be used to advantage in designing treatment programs. Software developed for computer-assisted therapy generally has been well accepted by patients. Outcome studies have usually demonstrated treatment effectiveness for this form of therapy. Future development of computer tools may be influenced by changes in health care financing and rapid growth of new technologies. An integrated care delivery model incorporating the unique attributes of both clinicians and computers should be adopted for computer-assisted therapy. PMID:9292446

  9. Computer-assisted instruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a project of research and development on strategies for optimizing the instructional process, and dissemination of information about the applications of such research to the instructional medium of computer-assisted instruction. Accomplishments reported include construction of the author language INSTRUCT, construction of a practical CAI course in the area of computer science, and a number of investigations into the individualization of instruction, using the course as a vehicle.

  10. Research Guidelines for Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Albert E.

    Prepared for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), this report contains 59 recommendations for research and development in support of computer-assisted instruction (CAI). The guidelines were derived from interviews with 14 leading education researchers. They cover the following learning and instruction variables: (1) learning…

  11. Color-Coded Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviews (C-ACASI) for Poorly Educated Men and Women in a Semi-rural Area of South India: “Good, Scary and Thrilling”

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Tarun; Brown, Joelle; Saravanamurthy, P. Sakthivel; Kumar, Raju Mohan; Detels, Roger

    2013-01-01

    It is challenging to collect accurate and complete data on sensitive issues such as sexual behaviors. Our objective was to explore experience and perceptions regarding the use of a locally programmed color-coded audio computer-assisted self interview (C-ACASI) system among men and women in a semi-rural setting in south India. We conducted a mixed-methods cross-sectional survey using semi-structured interviews among 89 truck drivers and 101 truck driver wives who had participated earlier in the C-ACASI survey across a predominantly rural district in Tamil Nadu. To assess the color-coded format used, descriptive quantitative analysis was coupled with thematic content analysis of qualitative data. Only 10 % of participants had ever used a computer before. Nearly 75 % did not report any problem in using C-ACASI. The length of the C-ACASI survey was acceptable to 98 % of participants. Overall, 87 % of wives and 73 % of truck drivers stated that C-ACASI was user-friendly and felt comfortable in responding to the sensitive questions. Nearly all (97 %) participants reported that using C-ACASI encouraged them to respond honestly compared to face-to-face personal interviews. Both the drivers and wives expressed that C-ACASI provided confidentiality, privacy, anonymity, and an easy mechanism for responding truthfully to potentially embarrassing questions about their personal sexual relationships. It is feasible and acceptable to use C-ACASI for collecting sensitive data from poorly computer-literate, non-English-speaking, predominantly rural populations of women and men. Our findings support the implementation of effective and culturally sensitive C-ACASI for data collection, albeit with additional validation. PMID:23361948

  12. Evaluating audio computer assisted self-interviews in urban South African communities: evidence for good suitability and reduced social desirability bias of a cross-sectional survey on sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Beauclair, Roxanne; Meng, Fei; Deprez, Nele; Temmerman, Marleen; Welte, Alex; Hens, Niel; Delva, Wim

    2013-01-31

    Efficient HIV prevention requires accurate identification of individuals with risky sexual behaviour. However, self-reported data from sexual behaviour surveys are prone to social desirability bias (SDB). Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing (ACASI) has been suggested as an alternative to face-to-face interviewing (FTFI), because it may promote interview privacy and reduce SDB. However, little is known about the suitability and accuracy of ACASI in urban communities with high HIV prevalence in South Africa. To test this, we conducted a sexual behaviour survey in Cape Town, South Africa, using ACASI methods. Participants (n = 878) answered questions about their sexual relationships on a touch screen computer in a private mobile office. We included questions at the end of the ACASI survey that were used to assess participants' perceived ease of use, privacy, and truthfulness. Univariate logistic regression models, supported by multivariate models, were applied to identify groups of people who had adverse interviewing experiences. Further, we constructed male-female ratios of self-reported sexual behaviours as indicators of SDB. We used these indicators to compare SDB in our survey and in recent FTFI-based Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs) from Lesotho, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. Most participants found our methods easy to use (85.9%), perceived privacy (96.3%) and preferred ACASI to other modes of inquiry (82.5%) when reporting on sexual behaviours. Unemployed participants and those in the 40-70 year old age group were the least likely to find our methods easy to use (OR 0.69; 95% CI: 0.47-1.01 and OR 0.37; 95% CI: 0.23-0.58, respectively). In our survey, the male-female ratio for reporting >2 sexual partners in the past year, a concurrent relationship in the past year, and > 2 sexual partners in a lifetime was 3.4, 2.6, and 1.2, respectively- far lower than the ratios observed in the Demographic and Health Surveys. Our analysis suggests that most

  13. [Computer-assisted surgery].

    PubMed

    Micali, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    The broad range of Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS) represents the integration of computer technology in surgical procedures for presurgical planning, guiding or manipulation. Surgical robots and surgical endoscopic navigation are the most challenging applications to urology. A surgical robot is defined as a computer-controlled manipulator with artificial sensing which can be programmed to move, and position tools to carry out surgical tasks. In urology, robots have been tested in two areas: endourology and laparoscopy. Surgical navigation allows the surgeon to process data from pre- and intraoperative sources, aiming at purification and presentation of the most relevant information. Image-guided systems (IGS), augmented reality (AR) and navigation in endoscopic soft tissue surgery represent the three main topics of surgical urological navigation. IGS involve matching the coordinates from medical imaging (preoperative registration) with coordinates from the patient in the operating room (registration and updating images). IGS have become the standard of care in providing navigational assistance during neurosurgery, offering subsurface and functional information to the surgeon.

  14. CARE: Computer Assisted Renewal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Keith A.

    CARE (Computer Assisted Renewal Education) is a mobile computer assisted instruction (CAI) program designed to train educators and inservice teachers in the education and handling of handicapped children. The program, developed by Pennsylvania State University and offering college credit, is carried in an expandable trailer with 16 individual…

  15. Rapid assessment of sexual behavior, drug use, human immunodeficiency virus, and sexually transmitted diseases in northern thai youth using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing and noninvasive specimen collection.

    PubMed

    van Griensven, F; Supawitkul, S; Kilmarx, P H; Limpakarnjanarat, K; Young, N L; Manopaiboon, C; Mock, P A; Korattana, S; Mastro, T D

    2001-07-01

    Drug use, unwanted pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and sexually transmitted diseases are serious health problems among Thai youth. The gravity of these problems demands high-quality data to direct public health policy and prevention programs. Previous studies of stigmatized behaviors have been hampered by participation bias and underreporting. To evaluate sexual behavior, disease, and drug use, we used audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) and noninvasive specimen collection methods. We also evaluated effectiveness of these methods in minimizing participation bias and underreporting. In late 1999, students aged 15 to 21 years attending 3 vocational schools were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey. Consenting students completed a classroom-based ACASI interview using a confidential code number system. Oral fluid specimens were tested for HIV antibodies, and urine was tested for chlamydial and gonococcal nucleic acids, methamphetamines, and opiates. Of 1736 invited students, 1725 (99%) agreed to participate. Of these, 48% of the male students and 43% of the female students reported ever having had sexual intercourse. Overall, the mean number of lifetime sexual partners was 4.6 among male participants (median: 2) and 2.8 among female participants (median: 1). Consistent use of condoms with steady partners was reported by 16% of male participants and 11% of female participants who had such partners. Of all male participants, 7% had ever paid for sex, 3% had ever sold sex, and 7% had ever been coerced to have sex. Of all female participants, 3% had ever sold sex and 21% had ever been coerced to have sex. Among women with a history of sexual intercourse, 27% reported at least 1 pregnancy. Of these pregnancies, 83% were terminated. Among those with sexual intercourse experience, the prevalence of HIV infection was 0.5%; of infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 0.4%; and of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, 5%. Twenty

  16. When computer-assisted knee replacement is the best alternative.

    PubMed

    Fehring, Thomas K; Mason, J Bohannon; Moskal, Joseph; Pollock, David C; Mann, John; Williams, Vincent J

    2006-11-01

    We studied whether computer-assisted surgery could properly align total knee arthroplasty when traditional instrumentation was not possible or appropriate. We identified 16 patients (18 knees) who we believed could not be treated using traditional instrumentation because of posttraumatic femoral deformity, retained femoral hardware, a history of osteomyelitis, or severe cardiopulmonary disease. Computer-assisted surgery was successfully used in 17 knees; we were unable to accurately register the hip in one morbidly obese patient. We judged the overall mechanical axis of the limb using computer-assisted surgery acceptable in 16 of 17 knees. One patient with a major posttraumatic biplane deformity had an overall mechanical axis in 4 degrees of varus. Computer-assisted navigation seemed helpful in difficult situations where accurate alignment remains crucial, yet traditional instrumentation is not applicable.

  17. Criterion validity of a computer-assisted instrument of self-triage (ca-ISET) compared to the validity of regular triage in an ophthalmic emergency department.

    PubMed

    Eijk, Eva S V; Wefers Bettink-Remeijer, Marijke; Timman, Reinier; Heres, Marion H B; Busschbach, Jan J V

    2016-01-01

    The computer-assisted version of a self-triage tool (ca-ISET) for an ophthalmic emergency department (ED) was developed to increase the validity of the triage procedure when trained ED staff is absent. We tested whether sensitivity, specificity, Negative Predictive Value (NPV) and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of the ca-ISET deviated from regular triage. Patients ≥18 years visiting the ED of the Rotterdam Eye Hospital in the Netherlands were invited to participate in this prospective study. This ED focuses on eye-related problems. Patient recruitment was carried out during working hours. The ca-ISET is a touch operated software application and the algorithm of the triage is based in the Manchester triage system. For all participants three triage scores were determined by (1) the participant using the ca-ISET; (2) triage by a regular, trained triage assistant and (3) triage by one physician who was specially trained in ophthalmic triage. The diagnosis of the physician was chosen as the reference standard to define criterion validity. The order of triage administration was alternated per patient. Only cases with triage scores from the two triage systems and the reference standard were included. The outcome variables, four triage colours, were transformed into a binary score: high urgent and low urgent. The difference between the ca-ISET and regular triage in terms of sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV was tested by Z-scores. Of 247 eligible patients, data was elicited from 189 patients (average age 54 years, range 18-89). The sensitivity of the ca-ISET (0.89, CI: 0.75-0.96) did not differ from the sensitivity of the regular triage (0.69, CI: 0.53-0.82, Z=1.74, p=0.08). The ca-ISET was less specific (0.78, CI: 0.71-0.84) than the regular triage (0.92, CI=0.86-0.95, Z=3.04, p=0.00). We found no significant difference between the ca-ISET and regular triage for PPV (Z=0.19, p=0.85) and NPV (Z=0.03, p=0.98). The sensitivity, PPV and NPV of the ca-ISET does not

  18. Readiness to exercise: a comparison of 3 instruments and an interview.

    PubMed

    Fish, Anne F; Frid, David J; Mitchell, G Lynn; Fish, James L; Christman, Sharon K; Astroth, Kim S

    2007-01-01

    Exercise stage of change (ESOC), or readiness to exercise, has been measured using at least 13 instruments and 4 interviews, yet no comparison studies are available to determine optimal measures for use by health care providers. This pilot study compares ESOC classification between 3 instruments (scale-ladder, scale-true/false, and scale-5 choice); explores the feasibility of using a face-to-face structured interview; compares classification between instruments and interview; and examines the influence of sex, age, and education level on stage classification. Thirty healthy adults completed ESOC instruments in random order and then the interview. Scale-ladder and scale-true/false instruments exhibited almost perfect agreement (weighted kappa, 0.897). All instruments exhibited substantial agreement with interview (weighted kappa, 0.620-0.790). Stage classification did not differ significantly by sex, age, or education level. The authors recommend word clarification revision of the scale-5 choice instrument and further testing of the interview.

  19. Interviewer as instrument: accounting for human factors in evaluation research.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joel H

    2006-04-01

    This methodological study examines an original data collection model designed to incorporate human factors and enhance data richness in qualitative and evaluation research. Evidence supporting this model is drawn from in-depth youth and adult interviews in one of the largest policy/program evaluations undertaken in the United States, the Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Education evaluation (77 districts, 118 schools). When applying the explicit observation technique (EOT)--the strategic and nonjudgmental disclosure of nonverbal human factor cues by the interviewer to the respondent during interview--data revealed the observation disclosure pattern. Here, respondents linked perceptions with policy or program implementation or effectiveness evidence. Although more research is needed, it is concluded that the EOT yields richer data when compared with traditional semistructured interviews and, thus, holds promise to enhance qualitative and evaluation research methods. Validity and reliability as well as qualitative and evaluation research considerations are discussed.

  20. Computer-Assisted Placement System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Willis J.

    The detailed study deals with the two basic types of computer-assisted placement mechanisms now operating as components of the United State Employment Service (USTES). Job banks receive job orders, organize, edit, and display; job-matching systems perform similar functions but in addition attempt to screen and match jobs and job applicants. The…

  1. Two Computer-Assisted Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Two computer-assisted experiments are described: (i) determination of the speed of ultrasound waves in water and (ii) measurement of the thermal expansion of an aluminum-based alloy. A new data-acquisition system developed by PASCO scientific is used. In both experiments, the "Keep" mode of recording data is employed: the data are…

  2. Two Computer-Assisted Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Two computer-assisted experiments are described: (i) determination of the speed of ultrasound waves in water and (ii) measurement of the thermal expansion of an aluminum-based alloy. A new data-acquisition system developed by PASCO scientific is used. In both experiments, the "Keep" mode of recording data is employed: the data are…

  3. Index to Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekan, Helen A., Ed.

    This index contains information on 456 computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs and projects developed by 51 organizations. The information was obtained from correspondence, annual reports, technical reports, and questionnaires which were sent to the producers of the program. The material is organized to list: the name of each program or…

  4. Preparing for Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Charles A.

    The general principles of cumputer operation and the concepts and methods of programing are described in this introductory text aimed at educators with little or no experience in the field of computer-assisted instruction. The principles and practical considerations involved in planning for and implementing the use of the computer in teaching…

  5. Computer-Assisted Laboratory Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, William J., Hanyak, Michael E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the advantages and features of computer-assisted laboratory stations for use in a chemical engineering program. Also describes a typical experiment at such a station: determining the response times of a solid state humidity sensor at various humidity conditions and developing an empirical model for the sensor. (JN)

  6. Computer-Assisted Laboratory Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, William J., Hanyak, Michael E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the advantages and features of computer-assisted laboratory stations for use in a chemical engineering program. Also describes a typical experiment at such a station: determining the response times of a solid state humidity sensor at various humidity conditions and developing an empirical model for the sensor. (JN)

  7. Interviewer as Instrument: Accounting for Human Factors in Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joel H.

    2006-01-01

    This methodological study examines an original data collection model designed to incorporate human factors and enhance data richness in qualitative and evaluation research. Evidence supporting this model is drawn from in-depth youth and adult interviews in one of the largest policy/program evaluations undertaken in the United States, the Drug,…

  8. Interviewer as Instrument: Accounting for Human Factors in Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joel H.

    2006-01-01

    This methodological study examines an original data collection model designed to incorporate human factors and enhance data richness in qualitative and evaluation research. Evidence supporting this model is drawn from in-depth youth and adult interviews in one of the largest policy/program evaluations undertaken in the United States, the Drug,…

  9. Implications Of Computer Assisted Radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Heinz U.

    1989-10-01

    Within the field of radiology, assistance with computer and communication systems may be applied to generation, storing, transmission, viewing, analyzing and interpreting of images. As a result, digital image management and communication systems will be applied at various levels in the health care system. Four groups of people are somehow involved or affected by this process. These are, first of all, the patients and the medical personnel, but also the scientific-engineering community and the group of professions involved with financing and/or administering these systems. Each group approaches computer assisted radiology from a particular point of view. The paper outlines some aspects as regards the different perceptions of these groups, which need to be clarified in order to successfully realise computer assisted radiology.

  10. An interview with Kirk S. Schroeder, President, Essen Instruments.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Kirk S

    2002-11-01

    Kirk Schroeder is co-founder and President of Essen Instruments, in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and co-developer of the FLIPR (Fluorescence Imaging Plate Reader) technology for performing high throughput cell-based assays. Mr. Schroeder obtained his Bachelor's degree in physics from Illinois Wesleyan University and his Master's degree in electrical engineering from The University of Illinois. After licensing The FLIPR technology to Molecular Devices, he and partner Brad Neagle worked for Molecular Devices for a brief time before founding Essen Instruments. They are in the final stages of development of their Ion Works trade mark electrophysiology platform for performing patch-clamp experiments in a high throughput format. In addition to the electrophysiology product line, Essen also develops, manufactures, and distributes the Pipeline trade mark products for sterile dispensing.

  11. Computer Assisted Virtual Environment - CAVE

    ScienceCinema

    Erickson, Phillip; Podgorney, Robert; Weingartner, Shawn; Whiting, Eric

    2016-07-12

    Research at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies is taking on another dimension with a 3-D device known as a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment. The CAVE uses projection to display high-end computer graphics on three walls and the floor. By wearing 3-D glasses to create depth perception and holding a wand to move and rotate images, users can delve into data.

  12. Computer Assisted Virtual Environment - CAVE

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Phillip; Podgorney, Robert; Weingartner, Shawn; Whiting, Eric

    2014-01-14

    Research at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies is taking on another dimension with a 3-D device known as a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment. The CAVE uses projection to display high-end computer graphics on three walls and the floor. By wearing 3-D glasses to create depth perception and holding a wand to move and rotate images, users can delve into data.

  13. Ultrasound-based liver computer assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Windyga, P; Hiransakolwong, N; Vu, K; Medina, R; Onik, G

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing research toward development of a computer-assisted, ultrasound-based software/hardware tool to improve instrument positioning in moving organs during minimally invasive abdominal surgery is presented. The main objective of this research is to calculate, in real time and without user intervention, the pre-/intra-operative 3D/2D image misalignment due to patient respiration and the shift induced by the surgical instrument. Our methodology applied to the particular case of the liver, and partial results related to the image registration approach, based on organ segmentation and shape description, are presented. Preliminary results are highly encouraging. Among other benefits, use of this tool will increase surgeon confidence and improve surgery outcomes.

  14. Computer Assisted Job Skill Evaluation (CAJSE). 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrant County Junior Coll. District, Ft. Worth, TX.

    The Computer-Assisted Job Skill Evaluation (CAJSE) project was conducted to develop an evaluation software instrument that could be used in career and technical education programs throughout Texas to provide immediate performance evaluations in vocational-technical and career education. Ten instructors selected from vocational-technical education…

  15. Computer-assisted threat evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bains, Jatin S.; Davies, Livingston

    2006-05-01

    The use of a CATE (Computer Assisted Threat Evaluation) System in the Maritime Domain lends itself technically and operationally to data exploitation thru the use of domain forensics and link analysis of fragmented information utilizing data prioritization and suspicion indicators for an aggressor's method of operation. The timely availability of threat mitigating actionable information is one of the key tools for success in the Global War On Terror (GWOT). The global supply chain is vulnerable to exploitation by nefarious individuals, governments, and terrorist organizations. For example, Figure 1 illustrates one of many potential methods that could be used to circumvent regulations limiting proliferation of WMDs.

  16. The Berkeley Puppet Interview: A Screening Instrument for Measuring Psychopathology in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lisanne L.; van Daal, Carlijn; van der Maten, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Otten, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background: While child self-reports of psychopathology are increasingly accepted, little standardized instruments are utilized for these practices. The Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI) is an age-appropriate instrument for self-reports of problem behavior by young children. Objective: Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the BPI will be…

  17. The Berkeley Puppet Interview: A Screening Instrument for Measuring Psychopathology in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lisanne L.; van Daal, Carlijn; van der Maten, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Otten, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background: While child self-reports of psychopathology are increasingly accepted, little standardized instruments are utilized for these practices. The Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI) is an age-appropriate instrument for self-reports of problem behavior by young children. Objective: Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the BPI will be…

  18. A computer-assisted preventive maintenance system.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, L

    1979-01-01

    With the growing number of hospitals developing in-house preventive maintenance capabilities, and the increasing number of pieces of equipment and instruments needing preventive maintenance, automatic data processing has emerged as a tool to aid the clinical engineer and hospital in planning preventive maintenance programs. Such a system is CAPMS, or Computer Assisted Preventive Maintenance System. Through the use of CAPMS, the department in charge of Preventive Maintenance can keep accurate records of PM history, safety testing, and year-to-year maintenance costs. Some of the special features of CAPMS include: information of availability of equipment for servicing, priorities, and a text file that can be used to print out the procedure form for use during the PM. These additional features make CAPMS a useful tool to the clinical engineer.

  19. [The foundations of computer assisted surgery].

    PubMed

    Langlotz, F; Nolte, L-P; Tannast, M

    2006-10-01

    Using navigation systems in general orthopaedic surgery and, in particular, knee replacement is becoming more and more accepted. This paper describes the basic technological concepts of modern computer assisted surgical systems. It explains the variation in currently available systems and outlines research activities that will potentially influence future products. In general, each navigation system is defined by three components: (1) the therapeutic object is the anatomical structure that is operated on using the navigation system, (2) the virtual object represents an image of the therapeutic object, with radiological images or computer generated models potentially being used, and (3) last but not least, the navigator acquires the spatial position and orientation of instruments and anatomy thus providing the necessary data to replay surgical action in real-time on the navigation system's screen.

  20. An instrument to evaluate alcohol-abuse interviewing and intervention skills.

    PubMed

    Seale, J P; Amodei, N; Littlefield, J; Ortiz, E; Bedolla, M; Yuan, C H

    1992-07-01

    At the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio from 1988 through 1990, the authors developed the Alcoholism Intervention Performance Evaluation (AIPE), a rating instrument for the evaluation of alcohol-abuse interviewing and intervention skills. Factor analysis of 51 rating items identified seven factors that accounted for most of the variability among the items; 35 were retained and assigned to the factor with which they correlated most highly, thus resulting in a seven-factor instrument with 35 items. The AIPE overall score had an interrater reliability of .73 (for four raters each rating approximately 30 videotaped simulated-patient interviews) and a test-retest reliability of .89 (for one rater rescoring 20 interviews after one month). The authors suggest that the individual scores for the seven factors can be used to provide instructional feedback to trainees and that the overall score can be used to certify interviewer proficiency.

  1. Researching the researcher-as-instrument: an exercise in interviewer self-reflexivity

    PubMed Central

    Pezalla, Anne E; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Because the researcher is the instrument in semistructured or unstructured qualitative interviews, unique researcher characteristics have the potential to influence the collection of empirical materials. This concept, although widely acknowledged, has garnered little systematic investigation. This article discusses the interviewer characteristics of three different interviewers who are part of a qualitative research team. The researcher/interviewers – and authors of this article – reflect on their own and each other’s interviews and explore the ways in which individual interview practices create unique conversational spaces. The results suggest that certain interviewer characteristics may be more effective than others in eliciting detailed narratives from respondents depending on the perceived sensitivity of the topic, but that variation in interviewer characteristics may benefit rather than detract from the goals of team-based qualitative inquiry. The authors call for the inclusion of enhanced self-reflexivity in interviewer training and development activities and argue against standardization of interviewer practices in qualitative research teams. PMID:26294895

  2. Emergent Literacy Development and Computer Assisted Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotti, Judy; Hendricks, Randy; Bledsoe, Christie

    2017-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, researchers examined the literacy development of prekindergarten students (N = 162) randomly placed in one of two treatment groups with each receiving 15 minutes of computer-assisted literacy instruction for four months. Literacy development of a control group of children not receiving computer-assisted instruction was…

  3. A Computer-Assisted Method of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parente, Frederick J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A computer-assisted method of counseling was applied to cases of stuttering and hypertension. Although both symptom complexes had previously resisted therapy, results indicated that computer-assisted counseling eliminated the stuttering and reduced diastolic blood pressure to normal levels. (Author)

  4. A Computer-Assisted Method of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parente, Frederick J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A computer-assisted method of counseling was applied to cases of stuttering and hypertension. Although both symptom complexes had previously resisted therapy, results indicated that computer-assisted counseling eliminated the stuttering and reduced diastolic blood pressure to normal levels. (Author)

  5. Designing and Creating Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMeen, George R.

    Designed to encourage the use of a defined methodology and careful planning in creating computer-assisted instructional programs, this paper describes the instructional design process, compares computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and programmed instruction (PI), and discusses pragmatic concerns in computer programming. Topics addressed include:…

  6. The Development and Field Testing of a School Psychologist Employment Interview Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vicki W.; Ebmeier, Howard

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an interview instrument for school systems to use in the hiring process for school psychologists. The current professional standards, guidelines for practice, and existing literature were reviewed, which yielded consistent agreement of 10 interrelated domains that address essential skills and knowledge…

  7. Computer-assisted personalized sedation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Subhas; Desilets, David; Diehl, David L; Farraye, Francis A; Kaul, Vivek; Kethu, Sripathi R; Kwon, Richard S; Mamula, Petar; Pedrosa, Marcos C; Rodriguez, Sarah A; Song, Louis-Michel Wong Kee; Tierney, William M

    2011-03-01

    The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) Technology Committee provides reviews of new or emerging endoscopic technologies that have the potential to have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used, with a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent preclinical and clinical studies on the topic, and a MAUDE (Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience; U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health) database search to identify the reported complications of a given technology. Both are supplemented by accessing the "related articles" feature of PubMed and by scrutinizing pertinent references cited by the identified studies. Controlled clinical trials are emphasized but, in many cases, data from randomized, controlled trials are lacking. In such cases, large case series, preliminary clinical studies, and expert opinions are used. Technical data are gathered from traditional and Web-based publications, proprietary publications, and informal communications with pertinent vendors. For this review, the MEDLINE database was searched through January 2010 using the keywords "computer," "computerized," "computer-assisted," "sedation," "propofol." Reports on Emerging Technology are drafted by 1 or 2 members of the ASGE Technology Committee, reviewed and edited by the committee as a whole, and approved by the Governing Board of the ASGE. These reports are scientific reviews provided solely for educational and informational purposes. Reports on Emerging Technology are not rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment or payment for such treatment.

  8. Measuring social anxiety and obsessive-compulsive spectra: comparison of interviews and self-report instruments.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Liliana; Rucci, Paola; Cassano, Giovanni B; Maser, Jack D; Endicott, Jean; Shear, M Katherine; Sarno, Nannina; Saettoni, Marco; Grochocinski, Victoria J; Frank, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    The present report analyzes the agreement between the interview and the self-report formats of the instruments Structured Clinical Interview for Social Anxiety Spectrum (SCI-SHY) and Structured Clinical Interview for Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum (SCI-OBS), already validated, in three psychiatric patient samples and controls. Thirty patients (10 with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], 10 with social anxiety disorder [SAD], 10 with recurrent unipolar depression in remission) and 20 control subjects (10 university students, 10 ophthalmologic patients) were assessed using the SCI-SHY, the SCI-OBS, and the self report version of the two instruments. Agreement between the two versions was very good for the seven SCI-OBS domains (with intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] ranging from 0.80 to 0.96) and the four SCI-SHY domains (ICCs from 0.74 to 0.90). When items were analyzed individually, subjects tended to under-report some phobia-related problems in the interview. The total number of items endorsed in the SCI-SHY, but not in the SCI-OBS, was affected by the order of administration: when the SCI-SHY interview was administered first, subjects reported a median of five more symptoms; when the self-report was administered first, there was no significant difference in the number of symptoms endorsed in the two formats. However, this difference is not clinically important, given the large number of items comprising the instruments, and might be explained by the fact that subjects are likely to overemphasize occasional symptoms or behaviors when they are asked by the interviewer to answer a long series of "new" questions as accurately as possible. Given the high agreement between domain scores in the two formats of the instruments and the fact that scores are virtually identical when the self-report is administered first, we recommend the use of the self-report versions in clinical and research settings.

  9. Computer-assisted innovations in craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Rudman, Kelli; Hoekzema, Craig; Rhee, John

    2011-08-01

    Reconstructive surgery for complex craniofacial defects challenges even the most experienced surgeons. Preoperative reconstructive planning requires consideration of both functional and aesthetic properties of the mandible, orbit, and midface. Technological innovations allow for computer-assisted preoperative planning, computer-aided manufacturing of patient-specific implants (PSIs), and computer-assisted intraoperative navigation. Although many case reports discuss computer-assisted preoperative planning and creation of custom implants, a general overview of computer-assisted innovations is not readily available. This article reviews innovations in computer-assisted reconstructive surgery including anatomic considerations when using PSIs, technologies available for preoperative planning, work flow and process of obtaining a PSI, and implant materials available for PSIs. A case example follows illustrating the use of this technology in the reconstruction of an orbital-frontal-temporal defect with a PSI. Computer-assisted reconstruction of complex craniofacial defects provides the reconstructive surgeon with innovative options for challenging reconstructive cases. As technology advances, applications of computer-assisted reconstruction will continue to expand.

  10. [Computer-assisted gnatho-prosthodontic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Burlui, V; Rädäuceanu, C; Orhei, G; Dumitraşcu, C

    1991-01-01

    The program is very useful by its rapidity, reliability and releasing the dentist from calculating the multiple variants of some clinico-biological indices. The computer-assisted gnatho-prosthetic diagnosis also makes possible a more adequate therapeutical plan.

  11. Future Prospects for Computer-Assisted Mathematics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2005-10-26

    The recent rise of ''computer-assisted'' and ''experimental'' mathematics raises intriguing questions as to the future role of computation in mathematics. These results also draw into question the traditional distinctions that have been drawn between formal proof and computationally-assisted proof. This article explores these questions in the context of the growing consensus among computer technologists that Moore's Law is likely to continue unabated for quite some time into the future, producing hardware and software much more powerful than what is available today.

  12. Computer-assisted cartography: an overview.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, S.C.; Starr, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    An assessment of the current status of computer-assisted cartography, in part, is biased by one's view of the cartographic process as a whole. From a traditional viewpoint we are concerned about automating the mapping process; from a progressive viewpoint we are concerned about using the tools of computer science to convey spatial information. On the surface these viewpoints appear to be in opposition. However, it is postulated that in the final analysis, they face the same goal. This overview uses the perspectives from two viewpoints to depict the current state of computer-assisted cartography and speculate on future goals, trends, and challenges.-Authors

  13. [Computer-assisted temporomandibular joint reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zwetyenga, N; Mommers, X-A; Cheynet, F

    2013-08-02

    Prosthetic replacement of TMJ is gradually becoming a common procedure because of good functional and aesthetic results and low morbidity. Prosthetic models available can be standard or custom-made. Custom-made prosthesis are usually reserved for complex cases, but we think that computer assistance for custom-made prosthesis should be indicated for each case because it gives a greater implant stability and fewer complications. Computer assistance will further enlarge TMJ prosthesis replacement indications. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Rapid methods and computer assisted diagnosis in medical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Heizmann, W R

    1991-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis and reporting in medical microbiology is becoming more and more important. In recent years, introduction of automated instruments as well as of computer assisted diagnosis contributed to this aim. These methods, however, are very expensive. A more cost efficient and simple to perform method for rapid diagnosis is the use of specific fluorogenic substrates incorporated into culture media (solid or liquid) for identification of the most important pathogens, e.g. Escherichia coli. Investigation of Fluorocult ECD agar and Columbia agar revealed a high sensitivity (85%) and an excellent specificity (greater than 99%) of fluorescence in combination with a positive indole reaction for identification of E. coli.

  15. A Decade of Computer Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. R.

    The Computer Assisted Teaching Unit (CATU) was instituted at Queen Mary College in 1973 to provide aid to the Faculty of Engineering in developing and implementing computer-based learning procedures to support the undergraduate teaching program. Earlier computer programs had simulated electrical and nuclear systems to give students the opportunity…

  16. Computer-Assisted Instruction at Stanford.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    Programs for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) which were developed at Stanford University from 1963-70 are described, and prospects for CAI in the 1970's are considered briefly. The programs include ones in arithmetic, logic, and reading for elementary grades and in basic Russian and remedial algebra for college students. Of these, the logic…

  17. Computer-Assisted Discovery and Proof

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2007-12-10

    With the advent of powerful, widely-available mathematical software, combined with ever-faster computer hardware, we are approaching a day when both the discovery and proof of mathematical facts can be done in a computer-assisted manner. his article presents several specific examples of this new paradigm in action.

  18. Vibrations and Waves: Using Computer Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, M. J.; Lewis, D.

    Described is the development of computer assisted learning packages for nonscience major undergraduate students. The equipment needed to run the packages is described as well as the role and value of the packages. Several examples of the kind of computer graphics used in the computing laboratory are illustrated. The problems associated with the…

  19. Competency Reference for Computer Assisted Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Technical Education.

    This guide, developed in Oregon, lists competencies essential for students in computer-assisted drafting (CAD). Competencies are organized in eight categories: computer hardware, file usage and manipulation, basic drafting techniques, mechanical drafting, specialty disciplines, three dimensional drawing/design, plotting/printing, and advanced CAD.…

  20. Computer-Assisted Programmed Instruction in Textiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kean, Rita C.; Laughlin, Joan

    Students in an introductory textiles course at the University of Nebraska's College of Home Economics actively participate in the learning experience through a self-paced instructional technique. Specific learning packets were developed adapting programmed instructional learning materials to computer assisted instruction (CAI). A study booklet…

  1. Computer-assisted photometric microplate analysis.

    PubMed

    Hörer, O L; Pop, D A

    1987-01-01

    The main algorithm of computer-assisted absorption and emission photometry of samples on a microplate is presented. The software can be used for the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and other virological tests. The performances of an SPF-500 (Aminco) spectrofluorometer/Felix M18 microcomputer system are discussed on the ground of some results obtained by using the implemented programs.

  2. Computer Assisted Instruction for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Providence Coll., RI.

    Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) for the mentally retarded is described; the advantages of CAI (which generally follows the pattern of programed instruction) are listed; and the roles of the teacher and the student are summarized. The coursewriter is explained, and its use as an experimental tool discussed. Guidelines are given covering…

  3. Computer-Assisted Education: What's Not Happening?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Francis D.

    1982-01-01

    Explores the use of computer-assisted learning, discussing possibilities, programs available (illustrating exciting programs and those which have failed), reasons for courseware failures, problems for schools (teacher acceptance, funding), and use of computers outside the school. A list of activities worthy of investigation and support are…

  4. Computer-Assisted Education System for Psychopharmacology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, William Donald

    An approach to the use of computer assisted instruction (CAI) for teaching psychopharmacology is presented. A project is described in which, using the TUTOR programing language on the PLATO IV computer system, several computer programs were developed to demonstrate the concepts of aminergic transmitters in the central nervous system. Response…

  5. Computer Assisted Instruction in Linear Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallego, J. A. Jaen; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a system of computer assisted instruction geared primarily toward high school and university students involved in numerical analysis and optimization. Also describes (in detail) one of its modules to illustrate the general philosophy of the system. This module focuses on the simplex method. (JN)

  6. Inviting Success in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Catherine

    This paper reviews briefly the essential characteristics of both invitational education and computer assisted instruction (CAI) and the ways in which coordination of these two models can produce stimulating and valuable educational experiences for students. A matrix illustrates the characteristics of CAI which can support the major values of…

  7. Giraffe, a Computer Assisted Instruction Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekhorst, Albert K.; Groot, Tineke

    In 1989 a two year collaborative project, CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) & Humanities, was initiated between the Faculty of Arts and IBM Netherlands during which General Information Retrieval All Faculties For Bibliographic Education (GIRAFFE), a program for the retrieval of information on general bibliographies, was developed. The…

  8. Computer Assisted Instruction Techniques for Screening Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, K. W.; Craft, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the use of computer assisted instruction at North Carolina Agriculture and Technical State University in freshman and remedial mathematics to cut down high attrition rates and weed out quickly the students who can't adapt to the vigors of engineering course work. (Author/DS)

  9. A Review of Computer-Assisted Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conole, Grainne; Warburton, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Pressure for better measurement of stated learning outcomes has resulted in a demand for more frequent assessment. The resources available are seen to be static or dwindling, but Information and Communications Technology is seen to increase productivity by automating assessment tasks. This paper reviews computer-assisted assessment (CAA) and…

  10. Distance Education and Computer-Assisted Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henri, France

    1988-01-01

    Examines the problems and promise of incorporating computer-assisted communications (CAC) into distance education programs. Discusses advantages gained by widely-scattered students using CAC for individual or group conferences. States that CAC can encourage training approaches in which the learning process is sustained by the dynamic of the social…

  11. Computer-Assisted Study Skills Improvement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William F.; Forristall, Dorothy Z.

    The Computer-Assisted Study Skills Improvement Program (CASSIP) is designed to help students develop effective study skills and academic attitudes, thus increasing their potential for scholastic success. The program contains four integrated items: Study Skills Surveys; Study Skills Modules, Study Skills Notebook; and Study Skills Test. The surveys…

  12. Distance Education and Computer-Assisted Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henri, France

    1988-01-01

    Examines the problems and promise of incorporating computer-assisted communications (CAC) into distance education programs. Discusses advantages gained by widely-scattered students using CAC for individual or group conferences. States that CAC can encourage training approaches in which the learning process is sustained by the dynamic of the social…

  13. Computer-assisted abdominal surgery: new technologies.

    PubMed

    Kenngott, H G; Wagner, M; Nickel, F; Wekerle, A L; Preukschas, A; Apitz, M; Schulte, T; Rempel, R; Mietkowski, P; Wagner, F; Termer, A; Müller-Stich, Beat P

    2015-04-01

    Computer-assisted surgery is a wide field of technologies with the potential to enable the surgeon to improve efficiency and efficacy of diagnosis, treatment, and clinical management. This review provides an overview of the most important new technologies and their applications. A MEDLINE database search was performed revealing a total of 1702 references. All references were considered for information on six main topics, namely image guidance and navigation, robot-assisted surgery, human-machine interface, surgical processes and clinical pathways, computer-assisted surgical training, and clinical decision support. Further references were obtained through cross-referencing the bibliography cited in each work. Based on their respective field of expertise, the authors chose 64 publications relevant for the purpose of this review. Computer-assisted systems are increasingly used not only in experimental studies but also in clinical studies. Although computer-assisted abdominal surgery is still in its infancy, the number of studies is constantly increasing, and clinical studies start showing the benefits of computers used not only as tools of documentation and accounting but also for directly assisting surgeons during diagnosis and treatment of patients. Further developments in the field of clinical decision support even have the potential of causing a paradigm shift in how patients are diagnosed and treated.

  14. Introduction: Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailin, Alan; Levin, Lori

    1989-01-01

    Presents an overview of intelligent computer-assisted language instruction (ICALI) research as a type of artificial intelligence research. Outlines the components and kinds of ICALI systems. Examines practical research considerations such as personnel needs for development of ICALI software. (Author/LS)

  15. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Authoring Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Sue E. K.; Pusack, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) authoring refers to a wide variety of creative development activities using software tools that run the gamut from simple templates (easy-to-use predefined forms into which content is typed) to complex authoring environments (flexible but harder-to-use systems, requiring advanced skills and a great deal…

  16. Learner Control in Computer Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of how secondary students coped when taught binary arithmetic through a computer assisted instruction program used four treatment groups: learner control, learner control with advice; random program control, and adaptive program control. The random group performed less well, but no differences were found between learner and…

  17. Computer Assisted Instruction (ILS) for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Andrew

    In 1991, the Cumberland Campus of Nova Scotia Community College established a literacy research and development project to survey local industries and the community regarding training needs and to develop workplace and community-based programs to meet those needs. One effort involved the implementation of a computer-assisted learning program to…

  18. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Authoring Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Sue E. K.; Pusack, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) authoring refers to a wide variety of creative development activities using software tools that run the gamut from simple templates (easy-to-use predefined forms into which content is typed) to complex authoring environments (flexible but harder-to-use systems, requiring advanced skills and a great deal…

  19. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Rehabilitation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crimando, William; Baker, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the use of computer assisted instruction in training rehabilitation students (N=30) in writing evaluation reports. Results showed students who learned the concepts of report writing with a computer based tutorial performed significantly better on a test than students who received a lecture on the material. (JAC)

  20. Inviting Success in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Catherine

    This paper reviews briefly the essential characteristics of both invitational education and computer assisted instruction (CAI) and the ways in which coordination of these two models can produce stimulating and valuable educational experiences for students. A matrix illustrates the characteristics of CAI which can support the major values of…

  1. Computer-assisted navigation system in intranasal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapiejko, Piotr; Wojdas, Andrzej; Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew M.; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2005-02-01

    Due to anatomical variability and limited visibility of endoscopic image, endoscopic operations of nose and paranasal sinuses are ones of the most difficult surgical procedures. The field of operation often comprises anatomical structures, which often present anomalies. Computer-assisted navigational endoscopic surgery consists of routine tomography with the possibility of 3-axis projection allowing for localization of surgical instruments in proper relation to anatomic structures. This potential permits the surgeon to penetrate specific structures with surgical instruments and visualize their localization on computer tomography, which was earlier entered to the computer and projected. Projection of the images and endoscopic picture on the same monitor provides comfort to the operator and feeling of safety to the operated patient. The image analysis feature supplies a set of information necessary for safer and more effective procedure conduction and decreased number of complications. This technique may considerably contribute to training programs in endoscopic surgery. Computer-aided navigation in surgical procedures allows for precise biopsy specimen uptake for pathological examination, even in cases requiring precision up to 1 mm. The authors present an overview of surgical computer-aided navigation systems and their own experience in endoscopic ethmoid and maxillary sinus surgery performed with the use of computer-assisted navigation system.

  2. [Computer-assisted video-endoscopic endonasal surgery].

    PubMed

    Schmerber, S; Chen, B; Lavallée, S; Coulomb, M; Chirossel, J P; Lavieille, J P; Reyt, E

    2001-02-01

    To make the surgical procedure safer and more precise in FESS, a non-invasive markerless computer-assisted system (CAS) is described for intra-operative navigation whenever the critical regions may be affected by surgical manipulation. Twenty patients with benign diseases of the paranasal sinuses were treated by Computer Assisted Video-endoscopic surgery, between December 1997 and March 1998. For the determination of accuracy and reproducibility of the system, ten anatomical landmarks on each side of the paranasal sinuses were chosen and measured. All of these points were identified on the direct live video-endoscopy image and compared to those obtained with the Optical Digitizing System (Flashpoint 5000(R)), on axial, coronal and sagittal view. The Optical Localizer we used detects the position of the relative coordinates of two rigid bodies made of IR-LED's each, one rigid body is secured to the head' of the patient with a headset, so that patient motion can be tracked, and the second rigid body attached to the operating instrument, leading to direct localization of the tip of the instrument. We use a markerless, skin surface-based registration method, which has the advantage to avoid doing a second CT scan examination usually performed to process the position of the fiducial markers. We register the data from the patient's usual paranasal CT scan. Computer-assisted surgery does not increase significantly the duration of the operation. Our markerless skin surface points registration method is reliable enabling of the movements patient's head during the procedure. Computer assistance can be used in almost any type of endoscopic sinonasal procedure. We obtained a registration and calibration accuracy of less than 1.5 mm in 89.2% of cases. CAS enables the surgeon to have a more thorough understanding of the complicated anatomy of paranasal sinuses, and may be especially helpful in revision surgery when normal anatomic landmarks are lacking. Due to the passive

  3. Computer-Assisted Surgery Using Telemanipulators

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of computer-assisted surgery with telemanipulators. The Technology The technology for computer-assisted surgery with telemanipulators is a robotic arm that carries an endoscope while two other manipulator arms carry interchangeable tools, such as scissors and grippers. In a master-slave telemanipulator system, the master may consist of a joystick input system, or for surgery, may mimic the motion of the slave robot, such as the da Vinci and ZEUS surgical systems. These systems are capable of telerobotic surgery, or surgery from remote locations. Review Strategy The Cochrane and INAHTA databases yielded 4 health technology assessments or systematic reviews on computer-assisted surgery using telemanipulators. A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE January 1, 2001 to November 24, 2003 was conducted. This search produced 448 studies, of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. Summary of Findings Published health technology assessments indicate that there are limited data from studies, although there is initial evidence of the safety and efficacy of telemanipulators in some procedures when they are used at large academic centres for surgery on selected patients. Most studies are Level 3 and 4 observational studies and assess a wide variety of surgical procedures. Limited studies indicate the promise of telemanipulators, but their efficacy is not fully established. In some procedures, the advantages that telemanipulators may offer may also be achieved by non-robotic minimally invasive/laparoscopic techniques. To date, cost-effectiveness has not been demonstrated. Patients who have undergone robotic surgery must be followed to further define outcomes (e.g., long-term quality of the graft after coronary arterial bypass graft [CABG] surgery). The exact role of computer-assisted surgery with telemanipulators has not been fully defined

  4. Application of Computer Assisted Colposcopy Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-29

    avenue to enhance patient education and comprehension. The purpose of this study was to establish the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction...significant pre- and post-test differences were found for six of the 10 items and for the total exam, suggesting the use of CAI as a valuable patient ... education tool for dysplasia and colposcopy. The unanimous recommendation by the participants for this type of program for future use suggests user friendliness and high satisfaction with this modality.

  5. Application of Computer Assisted Colposcopy Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    avenue to enhance patient education and comprehension. The purpose of this study was to establish the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction on...significant pre- and post-test differences were found for six of the 10 items and for the total exam, suggesting the use of CAI as a valuable patient ... education tool for dysplasia and colposcopy. The unanimous recommendation by the participants for this type of program for future use suggests user friendliness and high satisfaction with this modality.

  6. CASTAG - A Computer Assisted Interactive Naval Wargame.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    Kelley CD March 1980 -. J Thesis Advisor: A . Andrus Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 80 7 14 106 UNCLASSIFIED SEC U RiTy CLASS fVC...f f fl LflflflflflL LEVELV NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL COMonterey, California THESIS CASTAG A COMPUTER ASSISTED INTERACTIVE NAVAL WARGAME by Kevin John...morass of detail. Although there was a constant temptation to improve SEATAG in writing this thesis , the computer program is as consistent as possible

  7. Computer-Assisted Literacy Instruction in Phonics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    NPRDC TR 80-21 April 1980 COMPUTER-ASSISTED LITERACY INSTRUCTION IN PHONICS Robert A. Wisher Reviewed by Edwin G. Aiken Released by Richard C. Sorenson...Reading instruction Automated instruction Literacy instruction Phonics 20. Ab"RACT (Cunhwo mn rom oldd " moseom mv~ IdboffeIV W~eek "awA.) Twenty-four...the first in a series that will assess the technological feasibility of automating literacy instruction. Subsequent reports will examine the

  8. The View of Science and Technology Teachers about Computer Assisted Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toman, Ufuk; Gurbuz, Fatih; Cimer, Sabiha Odabasi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to present the views of the teachers of Primary Science and Technology course about computer assisted instruction. Qualitative research was used in the study. In qualitative researches, the sampling group is small in order to examine the sampling in-depth. Semi-structured interviews were used in the study as data…

  9. A Case for Assessing Motivation from Learning a Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ChanLin, Lih-Juan

    The purpose of this paper is to report specific motivational requirements within each motivation category of Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model (1991) based on data collected on students' reactions to a computer-assisted learning lesson that incorporated motivational strategies in its design. Interview techniques…

  10. Computer-Assisted Exposure Treatment for Flight Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortella-Feliu, Miguel; Bornas, Xavier; Llabres, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    This review introduces the state of the art in computer-assisted treatment for behavioural disorders. The core of the paper is devoted to describe one of these interventions providing computer-assisted exposure for flight phobia treatment, the Computer-Assisted Fear of Flying Treatment (CAFFT). The rationale, contents and structure of the CAFFT…

  11. Considerations in the Development of a Sound Tolerance Interview and Questionnaire Instrument.

    PubMed

    Sherlock, LaGuinn P; Formby, Craig

    2017-02-01

    Most clinicians approach the objective fitting of hearing aids with three goals in mind: audibility, comfort, and tolerance. When these three amplification goals have been met, the hearing aid user is more likely to adapt to and perceive benefit from hearing aid use. However, problems related to the loudness of sounds and reduced sound tolerance, which may or may not be reported by the aided user, can adversely impact adaptation to amplification and the individual's quality of life. Although there are several standardized questionnaires available to evaluate hearing aid benefit and satisfaction, there is no standardized questionnaire or interview tool for evaluating reduced sound tolerance and the related impact on hearing aid use. We describe a 36-item tool, the Sound Tolerance Questionnaire (STQ), consisting of six sections, including experience with hearing aids, sound sensitivity/intolerance, medical and noise exposure histories, coexisting tinnitus problems, and a final question to differentiate the primary and secondary problems related to sound intolerance, tinnitus, and hearing loss. In its current format as a research tool, the STQ was sensitive in pinpointing vague sound tolerance complaints not reported by the study participants in eligibility screening by Formby et al. A refined version of the STQ, the Sound Tolerance Interview and Questionnaire Instrument (STIQI), structured as a two-part tool, is presented in the appendix for prospective clinical use. The STIQI has potential utility to delineate factors contributing to loudness complaints and/or reduced sound tolerance in individuals considering hearing aid use, as well as those who have been unsuccessful hearing aid users secondary to loudness complaints or sound intolerance. The STIQI, when validated and refined, also may hold promise for predicting hearing aid benefit and/or assessing treatment-related change over time of hearing aid use or interventions designed to remediate problems of loudness

  12. Video-based computer-assisted learning.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, N M; Fairhurst, G; Pavett, S; Klein, S; Alexander, D; Koyabe, M; Samaraweera, N; Duguid, K; Keen, A

    2001-03-01

    As a relevant exemplar of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 digital video use, a multimedia computer-assisted learning (CAL) application dealing with Critical Communication Issues in medicine was developed. The application allowed the student to navigate through a series of high-quality digital video and audio clips that were delivered in near real-time from an Intranet server. This paper gives a brief background to the MPEG-2 video compression system and discusses the use of digital video in a CAL environment.

  13. [Computer-assisted optimization of dialysis treatment].

    PubMed

    Rieck, B; Reinschke, P

    1988-01-01

    In some dialysis centers of the GDR personal computers are introduced step by step. There are two main areas in the use of computers in dialysis centers: data management systems and computer-assisted individualization of dialysis. Type and size of data processing are the result of the specific information process in a dialysis center and the presence of a long-term constantly group of patients along with a stereotypical amount of data. In the mathematical modelling of dialysis it is possible to adapt the standard dialysis to each patient.

  14. Computer assisted myelography in disk disease.

    PubMed

    Coin, C G; Chan, Y S; Keranen, V; Pennink, M

    1977-10-01

    Computer assisted myelography (CAM) is a technique to examine the spinal subarachnoid space. Adjacent structures that may impinge on this space, such as the intervertebral disks, as well as structures contained in this space, such as the spinal cord, spinal roots, and vascular formation, may also be appraised by this method. At present, CAM is performed by subarachnoid introduction of water soluble contrast material followed by computed tomography in the axial transverse plane. The authors present their technique and their results with representative cases of intervertebral disk disease.

  15. Computer-assisted knee surgical navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Zhou, D. G.; Xiong, Chun-Yang; Huang, W. P.; Fang, J.

    2002-05-01

    Total knee replacement requires high measurement accuracy and fixation precision in surgical operation. Misplacement larger than 5 degrees in the force line alignment will lead to re- operation or long term deficits. Based on conventional operation facilities, it was not easy to ensure the necessary precision during het surgery. With the help of CT images, 3D images of patient's knee can be reconstructed. With IR localizer, computer- assisted knee surgical navigation can be realized by tracking that is useful for accurate alignment in surgery and in visualized training program.

  16. Computer-assisted general medicine clerkship evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bienia, R A; Bienia, B H; Mendelson, M A

    1987-03-01

    This report describes the development and analysis of a computer-assisted evaluation system designed to standardize and simplify student evaluations on a general medicine clerkship. Three standard clinical evaluation components were employed: written examination; oral examination; and clinical performance evaluation. Computer spread sheet technology was used to weight each component separately and calculate a final numerical grade for the clerkship. The system provides a consistent, well-documented and well-defined method for justifying individual grades of honours, pass or fail. It has been very helpful in identifying evaluation problems occurring in particular hospital sites or with particular evaluators.

  17. Evaluation of the Astronomy Workshop's Computer Assisted Learning Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, G. L.; Hamilton, D. P.

    2005-05-01

    The computer assisted learning tools at the Astronomy Workshop web site (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) have been available on the Internet since 1997. The site consists of 25 interactive tools designed primarily for undergraduate non-science majors. The site is popular with more than 87,000 hits to the main page since counting began in January 2000. A Google search for "collisions" lists one of the Astronomy Workshop's tools as its first item. We have begun a study of the impact of three of the tools on undergraduate learning as part of a NASA EPO grant. The first phase of our study involves student interviews, the results of which will be presented. We welcome feedback from the community. This work is funded by NASA EPO 04 410.

  18. Missing content from health-related quality of life instruments: interviews with young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, I-Chan; Murphy, Devin; Zidonik-Eddelton, Katie; Krull, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Young adult survivors of childhood cancer (YASCC) are an ever-growing cohort of survivors due to increasing advances in technology. Today, there is a shift of focus to not just ensuring survivorship but also the quality of survivorship, which can be assessed with standardized instruments. The majority of standardized health related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments, however, are non-specific to this age group and the unique late effects within YASCC populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relevance and accuracy of standardized HRQoL instruments used with YASCC. Methods In a previous study, HRQoL items from several instruments (SF-36, QLACS, QLS-CS) were examined for relevance with a population of YASCC. Participants (n = 30) from this study were recruited for a follow-up qualitative interview to expand on their perceptions of missing content from existing instruments. Results Respondents reported missing, relevant content among all three of the HRQoL instruments. Results identified three content areas of missing information: (1) Perceived sense of self, (2) Relationships, and (3) Parenthood. Conclusions Existing HRQoL instruments do not take into account the progression and interdependence of emotional development impacted by a cancer diagnosis. The themes derived from our qualitative interviews may serve as a foundation for the generation of new items in future HRQoL instruments for YASCC populations. Further testing is required to examine the prevalence, frequency, and breadth of these items in a larger sample. PMID:22286223

  19. Computer-Assisted Technique for Surgical Tooth Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Surgical tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry. However, numerous extraction cases show a high level of difficulty in practice. This difficulty is usually related to inadequate visualization, improper instrumentation, or other factors related to the targeted tooth (e.g., ankyloses or presence of bony undercut). Methods. In this work, the author presents a new technique for surgical tooth extraction based on 3D imaging, computer planning, and a new concept of computer-assisted manufacturing. Results. The outcome of this work is a surgical guide made by 3D printing of plastics and CNC of metals (hybrid outcome). In addition, the conventional surgical cutting tools (surgical burs) are modified with a number of stoppers adjusted to avoid any excessive drilling that could harm bone or other vital structures. Conclusion. The present outcome could provide a minimally invasive technique to overcome the routine complications facing dental surgeons in surgical extraction procedures. PMID:27127510

  20. Computer Assisted Language Learning. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. This books provides an up-to date and comprehensive overview of…

  1. Computer Assisted Language Learning. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. This books provides an up-to date and comprehensive overview of…

  2. Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software.

    PubMed

    Cope, Diane G

    2014-05-01

    Advances in technology have provided new approaches for data collection methods and analysis for researchers. Data collection is no longer limited to paper-and-pencil format, and numerous methods are now available through Internet and electronic resources. With these techniques, researchers are not burdened with entering data manually and data analysis is facilitated by software programs. Quantitative research is supported by the use of computer software and provides ease in the management of large data sets and rapid analysis of numeric statistical methods. New technologies are emerging to support qualitative research with the availability of computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS).CAQDAS will be presented with a discussion of advantages, limitations, controversial issues, and recommendations for this type of software use.

  3. Computer-Assisted Photo Interpretation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzwiadek, Harry A.

    1981-11-01

    A computer-assisted photo interpretation research (CAPIR) system has been developed at the U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories (ETL), Fort Belvoir, Virginia. The system is based around the APPS-IV analytical plotter, a photogrammetric restitution device that was designed and developed by Autometric specifically for interactive, computerized data collection activities involving high-resolution, stereo aerial photographs. The APPS-IV is ideally suited for feature analysis and feature extraction, the primary functions of a photo interpreter. The APPS-IV is interfaced with a minicomputer and a geographic information system called AUTOGIS. The AUTOGIS software provides the tools required to collect or update digital data using an APPS-IV, construct and maintain a geographic data base, and analyze or display the contents of the data base. Although the CAPIR system is fully functional at this time, considerable enhancements are planned for the future.

  4. Computer assistance for the structural chemist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carhart, R. E.; Varkony, T. H.; Smith, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of the approaches used to modify the molecular structure generator program, CONGEN. The CONGEN program for constructing structures under constraints has been discussed by Carhart et al. (1975). The modifications reported are to lead to a more efficient structure generation on the basis of a translation of structural data input to the program. From an algorithmic standpoint, CONGEN is successful if it can, in a reasonable amount of time and without exhausting storage resources, produce a list of candidate structures satisfying the chemist's constraints. However, this list is often quite large, and it remains for the chemist to discriminate among the candidates, eventually reducing the possibilities to just one structure. Ways are studied for providing computer assistance in examining and further constraining lists of structural candidates.

  5. The Development of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview-Fidelity Instrument (CFI-FI): A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Glass, Andrew; Tirado, Amilcar; Boiler, Marit; Nicasio, Andel; Alegría, Margarita; Wall, Melanie; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of the Cultural Formulation Interview-Fidelity Instrument (CFI-FI) which assesses clinician fidelity to the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI). The CFI consists of a manualized set of standard questions that can precede every psychiatric evaluation. It is based on the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation, the cross-cultural assessment with the most evidence in psychiatric training. Using the New York sample of the DSM-5 CFI field trial, two independent raters created and finalized items for the CFI-FI based on six audio-taped and transcribed interviews. The raters then used the final CFI-FI to rate the remaining 23 interviews. Inter-rater reliability ranged from .73 to 1 for adherence items and .52 to 1 for competence items. The development of the CFI-FI can help researchers and administrators determine whether the CFI has been implemented with fidelity, permitting future intervention research. PMID:25130248

  6. The development of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview-Fidelity Instrument (CFI-FI): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Glass, Andrew; Tirado, Amilcar; Boiler, Marit; Nicasio, Andel; Alegría, Margarita; Wall, Melanie; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports on the development of the Cultural Formulation Interview-Fidelity Instrument (CFI-FI) which assesses clinician fidelity to the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI). The CFI consists of a manualized set of standard questions that can precede every psychiatric evaluation. It is based on the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation, the cross-cultural assessment with the most evidence in psychiatric training. Using the New York sample of the DSM-5 CFI field trial, two independent raters created and finalized items for the CFI-FI based on six audio-taped and transcribed interviews. The raters then used the final CFI-FI to rate the remaining 23 interviews. Inter-rater reliability ranged from .73 to 1 for adherence items and .52 to 1 for competence items. The development of the CFI-FI can help researchers and administrators determine whether the CFI has been implemented with fidelity, permitting future intervention research.

  7. Audience Analysis: A Computer Assisted Instrument for Speech Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Floyd E.

    This paper reports on a combination questionnaire-attitude test designed to be used by speech instructors for the purpose of audience analysis. The test is divided into two parts and is scored by a computer. Part one requires the student to check items pertaining to class level, occupational goal, marital status, military service, high school…

  8. Audience Analysis: A Computer Assisted Instrument for Speech Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Floyd E.

    This paper reports on a combination questionnaire-attitude test designed to be used by speech instructors for the purpose of audience analysis. The test is divided into two parts and is scored by a computer. Part one requires the student to check items pertaining to class level, occupational goal, marital status, military service, high school…

  9. Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction: An Explanation and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Franklin C.; Park, Ok-choon

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the structure of intelligent computer assisted instruction (ICAI) systems, gives some examples of such systems, and discusses their relative strengths and weaknesses. Four references are listed. (MBR)

  10. Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction: An Explanation and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Franklin C.; Park, Ok-choon

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the structure of intelligent computer assisted instruction (ICAI) systems, gives some examples of such systems, and discusses their relative strengths and weaknesses. Four references are listed. (MBR)

  11. Computer-assisted surgery: a teacher of TKAs.

    PubMed

    Iorio, R; Mazza, D; Bolle, G; Conteduca, J; Redler, A; Conteduca, F; Ferretti, A

    2013-08-01

    The hypothesis of this study is that computer-aided navigation experience could improve the ability to better place components in the coronal plane and to improve visual/spatial awareness based on the ability of navigation to provide instant feedback. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the educational role of the navigation system to obtain a better alignment of the prosthetic components with standard instrumentation after a computer-aided navigation experience. One hundred fifty patients were operated by the same surgeon, with more than 5 years experience with TKA. They were equally divided in three groups: group A (operated with non-navigated technique by surgeon without computer-assisted experience); group B (operated with computer-assisted surgery by the same surgeon); group C (operated with non-navigated technique by the same surgeon after the computer-navigated experience). We evaluated by full-length weight-bearing radiographs the overall alignment of the lower limb in the coronal plane. The optimum placement of the components was considered when the angle was within the limits of ±3° varus/valgus on the coronal x-rays. Comparison between groups was done using one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Bonferroni test and Pearson chi-square statistics for proportions of optimum placement (P<0.05). In the group A 34 patients (68%) had the optimum placement on the coronal x-rays; in the group B they were 46 (92%) and in the group 41 (82%). The difference is statistically significant in comparing group A and Group B (<0.001), group A and group C (P=0.04), but not for group B and C (P=0.2). We believe that the navigation system has an educational role to improve the ability of surgeon of positioning prosthetic components precisely in the coronal plane. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing systems: A revolution in restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Arbaz

    2016-01-01

    For the better part of the past 20 years, dentistry has seen the development of many new all-ceramic materials and restorative techniques fueled by the desire to capture the ever elusive esthetic perfection. This has resulted in the fusion of the latest in material science and the pen ultimate in computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. This case report describes the procedure for restoring the esthetic appearance of both the left and right maxillary peg-shaped lateral incisors with a metal-free sintered finely structured feldspar ceramic material using the latest laboratory CAD/CAM system. The use of CAD/CAM technology makes it possible to produce restorations faster with precision- fit and good esthetics overcoming the errors associated with traditional ceramo-metal technology. The incorporation of this treatment modality would mean that the dentist working procedures will have to be adapted in the methods of CAD/CAM technology.

  13. Validation of Diabetes Health-Related Quality-of-Life Instruments Using Cognitive Interviewing With Older African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Magwood, Gayenell S.; Jenkins, Carolyn; Zapka, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The reliability and validity of two diabetes-specific quality-of-life instruments were examined with aging African Americans with limited literacy. Cognitive interviews with 15 persons and content analysis were conducted. Participants’ mean age was 72 years, and 40% had less than a high school education. Most observed problems with the surveys related to comprehension and response categories. Respondents had difficulty distinguishing between certain functional limitations and/or level of satisfaction as being associated with chronic illness or aging. This study underscores the need for research with special populations on the appropriateness of instruments previously validated and shown reliable for more general populations. While cognitive interviewing is resource intensive, ignoring this investment may result in inappropriate interpretations about the effectiveness of interventions to improve care and outcomes, understand differences, and eliminate disparities. PMID:20069949

  14. Validation of diabetes health-related quality-of-life instruments using cognitive interviewing with older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Magwood, Gayenell S; Jenkins, Carolyn; Zapka, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The reliability and validity of two diabetes-specific quality-of-life instruments were examined with aging African Americans with limited literacy. Cognitive interviews with 15 persons and content analysis were conducted. Participants' mean age was 72 years, and 40% had less than a high school education. Most observed problems with the surveys related to comprehension and response categories. Respondents had difficulty distinguishing between certain functional limitations and/or level of satisfaction as being associated with chronic illness or aging. This study underscores the need for research with special populations on the appropriateness of instruments previously validated and shown reliable for more general populations. While cognitive interviewing is resource intensive, ignoring this investment may result in inappropriate interpretations about the effectiveness of interventions to improve care and outcomes, understand differences, and eliminate disparities.

  15. The development of the Metacognition Assessment interview: instrument description, factor structure and reliability in a non-clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Semerari, Antonio; Cucchi, Michele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Cavadini, Daniele; Carcione, Antonino; Battelli, Vittoria; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Pedone, Roberto; Siccardi, Tomaso; D'Angerio, Stefania; Ronchi, Paolo; Maffei, Cesare; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2012-12-30

    Metacognition is a multi-facet psychological construct; deficits in metacognitive abilities are associated to low social functioning, low quality of life, psychopathology, and symptoms. The aim of this study was to describe and develop a valid and reliable interview for assessing metacognition. The semi-structured interview, based on the author's theory model of the metacognition construct, is described. The Metacognition Assessment Interview (MAI) is an adaptation of the Metacognition Assessment Scale (MAS) and evaluates how the subject is interviewed used metacognition during his own real life experiences elicited by the interviewer. A user manual was developed to assist the interview and scoring procedure. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis revealed preliminary evidence of a two factor-hierarchical structure, with two lower-order scales, representing the two main theoretical domains of the metacognitive function, "the Self" and "the Other", and one single higher-order scale that we labelled metacognition. Contrary to the authors' prediction the existence of the four distinct dimensions under the two domains was not confirmed. The MAI and its two domains demonstrated acceptable levels of inter-rater reliability and internal consistency. The MAI appears to be a promising instrument for assessing metacognition. Future psychometric validation steps and clinical directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of depression in cancer patients: a meta-analysis of diagnostic interviews and self-report instruments

    PubMed Central

    Krebber, A M H; Buffart, L M; Kleijn, G; Riepma, I C; de Bree, R; Leemans, C R; Becker, A; Brug, J; van Straten, A; Cuijpers, P; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression in cancer patients assessed by diagnostic interviews and self-report instruments, and to study differences in prevalence between type of instrument, type of cancer and treatment phase. Methods A literature search was conducted in four databases to select studies on the prevalence of depression among adult cancer patients during or after treatment. A total of 211 studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled mean prevalence of depression was calculated using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. Results Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale—depression subscale (HADS-D) ≥ 8, HADS-D ≥11, Center for Epidemiologic Studies ≥ 16, and (semi-)structured diagnostic interviews were used to define depression in 66, 53, 35 and 49 studies, respectively. Respective mean prevalence of depression was 17% (95% CI = 16–19%), 8% (95% CI = 7–9%), 24% (95% CI = 21–26%), and 13% (95% CI = 11–15%) (p < 0.001). Prevalence of depression ranged from 3% in patients with lung cancer to 31% in patients with cancer of the digestive tract, on the basis of diagnostic interviews. Prevalence of depression was highest during treatment 14% (95% CI = 11–17%), measured by diagnostic interviews, and 27% (95% CI = 25–30%), measured by self-report instruments. In the first year after diagnosis, prevalence of depression measured with diagnostic interviews and self-report instruments were 9% (95% CI = 7–11%) and 21% (95% CI = 19–24%), respectively, and they were 8% (95% CI = 5–12%) and 15% (95% CI = 13–17%) ≥ 1 year after diagnosis. Conclusions Pooled mean prevalence of depression in cancer patients ranged from 8% to 24% and differed by the type of instrument, type of cancer and treatment phase. Future prospective studies should disentangle whether differences in prevalence of depression are caused by differences in the type of instrument, type of cancer or treatment

  17. [Computer-assisted surgery: assessment and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Demongeot, J

    The hospital in the future will be faced with the major problem of managing and optimizing the use of images provided from numerous sources examining both anatomy (MRI, CT-scan...) and function (gamma-camera, PET-scan...). One of the first to benefit from such rationalization will be the surgeon. After studying the results of the physical examination, the laboratory reports and the medical imaging, the surgeon will decide on the best curative measured and the best surgical route before operating. He thus needs a computer to assist him in integrating the multi-modal information available for his patient, in particular the imaging with automatic integration and visualisation in synoptic mode (perception step), showing the trajectory of possible access routes to the target organ, memorization of the chosen route (decision step) and real operation either using laser or a manuel tool, or with robot assistance under human control (action step). This close cooperation between surgery and computers is called computer-assisted surgery. A few examples of current uses an future perspectives of this new field of surgery are presented.

  18. Computer assisted optical biopsy for colorectal polyps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Avila, Fernando J.; Saint-Hill-Febles, Yadira; Renner, Janis; Klare, Peter; von Delius, Stefan; Navab, Nassir; Mateus, Diana

    2017-03-01

    We propose a method for computer-assisted optical biopsy for colorectal polyps, with the final goal of assisting the medical expert during the colonoscopy. In particular, we target the problem of automatic classification of polyp images in two classes: adenomatous vs non-adenoma. Our approach is based on recent advancements in convolutional neural networks (CNN) for image representation. In the paper, we describe and compare four different methodologies to address the binary classification task: a baseline with classical features and a Random Forest classifier, two methods based on features obtained from a pre-trained network, and finally, the end-to-end training of a CNN. With the pre-trained network, we show the feasibility of transferring a feature extraction mechanism trained on millions of natural images, to the task of classifying adenomatous polyps. We then demonstrate further performance improvements when training the CNN for our specific classification task. In our study, 776 polyp images were acquired and histologically analyzed after polyp resection. We report a performance increase of the CNN-based approaches with respect to both, the conventional engineered features and to a state-of-the-art method based on videos and 3D shape features.

  19. Computer-assisted femoral head resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Antony J; Inkpen, Kevin B; Shekhman, Mark; Anglin, Carolyn; Tonetti, Jerome; Masri, Bassam A; Duncan, Clive P; Garbuz, Donald S; Greidanus, Nelson V

    2005-01-01

    Femoral head resurfacing is re-emerging as a surgical option for younger patients who are not yet candidates for total hip replacement. However, this procedure is more difficult than total hip replacement, and the mechanical jigs typically used to align the implant produce significant variability in implant placement and take a significant amount of time to position properly. We propose that a computer-assisted surgical (CAS) technique could reduce implant variability with little or no increase in operative time. We describe a new CAS technique for this procedure and demonstrate in a cadaver study of five paired femurs that the CAS technique in the hands of a novice surgeon markedly reduced the varus/valgus variability of the implant relative to the pre-operative plan (2 degrees standard deviation for CAS versus 5 degrees for a mechanical jig operated by an expert surgeon). We also show that the mechanical jig resulted in significantly retroverted implant placement. There was no significant difference in operative time between the two techniques.

  20. Computer-assisted surgery in orthopedic oncology

    PubMed Central

    Gerbers, Jasper G; Stevens, Martin; Ploegmakers, Joris JW; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Jutte, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — In orthopedic oncology, computer-assisted surgery (CAS) can be considered an alternative to fluoroscopy and direct measurement for orientation, planning, and margin control. However, only small case series reporting specific applications have been published. We therefore describe possible applications of CAS and report preliminary results in 130 procedures. Patients and methods — We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all oncological CAS procedures in a single institution from November 2006 to March 2013. Mean follow-up time was 32 months. We categorized and analyzed 130 procedures for clinical parameters. The categories were image-based intralesional treatment, image-based resection, image-based resection and reconstruction, and imageless resection and reconstruction. Results — Application to intralesional treatment showed 1 inadequate curettage and 1 (other) recurrence in 63 cases. Image-based resections in 42 cases showed 40 R0 margins; 16 in 17 pelvic resections. Image-based reconstruction facilitated graft creation with a mean reconstruction accuracy of 0.9 mm in one case. Imageless CAS was helpful in resection planning and length- and joint line reconstruction for tumor prostheses. Interpretation — CAS is a promising new development. Preliminary results show a high number of R0 resections and low short-term recurrence rates for curettage. PMID:25140984

  1. Program in Computer-Assisted Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Richard C.; Suppes, Patrick

    Applications of basic elements in a theory of individualized instruction to computer-assisted programs in mathematics, reading, and spelling are described and recent results obtained in an existing elementary school facility are reported. To optimize learning in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) a program model is provided in which content,…

  2. Adapting Computer-Assisted-Instruction to the Non-Programmer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Robert; And Others

    A means now exists which allows the authors of computer-assisted instructional (CAI) programs to enter new exercises into the computer even if they possess only a minimum of expertise about computers and programing. The routine, called Journalism Computer Assisted Instruction (JCAI), is used for computer analysis of student writing in journalism…

  3. CARLOS: Computer-Assisted Instruction in Spanish at Dartmouth College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ronald C.

    The computer-assisted instruction project in review Spanish, Computer-Assisted Review Lessons on Syntax (CARLOS), initiated at Dartmouth College in 1967-68, is described here. Tables are provided showing the results of the experiment on the basis of aptitude and achievement tests, and the procedure for implementing CARLOS as well as its place in…

  4. Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Math Accuracy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Students in the United States demonstrate low proficiency in their math skills. One promising intervention, computer-assisted instruction, may be used for remediation. There is growing support that computer-assisted instruction is effective for increasing addition and multiplication accuracy and fluency, but more research is necessary in order to…

  5. Computer Assisted Psychomotor Training in a Specialized Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Computer assisted psychomotor training is recognized as an appropriate tool in motor skill acquisition in adults with and without physical limitations. In specialized populations of individuals with physical deficits such as Parkinson's disease, previous researchers have examined the application of computer assisted training during upper extremity…

  6. Proactive Guidance in Computer-Assisted Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    A discussion of computer-assisted language learning focuses on management of individual learning processes. As distinct from a reference package, a computer-assisted teaching program has to assure that the student acquires and retains the complete information in the most efficient way, provide accurate and useful material, and pique the student's…

  7. Computer Assisted Psychomotor Training in a Specialized Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Computer assisted psychomotor training is recognized as an appropriate tool in motor skill acquisition in adults with and without physical limitations. In specialized populations of individuals with physical deficits such as Parkinson's disease, previous researchers have examined the application of computer assisted training during upper extremity…

  8. Applications and Problems of Computer Assisted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usun, Salih

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey; reviews of the related literature; examines the projects, applications and problems on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey compares with the World; exposes the positive and negative aspects of the projects; a number of the suggestion presents on the effective use of…

  9. Computer-assisted TKA: greater precision, doubtful clinical efficacy: affirms.

    PubMed

    Berend, Michael E

    2009-09-01

    Component and limb alignment are essential surgical variables that influence the long-term performance of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Total knee arthroplasty failure remains multifactorial, and computer-assisted surgical techniques may address only part of the failure pathophysiology. Despite attempting to use computer-assisted surgical techniques to improve TKA alignment, recent evidence has reported that the entire nature of the computer-assisted experience is not particularly forgiving, as significant increases in time and complications remain problematic. It appears computer-assisted surgical techniques are not yet "ready for primetime" with reproducible and proven long-term benefits for patients. Further studies are needed to better determine the precise target toward which to aim computer-assisted surgery efforts.

  10. The Development of Instruments to Measure Motivational Interviewing Skill Acquisition for School-Based Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Jason W.; Lee, Jon; Frey, Andy J.; Seeley, John R.; Walker, Hill M.

    2014-01-01

    As specialized instructional support personnel begin learning and using motivational interviewing (MI) techniques in school-based settings, there is growing need for context-specific measures to assess initial MI skill development. In this article, we describe the iterative development and preliminary evaluation of two measures of MI skill adapted…

  11. [Preliminary comparative study of the personality disorder evaluation DIP instrument with the semi-structured SCID-II interview].

    PubMed

    Massoubre, C; Bonnefond, H; Grosselin, A; Nelva, A; Pellet, J; Lang, F

    2009-12-01

    This work deals with the comparative study of two standardised instruments, which can be used to diagnose personality disorders (PD): the SCID-II and the DIP. Each instrument used as a self-questionnaire followed by a semi-structured interview by the same clinician was applied to 21 patients suffering from PD. The DIP (DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality), which is a recent instrument, consists of a self-questionnaire (DIP-Q) and a semi-structured interview (DIP-I), created by Bodlund and Ottosson. It makes it possible to evaluate PD from criteria based on the DSM-IV as well as the ICD-10. We translated it into French then evaluated it in comparison with another instrument, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PD (SCID-II) whose validity was demonstrated by Bouvard. For the self-questionnaire (SCID-auto), we used CUNGI'S computerised version. The present version of the semi-structured interview SCID-E (French translation by Bouvard et al.) evaluates the 10 PD of the DSM-IV, the depressive personality and the passive-aggressive personality, included in the DSM-IV appendix B. The DIP-Q questionnaire is made up of 140 right/wrong items referring to the 10 PD of the DSM-IV and the eight disorders of the ICD-10. The DIP-I is the self-structured interview created by Ottosson et al. and it is built on the same pattern as the SCID-II. It provides diagnoses for all DSM-IV and/or ICD-10 PD as well as the schizotypic disorder. The DIP-I is usually preceded by a general "scan" interview in order to assess an existing personality disorder corresponding to Axis I of the DSM-IV or the ICD-10. In our study, we substituted a Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) questionnaire for this interview. Twenty-four patients suffering from one or several PD were chosen among ambulatory or out-patients by clinicians from the Saint-Etienne Psychiatric University Hospital Center. The diagnosis was not revealed to the examiner during the study. The subjects filled in

  12. Computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing systems: A revolution in restorative dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Sajjad, Arbaz

    2016-01-01

    For the better part of the past 20 years, dentistry has seen the development of many new all-ceramic materials and restorative techniques fueled by the desire to capture the ever elusive esthetic perfection. This has resulted in the fusion of the latest in material science and the pen ultimate in computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. This case report describes the procedure for restoring the esthetic appearance of both the left and right maxillary peg-shaped lateral incisors with a metal-free sintered finely structured feldspar ceramic material using the latest laboratory CAD/CAM system. The use of CAD/CAM technology makes it possible to produce restorations faster with precision- fit and good esthetics overcoming the errors associated with traditional ceramo-metal technology. The incorporation of this treatment modality would mean that the dentist working procedures will have to be adapted in the methods of CAD/CAM technology. PMID:27134436

  13. Computer Assisted Thermography And Its Application In Ovulation Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. H.; Shah, A. V.

    1984-08-01

    Hardware and software of a computer-assisted image analyzing system used for infrared images in medical applications are discussed. The application of computer-assisted thermography (CAT) as a complementary diagnostic tool in centralized diagnostic management is proposed. The authors adopted 'Computer Assisted Thermography' to study physiological changes in the breasts related to the hormones characterizing the menstrual cycle of a woman. Based on clinical experi-ments followed by thermal image analysis, they suggest that 'differential skin temperature (DST)1 be measured to detect the fertility interval in the menstrual cycle of a woman.

  14. A Computer Assisted Management System for the Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G.; Aguilu, Julian R.

    1973-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Management System for the Teacher (CAM) is a computer-managed instruction project of the Flowing Wells High School (Arizona). Statistical analysis indicates a significant increase in mean achievement scores on algebra tests using this method. (WM)

  15. A Computer Assisted Learning Project in Engineering Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheesewright, R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A British project in engineering science is described. Computer assisted instruction packages are being developed to provide students with experience with models or systems of models related to lecture material on electrical, electronic, nuclear, and mechanical engineering. (SD)

  16. Research on the Use of Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, C. O.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews recent research studies related to computer assisted instruction (CAI). The studies concerned program effectiveness, teaching of psychomotor skills, tool availability, and factors affecting the adoption of CAI. (CT)

  17. Computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation for BPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Gideon; Barrett, Adrian R. W.; Ng, Wan S.; Lim, Liam G.; Cheng, Wai S.

    2001-06-01

    Interstitial laser thermotherapy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that utilizes laser to coagulate and treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. This study explores the use of a computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation system to aid surgeons in performing this procedure.

  18. Problems of Introducing Courses in Computer-Assisted Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kevin C.; Fleming, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses questions associated with the introduction of computer-assisted reporting (CAR) courses at universities. Briefly outlines the use of computers in newsrooms, and then details the authors' Delphi study of CAR's future in journalism programs. (SR)

  19. Using Computer-Assisted Personalized Assignments for Freshman Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, D. J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Computer-Assisted Personalized Assignment (CAPA) system which offers a way to apply computers to assist instructors and students in the framework of lectures and assigned problem sets without students being forced to use the computer system. (DDR)

  20. A Computer Assisted Learning Project in Engineering Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheesewright, R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A British project in engineering science is described. Computer assisted instruction packages are being developed to provide students with experience with models or systems of models related to lecture material on electrical, electronic, nuclear, and mechanical engineering. (SD)

  1. [Surgical reconstruction of maxillary defects using computer-assisted techniques].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W B; Yu, Y; Wang, Y; Liu, X J; Mao, C; Guo, C B; Yu, G Y; Peng, X

    2017-02-18

    The maxilla is the most important bony support of the mid-face skeleton and is critical for both esthetics and function. Maxillary defects, resulting from tumor resection, can cause severe functional and cosmetic deformities. Furthermore, maxillary reconstruction presents a great challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Nowadays, vascularized composite bone flap transfer has been widely used for functional maxillary reconstruction. In the last decade, we have performed a comprehensive research on functional maxillary reconstruction with free fibula flap and reported excellent functional and acceptable esthetic results. However, this experience based clinical procedure still remainssome problems in accuracy and efficiency. In recent years, computer assisted techniques are now widely used in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We have performed a series of study on maxillary reconstruction with computer assisted techniques. The computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction mainly include: (1) Three dimensional (3D) reconstruction and tumor mapping: providing a 3D view of maxillary tumor and adjacent structures and helping to make the diagnosis of maxillary tumor accurate and objective; (2) Virtual planning: simulating tumor resection and maxillectomy as well as fibula reconstruction on the computer, so that to make an ideal surgical plan; (3) 3D printing: producing a 3D stereo model for prebending individualized titanium mesh and also providing template or cutting guide for the surgery; (4) Surgical navigation: the bridge between virtual plan and real surgery, confirming the virtual plan during the surgery and guarantee the accuracy; (5) Computer assisted analyzing and evaluating: making a quantitative and objective of the final result and evaluating the outcome. We also performed a series of studies to evaluate the application of computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction, including: (1) 3D tumor mapping technique for accurate

  2. Using CamiTK for rapid prototyping of interactive computer assisted medical intervention applications.

    PubMed

    Promayon, Emmanuel; Fouard, Céline; Bailet, Mathieu; Deram, Aurélien; Fiard, Gaëlle; Hungr, Nikolai; Luboz, Vincent; Payan, Yohan; Sarrazin, Johan; Saubat, Nicolas; Selmi, Sonia Yuki; Voros, Sandrine; Cinquin, Philippe; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    Computer Assisted Medical Intervention (CAMI hereafter) is a complex multi-disciplinary field. CAMI research requires the collaboration of experts in several fields as diverse as medicine, computer science, mathematics, instrumentation, signal processing, mechanics, modeling, automatics, optics, etc. CamiTK is a modular framework that helps researchers and clinicians to collaborate together in order to prototype CAMI applications by regrouping the knowledge and expertise from each discipline. It is an open-source, cross-platform generic and modular tool written in C++ which can handle medical images, surgical navigation, biomedicals simulations and robot control. This paper presents the Computer Assisted Medical Intervention ToolKit (CamiTK) and how it is used in various applications in our research team.

  3. Education's Steps toward Computer-Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Edmund

    1980-01-01

    There has long been a connection, it is suggested, between formal education and the technologies of production, distribution, and communication. There should be nothing alarming in recognizing a technological/educational linkage. The contacts, instrumentation, and resources of lifelong education in a microelectronic tomorrow will transform all…

  4. The Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale: Standardization and Norming of a Computer-Administered Measure of Hypnotic Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carolyn D.; Nash, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    In a counterbalanced, within subjects, repeated measures design, 130 undergraduates were administered the Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale (CAHS) and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale and were hypnotized. The CAHS was shown to be a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring hypnotic ability. (SLD)

  5. The Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale: Standardization and Norming of a Computer-Administered Measure of Hypnotic Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carolyn D.; Nash, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    In a counterbalanced, within subjects, repeated measures design, 130 undergraduates were administered the Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale (CAHS) and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale and were hypnotized. The CAHS was shown to be a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring hypnotic ability. (SLD)

  6. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Enhancing the Classification Skill in Second-Graders at Risk for Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Adel Abdulla; Kanpolat, Yavuz Erhan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Computers and other technological instruments in general have become a more common practice in our schools nowadays, and Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) has been recently provided in various formats from kindergartens on. It can help children at-risk for learning disabilities. Method: This study investigated the effectiveness of…

  7. Technician Program Uses Advanced Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Stephen

    1981-01-01

    Describes various aspects of a newly-developed computer-assisted drafting/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) facility in the chemical engineering technology department at Broome Community College, Binghamton, New York. Stresses the use of new instruments such as microcomputers and microprocessor-equipped instruments. (CS)

  8. Technician Program Uses Advanced Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Stephen

    1981-01-01

    Describes various aspects of a newly-developed computer-assisted drafting/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) facility in the chemical engineering technology department at Broome Community College, Binghamton, New York. Stresses the use of new instruments such as microcomputers and microprocessor-equipped instruments. (CS)

  9. Postpartum women's evaluations of an audio/video computer-assisted perinatal violence screen.

    PubMed

    Renker, Paula Rinard; Tonkin, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    For universal screening to become a reality, research must first validate the effectiveness and acceptability of violence screening. This study describes postpartum women's perceptions of an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview for perinatal violence screening. A sample of 519 postpartum women completed interviews that included audio and video enhancements. Post-response evaluations were positive with most women, indicating that they preferred computer interviews to face-to-face or written abuse screening. In addition, participants indicated that the computer format and associated anonymity positively influenced their willingness to answer the violence questions truthfully. Computer interviews offer an alternative approach to violence screening that may help women who are hesitant to disclose abuse directly to their healthcare providers.

  10. Improved accuracy of computer assisted glenoid implantation in total shoulder arthroplasty: an in-vitro randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duong; Ferreira, Louis M; Brownhill, James R; King, Graham J W; Drosdowech, Darren S; Faber, Kenneth J; Johnson, James A

    2009-01-01

    Glenoid replacement is challenging due to the difficult joint exposure and visualization of anatomical reference landmarks. Improper positioning of the glenoid component or inadequate correction of the retroversion using currently available instrumentation may lead to early failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate a computer-assisted technique to achieve a more accurate placement of the glenoid component compared to traditional techniques. Sixteen paired cadaveric shoulders were randomized to either traditional or computer-assisted glenoid implantation. Preoperative planning consisting of CT scanning with 3-dimensional image modeling of the shoulder specimens and intraoperative tracking with real-time feedback provided to the surgeon was employed in the computer-assisted group. A validated, previously published, standardized protocol for tracking the orientation of the glenoid in space using 3 glenoid surface landmarks was employed. All phases of glenoid implantation (initial guide pin insertion, reaming, drilling of the peg holes, and final component implantation) were tracked and recorded by the computer. A post-implantation CT scan was performed in both groups to compare how accurately the implants were placed. The computer-assisted technique was more accurate in achieving the correct version during all phases of glenoid implantation and as measured on the post-implantation CT scan (P < .05). The largest errors with traditional glenoid implantation were observed during drilling and, more so, during reaming. The trend was to overly retrovert the glenoid. Computer assisted navigation results in a more accurate glenoid component placement relative to traditional techniques. Basic Science Study.

  11. [The history and development of computer assisted orthopaedic surgery].

    PubMed

    Jenny, J-Y

    2006-10-01

    Computer assisted orthopaedic surgery (CAOS) was developed to improve the accuracy of surgical procedures. It has improved dramatically over the last years, being transformed from an experimental, laboratory procedure into a routine procedure theoretically available to every orthopaedic surgeon. The first field of application of computer assistance was neurosurgery. After the application of computer guided spinal surgery, the navigation of total hip and knee joints became available. Currently, several applications for computer assisted surgery are available. At the beginning of navigation, a preoperative CT-scan or several fluoroscopic images were necessary. The imageless systems allow the surgeon to digitize patient anatomy at the beginning of surgery without any preoperative imaging. The future of CAOS remains unknown, but there is no doubt that its importance will grow in the next 10 years, and that this technology will probably modify the conventional practice of orthopaedic surgery.

  12. Computer-Assisted and Patient-Controlled Sedation Platforms.

    PubMed

    Pambianco, Daniel; Niklewski, Paul

    2016-07-01

    As the number and complexity of endoscopic procedures increase, the role of sedation has been integral in patient and physician satisfaction. This article discusses the advances of computer-assisted and patient-controlled platforms. These computer-assisted and patient-controlled platforms use different anesthetics and analgesics, all with the intent of achieving improved consistency in the level of sedation, appropriate to the needs of patients, while also improving patient safety. These systems have been around for decades; however, few are approved for use in the United States, and several still require further study before broad clinical application.

  13. Interview: interview with Gisbert Schneider.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gisbert

    2012-10-01

    Gisbert Schneider studied biochemistry and computer science at the Free University of Berlin, Germany, where he received his doctoral degree in 1994. After several international post-doctoral research activities he joined F.Hoffmann-La Roche Pharmaceuticals in Basel, Switzerland, where he headed the cheminformatics group until 2001. He received his habilitation and venia legendi in biochemistry and bioinformatics from the University of Freiburg, Germany. From 2002 to 2009 he was Full Professor of Chem- and Bioinformatics (Beilstein Endowed Chair) at Goethe-University Frankfurt, Germany. In 2010 he joined ETH Zurich, Switzerland, as a Full Professor of Computer-Assisted Drug Design. Professor Schneider spoke to Future Medicinal Chemistry about how he became involved in the field, the effects advances in software have had on research and how computational chemistry is becoming more important in the role of a traditional medicinal chemist. Interview conducted by Isaac Bruce, Commissioning Editor.

  14. Computer-assisted trauma care prototype.

    PubMed

    Holzman, T G; Griffith, A; Hunter, W G; Allen, T; Simpson, R J

    1995-01-01

    Each year, civilian accidental injury results in 150,000 deaths and 400,000 permanent disabilities in the United States alone. The timely creation of and access to dynamically updated trauma patient information at the point of injury is critical to improving the state of care. Such information is often non-existent, incomplete, or inaccurate, resulting in less than adequate treatment by medics and the loss of precious time by medical personnel at the hospital or battalion aid station as they attempt to reassess and treat the patient. The Trauma Care Information Management System (TCIMS) is a prototype system for facilitating information flow and patient processing decisions in the difficult circumstances of civilian and military trauma care activities. The program is jointly supported by the United States Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and a consortium of universities, medical centers, and private companies. The authors' focus has been the human-computer interface for the system. We are attempting to make TCIMS powerful in the functions it delivers to its users in the field while also making it easy to understand and operate. To develop such a usable system, an approach known as user-centered design is being followed. Medical personnel themselves are collaborating with the authors in its needs analysis, design, and evaluation. Specifically, the prototype being demonstrated was designed through observation of actual civilian trauma care episodes, military trauma care exercises onboard a hospital ship, interviews with civilian and military trauma care providers, repeated evaluation of evolving prototypes by potential users, and study of the literature on trauma care and human factors engineering. This presentation at MedInfo '95 is still another avenue for soliciting guidance from medical information system experts and users. The outcome of this process is a system that provides the functions trauma care personnel desire in a manner that can be easily and

  15. A Three-Item Instrument for Measuring Daytime Sleepiness: The Observation and Interview Based Diurnal Sleepiness Inventory (ODSI)

    PubMed Central

    Onen, Fannie; Lalanne, Christophe; Pak, Victoria M.; Gooneratne, Nalaka; Falissard, Bruno; Onen, Saban-Hakki

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We aimed to develop a new three-item assessment tool for daytime sleepiness in older adults, the Observation and interview-based Diurnal Sleepiness Inventory (ODSI) and determine its validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and optimal cutoff score. Methods: A total of 133 elderly subjects including 73 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (mean age, 79 y) and 60 controls (mean age, 80 y) were consecutively enrolled and answered all questionnaires. The ODSI questionnaire was validated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale considered as a gold standard. Reliability, validity, and cut-points were tested. Results: The ODSI has acceptable validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability properties. The ODSI has internal consistency and a reliability coefficient (Pearson rho) of 0.70 for its three items, which suggests strong reliability. The estimated sensitivity and specificity were 0.842 with 95% confidence interval [0.624; 0.945] and 0.851 [0.761; 0.911], respectively. The consistency of summated scale scores during test and retest sessions was high (r = 0.970, 95% bootstrap confidence interval [0.898; 0.991]). Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggests that a cut-point of 6 is effective for identifying older adults with excessive levels of daytime sleepiness. Conclusions: The ODSI is a brief, valid, easy-to-administer three-item assessment that can screen for excessive daytime sleepiness among elderly patients with OSA. Citation: Onen F, Lalanne C, Pak VM, Gooneratne N, Falissard B, Onen SH. A three-item instrument for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Observation and Interview Based Diurnal Sleepiness Inventory (ODSI). J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):505–512. PMID:26612511

  16. Health technology assessment of computer-assisted pap test screening in Italy.

    PubMed

    Dalla Palma, Paolo; Moresco, Luca; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    To assess the introduction of computer-assisted Pap test screening in cervical cancer screening. Various scenarios are considered: conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC) slides, fully automatic instrumentation (Becton Dickinson FocalPoint™ Slide Profiler and Hologic ThinPrep® Imaging System), and semiautomatic scanner (Hologic Integrated Imager I-Squared). A working group was formed that included researchers from the largest centers already using instrumentation. A questionnaire on laboratory management and on social/ethical issues and annual workload was proposed. Prices for the technology were obtained directly from the producers; costs were calculated from observed and literature data. The scope of the report and final draft were submitted to a consulting committee of stakeholders. The break-even point was found to be 49,000 cases/year, if conventional slides were used, while it was near the theoretical maximum capacity, 70,000 cases/year, with LBC slides. Efficiency increased with the volume of slides. Screening time decreased by two thirds for conventional slides and by less than half for LBC slides. Acceptance of the instrumentation by the users was good. Computer-assisted screening may increase productivity even if in most situations it will mean additional costs. Furthermore, primary screening with human papillomavirus tests will drastically reduce the need for Pap test reading. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Social Choice in a Computer-Assisted Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thavikulwat, Precha

    2009-01-01

    Pursuing a line of inquiry suggested by Crookall, Martin, Saunders, and Coote, the author applied, within the framework of design science, an optimal-design approach to incorporate into a computer-assisted simulation two innovative social choice processes: the multiple period double auction and continuous voting. Expectations that the…

  18. Computer-Assisted Periodical Routing and Renewal Audit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerkey, A. Neil

    1973-01-01

    A computer-assisted periodical control system was designed to reduce clerical time required to maintain records in three areas: renewal audit, routing, and records-keeping. The renewal audit features are unusual and are described in detail. (3 references) (Author/DH)

  19. Framework for Computer Assisted Instruction Courseware: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betlach, Judith A.

    1987-01-01

    Systematically investigates, defines, and organizes variables related to production of internally designed and implemented computer assisted instruction (CAI) courseware: special needs of users; costs; identification and definition of realistic training needs; CAI definition and design methodology; hardware and software requirements; and general…

  20. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Pitch and Rhythm Error Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, John J.

    1985-01-01

    Consistent with other programmed methods for teaching error detection skill, the computer-assisted program in error detection (CA-PED) appears to be a successful method of teaching that skill to college music education students. However, CA-PED is no more or less effective than Ramsey's PED, an effective, full-score, error detection program.…

  1. Evaluation of Three Computer-Assisted Instruction Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; Morningstar, Mona

    This technical report is concerned with the evaluation of three Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) Programs - The Drill-and practice Program in Elementary School Mathematics, The Brentwood Tutorial Mathematics Program, and the Russian Program. Among the results reported were (1) the drill-and-practice mathematics program used in Mississippi and…

  2. Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction: A Selective Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Karen K.

    The history of some computer-assisted instruction (CAI) strategies is traced. A number of components of computerized instruction systems are described and explanations provided on the influence these components have in the development and production of a CAI system. A description of the interaction between a student and a CAI system is presented…

  3. Computer-Assisted Instruction: Stanford's 1965-66 Arithmetic Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    A review of the possibilities and challenges of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and a brief history of CAI projects at Stanford serve to give the reader the context of the particular program described and analyzed in this book. The 1965-66 arithmetic drill-and-practice program is described, summarizing the curriculum and project operation. An…

  4. Computer-Assisted Instruction of Early Academic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, Caryl H.; Noonan, Mary Jo

    2000-01-01

    Five preschool students with disabilities received direct instruction on matching shapes, colors, and numbers or letters, followed by guided practice using constant time delay under two conditions: computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with interactive software and teacher-assisted instruction (TAI). CAI was either equal or superior to TAI across…

  5. Applications of Parsing Theory to Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markosian, Lawrence Z.; Ager, Tryg A.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of an LR-1 parsing algorithm to intelligent programs for computer assisted instruction in symbolic logic and foreign languages are discussed. The system has been adequately used for diverse instructional applications, including analysis of student input, generation of pattern drills, and modeling the student's understanding of the…

  6. Technical Aspects of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chaun; Sherwood, Bruce

    1981-01-01

    Computer assisted instruction in Chinese is considered in relation to the design and recognition of Chinese characters, speech synthesis of the standard Chinese language, and the identification of Chinese tone. The PLATO work has shifted its orientation from provision of supplementary courseware to implementation of independent lessons and…

  7. Computer-Assisted Dieting: Effects of a Randomized Nutrition Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Kerstin E. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of a computer-assisted dieting intervention (CAD) with and without self-management training on dieting among 55 overweight and obese adults. Methods: Random assignment to a single-session nutrition intervention (CAD-only) or a combined CAD plus self-management group intervention (CADG). Dependent variables were…

  8. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Medicine: A German View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Gunnar; And Others

    The following seven American programs of Computer Assisted Instruction in Medicine are among 20 implemented at the University of Bonn: OPHTHA and FUNDUS (programs of the tutorial mode), CARDI (presents information via three media on the clinical alterations of Mitral and Aortic Stenosis as well as Mitral and Aortal Incompetence), CARDIOPULMONARY…

  9. Computer-Assisted Law Instruction: Clinical Education's Bionic Sibling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Harry G.; Platt, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI), like clinical education, has considerable potential for legal training. As an initial Cornell Law School experiment, a lesson in applying different corporate statutory dividend formulations, with a cross-section of balance sheets and other financial data, was used to supplement regular class assignments.…

  10. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Diversity in Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, Glenn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning languages that uses computers and other technologies to present, reinforce, and assess material to be learned, or to create environments where teachers and learners can interact with one another and the outside world. This book provides a much-needed overview of the…

  11. Ethical and Professional Issues in Computer-Assisted Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, B. Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Discusses ethical and professional issues in psychology regarding computer-assisted therapy (CAT). Topics addressed include an explanation of CAT; whether CAT is psychotherapy; software, including independent use, validation of effectiveness, and restricted access; clinician resistance; client acceptance; the impact on ethical standards; and a…

  12. User Interface Improvements in Computer-Assisted Instruction, the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Identifies user interface problems as they relate to computer-assisted instruction (CAI); reviews the learning theories and instructional theories related to CAI user interface; and presents potential CAI user interface improvements for research and development based on learning and instructional theory. Focuses on screen design improvements.…

  13. Computer-Assisted Accent Modification: A Report on Practice Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Linda J.; Reid, Lawry N.; Chenausky, Karen

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of the computer-assisted accent-modification program, Speech Works, with beginning college students of English as a second language with a non-speech-language pathologist trainer. Students who had weekly one-on-one sessions with a teacher and independent practice, especially when the practice was computer monitored,…

  14. [Computer assisted radiological diagnostics of arthritic joint alterations].

    PubMed

    Kainberger, F; Langs, G; Peloschek, P; Schlager, T; Schüller-Weidekamm, C; Valentinitsch, A

    2006-12-01

    Computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) schemes are currently used in the field of musculoskeletal diseases to quantitatively assess vertebral fractures, joint space narrowing, andr erosion. Most systems work semi-automatically, i.e. they are operator dependent in the selection of anatomical landmarks. Fully automatic programs are currently under development. Some CAD products have already been successfully used in clinical trials.

  15. System/360 Computer Assisted Network Scheduling (CANS) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer assisted scheduling techniques that produce conflict-free and efficient schedules have been developed and implemented to meet needs of the Manned Space Flight Network. CANS system provides effective management of resources in complex scheduling environment. System is automated resource scheduling, controlling, planning, information storage and retrieval tool.

  16. Perceptions of University Students regarding Computer Assisted Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamil, Mubashrah

    2012-01-01

    Computer assisted assessment (CAA) is a common technique of assessment in higher educational institutions in Western countries, but a relatively new concept for students and teachers in Pakistan. It was therefore interesting to investigate students' perceptions about CAA practices from different universities of Pakistan. Information was collected…

  17. An Infrastructure for Web-Based Computer Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Mike; Muzykantskii, Boris; Rawles, Simon; Evans, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We describe an initiative under way at Warwick to provide a technical foundation for computer aided learning and computer-assisted assessment tools, which allows a rich dialogue sensitive to individual students' response patterns. The system distinguishes between dialogues for individual problems and the linking of problems. This enables a subject…

  18. Computer-Assisted Instruction Workshop at the Naval War College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entelek, Inc., Newburyport, MA.

    A workshop was held which was designed to review the state of computer-assisted instruction in terms of its application to the U.S. Navy, with special emphasis on the Navy's activities at Newport Naval Base. The workshop also offered practice in developing short computer programs and attempted to familiarize a staff group with advanced information…

  19. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Statistics. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, William W.

    A paper given at a conference on statistical computation discussed teaching statistics with computers. It concluded that computer-assisted instruction is most appropriately employed in the numerical demonstration of statistical concepts, and for statistical laboratory instruction. The student thus learns simultaneously about the use of computers…

  20. Functional Characteristics of Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction: Intelligent Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ok-choon

    1988-01-01

    Examines the functional characteristics of intelligent computer assisted instruction (ICAI) and discusses the requirements of a multidisciplinary cooperative effort of its development. A typical ICAI model is presented and intelligent features of ICAI systems are described, including modeling the student's learning process, qualitative decision…

  1. Computer Assisted Instruction. Education Automation Monograph Series, [Number One].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolurow, Lawrence M.

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) attacks one of the greatest problems of education--how to get sufficient variety in educational materials to teach each individual without requiring a group of trained personnel to prepare all possible variations. CAI permits individualization electronically. CAI can be used to train problem solving, for drill…

  2. Computer-assisted information graphics from the graphic design perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, A.

    1983-11-01

    Computer-assisted information graphics can benefit by adopting some of the working processes, principles, and areas of concern typical of information-oriented graphic designers. A review of some basic design considerations is followed by a discussion of the creation and design of a prototype nonverbal narrative which combines symbols, charts, maps, and diagrams.

  3. Computer-Assisted Test Construction for the Decision Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplitz, Charles

    1983-01-01

    In quantitative courses, examinations measure a small portion of the students' subject mastery, and grading is difficult. Take-home examinations test more but their development is difficult. Computer assisted test construction, where a computer generates random data within relative constraints for preprogrammed examination questions, is proposed…

  4. Conversation Analysis in Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Lloret, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The use of Conversation Analysis (CA) in the study of technology-mediated interactions is a recent methodological addition to qualitative research in the field of Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL). The expansion of CA in Second Language Acquisition research, coupled with the need for qualitative techniques to explore how people interact…

  5. The Effectiveness of a Computer-Assisted Math Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witte, K.; Haelermans, C.; Rogge, N.

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs are considered as a way to improve learning outcomes of students. However, little is known on the schools who implement such programs as well as on the effectiveness of similar information and communication technology programs. We provide a literature review that pays special attention to the existing…

  6. Engineering Students' Use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huczynski, Andrzej; Johnston, Scott Paul

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) by undergraduate engineering students studying a business and management course. Discussing both the relationship between management and engineering and CAL applied to engineering education, this study is based on a survey of 82 undergraduates and adopts a quantitative research…

  7. Planning and Authoring Computer-Assisted Instruction Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Robert M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that Gagne's nine events of instruction be incorporated into the systematic design of computer assisted instruction (CAI) for microcomputers and describes the nine events in relation to five different kinds of learning outcomes which occur frequently in CAI. Seven references are cited. (MER)

  8. Computer-Assisted Instruction Research: A Critical Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado, Rafael J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews, analyzes, and critically assesses a sample of articles reporting research findings related to the instructional effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI). Problems in CAI research are described, including validity of the experimental research design, and current trends in CAI research are discussed. (31 references) (LRW)

  9. Computer-Assisted Law Instruction: Clinical Education's Bionic Sibling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Harry G.; Platt, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI), like clinical education, has considerable potential for legal training. As an initial Cornell Law School experiment, a lesson in applying different corporate statutory dividend formulations, with a cross-section of balance sheets and other financial data, was used to supplement regular class assignments.…

  10. Engineering Students' Use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huczynski, Andrzej; Johnston, Scott Paul

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) by undergraduate engineering students studying a business and management course. Discussing both the relationship between management and engineering and CAL applied to engineering education, this study is based on a survey of 82 undergraduates and adopts a quantitative research…

  11. Computer-assisted coding and clinical documentation: first things first.

    PubMed

    Tully, Melinda; Carmichael, Angela

    2012-10-01

    Computer-assisted coding tools have the potential to drive improvements in seven areas: Transparency of coding. Productivity (generally by 20 to 25 percent for inpatient claims). Accuracy (by improving specificity of documentation). Cost containment (by reducing overtime expenses, audit fees, and denials). Compliance. Efficiency. Consistency.

  12. Students' Attitudes towards Control Methods in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintze, Hanne; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes study designed to investigate dental students' attitudes toward computer-assisted teaching as applied in programs for oral radiology in Denmark. Programs using personal computers and slide projectors with varying degrees of learner and teacher control are described, and differences in attitudes between male and female students are…

  13. One Instructor's Approach to Computer Assisted Instruction in General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLorenzo, Ronald

    1982-01-01

    Discusses advantages of using computer-assisted instruction in a college general chemistry course. Advantages include using programs which generate random equations with double arrows (equilibrium systems) or generate alkane structural formula, asking for the correct IUPAC name of the structure. (Author/JN)

  14. Computer-Assisted Dieting: Effects of a Randomized Nutrition Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Kerstin E. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of a computer-assisted dieting intervention (CAD) with and without self-management training on dieting among 55 overweight and obese adults. Methods: Random assignment to a single-session nutrition intervention (CAD-only) or a combined CAD plus self-management group intervention (CADG). Dependent variables were…

  15. Teaching Reading through Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Tariq Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    To study the role of reading in secondary schools and how it may be improved through computers, a year-long study was conducted to examine which of two methods of teaching reading skills, an instructor-led class vs. computer-assisted language learning (CALL), aided secondary students in improving the literal, inferential, and evaluative levels of…

  16. Computer Assisted Financial Aid Disbursement and Loan Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry K.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the computer assisted system in use at Washington State University. It controls and reports funds requested by students, offered to students, and disbursed to students, writes financial aid checks, prepares fiscal year-end statements and performs loan collection processes according to federal government regulations, and provides internal…

  17. Programmed Learning and Computer-Assisted Instruction in Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, David M.

    Following an introductory review of foreign language teaching since the Second World War, the author discusses the cybernetic aspects and psychological basis of instructional technology; programmed learning/computer-assisted instruction and behavioral objectives; hardware versus software; linear programming; branching programs; programming verbal…

  18. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  19. A Test of Simple Computer-Assisted Instructional Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neapolitan, Jerry

    1989-01-01

    Describes the results of an experiment designed to test the effectiveness of simple computer-assisted instructional software for sociology classes. Tests a computer tutorial on attribution theory. Found that students who took the computer tutorial did somewhat better on a quiz than the subjects did who only read the material. (KO)

  20. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Medicine: A German View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Gunnar; And Others

    The following seven American programs of Computer Assisted Instruction in Medicine are among 20 implemented at the University of Bonn: OPHTHA and FUNDUS (programs of the tutorial mode), CARDI (presents information via three media on the clinical alterations of Mitral and Aortic Stenosis as well as Mitral and Aortal Incompetence), CARDIOPULMONARY…

  1. Computer Assisted Learning in Basic Adult Education. Commissioned Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, R.; Hooper, P.

    A project was conducted to increase the use of microcomputers in basic adult education in Australia. The aims of the project were as follows: to establish an information network of practitioners working within Australia's Technical and Further Education (TAFE) system who have an interest in using computer-assisted learning in basic adult…

  2. Students' Attitudes towards Control Methods in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintze, Hanne; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes study designed to investigate dental students' attitudes toward computer-assisted teaching as applied in programs for oral radiology in Denmark. Programs using personal computers and slide projectors with varying degrees of learner and teacher control are described, and differences in attitudes between male and female students are…

  3. Renal Diet Therapy--A Computer-Assisted Instruction Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Lois; Thiele, Victoria F.

    1981-01-01

    A computer-assisted instruction (CAI) unit was designed to teach renal diet therapy. Utilizing this unit, differences in performance and attitudes between traditionally taught and CAI taught students (N=34), and differences in achievement between students in two nutrition fields were assessed. (DS)

  4. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Bin; Xing, Minjie; Wang, Yuping; Sun, Mingyu; Xiang, Catherine H.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances highlights new research and an original framework that brings together foreign language teaching, experiments and testing practices that utilize the most recent and widely used e-learning resources. This comprehensive collection of research will offer linguistic…

  5. Computer-Assisted Argument Mapping: A "Rationale" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, W. Martin

    2009-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Argument Mapping (CAAM) is a new way of understanding arguments. While still embryonic in its development and application, CAAM is being used increasingly as a training and development tool in the professions and government. Inroads are also being made in its application within education. CAAM claims to be helpful in an…

  6. OE-CAI: Computer-Assisted Instruction of Old English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcaraz, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    Provides a survey of computer assisted instruction as applied to the Old English language from the work of the late 1980's pioneers to December 2001. Each instructional item--whether a website, java exercise, or an online course--is reviewed and URLs are provided in footnotes. Reviews are accompanied by pertinent background and practical advice.…

  7. Computer-Assisted Synthesis of Psychometric Data in Vocational Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    This paper proposes computer assistance in the synthesis operation of vocational counseling. The goal of vocational counseling is to match the client with a vocation in which he will be both satisfied and satisfactory. The computer would, through its rapid scanning and computation, produce probabilities of satisfactoriness based on (1) the…

  8. Renal Diet Therapy--A Computer-Assisted Instruction Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Lois; Thiele, Victoria F.

    1981-01-01

    A computer-assisted instruction (CAI) unit was designed to teach renal diet therapy. Utilizing this unit, differences in performance and attitudes between traditionally taught and CAI taught students (N=34), and differences in achievement between students in two nutrition fields were assessed. (DS)

  9. Computer-Assisted Instruction: What the Research Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1987-01-01

    Briefly reviews current research on the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and microcomputers. The Hawthorne Effect and research results for elementary, secondary, and college level students are discussed, courseware requirements are described, and research studies showing positive and negative effects of CAI are listed. (LRW)

  10. Computer-Assisted Microscopy in Science Teaching and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radice, Gary P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a technological approach to teaching the relationships between biological form and function. Computer-assisted image analysis was integrated into a microanatomy course. Students spend less time memorizing and more time observing, measuring, and interpreting, building technical and analytical skills. Appendices list hardware and software…

  11. Social Choice in a Computer-Assisted Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thavikulwat, Precha

    2009-01-01

    Pursuing a line of inquiry suggested by Crookall, Martin, Saunders, and Coote, the author applied, within the framework of design science, an optimal-design approach to incorporate into a computer-assisted simulation two innovative social choice processes: the multiple period double auction and continuous voting. Expectations that the…

  12. COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION, A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND KWIC INDEX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENGEL, GERALD L.

    THIS TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM SUPERSEDES TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM NO. K-49/66 (AD-638 892). THIS TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM ALSO PROVIDES AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY, REFERENCED BY A KEY WORD IN CONTEXT (KWIC) INDEX TO SELECTED ARTICLES ON COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI). DOCUMENT AVAILABLE FROM THE CLEARINGHOUSE FOR FEDERAL SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL…

  13. Computer Assisted Reference Locator (CARL) System: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, William A.

    The Computer Assisted Reference Locator (CARL) is a computer-based information retrieval system which uses coordinate indexing. Objectives established in designing the system are: (1) simplicity of reference query and retrieval; (2) ease of system maintenance; and (3) adaptability for alternative computer systems. The source documents input into…

  14. Computer Assisted Instruction as an Enhancer of Remediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotard, Stephen R.; Cortez, Marion J.

    In the 1980-81 school year, the Title I program in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana, initiated research into the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for mathematics in grades 3-6. Children from two lower socioeconomic area schools, who were one or more years below grade placement but were already making gains of 6-9 months due to an…

  15. Computer-Assisted Instruction in AIDS Infection Control for Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, T. J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A microcomputer program to provide health care workers with instruction in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) infection control was assessed by medical residents. The experimental group (n=24) acquired more knowledge than controls (n=33). Response to the method was positive, and computer-assisted instruction is seen as useful for AIDS…

  16. Computer Assisted Instruction: A Support for the Mastery Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koohang, Alex A.; Stepp, Sidney L.

    It is argued that computer assisted instruction might be an answer to the scheduling problems resulting from the implementation of mastery learning programs in the public schools. The mastery learning model proposed by Carroll and the transformation of this model into a working model by Bloom are described. The difficulty of implementing mastery…

  17. A Computer-Assisted Oil Exploration and Production Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Gary John

    1987-01-01

    Describes a computer-assisted oil exploration and production game for students involved in a short course in petroleum geology. Outlines the game and its procedures, and provides sample structure maps generated by the computer in the course of playing the game. (TW)

  18. The Teacher's Role in Effective Computer-Assisted Instruction Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, David R.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2006 the Billings (Montana) Public Schools adopted a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) intervention aimed at helping students recover credits that they had attempted but had not attained. The author volunteered to teach the algebra component in his high school. Through the following seven semesters, he came to better understand the…

  19. Collaboration and Computer-Assisted Acquisition of a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renie, Delphine; Chanier, Thierry

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how collaborative learning (CL) can be used in a computer-assisted learning (CAL) environment for language learning, reviewing research in the fields of applied linguistics, educational psychology, and artificial intelligence. An application of CL and CAL in the learning of French as a Second Language, focusing on interrogative…

  20. Some Measurement and Instruction Related Considerations Regarding Computer Assisted Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterhof, Albert C.; Salisbury, David F.

    The Assessment Resource Center (ARC) at Florida State University provides computer assisted testing (CAT) for approximately 4,000 students each term. Computer capabilities permit a small proctoring staff to administer tests simultaneously to large numbers of students. Programs provide immediate feedback for students and generate a variety of…

  1. Computer-Assisted Testing in Counseling and Therapy. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, James P., Jr.

    Computer-assisted testing (CAT) in counseling and therapy is becoming increasingly common due to dramatic improvements in cost-effectiveness and increased counselor familiarity with computer applications. The assumption underlying the use of CAT is that the effectiveness of counseling is improved by allocating repetitive computational and…

  2. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Diversity in Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, Glenn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning languages that uses computers and other technologies to present, reinforce, and assess material to be learned, or to create environments where teachers and learners can interact with one another and the outside world. This book provides a much-needed overview of the…

  3. The MUPET Lab: Computer Assisted Management of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Thomas D.

    Project Computer-Assisted Instructional Management (C-AIM) is being pilot tested on third grade mathematics students in the Jonesboro Public schools (Jonesboro, Arkansas). Each elementary building operates a MUPET Lab equipped with at least six Commodore Model 4016/4032 microcomputers, one Commodore Model 4040 dual disc drive, and one Commodore…

  4. Computer-assisted Elementary Chinese Learning for American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong-yan, Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Despite hopes and claims about benefits of computer-assisted language learning, few studies have documented actual cases about how American students learn elementary Chinese in a computer-equipped classroom. This paper deals with how to use computer as an educational tool to develop American students' Chinese language skills. The theoretical…

  5. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  6. Computer Assisted Instruction: A Selected Bibliography and KWIC Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Gerald L.

    References to literature published between 1958 and 1968, which was reviewed in a study of Computer-Assisted Instruction for the United States Naval Weapons Laboratory, are presented in this bibliography. In the first half, selections are arranged by Key Word in Context (KWIC) and are numbered to correspond with an annotated version of each of the…

  7. The Use of Computer Assisted Career Guidance with Injured Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Julia; Wigtil, James V.

    Injured workers are individuals whose injuries have resulted in residual impairment, making it impossible for them to return to their former jobs or to seek work in an allied field. This study investigated the differential effects of computer assisted career guidance (CACG) systems combined with a cognitive information processing strategy on…

  8. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: From Vision to Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Learning a second language is a challenging endeavor, and, for decades now, proponents of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) have declared that help is on the horizon. As documented not only in the "CALICO Journal" over its 25-year history but also in other scholarly venues, research has demonstrated the value of CALL. Nevertheless,…

  9. Remedial and Second Language English Teaching Using Computer Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Gary; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a computer assisted learning system designed to help improve the writing skills of students at Concordia University who use English as a second language. Its history, methodological and conceptual problems, theoretical considerations, hardware, and software are discussed. A bibliography of 17 items is included. (CHC)

  10. Computer Assisted Drafting (CNC) Drawings. Drafting Module 6. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Missouri Vocational Instruction Management System instructor's drafting guide has been keyed to the drafting competency profile developed by state industry and education professionals. This unit contains information on computer-assisted drafting drawings. The guide contains a cross-reference table of instructional materials and 20 worksheets.…

  11. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Bin; Xing, Minjie; Wang, Yuping; Sun, Mingyu; Xiang, Catherine H.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances highlights new research and an original framework that brings together foreign language teaching, experiments and testing practices that utilize the most recent and widely used e-learning resources. This comprehensive collection of research will offer linguistic…

  12. The MUPET Lab: Computer Assisted Management of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Thomas D.

    Project Computer-Assisted Instructional Management (C-AIM) is being pilot tested on third grade mathematics students in the Jonesboro Public schools (Jonesboro, Arkansas). Each elementary building operates a MUPET Lab equipped with at least six Commodore Model 4016/4032 microcomputers, one Commodore Model 4040 dual disc drive, and one Commodore…

  13. Computer-Assisted Microscopy in Science Teaching and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radice, Gary P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a technological approach to teaching the relationships between biological form and function. Computer-assisted image analysis was integrated into a microanatomy course. Students spend less time memorizing and more time observing, measuring, and interpreting, building technical and analytical skills. Appendices list hardware and software…

  14. Computer-Assisted Learning in British Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertzani, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The fact that language teaching can be operationalized through computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has directed researchers' attention to the learning task, which, in this case, is considered to be the unit that demands analysis of the communicative processes in which the learner is involved while working with CALL. Research focuses on…

  15. Integrating Computer-Assisted Translation Tools into Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Parra, María

    2016-01-01

    Although Computer-Assisted Translation (CAT) tools play an important role in the curriculum in many university translator training programmes, they are seldom used in the context of learning a language, as a good command of a language is needed before starting to translate. Since many institutions often have translator-training programmes as well…

  16. Computer-Assisted Instruction: Stanford's 1965-66 Arithmetic Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    A review of the possibilities and challenges of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and a brief history of CAI projects at Stanford serve to give the reader the context of the particular program described and analyzed in this book. The 1965-66 arithmetic drill-and-practice program is described, summarizing the curriculum and project operation. An…

  17. Computer-Assisted Assignments in a Large Physics Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoennessen, M.; Harrison, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes CAPA, a software tool to implement a computer-assisted personalized approach for homework assignments and examinations in a large introductory physics class at Michigan State University. Highlights include increased individual attention for students; correlation between homework performance and results of the final exam; feedback for…

  18. A New Approach: Computer-Assisted Problem-Solving Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gok, Tolga

    2010-01-01

    Computer-assisted problem solving systems are rapidly growing in educational use and with the advent of the Internet. These systems allow students to do their homework and solve problems online with the help of programs like Blackboard, WebAssign and LON-CAPA program etc. There are benefits and drawbacks of these systems. In this study, the…

  19. Detection of microcalcification in computer-assisted mammogram analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghdy, Golshah A.; Naghdy, Fazel; Yue, L.; Drijarkara, A. P.

    1999-07-01

    The latest trend in computer assisted mammogram analysis is reviewed and two new methods developed by the authors for automatic detection of microcalcifications (MCs) are presented. The first method is based on wavelet neurone feature detectors and ART classifiers while the second method utilized fuzzy rules for detection and grading of MCs.

  20. Computer-Assisted Instruction, Media Richness, and College Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, C. Erik; Kruepke, Kristine A.

    2006-01-01

    This meta analysis examines the effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) upon college student performance, addresses the impact of various study characteristics upon effects, and explores how media richness theory may predict CAI performance gains. Findings indicate that student performance gains are larger for CAI than traditional…

  1. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Debate: Possibilities and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheckels, Theodore F., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Presents justifications for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in debate. Suggests programs that could be written. Discusses one CAI application: the use of CAI drills to train negative team members and to instruct in cross-examination skills. Includes the "Listing of CAI Drill for 1st Negative Debater." (PD)

  2. The Spread of Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapelle, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that the vertical spread of computer-assisted language learning (CALL), i.e., a spread throughout language materials and curricula, makes it difficult to draw a clear distinction between CALL and other language materials. In view of the emphasis that teachers, researchers, and administrators have placed on evaluating CALL, I…

  3. Client Anticipations about Computer-Assisted Career Guidance System Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Debra S.; Peterson, Gary W.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Reardon, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    This study describes how 55 clients from a career center at a large, southeastern university anticipated using computer-assisted career guidance (CACG) systems to help in their career decision making and problem solving. Responses to a cued and a free response survey indicated that clients' most frequent anticipations included increased career…

  4. Optimizing Computer Assisted Instruction By Applying Principles of Learning Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thomas O.

    The development of learning theory and its application to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are described. Among the early theoretical constructs thought to be important are E. L. Thorndike's concept of learning connectisms, Neal Miller's theory of motivation, and B. F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. Early devices incorporating those…

  5. An Overview of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Walter

    After a detailed history and definition of Computer-Assisted Instruction (which identifies drill and practice, tutorial, and problem-solving activities as comprising CAI), the development and implementation of a college level computer based multimedia physics course is described as an example of tutorial activities in CAI for those interested in…

  6. "Intelligent" Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Applications. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely; And Others

    Interim work is documented describing efforts to modify computer techniques used to recognize and process English language requests to an instructional simulator. The conversion from a hand-coded to a table driven technique are described in detail. Other modifications to a simulation based computer assisted instruction program to allow a gaming…

  7. The Effectiveness of a Computer-Assisted Math Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witte, K.; Haelermans, C.; Rogge, N.

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs are considered as a way to improve learning outcomes of students. However, little is known on the schools who implement such programs as well as on the effectiveness of similar information and communication technology programs. We provide a literature review that pays special attention to the existing…

  8. Motivation in computer-assisted instruction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Amanda; Shewokis, Patricia A; Ting, Kimberly; Fung, Kevin

    2016-08-01

    Computer-aided instruction (CAI) is defined as instruction in which computers play a central role as the means of information delivery and direct interaction with learners. Computer-aided instruction has become mainstream in medical school curricula. For example, a three-dimensional (3D) computer module of the larynx has been created to teach laryngeal anatomy. Although the novelty and educational potential of CAI has garnered much attention, these new technologies have been plagued with low utilization rates. Several experts attribute this problem to lack of motivation in students. Motivation is defined as the desire and action toward goal-oriented behavior. Psychologist Dr. John Keller developed the ARCS theory of motivational learning, which proposed four components: attention (A), relevance (R), concentration (C), and satisfaction (S). Keller believed that motivation is not only an innate characteristic of the pupil; it can also be influenced by external factors, such as the instructional design of the curriculum. Thus, understanding motivation is an important step to designing CAI appropriately. Keller also developed a 36-item validated instrument called the Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS) to measure motivation. The objective of this study was to study motivation in CAI. Medical students learning anatomy with the 3D computer module will have higher laryngeal anatomy test scores and higher IMMS motivation scores. Higher anatomy test scores will be positively associated with higher IMMS scores. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. After obtaining institutional review board approval, 100 medical students (mean age 25.5 ± 2.5, 49% male) were randomized to either the 3D computer module (n = 49) or written text (n = 51). Information content was identical in both arms. Students were given 30 minutes to study laryngeal anatomy and then completed the laryngeal anatomy test and IMMS. Students were categorized as either junior (year 1

  9. Inter-rater reliability and acceptance of the structured diagnostic interview for regulatory problems in infancy.

    PubMed

    Popp, Lukka; Fuths, Sabrina; Seehagen, Sabine; Bolten, Margarete; Gross-Hemmi, Mirja; Wolke, Dieter; Schneider, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory problems such as excessive crying, sleeping-and feeding difficulties in infancy are some of the earliest precursors of later mental health difficulties emerging throughout the lifespan. In the present study, the inter-rater reliability and acceptance of a structured computer-assisted diagnostic interview for regulatory problems (Baby-DIPS) was investigated. Using a community sample, 132 mothers of infants aged between 3 and 18 months (mean age = 10 months) were interviewed with the Baby-DIPS regarding current and former (combined = lifetime) regulatory problems. Severity of the symptoms was also rated. The interviews were conducted face-to-face at a psychology department at the university (51.5 %), the mother's home (23.5 %), or via telephone (25.0 %). Inter-rater reliability was assessed with Cohen's kappa (k). A sample of 48 mothers and their interviewers filled in acceptance questionnaires after the interview. Good to excellent inter-rater reliability on the levels of current and lifetime regulatory problems (k = 0.77-0.98) were found. High inter-rater agreement was also found for ratings of severity (ICC = 0.86-0.97). Participants and interviewers' overall acceptance ratings of the computer-assisted interview were favourable. Acceptance scores did not differ between interviews that revealed one or more clinically relevant regulatory problem(s) compared to those that revealed no regulatory problems. The Baby-DIPS was found to be a reliable instrument for the assessment of current and lifetime problems in crying and sleeping behaviours. The computer-assisted version of the Baby-DIPS was well accepted by interviewers and mothers. The Baby-DIPS appears to be well-suited for research and clinical use to identify infant regulatory problems.

  10. Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA): capabilities and potential developments.

    PubMed

    Amann, Rupert P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems have evolved over approximately 40 years, through advances in devices to capture the image from a microscope, huge increases in computational power concurrent with amazing reduction in size of computers, new computer languages, and updated/expanded software algorithms. Remarkably, basic concepts for identifying sperm and their motion patterns are little changed. Older and slower systems remain in use. Most major spermatology laboratories and semen processing facilities have a CASA system, but the extent of reliance thereon ranges widely. This review describes capabilities and limitations of present CASA technology used with boar, bull, and stallion sperm, followed by possible future developments. Each marketed system is different. Modern CASA systems can automatically view multiple fields in a shallow specimen chamber to capture strobe-like images of 500 to >2000 sperm, at 50 or 60 frames per second, in clear or complex extenders, and in <2 minutes, store information for ≥ 30 frames and provide summary data for each spermatozoon and the population. A few systems evaluate sperm morphology concurrent with motion. CASA cannot accurately predict 'fertility' that will be obtained with a semen sample or subject. However, when carefully validated, current CASA systems provide information important for quality assurance of semen planned for marketing, and for the understanding of the diversity of sperm responses to changes in the microenvironment in research. The four take-home messages from this review are: (1) animal species, extender or medium, specimen chamber, intensity of illumination, imaging hardware and software, instrument settings, technician, etc., all affect accuracy and precision of output values; (2) semen production facilities probably do not need a substantially different CASA system whereas biology laboratories would benefit from systems capable of imaging and tracking sperm in deep chambers for a flexible

  11. Development, reliability, and validity of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Interview for Vietnamese refugees: a diagnostic instrument for Vietnamese refugees.

    PubMed

    Dao, Tam K; Poritz, Julia M P; Moody, Rachel P; Szeto, Kim

    2012-08-01

    The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Interview for Vietnamese Refugees (PTSD-IVR) was created specifically to assess for the presence of current and lifetime history of premigration, migration, encampment, and postmigration traumas in Vietnamese refugees. The purpose of the present study was to describe the development of and investigate the interrater and test-retest reliability of the PTSD-IVR and its validity in relation to the diagnoses obtained from the Longitudinal, Expert, and All Data (LEAD; Spitzer, 1983) standard. Clinicians conducted the diagnosis process with 127 Vietnamese refugees using the LEAD standard and the PTSD-IVR. Assessment of the reliability and validity of the PTSD-IVR yielded good to excellent AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve; .86, .87) and κ values (.66, .74) indicating the reliability of the PTSD-IVR and the agreement between the LEAD procedure and the PTSD-IVR. The results of the present study suggest that the PTSD-IVR performs successfully as a diagnostic instrument specifically created for Vietnamese refugees in their native language.

  12. Errors and Intelligence in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Parsers and Pedagogues. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This book provides the first comprehensive overview of theoretical issues, historical developments and current trends in ICALL (Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning). It assumes a basic familiarity with Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory and teaching, CALL and linguistics. It is of interest to upper undergraduate and/or graduate…

  13. Errors and Intelligence in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Parsers and Pedagogues. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This book provides the first comprehensive overview of theoretical issues, historical developments and current trends in ICALL (Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning). It assumes a basic familiarity with Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory and teaching, CALL and linguistics. It is of interest to upper undergraduate and/or graduate…

  14. Issues in nursing: strategies for an Internet-based, computer-assisted telephone survey.

    PubMed

    Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Bott, Marjorie J; Taunton, Roma Lee

    2006-08-01

    The study describes the design and implementation of an Internet-based, computed-assisted telephone survey about the care-planning process in 107 long-term care facilities in the Midwest. Two structured telephone surveys were developed to interview the care planning coordinators and their team members. Questionmark Perception Software Version 3 was used to develop the surveys in a wide range of formats. The responses were drawn into a database that was exported to a spreadsheet format and converted to a statistical format by the Information Technology team. Security of the database was protected. Training sessions were provided to project staff. The interviews were tape-recorded for the quality checks. The inter-rater reliabilities were above 95% to 100% agreement. Investigators should consider using Internet-based survey tools, especially for multisite studies that allow access to larger samples at less cost. Exploring multiple software systems for the best fit to the study requirements is essential.

  15. Resection of a physeal bar under computer-assisted guidance.

    PubMed

    Kang, H G; Yoon, S J; Kim, J R

    2010-10-01

    Excision of a physeal bar and filling the space with interposition material may allow resumption of normal growth. Both the extent and the location of the bar and the amount of growth remaining from physis must be determined. Computer-assisted surgery is being used increasingly in various fields of orthopaedics. We describe the management of a patient with premature physeal arrest of the right distal tibia in which resection of a physeal bar was achieved under real-time three-dimensional intra-operative monitoring by computer-assisted navigation. The advantage of this method over other means of imaging is that intra-operative identification can increase the accuracy of resection of the bar.

  16. Computer-Assisted Navigation in High Tibial Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang Jun

    2016-01-01

    Computer-assisted navigation is used to improve the accuracy and precision of correction angles during high tibial osteotomy. Most studies have reported that this technique reduces the outliers of coronal alignment and unintended changes in the tibial posterior slope angle. However, more sophisticated studies are necessary to determine whether the technique will improve the clinical results and long-term survival rates. Knowledge of the navigation technology, surgical techniques and potential pitfalls, the clinical results of previous studies, and understanding of the advantages and limitations of the computer-assisted navigation are crucial to successful application of this new technique in high tibial osteotomy. Herein, we review the evidence concerning this technique from previous studies. PMID:27904715

  17. Triploidy in rainbow trout determined by computer-assisted analysis.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Emilio; Josa, Agustín; Gil, Lidia; Martí, José Ignacio

    2005-11-01

    This study was designed to assess the use of a computer-assisted system based on erythrocyte measurements as a possible alternative to flow cytometry for identifying triploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Blood smears were prepared from 26 triploid and 26 diploid specimens, as determined by flow cytometry after staining blood cells with propidium iodide. The cell and nucleus lengths of 10 erythrocytes were determined in each fish. This was followed by discriminatory analysis to distinguish between diploids and triploids based on their score profiles. Triploid trout showed significantly larger erythrocyte cell and nucleus measurements than their diploid counterparts (N=52; P<0.0001). Erythrocyte length correctly identified 100% of the fish specimens as diploid or triploid, while nucleus length was a less accurate predictor of the level of ploidy. Our findings validate the potential use of computer-assisted analysis for this purpose.

  18. Stress intensity estimates by a computer assisted photoelastic method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    Following an introductory history, the frozen stress photoelastic method is reviewed together with analytical and experimental aspects of cracks in photoelastic models. Analytical foundations are then presented upon which a computer assisted frozen stress photoelastic technique is based for extracting estimates of stress intensity factors from three-dimensional cracked body problems. The use of the method is demonstrated for two currently important three-dimensional crack problems.

  19. Challenges of technology integration and computer-assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Rivkin, Gurion; Liebergall, Meir

    2009-02-01

    The rapid progress of modern computerized capabilities has not been paralleled by a similar progress in the operating room setting and in operating techniques. The major advance in orthopaedic surgery during the past fifty years has been the introduction of intraoperative fluoroscopic imaging, while surgical techniques have remained mostly unchanged. Orthopaedic procedures dealing with bones--a nondeformable tissue--are suitable for computerized guidance based on preoperatively and intraoperatively obtained images. Computer-assisted surgery progressed from the first-generation systems of the 1990 s to the present third-generation systems, enabling surgeons to implant a knee or hip prosthesis with high precision. However, most orthopaedic surgeons avoid using computer-navigation surgical techniques. Why has the implementation of computer-assisted surgery procedures met so many hurdles and obstacles? The factors that make up the answer to this question can be grouped into three categories: human, technological, and financial. Computer-assisted surgery has the potential to revolutionize orthopaedic surgery just as fluoroscopy did a few decades ago; however, its widespread use has been hampered by a lack of sufficient clinical data on the one hand and by a reluctance to use the technique and thereby collect and share data on the other. The challenge is to overcome the human, technological, and financial hurdles. Once these obstacles are addressed, we believe that computer-assisted surgery will set a new standard of care. Until that time, some will be willing to lead the revolution and pay the price of progress, and others will be reluctant to take part in this endeavor.

  20. [Computer-assisted surgery. The proposal of a surgical classification].

    PubMed

    Mosso-Vázquez, José Luis

    2003-01-01

    I present a proposal for a surgical classification in computer assisted surgery (CAS), with a surgical point of view to facilitate understanding and physicians, scientists, for and engineer to be able to communicate. I considered the system's participation into the CAS definition. In this classification, I find: simulated surgery, guided surgery, assisted surgery telepresence surgery, and semi-automated surgery. I describe the systems for each.

  1. The Improvement and Individualization of Computer-Assisted Instruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-15

    9^30$ M, CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS Personnel & Training Research Programs Office of Naval Research (Code U58) Arlington, VA 22217...computer-assisted Instruction (CAI), Instruction control strategy, Instructional theory, optimized learning, tutorial CAE, second-lp.nguage vocabulary...StUdleS ln the Socl01 Scle "MS Stanford, California 91+305 (1+15) 1497-1*11? Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. . Reproduction in

  2. A novel mechatronic tool for computer-assisted arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dario, P; Carrozza, M C; Marcacci, M; D'Attanasio, S; Magnami, B; Tonet, O; Megali, G

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes a novel mechatronic tool for arthroscopy, which is at the same time a smart tool for traditional arthroscopy and the main component of a system for computer-assisted arthroscopy. The mechatronic arthroscope has a cable-actuated servomotor-driven multi-joint mechanical structure, is equipped with a position sensor measuring the orientation of the tip and with a force sensor detecting possible contact with delicate tissues in the knee, and incorporates an embedded microcontroller for sensor signal processing, motor driving and interfacing with the surgeon and/or the system control unit. When used manually, the mechatronic arthroscope enhances the surgeon's capabilities by enabling him/her to easily control tip motion and to prevent undesired contacts. When the tool is integrated in a complete system for computer-assisted arthroscopy, the trajectory of the arthroscope is reconstructed in real time by an optical tracking system using infrared emitters located in the handle, providing advantages in terms of improved intervention accuracy. The computer-assisted arthroscopy system comprises an image processing module for segmentation and three-dimensional reconstruction of preoperative computer tomography or magnetic resonance images, a registration module for measuring the position of the knee joint, tracking the trajectory of the operating tools, and matching preoperative and intra-operative images, and a human-machine interface that displays the enhanced reality scenario and data from the mechatronic arthroscope in a friendly and intuitive manner. By integrating preoperative and intra-operative images and information provided by the mechatronic arthroscope, the system allows virtual navigation in the knee joint during the planning phase and computer guidance by augmented reality during the intervention. This paper describes in detail the characteristics of the mechatronic arthroscope and of the system for computer-assisted arthroscopy and discusses

  3. Computer Assisted Diagnosis of Chest Pain. Adjunctive Treatment Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-30

    public release; distribution unlimited SUMMARY PAGE THE PROBLEM To provide a manual of treatment protocols for use with the computer assisted...of chest pain project, a chest pain treatment manual has been formulated. It is anticipated that this manual will be used by the Independent...response to re-breathing techniques are diagnostic. The lung exam is normal. In psychoneurotic disorders, no physical etiology for chest pain is found

  4. Computer-assisted TKA: greater precision, doubtful clinical efficacy: opposes.

    PubMed

    Mullaji, Arun; Shetty, Gautam M

    2009-09-01

    Despite improved precision of component placement and consistent and accurate restoration of neutral limb alignment, controversy persists regarding the clinical benefits of computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Computer-assisted TKA provides excellent information regarding gap equality and symmetry throughout the knee range of motion and allows precise, quantitative soft tissue release for deformities, especially in knees with severe flexion contractures and severe rigid valgus deformities. Hence accurate restoration of gap balance, joint line, and posterior femoral offset consequently improves functional results. Knee arthritis with complex extra-articular deformities and in situ hardware can be tackled appropriately using computer navigation where conventional techniques may be inadequate. It also allows intra-articular correction for extra-articular deformities due to malunions and facilitates extra-articular correction in cases with severe extra-articular tibial deformities. In obese patients, where the alignment of the limb is difficult to assess, computer navigation improves accuracy and reduces the number of outliers. The ability to quantify the precise amount of bone cuts and soft tissue releases needed to equalize gaps and restore alignment, reduced blood loss, and incidence of systemic emboli improves the safety of the procedure and hastens functional recovery of the patient. Hence, computer-assisted TKA not only provides greater precision, but also greater clinical benefit.

  5. The Evolution of Instructional Design Principles for Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Christopher; Swigger, Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    Discusses and compares the design and development of computer assisted instruction (CAI) and intelligent computer assisted instruction (ICAI). Topics discussed include instructional systems design (ISD), artificial intelligence, authoring languages, intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), qualitative models, and emerging issues in instructional…

  6. Teachers' Perceptions of the Use of Computer Assisted Language Learning to Develop Children's Reading Skills in English as a Second Language in the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Awidi, Hamed Mubarak; Ismail, Sadiq Abdulwahed

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated ESL teachers' perceptions regarding the use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in teaching reading to children. A random sample of 145 teachers participated in the study by completing a survey developed by the researchers. To explore the situation in depth, 16 teachers were later interviewed. Results indicated…

  7. Can You Do What I Do? A Case Study of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Adults Participating in an Adult Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, Monica A.

    2001-01-01

    Interviews and observations of four adult literacy students elicited their experiences with computers and effects of computer use on learning. They found computer-assisted learning challenging and motivating; it enabled them to control their learning experience. However, they may not have access outside the classroom that would enable future…

  8. Teachers' Perceptions of the Use of Computer Assisted Language Learning to Develop Children's Reading Skills in English as a Second Language in the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Awidi, Hamed Mubarak; Ismail, Sadiq Abdulwahed

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated ESL teachers' perceptions regarding the use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in teaching reading to children. A random sample of 145 teachers participated in the study by completing a survey developed by the researchers. To explore the situation in depth, 16 teachers were later interviewed. Results indicated…

  9. Barriers to the Use of Computer Assistive Technology among Students with Visual Impairment in Ghana: The Case of Akropong School for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampratwum, Joseph; Offei, Yaw Nyadu; Ntoaduro, Afua

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at exploring barriers to the use of computer assistive technology among students with visual impairment at Akropong School for the Blind. A case study design was adopted and the purposive sampling technique used to select 35 participants for the study. The researchers gathered qualitative data using an in-depth interview guide to…

  10. A computer-assisted data collection system for use in a multicenter study of American Indians and Alaska Natives: SCAPES.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Roger L; Edwards, Sandra L; Bryner, James; Cunningham, Kelly; Rogers, Amy; Slattery, Martha L

    2008-04-01

    We describe a computer-assisted data collection system developed for a multicenter cohort study of American Indian and Alaska Native people. The study computer-assisted participant evaluation system or SCAPES is built around a central database server that controls a small private network with touch screen workstations. SCAPES encompasses the self-administered questionnaires, the keyboard-based stations for interviewer-administered questionnaires, a system for inputting medical measurements, and administrative tasks such as data exporting, backup and management. Elements of SCAPES hardware/network design, data storage, programming language, software choices, questionnaire programming including the programming of questionnaires administered using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI), and participant identification/data security system are presented. Unique features of SCAPES are that data are promptly made available to participants in the form of health feedback; data can be quickly summarized for tribes for health monitoring and planning at the community level; and data are available to study investigators for analyses and scientific evaluation.

  11. Design Principles for Computer-Assisted Instruction in Histology Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan; Cakir, Hasan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development process and the key components of a computer-assisted histology material. Computer-assisted histology material is designed to supplement traditional histology education in a large Midwestern university. Usability information of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) material was obtained…

  12. ICCE/ICCAI 2000 Full & Short Papers (Computer-Assisted Language Learning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains the following full and short papers on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction): (1) "A Computer-Assisted English Abstract Words Learning Environment on the Web" (Wenli Tsou and…

  13. Design Principles for Computer-Assisted Instruction in Histology Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan; Cakir, Hasan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development process and the key components of a computer-assisted histology material. Computer-assisted histology material is designed to supplement traditional histology education in a large Midwestern university. Usability information of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) material was obtained…

  14. Development and in vitro testing of a miniature robotic system for computer-assisted colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Dario, P; Carrozza, M C; Pietrabissa, A

    1999-01-01

    In this article we present a new concept for computer-assisted colonoscopy based on a miniature robot capable of propelling itself semiautonomously along the colon. The miniature robot is designed to perform the same functions as current colonoscopy systems-i.e., visualization and tissue sampling for biopsy-and exploits an innovative inchworm-like locomotion principle based on adhering to the colon wall by vacuum suction. The miniature robot is connected by a thin and flexible umbilical cable to an external control unit; this unit provides pneumatic actuation signals in the appropriate sequence to the miniature robot, and information on the robot's functioning to the endoscopist, who can either teleoperate or directly supervise its operation. A prototype colonoscopy system using this robot has been fabricated and tested in vitro, with promising results. The proposed concept has strong potential for further development, since miniaturization and functional integration of instrumentation and tools, together with computer assistance, not only make colonoscopy more acceptable, but can also open up a wide range of new applications in endoluminal diagnosis, therapy, and surgery.

  15. Is the Scale for Measuring Motivational Interviewing Skills a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the primary care professionals motivational skills?: EVEM study protocol.

    PubMed

    Pérula, Luis Á; Campiñez, Manuel; Bosch, Josep M; Barragán Brun, Nieves; Arboniés, Juan C; Bóveda Fontán, Julia; Martín Alvarez, Remedios; Prados, Jose A; Martín-Rioboó, Enrique; Massons, Josep; Criado, Margarita; Fernández, José Á; Parras, Juan M; Ruiz-Moral, Roger; Novo, Jesús M

    2012-11-22

    Lifestyle is one of the main determinants of people's health. It is essential to find the most effective prevention strategies to be used to encourage behavioral changes in their patients. Many theories are available that explain change or adherence to specific health behaviors in subjects. In this sense the named Motivational Interviewing has increasingly gained relevance. Few well-validated instruments are available for measuring doctors' communication skills, and more specifically the Motivational Interviewing. The hypothesis of this study is that the Scale for Measuring Motivational Interviewing Skills (EVEM questionnaire) is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the primary care professionals skills to get behavior change in patients. To test the hypothesis we have designed a prospective, observational, multi-center study to validate a measuring instrument. - Thirty-two primary care centers in Spain. -Sampling and Size: a) face and consensual validity: A group composed of 15 experts in Motivational Interviewing. b) Assessment of the psychometric properties of the scale; 50 physician- patient encounters will be videoed; a total of 162 interviews will be conducted with six standardized patients, and another 200 interviews will be conducted with 50 real patients (n=362). Four physicians will be specially trained to assess 30 interviews randomly selected to test the scale reproducibility. -Measurements for to test the hypothesis: a) Face validity: development of a draft questionnaire based on a theoretical model, by using Delphi-type methodology with experts. b) Scale psychometric properties: intraobservers will evaluate video recorded interviews: content-scalability validity (Exploratory Factor Analysis), internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), intra-/inter-observer reliability (Kappa index, intraclass correlation coefficient, Bland & Altman methodology), generalizability, construct validity and sensitivity to change (Pearson product-moment correlation

  16. Is the Scale for Measuring Motivational Interviewing Skills a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the primary care professionals motivational skills?: EVEM study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lifestyle is one of the main determinants of people’s health. It is essential to find the most effective prevention strategies to be used to encourage behavioral changes in their patients. Many theories are available that explain change or adherence to specific health behaviors in subjects. In this sense the named Motivational Interviewing has increasingly gained relevance. Few well-validated instruments are available for measuring doctors’ communication skills, and more specifically the Motivational Interviewing. Methods/Design The hypothesis of this study is that the Scale for Measuring Motivational Interviewing Skills (EVEM questionnaire) is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the primary care professionals skills to get behavior change in patients. To test the hypothesis we have designed a prospective, observational, multi-center study to validate a measuring instrument. –Scope: Thirty-two primary care centers in Spain. -Sampling and Size: a) face and consensual validity: A group composed of 15 experts in Motivational Interviewing. b) Assessment of the psychometric properties of the scale; 50 physician- patient encounters will be videoed; a total of 162 interviews will be conducted with six standardized patients, and another 200 interviews will be conducted with 50 real patients (n=362). Four physicians will be specially trained to assess 30 interviews randomly selected to test the scale reproducibility. -Measurements for to test the hypothesis: a) Face validity: development of a draft questionnaire based on a theoretical model, by using Delphi-type methodology with experts. b) Scale psychometric properties: intraobservers will evaluate video recorded interviews: content-scalability validity (Exploratory Factor Analysis), internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), intra-/inter-observer reliability (Kappa index, intraclass correlation coefficient, Bland & Altman methodology), generalizability, construct validity and sensitivity to change

  17. Computer-assisted, fluoroscopy-based ventral spondylodesis of thoracolumbar fractures.

    PubMed

    Zheng, G; Maier, B; Ploss, C; Marzi, I; Nolte, L-P

    2006-01-01

    To design and evaluate a novel computer-assisted, fluoroscopy-based planning and navigation system for minimally invasive ventral spondylodesis of thoracolumbar fractures. Instruments and an image intensifier are tracked with the SurgiGATE navigation system (Praxim-Medivision). Two fluoroscopic images, one acquired from anterior-posterior (AP) direction and the other from lateral-medial (LM) direction, are used for the complete procedure of planning and navigation. Both of them are calibrated with a custom-made software to recover their projection geometry and to co-register them to a common patient reference coordinate system, which is established by attaching an opto-electronically trackable dynamic reference base (DRB) on the operated vertebra. A bi-planar landmark reconstruction method is used to acquire deep-seated anatomical landmarks such that an intraoperative planning of graft bed can be interactively done. Finally, surgical actions such as the placement of the stabilization devices and the formation of the graft bed using a custom-made chisel are visualized to the surgeon by superimposing virtual instrument representations onto the acquired images. The distance between the instrument tip and each wall of the planned graft bed are calculated on the fly and presented to the surgeon so that the surgeon could formalize the graft bed exactly according to his/her plan. Laboratory studies on phantom and on 27 plastic vertebras demonstrate the high precision of the proposed navigation system. Compared with CT-based measurement, a mean error of 1.0 mm with a standard deviation of 0.1 mm was found. The proposed computer assisted, fluoroscopy-based planning and navigation system promises to increase the accuracy and reliability of minimally invasive ventral spondylodesis of thoracolumbar fractures.

  18. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Three Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems on College Students' Career Decision Making Processes: Technical Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Gary W.; And Others

    The Computer-Assisted Career Guidance (CACG) Evaluation Form was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of CACG systems in performing three vital functions in career decision-making. This instrument was subsequently used to compare the effectiveness of DISCOVER, System of Interactive Guidance and Information (SIGI), and SIGI PLUS using 132…

  19. Computer assisted learning: a new paradigm in dental education.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Wainscott; Darnell, Laura A; Hottel, Timothy L

    2011-01-01

    Computer assisted simulation is an important teaching modality in the preclinical training of students. In order to maximize the potential of this learning tool, the University of Tennessee's College of Dentistry has successfully incorporated DentSim technology into the restorative curriculum and has recently acquired the technology to make image guided implantology available to students, residents and faculty. This article describes the university's history and experience with simulation as a learning tool. The purpose of this article is to provide information to other educational institutions on the use of virtual reality simulation in the classroom.

  20. Computer-assisted design of flux-cored wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubtsov, Yu N.; Zorin, I. V.; Sokolov, G. N.; Antonov, A. A.; Artem'ev, A. A.; Lysak, V. I.

    2017-02-01

    The algorithm and description of the AlMe-WireLaB software for the computer-assisted design of flux-cored wires are introduced. The software functionality is illustrated with the selection of the components for the flux-cored wire, ensuring the acquisition of the deposited metal of the Fe-Cr-C-Mo-Ni-Ti-B system. It is demonstrated that the developed software enables the technologically reliable flux-cored wire to be designed for surfacing, resulting in a metal of an ordered composition.

  1. Computer-assisted cataloging: experiences at the UCLA Biomedical Library.

    PubMed Central

    Traister, R C

    1975-01-01

    The computer-assisted procedures developed in the UCLA Biomedical Library Cataloging Division have been in effect for approximately three years. The system utilizes a Delta Data System cathode ray tube terminal and cassette attachment for on or off-line input of data. Products of the system include catalog card sets arranged in filing order, a monthly Recent Acquisitions List, and computer-generated book catalogs. Planning, personnel, and equipment requirements are discussed, and preliminary cost figures for various parts of the system are given. Potential applications of the automated system on a regional level and in terms of the library's future automation plans are considered. PMID:1148443

  2. Vision-based augmented reality computer assisted surgery navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei; Chen, Xin; Xu, Kebin; Li, Xin; Xu, Wei

    2007-12-01

    A vision-based Augmented Reality computer assisted surgery navigation system is presented in this paper. It applies the Augmented Reality technique to surgery navigation system, so the surgeon's vision of the real world is enhanced. In the system, the camera calibration is adopted to calculate the cameras projection matrix, and then make the virtual-real registration by using the transformation relation. The merging of synthetic 3D information into user's vision is realized by texture technique. The experiment results demonstrate the feasibility of the system we have designed.

  3. Computer-Assisted Management of the Hospital Clinical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, Glen L.; Miller, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    Computer systems in hospital clinical laboratories historically have been used largely to manage medically-oriented patient data, particularly laboratory test requests and results. At The Johns Hopkins Hospital, effort has been devoted to the development of computer-assisted laboratory management applications in addition to routine medical data processing. This paper describes these development efforts in four areas: Workload Measurement and Reporting, Measurement of Personnel Productivity, Control of Expenses, and Laboratory Performance Measurement. Sample reports from each management subsystem are included, along with a discussion of the purpose and benefits of each application.

  4. Computer Assisted Learning in Geographical Education. Papers Presented at an International Conference on Computer Assisted Learning in Geographical Education (13th, London, England, April 10, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Norman J., Ed.

    Containing papers presented at a multinational conference, this document examines the development of computer assisted learning (CAL) in geography, and describes program and curriculum development, teacher education, and experiences and problems of countries using CAL. Specific papers include: "Computer Assisted Learning in Geographical Education…

  5. Historical review of computer-assisted cognitive retraining.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Bill

    2002-10-01

    This article details the introduction and development of the use of microcomputers as adjuncts to traditional cognitive rehabilitation of persons with acquired brain injury. The initial application of video games as therapeutic recreation in the late 1970s was soon followed in the early 1980s by the use of the first personal computers and available educational software. By the mid-1980s, both the IBM PC and Macintosh platforms were established, along with simplified programming languages that allowed individuals without extensive technical expertise to develop their own software. Several rehabilitation clinicians began to produce and market specially written cognitive retraining software for one or the other platform. Their work was detailed and reviewed, as was recently released software from commercial sources. The latter discussion included the latest developments in the rehabilitation applications of personal digital assistants and related organizing, reminding, and dictation devices. A summary of research on the general and specific efficacy of computer-assisted cognitive retraining illustrated the lingering controversy and skepticism that have been associated with this field since its inception. Computer-assisted cognitive retraining (CACR) can be an effective adjunct to a comprehensive program of cognitive rehabilitation. Training needs to be focused, structured, monitored, and as ecologically relevant as possible for optimum effect. Transfer or training or generalizability of skills remains a key issue in the field and should be considered the key criterion in evaluating whether to initiate or continue CACR.

  6. An artificial intelligence system for computer-assisted menu planning.

    PubMed

    Petot, G J; Marling, C; Sterling, L

    1998-09-01

    Planning nutritious and appetizing menus is a complex task that researchers have tried to computerize since the early 1960s. We have attempted to facilitate computer-assisted menu planning by modeling the reasoning an expert dietitian uses to plan menus. Two independent expert systems were built, each designed to plan a daily menu meeting the nutrition needs and personal preferences of an individual client. One system modeled rule-based, or logical, reasoning, whereas the other modeled case-based, or experiential, reasoning. The 2 systems were evaluated and their strengths and weaknesses identified. A hybrid system was built, combining the best of both systems. The hybrid system represents an important step forward because it plans daily menus in accordance with a person's needs and preferences; the Reference Daily Intakes; the Dietary Guidelines for Americans; and accepted aesthetic standards for color, texture, temperature, taste, and variety. Additional work to expand the system's scope and to enhance the user interface will be needed to make it a practical tool. Our system framework could be applied to special-purpose menu planning for patients in medical settings or adapted for institutional use. We conclude that an artificial intelligence approach has practical use for computer-assisted menu planning.

  7. Foreign accent conversion in computer assisted pronunciation training.

    PubMed

    Felps, Daniel; Bortfeld, Heather; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2009-10-01

    Learners of a second language practice their pronunciation by listening to and imitating utterances from native speakers. Recent research has shown that choosing a well-matched native speaker to imitate can have a positive impact on pronunciation training. Here we propose a voice-transformation technique that can be used to generate the (arguably) ideal voice to imitate: the own voice of the learner with a native accent. Our work extends previous research, which suggests that providing learners with prosodically corrected versions of their utterances can be a suitable form of feedback in computer assisted pronunciation training. Our technique provides a conversion of both prosodic and segmental characteristics by means of a pitch-synchronous decomposition of speech into glottal excitation and spectral envelope. We apply the technique to a corpus containing parallel recordings of foreign-accented and native-accented utterances, and validate the resulting accent conversions through a series of perceptual experiments. Our results indicate that the technique can reduce foreign accentedness without significantly altering the voice quality properties of the foreign speaker. Finally, we propose a pedagogical strategy for integrating accent conversion as a form of behavioral shaping in computer assisted pronunciation training.

  8. Modeling the behavior of the computer-assisted instruction user

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    The field of computer-assisted instruction CAI contains abundant studies on effectiveness of particular programs or systems. However, the nature of the field is such that the computer is the focus of research, not the users. Few research studies have focused on the behavior of the individual CAI user. Morgan (1981) stated that descriptive studies are needed to clarify what the important phenomena of user behavior are. The need for such studies is particularly acute in computer-assisted instruction. Building a behavioral model would enable us to understand problem-solving strategies and rules applied by the user during a CAI experience. Also, courseware developers could use this information to design tutoring systems that are more responsive to individual differences than our present CAI is. This paper proposes a naturalistic model for evaluating both affective and cognitive characteristics of the CAI user. It begins with a discussion of features of user behavior, followed by a description of evaluation methodology that can lead to modeling user behavior. The paper concludes with a discussion of how implementation of this model can contribute to the fields of CAI and cognitive psychology.

  9. Foreign accent conversion in computer assisted pronunciation training

    PubMed Central

    Felps, Daniel; Bortfeld, Heather; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Learners of a second language practice their pronunciation by listening to and imitating utterances from native speakers. Recent research has shown that choosing a well-matched native speaker to imitate can have a positive impact on pronunciation training. Here we propose a voice-transformation technique that can be used to generate the (arguably) ideal voice to imitate: the own voice of the learner with a native accent. Our work extends previous research, which suggests that providing learners with prosodically corrected versions of their utterances can be a suitable form of feedback in computer assisted pronunciation training. Our technique provides a conversion of both prosodic and segmental characteristics by means of a pitch-synchronous decomposition of speech into glottal excitation and spectral envelope. We apply the technique to a corpus containing parallel recordings of foreign-accented and native-accented utterances, and validate the resulting accent conversions through a series of perceptual experiments. Our results indicate that the technique can reduce foreign accentedness without significantly altering the voice quality properties of the foreign speaker. Finally, we propose a pedagogical strategy for integrating accent conversion as a form of behavioral shaping in computer assisted pronunciation training. PMID:21124807

  10. General purpose computer-assisted clustering and conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Grimmer, Justin; King, Gary

    2011-01-01

    We develop a computer-assisted method for the discovery of insightful conceptualizations, in the form of clusterings (i.e., partitions) of input objects. Each of the numerous fully automated methods of cluster analysis proposed in statistics, computer science, and biology optimize a different objective function. Almost all are well defined, but how to determine before the fact which one, if any, will partition a given set of objects in an “insightful” or “useful” way for a given user is unknown and difficult, if not logically impossible. We develop a metric space of partitions from all existing cluster analysis methods applied to a given dataset (along with millions of other solutions we add based on combinations of existing clusterings) and enable a user to explore and interact with it and quickly reveal or prompt useful or insightful conceptualizations. In addition, although it is uncommon to do so in unsupervised learning problems, we offer and implement evaluation designs that make our computer-assisted approach vulnerable to being proven suboptimal in specific data types. We demonstrate that our approach facilitates more efficient and insightful discovery of useful information than expert human coders or many existing fully automated methods. PMID:21292983

  11. Automated image interpretation and computer-assisted diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Foran, David J; Chen, Wenjin; Yang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Much of the difficulty in reaching consistent evaluations of radiology and pathology imaging studies arises from subjective impressions of individual observers. Developing strategies that can reliably transform complex visual observations into well-defined algorithmic procedures is an active area of exploration which can advance clinical practice, investigative research and outcome studies. The literature shows that when characterizations are based upon computer-aided analysis, objectivity, reproducibility and sensitivity improve considerably. Advanced imaging and computational tools could potentially enable investigators to detect and track subtle changes in measurable parameters leading to the discovery of novel diagnostic and prognostic clues which are not apparent by human visual inspection alone. The overarching objective of this book chapter is to provide readers with a summary of the origin, evolution and future directions for the fields of automated image interpretation and computer-assisted diagnostics. The chapter begins with a high-level overview of the fields of image processing, pattern recognition, and computer vision followed by a description of how these disciplines relate to the more comprehensive fields of computer-assisted diagnostics and image guided decision support. Throughout the remainder of the chapter we have supplied multiple illustrative examples demonstrating how recent advances and innovations in each of these areas have impacted clinical and research activities throughout pathology and radiology including high-throughput tissue microarray analysis, multi-spectral imaging, and image co-registration.

  12. A computer-assisted, interactive radiology learning program.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, H I; Fell, S; Myers, H J; Taylor, R C

    1990-08-01

    A computer-assisted adjunct to traditional radiology teaching files is described. The student is presented with an image and questions with multiple choice answers. The student's choice leads to additional presentations that reinforce correct responses and provide a critique of incorrect answers. The process is under the control of a teaching script. Requirements for the system included the ability to present high-resolution radiology images along with text; high capacity for storing teaching scripts and images; ease of use by students and authors of teaching scripts; and reasonable cost. A prototype program was written in C-language and run on an IBM PS/2 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) with DOS. The hardware also included a 30 megabyte disk drive, an IBM Image Adapter/A and a 14 inch IBM 8514 monitor operating at a 1024 X 768 X 8 bit resolution. Image acquisition was accomplished with a high resolution Pulnix video camera (Pulnix Corp., Tokyo, Japan), with an Imaging Technology (Imaging Technology Corp., Weston, MA) frame grabber, attached to an IBM PC/AT. All hardware is available commercially. A sample teaching file was constructed using a case of ischemic colon after a cecal volvulus. Students used the system and provided a critique. Results indicate that computer-assisted teaching programs can be a valuable addition to traditional teaching methods in radiology.

  13. Computer assisted learning is an effective way of teaching endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Holt, R I; Miklaszewicz, P; Cranston, I C; Russell-Jones, D; Rees, P J; Sönksen, P H

    2001-10-01

    Computers are a part of everyday life and offer an exciting way of learning. The aim of our study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching undergraduate endocrinology using a Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) programme. One hundred and eighty-five first year clinical medical students were randomly assigned either to attend a series of conventional lectures (n = 77) or to have the same material available through a CAL programme. A multiple choice question examination was performed before and after the course. Lecture attendance and individual usage of the computer system were recorded. Students were asked to fill in an evaluation form at the end of the study. There was no significant difference in the first examination scores between the groups. Both groups improved their scores after the course. Students spent longer performing CAL than attending lectures. Those who scored lowest in the first examination spent the most time on the CAL course. Those who spent the most time on the CAL course showed the largest improvement in examination score. Thirty-six out of the 42 students, who completed an evaluation of the CAL programme, rated it better than the standard lectures. Computer assisted learning is an effective way of increasing knowledge in teaching undergraduate endocrinology. The course was easy to run and was valued more highly than conventional lectures. The module is now running routinely in the year 3 clinical firms at St Thomas' and has resulted in an increase in knowledge in the end of firm assessment.

  14. Imageless computer-assisted versus conventional total hip arthroplasty: one surgeon's initial experience.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew L; Reed, Jeffrey D; Drinkwater, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) systems are advocated to improve component positioning in THA, though potential operative risks and costs of CAS have fueled debate. The present study examines the radiographic outcomes, operative efficiency, cost, and midterm functional outcomes for patients who underwent THA, either with CAS or conventional instrumentation. Patient baseline characteristics were recorded for 126 lower-extremities in the CAS series, and 215 in the conventional series. There was no difference in Harris Hip Score or leg length discrepancy between series. Inclination angle, blood loss, and operating room times were increased for CAS. These results suggest that CAS confers no advantage over conventional methods regarding accuracy of THA component placement, drives unreimbursed increases in procedure costs, may expose patients to additional operative risk, and produces no functional benefit at midterm follow-up. © 2014.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTER ASSISTED PERSONAL INTERVIEW SOFTWARE SYSTEM FOR COLLECTION OF TRIBAL FISH CONSUMPTION DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Native Americans who consume seafood often have higher seafood consumption rates and consequently greater exposures to contaminants in seafood than the general U.S. population. Defensible and quantifiable tribal seafood consumption rates are needed for development of ...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTER ASSISTED PERSONAL INTERVIEW SOFTWARE SYSTEM FOR COLLECTION OF TRIBAL FISH CONSUMPTION DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Native Americans who consume seafood often have higher seafood consumption rates and consequently greater exposures to contaminants in seafood than the general U.S. population. Defensible and quantifiable tribal seafood consumption rates are needed for development of ...

  17. Contextual Clues in Semi-Direct Interviews for Computer Assisted Language Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Language testing is a relatively new field of interest that has become of common interest in the last twenty years not only for traditional purposes but because of the power that language testing has acquired in relation to immigration and also for its implications for educational reforms. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical…

  18. Focus on Methodology: Beyond paper and pencil: Conducting computer-assisted data collection with adolescents in group settings.

    PubMed

    Raffaelli, Marcela; Armstrong, Jessica; Tran, Steve P; Griffith, Aisha N; Walker, Kathrin; Gutierrez, Vanessa

    2016-06-01

    Computer-assisted data collection offers advantages over traditional paper and pencil measures; however, little guidance is available regarding the logistics of conducting computer-assisted data collection with adolescents in group settings. To address this gap, we draw on our experiences conducting a multi-site longitudinal study of adolescent development. Structured questionnaires programmed on laptop computers using Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interviewing (ACASI) were administered to groups of adolescents in community-based and afterschool programs. Although implementing ACASI required additional work before entering the field, we benefited from reduced data processing time, high data quality, and high levels of youth motivation. Preliminary findings from an ethnically diverse sample of 265 youth indicate favorable perceptions of using ACASI. Using our experiences as a case study, we provide recommendations on selecting an appropriate data collection device (including hardware and software), preparing and testing the ACASI, conducting data collection in the field, and managing data. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Variability among Research Diagnostic Interview Instruments in the Application of "DSM-IV-TR" Criteria for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanter, Cathryn A.; Hundt, Stephanie R.; Goyal, Parag; Le, Jenna; Fisher, Prudence W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The "DSM-IV-TR "criteria for a manic episode and bipolar disorder (BD) were developed for adults but are used for children. The manner in which clinicians and researchers interpret these criteria may have contributed to the increase in BD diagnoses given to youth. Research interviews are designed to improve diagnostic reliability and…

  20. Variability among Research Diagnostic Interview Instruments in the Application of "DSM-IV-TR" Criteria for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanter, Cathryn A.; Hundt, Stephanie R.; Goyal, Parag; Le, Jenna; Fisher, Prudence W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The "DSM-IV-TR "criteria for a manic episode and bipolar disorder (BD) were developed for adults but are used for children. The manner in which clinicians and researchers interpret these criteria may have contributed to the increase in BD diagnoses given to youth. Research interviews are designed to improve diagnostic reliability and…

  1. Measuring Knowledge of Natural Selection: A Comparison of the CINS, an Open-Response Instrument, and an Oral Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    2008-01-01

    Growing recognition of the central importance of fostering an in-depth understanding of natural selection has, surprisingly, failed to stimulate work on the development and rigorous evaluation of instruments that measure knowledge of it. We used three different methodological tools, the Conceptual Inventory of Natural Selection (CINS), a modified…

  2. Health Interview Surveys: Towards International Harmonization of Methods and Instruments. WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruin, A., Ed.; And Others

    This book describes the background, discussions, proceedings, and prospects of three consultations held by the Statistics Netherlands office under the aegis of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. The overall goal of the consultations is to facilitate the development of common methods and instruments for health interview…

  3. Measuring coherence of computer-assisted likelihood ratio methods.

    PubMed

    Haraksim, Rudolf; Ramos, Daniel; Meuwly, Didier; Berger, Charles E H

    2015-04-01

    Measuring the performance of forensic evaluation methods that compute likelihood ratios (LRs) is relevant for both the development and the validation of such methods. A framework of performance characteristics categorized as primary and secondary is introduced in this study to help achieve such development and validation. Ground-truth labelled fingerprint data is used to assess the performance of an example likelihood ratio method in terms of those performance characteristics. Discrimination, calibration, and especially the coherence of this LR method are assessed as a function of the quantity and quality of the trace fingerprint specimen. Assessment of the coherence revealed a weakness of the comparison algorithm in the computer-assisted likelihood ratio method used.

  4. A Planning Guide to Computer-Assisted Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Bourque, Michel; Perreault, Robert

    1983-01-01

    The ever lowering prices of microcomputers along with recent developments in display technology justify the exploitation of the computer as a support for public health education and health promotion. Although many experimental efforts are being conducted in this area, the focus has up to now remained on the technologies rather than on application planning, thereby limiting the access to these technologies to workers well versed in computer culture. The present paper analyses some of the implications related to the introduction of hitherto unavailable features in the planning of health promotion efforts. The impact of computer supported possibilities is examined and a model for program-planning is offered. An extension of existing conceptualizations in the field of health education, the model is designed as a tool to facilitate integration of computer-assisted media within the health planner's conceptual reach. A study presently being conducted by the authors is used as an operational illustration of how the model works.

  5. Cartographic Modeling: Computer-assisted Analysis of Spatially Defined Neighborhoods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, J. K.; Tomlin, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Cartographic models addressing a wide variety of applications are composed of fundamental map processing operations. These primitive operations are neither data base nor application-specific. By organizing the set of operations into a mathematical-like structure, the basis for a generalized cartographic modeling framework can be developed. Among the major classes of primitive operations are those associated with reclassifying map categories, overlaying maps, determining distance and connectivity, and characterizing cartographic neighborhoods. The conceptual framework of cartographic modeling is established and techniques for characterizing neighborhoods are used as a means of demonstrating some of the more sophisticated procedures of computer-assisted map analysis. A cartographic model for assessing effective roundwood supply is briefly described as an example of a computer analysis. Most of the techniques described have been implemented as part of the map analysis package developed at the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.

  6. A computer assisted teleoperator control station with tactile feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. W.; Bliss, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    A computer-assisted teleoperator control system for making comparative performance evaluations is described. A local and a remote control station, each with decision-making capability, communicate with each other through a simulated time delay. Supervisory control at three increasingly automatic levels is possible. The highest level of programmed control is facilitated through the ARM language which was developed to permit easily readable program manuscripts to be written and assembled into programs of motions by novice programmers. Experimental results show the advantage of this form of supervisory control with both direct and delayed (3 sec) manipulation tasks. In addition, two systems to measure and reproduce force distributions have been designed. One system reproduces contact on the external surfaces of the remote hand using 21 airjet simulators. Another system reproduces the shape of the contact between object and jaws using 288 piezoelectric (bimorph) stimulators.

  7. Terrain analysis database generation through computer-assisted photo interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, D. L.

    1983-04-01

    The creation of digital terrain analysis databases through on-line photo interpretation has been the focus of computer-assisted photo interpretation research (CAPIR) at USAETL. An APPS IV analytical plotter equipped with stereo superposition linked to a minicomputer is used for photo interpretation and digitizing. Digital data is input in arc/node format with attributes and the points are stored in three dimensions; latitude, longitude, and elevation. To demonstrate these capabilities, high-altitude infrared photography of the Fort Belvoir, Virginia, area was used for photo interpretation and digitization, supplemented by large-scale photography and field data. Landforms, surface drainage, soils, and vegetation were individually interpreted and digitized. Digital elevations, measured from stereo imagery, were used to produce contour and slope overlays. The resultant digital database was readily accessed and used as a basis for analysis and modeling. This paper briefly describes the hardware, software and methods used to generate a digital terrain analysis database.

  8. Computer-Assisted Detection of Infectious Lung Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Ulas; Bray, Mike; Caban, Jesus; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections are a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although radiology serves as a primary diagnostic method for assessing respiratory tract infections, visual analysis of chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans is restricted by low specificity for causal infectious organisms and a limited capacity to assess severity and predict patient outcomes. These limitations suggest that computer-assisted detection (CAD) could make a valuable contribution to the management of respiratory tract infections by assisting in the early recognition of pulmonary parenchymal lesions, providing quantitative measures of disease severity and assessing the response to therapy. In this paper, we review the most common radiographic and CT features of respiratory tract infections, discuss the challenges of defining and measuring these disorders with CAD, and propose some strategies to address these challenges. PMID:21723090

  9. Texture-based computer-assisted diagnosis for fiberscopic images.

    PubMed

    Munzenmayer, Christian; Winter, Christian; Rupp, Stephan; Kage, Andreas; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Flexible endoscopes based on fiber bundles are still widely used despite the recent success of so-called tipchip endoscopes. This is partly due to the costs and that for extremely thin diameters (below 3 mm) there are still only fiberscopes available. Due to the inevitable artifacts caused by the transition from the fiber bundles to the sensor chip, image and texture analysis algorithms are severely handicapped. Therefore, texture-based computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) systems could not be used in such domains without image preprocessing. We describe a CAD system approach that includes an image filtering algorithm to remove the fiber image artifacts first and then applies conventional color texture algorithms that have been applied to other endoscopic disciplines in the past. The concept is evaluated on an image database with artificially rendered fiber artifacts so that ground truth information is available.

  10. Beyond the Melnikov method: A computer assisted approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capiński, Maciej J.; Zgliczyński, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    We present a Melnikov type approach for establishing transversal intersections of stable/unstable manifolds of perturbed normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds (NHIMs). The method is based on a new geometric proof of the normally hyperbolic invariant manifold theorem, which establishes the existence of a NHIM, together with its associated invariant manifolds and bounds on their first and second derivatives. We do not need to know the explicit formulas for the homoclinic orbits prior to the perturbation. We also do not need to compute any integrals along such homoclinics. All needed bounds are established using rigorous computer assisted numerics. Lastly, and most importantly, the method establishes intersections for an explicit range of parameters, and not only for perturbations that are 'small enough', as is the case in the classical Melnikov approach.

  11. Computer-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery: Current State and Future Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoyan; Nolte, Lutz P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduced about two decades ago, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS) has emerged as a new and independent area, due to the importance of treatment of musculoskeletal diseases in orthopedics and traumatology, increasing availability of different imaging modalities, and advances in analytics and navigation tools. The aim of this paper is to present the basic elements of CAOS devices and to review state-of-the-art examples of different imaging modalities used to create the virtual representations, of different position tracking devices for navigation systems, of different surgical robots, of different methods for registration and referencing, and of CAOS modules that have been realized for different surgical procedures. Future perspectives will also be outlined. PMID:26779486

  12. A qualitative model for computer-assisted instruction in cardiology.

    PubMed Central

    Julen, N.; Siregar, P.; Sinteff, J. P.; Le Beux, P.

    1998-01-01

    CARDIOLAB is an interactive computational framework dedicated to teaching and computer-aided diagnosis in cardiology. The framework embodies models that simulate the heart's electrical activity. They constitute the core of a Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) program intended to teach, in a multimedia environment, the concepts underlying rhythmic disorders and cardiac diseases. The framework includes a qualitative model (QM) which is described in this paper. During simulation using QM, dynamic sequences representing impulse formation and conduction processes are produced along with the corresponding qualitative descriptions. The corresponding electrocardiogram (ECG) and ladder diagram are also produced, and thus, both qualitative notions and quantitative facts can be taught via the model. We discuss how qualitative models in particular, and computational models in general can enhance the teaching capability of CAI programs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9929258

  13. Computer assistance in hazards analyses and emergency planning

    SciTech Connect

    Bare, J.C.

    1988-04-01

    This paper discusses computer assistance in hazards analysis and emergency planning. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986--Title III of the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA)--requires facilities handling any of the designated chemicals--Extremely Hazardous Substances (EHSs)--in quantities greater than the Threshold Planning Quantities (TPQs) to submit information to their State Emergency Response Commissions (SERCs). Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) engage these facilities in planning and request information from the facilities that is necessary for planning. A user-friendly Macintosh computerized system was developed that allows LEPCs to handle the large quantities of data and assists them in analyzing the potential hazard of each chemical by assessing the severity of the consequences of a pre-planned release. The paper concentrates on hazards analysis for emergency planning for accidental releases of EHSs.

  14. Computer-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery: Current State and Future Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoyan; Nolte, Lutz P

    2015-01-01

    Introduced about two decades ago, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS) has emerged as a new and independent area, due to the importance of treatment of musculoskeletal diseases in orthopedics and traumatology, increasing availability of different imaging modalities, and advances in analytics and navigation tools. The aim of this paper is to present the basic elements of CAOS devices and to review state-of-the-art examples of different imaging modalities used to create the virtual representations, of different position tracking devices for navigation systems, of different surgical robots, of different methods for registration and referencing, and of CAOS modules that have been realized for different surgical procedures. Future perspectives will also be outlined.

  15. CAPA-An integrated computer-assisted personalized assignment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashy, E.; Sherrill, B. M.; Tsai, Y.; Thaler, D.; Weinshank, D.; Engelmann, M.; Morrissey, D. J.

    1993-12-01

    A new integrated computer-assisted personalized assignment (CAPA) system that creates individual assignments for each student has been developed and found to be a powerful motivator. The CAPA system allows students to enter their answers to personalized assignments directly via networked terminals, gives immediate feedback and hints (allowing challenging questions), while providing the instructor with on-line performance information. The students are encouraged to study together which is known to be an effective learning strategy, but each must still obtain his/her own correct answers. Students are allowed to re-enter solutions to the problems before the due date without penalty, thus providing students with different skills levels the opportunity and incentive to understand the material without being judged during the learning process. The features and operation of the system are described, observations on its use in an introductory general physics class are reported, and some of the highly favorable student reactions are included.

  16. Computer-assisted LAD bypass grafting at the open heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, Christine; Gnahm, Claudia; Friedl, Reinhard; Hoffmann, Martin; Dietmayer, Klaus

    2009-02-01

    Open heart bypass surgery is the standard treatment in advanced coronary heart diseases. For an effective revascularization procedure, optimal placement of the bypass is very important. To accelerate the intraoperative localization of the anastomosis site and to increase the precision of the procedure, a concept for computer assistance in open heart bypass surgery has been developed comprising the following steps: 1. Preprocedural planning: A patient-specific coronary map with information on vessel paths and wall plaque formations is extracted from a multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT). On this basis, the heart surgeon and the cardiac radiologist define the optimal anastomosis site prior to surgery. 2. Intraoperative navigation: During surgery, data are recorded at the beating heart using a stereo camera system. After registering the pre- and intraoperative data sets, preprocedural information can be transferred to the surgical site by overlaying the coronary map and the planned anastomosis site on the live video stream. With this visual guidance system, the surgeon can navigate to the planned anastomosis site. In this work, the proposed surgical assistance system has been validated for the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). The accuracy of the registration mechanism has been evaluated in retrospective on patient data sets and the effects of breathing motion were quantified. The promising results of the retrospective evaluation led to the in-vivo application of the computer assistance system during several bypass grafting procedures. Intraoperative navigation has been performed successfully and postoperative evaluation confirms that the bypass grafts were accurately positioned to the preoperatively planned anastomosis sites.

  17. Development of a theory-guided pan-European computer-assisted safer sex intervention.

    PubMed

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Borms, Ruth; Dec-Pietrowska, Joanna; Dias, Sonia; Rojas, Daniela; Platteau, Tom; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-12-01

    HIV is a growing public health problem in Europe, with men-having-sex-with-men and migrants from endemic regions as the most affected key populations. More evidence on effective behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk is needed. This article describes the systematic development of a theory-guided computer-assisted safer sex intervention, aiming at supporting people living with HIV in sexual risk reduction. We applied the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to develop this counseling intervention in the framework of a European multicenter study. We conducted a needs assessment guided by the information-motivation-behavioral (IMB) skills model, formulated change objectives and selected theory-based methods and practical strategies, i.e. interactive computer-assisted modules as supporting tools for provider-delivered counseling. Theoretical foundations were the IMB skills model, social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical model, complemented by dual process models of affective decision making to account for the specifics of sexual behavior. The counseling approach for delivering three individual sessions was tailored to participants' needs and contexts, adopting elements of motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral therapy. We implemented and evaluated the intervention using a randomized controlled trial combined with a process evaluation. IM provided a useful framework for developing a coherent intervention for heterogeneous target groups, which was feasible and effective across the culturally diverse settings. This article responds to the need for transparent descriptions of the development and content of evidence-based behavior change interventions as potential pillars of effective combination prevention strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Adoption of computer-assisted learning in medical education: the educators' perspective.

    PubMed

    Schifferdecker, Karen E; Berman, Norm B; Fall, Leslie H; Fischer, Martin R

    2012-11-01

    Computer-assisted learning (CAL) in medical education has been shown to be effective in the achievement of learning outcomes, but requires the input of significant resources and development time. This study examines the key elements and processes that led to the widespread adoption of a CAL program in undergraduate medical education, the Computer-assisted Learning in Paediatrics Program (CLIPP). It then considers the relative importance of elements drawn from existing theories and models for technology adoption and other studies on CAL in medical education to inform the future development, implementation and testing of CAL programs in medical education. The study used a mixed-methods explanatory design. All paediatric clerkship directors (CDs) using CLIPP were recruited to participate in a self-administered, online questionnaire. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with a random sample of CDs to further explore the quantitative results. Factors that facilitated adoption included CLIPP's ability to fill gaps in exposure to core clinical problems, the use of a national curriculum, development by CDs, and the meeting of CDs' desires to improve teaching and student learning. An additional facilitating factor was that little time and effort were needed to implement CLIPP within a clerkship. The quantitative findings were mostly corroborated by the qualitative findings. This study indicates issues that are important in the consideration and future exploration of the development and implementation of CAL programs in medical education. The promise of CAL as a method of enhancing the process and outcomes of medical education, and its cost, increase the need for future CAL funders and developers to pay equal attention to the needs of potential adopters and the development process as they do to the content and tools in the CAL program. Important questions that remain on the optimal design, use and integration of CAL should be addressed in order to adequately inform

  19. Feasibility of Promoting Smoking Cessation Among Methadone Users Using Multimedia Computer-Assisted Education

    PubMed Central

    Lapshin, Oleg; Cha, Eunme

    2008-01-01

    Background The prevalence of smoking is very high among methadone users. As a method of delivering health education, computers can be utilized effectively. However computer-assisted education in methadone users has not been evaluated systematically. Objective This study was aimed at assessing feasibility and patient acceptance of an interactive educational module of a multi-component smoking cessation counseling computer program for former illicit drug users treated in an outpatient methadone clinic. Methods The computer-mediated education for hazards of smoking utilized in this study was driven by major constructs of adult learning theories. The program interface was tailored to individuals with minimal computer experience and was implemented on a touch screen tablet PC. The number of consecutive methadone-treated current smokers enrolled in the study was 35. After providing socio-demographic and smoking profiles, the patients were asked to use the educational program for 40 minutes. The impact of the computer-mediated education was assessed by administering a pre- and post-intervention Hazards of Smoking Knowledge Survey (HSKS). An attitudinal survey and semi-structured qualitative interview were used after the educational session to assess the opinions of participants about their educational experience. Results The computer-mediated education resulted in significant increase of HSKS scores from 60.5 ± 16.3 to 70.4 ± 11.7 with t value 3.69 and P < .001. The majority of the patients (78.8%) felt the tablet PC was easy to use, and most of the patients (91.4%) rated the educational experience as good or excellent. After controlling for patient baseline characteristics, the effect of computer-mediated education remained statistically significant. Conclusions Computer-assisted education using tablet PCs was feasible, well-accepted, and an effective means of providing hazards of smoking education among methadone users. PMID:18984556

  20. Using biomarkers to assess the validity of sexual behavior reporting across interview modes among young women in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Christine A.; Hewett, Paul C.; Mensch, Barbara S.; Rankin, Johanna; Nsobya, Sam; Kalibala, Sam; Kakande, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the transmission dynamics of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections is critically dependent on accurate behavioral data. This paper investigates the effect of questionnaire delivery mode on the quality of sexual behavior reporting in a survey conducted in Kampala in 2010 among 18–24 year old females using the women’s instrument of the 2006 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey. We compare the reported prevalence of five sexual outcomes across three interview modes: traditional face-to-face interview (FTFI) in which question rewording was permitted, FTFI administered via computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) in which questions were read as written, and audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI). We then assess the validity of the data by evaluating reporting of sexual experience against three biological markers. Results suggest that ACASI elicits higher reporting of some key indicators than face-to-face interviews, but self-reports from all interview methods were subject to validity concerns when compared with biomarker data. The paper highlights the important role biomarkers play in sexual behavior research. PMID:24615574

  1. A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualistic Learning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    the problem-solving task, utilizing the computer to record their decisions and give feedback on the consequences. Students initially had to decide...Computer-Assisted Cooperative, Competitive, And Individualistic Learning Computer-assisted instruction brings with it the possibility that student ...The assumption that learning works best when one student works with one computer remains largely unquestioned. The possible use of computer-assisted

  2. Computer-assisted transfer of programmed elutions in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    García-Lavandeira, J; Martínez-Pontevedra, J A; Lores, M; Cela, R

    2006-09-22

    Computer-assisted procedures were used to simulate modifications in chromatograms caused by the transfer of elution programmes between instruments with significantly different dwell volumes. Moreover, for the first time the same approach was used to modify the elution programmes to match the chromatograms produced in the different instruments. The process may consist of making minor modifications to gradient programmes or transforming the original gradient programme into a stepwise gradient profile and/or the simultaneous programming of flow and solvent composition. The combination of these approaches has been shown to have an enormous potential for producing matched chromatograms in instrumental systems with dwell volumes that differ by several millilitres. The efficiency and robustness of the proposed procedure is demonstrated with a variety of compounds (two different mixtures of 10 and 11 analytes), mobile phases (methanol and acetonitrile gradients), flow rates (0.5-1.5 mL/min range), temperatures (35-45 degrees C interval) and gradient profiles (linear, multilinear, curved and stepwise).

  3. The Application of Web-based Computer-assisted Instruction Courseware within Health Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiuyan, Guo

    Health assessment is a clinical nursing course and places emphasis on clinical skills. The application of computer-assisted instruction in the field of nursing teaching solved the problems in the traditional lecture class. This article stated teaching experience of web-based computer-assisted instruction, based upon a two-year study of computer-assisted instruction courseware use within the course health assessment. The computer-assisted instruction courseware could develop teaching structure, simulate clinical situations, create teaching situations and facilitate students study.

  4. Percutaneous laser discectomy guided with stereotactic computer-assisted surgical navigation.

    PubMed

    von Jako, Ronald A; Cselik, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Percutaneous laser discectomy at various wavelengths has been used for minimally invasive surgery of herniated intervertebral discs. Using a high-intensity diode laser at 980-nm wavelength, we aimed to improve the safe insertion of the laser trocar with the aid of a stereotactic computer-assisted surgical navigation system. The experiments were performed on ex vivo porcine spines with intact soft tissue. Before laser irradiation, each specimen was imaged by computed tomography (CT) with fiduciary markers. The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM standard) data sets were retrieved into the GE Healthcare Surgery InstaTRAK3500 Plus computer-assisted surgical navigation platform via the hospital Ethernet using a picture archiving and communication system. A special trocar with quartz waveguide connected to the navigation system was inserted into a total of 12 lumbar discs of two fresh intact porcine specimens. Various laser energies (200-700 J) with different exposure times were delivered. Pre- and post-irradiation magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and postoperative macroscopic and histologic studies were carried out. A navigation system accuracy of better than 2 mm was achieved. Tracking of the instrument from pre-acquired formatted CT reconstructed images reduced overall radiation exposure by limiting the need for continuous intraoperative C-arm fluoroscopy. The use of surgical navigation by CT images enhanced the precision insertion of the laser trocar. Irradiation with the 980-nm wavelength diode laser resulted in tissue evaporation changes of the intervertebral disc material as demonstrated by comparing pre- and post-irradiation changes of MR images and macro- and microscopic changes of the dissected disc material. This preclinical study demonstrates the clinical utility of a 980-nm diode laser delivered through a fiber-optic waveguide trocar in which precise insertion was enabled by the use of surgical navigation. This in turn decreases the

  5. Design Matters: The Impact of CAPI on Interview Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Nicole; Wilkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) offers many attractive benefits over paper-and-pencil interviewing. There is, however, mixed evidence on the impact of CAPI on interview "length," an important survey outcome in the context of length limits imposed by survey budgets and concerns over respondent burden. In this article,…

  6. Lack of instrumental hydrological data? Trying the use of interviews as a way to estimate the regime of temporary streams.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallart, Francesc; Llorens, Pilar; Latron, Jérôme; Cid, Núria; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-04-01

    Temporary streams are those that undergo the recurrent cessation of flow or the complete drying of the stream bed. Although they may represent the main part of the elementary drainage network, or even most of the total network in some areas due to climatic or lithological reasons, temporary streams are rarely included in stream monitoring networks. As a result, hydrological data for assessing the regime of temporary streams are often scarce. The LIFE TRivers project is developing a software (TREHS, Temporary Rivers' Ecological and Hydrological Status), which is designed to help the managers for adequately implement the Water Framework Directive in this type of water bodies. The first need for managing a temporary stream is the characterisation of its hydrological regime, in order to help managers selecting appropriate sampling dates and using the right methods to determine its ecological status. Yet, the deviation of the actual regime from the natural one should be determined in order to assess the potential hydrological alteration due to the human activity and thereby determine the 'hydrological status'. TREHS applies a methodology for regime characterisation based on the results of the EU FP7 project MIRAGE. This methodology is based on the assessment of the temporal patterns of six 'aquatic states' that summarize the transient sets of mesohabitats occurring on a given reach at a particular moment, depending on the hydrological conditions. The qualitative nature of the aquatic states allowed the use of interviews to assess the regime of the streams in the lack of observed flow data. For the questionnaires, the TREHS temporal scheme was simplified from a monthly to a seasonal one and the aquatic states were reduced from six to three (flow, pools and dry). To validate the methodology based on the use of interviews, inhabitants of villages and small towns near to gauging stations were asked to fill the questionnaire. The preliminary results on temporary stream

  7. Computer assisted chronic disease management: does it work? A pilot study using mixed methods.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kay M; Biezen, Ruby; Piterman, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Background. Key factors for the effective chronic disease management (CDM) include the availability of practical and effective computer tools and continuing professional development/education. This study tested the effectiveness of a computer assisted chronic disease management tool, a broadband-based service known as cdmNet in increasing the development of care plans for patients with chronic disease in general practice. Methodology. Mixed methods are the breakthrough series methodology (workshops and plan-do-study-act cycles) and semistructured interviews. Results. Throughout the intervention period a pattern emerged suggesting GPs use of cdmNet initially increased, then plateaued practice nurses' and practice managers' roles expanded as they became more involved in using cdmNet. Seven main messages emerged from the GP interviews. Discussion. The overall use of cdmNet by participating GPs varied from "no change" to "significant change and developing many the GPMPs (general practice management plans) using cdmNet." The variation may be due to several factors, not the least, allowing GPs adequate time to familiarise themselves with the software and recognising the benefit of the team approach. Conclusion. The breakthrough series methodology facilitated upskilling GPs' management of patients diagnosed with a chronic disease and learning how to use the broadband-based service cdmNet.

  8. Man-machine interfaces in computer assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Visarius, H; Gong, J; Scheer, C; Haralamb, S; Nolte, L P

    1997-01-01

    The clinical potential of computer assisted surgery (CAS) has been more and more widely acknowledged since CAS systems have been introduced into the operating room (OR) theater. Especially the improvements in safety and accuracy are remarkable and strengthen the ties between surgeons and engineers. Tumor stereotaxis was introduced to neurological surgery in the early 1980s, and currently systems with and without robotic navigation are in use for specific medical indications. Recently, solutions for computer assisted orthopedic surgery were developed and applied to various anatomical regions. However, with the establishment of CAS in vivo, a new complex of problems, which was not present in the laboratory setup, was introduced: the man-machine interface. Currently, the complexity of available CAS systems requires the presence of at least one system engineer (often called the "operator") in the OR. As a consequence, there is no possibility for direct communication between the surgeon and the machine or software. Most of the program steps involved in CAS and choices to be made intraoperatively have to be transferred to the software by means of communication of the surgeon with the operator. Particularly, the establishment of a relation between the virtual object (i.e., a medical image) and the surgical object (i.e., the patient), often denoted as "matching" or "skeletal registration," requires intensive interaction of the surgeon with the computer. A literature survey revealed that no CAS system in clinical use exists without a system engineer or a comparable person, and our clinical experience indicated that the matching process is a weak point in most systems. Because it appears to be contradictory to cost-reduction efforts in health care to have a highly paid specialist in the OR, this research evaluates strategies to facilitate the man-machine interface with the final goal of establishing a direct control of the system by the surgeon or the medical personnel

  9. Computer-assisted collision avoidance using ARPA and ECDIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froese, J.; Mathes, S.

    1997-12-01

    In the project entitled “Computer-Assisted Collision Avoidance”, which was funded by the German Mi nistry of Education, Research and Technology and was executed in cooperation with the industrial partner STN ATLAS Elektronik, the intention was to combine the tasks of track planning, track control and collision avoidance. The aim was to develop a system which would support the officer of the watch in the handling of complex traffic situations by suggesting collision-avoidance tracks. The main points of this project were in the following areas: p] Determination and display of danger areas The positions of possible collisions with other ships, and areas to be avoided on the basis of defined closest points of approach, are computed and displayed with geometrical exactness. The target ships are fed into the system via a standardized interface. Set of rules for the handling of multi- ship encounters The software for computer-assisted collision avoidance contains a set of rules for the creation of collisi on avoidance tracks, taking account of the existing traffic situation. This set of rules takes into account the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREG) and nautical practice. In the process of generating a track suggestion, all other ships detected in the sea area concerned are included in the compu tation. Integration of ECDIS One of the main aims of the project was to combine the information and functionalities of ARPA and ECDIS. By the incorporation of chart data, the system is able to compute track suggestions, taking account of the sea area in which the ships are sailing. In this process, the own ship’s safety requirements are inclu ded. Accordingly, the track thus determined can actually be sailed. By the overlaid display of radar picture and ECDIS, the situation involving encounters with other vessels can at all times be assessed within the over all context. Economically designed man- machine interface One important subtask in the

  10. Computer-Assisted Synthetic Planning: The End of the Beginning.

    PubMed

    Szymkuć, Sara; Gajewska, Ewa P; Klucznik, Tomasz; Molga, Karol; Dittwald, Piotr; Startek, Michał; Bajczyk, Michał; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2016-05-10

    Exactly half a century has passed since the launch of the first documented research project (1965 Dendral) on computer-assisted organic synthesis. Many more programs were created in the 1970s and 1980s but the enthusiasm of these pioneering days had largely dissipated by the 2000s, and the challenge of teaching the computer how to plan organic syntheses earned itself the reputation of a "mission impossible". This is quite curious given that, in the meantime, computers have "learned" many other skills that had been considered exclusive domains of human intellect and creativity-for example, machines can nowadays play chess better than human world champions and they can compose classical music pleasant to the human ear. Although there have been no similar feats in organic synthesis, this Review argues that to concede defeat would be premature. Indeed, bringing together the combination of modern computational power and algorithms from graph/network theory, chemical rules (with full stereo- and regiochemistry) coded in appropriate formats, and the elements of quantum mechanics, the machine can finally be "taught" how to plan syntheses of non-trivial organic molecules in a matter of seconds to minutes. The Review begins with an overview of some basic theoretical concepts essential for the big-data analysis of chemical syntheses. It progresses to the problem of optimizing pathways involving known reactions. It culminates with discussion of algorithms that allow for a completely de novo and fully automated design of syntheses leading to relatively complex targets, including those that have not been made before. Of course, there are still things to be improved, but computers are finally becoming relevant and helpful to the practice of organic-synthetic planning. Paraphrasing Churchill's famous words after the Allies' first major victory over the Axis forces in Africa, it is not the end, it is not even the beginning of the end, but it is the end of the beginning for the

  11. The Structured Interview for Insight and Judgment in Dementia: Development and validation of a new instrument to assess awareness in patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Parrao, Teresa; Brockman, Simone; Bucks, Romola S; Bruce, David G; Davis, Wendy A; Hatch, Katherine K; Leavy, Tammy L; Axten, Christine A P; Starkstein, Sergio E

    2017-01-01

    Poor insight about their cognitive and functional deficits is highly prevalent in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, there is a lack of reliable, valid instrumentation to measure this construct. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a semistructured interview to assess insight and judgment in patients with AD and to provide information regarding the assessment of competency and risk in this population. We validated the Structured Clinical Interview for Insight and Judgment in Dementia (SIJID) in a consecutive series of 124 patients with probable AD. The following psychometric properties were evaluated: internal consistency, test-retest reliability, interrater reliability, and convergent and predictive validity. The SIJID demonstrated high test-retest, interrater reliability and also showed strong discriminant and convergent validity. It showed good predictive validity based on 1-year follow-up information of the patient's clinical outcomes, with a significant association between higher SIJID total scores at baseline, and more severe neuropsychiatric symptoms and more severe caregiver distress at follow-up. Moreover, higher scores of dangerous behaviors at baseline were significantly correlated with a higher frequency of hospitalization and placement in residential care 1 year later. The SIJID is a reliable and valid instrument to assess insight and judgment in patients with AD and is a valuable tool for assessing presence and severity of dangerous behaviors, determining risk, and providing critical information for the assessment of competency.

  12. Computer-Assisted Inverse Design of Inorganic Electrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunwei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yanchao; Zhang, Lijun; Ma, Yanming

    2017-01-01

    Electrides are intrinsic electron-rich materials enabling applications as excellent electron emitters, superior catalysts, and strong reducing agents. There are a number of organic electrides; however, their instability at room temperature and sensitivity to moisture are bottlenecks for their practical uses. Known inorganic electrides are rare, but they appear to have greater thermal stability at ambient conditions and are thus better characterized for application. Here, we develop a computer-assisted inverse-design method for searching for a large variety of inorganic electrides unbiased by any known electride structures. It uses the intrinsic property of interstitial electron localization of electrides as the global variable function for swarm intelligence structure searches. We construct two rules of thumb on the design of inorganic electrides pointing to electron-rich ionic systems and low electronegativity of the cationic elements involved. By screening 99 such binary compounds through large-scale computer simulations, we identify 24 stable and 65 metastable new inorganic electrides that show distinct three-, two-, and zero-dimensional conductive properties, among which 18 are existing compounds that have not been pointed to as electrides. Our work reveals the rich abundance of inorganic electrides by providing 33 hitherto unexpected structure prototypes of electrides, of which 19 are not in the known structure databases.

  13. Computer-Assisted Transgenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans for Deep Phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Gilleland, Cody L; Falls, Adam T; Noraky, James; Heiman, Maxwell G; Yanik, Mehmet F

    2015-09-01

    A major goal in the study of human diseases is to assign functions to genes or genetic variants. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans provides a powerful tool because homologs of many human genes are identifiable, and large collections of genetic vectors and mutant strains are available. However, the delivery of such vector libraries into mutant strains remains a long-standing experimental bottleneck for phenotypic analysis. Here, we present a computer-assisted microinjection platform to streamline the production of transgenic C. elegans with multiple vectors for deep phenotyping. Briefly, animals are immobilized in a temperature-sensitive hydrogel using a standard multiwell platform. Microinjections are then performed under control of an automated microscope using precision robotics driven by customized computer vision algorithms. We demonstrate utility by phenotyping the morphology of 12 neuronal classes in six mutant backgrounds using combinations of neuron-type-specific fluorescent reporters. This technology can industrialize the assignment of in vivo gene function by enabling large-scale transgenic engineering.

  14. Complex radius shaft malunion: osteotomy with computer-assisted planning.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Andreas; Fürnstahl, Philipp; Harders, Matthias; Székely, Gábor; Nagy, Ladislav

    2010-06-01

    We report about two cases with a combined axial and angular malunion of the radius shaft with functional loss of pro-supination. For the preoperative planning, a computer simulation was developed that allows the quantification of the malunion by comparing the 3-d surface model of the impaired bone with the contralateral anatomy. The proximal parts of the left and right radii are superimposed, while the different positions of the distal parts are used to quantify the malunion. This task is performed fully automatically which reduces the overall planning time. The osteotomies were performed according to the results of the computer-aided planning. The first case showed 1 year postoperatively an increase of pronation from 40° to 70° at expense of supination from 95° to 90°. The patient was practically pain-free and reported functional improvement. The second case showed 6 months postoperatively an improvement of supination from 15° to 40° and of pronation from 50° to 60°. The computer-assisted operation planning facilitated the quantification of combined axial and angular malunions which were difficult to detect on plain radiographs.

  15. Simple and Computer-assisted Olfactory Testing for Mice.

    PubMed

    Brai, Emanuele; Alberi, Lavinia

    2015-06-15

    Olfaction is highly conserved among species and is required for reproduction and survival. In humans, olfaction is also one of the senses that is affected with aging and is a strong predictor of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, olfaction testing is used as a non-invasive diagnostic method to detect neurological deficits early on. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying olfactory network susceptibility, olfactory research in rodents has gained momentum in the past decade. Here, we present a very simple, time efficient and reproducible olfactory testing method of innate odor perception and sensitivity in mice without the need of any prior food or water restriction. The tests are performed in a familiar environment to the mice, require only the scents and a 2 min session of odorant exposure. The analysis is performed, post-hoc, using computer-assisted commands on ImageJ and can be, therefore, carried out from start to end by one researcher. This protocol does not require any special hardware or setup and is indicated for any laboratory interested in testing olfactory perception and sensitivity.

  16. Simple and Computer-assisted Olfactory Testing for Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brai, Emanuele; Alberi, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction is highly conserved among species and is required for reproduction and survival. In humans, olfaction is also one of the senses that is affected with aging and is a strong predictor of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, olfaction testing is used as a non-invasive diagnostic method to detect neurological deficits early on. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying olfactory network susceptibility, olfactory research in rodents has gained momentum in the past decade. Here, we present a very simple, time efficient and reproducible olfactory testing method of innate odor perception and sensitivity in mice without the need of any prior food or water restriction. The tests are performed in a familiar environment to the mice, require only the scents and a 2 min session of odorant exposure. The analysis is performed, post-hoc, using computer-assisted commands on ImageJ and can be, therefore, carried out from start to end by one researcher. This protocol does not require any special hardware or setup and is indicated for any laboratory interested in testing olfactory perception and sensitivity. PMID:26131595

  17. Computer-Assisted Transgenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans for Deep Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Gilleland, Cody L.; Falls, Adam T.; Noraky, James; Heiman, Maxwell G.; Yanik, Mehmet F.

    2015-01-01

    A major goal in the study of human diseases is to assign functions to genes or genetic variants. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans provides a powerful tool because homologs of many human genes are identifiable, and large collections of genetic vectors and mutant strains are available. However, the delivery of such vector libraries into mutant strains remains a long-standing experimental bottleneck for phenotypic analysis. Here, we present a computer-assisted microinjection platform to streamline the production of transgenic C. elegans with multiple vectors for deep phenotyping. Briefly, animals are immobilized in a temperature-sensitive hydrogel using a standard multiwell platform. Microinjections are then performed under control of an automated microscope using precision robotics driven by customized computer vision algorithms. We demonstrate utility by phenotyping the morphology of 12 neuronal classes in six mutant backgrounds using combinations of neuron-type-specific fluorescent reporters. This technology can industrialize the assignment of in vivo gene function by enabling large-scale transgenic engineering. PMID:26163188

  18. Complex Radius Shaft Malunion: Osteotomy with Computer-Assisted Planning

    PubMed Central

    Fürnstahl, Philipp; Harders, Matthias; Székely, Gábor; Nagy, Ladislav

    2009-01-01

    We report about two cases with a combined axial and angular malunion of the radius shaft with functional loss of pro-supination. For the preoperative planning, a computer simulation was developed that allows the quantification of the malunion by comparing the 3-d surface model of the impaired bone with the contralateral anatomy. The proximal parts of the left and right radii are superimposed, while the different positions of the distal parts are used to quantify the malunion. This task is performed fully automatically which reduces the overall planning time. The osteotomies were performed according to the results of the computer-aided planning. The first case showed 1 year postoperatively an increase of pronation from 40° to 70° at expense of supination from 95° to 90°. The patient was practically pain-free and reported functional improvement. The second case showed 6 months postoperatively an improvement of supination from 15° to 40° and of pronation from 50° to 60°. The computer-assisted operation planning facilitated the quantification of combined axial and angular malunions which were difficult to detect on plain radiographs. PMID:19826878

  19. Image processing techniques in computer-assisted patch clamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizian, Mahdi; Patel, Rajni; Gavrilovici, Cezar; Poulter, Michael O.

    2010-02-01

    Patch clamping is used in electrophysiology to study single or multiple ion channels in cells. Multiple micropipettes are used as electrodes to collect data from several cells. Placement of these electrodes is a time consuming and complicated task due to the lack of depth perception, limited view through the microscope lens and the possibility of collisions between micro-pipettes. To aid in this process, a computer-assisted approach is developed using image processing techniques applied to images obtained through the microscope. Image processing algorithms are applied to perform autofocusing, relative depth estimation, distance estimation and tracking of the micro-pipettes in the images without making any major changes in the existing patch clamp equipment. An autofocusing algorithm with a micrometer precision is developed and the relative depth estimation is performed based on autofocusing. A micro-pipette tip detection algorithm is developed which can be used to initialize or reset the tracking algorithm and to calibrate the system by registering the relative image and micro-manipulator coordinates. An image-based tracking algorithm is also developed to track a micro-pipette tip in real time. The real-time tracking data is then used for visual servoing the micro-pipette tips and updating the calibration information.

  20. Is Computer-assisted Distance Learning Possible in Nematology?

    PubMed

    Francl, L J

    1998-06-01

    In many institutions of higher education, introductory nematology is taught to small numbers of students. Nematology and other low-enrollment courses may be placed under scrutiny, reformatted, or dropped from the curriculum to cut costs and improve faculty efficiency. Computer-assisted distance education (CADE) offers a way to increase faculty productivity and job satisfaction, student learning and socialization, and cost-effectiveness. Participating institutions gain by sharing resources with other schools and may retain or even increase enrollments through broadened educational opportunities. CADE ranges from complete course offerings and video interaction to supplemental materials on a personal computer for independent learning. A modular approach to course development is the most successfuI model because of the flexibility it offers. While an entire hematology course through CADE is not possible without substantial institutional and faculty investment, supplemental materials can help remotely located students gain an appreciation for hematology. Nematological images, text, computer programs, and other resources can easily be placed on Internet web pages. Nematologists in all sectors need to continue to reach out to the next generation of leaders to tell them what nematologists do and why nematodes are important. The Society of Nematologists can be a leader in the systematic development of CADE in nematology.

  1. Computer-assisted reproductive surgery: microsurgery for the digital age.

    PubMed

    Choussein, S; Srouji, S S; Lipskind, S T; Gargiulo, A R

    2014-02-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in the field of medically assisted reproduction, minimally invasive surgery remains of vital importance in optimizing and preserving fertility, as well as treating infertility. By definition, reproductive surgery employs microsurgical techniques with the objective of restoring natural fertility or enhancing assisted reproductive technologies. The avant-garde minimalist philosophy of this branch of gynecology has made it the natural trailblazer of laparoscopic surgery. Minimally invasive conservative treatment of uterine, tubal, ovarian and peritoneal pathology has long been the gold standard for women of reproductive age and those seeking fertility preservation. Robust surgical outcome data acknowledge clear advantages of advanced laparoscopic surgery over laparotomy. However, this comes at the cost of significant technical challenges. Computer-assisted laparoscopy, also known as robotic surgery, is posed to address the practical limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery and bridge this technical gap. This enabling technology is a conceptual fusion of the practicality of conventional open surgery and the minimally invasive nature of laparoscopic surgery. With this comes the promise of simplifying complex minimally invasive fertility-sparing procedures so that they can be performed in a safe and reproducible manner by reproductive specialists.

  2. Computer-assisted ultrasonic tissue characterization of the heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Reinhard; Lieback, Evelin; Hetzer, Roland

    2000-04-01

    In ultrasonic tissue characterization the small reflections originating from the scattering structures inside the tissue are analyzed. To obtain diagnostic performance for tissue characterization by means of analysis of echocardiographic images we use methods of mathematical texture analysis. We investigate whether myocardial changes effect the texture of ultrasonic images and if this could be described using quantitative texture analysis. The texture analysis was computed in a single window of an ultrasound image/sequence covering the inner myocardial septum. Parameters from gray level histogram, co-occurrence matrices, run length statistics and run difference, from power spectrum and fractal dimensions were investigated to provide satisfying and generalizable results for classification of the myocardium. A set of parameters that could discriminate between normal and pathological myocardium were extracted. The results of 142 biopsies were compared with those of texture analysis in echocardiograms of 106 patients suspected having myocarditis. Using the reduced set of parameters the best sensitivity was 89.0% and the specificity was 83.6%. Myocarditis is associated with echocardiographic texture alteration. Texture analysis with methods of digital image processing can reliably identify myocarditis. A suitable solution for a computer-assisted non- invasive support for the diagnosis and detection of myocarditis was found.

  3. Thrombin inhibitors identified by computer-assisted multiparameter design

    PubMed Central

    Riester, Daniel; Wirsching, Frank; Salinas, Gabriela; Keller, Martina; Gebinoga, Michael; Kamphausen, Stefan; Merkwirth, Christian; Goetz, Ruediger; Wiesenfeldt, Martin; Stürzebecher, Jörg; Bode, Wolfram; Friedrich, Rainer; Thürk, Marcel; Schwienhorst, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Here, we present a series of thrombin inhibitors that were generated by using powerful computer-assisted multiparameter optimization process. The process was organized in design cycles, starting with a set of randomly chosen molecules. Each cycle combined combinatorial synthesis, multiparameter characterization of compounds in a variety of bioassays, and algorithmic processing of the data to devise a set of compounds to be synthesized in the next cycle. The identified lead compounds exhibited thrombin inhibitory constants in the lower nanomolar range. They are by far the most selective synthetic thrombin inhibitors, with selectivities of >100,000-fold toward other proteases such as Factor Xa, Factor XIIa, urokinase, plasmin, and Plasma kallikrein. Furthermore, these compounds exhibit a favorable profile, comprising nontoxicity, high metabolic stability, low serum protein binding, good solubility, high anticoagulant activity, and a slow and exclusively renal elimination from the circulation in a rat model. Finally, x-ray crystallographic analysis of a thrombin–inhibitor complex revealed a binding mode with a neutral moiety in the S1 pocket of thrombin. PMID:15937115

  4. Computer-assisted diagnosis of chest radiographs for pneumoconioses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliz, Peter; Pattichis, Marios S.; Ramachandran, Janakiramanan; James, David S.

    2001-07-01

    A Computer-assisted Chest Radiograph Reader System (CARRS) was developed for the detection of pathological features in lungs presenting with pneumoconioses. CARRS applies novel techniques in automatic image segmentation, incorporates neural network-based pattern classification, and integrates these into a graphical user interface. The three aspects of CARRS are described: Chest radiograph digitization and display, rib and parenchyma characterization, and classification. The quantization of the chest radiograph film was optimized to maximize the information content of the digital images. Entropy was used as the benchmark for optimizing the quantization. From the rib-segmented images, regions of interest were selected by the pulmonologist. A feature vector composed of image characteristics such as entropy, textural statistics, etc. was calculated. A laterally primed adaptive resonance theory (LAPART) neural network was used as the classifier. LAPART classification accuracy averaged 86.8 %. Truth was determined by the two pulmonologists. The CARRS has demonstrated potential as a screening device. Today, 90% or more of the chest radiographs seen by the pulmonologist are normal. A computer-based system that can screen 50% or more of the chest radiographs represents a large savings in time and dollars.

  5. Computer-assisted photogrammetric mapping systems for geologic studies-A progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pillmore, C.L.; Dueholm, K.S.; Jepsen, H.S.; Schuch, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    Photogrammetry has played an important role in geologic mapping for many years; however, only recently have attempts been made to automate mapping functions for geology. Computer-assisted photogrammetric mapping systems for geologic studies have been developed and are currently in use in offices of the Geological Survey of Greenland at Copenhagen, Denmark, and the U.S. Geological Survey at Denver, Colorado. Though differing somewhat, the systems are similar in that they integrate Kern PG-2 photogrammetric plotting instruments and small desk-top computers that are programmed to perform special geologic functions and operate flat-bed plotters by means of specially designed hardware and software. A z-drive capability, in which stepping motors control the z-motions of the PG-2 plotters, is an integral part of both systems. This feature enables the computer to automatically position the floating mark on computer-calculated, previously defined geologic planes, such as contacts or the base of coal beds, throughout the stereoscopic model in order to improve the mapping capabilities of the instrument and to aid in correlation and tracing of geologic units. The common goal is to enhance the capabilities of the PG-2 plotter and provide a means by which geologists can make conventional geologic maps more efficiently and explore ways to apply computer technology to geologic studies. ?? 1981.

  6. Adaptive Computer-Assisted Mammography Training for Improved Breast Cancer Screening

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    11-1-0755 TITLE: Adaptive Computer-Assisted Mammography Training for Improved Breast Cancer Screening PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Maciej...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Adaptive Computer-Assisted Mammography Training for Improved Breast Cancer Screening 5b. GRANT...propose to research the methodology for constructing adaptive computer-aided education systems for mammography . Improved mammography education could

  7. A Computer-Assisted Instruction Program for Exercises on Finding Axioms. Technical Report Number 186.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Adele; Suppes, Patrick

    An interactive computer-assisted system for teaching elementary logic is described, which was designed to handle formalizations of first-order theories suitable for presentation in a computer-assisted instruction environment. The system provides tools with which the user can develop and then study a nonlogical axiomatic theory along whatever lines…

  8. Computer-assisted diagnostic decision support: history, challenges, and possible paths forward.

    PubMed

    Miller, Randolph A

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a brief history of computer-assisted diagnosis, including challenges and future directions. Some ideas presented in this article on computer-assisted diagnostic decision support systems (CDDSS) derive from prior work by the author and his colleagues (see list in Acknowledgments) on the INTERNIST-1 and QMR projects. References indicate the original sources of many of these ideas.

  9. Computer-Assisted Diagnostic Decision Support: History, Challenges, and Possible Paths Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randolph A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a brief history of computer-assisted diagnosis, including challenges and future directions. Some ideas presented in this article on computer-assisted diagnostic decision support systems (CDDSS) derive from prior work by the author and his colleagues (see list in Acknowledgments) on the INTERNIST-1 and QMR projects. References…

  10. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Teaching on Remedying Misconceptions: The Case of the Subject "Probability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurbuz, Ramazan; Birgin, Osman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of computer-assisted teaching (CAT) on remedying misconceptions students often have regarding some probability concepts in mathematics. Toward this aim, computer-assisted teaching materials were developed and used in the process of teaching. Within the true-experimental research method, a pre- and…

  11. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Feedback Strategies in Technology Education: A Comparison of Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ruifang Hope; Strickland, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted feedback strategies that have been utilized by university students in a technology education curriculum. Specifically, the study examined the effectiveness of the computer-assisted feedback strategy "Knowledge of Response feedback" (KOR), and the "Knowledge of Correct Responses feedback"…

  12. Perceptions of the Computer-Assisted Writing Program among EFL College Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Yuehchiu

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the perceptions of a computer-assisted writing program among EFL learners in a college composition class. A mixed method research design was employed combining both qualitative and qualitative techniques. Forty-five junior students in a Taiwanese college writing class were introduced to the computer-assisted writing…

  13. A Meta Analysis on the Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction: Turkey Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camnalbur, Mucahit; Erdogan, Yavuz

    2008-01-01

    Studies focusing on the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction have been growing recently in Turkey. In this research, quantitative studies comparing the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction to traditional teaching method and conducted between 1998 and 2007 are studied by meta analysis. Seventy eight studies that have eligible…

  14. Middle School Teachers' Perceptions of Computer-Assisted Reading Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bippert, Kelli; Harmon, Janis

    2017-01-01

    Middle schools often turn to computer-assisted reading intervention programs to improve student reading. The questions guiding this study are (a) in what ways are computer-assisted reading intervention programs utilized, and (b) what are teachers' perceptions about these intervention programs? Nineteen secondary reading teachers were interviewed…

  15. Middle School Teachers' Perceptions of Computer-Assisted Reading Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bippert, Kelli; Harmon, Janis

    2017-01-01

    Middle schools often turn to computer-assisted reading intervention programs to improve student reading. The questions guiding this study are (a) in what ways are computer-assisted reading intervention programs utilized, and (b) what are teachers' perceptions about these intervention programs? Nineteen secondary reading teachers were interviewed…

  16. Applications of NLP Techniques to Computer-Assisted Authoring of Test Items for Elementary Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chao-Lin; Lin, Jen-Hsiang; Wang, Yu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    The authors report an implemented environment for computer-assisted authoring of test items and provide a brief discussion about the applications of NLP techniques for computer assisted language learning. Test items can serve as a tool for language learners to examine their competence in the target language. The authors apply techniques for…

  17. 77 FR 39498 - Guidances for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Computer-Assisted Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Staff: Computer-Assisted Detection Devices Applied to Radiology Images and Radiology Device Data... Computer-Assisted Detection Devices Applied to Radiology Images and Radiology Device Data--Premarket... Applied to Radiology Images and Radiology Device Data--Premarket Notification (510(k)) Submissions'' (CADe...

  18. Personalized Computer-Assisted Mathematics Problem-Solving Program and Its Impact on Taiwanese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chiu-Jung; Liu, Pei-Lin

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a personalized computer-assisted mathematics problem-solving program on the performance and attitude of Taiwanese fourth grade students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the personalized computer-assisted program improved student performance and attitude over the nonpersonalized program.…

  19. Promoting Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation among Chemistry Students Using Computer-Assisted Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Isiaka A.; Gbodi, Bimpe E.; Olakanmi, Eyitao U.; Abalaka, Eneojo N.

    2016-01-01

    The role of computer-assisted instruction in promoting intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among Nigerian secondary school chemistry students was investigated in this study. The study employed two modes of computer-assisted instruction (computer simulation instruction and computer tutorial instructional packages) and two levels of gender (male and…

  20. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Feedback Strategies in Technology Education: A Comparison of Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ruifang Hope; Strickland, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted feedback strategies that have been utilized by university students in a technology education curriculum. Specifically, the study examined the effectiveness of the computer-assisted feedback strategy "Knowledge of Response feedback" (KOR), and the "Knowledge of Correct Responses feedback"…

  1. Public Computer Assisted Learning Facilities for Children with Visual Impairment: Universal Design for Inclusive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung

    2012-01-01

    Although computer assisted learning (CAL) is becoming increasingly popular, people with visual impairment face greater difficulty in accessing computer-assisted learning facilities. This is primarily because most of the current CAL facilities are not visually impaired friendly. People with visual impairment also do not normally have access to…

  2. Computer-Assisted Assessment in Higher Education. Staff and Educational Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sally, Ed.; Race, Phil, Ed.; Bull, Joanna, Ed.

    This book profiles how computer-assisted assessment can help both staff and students by drawing on the experience and expertise of practitioners, in the United Kingdom and internationally, who are already using computer-assisted assessment. The publication is organized into three main sections--"Pragmatics and Practicalities of CAA,""Using CAA for…

  3. Computer-Assisted Assessment in Higher Education. Staff and Educational Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sally, Ed.; Race, Phil, Ed.; Bull, Joanna, Ed.

    This book profiles how computer-assisted assessment can help both staff and students by drawing on the experience and expertise of practitioners, in the United Kingdom and internationally, who are already using computer-assisted assessment. The publication is organized into three main sections--"Pragmatics and Practicalities of CAA,""Using CAA for…

  4. Developing and Implementing Materials for Computer Assisted Instruction. Information System for Vocational Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Richard Allan

    This final report discusses certain parts of the successes and failures, strengths and weaknesses of the development of the Information System for Vocational Decisions (ISVD) in terms of their relevance to the issues within the area of computer-assisted instruction. A major focus is on the kinds of computer-assisted instruction that promote…

  5. Computer-Assisted Diagnostic Decision Support: History, Challenges, and Possible Paths Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randolph A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a brief history of computer-assisted diagnosis, including challenges and future directions. Some ideas presented in this article on computer-assisted diagnostic decision support systems (CDDSS) derive from prior work by the author and his colleagues (see list in Acknowledgments) on the INTERNIST-1 and QMR projects. References…

  6. Public Computer Assisted Learning Facilities for Children with Visual Impairment: Universal Design for Inclusive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung

    2012-01-01

    Although computer assisted learning (CAL) is becoming increasingly popular, people with visual impairment face greater difficulty in accessing computer-assisted learning facilities. This is primarily because most of the current CAL facilities are not visually impaired friendly. People with visual impairment also do not normally have access to…

  7. Effect Sizes Associated with Micro-PROLOG-Based Computer-Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Barry J.; Teh, George P. L.

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of effect sizes in computer-assisted learning research focuses on a study conducted in Singapore high school geography classes that used micro-PROLOG to determine the efficacy of computer-assisted learning. Topics include impact on achievement, student attitudes, and classroom environment. (53 references) (LRW)

  8. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) over Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Seda; Basol, Gülsah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to determine the overall effects of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) on academic achievement. After an extensive review of the literature, studies using Turkish samples and observing the effects of Computer-Assisted Education (CAE) on mathematics achievement were examined. As a result of this…

  9. Reliability analysis framework for computer-assisted medical decision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Habas, Piotr A.; Zurada, Jacek M.; Elmaghraby, Adel S.; Tourassi, Georgia D.

    2007-02-15

    We present a technique that enhances computer-assisted decision (CAD) systems with the ability to assess the reliability of each individual decision they make. Reliability assessment is achieved by measuring the accuracy of a CAD system with known cases similar to the one in question. The proposed technique analyzes the feature space neighborhood of the query case to dynamically select an input-dependent set of known cases relevant to the query. This set is used to assess the local (query-specific) accuracy of the CAD system. The estimated local accuracy is utilized as a reliability measure of the CAD response to the query case. The underlying hypothesis of the study is that CAD decisions with higher reliability are more accurate. The above hypothesis was tested using a mammographic database of 1337 regions of interest (ROIs) with biopsy-proven ground truth (681 with masses, 656 with normal parenchyma). Three types of decision models, (i) a back-propagation neural network (BPNN), (ii) a generalized regression neural network (GRNN), and (iii) a support vector machine (SVM), were developed to detect masses based on eight morphological features automatically extracted from each ROI. The performance of all decision models was evaluated using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The study showed that the proposed reliability measure is a strong predictor of the CAD system's case-specific accuracy. Specifically, the ROC area index for CAD predictions with high reliability was significantly better than for those with low reliability values. This result was consistent across all decision models investigated in the study. The proposed case-specific reliability analysis technique could be used to alert the CAD user when an opinion that is unlikely to be reliable is offered. The technique can be easily deployed in the clinical environment because it is applicable with a wide range of classifiers regardless of their structure and it requires neither additional

  10. Computer-assisted expert case definition in electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Walker, Alexander M; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Weiss, Lisa S; Shen, Rongjun; Sobel, Rachel E; Bate, Andrew; Reynolds, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    To describe how computer-assisted presentation of case data can lead experts to infer machine-implementable rules for case definition in electronic health records. As an illustration the technique has been applied to obtain a definition of acute liver dysfunction (ALD) in persons with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The technique consists of repeatedly sampling new batches of case candidates from an enriched pool of persons meeting presumed minimal inclusion criteria, classifying the candidates by a machine-implementable candidate rule and by a human expert, and then updating the rule so that it captures new distinctions introduced by the expert. Iteration continues until an update results in an acceptably small number of changes to form a final case definition. The technique was applied to structured data and terms derived by natural language processing from text records in 29,336 adults with IBD. Over three rounds the technique led to rules with increasing predictive value, as the experts identified exceptions, and increasing sensitivity, as the experts identified missing inclusion criteria. In the final rule inclusion and exclusion terms were often keyed to an ALD onset date. When compared against clinical review in an independent test round, the derived final case definition had a sensitivity of 92% and a positive predictive value of 79%. An iterative technique of machine-supported expert review can yield a case definition that accommodates available data, incorporates pre-existing medical knowledge, is transparent and is open to continuous improvement. The expert updates to rules may be informative in themselves. In this limited setting, the final case definition for ALD performed better than previous, published attempts using expert definitions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Hybrid Segmentation Framework for Computer-Assisted Dental Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosntalab, Mohammad; Aghaeizadeh Zoroofi, Reza; Abbaspour Tehrani-Fard, Ali; Shirani, Gholamreza; Reza Asharif, Mohammad

    Teeth segmentation in computed tomography (CT) images is a major and challenging task for various computer assisted procedures. In this paper, we introduced a hybrid method for quantification of teeth in CT volumetric dataset inspired by our previous experiences and anatomical knowledge of teeth and jaws. In this regard, we propose a novel segmentation technique using an adaptive thresholding, morphological operations, panoramic re-sampling and variational level set algorithm. The proposed method consists of several steps as follows: first, we determine the operation region in CT slices. Second, the bony tissues are separated from other tissues by utilizing an adaptive thresholding technique based on the 3D pulses coupled neural networks (PCNN). Third, teeth tissue is classified from other bony tissues by employing panorex lines and anatomical knowledge of teeth in the jaws. In this case, the panorex lines are estimated using Otsu thresholding and mathematical morphology operators. Then, the proposed method is followed by calculating the orthogonal lines corresponding to panorex lines and panoramic re-sampling of the dataset. Separation of upper and lower jaws and initial segmentation of teeth are performed by employing the integral projections of the panoramic dataset. Based the above mentioned procedures an initial mask for each tooth is obtained. Finally, we utilize the initial mask of teeth and apply a variational level set to refine initial teeth boundaries to final contour. In the last step a surface rendering algorithm known as marching cubes (MC) is applied to volumetric visualization. The proposed algorithm was evaluated in the presence of 30 cases. Segmented images were compared with manually outlined contours. We compared the performance of segmentation method using ROC analysis of the thresholding, watershed and our previous works. The proposed method performed best. Also, our algorithm has the advantage of high speed compared to our previous works.

  12. Accuracy of computer-assisted implant placement with insertion templates

    PubMed Central

    Naziri, Eleni; Schramm, Alexander; Wilde, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of computer-assisted implant insertion based on computed tomography and template-guided implant placement. Material and methods: A total of 246 implants were placed with the aid of 3D-based transfer templates in 181 consecutive partially edentulous patients. Five groups were formed on the basis of different implant systems, surgical protocols and guide sleeves. After virtual implant planning with the CoDiagnostiX Software, surgical guides were fabricated in a dental laboratory. After implant insertion, the actual implant position was registered intraoperatively and transferred to a model cast. Deviations between the preoperative plan and postoperative implant position were measured in a follow-up computed tomography of the patient’s model casts and image fusion with the preoperative computed tomography. Results: The median deviation between preoperative plan and postoperative implant position was 1.0 mm at the implant shoulder and 1.4 mm at the implant apex. The median angular deviation was 3.6º. There were significantly smaller angular deviations (P=0.000) and significantly lower deviations at the apex (P=0.008) in implants placed for a single-tooth restoration than in those placed at a free-end dental arch. The location of the implant, whether in the upper or lower jaw, did not significantly affect deviations. Increasing implant length had a significant negative influence on deviations from the planned implant position. There was only one significant difference between two out of the five implant systems used. Conclusion: The data of this clinical study demonstrate the accuracy and predictable implant placement when using laboratory-fabricated surgical guides based on computed tomography. PMID:27274440

  13. Computer-assisted cystoscopy diagnosis of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Gosnell, Martin E; Polikarpov, Dmitry M; Goldys, Ewa M; Zvyagin, Andrei V; Gillatt, David A

    2017-09-25

    One of the most reliable methods for diagnosing bladder cancer is cystoscopy. Depending on the findings, this may be followed by a referral to a more experienced urologist or a biopsy and histological analysis of suspicious lesion. In this work, we explore whether computer-assisted triage of cystoscopy findings can identify low-risk lesions and reduce the number of referrals or biopsies, associated complications, and costs, although reducing subjectivity of the procedure and indicating when the risk of a lesion being malignant is minimal. Cystoscopy images taken during routine clinical patient evaluation and supported by biopsy were interpreted by an expert clinician. They were further subjected to an automated image analysis developed to best capture cancer characteristics. The images were transformed and divided into segments, using a specialised color segmentation system. After the selection of a set of highly informative features, the segments were separated into 4 classes: healthy, veins, inflammation, and cancerous. The images were then classified as healthy and diseased, using a linear discriminant, the naïve Bayes, and the quadratic linear classifiers. Performance of the classifiers was measured by using receiver operation characteristic curves. The classification system developed here, with the quadratic classifier, yielded 50% false-positive rate and zero false-negative rate, which means, that no malignant lesions would be missed by this classifier. Based on criteria used for assessment of cystoscopy images by medical specialists and features that human visual system is less sensitive to, we developed a computer program that carries out automated analysis of cystoscopy images. Our program could be used as a triage to identify patients who do not require referral or further testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Applications of 3D orbital computer-assisted surgery (CAS).

    PubMed

    Scolozzi, P

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present report is to describe the indications for use of 3D orbital computer-assisted surgery (CAS). We analyzed the clinical and radiological data of all patients with orbital deformities treated using intra-operative navigation and CAD/CAM techniques at the Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Switzerland, between 2009 and 2016. We recorded age and gender, orbital deformity, technical and surgical procedure and postoperative complications. One hundred and three patients were included. Mean age was 39.5years (range, 5 to 84years) and 85 (87.5%) were men. Of the 103 patients, 96 had intra-operative navigation (34 for primary and 3 for secondary orbito-zygomatic fractures, 15 for Le Fort fractures, 16 for orbital floor fractures, 10 for combined orbital floor and medial wall fractures, 7 for orbital medial wall fractures, 3 for NOE (naso-orbito-ethmoidal) fractures, 2 for isolated comminuted zygomatic arch fractures, 1 for enophthalmos, 3 for TMJ ankylosis and 2 for fibrous dysplasia bone recontouring), 8 patients had CAD/CAM PEEK-PSI for correction of residual orbital bone contour following craniomaxillofacial trauma, and 1 patient had CAD/CAM surgical splints and cutting guides for correction of orbital hypertelorism. Two patient (1.9%) required revision surgery for readjustment of an orbital mesh. The 1-year follow-up examination showed stable cosmetic and dimensional results in all patients. This study demonstrated that the application of 3D orbital CAS with regards to intra-operative navigation and CAD/CAM techniques allowed for a successful outcome in the patients presented in this series. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Reliability analysis framework for computer-assisted medical decision systems.

    PubMed

    Habas, Piotr A; Zurada, Jacek M; Elmaghraby, Adel S; Tourassi, Georgia D

    2007-02-01

    We present a technique that enhances computer-assisted decision (CAD) systems with the ability to assess the reliability of each individual decision they make. Reliability assessment is achieved by measuring the accuracy of a CAD system with known cases similar to the one in question. The proposed technique analyzes the feature space neighborhood of the query case to dynamically select an input-dependent set of known cases relevant to the query. This set is used to assess the local (query-specific) accuracy of the CAD system. The estimated local accuracy is utilized as a reliability measure of the CAD response to the query case. The underlying hypothesis of the study is that CAD decisions with higher reliability are more accurate. The above hypothesis was tested using a mammographic database of 1337 regions of interest (ROIs) with biopsy-proven ground truth (681 with masses, 656 with normal parenchyma). Three types of decision models, (i) a back-propagation neural network (BPNN), (ii) a generalized regression neural network (GRNN), and (iii) a support vector machine (SVM), were developed to detect masses based on eight morphological features automatically extracted from each ROI. The performance of all decision models was evaluated using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The study showed that the proposed reliability measure is a strong predictor of the CAD system's case-specific accuracy. Specifically, the ROC area index for CAD predictions with high reliability was significantly better than for those with low reliability values. This result was consistent across all decision models investigated in the study. The proposed case-specific reliability analysis technique could be used to alert the CAD user when an opinion that is unlikely to be reliable is offered. The technique can be easily deployed in the clinical environment because it is applicable with a wide range of classifiers regardless of their structure and it requires neither additional

  16. A computer-assisted assessment of lifetime physical activity: reliability and validity of the QUANTAP software.

    PubMed

    Vuillemin, A; Guillemin, F; Denis, G; Huot, J; Jeandel, C

    2000-04-01

    This study investigated the reliability and the validity of the QUANTAP (QUANTification de l'Activité Physique) interview-administered survey, a new computer-assisted tool designed to determine physical activity over a lifetime. The tool was used to assess lifetime exercise habits in four dimensions (sport at school, leisure sport, occupation, daily activities) in 419 men and women aged 13-90 years. Physical activity indicators (time spent and energy expenditure) were calculated for 20-year periods. The inter-observer and intra-observer reliability of the tool was studied in two subgroups of 30 subjects. Intraclass correlation coefficients for intra-observer and inter-observer reliability varied from 0.56 to 0.96 and from 0.42 to 0.99 respectively according to the dimensions and indicators considered. Energy expenditure was not statistically significantly different from recommended nutritional intake in either males or females. Percent body fat at the time of the survey correlated with leisure sport (particularly in recent periods of practice): age-adjusted correlation coefficients varied from - 0.23 to - 0.45 among males, and from - 0.19 to - 0.31 among females. The results indicate that QUANTAP is reliable and valid to assess lifetime physical activity. It therefore provides a tool with which the long-term effects of physical activity on current health may be studied.

  17. Consumers' and providers' perceptions of utilizing a computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy for childhood anxiety.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Alison; Crawford, Erika A; Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT) programs for childhood anxiety are being developed, although research about factors that contribute to implementation of CCBT in community mental health centers (CMHC) is limited. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore consumers' and providers' perceptions of utilizing a CCBT for childhood anxiety in CMHC in an effort to identify factors that may impact implementation of CCBT in CMHC. Focus groups and interviews occurred with 7 parents, 6 children, 3 therapists, 3 project coordinators and 3 administrators who had participated in CCBT for childhood anxiety. Surveys of treatment satisfaction and treatment barriers were administered to consumers. RESULTS suggest that both consumers and providers were highly receptive to participation in and implementation of CCBT in CMHC. Implementation themes included positive receptiveness, factors related to therapists, treatment components, applicability of treatment, treatment content, initial implementation challenges, resources, dedicated staff, support, outreach, opportunities with the CMHC, payment, and treatment availability. As studies continue to demonstrate the effectiveness of CCBT for childhood anxiety, research needs to continue to examine factors that contribute to the successful implementation of such treatments in CMHC.

  18. Measurement Performance of a Computer Assisted Vertebral Motion Analysis System.

    PubMed

    Davis, Reginald J; Lee, David C; Wade, Chip; Cheng, Boyle

    2015-01-01

    Segmental instability of the lumbar spine is a significant cost within the US health care system; however current thresholds for indication of radiographic instability are not well defined. To determine the performance measurements of sagittal lumbar intervertebral measurements using computerassisted measurements of the lumbar spine using motion sequences from a video-fluoroscopic technique. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, prevalence, and test-retest reliability evaluation of digitized manual versus computer-assisted measurements of the lumbar spine. A total of 2239 intervertebral levels from 509 symptomatic patients, and 287 intervertebral levels from 73 asymptomatic participants were retrospectively evaluated. Specificity, sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), diagnostic accuracy, and prevalence between the two measurement techniques; Measurements of Coefficient of repeatability (CR), limits of agreement (LOA), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; type 3,1), and standard error of measurement for both measurement techniques. Asymptomatic individuals and symptomatic patients were all evaluated using both the Vertebral Motion Analysis (VMA) system and fluoroscopic flexion extension static radiographs (FE). The analysis was compared to known thresholds of 15% intervertebral translation (IVT, equivalent to 5.3mm assuming a 35mm vertebral body depth) and 25° intervertebral rotation (IVR). The VMA measurements demonstrated greater specificity, % change in sensitivity, NPV, prevalence, and reliability compared with FE for radiographic evidence of instability. Specificity was 99.4% and 99.1% in the VMA compared to 98.3% and 98.2% in the FE for IVR and IVT, respectively. Sensitivity in this study was 41.2% and 44.6% greater in the VMA compared to the FE for IVR and IVT, respectively. NPV was 91% and 88% in the VMA compared to 62% and 66% in the FE for IVR and IVT, respectively. Prevalence was 12.3% and 11.9% for the VMA compared to 6.1% and 5

  19. Blind trials of computer-assisted structure elucidation software

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the largest challenges in chemistry today remains that of efficiently mining through vast amounts of data in order to elucidate the chemical structure for an unknown compound. The elucidated candidate compound must be fully consistent with the data and any other competing candidates efficiently eliminated without doubt by using additional data if necessary. It has become increasingly necessary to incorporate an in silico structure generation and verification tool to facilitate this elucidation process. An effective structure elucidation software technology aims to mimic the skills of a human in interpreting the complex nature of spectral data while producing a solution within a reasonable amount of time. This type of software is known as computer-assisted structure elucidation or CASE software. A systematic trial of the ACD/Structure Elucidator CASE software was conducted over an extended period of time by analysing a set of single and double-blind trials submitted by a global audience of scientists. The purpose of the blind trials was to reduce subjective bias. Double-blind trials comprised of data where the candidate compound was unknown to both the submitting scientist and the analyst. The level of expertise of the submitting scientist ranged from novice to expert structure elucidation specialists with experience in pharmaceutical, industrial, government and academic environments. Results Beginning in 2003, and for the following nine years, the algorithms and software technology contained within ACD/Structure Elucidator have been tested against 112 data sets; many of these were unique challenges. Of these challenges 9% were double-blind trials. The results of eighteen of the single-blind trials were investigated in detail and included problems of a diverse nature with many of the specific challenges associated with algorithmic structure elucidation such as deficiency in protons, structure symmetry, a large number of heteroatoms and poor quality

  20. Measurement Performance of a Computer Assisted Vertebral Motion Analysis System

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Reginald J.; Lee, David C.; Cheng, Boyle

    2015-01-01

    Background Segmental instability of the lumbar spine is a significant cost within the US health care system; however current thresholds for indication of radiographic instability are not well defined. Purpose To determine the performance measurements of sagittal lumbar intervertebral measurements using computerassisted measurements of the lumbar spine using motion sequences from a video-fluoroscopic technique. Study design Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, prevalence, and test-retest reliability evaluation of digitized manual versus computer-assisted measurements of the lumbar spine. Patient sample A total of 2239 intervertebral levels from 509 symptomatic patients, and 287 intervertebral levels from 73 asymptomatic participants were retrospectively evaluated. Outcome measures Specificity, sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), diagnostic accuracy, and prevalence between the two measurement techniques; Measurements of Coefficient of repeatability (CR), limits of agreement (LOA), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; type 3,1), and standard error of measurement for both measurement techniques. Methods Asymptomatic individuals and symptomatic patients were all evaluated using both the Vertebral Motion Analysis (VMA) system and fluoroscopic flexion extension static radiographs (FE). The analysis was compared to known thresholds of 15% intervertebral translation (IVT, equivalent to 5.3mm assuming a 35mm vertebral body depth) and 25° intervertebral rotation (IVR). Results The VMA measurements demonstrated greater specificity, % change in sensitivity, NPV, prevalence, and reliability compared with FE for radiographic evidence of instability. Specificity was 99.4% and 99.1% in the VMA compared to 98.3% and 98.2% in the FE for IVR and IVT, respectively. Sensitivity in this study was 41.2% and 44.6% greater in the VMA compared to the FE for IVR and IVT, respectively. NPV was 91% and 88% in the VMA compared to 62% and 66% in the FE for IVR and IVT

  1. A computer-assisted motivational social network intervention to reduce alcohol, drug and HIV risk behaviors among Housing First residents.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David P; Hunter, Sarah B; Chan Osilla, Karen; Maksabedian, Ervant; Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S

    2016-03-15

    Individuals transitioning from homelessness to housing face challenges to reducing alcohol, drug and HIV risk behaviors. To aid in this transition, this study developed and will test a computer-assisted intervention that delivers personalized social network feedback by an intervention facilitator trained in motivational interviewing (MI). The intervention goal is to enhance motivation to reduce high risk alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and reduce HIV risk behaviors. In this Stage 1b pilot trial, 60 individuals that are transitioning from homelessness to housing will be randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. The intervention condition consists of four biweekly social network sessions conducted using MI. AOD use and HIV risk behaviors will be monitored prior to and immediately following the intervention and compared to control participants' behaviors to explore whether the intervention was associated with any systematic changes in AOD use or HIV risk behaviors. Social network health interventions are an innovative approach for reducing future AOD use and HIV risk problems, but little is known about their feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy. The current study develops and pilot-tests a computer-assisted intervention that incorporates social network visualizations and MI techniques to reduce high risk AOD use and HIV behaviors among the formerly homeless. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02140359.

  2. Comparison of Radiation Exposure in Lumbar Pedicle Screw Placement With Fluoroscopy Vs Computer-Assisted Image Guidance With Intraoperative Three-Dimensional Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Harvey E; Welsch, Matthew D; Sasso, Rick C; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: Little is known about the long-term effects of chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. Studies have shown that spine surgeons may be exposed to significantly more radiation than that observed in surgery on the appendicular skeleton. Computer-assisted image guidance systems have been shown in preliminary studies to enable accurate instrumentation of the spine. Computer-assisted image guidance systems may have significant application to the surgical management of spinal trauma and deformity. The objective of this study was to compare C-arm fluoroscopy and computer-assisted image guidance in terms of radiation exposure to the operative surgeon when placing pedicle screw-rod constructs in cadaver specimens. Methods: Twelve single-level (2 contiguous vertebral bodies) lumbar pedicle screw-rod constructs (48 screws) in 4 fresh cadavers were placed using standard C-arm fluoroscopy and computer-assisted image guidance (Stealth Station with Iso-C3D). Pedicle screw-rod constructs were placed at L1–L2, L3–L4, and L5–S1 in 4 fresh cadaver specimens. Imaging was alternated between C-arm fluoroscopy and computer-assisted image guidance with StealthStation Iso-C3D. Radiation exposure was measured using ring and badge dosimeters to monitor the thyroid, torso, and index finger. Postprocedure CT scans were obtained to judge accuracy of screw placement. Results: Mean radiation exposure to the torso was 4.33 ± 2.66 mRem for procedures performed with standard fluoroscopy and 0.33 ± 0.82 mRem for procedures performed with computer-assisted image guidance. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.012). Radiation exposure to the index finger and thyroid was negligible for all procedures. The accuracy of screw placement was similar for both techniques. Conclusions: Computer-assisted image guidance systems allow for the safe and accurate placement of pedicle screw-rod constructs with a significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation to the

  3. Computer-Assisted Placement: Effective Aid or Paper Albatross?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, James P.

    1978-01-01

    A short time ago, the computer was a concept of the future which scared many and amazed even more. Now a reality, the computer has become as common on the placement front as the interview. The computer's value to placement is discussed. (Author)

  4. Application of Computer-Assisted Learning Methods in the Teaching of Chemical Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayscough, P. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the application of computer-assisted learning methods to the interpretation of infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectra; and outlines extensions into the area of integrated spectroscopy. (Author/CMV)

  5. Application of Computer-Assisted Learning Methods in the Teaching of Chemical Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayscough, P. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the application of computer-assisted learning methods to the interpretation of infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectra; and outlines extensions into the area of integrated spectroscopy. (Author/CMV)

  6. Computer-Assisted Handwriting Analysis: Interaction with Legal Issues in U.S. Courts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Kenneth A.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    Advances in the development of computer-assisted handwriting analysis have led to the consideration of a computational system by courts in the United States. Computer-assisted handwriting analysis has been introduced in the context of Frye or Daubert hearings conducted to determine the admissibility of handwriting testimony by questioned document examiners, as expert witnesses, in civil and criminal proceedings. This paper provides a comparison of scientific and judicial methods, and examines concerns over reliability of handwriting analysis expressed in judicial decisions. Recently, the National Research Council assessed that “the scientific basis for handwriting comparisons needs to be strengthened”. Recent studies involving computer-assisted handwriting analysis are reviewed in light of the concerns expressed by the judiciary and National Research Council. A future potential role for computer-assisted handwriting analysis in the courts is identified.

  7. A New Approach to Teaching Reading Comprehension: Using Cloze and Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Bethany J.; Bell, D. Scott

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the Computer-Assisted Instruction Project, under the auspices of the All Indian Pueblo Project, designed to help elementary Pueblo students to develop better reading skills through culturally relevant reading and the cloze technique. (RAO)

  8. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Technical Education: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaakub, Mohammad Naim; Finch, Curtis R.

    2001-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 21 studies compared the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with traditional instruction. Results showed that CAI focusing on higher-order learning in technical education was more effective. (Contains 38 references.) (JOW)

  9. What's New in Software? Current Sources of Information Boost Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, Nancy J.

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews current resources on computer-assisted instruction. Included are sources of software and hardware evaluations, advances in current technology, research, an information hotline, and inventories of available technological assistance. (DB)

  10. [Surgical reconstruction of maxillary defects using a computer-assisted techniques].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W B; Yu, Y; Wang, Y; Liu, X J; Mao, C; Guo, C B; Yu, G Y; Peng, X

    2017-02-18

    The maxilla is the most important bony support of the mid-face skeleton and is critical for both esthetics and function. Maxillary defects, resulting from tumor resection, can cause severe functional and cosmetic deformities. Furthermore, maxillary reconstruction presents a great challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Nowadays, vascularized composite bone flap transfer has been widely used for functional maxillary reconstruction. In the last decade, we have performed a comprehensive research on functional maxillary reconstruction with free fibula flap and reported excellent functional and acceptable esthetic results. However, this experience based clinical procedure still remainssome problems in accuracy and efficiency. In recent years, computer assisted techniques are now widely used in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We have performed a series of study on maxillary reconstruction with computer assisted techniques. The computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction mainly include: (1) Three dimensional (3D) reconstruction and tumor mapping: providing a 3D view of maxillary tumor and adjacent structures and helping to make the diagnosis of maxillary tumor accurate and objective; (2) Virtual planning: simulating tumor resection and maxillectomy as well as fibula reconstruction on the computer, so that to make an ideal surgical plan; (3) 3D printing: producing a 3D stereo model for prebending individualized titanium mesh and also providing template or cutting guide for the surgery; (4) Surgical navigation: the bridge between virtual plan and real surgery, confirming the virtual plan during the surgery and guarantee the accuracy; (5) Computer assisted analyzing and evaluating: making a quantitative and objective of the final result and evaluating the outcome. We also performed a series of studies to evaluate the application of computer assisted techniques used for maxillary reconstruction, including: (1) 3D tumor mapping technique for accurate

  11. Evaluation of a Computer-Assisted Dental Diagnostic System by Navy Hospital Corpsmen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-23

    computer-assisted dental program valuable to the diagnosis and management of patients with dental pain . They would use the dental program in their...A computer-assisted dental program to assist independent duty corpsmen in the diagnosis and management of patients who are present at sea with dental ... pain produced diagnosis which were exact or logically consistent with the diagnosis made by the dentists 83% of the time. The corpsmen found the

  12. Learner/Machine Interaction in Computer-Assisted Language Learning. Report of the IEC/CILT Computer-Assisted Language Learning Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eric, Comp.

    The proceedings of a conference on learner-machine interaction in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) include the texts of four papers, descriptions of program demonstrations and talks given by participants, a report on the plenary session by Eric Brown, information sources about CALL, a comment on the workshop by Leslie Churchman, a review…

  13. Computer-Assisted Instruction and the Teaching of Mathematics. Proceedings of a National Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction (The Pennsylvania State University, September 24-26, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimer, Ralph T., Ed.

    The preface to this book notes the relationship of its contents to the 1968 conference "to appraise mathematics educators of the present status and future prospects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and its implications for the teaching of mathematics." The introduction, "Computers in Mathematics and Other Education," was the keynote address…

  14. Learner/Machine Interaction in Computer-Assisted Language Learning. Report of the IEC/CILT Computer-Assisted Language Learning Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eric, Comp.

    The proceedings of a conference on learner-machine interaction in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) include the texts of four papers, descriptions of program demonstrations and talks given by participants, a report on the plenary session by Eric Brown, information sources about CALL, a comment on the workshop by Leslie Churchman, a review…

  15. Computer-assisted versus non-computer-assisted preoperative planning of corrective osteotomy for extra-articular distal radius malunions: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malunion is the most common complication of distal radius fracture. It has previously been demonstrated that there is a correlation between the quality of anatomical correction and overall wrist function. However, surgical correction can be difficult because of the often complex anatomy associated with this condition. Computer assisted surgical planning, combined with patient-specific surgical guides, has the potential to improve pre-operative understanding of patient anatomy as well as intra-operative accuracy. For patients with malunion of the distal radius fracture, this technology could significantly improve clinical outcomes that largely depend on the quality of restoration of normal anatomy. Therefore, the objective of this study is to compare patient outcomes after corrective osteotomy for distal radius malunion with and without preoperative computer-assisted planning and peri-operative patient-specific surgical guides. Methods/Design This study is a multi-center randomized controlled trial of conventional planning versus computer-assisted planning for surgical correction of distal radius malunion. Adult patients with extra-articular malunion of the distal radius will be invited to enroll in our study. After providing informed consent, subjects will be randomized to two groups: one group will receive corrective surgery with conventional preoperative planning, while the other will receive corrective surgery with computer-assisted pre-operative planning and peri-operative patient specific surgical guides. In the computer-assisted planning group, a CT scan of the affected forearm as well as the normal, contralateral forearm will be obtained. The images will be used to construct a 3D anatomical model of the defect and patient-specific surgical guides will be manufactured. Outcome will be measured by DASH and PRWE scores, grip strength, radiographic measurements, and patient satisfaction at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Discussion Computer-assisted

  16. Computer-assisted versus non-computer-assisted preoperative planning of corrective osteotomy for extra-articular distal radius malunions: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Leong, Natalie L; Buijze, Geert A; Fu, Eric C; Stockmans, Filip; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2010-12-14

    Malunion is the most common complication of distal radius fracture. It has previously been demonstrated that there is a correlation between the quality of anatomical correction and overall wrist function. However, surgical correction can be difficult because of the often complex anatomy associated with this condition. Computer assisted surgical planning, combined with patient-specific surgical guides, has the potential to improve pre-operative understanding of patient anatomy as well as intra-operative accuracy. For patients with malunion of the distal radius fracture, this technology could significantly improve clinical outcomes that largely depend on the quality of restoration of normal anatomy. Therefore, the objective of this study is to compare patient outcomes after corrective osteotomy for distal radius malunion with and without preoperative computer-assisted planning and peri-operative patient-specific surgical guides. This study is a multi-center randomized controlled trial of conventional planning versus computer-assisted planning for surgical correction of distal radius malunion. Adult patients with extra-articular malunion of the distal radius will be invited to enroll in our study. After providing informed consent, subjects will be randomized to two groups: one group will receive corrective surgery with conventional preoperative planning, while the other will receive corrective surgery with computer-assisted pre-operative planning and peri-operative patient specific surgical guides. In the computer-assisted planning group, a CT scan of the affected forearm as well as the normal, contralateral forearm will be obtained. The images will be used to construct a 3D anatomical model of the defect and patient-specific surgical guides will be manufactured. Outcome will be measured by DASH and PRWE scores, grip strength, radiographic measurements, and patient satisfaction at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Computer-assisted surgical planning, combined with

  17. Computer assisted screening, correction, and analysis of historical weather measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnette, Dorian J.; Stahle, David W.

    2013-04-01

    A computer program, Historical Observation Tools (HOB Tools), has been developed to facilitate many of the calculations used by historical climatologists to develop instrumental and documentary temperature and precipitation datasets and makes them readily accessible to other researchers. The primitive methodology used by the early weather observers makes the application of standard techniques difficult. HOB Tools provides a step-by-step framework to visually and statistically assess, adjust, and reconstruct historical temperature and precipitation datasets. These routines include the ability to check for undocumented discontinuities, adjust temperature data for poor thermometer exposures and diurnal averaging, and assess and adjust daily precipitation data for undercount. This paper provides an overview of the Visual Basic.NET program and a demonstration of how it can assist in the development of extended temperature and precipitation datasets using modern and early instrumental measurements from the United States.

  18. Computer assisted performance tests of the Lyman Alpha Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Kohl, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    Preflight calibration and performance tests of the Lyman Alpha Coronagraph rocket instrument in the laboratory, with the experiment in its flight configuration and illumination levels near those expected during flight were successfully carried out using a pulse code modulation telemetry system simulator interfaced in real time to a PDP 11/10 computer system. Post acquisition data reduction programs developed and implemented on the same computer system aided in the interpretation of test and calibration data.

  19. Computer-assisted analysis of adenosine triphosphate data.

    PubMed

    Erkenbrecher, C W; Crabtree, S J; Stevenson, L H

    1976-09-01

    A computer program has been written to assist in the analysis of adenosine 5'-triphosphate data. The program is designed to calculate a dilution curve and to correct sample and adenosine 5'-triphosphate standard data for background and dilution effects. In addition, basic statistical parameters and estimates of biomass carbon are also calculated for each group of samples and printed in a convenient format. The versatility of the program to analyze data from both qauatic and terrestrial samples is noted as well as its potential use with various types of instrumentation and extraction techniques.

  20. A Computer-assisted Method for the Calibration of Raw Data from the DFMS sensor on Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiolo, R.; Dhooghe, F.; De Keyser, J.; Altwegg, K.; Calmonte, U.; Fuselier, S.; Hässig, M.; Berthelier, J. J.; Mall, U. A.; Gombosi, T. I.; Fiethe, B.

    2014-12-01

    The double focussing mass spectrometer (DFMS), part of the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) instrument package, consists of an ion source, a mass analyser and a detector assembly consisting of three detectors. The magnetic sector of the analyser provides the mass dispersion needed for use with the position-sensitive microchannel plate (MCP) detector. Ions that hit the MCP release electrons that are recorded using a linear electron detector array with 512 pixels (LEDA). Raw data for a given commanded mass are obtained as ADC counts as a function of pixel number. This contribution describes a computer-assisted approach to address the problem of calibrating such raw data, in other words, how to associate the pixel number to a mass-over-charge ratio (m/Z) and how to convert the ADC counts per pixel to ion counts per second. After calibration, the abundance and identity of ions at the detector are known. Neutral comet gases, however, are ionized in the ion source before they are transferred to the mass analyser and during this process fragmentation of the gas molecules may occur. Our software allows a tentative identification of the neutrals that entered the instrument, given the detected ion fragments and a fragmentation database. By taking into account experimentally determined sensitivities gas number densities are obtained. The instrument characterisation (experimental determination of sensitivities, fragmentation patterns for the most common neutral species, etc.) has been conducted by the consortium using an instrument copy in the University of Bern test facilities.

  1. Minimally invasive (endoscopic-computer assisted) surgery: Technique and review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Yadav, Nirma; Singh, Shipra; Chauhan, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic or minimally invasive surgery popular as keyhole surgery is a medical procedure in which endoscope (a camera) is used, and it has gained broad acceptance with popularity in several surgical specialties and has heightened the standard of care. Oral and maxillofacial surgery is a modern discipline in the field of dentistry in which endoscopy has developed as well as widely used in surgeries and is rapidly gaining importance. The use of different visual as well as standard instruments such as laparoscopic and endoscopic instruments, and high-powered magnification devices, has allowed physicians to decrease the morbidity of many surgical procedures by eliminating the need for a large surgical incision. Minimally invasive techniques have evolved through the development of surgical microscopes equipped with a camera to get visual images for maxillofacial surgeries, endodontic procedures, and periodontal surgical procedures. Nevertheless, current experiences and reviewing the literature have intimated that the use of endoscopes, as in different minimally invasive methods, may permit complicated surgeries with less complications, for example, in reconstruction of facial fractures through smaller incisions with less extensive exposure. PMID:28299251

  2. The use of computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery in complex cases of hip and knee arthroplasty: experience from a developing country.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Mahmoud A

    2012-08-01

    The technology of computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery (CAOS) has been used in many developed countries for the last two decades. Initially, it was thought that CAOS would be the standard in surgical practice, but so far its clinical application has been limited due to the involved cost and complexity. The cost-effectiveness of CAOS techniques has also been questioned. Therefore, it is expected that the application of CAOS in developing countries would be more limited for the same reasons. Herein, the author presents a surgical experience of using different CAOS techniques in Egypt. Computer-assisted templating software was used in complex and neglected cases of hip arthritis and in cases of leg length discrepancy. Navigation techniques were employed in knee arthroplasty in patients with extraarticular deformities. Computer-assisted patient-specific instruments were used for bilateral simultaneous knee arthroplasty in medically unfit patients and in patients with severe articular deformities. Contrary to expectations, the experience proved that CAOS is more useful and possibly cost-effective when used in hip and knee arthroplasty for complex and neglected cases in developing countries.

  3. Computer assisted outcomes research in orthopedics: total joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Arslanian, C; Bond, M

    1999-06-01

    Long-term studies are needed to determine clinically relevant outcomes within the practice of orthopedic surgery. Historically, the patient's subjective feelings of quality of life have been largely ignored. However, there has been a strong movement toward measuring perceived quality of life through such instruments as the SF-36. In a large database from an orthopedic practice results are presented. First, computerized data entry using touch screen technology is not only cost effective but user friendly. Second, patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty surgeries make statistically significant improvements in seven of the eight domains of the SF-36 in the first 3 months after surgery. Additional statistically significant improvements over the next 6 to 12 months are also seen. The data are presented here in detail to demonstrate the benefits of a patient outcomes program, to enhance the understanding and use of outcomes data and to encourage further work in outcomes measurement in orthopedics.

  4. Surgical reconstruction of maxillary defects using a computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing-produced titanium mesh supporting a free flap.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Achille; Battaglia, Salvatore; Ciocca, Leonardo; Scotti, Roberto; Cipriani, Riccardo; Marchetti, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    The maxilla provides support to the overlying structures and contributes significantly to the overall facial appearance and to critical functions such as mastication, speech, and deglutition. Many different techniques have been used over the years to achieve this reconstructive goal. Modern computer-assisted surgery affords new methods for planning resections, as well as optimising reconstructive outcomes and functional rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to describe our experience with, and technique for, the functional, structural, and aesthetic reconstruction of maxillary bone defects using a computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM)-printed titanium mesh to provide structural support for free flap reconstruction. Four patients who underwent reconstruction with a CAD/CAM-printed titanium mesh were included in this study. The preoperative computed tomography (CT) data set used for virtual planning was superimposed onto the postoperative CT scan to calculate the difference between the virtually planned position and the postoperative position of the titanium mesh. The orbital floor and alveolus were the most frequent sites of deviation, and good reproducibility could be obtained with less than 1 mm of deviation between planning and results in most regions. Printed titanium meshes obtained with CAD/CAM technology and used to structurally support free flaps provide a valuable method for the achievement of good aesthetic, structural, and functional outcomes in maxillary reconstruction. Reconstructive accuracy using this technique is reasonably high. Further studies with a larger number of patients would be useful to confirm these results.

  5. Visualization of the Newly Designed Jig and Fixture for Computer-Assisted Knee Replacement Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Intan Syaherra; Arshad, Haslina; Sulong, Abu Bakar; Mohd. Yahaya, Nor Hamdan; Che Haron, Che Hassan

    Surgical training systems based on virtual reality (VR) are highly desired as they offer a cost effective and efficient alternative compared to traditional training methods. Traditional surgical training methods require cadavers or plastic models which are costly. Cadavers cannot be used repeatedly and training with plastic models cannot provide the realistic experience. This paper describes a visualization to show the use of newly design jig and fixture for computer-assisted knee replacement surgery. Orthopedic surgeons found it difficult to align the existing jig with the computer-assisted device during the operation and it is time consuming to place it at the right position. A newly design jig and fixture has been proposed to solve this problem. Visualization is needed to show the surgeons on how it will be used in the computer-assisted knee replacement surgery. Virtual models used in this visualization are constructed from the actual equipment and real human dataset.

  6. Methods for transition toward computer assisted cognitive examination.

    PubMed

    Jurica, P; Valenzi, S; Struzik, Z R; Cichocki, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a software framework which enables the extension of current methods for the assessment of cognitive fitness using recent technological advances. Screening for cognitive impairment is becoming more important as the world's population grows older. Current methods could be enhanced by use of computers. Introduction of new methods to clinics requires basic tools for collection and communication of collected data. To develop tools that, with minimal interference, offer new opportunities for the enhancement of the current interview based cognitive examinations. We suggest methods and discuss process by which established cognitive tests can be adapted for data collection through digitization by pen enabled tablets. We discuss a number of methods for evaluation of collected data, which promise to increase the resolution and objectivity of the common scoring strategy based on visual inspection. By involving computers in the roles of both instructing and scoring, we aim to increase the precision and reproducibility of cognitive examination. The tools provided in Python framework CogExTools available at http://bsp. brain.riken.jp/cogextools/ enable the design, application and evaluation of screening tests for assessment of cognitive impairment. The toolbox is a research platform; it represents a foundation for further collaborative development by the wider research community and enthusiasts. It is free to download and use, and open-source. We introduce a set of open-source tools that facilitate the design and development of new cognitive tests for modern technology. We provide these tools in order to enable the adaptation of technology for cognitive examination in clinical settings. The tools provide the first step in a possible transition toward standardized mental state examination using computers.

  7. Evaluation of a computer-assisted medication refill reminder system for improving patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Heard, C; Blackburn, J L; Thompson, M S; Wallace, S M

    1984-10-01

    Computer-generated refill reminder notices were mailed to patients receiving continual medication for cardiovascular diseases to measure improved compliance and to discover whether a computer-assisted program was economically viable. Guidelines were established to define compliance. A computer-assisted compliance intervention program did not significantly improve the rate at which patients had their prescriptions filled "on time" and the mean compliance rate for both experimental and control groups was greater than 79%. Also discussed were cost and compliance strategy implications and the receptiveness of patients to the reminder program.

  8. [Computer-assisted navigation in orthognathic surgery. Application to Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Benassarou, M; Benassarou, A; Meyer, C

    2013-08-05

    Computer-assisted navigation is a tool that allows the surgeon to reach intraoperatively a previously defined target. This technique can be applied to the positioning of bone fragments in orthognathic surgery. It is not used routinely yet because there are no specifically dedicated systems available on the market for this kind of surgery. The goal of our study was to describe the various systems that could be used in orthognathic surgery and to report our experience of computer-assisted surgery in the positioning of the maxilla during maxillomandibular osteotomies.

  9. Computer-Assisted 3D Structure Elucidation of Natural Products using Residual Dipolar Couplings.

    PubMed

    Troche-Pesqueira, Eduardo; Anklin, Clemens; Gil, Roberto R; Navarro-Vázquez, Armando

    2017-03-20

    An enhanced computer-assisted procedure for the determination of the relative configuration of natural products, which starts from the molecular formula and uses a combination of conventional 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and residual dipolar couplings (RDCs), is reported. Having already the data acquired (1D/2D NMR and RDCs), the procedure begins with the determination of the molecular constitution using standard computer-assisted structure elucidation (CASE) and is followed by fully automated determination of relative configuration through RDC analysis. In the case of moderately flexible molecules the simplest data-explaining conformational model is selected by the use of the Akaike information criterion.

  10. Non-photorealistic rendering of virtual implant models for computer-assisted fluoroscopy-based surgical procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guoyan

    2007-03-01

    Surgical navigation systems visualize the positions and orientations of surgical instruments and implants as graphical overlays onto a medical image of the operated anatomy on a computer monitor. The orthopaedic surgical navigation systems could be categorized according to the image modalities that are used for the visualization of surgical action. In the so-called CT-based systems or 'surgeon-defined anatomy' based systems, where a 3D volume or surface representation of the operated anatomy could be constructed from the preoperatively acquired tomographic data or through intraoperatively digitized anatomy landmarks, a photorealistic rendering of the surgical action has been identified to greatly improve usability of these navigation systems. However, this may not hold true when the virtual representation of surgical instruments and implants is superimposed onto 2D projection images in a fluoroscopy-based navigation system due to the so-called image occlusion problem. Image occlusion occurs when the field of view of the fluoroscopic image is occupied by the virtual representation of surgical implants or instruments. In these situations, the surgeon may miss part of the image details, even if transparency and/or wire-frame rendering is used. In this paper, we propose to use non-photorealistic rendering to overcome this difficulty. Laboratory testing results on foamed plastic bones during various computer-assisted fluoroscopybased surgical procedures including total hip arthroplasty and long bone fracture reduction and osteosynthesis are shown.

  11. Diabetes Patients' Experiences With the Implementation of Insulin Therapy and Their Perceptions of Computer-Assisted Self-Management Systems for Insulin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gude, Wouter T; Holleman, Frits; Hoekstra, Joost BL; Peek, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Background Computer-assisted decision support is an emerging modality to assist patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in insulin self-titration (ie, self-adjusting insulin dose according to daily blood glucose levels). Computer-assisted insulin self-titration systems mainly focus on helping patients overcome barriers related to the cognitive components of insulin titration. Yet other (eg, psychological or physical) barriers could still impede effective use of such systems. Objective Our primary aim was to identify experiences with and barriers to self-monitoring of blood glucose, insulin injection, and insulin titration among patients with T2DM. Our research team developed a computer-assisted insulin self-titration system, called PANDIT. The secondary aim of this study was to evaluate patients’ perceptions of computer-assisted insulin self-titration. We included patients who used PANDIT in a 4-week pilot study as well as patients who had never used such a system. Methods In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with patients on insulin therapy who were randomly recruited from a university hospital and surrounding general practices in the Netherlands. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed qualitatively. To classify the textual remarks, we created a codebook during the analysis, in a bottom-up and iterative fashion. To support examination of the final coded data, we used three theories from the field of health psychology and the integrated model of user satisfaction and technology acceptance by Wixom and Todd. Results When starting insulin therapy, some patients feared a lifelong commitment to insulin therapy and disease progression. Also, many barriers arose when implementing insulin therapy (eg, some patients were embarrassed to inject insulin in public). Furthermore, patients had difficulties increasing the insulin dose because they fear hypoglycemia, they associate higher insulin doses with disease progression

  12. Developing understanding of image formation by lenses through collaborative learning mediated by multimedia computer-assisted learning programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ping-Kee

    2004-10-01

    This article reports the use of a computer-based collaborative learning instruction designed to help students develop understanding of image formation by lenses. The study aims to investigate how students, working in dyads and mediated by multimedia computer-assisted learning (CAL) programs, construct shared knowledge and understanding. The subjects were a class of 36 Secondary 4 (Year 10) students working in dyads throughout the instruction. The instruction comprised three stages (namely, pre-test, computer-based activity, and posttest), during which students' within-dyad interactions were audio-recorded and transcribed for analysis. Three months after the instruction, some selected students were interviewed individually. The pre-test result showed that many students held the 'holistic conceptualizations' of image formation (rather than the physicists' point-to-point mapping model), which they applied to give alternative answer/explanations to the questions in the test. The post-test and interviews showed that overall, students improved their understanding of image formation although the improvement ranged widely. The rich qualitative data of peer interactions show that students experienced conflicts and co-construction that fostered their intensive engagement with tasks and with each other. The data also show the mediating role of the CAL programs and the teacher that helped students develop understanding.

  13. The Structured Interview and Interviewer Training in the Admissions Process

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Wendy C.; White-Harris, Carla; Blalock, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine the extent to which the structured interview is used in the PharmD admissions process in US colleges and schools of pharmacy, and the prevalence and content of interviewer training. Methods A survey instrument consisting of 7 questions regarding interviews and interviewer training was sent to 92 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States that were accredited or seeking accreditation. Results Sixty survey instruments (65% response rate) were returned. The majority of the schools that responded (80%) used interviews as part of the PharmD admissions process. Of the schools that used an interview as part of the admissions process, 86% provided some type of interviewer training and 13% used a set of predefined questions in admissions interviews. Conclusions Most colleges and schools of pharmacy use some components of the structured interview in the PharmD admissions process; however, training for interviewers varies widely among colleges and schools of pharmacy. PMID:17998980

  14. The structured interview and interviewer training in the admissions process.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Pamela U; Cox, Wendy C; White-Harris, Carla; Blalock, Susan J

    2007-10-15

    To determine the extent to which the structured interview is used in the PharmD admissions process in US colleges and schools of pharmacy, and the prevalence and content of interviewer training. A survey instrument consisting of 7 questions regarding interviews and interviewer training was sent to 92 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States that were accredited or seeking accreditation. Sixty survey instruments (65% response rate) were returned. The majority of the schools that responded (80%) used interviews as part of the PharmD admissions process. Of the schools that used an interview as part of the admissions process, 86% provided some type of interviewer training and 13% used a set of predefined questions in admissions interviews. Most colleges and schools of pharmacy use some components of the structured interview in the PharmD admissions process; however, training for interviewers varies widely among colleges and schools of pharmacy.

  15. Challenging the Mortality of Computer Assisted Learning Materials in the Life Sciences: The RECAL Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellaway, Rachel; Dewhurst, David; Cromar, Stewart

    2004-01-01

    The development and use of computer assisted learning (CAL) materials in the life sciences is well established and, in the UK at least, significant resources have been provided to enable this. Some years on from when the major investments took place teachers are facing the problem that the technologies used to develop and deliver the CAL programs…

  16. Response to House Joint Resolution No. 118 [To Advance Computer-Assisted Instruction].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State General Assembly, Richmond.

    This response by the Virginia Department of Education to House Joint Resolution No. 118 of the General Assembly of Virginia, which requested the Department of Education to study initiatives to advance computer-assisted instruction, is based on input from state and national task forces and on a 1986 survey of 80 Viriginia school divisions. The…

  17. Interactive Computer Assisted Instruction in Teaching of Process Analysis and Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Herbert E., Jr.; Himmelblau, David M.

    To improve the instructional process, time shared computer-assisted instructional methods were developed to teach upper division undergraduate chemical engineering students the concepts of process simulation and analysis. The interactive computer simulation aimed at enabling the student to learn the difficult concepts of process dynamics by…

  18. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Support of Beginning Reading Instruction: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blok, H.; Oostdam, R.; Otter, M. E.; Overmaat, M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews 42 studies of computer-assisted instruction published from 1990 to the present, comprising 75 experimental comparisons. The corrected effect size estimate was 0.19. Two variables, effect size at the time of pretesting and language of instruction, accounted for 61% of the variability in effect sizes. Advises caution in interpreting results…

  19. Computer-Assisted Training in the Comprehension of Authentic French Speech: A Closer View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeflaak, Arie

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the development of a computer-assisted listening comprehension project is described. First, we comment briefly on the points of departure, the need for autonomous learning against the background of recent changes in Dutch education, and the role of learning strategies. Then, an error analysis, the programs used for this project,…

  20. The Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Pronunciation Training for Foreign Language Learning by Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neri, Ambra; Mich, Ornella; Gerosa, Matteo; Giuliani, Diego

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates whether a computer assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) system can help young learners improve word-level pronunciation skills in English as a foreign language at a level comparable to that achieved through traditional teacher-led training. The pronunciation improvement of a group of learners of 11 years of age receiving…